485BPOS 1 rparriskparityetfdoc.htm 485BPOS 485b RPAR Risk Parity ETF Combined Document



AS FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ON November 22, 2019

1933 Act Registration File No.: 333-227298
1940 Act File No.: 811-23377

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
x
Pre‑Effective Amendment No. ___
¨
Post‑Effective Amendment No. 14
x
and/or
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
x
Amendment No. 15
x

TIDAL ETF TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
(Address of Principal Executive Offices, Zip Code)

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code) (844) 986-7676

The Corporation Trust Company
1209 Orange Street
Corporation Trust Center
Wilmington, DE 19801
(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

Copies to:

Eric W. Falkeis
Tidal ETF Services LLC
898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Christopher M. Cahlamer
Godfrey & Kahn, S.C.
833 East Michigan Street, Suite 1800
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):
 
x
immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
 
¨
on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)
 
¨
60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
 
¨
on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
 
¨
75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
 
¨
on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485

Explanatory note: This Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 to the registration statement of Tidal ETF Trust (the "Trust") is being filed to respond to Staff comments with respect to the registration of the RPAR Risk Parity ETF as a new series of the Trust and to make other permissible changes under Rule 485(b).










RPAR Risk Parity ETF
(RPAR)
Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.



PROSPECTUS
November 22, 2019












Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the SEC, paper copies of the Fund’s shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the Fund’s reports from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. Please contact your financial intermediary to elect to receive shareholder reports and other Fund communications electronically.

You may elect to receive all future Fund reports in paper free of charge. Please contact your financial intermediary to inform them that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of Fund shareholder reports and for details about whether your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held with your financial intermediary.


The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.






TABLE OF CONTENTS
Fund Summary
Additional Information about the Fund
Portfolio Holdings Information
Management
How to Buy and Sell Shares
Dividends, Distributions, and Taxes
Distribution
Premium/Discount Information
Additional Notices
Financial Highlights





FUND SUMMARY
Investment Objective
The RPAR Risk Parity ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to generate positive returns during periods of economic growth, preserve capital during periods of economic contraction, and preserve real rates of return during periods of heightened inflation.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund (“Shares”). This table and the example below do not include the brokerage commissions that investors may pay on their purchases and sales of Shares.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Management Fees
0.50%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses 1
0.00%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses 1
0.03%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.53%
Less Fee Waiver 2
-0.03%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver
0.50%
1     Based on estimates for the current fiscal year.
2     Toroso Investments, LLC (the “Adviser”) , the Fund’s investment adviser, has contractually agreed to waive 3 basis points (0.03%) of its management fees for the Fund until at least February 28, 2021. This agreement may be terminated only by, or with the consent of, the Board of Trustees of the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to the Adviser.
Expense Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The management fee waiver discussed in the table above is reflected only for the first year. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
$51
$166
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund is newly organized, portfolio turnover information is not yet available.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its investment objective primarily by investing across a variety of asset classes, including exposure to global equity securities, U.S. Treasury securities, and commodities. The Fund’s investment adviser seeks to invest the Fund’s assets to achieve exposures similar to those of the Advanced Research Risk Parity Index (the “RPAR Index”), a rules-based index created by Advanced Research Investment Solutions, LLC (“Advanced Research”).
The RPAR Index
The RPAR Index allocates its exposure to the four asset classes described below using a “risk-parity” approach that seeks to achieve an equal balance between the risk associated with each asset class based on the long-term historic volatility exhibited by each asset class. This means that lower risk asset classes (such as U.S. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (“TIPS”)) will generally have higher notional allocations than higher risk asset classes (such as global equities). Specifically, at the time of each quarterly rebalance, the RPAR Index allocates its exposure as follows:

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Exposure
Asset Class
Sub-Class
35%
TIPS
Long-Term TIPS (15+ years)
25%
Global Equities
U.S. Equities
Non-U.S. Developed Markets Equities
Emerging Markets Equities
25%
Commodities
Commodity Producer Equities
Gold
15%*
U.S. Treasuries
U.S. Treasury Bills
U.S. Treasury Futures
* U.S. Treasury bills serve as collateral for 10-year U.S. Treasury note futures with notional exposure of 60% of the RPAR Index.
In seeking to obtain exposures comparable to those of the RPAR Index, the Fund may invest in a combination of (i) U.S. Treasury securities (including TIPS), (ii) U.S. Treasury futures contracts, (iii) ETFs that track a broad-based index of equity securities for one or more asset classes (or sub-classes), (iv) individual equity securities or American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) representing an interest in foreign equity securities, and (v) other exchange-listed vehicles issuing equity securities (“ETVs”).
TIPS are marketable securities whose principal is adjusted based on changes in the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”). With inflation (an increase in the CPI), the principal increases, and with deflation (a decrease in the CPI), the principal decreases. The relationship between TIPS and the CPI affects both the principal amount paid when a TIPS instrument matures and the amount of interest that a TIPS instrument pays semi-annually. When a TIPS instrument matures, the principal paid is the greater of the CPI-adjusted principal or the original principal. TIPS pay interest at a fixed rate. However, because the fixed rate is applied to the CPI-adjusted principal, interest payments can vary in amount from one period to the next. If inflation occurs, the interest payment increases. In the event of deflation, the interest payment decreases. The Fund may purchase TIPS of any maturity.
The Fund will invest directly in U.S. Treasury securities or directly or indirectly in futures contracts to gain long exposure to long-term U.S. Treasury bonds.
The ETFs in which the Fund invests will typically be index-based ETFs that track a broad-based index that principally invests in equity securities of one or more assets classes (e.g., securities comprising the large capitalization segment of the U.S. equity market). Such ETFs will typically have net assets of at least $100 million and have aggregate volume over the last 90 days of at least 100,000 shares traded. The Fund will invest in ETFs to obtain exposure to equity securities of commodity producers including energy producers (including clean energy), industrial metal miners and agriculture.
An ETV allows the Fund to indirectly obtain exposure to an underlying asset class such as futures contracts and commodities without directly trading futures or taking physical delivery of the underlying commodity. For example, the Fund may obtain exposure to gold by investing in an ETV that owns gold, rather than the Fund directly holding gold.
The equity securities that may comprise the Fund’s equity positions include, but are not limited to, U.S.-listed common and preferred stock of domestic and foreign companies, including those in developed and emerging markets, real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), and ADRs. Such securities may be issued by small, mid, or large capitalization companies. ADRs are securities traded on a U.S. stock exchange that represent interests in securities issued by a foreign publicly listed company.
Under normal market conditions, the Fund’s investment adviser will typically buy or sell investments to reflect the quarterly rebalance of the RPAR Index, rather than based on an individual determination of which investments are most attractive at a given time.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) per share, trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its investment objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Agriculture Risk. Companies in the agriculture industry are subject to risks such as adverse weather conditions, embargoes, tariffs, and adverse international economic, political and regulatory developments.
Capital Controls and Sanctions Risk. Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events, military action and other conditions may, without prior warning, lead to foreign government intervention (including intervention by the U.S. government with respect to foreign governments, economic sectors, foreign companies and related securities and interests) and the imposition of capital controls and/or sanctions, which may also include retaliatory actions of one government against another government, such as seizure of assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer

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currency, securities or other assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions may also impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such instruments, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares of the Fund, and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Commodities Risk. The Fund’s exposure to investments in physical commodities subjects the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, such as stocks and bonds. The commodities markets may fluctuate rapidly based on a variety of factors, including overall market movements; economic events and policies; changes in interest rates or inflation rates; changes in monetary and exchange control programs; war; acts of terrorism; natural disasters; and technological developments. Variables such as disease, drought, floods, weather, trade, embargoes, tariffs, and other political events, in particular, may have a larger impact on commodity prices than on traditional securities. The prices of commodities can also fluctuate widely due to supply and demand disruptions in major producing or consuming regions. Because certain commodities may be produced in a limited number of countries and may be controlled by a small number of producers, political, economic, and supply-related events in such countries could have a disproportionate impact on the prices of such commodities. These factors may affect the value of the Fund in varying ways, and different factors may cause the value and the volatility of the Fund to move in inconsistent directions at inconsistent rates. The current or “spot” prices of physical commodities may also affect, in a volatile and inconsistent manner, the prices of futures contracts in respect of the relevant commodity.
Credit Risk. Debt issuers and other counterparties may not honor their obligations or may have their debt downgraded by ratings agencies.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund invests, directly or indirectly, in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary receipts involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies, and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in depositary receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the depositary receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares.
Derivatives Risks. The Fund’s derivative investments have risks, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets or index; the loss of principal, including the potential loss of amounts greater than the initial amount invested in the derivative instrument; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The derivatives used by the Fund may give rise to a form of leverage. Leverage magnifies the potential for gain and the risk of loss. Certain of the Fund’s transactions in derivatives could also affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders, which may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gain and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not engage in such transactions, which may adversely impact the Fund’s after-tax returns.
Emerging Markets Risk. The Fund’s investments in securities of issuers in emerging market countries are subject to all of the risks of foreign investing generally, and have additional heightened risks due to a lack of established legal, political, business, and social frameworks to support securities markets, including: delays in settling portfolio securities transactions; currency and capital controls; greater sensitivity to interest rate changes; pervasiveness of corruption and crime; currency exchange rate volatility; and inflation, deflation, or currency devaluation.
Energy Producers Industry Risk. Companies in the energy producing industry are subject to risks associated with companies owning and/or operating pipelines, gathering and processing assets, power infrastructure, propane assets, as well as capital markets, terrorism, natural disasters, climate change, operating, regulatory, environmental, supply and demand, and price volatility risks. The volatility of energy commodity prices can significantly affect energy companies due to the impact of prices on the volume of commodities developed, produced, gathered, and processed. Historically, energy commodity prices have been cyclical and exhibited significant volatility, which may adversely impact the value, operations, cash flows, and financial performance of energy companies.
Equity Market Risk. The Fund will invest in common stocks directly or indirectly through ETFs. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from specific issuers. Equity securities may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific industries, sectors, or companies in which the Fund directly or indirectly invests.

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ETF Risks.
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that are authorized to purchase and redeem Shares directly from the Fund (known as “Authorized Participants” or “APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services; or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, such as NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
ETVs Risk. The risks of owning interests of an ETV generally reflect the same risks as owning the underlying securities or other instruments that the ETV is designed to track. The shares of certain ETVs may trade at a premium or discount to their intrinsic value (i.e., the market value may differ from the NAV of an ETV’s shares). For example, the value of an ETV may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating.  By investing in an ETV, the Fund indirectly bears the proportionate share of any fees and expenses of the ETV in addition to the Fund’s direct fees and expenses. Additionally, trading in an ETV may be halted by the exchange on which it trades.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Futures Contracts Risks. A futures contract is a standardized agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying instrument at a specific price at a specific future time. A decision as to whether, when, and how to use futures involves the exercise of skill and judgment and even a well-conceived futures transaction may be unsuccessful because of market behavior or unexpected events. In addition to the risks associated with all derivatives, the prices of futures can be highly volatile, using futures can lower total return, and the potential loss from futures can exceed the Fund’s initial investment in such contracts.
Gold Risk. The prices of precious metals, such as gold, rise and fall in response to many factors, including: economic cycles; changes in inflation or expectations about inflation in various countries; interest rates; currency fluctuations; metal sales by governments, central banks, or international agencies; investment speculation; resource availability; fluctuations in industrial and commercial supply and demand; government regulation of the metals and materials industries; and government prohibitions or restrictions on the private ownership of certain precious and rare metals.
Government Obligations Risk. The Fund may invest in securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. There can be no guarantee that the United States will be able to meet its payment obligations with respect to such securities. Additionally, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government or other countries may decline or be negative for short or long periods of time.
Industrial Metal Miners Risk. The profitability of companies in the industrial metal mining industry is related to, among other things, worldwide metal prices and the costs of extraction and production. Companies in this industry may be adversely affected by economic conditions, tax treatment, government regulation and intervention, and world events in the regions in which the companies operate (e.g., expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property, repatriation of capital, military coups, social unrest).
Interest Rate Risk. Generally, the value of fixed income securities will change inversely with changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decrease. Conversely, as interest rates fall, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase. This risk will be greater for long-term securities than for short-term securities. Changes in government intervention may have adverse effects on investments, volatility, and illiquidity in debt markets.

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Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Maturity Risk. Debt securities with longer maturity may fluctuate in value more than one with a shorter maturity.
New Fund Risk. The Fund is a recently organized, non-diversified management investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a small number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, a decline in the value of an investment in a single issuer or a small number of issuers could cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Other Investment Companies Risks. The Fund will incur higher and duplicative expenses when it invests in ETFs and other investment companies. There is also the risk that the Fund may suffer losses due to the investment practices of the underlying funds. When the Fund invests in other investment companies, the Fund will be subject to substantially the same risks as those associated with the direct ownership of securities held by such investment companies.
REIT Investment Risk. Investments in REITs involve unique risks. REITs may have limited financial resources, may trade less frequently and in limited volume, and may be more volatile than other securities. REITs may be affected by changes in the value of their underlying properties or mortgages or by defaults by their borrowers or tenants. Furthermore, these entities depend upon specialized management skills, have limited diversification and are, therefore, subject to risks inherent in financing a limited number of projects. In addition, the performance of a REIT may be affected by changes in the tax laws or by its failure to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income.
Tax Risk. To qualify for the favorable U.S. federal income tax treatment accorded to regulated investment companies (“RICs”), the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income in each taxable year from certain categories of income (“qualifying income”) and must satisfy certain asset diversification requirements. Certain of the Fund’s investments may generate income that is not qualifying income. If the Fund were to fail to meet the qualifying income test or the asset diversification requirements and fail to qualify as a RIC, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income.
TIPS Risk.  Interest payments on TIPS are unpredictable and will fluctuate as the principal and corresponding interest payments are adjusted for inflation. There can be no assurance that the CPI will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Any increases in the principal amount of TIPS will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though the Fund or applicable underlying ETF will not receive the principal until maturity. As a result, the Fund may make income distributions to shareholders that exceed the cash it receives.  In addition, TIPS are subject to credit risk, interest rate risk, and maturity risk. 
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus. When such information is included, this section will provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing changes in the Fund’s performance history from year to year and showing how the Fund’s average annual total returns compare with those of a broad measure of market performance. Although past performance of the Fund is no guarantee of how it will perform in the future, historical performance may give you some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund’s website at www.rparetf.com.

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Management
Investment Adviser: Toroso Investments, LLC (“Toroso” or the “Adviser”).
Investment Sub-Adviser: CSat Investment Advisory, L.P., doing business as Exponential ETFs (“Exponential” or the “Sub‑Adviser”).
Portfolio Managers:
Michael Venuto, Chief Investment Officer for the Adviser, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in 2019.
Charles A. Ragauss, CFA, Director of Product Management for the Sub-Adviser, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, such as the Exchange, and most investors will buy and sell Shares through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. Creation Units generally consist of 25,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities closely approximating the holdings of the Fund (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, or their affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND
Investment Objective
The Fund seeks to generate positive returns during periods of economic growth, preserve capital during periods of economic contraction, and preserve real rates of return during periods of heightened inflation.
An investment objective is fundamental if it cannot be changed without the consent of the holders of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Fund’s investment objective has not been adopted as a fundamental investment policy and therefore may be changed without the consent of Fund shareholders upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders.
Principal Investment Strategies
The following information is in addition to, and should be read along with, the description of the Fund’s principal investment strategies in the section titled “Fund Summary-Principal Investment Strategies” above.
Temporary Strategies. For temporary defensive purposes, the Fund may invest in short-term instruments such as commercial paper and/or repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities, corporation obligations, municipal debt securities, MBS, or convertible securities. Taking a temporary defensive position may result in the Fund not achieving its investment objective.
Manager of Managers Structure
The Fund and the Adviser have received exemptive relief from the SEC permitting the Adviser (subject to certain conditions and the approval of the Fund’s Board of Trustees (the “Board”)) to change or select new unaffiliated sub-advisers without obtaining shareholder approval. The relief permits the Adviser to materially amend the terms of agreements with an unaffiliated sub-adviser (including an increase in the fee paid by the Adviser to the unaffiliated sub-adviser (and not paid by the Fund)) or to continue the employment of an unaffiliated sub-adviser after an event that would otherwise cause the automatic termination of services with Board approval, but without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be notified of any unaffiliated sub-adviser changes.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV per share, trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its investment objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Agriculture Risk. Companies in the agriculture industry are subject to risks such as adverse weather conditions, embargoes, tariffs, and adverse international economic, political and regulatory developments. Agriculture prices can be more volatile than prices of other types of investments and can be affected by a wide range of factors, including changes in overall market movements, speculative activity of other investors, real or perceived inflationary trends, economic or other sanctions, international regulatory, political, and economic developments (for example, regime changes and changes in economic activity levels), and developments affecting a particular sector, industry, or commodity, such as drought, floods, or other weather conditions, livestock disease, trade embargoes, competition from substitute products, transportation bottlenecks or shortages, fluctuations in supply and demand, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments.
Capital Controls and Sanctions Risk. Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events, military action and other conditions may, without prior warning, lead to foreign government intervention (including intervention by the U.S. government with respect to foreign governments, economic sectors, foreign companies and related securities and interests) and the imposition of capital controls and/or sanctions, which may also include retaliatory actions of one government against another government, such as seizure of assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer currency, securities or other assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions may also impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such instruments, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares of the Fund, and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Commodities Risk. The Fund’s exposure to investments in physical commodities subjects the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, such as stocks and bonds. The commodities markets may fluctuate rapidly based on a variety of factors, including overall market movements; economic events and policies; changes in interest rates or inflation rates; changes in monetary and exchange control programs; war; acts of terrorism; natural disasters; and technological developments. Variables such as disease, drought, floods, weather, trade, embargoes, tariffs, and other political events, in particular, may have a larger impact on commodity prices than on traditional securities. The prices of commodities can also fluctuate widely due to supply and demand disruptions in major producing or consuming regions. Because certain commodities may be produced in a limited number of countries and may be controlled by a small number of producers, political, economic, and supply-related events in such countries could have a disproportionate impact on the prices of such commodities. These factors may affect the value of the Fund in varying ways, and different factors may cause the value and the volatility of the Fund to move in inconsistent directions at inconsistent rates. The current or “spot” prices of physical commodities may also affect, in a volatile and inconsistent manner, the prices of futures contracts in respect of the relevant commodity.

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Credit Risk. Credit risk is the risk that an issuer or guarantor of debt instruments or the counterparty to a derivatives contract, repurchase agreement or loan of portfolio securities will be unable or unwilling to make its timely interest and/or principal payments or to otherwise honor its obligations. Debt instruments are subject to varying degrees of credit risk, which may be reflected in their credit ratings. There is the chance that the Fund’s portfolio holdings will have their credit ratings downgraded or will default (i.e., fail to make scheduled interest or principal payments), potentially reducing the Fund’s income level or share price.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund invests, directly or indirectly, in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your Shares. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, the U.S. dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go down if the value of the local currency of the non-U.S. markets in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar. This is true even if the local currency value of securities in the Fund’s holdings goes up. Conversely, the dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go up if the value of the local currency appreciates against the U.S. dollar. The value of the U.S. dollar measured against other currencies is influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include: national debt levels and trade deficits, changes in balances of payments and trade, domestic and foreign interest and inflation rates, global or regional political, economic or financial events, monetary policies of governments, actual or potential government intervention, and global energy prices. Political instability, the possibility of government intervention and restrictive or opaque business and investment policies may also reduce the value of a country’s currency. Government monetary policies and the buying or selling of currency by a country’s government may also influence exchange rates. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.
Depositary Receipt Risk. The Fund may hold the securities of non-U.S. companies in the form of ADRs. ADRs are negotiable certificates issued by a U.S. financial institution that represent a specified number of shares in a foreign stock and trade on a U.S. national securities exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange. Sponsored ADRs are issued with the support of the issuer of the foreign stock underlying the ADRs and carry all of the rights of common shares, including voting rights. The underlying securities of the ADRs in the Fund’s portfolio are usually denominated or quoted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, changes in foreign currency exchange rates may affect the value of the Fund’s portfolio. In addition, because the underlying securities of ADRs trade on foreign exchanges at times when the U.S. markets are not open for trading, the value of the securities underlying the ADRs may change materially at times when the U.S. markets are not open for trading, regardless of whether there is an active U.S. market for Shares.
Derivatives Risks. The Fund’s derivative investments have risks, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets or index; the loss of principal, including the potential loss of amounts greater than the initial amount invested in the derivative instrument; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The derivatives used by the Fund may give rise to a form of leverage. Leverage magnifies the potential for gain and the risk of loss. Certain of the Fund’s transactions in derivatives could also affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders, which may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gain and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not engage in such transactions, which may adversely impact the Fund’s after-tax returns.
Emerging Markets Risk. The Fund’s investments in securities of issuers in emerging market countries are subject to all of the risks of foreign investing generally, and have additional heightened risks due to a lack of established legal, political, business, and social frameworks to support securities markets, including: delays in settling portfolio securities transactions; currency and capital controls; greater sensitivity to interest rate changes; pervasiveness of corruption and crime; currency exchange rate volatility; and inflation, deflation, or currency devaluation.
Energy Producers Industry Risk. Companies in the energy producing industry are subject to risks associated with companies owning and/or operating pipelines, gathering and processing assets, power infrastructure, propane assets, as well as capital markets, terrorism, natural disasters, climate change, operating, regulatory, environmental, supply and demand, and price volatility risks. The volatility of energy commodity prices can significantly affect energy companies due to the impact of prices on the volume of commodities developed, produced, gathered, and processed. Historically, energy commodity prices have been cyclical and exhibited significant volatility, which may adversely impact the value, operations, cash flows, and financial performance of energy companies.
Equity Market Risk. The Fund will invest in common stocks directly or indirectly through ETFs. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from specific issuers. Equity securities may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific industries, sectors, or companies in which the Fund directly or indirectly invests.
ETF Risks.
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that are authorized to purchase and redeem Shares directly from the Fund (known as “Authorized Participants” or “APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business

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or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services; or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, such as the Exchange and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
ETVs Risk. The risks of owning interests of an ETV generally reflect the same risks as owning the underlying securities or other instruments that the ETV is designed to track. The shares of certain ETVs may trade at a premium or discount to their intrinsic value (i.e., the market value may differ from the net asset value of an ETV’s shares). For example, the value of an ETV may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating.  By investing in an ETV, the Fund indirectly bears the proportionate share of any fees and expenses of the ETV in addition to the Fund’s direct fees and expenses. Additionally, trading in an ETV may be halted by the exchange on which it trades.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Futures Contracts Risks.  A futures contract is a standardized agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying instrument at a specific price at a specific future time. The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of the underlying instrument. Depending on the terms of the particular contract, futures contracts are settled through either physical delivery of the underlying instrument on the settlement date or by payment of a cash settlement amount on the settlement date. A decision as to whether, when, and how to use futures involves the exercise of skill and judgment and even a well-conceived futures transaction may be unsuccessful because of market behavior or unexpected events. In addition to the risks associated with all derivatives, the prices of futures can be highly volatile, using futures can lower total return, and the potential loss from futures can exceed the Fund’s initial investment in such contracts.
Gold Risk. The prices of precious metals, such as gold, rise and fall in response to many factors, including: economic cycles; changes in inflation or expectations about inflation in various countries; interest rates; currency fluctuations; metal sales by governments, central banks, or international agencies; investment speculation; resource availability; fluctuations in industrial and commercial supply and demand; government regulation of the metals and materials industries; and government prohibitions or restrictions on the private ownership of certain precious and rare metals.
Government Obligations Risk. The Fund may invest in securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. There can be no guarantee that the United States will be able to meet its payment obligations with respect to such securities. Additionally, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government or other countries may decline or be negative for short or long periods of time.
Industrial Metal Miners Risk. The profitability of companies in the industrial metal mining industry is related to, among other things, worldwide metal prices and the costs of extraction and production. Companies in this industry may be adversely affected by economic conditions, tax treatment, government regulation and intervention, and world events in the regions in which the companies operate (e.g., expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property, repatriation of capital, military coups, social unrest).

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Interest Rate Risk. Generally, the value of fixed income securities will change inversely with changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decrease. Conversely, as interest rates fall, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase. This risk will be greater for long-term securities than for short-term securities. Changes in government intervention may have adverse effects on investments, volatility, and illiquidity in debt markets.
Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund.
Market Capitalization Risk
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some medium capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, and management personnel and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to large-capitalization companies.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Market Risk. The trading prices of debt securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Maturity Risk. Debt securities with longer maturity may fluctuate in value more than one with a shorter maturity.
New Fund Risk. The Fund is a recently organized, non-diversified management investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a small number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, a decline in the value of an investment in a single issuer or a small number of issuers could cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Other Investment Companies Risks. The Fund will incur higher and duplicative expenses when it invests in ETFs and other investment companies. There is also the risk that the Fund may suffer losses due to the investment practices of the underlying funds. When the Fund invests in other investment companies, the Fund will be subject to substantially the same risks as those associated with the direct ownership of securities held by such investment companies.
REIT Investment Risk. Investments in REITs involve unique risks. REITs may have limited financial resources, may trade less frequently and in limited volume, and may be more volatile than other securities. REITs may be affected by changes in the value of their underlying properties or mortgages or by defaults by their borrowers or tenants. Furthermore, these entities depend upon specialized management skills, have limited diversification and are, therefore, subject to risks inherent in financing a limited number of projects. In addition, the performance of a REIT may be affected by changes in the tax laws or by its failure to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income.
Tax Risk. To qualify for the favorable U.S. federal income tax treatment accorded to RICs, the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income in each taxable year from certain categories of income (“qualifying income”) and must satisfy certain asset diversification requirements. The Fund’s investments in ETFs and stocks are generally expected to generate qualifying income. Certain of the Fund’s investments, however, may generate income that is not qualifying income. The Fund might generate more non-qualifying income than anticipated, might not be able to generate qualifying income in a particular taxable year at levels sufficient to meet the qualifying income test, or might not be able to determine the percentage of qualifying income it derives for a taxable year until after year-end. In addition, the Fund must satisfy a quarterly asset diversification test. If the Fund were to fail to meet the qualifying income test or the asset diversification test and fail to qualify as a RIC, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. Under certain circumstances, the

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Fund may be able to cure a failure to meet the qualifying income test or the asset diversification test if such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, but to do so the Fund may incur significant fund-level taxes, which would effectively reduce (and could eliminate) the Fund’s returns.
TIPS Risk.  Interest payments on TIPS are unpredictable and will fluctuate as the principal and corresponding interest payments are adjusted for inflation. There can be no assurance that the CPI will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Any increases in the principal amount of TIPS will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though the Fund or applicable underlying ETF, will not receive the principal until maturity. As a result, the Fund may make income distributions to shareholders that exceed the cash it receives.  In addition, TIPS are subject to credit risk, interest rate risk, and maturity risk. 
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about the Fund’s daily portfolio holdings is available on the Fund’s website at www.rparetf.com. A complete description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).
MANAGEMENT
Investment Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC, 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758, serves as the investment adviser to the Fund and subject to the supervision and oversight of the Board, the Adviser provides to the Sub-Adviser investment analysis and recommendations on security selection. The Adviser also arranges for sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration, and all other related services necessary for the Fund to operate. For the services it provides to the Fund, the Fund pays the Adviser a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of 0.50% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. The Adviser has contractually agreed to waive 3 basis points (0.03%) of its unified management fee for the Fund until at least February 28, 2021. The fee waiver agreement may be terminated only by, or with the consent of, the Board of Trustees of the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to the Adviser.
Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses incurred by the Fund except for interest charges on any borrowings, dividends and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, distribution fees and expenses paid by the Fund under any distribution plan adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and the unified management fee payable to the Adviser (collectively, “Excluded Expenses”).
Investment Sub-Adviser
CSat Investment Advisory, L.P., doing business as Exponential ETFs, 625 Avis Drive Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 serves as the investment sub-adviser to the Fund and is responsible for selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions recommended by the Adviser. For its services, the Sub-Adviser is paid a fee by the Adviser, which fee is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of 0.03% of the Fund’s average daily net assets.
A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s Investment Advisory Agreement and Sub-Advisory Agreement will be available in the Fund’s first semi-annual or annual report to shareholders.
Portfolio Managers
The Fund is managed by Michael Venuto and Charles A. Ragauss, CFA.
Mr. Venuto is a co-founder and has been the Chief Investment Officer of the Adviser since 2012. Mr. Venuto is also currently a Managing Director of Tidal Growth Consultants. Mr. Venuto is an ETF industry veteran with over a decade of experience in the design and implementation of ETF-based investment strategies. Previously, he was Head of Investments at Global X Funds where he provided portfolio optimization services to institutional clients. Before that, he was Senior Vice President at Horizon Kinetics where his responsibilities included new business development, investment strategy and client and strategic initiatives.
Mr. Ragauss currently serves as Director of Product Management at the Sub-Adviser, having joined the firm in April 2016. Prior to joining the Sub-Adviser, Mr. Ragauss was Assistant Vice President at Huntington National Bank (“Huntington”), where he was Product Manager for the Huntington Funds and Huntington Strategy Shares ETFs, a combined fund complex of almost $4 billion in assets under management. At Huntington, he led ETF development bringing to market some of the first actively managed ETFs. Mr. Ragauss joined Huntington in 2010. Mr. Ragauss attended Grand Valley State University where he received his Bachelor of Business Administration in Finance and International Business, as well as a minor in French. He is a member of both the National and West Michigan CFA societies and holds the CFA designation.
CFA® is a registered trademark owned by the CFA Institute.
The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts that the Portfolio Managers manage, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares.

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Fund Sponsor
The Adviser has entered into an Agreement with Advanced Research, under which Advanced Research assumes the obligation of the Adviser to pay all expenses of the Fund, except Excluded Expenses (such expenses of the Fund, except Excluded Expenses, the “Unitary Expenses”). Although Advanced Research has agreed to be responsible for the Unitary Expenses, the Adviser retains the ultimate obligation to the Fund to pay such expenses. Advanced Research will also provide marketing support for the Fund, including hosting the Fund’s website and preparing marketing materials related to the Fund. For these services and payments, Advanced Research is entitled to a fee based on the total management fee earned by the Adviser under the Advisory Agreement less the Unitary Expenses and certain start-up costs. Advanced Research does not make investment decisions, provide investment advice, participate in the active management of the Fund, or otherwise act in the capacity of an investment adviser to the Fund.
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
The Fund issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units at the NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order from an AP. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from the Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV. APs must be: (i) a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC; or (ii) a Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) participant (as discussed below). In addition, each AP must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor (defined below), and that has been accepted by the Fund’s transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares, and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book-Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. DTC or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book-entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Share Trading Prices on the Exchange
Trading prices of Shares on the Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions, and other factors may affect the trading prices of Shares. To provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares, the Exchange or a market data vendor disseminates information every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association or other widely disseminated means an updated “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) for Shares as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Fund is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs. If the calculation of the IIV is based on the basket of Deposit Securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash, such IIV may not represent the best possible valuation of the Fund’s portfolio because the basket of Deposit Securities does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of the current Fund portfolio at a particular point in time and does not include a reduction for the fees, operating expenses, or transaction costs incurred by the Fund. The IIV should not be viewed as a “real- time” update of the Fund’s NAV because the IIV may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed only once a day, typically at the end of the business day. The IIV is generally determined by using both current market quotations and/or price quotations obtained from broker-dealers that may trade in the Deposit Securities.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Fund imposes no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with the Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Fund accommodates frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Fund employs fair value pricing and may impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the

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custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. In addition, the Fund and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of NAV
The Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange, generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the New York Stock Exchange is open for business. The NAV is calculated by dividing the Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. The values of non-U.S. dollar dominated securities are converted to U.S. dollars using foreign currency exchange rates generally determined as of 4:00 p.m., London time. If such information is not available for a security held by the Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing a security, the Fund will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser or Sub- Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares. The SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Trust permitting registered investment companies that enter into an agreement with the Trust (“Investing Funds”) to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions. However, to the extent the Fund invests in securities of another investment company in excess of the limits contained in Section 12(d)(1)(A), such exemptive relief will not be applicable to the Fund and, accordingly, Investing Funds would have to adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) when investing in the Fund.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents - Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Fund. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Fund is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
Dividends and Distributions
The Fund intends to pay out dividends and interest income, if any, quarterly, and distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. The Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions, if any, in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Fund. Your investment in the Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
The Fund intends to qualify each year for treatment as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. If a RIC meets certain minimum distribution requirements, it is not subject to tax at the fund-level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, the Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.

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Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when the Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (institutional investors only).
The tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Many of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. There were only minor changes with respect to the specific rules applicable to a RIC, such as the Fund. The Tax Act, however, made numerous other changes to the tax rules that may affect shareholders and the Fund. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding how the Tax Act affects your investment in the Fund.
Taxes on Distributions
The Fund generally declares and distributes net investment income, if any, at least quarterly. The Fund will distribute net realized capital gain, if any, at least annually. For each taxable year, the Fund will distribute substantially all of its net investment income and net realized capital gain. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment company taxable income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by the Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by the Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of the Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains. Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares.
Distributions reported by the Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that the Fund receives in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends-received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive from the Fund that are attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations.
In general, qualified REIT dividends that an investor receives directly from a REIT are automatically eligible for the 20% qualified business income deduction. The IRS has issued proposed Treasury Regulations that, if finalized as proposed, would permit a dividend or part of a dividend paid by a regulated investment company and reported as a “section 199A dividend” to be treated by the recipient as a qualified REIT dividend for purposes of the 20% qualified business income deduction. These regulations have not yet been finalized and the tax treatment of REIT dividends received through a regulated investment company may change in the future. However, taxpayers may rely on the Treasury Regulations as proposed, until they are adopted as final.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the character of any distributions received from the Fund.
In addition to the federal income tax, certain individuals, trusts, and estates may be subject to a net investment income (“NII”) tax of 3.8%. The NII tax is imposed on the lesser of: (i) a taxpayer’s investment income, net of deductions properly allocable to such income; or (ii) the amount by which such taxpayer’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds certain thresholds ($250,000 for married individuals filing jointly, $200,000 for unmarried individuals and $125,000 for married individuals filing separately). The Fund’s distributions are includable in a shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax. In addition, any capital gain realized by a shareholder upon a sale or redemption of Fund shares is includable in such shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in the Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If you are an individual who is neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by the Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met.
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), the Fund may be required to withhold a generally nonrefundable 30% tax on (i) distributions of investment company taxable income and (ii) distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds of a sale or redemption of Fund shares paid after December 31, 2018 to (A) certain “foreign financial institutions” unless such foreign financial institution agrees to verify, monitor, and report to the IRS the identity of certain of its accountholders, among other items (or unless such

14



entity is otherwise deemed compliant under the terms of an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and the entity’s country of residence), and (B) certain “non-financial foreign entities” unless such entity certifies to the Fund that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or provides the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner, among other items.  In December 2018, the IRS and Treasury Department released proposed Treasury Regulations that would eliminate FATCA withholding on Fund distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds from a sale or redemption of Fund shares.  Although taxpayers are entitled to rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued, these proposed Treasury Regulations have not been finalized, may not be finalized in their proposed form, and are potentially subject to change.  This FATCA withholding tax could also affect the Fund’s return on its investments in foreign securities or affect a shareholder’s return if the shareholder holds its Fund shares through a foreign intermediary.  You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding the application of this FATCA withholding tax to your investment in the Fund and the potential certification, compliance, due diligence, reporting, and withholding obligations to which you may become subject in order to avoid this withholding tax.
The Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding.
Taxes When Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered, plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings), or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to foreign, state, and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
DISTRIBUTION
Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”), the Fund’s distributor, is a broker-dealer registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Fund on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Fund or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Fund. The Distributor’s principal address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.
The Board has adopted a Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus, and, therefore, does not have information about the differences between the Fund’s daily market price on the Exchange and its NAV. When available, information regarding how often the Shares of the Fund traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of the Fund can be found on the Fund’s website at www.rparetf.com.

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ADDITIONAL NOTICES
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in the determination of, the timing, prices, or quantities of Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of Shares.
Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, and the Fund make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly.
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
This section would ordinarily include Financial Highlights. The Financial Highlights table is intended to help you understand the Fund’s performance for the Fund’s periods of operations. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus, no Financial Highlights are shown.

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Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC
898 N. Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Sub-Adviser
CSat Investment Advisory, L.P.
doing business as Exponential ETFs
625 Avis Drive
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Dr.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Administrator
Tidal ETF Services LLC
898 N. Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Sub-Administrator, Fund Accountant, and Transfer Agent
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Distributor
Foreside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100
Portland, Maine 04101
Legal Counsel
Godfrey & Kahn, S.C.
833 East Michigan Street, Suite 1800
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Tait, Weller & Baker LLP
Two Liberty Place
50 S. 16th Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102
Investors may find more information about the Fund in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Fund’s SAI provides additional details about the investments and techniques of the Fund and certain other additional information. A current SAI dated November 22, 2019, as supplemented from time to time, is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the annual report you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance after the first fiscal year the Fund is in operation.
You can obtain free copies of these documents, when available, request other information or make general inquiries about the Fund by contacting the Fund at RPAR Risk Parity ETF, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701 or calling 833-540-0039.
Shareholder reports and other information about the Fund are also available:
Free of charge from the SEC’s EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov; or
Free of charge from the Fund’s Internet website at www.rparetf.com; or
For a duplicating fee, by e-mail request to publicinfo@sec.gov.









(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-23377)










RPAR Risk Parity ETF
(RPAR)

Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
November 22, 2019

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF (the “Fund”), a series of Tidal ETF Trust (the “Trust”), dated November 22, 2019, as may be supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”). Capitalized terms used in this SAI that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. A copy of the Prospectus may be obtained without charge, by calling the Fund at 833-540-0039, visiting www.rparetf.com , or writing to the Fund, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701.
The Fund’s audited financial statements for the most recent fiscal year (when available) will be incorporated into this SAI by reference to the Fund’s most recent annual report to shareholders (File No. 811-23377). When available, you may obtain a copy of the Fund’s annual report at no charge by contacting the Fund at the address or phone number noted above.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
General Information about the Trust
Additional Information about Investment Objectives, Policies, and Related Risks
Description of Permitted Investments
Investment Restrictions
Exchange Listing and Trading
Management of the Trust
Principal Shareholders, Control Persons, and Management Ownership
Codes of Ethics
Proxy Voting Policies
Investment Adviser
Investment Sub-Adviser
Portfolio Managers
The Distributor
Administrator
Sub-Administrator and Transfer Agent
Custodian
Compliance Services Administrator
Legal Counsel
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures
Description of Shares
Limitation of Trustees’ Liability
Brokerage Transactions
Portfolio Turnover Rate
Book Entry Only System
Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units
Determination of NAV
Dividends and Distributions
Federal Income Taxes
Financial Statements
Appendix A




General Information about the Trust
The Trust is an open-end management investment company consisting of multiple series, including the Fund. This SAI relates to the Fund. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on June 4, 2018. The Trust is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (together with the rules and regulations adopted thereunder, as amended, the “1940 Act”), as an open-end management investment company and the offering of the Fund’s shares (“Shares”) is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the “Board”). Toroso Investments, LLC (the “Adviser”) serves as the investment adviser to the Fund, and CSat Investment Advisory, L.P., doing business as Exponential ETFs (the “Sub-Adviser”), serves as the investment sub-adviser to the Fund. The investment objective of the Fund is as stated in the Prospectus under “Investment Objective”.
The Fund offers and issues Shares at their net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares (each, a “Creation Unit”). The Fund generally offers and issues Shares in exchange for a basket of securities included in its portfolio (“Deposit Securities”) together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (“Cash Component”). The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount (“Deposit Cash”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. Shares of the Fund are or will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Arca” or the “Exchange”). Shares of the Fund trade on the Exchange at market prices that may differ from the Share’s NAV. Shares are also redeemable only in Creation Unit aggregations, primarily for a basket of Deposit Securities together with a Cash Component. A Creation Unit of the Fund generally consists of 25,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. Creation Units are not expected to consist of fewer than 25,000 Shares. As a practical matter, only institutions or large investors, known as “Authorized Participants” or “APs,” purchase or redeem Creation Units. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not redeemable securities.
Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash at least equal to a specified percentage of the value of the missing Deposit Securities, as set forth in the Participant Agreement (as defined below). The Trust may impose a transaction fee for each creation or redemption. In all cases, such fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of the SEC applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers’ commissions on transactions in the secondary market will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.
Additional Information about Investment Objectives, Policies, and Related Risks
The Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategies are described in the Prospectus. The following information supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the Prospectus. For a description of certain permitted investments, see “Description of Permitted Investments” in this SAI.
With respect to the Fund’s investments, unless otherwise noted, if a percentage limitation on investment is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a subsequent increase or decrease as a result of market movement or redemption will not result in a violation of such investment limitation.
Non-Diversification
The Fund is classified as a non-diversified investment company under the 1940 Act. A “non-diversified” classification means that the Fund is not limited by the 1940 Act with regard to the percentage of its total assets that may be invested in the securities of a single issuer. This means that the Fund may invest a greater portion of its total assets in the securities of a single issuer or a small number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. The securities of a particular issuer may constitute a greater portion of the Index and, therefore, those securities may constitute a greater portion of the Fund’s portfolio. This may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s performance or subject the Fund’s Shares to greater price volatility than more diversified investment companies.
Although the Fund is non-diversified for purposes of the 1940 Act, the Fund intends to maintain the required level of diversification and otherwise conduct its operations so as to qualify as a “regulated investment company” (“RIC”) for purposes of the Code. Compliance with the diversification requirements of the Code may limit the investment flexibility of the Fund and may make it less likely that the Fund will meet its investment objectives. To qualify as a RIC under the Code, amongst other requirements, at the end of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, the Fund’s assets must be diversified so that (a) at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities, with such other securities limited, in respect to any one issuer, to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, including the equity securities of a qualified publicly traded partnership, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total assets is invested, including through corporations in which the Fund owns a 20% or more voting stock interest, in the securities (other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs) of any one issuer, the securities (other than securities of other RICs) of two or more issuers which the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships. See “Federal Income Taxes” in this SAI for further discussion.

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General Risks
The value of the Fund’s portfolio securities may fluctuate with changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic or political conditions that affect a particular security or issuer and changes in general economic or political conditions. An investor in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time.
There can be no guarantee that a liquid market for the securities held by the Fund will be maintained. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that a market will be made or maintained or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of Shares will be adversely affected if trading markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities are limited or absent, or if bid/ask spreads are wide.
Financial markets, both domestic and foreign, have experienced an unusually high degree of volatility as recently as the beginning of 2018. Continuing events and possible continuing market turbulence may have an adverse effect on Fund performance.
Cyber Security Risk. Investment companies, such as the Fund, and its service providers may be subject to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber attacks. Cyber attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber attacks affecting the Fund or the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, Custodian (defined below), Transfer Agent (defined below), intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact the Fund. For instance, cyber attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential company information, impede trading, subject the Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses, and cause reputational damage. The Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such portfolio companies to lose value.
Description of Permitted Investments
The following are descriptions of the permitted investments and investment practices and the associated risk factors. The Fund will only invest in any of the following instruments or engage in any of the following investment practices if such investment or activity is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and permitted by the Fund’s stated investment policies.
Borrowing
Although the Fund does not intend to borrow money, the Fund may do so to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the 1940 Act, the Fund may borrow up to one-third (1/3) of its total assets. The Fund will borrow money only for short-term or emergency purposes. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by the Fund promptly. Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of the Fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased. The Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
Depositary Receipts
To the extent the Fund invests in stocks of foreign corporations, the Fund’s investment in securities of foreign companies may be in the form of depositary receipts or other securities convertible into securities of foreign issuers. American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are dollar-denominated receipts representing interests in the securities of a foreign issuer, which securities may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. ADRs are receipts typically issued by U.S. banks and trust companies which evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation. Generally, ADRs in registered form are designed for use in domestic securities markets and are traded on exchanges or over-the-counter in the United States.
Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), and International Depositary Receipts (“IDRs”) are similar to ADRs in that they are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer; however, GDRs, EDRs, and IDRs may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies and are generally designed for use in specific or multiple securities markets outside the U.S. EDRs, for example, are designed for use in European securities markets, while GDRs are designed for use throughout the world. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities.
The Fund will not invest in any unlisted Depositary Receipts or any Depositary Receipt that the Adviser deems to be illiquid or for which pricing information is not readily available. In addition, all Depositary Receipts generally must be sponsored. However, the Fund may invest in unsponsored Depositary Receipts under certain limited circumstances. The issuers of unsponsored Depositary Receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States and, therefore, there may be less

2



information available regarding such issuers and there may not be a correlation between such information and the value of the Depositary Receipts. The use of a Depositary Receipt may increase tracking error relative to the applicable Index if the Index includes the foreign security instead of the Depositary Receipt.
Equity Securities
Equity securities, such as the common stocks of an issuer, are subject to stock market fluctuations and therefore may experience volatile changes in value as market conditions, consumer sentiment or the financial condition of the issuers change. A decrease in value of the equity securities in the Fund’s portfolio may also cause the value of the Fund’s Shares to decline.
An investment in the Fund should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in equity securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the stock market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities and therefore a decrease in the value of Shares of the Fund). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence and perceptions change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic or banking crises.
Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks. Further, unlike debt securities, which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, is subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks, which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding.
When-Issued Securities - A when-issued security is one whose terms are available and for which a market exists, but which has not been issued. When the Fund engages in when-issued transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the sale. If the other party fails to complete the sale, the Fund may miss the opportunity to obtain the security at a favorable price or yield.
When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis, the Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield changes. At the time of settlement, the value of the security may be more or less than the purchase price. The yield available in the market when the delivery takes place also may be higher than those obtained in the transaction itself. Because the Fund does not pay for the security until the delivery date, these risks are in addition to the risks associated with its other investments.
Decisions to enter into “when-issued” transactions will be considered on a case-by-case basis when necessary to maintain continuity in a company’s index membership. The Fund will segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to commitments for the when-issued transactions. The Fund will segregate additional liquid assets daily so that the value of such assets is equal to the amount of the commitments.
Types of Equity Securities:
Common Stocks - Common stocks represent units of ownership in a company. Common stocks usually carry voting rights and earn dividends. Unlike preferred stocks, which are described below, dividends on common stocks are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the company’s board of directors.
Preferred Stocks - Preferred stocks are also units of ownership in a company. Preferred stocks normally have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of the company. However, in all other respects, preferred stocks are subordinated to the liabilities of the issuer. Unlike common stocks, preferred stocks are generally not entitled to vote on corporate matters. Types of preferred stocks include adjustable-rate preferred stock, fixed dividend preferred stock, perpetual preferred stock, and sinking fund preferred stock.
Generally, the market values of preferred stock with a fixed dividend rate and no conversion element vary inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk.
Rights and Warrants - A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. Warrants are securities that are usually issued together with a debt security or preferred stock and that give the holder the right to buy proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price. Warrants are freely transferable and are traded on major exchanges. Unlike rights, warrants normally have a life that is measured in years and entitles the holder to buy common stock of a company at a price that is usually higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. Corporations often issue warrants to make the accompanying debt security more attractive.

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An investment in warrants and rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights and warrants do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights and warrants increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.
Illiquid Securities
The Fund may invest in illiquid securities (i.e., securities that are not readily marketable). Illiquid securities include, but are not limited to, restricted securities (securities the disposition of which is restricted under the federal securities laws), securities that may only be resold pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), but that are deemed to be illiquid; and repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days. However, the Fund will not acquire illiquid securities if immediately after the acquisition, such securities would comprise more than 15% of the value of the Fund’s net assets. Determinations of liquidity are made pursuant to guidelines contained in the liquidity risk management program of the Trust applicable to the Fund. The Adviser determines and monitors the liquidity of the portfolio securities and reports periodically on its decisions to the Board. In making such determinations it takes into account a number of factors in reaching liquidity decisions, including but not limited to: (1) the frequency of trades and quotations for the security; (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security and the number of other potential buyers; (3) the willingness of dealers to undertake to make a market in the security; and (4) the nature of the marketplace trades, including the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of the transfer. In connection with the implementation of the SEC’s new liquidity risk management rule and the liquidity risk management program of the Trust applicable to the Fund, the term “illiquid security” is defined as a security that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the security.  
An institutional market has developed for certain restricted securities. Accordingly, contractual or legal restrictions on the resale of a security may not be indicative of the liquidity of the security. If such securities are eligible for purchase by institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the Securities Act or other exemptions, the Adviser may determine that the securities are liquid.
Restricted securities may be sold only in privately negotiated transactions or in a public offering with respect to which a registration statement is in effect under the Securities Act. Where registration is required, the Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than that which prevailed when it decided to sell.
Illiquid securities will be priced at fair value as determined in good faith under procedures adopted by the Board. If, through the appreciation of illiquid securities or the depreciation of liquid securities, the Fund should be in a position where more than 15% of the value of its net assets are invested in illiquid securities, including restricted securities which are not readily marketable, the Fund will take such steps as are deemed advisable, if any, to protect liquidity.
Investment Company Securities
The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies, including money market funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), subject to applicable limitations under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act. Investing in another pooled vehicle exposes the Fund to all the risks of that pooled vehicle. Pursuant to Section 12(d)(1), the Fund may invest in the securities of another investment company (the “acquired company”) provided that the Fund, immediately after such purchase or acquisition, does not own in the aggregate: (i) more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company; (ii) securities issued by the acquired company having an aggregate value in excess of 5% of the value of the total assets of the Fund; or (iii) securities issued by the acquired company and all other investment companies (other than treasury stock of the Fund) having an aggregate value in excess of 10% of the value of the total assets of the Fund. To the extent allowed by law or regulation, the Fund may invest its assets in securities of investment companies that are money market funds in excess of the limits discussed above.
If the Fund invests in and, thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, the Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by the Fund to the Adviser and the other expenses that the Fund bears directly in connection with the Fund’s own operations.
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in securities of other registered investment companies, including the Fund. The acquisition of Shares by registered investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, except as may be permitted by exemptive rules under the 1940 Act or as may at some future time be permitted by an exemptive order that permits registered investment companies to invest in the Fund beyond

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the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including that the registered investment company enter into an agreement with the Fund regarding the terms of the investment.
The Fund may rely on Section 12(d)(1)(F) and Rule 12d1-3 of the 1940 Act, which provide an exemption from Section 12(d)(1) that allows the Fund to invest all of its assets in other registered funds, including ETFs, if, among other conditions: (a) the Fund, together with its affiliates, acquires no more than three percent of the outstanding voting stock of any acquired fund, and (b) the sales load charged on Shares is no greater than the limits set forth in Rule 2830 of the Conduct Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). Additionally, the Fund may rely on exemptive relief issued by the SEC to other registered funds, including ETFs, to invest in such other funds in excess of the limits of Section 12(d)(1) if the Fund complies with the terms and conditions of such exemptive relief.
Exchange-Traded Funds 
The Fund may invest in shares of other investment companies, including ETFs. As the shareholder of another ETF, the Fund would bear, along with other shareholders, its pro rata portion of the other ETF’s expenses, including advisory fees. Such expenses are in addition to the expenses the Fund pays in connection with its own operations. The Fund’s investments in other ETFs may be limited by applicable law. Disruptions in the markets for the securities underlying the ETFs purchased or sold by the Fund could result in losses on investments in ETFs. ETFs also carry the risk that the price the Fund pays or receives may be higher or lower than the ETF’s NAV. ETFs are also subject to certain additional risks, including the risks of illiquidity and of possible trading halts due to market conditions or other reasons, based on the policies of the relevant exchange. ETFs and other investment companies in which the Fund may invest may be leveraged, which would increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.
Exchange-Traded Vehicles
The Fund may seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodities markets through investments in commodity-based exchange-traded vehicles (“ETVs”), which are designed to provide this exposure without direct investment in physical commodities or commodities futures contracts. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which are financial instruments. In choosing investments, the Adviser seeks to provide exposure to various commodities and commodity sectors. The value of commodity-linked derivative securities may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, overall market movements and other factors affecting the value of particular industries or commodities, such as weather, disease, embargoes, acts of war or terrorism, or political and regulatory developments.
The prices of commodity-linked derivative securities may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value due to the general increase in prevailing interest rates. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. Of course, there cannot be any guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner in the future, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked instruments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities. Commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits. Under favorable economic conditions, the Fund’s investments may be expected to underperform an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on the Fund’s investments are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.
Money Market Funds
The Fund may invest in underlying money market funds that either seek to maintain a stable $1 NAV (“stable NAV money market funds”) or that have a share price that fluctuates (“variable NAV market funds”). Although an underlying stable NAV money market fund seeks to maintain a stable $1 NAV, it is possible for the Fund to lose money by investing in such a money market fund. Because the share price of an underlying variable NAV market fund will fluctuate, when the Fund sells the shares it owns they may be worth more or less than what the Fund originally paid for them. In addition, neither type of money market fund is designed to offer capital appreciation. Certain underlying money market funds may impose a fee upon the sale of shares or may temporarily suspend the ability to sell shares if such fund’s liquidity falls below required minimums.
Other Short-Term Instruments
In addition to repurchase agreements, the Fund may invest in short-term instruments, including money market instruments, on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity or for other reasons. Money market instruments are generally short-term investments that may include but are not limited to: (i) shares of money market funds; (ii) obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities (including government-sponsored enterprises); (iii) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), bankers’ acceptances, fixed time deposits and other obligations of U.S. and foreign banks (including foreign branches) and similar institutions; (iv) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” by Moody’s or “A-1” by S&P or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Adviser; (v) non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with remaining

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maturities at the date of purchase of not more than 397 days and that satisfy the rating requirements set forth in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act; and (vi) short-term U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign banks (including U.S. branches) that, in the opinion of the Adviser, are of comparable quality to obligations of U.S. banks which may be purchased by the Fund. Any of these instruments may be purchased on a current or a forward-settled basis. Money market instruments also include shares of money market funds. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Bankers’ acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.
Repurchase Agreements
The Fund may invest in repurchase agreements with commercial banks, brokers or dealers to generate income from its excess cash balances and to invest securities lending cash collateral. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which the Fund acquires a financial instrument (e.g., a security issued by the U.S. government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance or a certificate of deposit) from a seller, subject to resale to the seller at an agreed upon price and date (normally, the next Business Day). A repurchase agreement may be considered a loan collateralized by securities. The resale price reflects an agreed upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by the Fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument.
In these repurchase agreement transactions, the securities acquired by the Fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value in excess of the value of the repurchase agreement and are held by the Custodian until repurchased. No more than an aggregate of 15% of the Fund’s net assets will be invested in illiquid securities, including repurchase agreements having maturities longer than seven days and securities subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale, or for which there are no readily available market quotations.
The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the other party to the agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying security at a time when the value of the security has declined, the Fund may incur a loss upon disposition of the security. If the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral for a loan by the Fund not within the control of the Fund and, therefore, the Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.
Securities Lending
The Fund may lend portfolio securities to certain creditworthy borrowers. The borrowers provide collateral that is maintained in an amount at least equal to the current value of the securities loaned. The Fund may terminate a loan at any time and obtain the return of the securities loaned. The lending Fund receives the value of any interest or cash or non-cash distributions paid on the loaned securities. Distributions received on loaned securities in lieu of dividend payments (i.e., substitute payments) would not be considered qualified dividend income.
With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the borrower will be entitled to receive a fee based on the amount of cash collateral. The Fund is compensated by the difference between the amount earned on the reinvestment of cash collateral and the fee paid to the borrower. In the case of collateral other than cash, the Fund is compensated by a fee paid by the borrower equal to a percentage of the value of the loaned securities. Any cash collateral may be reinvested in certain short-term instruments either directly on behalf of the lending Fund or through one or more joint accounts or money market funds.
The Fund may pay a portion of the interest or fees earned from securities lending to a borrower as described above, and to one or more securities lending agents approved by the Board who administer the lending program for the Fund in accordance with guidelines approved by the Board. In such capacity, the lending agent causes the delivery of loaned securities from the Fund to borrowers, arranges for the return of loaned securities to the Fund at the termination of a loan, requests deposit of collateral, monitors the daily value of the loaned securities and collateral, requests that borrowers add to the collateral when required by the loan agreements, and provides recordkeeping and accounting services necessary for the operation of the program.
Securities lending involves exposure to certain risks, including operational risk (i.e., the risk of losses resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process), “gap” risk (i.e., the risk of a mismatch between the return on cash collateral reinvestments and the fees the Fund has agreed to pay a borrower), and credit, legal, counterparty and market risk. In the event a borrower does not return the Fund’s securities as agreed, the Fund may experience losses if the proceeds received from liquidating the collateral do not at least equal the value of the loaned security at the time the collateral is liquidated plus the transaction costs incurred in purchasing replacement securities.
Commodity-Linked Instruments
Commodity-linked instruments are designed to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets without direct investment in physical commodities. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which

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are financial instruments. Investing in physical commodities through commodity-linked instruments presents unique risks, is speculative and can be extremely volatile. Market prices of commodities may fluctuate rapidly based on numerous factors, including: changes in supply and demand relationships (whether actual, perceived, anticipated, unanticipated or unrealized); weather; agriculture; trade; domestic and foreign political and economic events and policies; diseases; pestilence; technological developments; and monetary and other governmental policies, action and inaction. The current or “spot” prices of physical commodities may also affect, in a volatile and inconsistent manner, the prices of futures contracts in respect of the relevant commodity. Certain commodities are used primarily in one industry, and fluctuations in levels of activity in (or the availability of alternative resources to) one industry may have a disproportionate effect on global demand for a particular commodity. Moreover, recent growth in industrial production and gross domestic product has made China and other developing nations oversized users of commodities and has increased the extent to which certain commodities prices are influenced by those markets.
Commodity-Related Pooled Investment Vehicles. Commodity-related pooled investment vehicles include ownership interests in grantor trusts and other pooled investment vehicles that hold tangible assets such as gold, silver or other commodities or invest in commodity futures. Grantor trusts are typically traded on an exchange.
Investors do not have the rights normally associated with ownership of other types of shares when they invest in pooled investment vehicles holding commodities or commodity futures, including those structured as limited partnerships or grantor trusts holding commodities. For example, the owners of these commodity-related grantor trusts or limited partnerships do not have the right to elect directors, receive dividends or take other actions normally associated with the ownership of shares of a corporation. Holders of a certain percentage of shares in a grantor trust may have the right to terminate the trust or exercise other rights which would not be available to small investors. If investors in the underlying commodity through the pooled investment vehicle other than the Fund exercise their right to terminate, the Fund will have to find another investment and may not be able to find another vehicle that offers the same investment features. In the event that one or more participants holding a substantial interest in these pooled investment vehicles withdraw from participation, the liquidity of the pooled investment vehicle will likely decrease which could adversely affect the market price of the pooled investment vehicle and result in the Fund incurring a loss on its investments.
These pooled investment vehicles are not registered investment companies, and many are not commodity pools, and therefore, do not have the protections available to those types of investments under federal securities or commodities laws. For example, unlike registered investment companies, these vehicles are not subject to federal securities laws that limit transactions with affiliates, require redemption of shares, or limit sales load. Although shares of these vehicles may be traded on an exchange, there may be no active market for such shares and such shares may be highly illiquid.
These vehicles are subject to the risks associated with direct investments in commodities. The market price of shares of these vehicles will be as unpredictable as the price of the underlying commodity. Many factors can cause a decline in the prices of commodities including a change in economic conditions, such as a recession. This risk is magnified when the commodity is used in manufacturing. In addition, the prices of commodities may be adversely impacted by a change in the attitude of speculators and investors toward the applicable commodity, or a significant increase in commodity price hedging activity. In addition, the value of the shares will be adversely affected if the assets owned by the trust are lost, damaged or of inferior quality.
The commodities represented by shares of a grantor trust will decrease over the life of the trust due to sales of the underlying commodities necessary to pay trust fees and expenses, including expenses associated with indemnification of certain service providers to the pooled investment vehicle. Without increases in the price of the underlying commodity sufficient to compensate for that decrease, the price of the investment will decline and the Fund will incur a loss on its investment.
Commodity-related grantor trusts are passive investment vehicles. This means that the value of the investment in a grantor trust may be adversely affected by trust losses that, if the trust had been actively managed, it might have been possible to avoid. The Fund’s intention to qualify as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code may limit its ability to make investments in grantor trusts or limited partnerships that invest in commodities or commodity futures.
U.S. Government Securities
The Fund may invest in U.S. government securities. Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one-year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”), the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac).

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Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, GNMA pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by the FNMA, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the federal agency, while other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those of the Federal Home Loan Banks, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while the U.S. government provides financial support to such U.S. government-sponsored federal agencies, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will always do so, since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.
On September 7, 2008, the U.S. Treasury announced a federal takeover of the FNMA and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), placing the two federal instrumentalities in conservatorship. Under the takeover, the U.S. Treasury agreed to acquire $1 billion of senior preferred stock of each instrumentality and obtained warrants for the purchase of common stock of each instrumentality (the “Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement” or “Agreement”). Under the Agreement, the U.S. Treasury pledged to provide up to $200 billion per instrumentality as needed, including the contribution of cash capital to the instrumentalities in the event their liabilities exceed their assets. This was intended to ensure that the instrumentalities maintain a positive net worth and meet their financial obligations, preventing mandatory triggering of receivership. On December 24, 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was amending the Agreement to allow the $200 billion cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in net worth over the next three years. As a result of this Agreement, the investments of holders, including the Fund, of mortgage-backed securities and other obligations issued by the FNMA and Freddie Mac are protected.
The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008-2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt limit to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. On February 9, 2018, following passage by Congress, the President of the United States signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, which suspends the statutory debt limit through March 1, 2019. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.
Debt Securities
In general, a debt security represents a loan of money to the issuer by the purchaser of the security. A debt security typically has a fixed payment schedule that obligates the issuer to pay interest to the lender and to return the lender’s money over a certain time period. A company typically meets its payment obligations associated with its outstanding debt securities before it declares and pays any dividend to holders of its equity securities. Bonds, notes and commercial paper are examples of debt securities and differ in the length of the issuer’s principal repayment schedule, with bonds carrying the longest repayment schedule and commercial paper the shortest.
Debt securities are all generally subject to interest rate, credit, income and prepayment risks and, like all investments, are subject to liquidity and market risks to varying degrees depending upon the specific terms and type of security. The Adviser attempts to reduce credit and market risk through diversification of the Fund’s portfolio and ongoing credit analysis of each issuer, as well as by monitoring economic developments, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful at doing so.
Inflation-Indexed Bonds. Inflation-indexed bonds are debt securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”) accruals as part of a semiannual coupon.
Inflation-indexed securities issued by the U.S. Treasury, commonly known as “TIPS,” have maturities of five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. TIPS pay interest on a semi-annual basis, equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. For example, if the Fund purchased an inflation-indexed bond with a par value of $1,000 and a 3% real rate of return coupon (payable 1.5% semi-annually), and inflation over the first six months were 1%, the mid-year par value of the bond would be $1,010 and the first semi-annual interest payment would be $15.15 ($1,010 times 1.5%). If inflation during the second half of the year resulted in the whole years’ inflation equaling 3%, the end-of-year par value of the bond would be $1,030 and the second semiannual interest payment would be $15.45 ($1,030 times 1.5%).
If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced.

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Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of TIPS, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate. The Fund may also invest in other inflation related bonds which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.
The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds.
While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.
The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed bonds is tied to the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.
Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.
The Fund’s investments in debt securities may subject the Fund to the following risks:
Credit risk. Debt securities are subject to the risk of an issuer’s (or other party’s) failure or inability to meet its obligations under the security. Multiple parties may have obligations under a debt security. An issuer or borrower may fail to pay principal and interest when due. A guarantor, insurer or credit support provider may fail to provide the agreed upon protection. A counterparty to a transaction may fail to perform its side of the bargain. An intermediary or agent interposed between the investor and other parties may fail to perform the terms of its service. Also, performance under a debt security may be linked to the obligations of other persons who may fail to meet their obligations. The credit risk associated with a debt security could increase to the extent that the Fund’s ability to benefit fully from its investment in the security depends on the performance by multiple parties of their respective contractual or other obligations. The market value of a debt security is also affected by the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer.
The Fund may incur substantial losses on debt securities that are inaccurately perceived to present a different amount of credit risk than they actually do by the market, the Adviser or the rating agencies. Credit risk is generally greater where less information is publicly available, where fewer covenants safeguard the investors’ interests, where collateral may be impaired or inadequate, where little legal redress or regulatory protection is available, or where a party’s ability to meet obligations is speculative. Additionally, any inaccuracy in the information used by the Fund to evaluate credit risk may affect the value of securities held by the Fund.
Obligations under debt securities held by the Fund may never be satisfied or, if satisfied, only satisfied in part.
Some securities are subject to risks as a result of a credit downgrade or default by a government, or its agencies or, instrumentalities. Credit risk is a greater concern for high-yield debt securities and debt securities of issuers whose ability to pay interest and principal may be considered speculative. Debt securities are typically classified as investment grade-quality (medium to highest credit quality) or below investment grade-quality (commonly referred to as high-yield or junk bonds). Many individual debt securities are rated by a third party source, such as Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) or Standard & Poor’s Financial Services (“S&P®”), to help describe the creditworthiness of the issuer.
Uncertain Tax Treatment Risk. Investments in debt securities rated below investment grade instruments may present special tax issues for the Fund. U.S. federal income tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when the Fund may cease accruing interest, OID or market discount, when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless instruments, how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income and whether exchanges of debt obligations in a bankruptcy or workout context are taxable. These and other issues will be addressed by the Fund to the extent necessary to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income that it does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.
Credit ratings risk. The Adviser may perform its own independent investment analysis of securities being considered for the Fund’s portfolio, which includes consideration of, among other things, the issuer’s financial resources, its sensitivity to economic

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conditions and trends, its operating history, the quality of the issuer’s management and regulatory matters. The Adviser also may consider the ratings assigned by various investment services and independent rating agencies, such as Moody’s and S&P, that publish ratings based upon their assessment of the relative creditworthiness of the rated debt securities. Generally, a lower rating indicates higher credit risk. Higher yields are ordinarily available from debt securities in the lower rating categories.
Using credit ratings to evaluate debt securities can involve certain risks. For example, ratings assigned by the rating agencies are based upon an analysis completed at the time of the rating of the obligor’s ability to pay interest and repay principal. Rating agencies typically rely to a large extent on historical data which may not accurately represent present or future circumstances. Ratings do not purport to reflect the risk of fluctuations in market value of the debt security and are not absolute standards of quality and only express the rating agency’s current opinion of an obligor’s overall financial capacity to pay its financial obligations. A credit rating is not a statement of fact or a recommendation to purchase, sell or hold a debt obligation. Also, credit quality can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and credit ratings may not reflect the issuer’s current financial condition or events since the security was last rated. Rating agencies may have a financial interest in generating business, including from the arranger or issuer of the security that normally pays for that rating, and providing a low rating might affect the rating agency’s prospects for future business. While rating agencies have policies and procedures to address this potential conflict of interest, there is a risk that these policies will fail to prevent a conflict of interest from impacting the rating.
Extension risk. The Fund is subject to extension risk, which is the risk that the market value of some debt securities, particularly mortgage securities and certain asset-backed securities, may be adversely affected when bond calls or prepayments on underlying mortgages or other assets are less or slower than anticipated. Extension risk may result from, for example, rising interest rates or unexpected developments in the markets for the underlying assets or mortgages. As a consequence, the security’s effective maturity will be extended, resulting in an increase in interest rate sensitivity to that of a longer-term instrument. Extension risk generally increases as interest rates rise. This is because, in a rising interest rate environment, the rate of prepayment and exercise of call or buy-back rights generally falls and the rate of default and delayed payment generally rises. When the maturity of an investment is extended in a rising interest rate environment, a below-market interest rate is usually locked-in and the value of the security reduced. This risk is greater for fixed-rate than variable-rate debt securities.
Income risk. The Fund is subject to income risk, which is the risk that the Fund’s income will decline during periods of falling interest rates or when the Fund experiences defaults on debt securities it holds. The Fund’s income declines when interest rates fall because, as the Fund’s higher-yielding debt securities mature or are prepaid, the Fund must re-invest the proceeds in debt securities that have lower, prevailing interest rates. The amount and rate of distributions that the Fund’s shareholders receive are affected by the income that the Fund receives from its portfolio holdings. If the income is reduced, distributions by the Fund to shareholders may be less.
Fluctuations in income paid to the Fund are generally greater for variable rate debt securities. The Fund will be deemed to receive taxable income on certain securities which pay no cash payments until maturity, such as zero-coupon securities. The Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities that it would otherwise continue to hold in order to obtain sufficient cash to make the distributions to shareholders required for U.S. tax purposes.
Inflation risk. The market price of debt securities generally falls as inflation increases because the purchasing power of the future income and repaid principal is expected to be worth less when received by the Fund. Debt securities that pay a fixed rather than variable interest rate are especially vulnerable to inflation risk because variable-rate debt securities may be able to participate, over the long term, in rising interest rates which have historically corresponded with long-term inflationary trends.
Interest rate risk. The market value of debt securities generally varies in response to changes in prevailing interest rates. Interest rate changes can be sudden and unpredictable. In addition, short-term and long-term rates are not necessarily correlated to each other as short-term rates tend to be influenced by government monetary policy while long-term rates are market driven and may be influenced by macroeconomic events (such as economic expansion or contraction), inflation expectations, as well as supply and demand. During periods of declining interest rates, the market value of debt securities generally increases. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the market value of debt securities generally declines. This occurs because new debt securities are likely to be issued with higher interest rates as interest rates increase, making the old or outstanding debt securities less attractive. In general, the market prices of long-term debt securities or securities that make little (or no) interest payments are more sensitive to interest rate fluctuations than shorter-term debt securities. The longer the Fund’s average weighted portfolio duration, the greater the potential impact a change in interest rates will have on its share price. Also, certain segments of the fixed income markets, such as high quality bonds, tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes than other segments, such as lower-quality bonds.
Prepayment risk. Debt securities, especially bonds that are subject to “calls,” such as asset-backed or mortgage-backed securities, are subject to prepayment risk if their terms allow the payment of principal and other amounts due before their stated maturity. Amounts invested in a debt security that has been “called” or “prepaid” will be returned to an investor holding that security before expected by the investor. In such circumstances, the investor, such as a fund, may be required to re-invest the proceeds it receives from the called or prepaid security in a new security which, in periods of declining interest rates, will typically have a lower interest rate. Prepayment risk is especially prevalent in periods of declining interest rates and will result for other reasons, including

10



unexpected developments in the markets for the underlying assets or mortgages. For example, a decline in mortgage interest rates typically initiates a period of mortgage refinancings. When homeowners refinance their mortgages, the investor in the underlying pool of mortgage-backed securities (such as a fund) receives its principal back sooner than expected, and must reinvest at lower, prevailing rates.
Securities subject to prepayment risk are often called during a declining interest rate environment and generally offer less potential for gains and greater price volatility than other income-bearing securities of comparable maturity.
Call risk is similar to prepayment risk and results from the ability of an issuer to call, or prepay, a debt security early. If interest rates decline enough, the debt security’s issuer can save money by repaying its callable debt securities and issuing new debt securities at lower interest rates.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)    
A REIT is a corporation or business trust (that would otherwise be taxed as an ordinary corporation) which meets certain definitional requirements of the Code to be taxed as a REIT. The Code permits a qualifying REIT to deduct from taxable income the dividends paid, thereby effectively eliminating corporate level federal income tax. To meet the definitional requirements of the Code, a REIT must, among other things: invest substantially all of its assets in interests in real estate (including mortgages and other REITs), cash and government securities; derive most of its income from rents from real property or interest on loans secured by mortgages on real property; and, in general, distribute annually 90% or more of its taxable income (other than net capital gains) to shareholders.
REITs are sometimes informally characterized as Equity REITs and Mortgage REITs. An Equity REIT invests primarily in the fee ownership or leasehold ownership of land and buildings (e.g., commercial equity REITs and residential equity REITs); a Mortgage REIT invests primarily in mortgages on real property, which may secure construction, development or long-term loans.
REITs may be affected by changes in underlying real estate values, which may have an exaggerated effect to the extent that REITs in which a Fund invests may concentrate investments in particular geographic regions or property types. Additionally, rising interest rates may cause investors in REITs to demand a higher annual yield from future distributions, which may in turn decrease market prices for equity securities issued by REITs. Rising interest rates also generally increase the costs of obtaining financing, which could cause the value of a Fund’s investments to decline. During periods of declining interest rates, certain Mortgage REITs may hold mortgages that the mortgagors elect to prepay, which prepayment may diminish the yield on securities issued by such Mortgage REITs. In addition, Mortgage REITs may be affected by the ability of borrowers to repay when due the debt extended by the REIT and Equity REITs may be affected by the ability of tenants to pay rent.
Certain REITs have relatively small market capitalization, which may tend to increase the volatility of the market price of securities issued by such REITs. Furthermore, REITs are dependent upon specialized management skills, have limited diversification and are, therefore, subject to risks inherent in operating and financing a limited number of projects. By investing in REITs indirectly through a Fund, a shareholder will bear not only his or her proportionate share of the expenses of a Fund, but also, indirectly, similar expenses of the REITs. REITs depend generally on their ability to generate cash flow to make distributions to shareholders.
In addition to these risks, Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while Mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Further, Equity and Mortgage REITs are dependent upon management skills and generally may not be diversified. Equity and Mortgage REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency defaults by borrowers and self-liquidation. In addition, Equity and Mortgage REITs could possibly fail to qualify for the favorable U.S. federal income tax treatment generally available to REITs under the Code or fail to maintain their exemptions from registration under the 1940 Act. The above factors may also adversely affect a borrower’s or a lessee’s ability to meet its obligations to the REIT. In the event of default by a borrower or lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting its investments.
In general, qualified REIT dividends that an investor receives directly from a REIT are automatically eligible for the 20% qualified business income deduction. The IRS has issued proposed Treasury Regulations that, if finalized as proposed, would permit a dividend or part of a dividend paid by a regulated investment company and reported as a “section 199A dividend” to be treated by the recipient as a qualified REIT dividend for purposes of the 20% qualified business income deduction. These regulations have not yet been finalized and the tax treatment of REIT dividends received through a regulated investment company may change in the future. However, taxpayers may rely on the Treasury Regulations as proposed, until they are adopted as final.
Derivative Instruments
Generally, derivatives are financial instruments whose value depends on or is derived from, the value of one or more underlying assets, reference rates, or indices or other market factors (a “reference instrument”) and may relate to stocks, bonds, interest rates, credit, currencies, commodities or related indices. Derivative instruments can provide an efficient means to gain or reduce exposure to the value of a reference instrument without actually owning or selling the instrument. Some common types of derivatives include options, futures and forwards.

11



Derivative instruments may be used for “hedging,” which means that they may be used when the Adviser seeks to protect the Fund’s investments from a decline in value resulting from changes to interest rates, market prices, currency fluctuations, or other market factors. Derivative instruments may also be used for other purposes, including to seek to increase liquidity, provide efficient portfolio management, broaden investment opportunities (including taking short or negative positions), implement a tax or cash management strategy, gain exposure to a particular security or segment of the market, modify the effective duration of the Fund’s portfolio investments and/or enhance total return. However derivative instruments are used, their successful use is not assured and will depend upon, among other factors, the Adviser’s ability to gauge relevant market movements.
Derivative instruments may be used for purposes of direct hedging. Direct hedging means that the transaction must be intended to reduce a specific risk exposure of a portfolio security or its denominated currency and must also be directly related to such security or currency. The Fund’s use of derivative instruments may be limited from time to time by policies adopted by the Board, the Adviser, or the Sub-Adviser.
Because some derivative instruments used by the Fund may oblige the Fund to make payments or incur additional obligations in the future, the SEC requires investment companies to “cover” or segregate liquid assets equal to the potential exposure created by such derivatives. See “Borrowing” above for more information on the Fund’s obligation to cover or segregate such assets.
Futures contracts. Generally, a futures contract is a standard binding agreement to buy or sell a specified quantity of an underlying reference instrument, such as a specific security, currency or commodity, at a specified price at a specified later date. A “sale” of a futures contract means the acquisition of a contractual obligation to deliver the underlying reference instrument called for by the contract at a specified price on a specified date. A “purchase” of a futures contract means the acquisition of a contractual obligation to acquire the underlying reference instrument called for by the contract at a specified price on a specified date. The purchase or sale of a futures contract will allow the Fund to increase or decrease its exposure to the underlying reference instrument without having to buy the actual instrument.
The underlying reference instruments to which futures contracts may relate include non-U.S. currencies, interest rates, stock and bond indices, and debt securities, including U.S. government debt obligations. In most cases the contractual obligation under a futures contract may be offset, or “closed out,” before the settlement date so that the parties do not have to make or take delivery. The closing out of a contractual obligation is usually accomplished by buying or selling, as the case may be, an identical, offsetting futures contract. This transaction, which is effected through a member of an exchange, cancels the obligation to make or take delivery of the underlying instrument or asset. Although some futures contracts by their terms require the actual delivery or acquisition of the underlying instrument or asset, some require cash settlement.
Futures contracts may be bought and sold on U.S. and non-U.S. exchanges. Futures contracts in the U.S. have been designed by exchanges that have been designated “contract markets” by the CFTC and must be executed through a futures commission merchant (“FCM”), which is a brokerage firm that is a member of the relevant contract market. Each exchange guarantees performance of the contracts as between the clearing members of the exchange, thereby reducing the risk of counterparty default. Futures contracts may also be entered into on certain exempt markets, including exempt boards of trade and electronic trading facilities, available to certain market participants. Because all transactions in the futures market are made, offset or fulfilled by an FCM through a clearinghouse associated with the exchange on which the contracts are traded, the Fund will incur brokerage fees when it buys or sells futures contracts.
The Fund generally buys and sells futures contracts only on contract markets (including exchanges or boards of trade) where there appears to be an active market for the futures contracts, but there is no assurance that an active market will exist for any particular contract or at any particular time. An active market makes it more likely that futures contracts will be liquid and bought and sold at competitive market prices. In addition, many of the futures contracts available may be relatively new instruments without a significant trading history. As a result, there can be no assurance that an active market will develop or continue to exist.
When the Fund enters into a futures contract, it must deliver to an account controlled by the FCM (that has been selected by the Fund), an amount referred to as “initial margin” that is typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of a contract over a fixed period. Initial margin requirements are determined by the respective exchanges on which the futures contracts are traded and the FCM. Thereafter, a “variation margin” amount may be required to be paid by the Fund or received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts, depending upon changes in the marked-to market value of the futures contract. The account is marked-to market daily and the variation margin is monitored by the Adviser and Custodian (defined below) on a daily basis. When the futures contract is closed out, if the Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the FCM along with any loss in excess of the margin amount. If the Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the excess margin is returned to the Fund. If the Fund has a gain, the full margin amount and the amount of the gain is paid to the Fund.
Some futures contracts provide for the delivery of securities that are different than those that are specified in the contract. For a futures contract for delivery of debt securities, on the settlement date of the contract, adjustments to the contract can be made to recognize differences in value arising from the delivery of debt securities with a different interest rate from that of the particular

12



debt securities that were specified in the contract. In some cases, securities called for by a futures contract may not have been issued when the contract was written.
Risks of futures contracts. The Fund’s use of futures contracts is subject to the risks associated with derivative instruments generally. In addition, a purchase or sale of a futures contract may result in losses to the Fund in excess of the amount that the Fund delivered as initial margin. Because of the relatively low margin deposits required, futures trading involves a high degree of leverage; as a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss, or gain, to the Fund. In addition, if the Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements or close out a futures position, it may have to sell securities from its portfolio at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. Adverse market movements could cause the Fund to experience substantial losses on an investment in a futures contract.
There is a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a futures contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund is also subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty.
The Fund may not be able to properly hedge or effect its strategy when a liquid market is unavailable for the futures contract the Fund wishes to close, which may at times occur. In addition, when futures contracts are used for hedging, there may be an imperfect correlation between movements in the prices of the underlying reference instrument on which the futures contract is based and movements in the prices of the assets sought to be hedged.
If the Adviser’s investment judgment about the general direction of market prices or interest or currency exchange rates is incorrect, the Fund’s overall performance will be poorer than if it had not entered into a futures contract. For example, if the Fund has purchased futures to hedge against the possibility of an increase in interest rates that would adversely affect the price of bonds held in its portfolio and interest rates instead decrease, the Fund will lose part or all of the benefit of the increased value of the bonds which it has hedged. This is because its losses in its futures positions will offset some or all of its gains from the increased value of the bonds.
The difference (called the “spread”) between prices in the cash market for the purchase and sale of the underlying reference instrument and the prices in the futures market is subject to fluctuations and distortions due to differences in the nature of those two markets. First, all participants in the futures market are subject to initial deposit and variation margin requirements. Rather than meeting additional variation margin requirements, investors may close futures contracts through offsetting transactions that could distort the normal pricing spread between the cash and futures markets. Second, the liquidity of the futures markets depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than making or taking delivery of the underlying instrument. To the extent participants decide to make or take delivery, liquidity in the futures market could be reduced, resulting in pricing distortion. Third, from the point of view of speculators, the margin deposit requirements that apply in the futures market are less onerous than similar margin requirements in the securities market. Therefore, increased participation by speculators in the futures market may cause temporary price distortions. When such distortions occur, a correct forecast of general trends in the price of an underlying reference instrument by the Adviser may still not necessarily result in a profitable transaction.
Futures contracts that are traded on non-U.S. exchanges may not be as liquid as those purchased on CFTC-designated contract markets. In addition, non-U.S. futures contracts may be subject to varied regulatory oversight. The price of any non-U.S. futures contract and, therefore, the potential profit and loss thereon, may be affected by any change in the non-U.S. exchange rate between the time a particular order is placed and the time it is liquidated, offset or exercised.
The CFTC and the various exchanges have established limits referred to as “speculative position limits” on the maximum net long or net short position that any person, such as the Fund, may hold or control in a particular futures contract. Trading limits are also imposed on the maximum number of contracts that any person may trade on a particular trading day. An exchange may order the liquidation of positions found to be in violation of these limits and it may impose other sanctions or restrictions. The regulation of futures, as well as other derivatives, is a rapidly changing area of law. For more information, see “Developing government regulation of derivatives” below.
Futures exchanges may also limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in certain futures contract prices during a single trading day. This daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price. Once the daily limit has been reached in a futures contract subject to the limit, no more trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movements during a particular trading day and does not limit potential losses because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. For example, futures prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of positions and subjecting some holders of futures contracts to substantial losses.

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Temporary Strategies
Under normal market conditions, the Fund will stay fully invested according to its principal investment strategies as noted above. The Fund, however, may temporarily depart from its principal investment strategies by making short-term investments in commercial paper and/or repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities, corporate obligations, municipal debt securities, mortgage-backed securities, or convertible securities for temporary defensive purposes in response to adverse market, economic or political conditions. Taking a temporary defensive position may result in the Fund not achieving its investment objective during that period.
Investment Restrictions
The Trust has adopted the following investment restrictions as fundamental policies with respect to the Fund. These restrictions cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. For the purposes of the 1940 Act, a “majority of outstanding shares” means the vote of the lesser of: (1) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at the meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund.
Except with the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, the Fund may not:
1.
Borrow money or issue senior securities (as defined under the 1940 Act), except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
2.
Make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
3.
Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, REITs or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business.
4.
Purchase or sell commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities.
5.
Underwrite securities issued by other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
6.
Concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in any industry or group of related industries. For purposes of this limitation, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities), securities of registered investment companies, repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities, and tax-exempt securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.
7.
With respect to 50% of its total assets, purchase the securities of any one issuer if, immediately after and as a result of such purchase, (a) the value of the Fund’s holdings in the securities of such issuer exceeds 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets, or (b) the Fund owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer (with the exception that this restriction does not apply to the Fund’s investments in the securities of the U.S. government, or its agencies or instrumentalities, or other investment companies).
In determining its compliance with the fundamental investment restriction on concentration, the Fund will look through to the underlying holdings of any affiliated investment company and will consider its entire investment in any investment company with a policy to concentrate, or having otherwise disclosed that it is concentrated, in a particular industry or group of related industries as being invested in such industry or group of related industries. Additionally, in determining its compliance with the fundamental investment restriction on concentration, the Fund will look through to the user or use of private activity municipal bonds to determine their industry.
In addition to the investment restrictions adopted as fundamental policies as set forth above, the Fund observes the following non-fundamental restriction, which may be changed without a shareholder vote:
1.
The Fund will not hold illiquid investments in excess of 15% of its net assets. An illiquid investment is any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.

If a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of the investment or contract, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value of total or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction, except that the percentage limitations with respect to the borrowing of money and illiquid securities will be observed continuously.
Exchange Listing and Trading
Shares are listed for trading and trade throughout the day on the Exchange.
There can be no assurance that the Fund will continue to meet the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares. The Exchange will consider the suspension of trading in, and will initiate delisting proceedings of, the Shares of the

14



Fund under any of the following circumstances: (i) if any of the requirements set forth in the Exchange rules are not continuously maintained; (ii) if the Exchange files separate proposals under Section 19(b) of the 1940 Act and any of the statements regarding (a) the description of the Fund; (b) limitations on the Fund’s portfolio holdings or reference assets; (c) dissemination and availability of the intraday indicative values; or (d) the applicability of the Exchange listing rules specified in such proposals are not continuously maintained; (iii) if following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the Shares of the Fund; (iv) if the intraday indicative value is no longer disseminated at least every 15 seconds during the Exchange’s regular market session and the interruption to the dissemination persists past the trading day in which it occurred; or (v) such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the Shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.
The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of Shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the Fund.
To provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares, the Exchange or a market data vendor disseminates information every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association or other widely disseminated means an updated “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) for the Fund as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs.
Management of the Trust
Board Responsibilities. The management and affairs of the Trust and its series are overseen by the Board, which elects the officers of the Trust who are responsible for administering the day-to-day operations of the Trust and the Fund. The Board has approved contracts, as described below, under which certain companies provide essential services to the Trust.
The day-to-day business of the Trust, including the management of risk, is performed by third-party service providers, such as the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, the Distributor (defined below), and the Administrator (defined below). The Board is responsible for overseeing the Trust’s service providers and, thus, has oversight responsibility with respect to risk management performed by those service providers. Risk management seeks to identify and address risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Fund. The Fund and its service providers employ a variety of processes, procedures, and controls to identify various of those possible events or circumstances, to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust’s business (e.g., the Sub-Adviser is responsible for the day-to-day trading and execution of the Fund’s portfolio investments) and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that business. The Board has emphasized to the Fund’s service providers the importance of maintaining vigorous risk management.
The Board’s role in risk oversight begins before the inception of the Fund, at which time certain of the Fund’s service providers present the Board with information concerning the investment objective, strategies, and risks of the Fund as well as proposed investment limitations for the Fund. Additionally, the Adviser and Sub-Adviser provide the Board with an overview of, among other things, their investment philosophies, brokerage practices, and compliance infrastructures. Thereafter, the Board continues its oversight function as various personnel, including the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer and other service providers such as the Fund’s independent accountants, make periodic reports to the Audit Committee or to the Board with respect to various aspects of risk management. The Board and the Audit Committee oversee efforts by management and service providers to manage risks to which the Fund may be exposed.
The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent, and quality of the services provided to the Fund by the Adviser and Sub-Adviser and receives information about those services at its regular meetings. In addition, on an annual basis (following the initial two-year period), in connection with its consideration of whether to renew the Investment Advisory Agreement with the Adviser and Sub-Advisory Agreement with the Sub-Adviser, the Board or its designee may meet with the Adviser or Sub-Adviser to review such services. Among other things, the Board regularly considers the Adviser’s and Sub-Adviser’s adherence to the Fund’s investment restrictions and compliance with various Fund policies and procedures and with applicable securities regulations. The Board also reviews information about the Fund’s performance and the nature of the Fund’s investments.
The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer reports regularly to the Board to review and discuss compliance issues and Fund, Adviser, and Sub-Adviser risk assessments. At least annually, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser and Sub-Adviser. The report addresses the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; any material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any

15



recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and any material compliance matters since the date of the last report.
The Board receives reports from the Fund’s service providers regarding operational risks and risks related to the valuation and liquidity of portfolio securities. Annually, the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Fund’s financial statements, focusing on major areas of risk encountered by the Fund and noting any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in the Fund’s internal controls. Additionally, in connection with its oversight function, the Board oversees Fund management’s implementation of disclosure controls and procedures, which are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Trust in its periodic reports with the SEC are recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the required time periods. The Board also oversees the Trust’s internal controls over financial reporting, which comprise policies and procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of the Trust’s financial reporting and the preparation of the Trust’s financial statements.
From their review of these reports and discussions with the Adviser or Sub-Adviser, the Chief Compliance Officer, the independent registered public accounting firm, and other service providers, the Board and the Audit Committee learn in detail about the material risks of the Fund, thereby facilitating a dialogue about how management and service providers identify and mitigate those risks.
The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Fund can be identified and/or quantified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve the Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures, and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, reports received by the Board as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information. Most of the Fund’s investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and the methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Fund’s and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s ability to monitor and manage risk, as a practical matter, is subject to limitations.
Members of the Board. There are five members of the Board, three of whom are not interested persons of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act (the “Independent Trustees”). Mr. Eric W. Falkeis serves as Chairman of the Board and is an interested person of the Trust.
The Board is comprised of a majority (60 percent) of Independent Trustees. There is an Audit Committee of the Board that is chaired by an Independent Trustee and comprised solely of Independent Trustees. The Audit Committee chair presides at the Audit Committee meetings, participates in formulating agendas for Audit Committee meetings, and coordinates with management to serve as a liaison between the Independent Trustees and management on matters within the scope of responsibilities of the Audit Committee as set forth in its Board-approved charter. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics and circumstances of the Trust, even though there is no Lead Independent Trustee. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the fact that the Independent Trustees of the Trust constitute a super-majority of the Board, the number of Independent Trustees that constitute the Board, the amount of assets under management in the Trust, and the number of funds overseen by the Board. The Board also believes that its leadership structure facilitates the orderly and efficient flow of information to the Independent Trustees from Fund management.
Additional information about each Trustee of the Trust is set forth below. The address of each Trustee of the Trust is c/o Tidal ETF Trust, 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758.

16



Name and
Year of Birth
Position Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served


Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee
Other Directorships Held by Trustee During Past 5 Years
Independent Trustees
Mark H.W. Baltimore
Born: 1967
Trustee
Indefinite term; since 2018
Co-Chief Executive Officer, Global Rhino, LLC (asset management consulting firm) (since 2018); Chief Executive Officer, Global Sight, LLC (asset management distribution consulting firm) (2016-2018); Head of Global Distribution Services, Foreside Financial Group, LLC (broker-dealer) (2016); Managing Director, Head of Global Distribution Services, Beacon Hill Fund Services (broker-dealer) (2015-2016); Vice President, Head of International Sales & Business Development, Charles Schwab & Company (asset management firm) (2014-2015).
6
None
Dusko Culafic
Born: 1958
Trustee
Indefinite term; since 2018
Senior Operational Due Diligence Analyst, Aurora Investment Management, LLC (2012-2018).
6
None
Eduardo Mendoza
Born: 1966
Trustee
Indefinite term; since 2018
Senior Strategic & Financial Advisor, Credijusto and Acrecent (financial technology companies) (since 2017); Founding Partner / Capital Markets & Head of Corporate Development, SQN Latina (specialty finance company) (2016-2017); Managing Director: Origination & Structuring, Securitization Group, BMO Capital Markets (2006-2015).
6
None
Interested Trustees
Eric W. Falkeis(1)
Born: 1973
President, Principal Executive Officer, Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary
President and Principal Executive Officer since 2019, Indefinite term; Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary since 2018, Indefinite term
Chief Executive Officer, Tidal ETF Services LLC (since 2018); Chief Operating Officer (and other positions), Rafferty Asset Management, LLC (2013-2018) and Direxion Advisors, LLC (2017-2018); Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (and other positions), U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (1997-2013).
6
Independent Director, Muzinich BDC, Inc. (since 2019); Trustee, Professionally Managed Portfolios (31 series) (since 2011); Interested Trustee, Direxion Funds, Direxion Shares ETF Trust, and Direxion Insurance Trust (2014-2018).
Ian C. Carroll, CFA(2)
Born: 1970 
Trustee
Indefinite term; since 2018
Head of Corporate Research, Aware Asset Management, Inc. (since 2018); Principal Corporate Credit Research Analyst, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota (insurance company) (since 2017); Credit Research Analyst (2013-2017).
6
None
(1) Mr. Falkeis is considered an “interested person” of the Trust due to his positions as President, Principal Executive Officer, Chairman and Secretary of the Trust and Chief Executive Officer of Tidal ETF Services LLC, an affiliate of the Adviser.
(2) Mr. Carroll is considered an “interested person” of the Trust due to his position as Head of Corporate Research of Aware Asset Management, Inc., a sub-adviser to a series of the Trust.
Individual Trustee Qualifications. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve on the Board because of their ability to review and understand information about the Fund provided to them by management, to identify and request other information they may deem relevant to the performance of their duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of the Fund, and to exercise their business judgment in

17



a manner that serves the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on his or her own experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills as described below.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Baltimore should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with the distribution of investment company securities and his experience with regulatory matters through his current position at Global Rhino, LLC and prior position at Global Sight, LLC, an asset management distribution consulting firm and his past experience with distribution activities at the parent company of the Trust’s Distributor (defined below). The Board believes Mr. Baltimore’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Culafic should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with investment management operations and his experience with financial, accounting, investment, and regulatory matters through his former position as Senior Operational Due Diligence Analyst of Aurora Investment Management, LLC, a fund-of-funds investment company.  The Board believes Mr. Culafic’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Mendoza should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with credit markets and finance and his experience with financial, accounting, investment, and regulatory matters through his former positions as Managing Director (and other positions) of BMO Capital Markets, an investment bank.  The Board believes Mr. Mendoza’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Falkeis should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial investment company experience and his experience with financial, accounting, investment, and regulatory matters through his former position as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (and other positions) of U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services (“Fund Services” or the “Transfer Agent”), a full service provider to ETFs, mutual funds, and alternative investment products.  In addition, he has experience consulting with investment advisors regarding the legal structure of mutual funds, distribution channel analysis, and actual distribution of those funds. Mr. Falkeis also has substantial managerial, operational, technological, and risk oversight related experience through his former position as Chief Operating Officer of the advisers to the Direxion mutual fund and ETF complex. The Board believes Mr. Falkeis’ experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Carroll should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with financial and investment matters through his position at Aware Asset Management, Inc., and his past experience with credit investment at the California Public Employees’ Retirement System. The Board believes Mr. Carroll’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
In its periodic assessment of the effectiveness of the Board, the Board considers the complementary individual skills and experience of the individual Trustees primarily in the broader context of the Board’s overall composition so that the Board, as a body, possesses the appropriate (and appropriately diverse) skills and experience to oversee the business of the Fund.
Board Committees. The Board has established the following standing committees of the Board:
Audit Committee . The Board has a standing Audit Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Audit Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee include: overseeing the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices and its internal controls; overseeing the quality, objectivity and integrity of the Trust’s financial statements and the independent audits thereof; monitoring the independent auditor’s qualifications, independence and performance; acting as a liaison between the Trust’s independent auditors and the full Board; pre-approving all auditing services to be performed for the Trust; reviewing the compensation and overseeing the work of the independent auditor (including resolution of disagreements between management and the independent auditor regarding financial reporting) for the purpose of preparing or issuing an audit report or related work; pre-approving all permitted non-audit services (including the fees and terms thereof) to be performed for the Trust; pre-approving all permitted non-audit services to be performed for any investment adviser or sub-adviser to the Trust by any of the Trust’s independent auditors if the engagement relates directly to the operations and financial reporting of the Trust; meeting with the Trust’s independent auditors as necessary to (i) review the arrangement for and scope of the annual audits and any special audits, (ii) discuss any matters of concern relating to the Fund’s financial statements, (iii) consider the independent auditors’ comments with respect to the Trust’s financial policies, procedures and internal accounting controls and Trust management’s responses thereto, and (iv) review the form of opinion the independent auditors propose to render to the Board and the Fund’s shareholders; discussing with management and the independent auditor significant financial reporting issues and judgments made in connection with the preparation of the Fund’s financial

18



statements; and reviewing and discussing reports from the independent auditors on (i) all critical accounting policies and practices to be used, (ii) all alternative treatments within generally accepted accounting principles for policies and practices related to material items that have been discussed with management, (iii) other material written communications between the independent auditor and management, including any management letter, schedule of unadjusted differences, or management representation letter, and (iv) all non-audit services provided to any entity in the Trust that were not pre-approved by the Committee; and reviewing disclosures made to the Committee by the Trust’s principal executive officer and principal accounting officer during their certification process for the Fund’s Form N-CSR. Each Independent Trustee currently serves as a member of the Audit Committee. As of the date of this SAI, the Audit Committee has met one time with respect to the Fund.
The Audit Committee also serves as the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee (“QLCC”) for the Trust for the purpose of compliance with Rules 205.2(k) and 205.3(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations, regarding alternative reporting procedures for attorneys retained or employed by an issuer who appear and practice before the SEC on behalf of the issuer (the “issuer attorneys”). An issuer attorney who becomes aware of evidence of a material violation by the Trust, or by any officer, director, employee, or agent of the Trust, may report evidence of such material violation to the QLCC as an alternative to the reporting requirements of Rule 205.3(b) (which requires reporting to the chief legal officer and potentially “up the ladder” to other entities).
Nominating Committee. The Board has a standing Nominating Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Nominating Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibility of the Nominating Committee is to identify, evaluate, and recommend candidates to fill vacancies on the Trust’s Board, if any. The Nominating Committee generally will not consider nominees recommended by shareholders. The Nominating Committee meets periodically, as necessary, but at least annually. The Nominating Committee met one time prior to the commencement of operations of the Fund.
Valuation Committee. The Board has delegated day-to-day valuation issues to a Valuation Committee that is comprised of certain officers of the Trust. Although the Valuation Committee is not a committee of the Board (i.e., committee members need not be a Trustee), the Valuation Committee’s membership is appointed by the Board and its charter and applicable procedures are approved by the Board. The function of the Valuation Committee is to value securities held by any series of the Trust for which current and reliable market quotations are not readily available. Such securities are valued at their respective fair values as determined in good faith by the Valuation Committee and the actions of the Valuation Committee are subsequently reviewed and ratified by the Board. The Valuation Committee meets as necessary.
Principal Officers of the Trust
The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise its daily business. The address of each officer of the Trust is c/o Tidal ETF Trust, 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758, unless otherwise indicated. Additional information about the Trust’s officers is as follows:
Name and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Eric W. Falkeis
Born: 1973
President, Principal Executive Officer, Interested Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary
President and Principal Executive Officer since 2019, Indefinite term; Interested Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary since 2018, Indefinite term
Chief Executive Officer, Tidal ETF Services LLC (since 2018); Chief Operating Officer (and other positions), Rafferty Asset Management, LLC (2013-2018) and Direxion Advisors, LLC (2017-2018); Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (and other positions), U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (1997-2013).
Daniel H. Carlson
Born: 1955
Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer
Indefinite term; since 2018
Chief Financial Officer, Chief Compliance Officer, and Managing Member, Toroso Investments, LLC (since 2012).
Bridget P. Garcia, Esq.
c/o Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC
480 E. Swedesford Road, Suite 220
Wayne, PA 19087
Born: 1985
Chief Compliance Officer
Indefinite term; since 2018
Compliance Manager, Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC (since 2017); Senior Associate, Central Compliance - Risk Management Group (2016-2017), Client Services Associate (2014-2016), Corporate Operations Group - Business Services Admin (2010-2014), Macquarie Group (global financial services firm).

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Name and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Aaron J. Perkovich
c/o U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Born: 1973
Assistant Treasurer
Indefinite term; since 2018
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2006).
Cory R. Akers
c/o U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Born: 1978

Assistant Secretary
Indefinite term; since 2019
Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2006).
Trustee Ownership of Shares. The Fund is required to show the dollar amount ranges of each Trustee’s “beneficial ownership” of Shares and each other series of the Trust as of the end of the most recently completed calendar year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Act”).
As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not commenced operations and, therefore, no Trustee or officer of the Trust owned Shares.
Board Compensation. The Independent Trustees each receive $2,500 for each meeting attended, as well as reimbursement for travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with serving as a Trustee. Effective January 1, 2020, each Independent Trustee will receive $4,500 for each in-person meeting attended and $1,000 for each telephonic meeting attended, as well as reimbursement for travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with serving as a Trustee. The Trust has no pension or retirement plan.
The following table shows the compensation estimated to be earned by each Trustee for the Fund’s current fiscal year ending October 31, 2020. Independent Trustee fees are paid by the Adviser or Sub-Adviser to each series of the Trust and not by the Fund. Trustee compensation shown below does not include reimbursed out-of-pocket expenses in connection with attendance at meetings.
 Name
Aggregate Compensation From Fund
Total Compensation From Fund Complex Paid to Trustees
Interested Trustees
Eric W. Falkeis
$0
$0
Ian C. Carroll
$0
$0
Independent Trustees
Mark H.W. Baltimore
$0
$18,000
Dusko Culafic
$0
$18,000
Eduardo Mendoza
$0
$18,000
Principal Shareholders, Control Persons, and Management Ownership
A principal shareholder is any person who owns of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding Shares. A control person is a shareholder that owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control. Shareholders owning voting securities in excess of 25% may determine the outcome of any matter affecting and voted on by shareholders of a Fund. As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not yet commenced operations and no Shares were outstanding.
Codes of Ethics
The Trust, the Adviser, and the Sub-Adviser have each adopted codes of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act. These codes of ethics are designed to prevent affiliated persons of the Trust, the Adviser, and the Sub-Adviser from engaging in deceptive, manipulative or fraudulent activities in connection with securities held or to be acquired by the Fund (which may also be held by persons subject to the codes of ethics). Each code of ethics permits personnel subject to that code of ethics to invest in securities for their personal investment accounts, subject to certain limitations, including limitations related to securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund. The Distributor (as defined below) relies on the principal underwriters exception under Rule 17j-1(c)(3), specifically where the Distributor is not affiliated with the Trust, the Adviser, or the Sub-Adviser, and no officer, director, or general partner of the Distributor serves as an officer, director, or general partner of the Trust, the Adviser, or the Sub-Adviser.
There can be no assurance that the codes of ethics will be effective in preventing such activities. Each code of ethics may be examined at the office of the SEC in Washington, D.C. or on the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

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Proxy Voting Policies
The Fund has delegated proxy voting responsibilities to the Adviser, subject to the Board’s oversight. In delegating proxy responsibilities, the Board has directed that proxies be voted consistent with the Fund’s and its shareholders’ best interests and in compliance with all applicable proxy voting rules and regulations. The Adviser has further delegated such responsibility to the Sub-Adviser. The Sub-Adviser has adopted proxy voting policies and guidelines for this purpose (“Proxy Voting Policies”), which have been adopted by the Trust as the policies and procedures that the Sub-Adviser will use when voting proxies on behalf of the Fund.
Under the Proxy Voting Policies, the Sub-Adviser intends to vote corporate proxies and other corporate actions on behalf of the Fund. The Sub-Adviser will generally vote proxies relating to routine matters consistent with the recommendations of the company’s management unless the Sub-Adviser determines that it is in the best interest of the Fund to do otherwise. Routine matters include, without limitation, routine election of directors (where no corporate governance issues are implicated), the selection of auditors, and increases of common stock. For all non-routine matters, the Sub-Adviser will consider the proxy proposal on a case-by-case basis taking into account various factors, including the analysis, research, and recommendation provided by a third-party proxy service, whether the proposal was recommended by management, and other factors it deems relevant. The Sub-Adviser may abstain from voting if, based on factors such as the expense or difficulty of voting, the Sub-Adviser determines that the Fund’s interests are better served by not voting. In the event that a conflict of interest is identified in connection with voting a particular proxy, a special committee will be assembled and determine the appropriate actions with respect to voting the proxy.
The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer is responsible for monitoring the effectiveness of the Proxy Voting Policies.
When available, information on how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 will be available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling 833-540-0039 and (2) on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Investment Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC, 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758, serves as investment adviser to the Fund and has overall responsibility for the general management and administration of the Fund.
Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”), the Adviser provides investment advice to the Fund and oversees the day-to-day operations of the Fund, subject to the direction and control of the Board. Under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser is also responsible for arranging sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other related services necessary for the Fund to operate. The Adviser administers the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping, and administrative services. Under the Advisory Agreement, in exchange for a single unitary management fee, the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses incurred by the Fund except for the Excluded Expenses, as defined in the Prospectus. For services provided to the Fund, the Fund pays the Adviser a unified management fee at an annual rate of 0.50% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. The Adviser has contractually agreed to waive 3 basis points (0.03%) of its unified management fee for the Fund until at least February 28, 2021. The fee waiver agreement may be terminated only by, or with the consent of, the Board, on behalf of the Fund, upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to the Adviser.
The Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in force for an initial period of two years. Thereafter, the Advisory Agreement will be renewable from year to year with respect to the Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Adviser or the Trust; and (2) by the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Advisory Agreement automatically terminates on assignment and is terminable on a 60-day written notice either by the Trust or the Adviser.
The Adviser shall not be liable to the Trust or any shareholder for anything done or omitted by it, except acts or omissions involving willful misfeasance, bad faith, negligence or reckless disregard of the duties imposed upon it by its agreement with the Trust or for any losses that may be sustained in the purchase, holding, or sale of any security.
Investment Sub-Adviser
CSat Investment Advisory, L.P., doing business as Exponential ETFs (“Exponential” or “Sub-Adviser”), a Delaware limited partnership located at 625 Avis Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108, serves as the investment sub-adviser to the Fund.

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Pursuant to a Sub-Advisory Agreement between the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser (the “Sub-Advisory Agreement”), the Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities on behalf of the Fund, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions as instructed by the Adviser, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For its services, the Sub-Adviser is paid a fee by the Adviser, which fee is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of 0.03% of the Fund’s average daily net assets.
The Sub-Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in force for an initial period of two years after the date of its approval. Thereafter, the Sub-Advisory Agreement will be renewable from year to year with respect to the Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust; and (2) by the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Sub-Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment, and is terminable at any time, without penalty, by the Board, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, or by the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund, on 60 days’ written notice to the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser, or by the Adviser or Sub-Adviser on 60 days’ written notice to the Trust and the other party. The Sub-Advisory Agreement provides that the Sub-Adviser shall not be protected against any liability to the Trust or its shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on its part in the performance of its duties or from reckless disregard of its obligations or duties thereunder.
The Fund is new, and the Adviser has not paid fees to the Sub-Adviser as of the date of this SAI.
Portfolio Managers
The Fund is managed by Michael Venuto, Chief Investment Officer of the Adviser, and Charles Ragauss, CFA, Director of Product Management for the Sub-Adviser.
Other Accounts. In addition to the Fund, the portfolio managers managed the following other accounts as of September 30, 2019, none of which were subject to a performance-based management fee:
Michael Venuto
Type of Accounts
Total Number of Accounts
Total Assets of Accounts
Registered Investment Companies
7
$332,529,122
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles
0
$0
Other Accounts
543
$252,515,108
Charles Ragauss
Type of Accounts
Total Number of Accounts
Total Assets of Accounts
Registered Investment Companies
11
$394,107,600
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles
0
$0
Other Accounts
0
$0
Portfolio Manager Fund Ownership. The Fund is required to show the dollar range of each portfolio manager’s “beneficial ownership” of Shares as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act. No portfolio manager beneficially owned any shares of the Fund as of the date of this SAI.
Portfolio Manager Compensation. Mr. Venuto is compensated by the Adviser with a base salary and a profit sharing plan. He is not directly compensated for his work with respect to the Fund. Mr. Venuto is an equity owner of the Adviser and therefore benefits indirectly from the revenue generated from the Fund’s Investment Advisory Agreement with the Adviser. Mr. Ragauss is compensated by the Sub-Adviser with a fixed salary and discretionary bonus based on the financial performance and profitability of Sub-Adviser and not based on the performance of the Fund. He is also eligible for deferred compensation.
Description of Material Conflicts of Interest. The Adviser’s and Sub-Adviser’s management of “other accounts” may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with its management of the Fund’s investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the other accounts, on the other. The other accounts may have similar investment objectives or strategies as the Fund. A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result, whereby the portfolio manager could favor one account over another. Another potential conflict could include the portfolio manager’s knowledge about the size, timing, and possible market impact of Fund trades, whereby the portfolio manager could use this information to the advantage of other accounts and to the disadvantage of the Fund. However, the Adviser and Sub-Adviser have each established policies and procedures to ensure that the purchase and sale of securities among all accounts the firm manages are fairly and equitably allocated.

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The Distributor
The Trust and Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) are parties to a distribution agreement (“Distribution Agreement”), whereby the Distributor acts as principal underwriter for the Trust and distributes Shares on a best efforts basis. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Distributor only in Creation Units. The Distributor will not distribute Shares in amounts less than a Creation Unit and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The principal business address of the Distributor is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.
Under the Distribution Agreement, the Distributor, as agent for the Trust, will review orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units, provided that any subscriptions and orders will not be binding on the Trust until accepted by the Trust. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the 1934 Act and a member of FINRA.
The Distributor may also enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of Shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) or DTC participants (as defined below).
The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable annually thereafter. The continuance of the Distribution Agreement must be specifically approved at least annually (i) by the vote of the Trustees or by a vote of the shareholders of the Fund and (ii) by the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operations of the Distribution Agreement or any related agreement, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Distribution Agreement is terminable without penalty by the Trust on 60 days’ written notice when authorized either by majority vote of its outstanding voting Shares or by a vote of a majority of its Board (including a majority of the Independent Trustees), or by the Distributor on 60 days’ written notice, and will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Distribution Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Distributor, or reckless disregard by it of its obligations thereunder, the Distributor shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.
Intermediary Compensation. The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or their affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of Fund assets (i.e., without additional cost to the Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”) for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing and educational training or support. These arrangements are not financed by the Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of the Fund’s Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of Shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of Shares.
Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to the Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). The Adviser and Sub-Adviser will periodically assess the advisability of continuing to make these payments. Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend the Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professional if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.
Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, or their affiliates to an Intermediary may create the incentive for an Intermediary to encourage customers to buy Shares.
If you have any additional questions, please call 833-540-0039.
Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan. The Trust has adopted a Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan (the “Plan”) in accordance with the provisions of Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, which regulates circumstances under which an investment company may directly or indirectly bear expenses relating to the distribution of its shares. No payments pursuant to the Plan are expected to be made during the twelve (12) month period from the date of this SAI. Rule 12b-1 fees to be paid by the Fund under the Plan may only be imposed after approval by the Board.
Continuance of the Plan must be approved annually by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust and have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan or in any agreements related to the Plan (“Disinterested Trustees”). The Plan may be continued from year-to-year only if the Board, including a majority of the Disinterested Trustees, concludes at least annually that continuation of the Plan is likely to benefit

23



shareholders. The Board has determined that the Plan is likely to benefit the Fund by providing an incentive for brokers, dealers and other financial intermediaries to engage in sales and marketing efforts on behalf of the Fund and to provide enhanced services to shareholders. The Board also determined that the Plan may enhance the Fund’s ability to sell shares and access important distribution channels. The Plan requires that quarterly written reports of amounts spent under the Plan and the purposes of such expenditures be furnished to and reviewed by the Trustees. The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount that may be spent thereunder without approval by a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund. All material amendments of the Plan will require approval by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and of the Disinterested Trustees.
The Plan provides that the Fund pays the Distributor an annual fee of up to a maximum of 0.25% of the average daily net assets of the Shares. Under the Plan, the Distributor may make payments pursuant to written agreements to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations and insurance companies including, without limit, investment counselors, broker-dealers and the Distributor’s affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively, “Agents”) as compensation for services and reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Plan is characterized as a compensation plan since the distribution fee will be paid to the Distributor without regard to the distribution expenses incurred by the Distributor or the amount of payments made to other financial institutions and intermediaries. The Trust intends to operate the Plan in accordance with its terms and with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) rules concerning sales charges.
Under the Plan, subject to the limitations of applicable law and regulations, the Fund is authorized to compensate the Distributor up to the maximum amount to finance any activity primarily intended to result in the sale of Creation Units of the Fund or for providing or arranging for others to provide shareholder services and for the maintenance of shareholder accounts. Such activities may include, but are not limited to: (i) delivering copies of the Fund’s then current reports, prospectuses, notices, and similar materials, to prospective purchasers of Creation Units; (ii) marketing and promotional services, including advertising; (iii) paying the costs of and compensating others, including Authorized Participants with whom the Distributor has entered into written Authorized Participant Agreements, for performing shareholder servicing on behalf of the Fund; (iv) compensating certain Authorized Participants for providing assistance in distributing the Creation Units of the Fund, including the travel and communication expenses and salaries and/or commissions of sales personnel in connection with the distribution of the Creation Units of the Fund; (v) payments to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies and investment counselors, broker-dealers, mutual fund supermarkets and the affiliates and subsidiaries of the Trust’s service providers as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance; (vi) facilitating communications with beneficial owners of Shares, including the cost of providing (or paying others to provide) services to beneficial owners of Shares, including, but not limited to, assistance in answering inquiries related to Shareholder accounts; and (vi) such other services and obligations as are set forth in the Distribution Agreement.
Administrator
Tidal ETF Services LLC (“Tidal”), an affiliate of the Adviser, serves as the Fund’s administrator. Tidal is located at 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758. Pursuant to a Fund Administration Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Tidal, Tidal provides the Trust with, or arranges for, administrative and management services (other than investment advisory services) to be provided to the Trust and the Board. Pursuant to the Fund Administration Servicing Agreement, officers or employees of Tidal serve as the Trust’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, Tidal coordinates the payment of Fund-related expenses, and Tidal manages the Trust’s relationships with its various service providers. As compensation for the services it provides, Tidal receives a fee based on the Fund’s average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee. Tidal also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses for the services mentioned above.
The Fund is new, and Tidal has not received any fees for administrative services to the Fund as of the date of this SAI.
Sub-Administrator and Transfer Agent
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, located at 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as the Fund’s sub-administrator and transfer agent.
Pursuant to a Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement and a Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Fund Services, Fund Services provides the Trust with administrative and management services (other than investment advisory services) and accounting services, including portfolio accounting services, tax accounting services and furnishing financial reports. In this capacity, Fund Services does not have any responsibility or authority for the management of the Fund, the determination of investment policy, or for any matter pertaining to the distribution of Shares. As compensation for the administration, accounting and management services, the Adviser pays Fund Services a fee based on the Fund’s average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee. Fund Services also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses for the services mentioned above, including pricing expenses.
The Fund is new, and Fund Services has not received any fees for administrative services to the Fund as of the date of this SAI.

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Custodian
Pursuant to a Custody Agreement, U.S. Bank National Association (“U.S. Bank”), 1555 North Rivercenter Drive, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212, serves as the custodian (the “Custodian”) of the Fund’s assets. U.S. Bank is the parent company of Fund Services. The Custodian holds and administers the assets in the Fund’s portfolios. Pursuant to the Custody Agreement, the Custodian receives an annual fee from the Adviser based on the Trust’s total average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee, and certain settlement charges. The Custodian also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses.
Compliance Services Administrator
The Trust has entered into a compliance services arrangement with Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC (“Cipperman”), located at 480 E. Swedesford Road, Suite 300, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, pursuant to which Bridget P. Garcia, an employee of Cipperman, serves as the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer will prepare and update the Trust’s compliance policies and procedures and monitor and test compliance with such policies and procedures.
Legal Counsel
Godfrey & Kahn, S.C., located at 833 East Michigan Street, Suite 1800, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as legal counsel for the Trust and the Independent Trustees.
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Tait, Weller & Baker LLP, located at Two Liberty Place, 50 S. 16th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, serves as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund.
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures
The Board has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Fund’s security holdings. The Fund’s entire portfolio holdings are publicly disseminated each day the Fund is open for business and through financial reporting and news services including publicly available internet web sites. In addition, the composition of the Deposit Securities is publicly disseminated daily prior to the opening of the Exchange via the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”).
Description of Shares
The Declaration of Trust authorizes the issuance of an unlimited number of funds and Shares. Each Share represents an equal proportionate interest in the Fund with each other Share. Shares are entitled upon liquidation to a pro rata share in the net assets of the Fund. Shareholders have no preemptive rights. The Declaration of Trust provides that the Trustees may create additional series or classes of shares. All consideration received by the Trust for Shares of any additional funds and all assets in which such consideration is invested would belong to that fund and would be subject to the liabilities related thereto. Share certificates representing Shares will not be issued. Shares, when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable.
Each Share has one vote with respect to matters upon which a shareholder vote is required, consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder. Shares of all funds of the Trust vote together as a single class, except that if the matter being voted on affects only a particular fund it will be voted on only by that fund and if a matter affects a particular fund differently from other funds, that fund will vote separately on such matter. As a Delaware statutory trust, the Trust is not required, and does not intend, to hold annual meetings of shareholders. Approval of shareholders will be sought, however, for certain changes in the operation of the Trust and for the election of Trustees under certain circumstances. The Trust will call for a meeting of shareholders to consider the removal of one or more Trustees and other certain matters upon the written request of shareholders holding at least a majority of the outstanding shares of the Trust entitled to vote at such meeting. In the event that such a meeting is requested, the Trust will provide appropriate assistance and information to the shareholders requesting the meeting.
Under the Declaration of Trust, the Trustees have the power to liquidate the Fund without shareholder approval. While the Trustees have no present intention of exercising this power, they may do so if the Fund fails to reach a viable size within a reasonable amount of time or for such other reasons as may be determined by the Board.
Limitation of Trustees’ Liability
The Declaration of Trust provides that a Trustee shall be liable only for his or her own willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee, and shall not be liable for errors of judgment or mistakes of fact or law. The Declaration of Trust also provides that the Trust shall indemnify each person who is, or has been, a Trustee, officer, employee or agent of the Trust, and, upon due approval of the Trustees, any person who is serving or has served at the Trust’s request as a director, officer, partner, trustee, employee, agent or fiduciary of another organization with respect to any alleged acts or omissions while acting within the scope of his or her service in such a position. However, nothing in the Declaration of Trust shall protect or indemnify a Trustee against any liability for his or her willful misfeasance, bad faith,

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gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee. Nothing contained in this section attempts to disclaim a Trustee’s individual liability in any manner inconsistent with the federal securities laws.
Brokerage Transactions
The policy of the Trust regarding purchases and sales of securities for the Fund is that primary consideration will be given to obtaining the most favorable prices and efficient executions of transactions. Consistent with this policy, when securities transactions are effected on a stock exchange, the Trust’s policy is to pay commissions which are considered fair and reasonable without necessarily determining that the lowest possible commissions are paid in all circumstances. The Trust believes that a requirement always to seek the lowest possible commission cost could impede effective portfolio management and preclude the Fund and the Sub-Adviser from obtaining a high quality of brokerage and research services. In seeking to determine the reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid in any transaction, the Sub-Adviser will rely upon its experience and knowledge regarding commissions generally charged by various brokers and on its judgment in evaluating the brokerage services received from the broker effecting the transaction. Such determinations are necessarily subjective and imprecise, as in most cases, an exact dollar value for those services is not ascertainable. The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of Shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.
The Sub-Adviser owes a fiduciary duty to its clients to seek to provide best execution on trades effected. In selecting a broker/dealer for each specific transaction, the Sub-Adviser chooses the broker/dealer deemed most capable of providing the services necessary to obtain the most favorable execution. “Best execution” is generally understood to mean the most favorable cost or net proceeds reasonably obtainable under the circumstances. The full range of brokerage services applicable to a particular transaction may be considered when making this judgment, which may include, but is not limited to: liquidity, price, commission, timing, aggregated trades, capable floor brokers or traders, competent block trading coverage, ability to position, capital strength and stability, reliable and accurate communications and settlement processing, use of automation, knowledge of other buyers or sellers, arbitrage skills, administrative ability, underwriting and provision of information on a particular security or market in which the transaction is to occur. The specific criteria will vary depending upon the nature of the transaction, the market in which it is executed, and the extent to which it is possible to select from among multiple broker/dealers. The Sub-Adviser will also use electronic crossing networks (“ECNs”) when appropriate.
Subject to the foregoing policies, brokers or dealers selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions may include the Fund’s Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units - Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) or their affiliates. An Authorized Participant or its affiliates may be selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions in conjunction with an all-cash Creation Unit order or an order including “cash-in-lieu” (as described below under “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units”), so long as such selection is in keeping with the foregoing policies. As described below under “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units-Creation Transaction Fee” and “-Redemption Transaction Fee”, the Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for creation orders that facilitate the rebalance of the Fund’s portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order, even if the decision to not charge a variable fee could be viewed as benefiting the Authorized Participant or its affiliate selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions in connection with such orders.
The Sub-Adviser may use the Fund’s assets for, or participate in, third-party soft dollar arrangements, in addition to receiving proprietary research from various full-service brokers, the cost of which is bundled with the cost of the broker’s execution services. The Sub-Adviser does not “pay up” for the value of any such proprietary research. Section 28(e) of the 1934 Act permits the Sub-Adviser, under certain circumstances, to cause the Fund to pay a broker or dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting the transaction in recognition of the value of brokerage and research services provided by the broker or dealer. The Sub-Adviser may receive a variety of research services and information on many topics, which it can use in connection with its management responsibilities with respect to the various accounts over which it exercises investment discretion or otherwise provides investment advice. The research services may include qualifying order management systems, portfolio attribution and monitoring services and computer software and access charges which are directly related to investment research. Accordingly, the Fund may pay a broker commission higher than the lowest available in recognition of the broker’s provision of such services to the Sub-Adviser, but only if the Sub-Adviser determines the total commission (including the soft dollar benefit) is comparable to the best commission rate that could be expected to be received from other brokers. The amount of soft dollar benefits received depends on the amount of brokerage transactions effected with the brokers. A conflict of interest exists because there is an incentive to: 1) cause clients to pay a higher commission than the firm might otherwise be able to negotiate; 2) cause clients to engage in more securities transactions than would otherwise be optimal; and 3) only recommend brokers that provide soft dollar benefits.
The Sub-Adviser faces a potential conflict of interest when it uses client trades to obtain brokerage or research services. This conflict exists because the Sub-Adviser can use the brokerage or research services to manage client accounts without paying cash for such services, which reduces the Sub-Adviser’s expenses to the extent that the Sub-Adviser would have purchased such products had they not been provided by brokers. Section 28(e) permits the Sub-Adviser to use brokerage or research services for the benefit

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of any account it manages. Certain accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser may generate soft dollars used to purchase brokerage or research services that ultimately benefit other accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser, effectively cross subsidizing the other accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser that benefit directly from the product. The Sub-Adviser may not necessarily use all of the brokerage or research services in connection with managing the Fund whose trades generated the soft dollars used to purchase such products.
The Sub-Adviser is responsible, subject to oversight by the Adviser and the Board, for placing orders on behalf of the Fund for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities. If purchases or sales of portfolio securities of the Fund and one or more other investment companies or clients supervised by the Sub-Adviser are considered at or about the same time, transactions in such securities are allocated among the several investment companies and clients in a manner deemed equitable and consistent with its fiduciary obligations to all by the Sub-Adviser. In some cases, this procedure could have a detrimental effect on the price or volume of the security so far as the Fund is concerned. However, in other cases, it is possible that the ability to participate in volume transactions and to negotiate lower brokerage commissions will be beneficial to the Fund. The primary consideration is prompt execution of orders at the most favorable net price.
The Fund may deal with affiliates in principal transactions to the extent permitted by exemptive order or applicable rule or regulation.
The Fund is new and had not paid any brokerage commissions as of the date of this SAI.
Brokerage with Fund Affiliates. The Fund may execute brokerage or other agency transactions through registered broker-dealer affiliates of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, or the Distributor for a commission in conformity with the 1940 Act, the 1934 Act and rules promulgated by the SEC. These rules require that commissions paid to the affiliate by the Fund for exchange transactions not exceed “usual and customary” brokerage commissions. The rules define “usual and customary” commissions to include amounts which are “reasonable and fair compared to the commission, fee or other remuneration received or to be received by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities being purchased or sold on a securities exchange during a comparable period of time.” The Trustees, including those who are not “interested persons” of the Fund, have adopted procedures for evaluating the reasonableness of commissions paid to affiliates and review these procedures periodically.
Securities of “Regular Broker-Dealers.” The Fund is required to identify any securities of its “regular brokers and dealers” (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act) that it may hold at the close of its most recent fiscal year. “Regular brokers or dealers” of the Fund are the ten brokers or dealers that, during the most recent fiscal year: (i) received the greatest dollar amounts of brokerage commissions from the Fund’s portfolio transactions; (ii) engaged as principal in the largest dollar amounts of portfolio transactions of the Fund; or (iii) sold the largest dollar amounts of Shares. Because the Fund is new, as of the date of this SAI, the Fund does not hold any securities of “regular broker dealers.”
Portfolio Turnover Rate
A portfolio turnover rate is, in summary, the percentage computed by dividing the lesser of the Fund’s purchases or sales of securities (excluding short-term securities and securities transferred in-kind) by the average market value of the Fund. A rate of 100% indicates that the equivalent of all of the Fund’s assets have been sold and reinvested in a year. High portfolio turnover may affect the amount, timing and character of distributions, and, as a result, may increase the amount of taxes payable by shareholders. Higher portfolio turnover also results in higher transaction costs. To the extent that net short-term capital gains are realized by the Fund, any distributions resulting from such gains are considered ordinary income for federal income tax purposes. The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI. Therefore, there is no portfolio turnover rate for the Fund to report at this time.
Book Entry Only System
The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as securities depositary for Shares. Shares are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC. Except in limited circumstances set forth below, certificates will not be issued for Shares.
DTC is a limited-purpose trust company that was created to hold securities of its participants (the “DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).
Beneficial ownership of Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants, and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred

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to herein as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of Shares. The Trust recognizes DTC or its nominee as the record owner of all Shares for all purposes. Beneficial Owners of Shares are not entitled to have Shares registered in their names, and will not receive or be entitled to physical delivery of Share certificates. Each Beneficial Owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and any DTC Participant and/or Indirect Participant through which such Beneficial Owner holds its interests, to exercise any rights of a holder of Shares.
Conveyance of all notices, statements, and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. DTC will make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee a listing of Shares held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall obtain from each such DTC Participant the number of Beneficial Owners holding Shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement, or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
Share distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Shares. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall credit immediately DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the Fund as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.
The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in Shares, or for maintaining, supervising, or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.
DTC may determine to discontinue providing its service with respect to the Fund at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Fund and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Fund shall take action either to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost or, if such replacement is unavailable, to issue and deliver printed certificates representing ownership of Shares, unless the Trust makes other arrangements with respect thereto satisfactory to the Exchange.
Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units
The Trust issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Transfer Agent, without a sales load (but subject to transaction fees, if applicable), at their NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order, on any Business Day, in proper form pursuant to the terms of the Authorized Participant Agreement (“Participant Agreement”). The NAV of Shares is calculated each business day as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE, generally 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time. The Fund will not issue fractional Creation Units. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business.
Fund Deposit. The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit of the Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) per each Creation Unit, constituting a substantial replication of the securities included in the Fund’s portfolio and the Cash Component (defined below), computed as described below. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount (“Deposit Cash”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. When accepting purchases of Creation Units for all or a portion of Deposit Cash, the Fund may incur additional costs associated with the acquisition of Deposit Securities that would otherwise be provided by an in-kind purchaser.
Together, the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit,” which represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit of the Fund. The “Cash Component” is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of Shares (per Creation Unit) and the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. If the Cash Component is a positive number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit exceeds the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such positive amount. If the Cash Component is a negative number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit is less than the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such negative amount and the creator will be entitled to receive cash in an amount equal to the Cash Component. The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the NAV per Creation Unit and the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. Computation of the Cash Component excludes any stamp duty or other

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similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Securities, if applicable, which shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant (as defined below).
The Fund, through NSCC, makes available on each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the list of the names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, to be included in the current Fund Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund. Such Fund Deposit is subject to any applicable adjustments as described below, to effect purchases of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced composition of the Deposit Securities or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, is made available.
The identity and number of Shares of the Deposit Securities or the amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, required for a Fund Deposit for the Fund changes as corporate action events are reflected from time to time by the Sub-Adviser with a view to the investment objective of the Fund.
The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of Deposit Cash to replace any Deposit Security, which shall be added to the Cash Component, including, without limitation, in situations where the Deposit Security: (i) may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery; (ii) may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC for corporate securities and municipal securities; (iii) may not be eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant (as defined below) or the investor for which it is acting; (iv) would be restricted under the securities laws or where the delivery of the Deposit Security to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of the Deposit Security by the Authorized Participant becoming restricted under the securities laws; or (v) in certain other situations (collectively, “custom orders”). The adjustments described above will reflect changes, known to the Sub-Adviser on the date of announcement to be in effect by the time of delivery of the Fund Deposit, resulting from certain corporate actions.
Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units. To be eligible to place orders with the Transfer Agent to purchase a Creation Unit of the Fund, an entity must be (i) a “Participating Party”, i.e., a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC (the “Clearing Process”), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC; or (ii) a DTC Participant (see “Book Entry Only System”). In addition, each Participating Party or DTC Participant (each, an “Authorized Participant”) must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor, and that has been accepted by the Transfer Agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Each Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of a Participant Agreement, on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including that it will pay to the Trust, an amount of cash sufficient to pay the Cash Component together with the creation transaction fee (described below), if applicable, and any other applicable fees and taxes.
All orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund must be placed for one or more Creation Units and in the manner and by the time set forth in the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form. The order cut-off time for orders to purchase Creation Units is expected to be 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, which time may be modified by the Fund from time-to-time by amendment to the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form. The date on which an order to purchase Creation Units (or an order to redeem Creation Units, as set forth below) is received and accepted is referred to as the “Order Placement Date.”
An Authorized Participant may require an investor to make certain representations or enter into agreements with respect to the order (e.g., to provide for payments of cash, when required). Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed a Participant Agreement and that, therefore, orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund in Creation Units must be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant that has executed a Participant Agreement. In such cases there may be additional charges to such investor. At any given time, there may be only a limited number of broker-dealers that have executed a Participant Agreement and only a small number of such Authorized Participants may have international capabilities.
On days when the Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to create Creation Units to be placed earlier in the day. In addition, if a market or markets on which the Fund’s investments are primarily traded is closed, the Fund will also generally not accept orders on such day(s). Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Transfer Agent pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement and in accordance with the applicable order form. On behalf of the Fund, the Transfer Agent will notify the Custodian of such order. The Custodian will then provide such information to the appropriate local sub-custodian(s). Those placing orders through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Transfer Agent by the cut-off time on such Business Day. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure may impede the ability to reach the Transfer Agent or an Authorized Participant.
Fund Deposits must be delivered by an Authorized Participant through the Federal Reserve System (for cash) or through DTC (for corporate securities), through a subcustody agent (for foreign securities) and/or through such other arrangements allowed by the Trust or its agents. With respect to foreign Deposit Securities, the Custodian shall cause the sub-custodian of the Fund to maintain an account into which the Authorized Participant shall deliver, on behalf of itself or the party on whose behalf it is acting, such Deposit Securities (or Deposit Cash for all or a part of such securities, as permitted or required), with any appropriate adjustments as advised by the Trust. Foreign Deposit Securities must be delivered to an account maintained at the applicable local

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sub-custodian. The Fund Deposit transfer must be ordered by the Authorized Participant in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of the requisite number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, to the account of the Fund or its agents by no later than 12:00 p.m. Eastern Time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive all of the Deposit Securities, or the required Deposit Cash in lieu thereof, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. The “Settlement Date” for the Fund is generally the second Business Day after the Order Placement Date. All questions as to the number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash to be delivered, as applicable, and the validity, form and eligibility (including time of receipt) for the deposit of any tendered securities or cash, as applicable, will be determined by the Trust, whose determination shall be final and binding. The amount of cash represented by the Cash Component must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than the Settlement Date. If the Cash Component and the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, are not received by the Custodian in a timely manner by the Settlement Date, the creation order may be cancelled. Upon written notice to the Transfer Agent, such canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day using a Fund Deposit as newly constituted to reflect the then current NAV of the Fund.
The order shall be deemed to be received on the Business Day on which the order is placed provided that the order is placed in proper form prior to the applicable cut-off time and the federal funds in the appropriate amount are deposited by 2:00 p.m. or 3:00 p.m., Eastern Time (as set forth on the applicable order form), with the Custodian on the Settlement Date. If the order is not placed in proper form as required, or federal funds in the appropriate amount are not received by 2:00 p.m. or 3:00 p.m., Eastern Time (as set forth on the applicable order form) on the Settlement Date, then the order may be deemed to be rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. A creation request is considered to be in “proper form” if all procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement, order form and this SAI are properly followed.
Issuance of a Creation Unit. Except as provided in this SAI, Creation Units will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Trust of the Deposit Securities or payment of Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When the sub-custodian has confirmed to the Custodian that the required Deposit Securities (or the cash value thereof) have been delivered to the account of the relevant sub-custodian or sub-custodians, the Transfer Agent and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Trust will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Units. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the second Business Day following the day on which the purchase order is deemed received by the Transfer Agent. However, as discussed in Appendix A, the Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than the second Business Day following the day on which the purchase order is deemed received by the Transfer Agent to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances. The Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting from unsettled orders.
Creation Units may be purchased in advance of receipt by the Trust of all or a portion of the applicable Deposit Securities as described below. In these circumstances, the initial deposit will have a value greater than the NAV of Shares on the date the order is placed in proper form since, in addition to available Deposit Securities, cash must be deposited in an amount equal to the sum of (i) the Cash Component, plus (ii) an additional amount of cash equal to a percentage of the value as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the undelivered Deposit Securities (the “Additional Cash Deposit”), which shall be maintained in a separate non-interest bearing collateral account. The Authorized Participant must deposit with the Custodian the Additional Cash Deposit, as applicable, by 12:00 p.m. Eastern Time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive the Additional Cash Deposit in the appropriate amount, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. An additional amount of cash shall be required to be deposited with the Trust, pending delivery of the missing Deposit Securities to the extent necessary to maintain the Additional Cash Deposit with the Trust in an amount at least equal to the applicable percentage, as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the daily market value of the missing Deposit Securities. The Participant Agreement will permit the Trust to buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time. Authorized Participants will be liable to the Trust for the costs incurred by the Trust in connection with any such purchases. These costs will be deemed to include the amount by which the actual purchase price of the Deposit Securities exceeds the value of such Deposit Securities on the day the purchase order was deemed received by the Transfer Agent plus the brokerage and related transaction costs associated with such purchases. The Trust will return any unused portion of the Additional Cash Deposit once all of the missing Deposit Securities have been properly received by the Custodian or purchased by the Trust and deposited into the Trust. In addition, a transaction fee, as described below under “Creation Transaction Fee” may be charged. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the Settlement Date.
Acceptance of Orders of Creation Units. The Trust reserves the absolute right to reject an order for Creation Units transmitted to it by the Transfer Agent with respect to the Fund including, without limitation, if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, delivered by the Participant are not as disseminated through the facilities of the NSCC for that date by the Custodian; (c) the investor(s), upon obtaining Shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding Shares; (d) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (e) the

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acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (f) the acceptance of the Fund Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust or the Adviser, have an adverse effect on the Trust or the rights of beneficial owners; (g) the acceptance or receipt of the order for a Creation Unit would, in the opinion of counsel to the Trust, be unlawful; or (h) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Custodian, the Transfer Agent and/or the Adviser make it for all practical purposes not feasible to process orders for Creation Units.
Examples of such circumstances include acts of God or public service or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, the Custodian, a sub-custodian, the Transfer Agent, DTC, NSCC, Federal Reserve System, or any other participant in the creation process, and other extraordinary events. The Transfer Agent shall notify a prospective creator of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of the creator of a Creation Unit of its rejection of the order of such person. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall either of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian and the Distributor shall not be liable for the rejection of any purchase order for Creation Units.
All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust, and the Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.
Creation Transaction Fee . A fixed purchase (i.e., creation) transaction fee, payable to the Custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the purchase of Creation Units (“Creation Order Costs”). The standard fixed creation transaction fee for the Fund is $1,000, regardless of the number of Creation Units created in the transaction. The Fund may adjust the standard fixed creation transaction fee from time to time. The fixed creation fee may be waived on certain orders if the Custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Creation Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to a maximum of 2% of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash purchases, non-standard orders, or partial cash purchases of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with buying the securities with cash. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders. Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities (defined below) from the Fund to their account or on their order.
Risks of Purchasing Creation Units. There are certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the Fund. Because Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of Shares could be occurring at any time. Certain activities that a shareholder performs as a dealer could, depending on the circumstances, result in the shareholder being deemed a participant in the distribution in a manner that could render the shareholder a statutory underwriter and subject to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act. For example, a shareholder could be deemed a statutory underwriter if it purchases Creation Units from the Fund, breaks them down into the constituent Shares, and sells those Shares directly to customers, or if a shareholder chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary-market demand for Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person’s activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter.
Dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary-market transactions), and thus dealing with Shares as part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act.
Redemption. Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units at their NAV next determined after receipt of a redemption request in proper form by the Fund through the Transfer Agent and only on a Business Day. EXCEPT UPON LIQUIDATION OF THE FUND, THE TRUST WILL NOT REDEEM SHARES IN AMOUNTS LESS THAN CREATION UNITS. Investors must accumulate enough Shares in the secondary market to constitute a Creation Unit to have such Shares redeemed by the Trust. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit.
With respect to the Fund, the Custodian, through the NSCC, makes available prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time) on each Business Day, the list of the names and Share quantities of the Fund’s portfolio securities that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form

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(as defined below) on that day (“Fund Securities”). Fund Securities received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Securities.
Redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit are paid either in-kind or in cash, or combination thereof, as determined by the Trust. With respect to in-kind redemptions of the Fund, redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit will consist of Fund Securities-as announced by the Custodian on the Business Day of the request for redemption received in proper form plus cash in an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of Shares being redeemed, as next determined after a receipt of a request in proper form, and the value of the Fund Securities (the “Cash Redemption Amount”), less a fixed redemption transaction fee, as applicable, as set forth below. In the event that the Fund Securities have a value greater than the NAV of Shares, a compensating cash payment equal to the differential is required to be made by or through an Authorized Participant by the redeeming shareholder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, at the Trust’s discretion, an Authorized Participant may receive the corresponding cash value of the securities in lieu of the in-kind securities value representing one or more Fund Securities.
Redemption Transaction Fee . A fixed redemption transaction fee, payable to the Custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units (“Redemption Order Costs”). The standard fixed redemption transaction fee for the Fund is $1,000 regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed in the transaction. The Fund may adjust the redemption transaction fee from time to time. The fixed redemption fee may be waived on certain orders if the Custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Redemption Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to a maximum of 2% of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash redemptions, non-standard orders, or partial cash redemptions (when cash redemptions are available) of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with selling portfolio securities to satisfy a cash redemption. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders.
Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Fund to their account or on their order.
Procedures for Redemption of Creation Units. Orders to redeem Creation Units must be submitted in proper form to the Transfer Agent prior to 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time. A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if (i) an Authorized Participant has transferred or caused to be transferred to the Trust’s Transfer Agent the Creation Unit(s) being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be effective by the time as set forth in the Participant Agreement and (ii) a request in form satisfactory to the Trust is received by the Transfer Agent from the Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another redeeming investor within the time periods specified in the Participant Agreement. If the Transfer Agent does not receive the investor’s Shares through DTC’s facilities by the times and pursuant to the other terms and conditions set forth in the Participant Agreement, the redemption request shall be rejected.
The Authorized Participant must transmit the request for redemption, in the form required by the Trust, to the Transfer Agent in accordance with procedures set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement, and that, therefore, requests to redeem Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant who has executed an Authorized Participant Agreement. Investors making a redemption request should be aware that such request must be in the form specified by such Authorized Participant. Investors making a request to redeem Creation Units should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the request by an Authorized Participant and transfer of Shares to the Transfer Agent; such investors should allow for the additional time that may be required to effect redemptions through their banks, brokers or other financial intermediaries if such intermediaries are not Authorized Participants.
Additional Redemption Procedures. In connection with taking delivery of Shares of Fund Securities upon redemption of Creation Units, a redeeming shareholder or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such shareholder must maintain appropriate custody arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the Fund Securities are customarily traded, to which account such Fund Securities will be delivered. Deliveries of redemption proceeds generally will be made within three business days of the trade date.
The Trust may, in its discretion, exercise its option to redeem such Shares in cash, and the redeeming investor will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash. In addition, an investor may request a redemption in cash that the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit. In either case, the investor will receive a cash payment equal to the NAV of its Shares based on the NAV of Shares next determined after the redemption request is received in proper form (minus a redemption transaction fee, if applicable, and additional charge for requested cash redemptions specified above, to offset the Trust’s brokerage and other transaction costs associated with the disposition of Fund Securities). The Fund may also, in its sole discretion, upon request of a shareholder, provide such redeemer a portfolio of securities that differs from the exact composition of the Fund Securities but does not differ in NAV.

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Redemptions of Shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Trust could not lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or could not do so without first registering the Fund Securities under such laws. An Authorized Participant or an investor for which it is acting subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security included in the Fund Securities applicable to the redemption of Creation Units may be paid an equivalent amount of cash. The Authorized Participant may request the redeeming investor of Shares to complete an order form or to enter into agreements with respect to such matters as compensating cash payment. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” (“QIB”) as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive Fund Securities that are restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A. An Authorized Participant may be required by the Trust to provide a written confirmation with respect to QIB status to receive Fund Securities.
Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on other exchanges on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to redeem their Shares, or to purchase or sell Shares on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.
The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund (1) for any period during which the Exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (2) for any period during which trading on the Exchange is suspended or restricted; (3) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of Shares or determination of the NAV of Shares is not reasonably practicable; or (4) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC.
Determination of NAV
NAV per Share for the Fund is computed by dividing the value of the net assets of the Fund (i.e., the value of its total assets less total liabilities) by the total number of Shares outstanding, rounded to the nearest cent. Expenses and fees, including the management fees, are accrued daily and taken into account for purposes of determining NAV. The NAV of the Fund is calculated by Fund Services and determined at the scheduled close of the regular trading session on the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time) on each day that the NYSE is open, provided that fixed-income assets may be valued as of the announced closing time for trading in fixed-income instruments on any day that the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”) announces an early closing time.
In calculating the Fund’s NAV per Share, the Fund’s investments are generally valued using market valuations. A market valuation generally means a valuation (i) obtained from an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer), (ii) based on a price quotation or other equivalent indication of value supplied by an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer) or (iii) based on amortized cost. In the case of shares of other funds that are not traded on an exchange, a market valuation means such fund’s published NAV per share. The Fund may use various pricing services, or discontinue the use of any pricing service, as approved by the Board from time to time. A price obtained from a pricing service based on such pricing service’s valuation matrix may be considered a market valuation. Any assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted into U.S. dollars at the current market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more sources.
Dividends and Distributions
The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Dividends, Distributions, and Taxes.”
General Policies . Dividends and interest income, if any, are generally declared and paid quarterly by the Fund. Distributions of net realized capital gains, if any, generally are declared and paid once a year, but the Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis to comply with the distribution requirements of the Code, in all events in a manner consistent with the provisions of the 1940 Act.
Dividends and other distributions on Shares are distributed, as described below, on a pro rata basis to Beneficial Owners of such Shares. Dividend payments are made through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners then of record with proceeds received from the Trust.
The Fund makes additional distributions to the extent necessary (i) to distribute the entire annual taxable income of the Fund, plus any net capital gains and (ii) to avoid imposition of the excise tax imposed by Section 4982 of the Code. Management of the Trust reserves the right to declare special dividends if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the Fund’s eligibility for treatment as a RIC or to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.
Dividend Reinvestment Service. The Trust will not make the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service available for use by Beneficial Owners for reinvestment of their cash proceeds, but certain individual broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by Beneficial Owners of the Fund through DTC Participants for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Investors should contact their brokers to ascertain the availability and description of these services.

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Beneficial Owners should be aware that each broker may require investors to adhere to specific procedures and timetables to participate in the dividend reinvestment service and investors should ascertain from their brokers such necessary details. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole Shares issued by the Trust of the Fund at NAV per Share. Distributions reinvested in additional Shares will nevertheless be taxable to Beneficial Owners acquiring such additional Shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash.
Federal Income Taxes
The following is only a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations generally affecting the Fund and its shareholders that supplements the discussion in the Prospectus. No attempt is made to present a comprehensive explanation of the federal, state, local or foreign tax treatment of the Fund or its shareholders, and the discussion here and in the Prospectus is not intended to be a substitute for careful tax planning.
The following general discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences is based on provisions of the Code and the regulations issued thereunder as in effect on the date of this SAI. New legislation, as well as administrative changes or court decisions, may significantly change the conclusions expressed herein, and may have a retroactive effect with respect to the transactions contemplated herein.
The tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Many of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. There are only minor changes with respect to the specific rules applicable to a RIC, such as the Fund. The Tax Act, however, made numerous other changes to the tax rules that may affect shareholders and the Fund. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding how the Tax Act affects your investment in the Fund.
Shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisers regarding the application of the provisions of tax law described in this SAI in light of the particular tax situations of the shareholders and regarding specific questions as to federal, state, local, or foreign taxes.
Taxation of the Fund. The Fund will elect and intends to qualify each year to be treated as a RIC under the Code. As such, the Fund should not be subject to federal income taxes on its net investment income and capital gains, if any, to the extent that it timely distributes such income and capital gains to its shareholders. Generally, to be taxed as a RIC, the Fund must distribute in each taxable year at least 90% of its “investment company taxable income” for the taxable year, which includes, among other items, dividends, interest, net short-term capital gain and net foreign currency gain, less expenses, as well as 90% of its net tax-exempt interest income, if any (the “Distribution Requirement”) and also must meet several additional requirements. Among these requirements are the following: (i) at least 90% of the Fund’s gross income each taxable year must be derived from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or foreign currencies and net income derived from interests in qualified publicly traded partnerships (the “Qualifying Income Requirement”); and (ii) at the end of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, the Fund’s assets must be diversified so that (a) at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities, with such other securities limited, in respect to any one issuer, to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total assets is invested in the securities (other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs) of any one issuer, the securities (other than securities of other RICs) of two or more issuers which the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships (the “Diversification Requirement”).
To the extent the Fund makes investments that may generate income that is not qualifying income, including certain derivatives, the Fund will seek to restrict the resulting income from such investments so that the Fund’s non-qualifying income does not exceed 10% of its gross income.
Although the Fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income and may distribute its capital gains for any taxable year, the Fund will be subject to federal income taxation to the extent any such income or gains are not distributed. The Fund, a series of the Trust, is treated as a separate corporation for federal income tax purposes. The Fund therefore is considered to be a separate entity in determining its treatment under the rules for RICs described herein. The requirements (other than certain organizational requirements) for qualifying RIC status are determined at the Fund level rather than at the Trust level.
If the Fund fails to satisfy the Qualifying Income Requirement or the Diversification Requirement in any taxable year, the Fund may be eligible for relief provisions if the failures are due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and if a penalty tax is paid with respect to each failure to satisfy the applicable requirements. Additionally, relief is provided for certain de minimis failures of the Diversification Requirement where the Fund corrects the failure within a specified period of time. To be eligible for the

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relief provisions with respect to a failure to meet the Diversification Requirement, the Fund may be required to dispose of certain assets. If these relief provisions were not available to the Fund and it were to fail to qualify for treatment as a RIC for a taxable year, all of its taxable income would be subject to tax at regular corporate rates without any deduction for distributions to shareholders, and its distributions (including capital gains distributions) generally would be taxable to the shareholders of the Fund as ordinary income dividends, subject to the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders and the lower tax rates on qualified dividend income received by noncorporate shareholders, subject to certain limitations. To requalify for treatment as a RIC in a subsequent taxable year, the Fund would be required to satisfy the RIC qualification requirements for that year and to distribute any earnings and profits from any year in which the Fund failed to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC. If the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC for a period greater than two taxable years, it would generally be required to pay a fund-level tax on certain net built in gains recognized with respect to certain of its assets upon disposition of such assets within five years of qualifying as a RIC in a subsequent year. The Board reserves the right not to maintain the qualification of the Fund for treatment as a RIC if it determines such course of action to be beneficial to shareholders. If the Fund determines that it will not qualify as a RIC, the Fund will establish procedures to reflect the anticipated tax liability in the Fund’s NAV.
The Fund may elect to treat part or all of any “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in determining the Fund’s taxable income, net capital gain, net short-term capital gain, and earnings and profits. The effect of this election is to treat any such “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in characterizing Fund distributions for any calendar year. A “qualified late year loss” generally includes net capital loss, net long-term capital loss, or net short-term capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year (commonly referred to as “post-October losses”) and certain other late-year losses.
Capital losses in excess of capital gains (“net capital losses”) are not permitted to be deducted against a RIC’s net investment income. Instead, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, potentially subject to certain limitations, the Fund may carry a net capital loss from any taxable year forward indefinitely to offset its capital gains, if any, in years following the year of the loss. To the extent subsequent capital gains are offset by such losses, they will not result in U.S. federal income tax liability to the Fund and may not be distributed as capital gains to its shareholders. Generally, the Fund may not carry forward any losses other than net capital losses. The carryover of capital losses may be limited under the general loss limitation rules if the Fund experiences an ownership change as defined in the Code.
The Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax on certain undistributed income if it does not distribute to its shareholders in each calendar year an amount at least equal to 98% of its ordinary income for the calendar year plus 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending on October 31 of that year, subject to an increase for any shortfall in the prior year’s distribution. The Fund intends to declare and distribute dividends and distributions in the amounts and at the times necessary to avoid the application of the excise tax, but can make no assurances that all such tax liability will be eliminated.
The Fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income to shareholders for each taxable year. If the Fund meets the Distribution Requirement but retains some or all of its income or gains, it will be subject to federal income tax to the extent any such income or gains are not distributed. The Fund may designate certain amounts retained as undistributed net capital gain in a notice to its shareholders, who (i) will be required to include in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their proportionate shares of the undistributed amount so designated, (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the income tax paid by the Fund on that undistributed amount against their federal income tax liabilities and to claim refunds to the extent such credits exceed their tax liabilities, and (iii) will be entitled to increase their tax basis, for federal income tax purposes, in their Shares by an amount equal to the excess of the amount of undistributed net capital gain included in their respective income over their respective income tax credits.
Taxation of Shareholders - Distributions . The Fund intends to distribute quarterly to its shareholders substantially all of its investment company taxable income (computed without regard to the deduction for dividends paid) and its net tax-exempt income, if any. The Fund intends to distribute annually to its shareholders substantially all of its net capital gain, if any (net recognized long-term capital gains in excess of net recognized short-term capital losses, taking into account any capital loss carryforwards). The distribution of investment company taxable income (as so computed) and net capital gain will be taxable to Fund shareholders regardless of whether the shareholder receives these distributions in cash or reinvests them in additional Shares.
The Fund (or your broker) will report to shareholders quarterly the amounts of dividends paid from ordinary income, the amount of distributions of net capital gain, the portion of dividends which may qualify for the dividends received deduction for corporations, and the portion of dividends which may qualify for treatment as qualified dividend income.
Distributions from the Fund’s net capital gain will be taxable to shareholders at long-term capital gains rates, regardless of how long shareholders have held their Shares. Distributions may be subject to state and local taxes.
Qualified dividend income includes, in general, subject to certain holding period and other requirements, dividend income from taxable domestic corporations and certain foreign corporations. Subject to certain limitations, eligible foreign corporations include those incorporated in possessions of the United States, those incorporated in certain countries with comprehensive tax treaties with the United States, and other foreign corporations if the stock with respect to which the dividends are paid is readily tradable

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on an established securities market in the United States. Dividends received by the Fund from an ETF or an underlying fund taxable as a RIC or a REIT may be treated as qualified dividend income generally only to the extent so reported by such ETF, underlying fund or REIT. If 95% or more of the Fund’s gross income (calculated without taking into account net capital gain derived from sales or other dispositions of stock or securities) consists of qualified dividend income, the Fund may report all distributions of such income as qualified dividend income.
Fund dividends will not be treated as qualified dividend income if the Fund does not meet certain holding period and other requirements with respect to dividend paying stocks in its portfolio, and the shareholder does not meet certain holding period and other requirements with respect to the Shares on which the dividends were paid. Distributions by the Fund of its net short-term capital gains will be taxable as ordinary income. Distributions from the Fund’s net capital gain will be taxable to shareholders at long-term capital gains rates, regardless of how long shareholders have held their Shares. Distributions may be subject to state and local taxes.
In the case of corporate shareholders, certain dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations (generally, dividends received by the Fund in respect of any share of stock (1) with a tax holding period of at least 46 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date that is 45 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend and (2) that is held in an unleveraged position) and distributed and appropriately so reported by the Fund may be eligible for the 50% dividends-received deduction. Certain preferred stock must have a holding period of at least 91 days during the 181-day period beginning on the date that is 90 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend to be eligible. Capital gain dividends distributed to the Fund from other RICs are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction. To qualify for the deduction, corporate shareholders must meet the minimum holding period requirement stated above with respect to their Shares, taking into account any holding period reductions from certain hedging or other transactions or positions that diminish their risk of loss with respect to their Shares, and, if they borrow to acquire or otherwise incur debt attributable to Shares, they may be denied a portion of the dividends-received deduction with respect to those Shares.
Although dividends generally will be treated as distributed when paid, any dividend declared by the Fund in October, November or December and payable to shareholders of record in such a month that is paid during the following January will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as received by shareholders on December 31 of the calendar year in which it was declared.
In addition to the federal income tax, certain individuals, trusts and estates may be subject to a net investment income (“NII”) tax of 3.8%. The NII tax is imposed on the lesser of: (i) a taxpayer’s investment income, net of deductions properly allocable to such income; or (ii) the amount by which such taxpayer’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds certain thresholds ($250,000 for married individuals filing jointly, $200,000 for unmarried individuals and $125,000 for married individuals filing separately). The Fund’s distributions are includable in a shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax. In addition, any capital gain realized by a shareholder upon a sale, exchange or redemption of Fund shares is includable in such shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax.
Shareholders who have not held Shares for a full year should be aware that the Fund may report and distribute, as ordinary dividends or capital gain dividends, a percentage of income that is not equal to the percentage of the Fund’s ordinary income or net capital gain, respectively, actually earned during the applicable shareholder’s period of investment in the Fund. A taxable shareholder may wish to avoid investing in the Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because the distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of the shareholder’s investment.
To the extent that the Fund makes a distribution of income received by the Fund in lieu of dividends (a “substitute payment”) with respect to securities on loan pursuant to a securities lending transaction, such income will not constitute qualified dividend income to individual shareholders and will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders
If the Fund’s distributions exceed its earnings and profits, all or a portion of the distributions made for a taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. A return of capital distribution will generally not be taxable, but will reduce each shareholder’s cost basis in the Fund and result in a higher capital gain or lower capital loss when the Shares on which the distribution was received are sold. After a shareholder’s basis in the Shares has been reduced to zero, distributions in excess of earnings and profits will be treated as gain from the sale of the shareholder’s Shares.
Taxation of Shareholders - Sale of Shares. A sale redemption, or exchange of Shares may give rise to a gain or loss. In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than 12 months. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of Shares will generally be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. Any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss, rather than short-term capital loss, to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions to the shareholder of long-term capital gain (including any amounts credited to the shareholder as undistributed capital gains). All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares may be disallowed if substantially identical Shares are acquired (through the reinvestment of dividends or otherwise) within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly acquired Shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

36



The cost basis of Shares acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.
An Authorized Participant who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus the amount of cash paid for such Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of any securities received plus the amount of any cash received for such Creation Units. The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot currently be deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for a person who does not mark-to-market its portfolio) or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon the creation of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the securities exchanged for such Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Any capital gain or loss realized upon the redemption of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares comprising the Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, such capital gains or losses will generally be treated as short-term capital gains or losses. Any loss upon a redemption of Creation Units held for six months or less may be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions to the applicable Authorized Participant of long-term capital gain with respect to the Creation Units (including any amounts credited to the Authorized Participant as undistributed capital gains).
The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the Creation Units so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares and if, pursuant to Section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require the provision of information necessary to determine beneficial Share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination. If the Fund does issue Creation Units to a purchaser (or a group of purchasers) that would, upon obtaining the Creation Units so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares, the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) will not recognize gain or loss upon the exchange of securities for Creation Units.
Persons purchasing or redeeming Creation Units should consult their own tax advisers with respect to the tax treatment of any creation or redemption transaction and whether the wash sales rule applies and when a loss may be deductible.
Taxation of Fund Investments. Certain of the Fund’s investments may be subject to complex provisions of the Code (including provisions relating to hedging transactions, straddles, integrated transactions, foreign currency contracts, forward foreign currency contracts, and notional principal contracts) that, among other things, may affect the Fund’s ability to qualify as a RIC, affect the character of gains and losses realized by the Fund (e.g., may affect whether gains or losses are ordinary or capital), accelerate recognition of income to the Fund and defer losses. These rules could therefore affect the character, amount and timing of distributions to shareholders. These provisions also may require the Fund to mark to market certain types of positions in its portfolio (i.e., treat them as if they were closed out) which may cause the Fund to recognize income without the Fund receiving cash with which to make distributions in amounts sufficient to enable the Fund to satisfy the RIC distribution requirements for avoiding income and excise taxes. The Fund intends to monitor its transactions, intends to make appropriate tax elections, and intends to make appropriate entries in its books and records to mitigate the effect of these rules and preserve the Fund’s qualification for treatment as a RIC. To the extent the Fund invests in an underlying fund that is taxable as a RIC, the rules applicable to the tax treatment of complex securities will also apply to the underlying funds that also invest in such complex securities and investments.
Backup Withholding. The Fund will be required in certain cases to withhold (as “backup withholding”) on amounts payable to any shareholder who (1) fails to provide a correct taxpayer identification number certified under penalty of perjury; (2) is subject to backup withholding by the IRS for failure to properly report all payments of interest or dividends; (3) fails to provide a certified statement that he or she is not subject to “backup withholding;” or (4) fails to provide a certified statement that he or she is a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien). Backup withholding is not an additional tax and any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s ultimate U.S. tax liability. Backup withholding will not be applied to payments that have been subject to the 30% withholding tax on shareholders who are neither citizens nor permanent residents of the United States.
Foreign Shareholders. Any non-U.S. investors in the Fund may be subject to U.S. withholding and estate tax and are encouraged to consult their tax advisors prior to investing in the Fund. Foreign shareholders (i.e., nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations, partnerships, trusts and estates) are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or a lower tax treaty rate) on distributions derived from taxable ordinary income. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Short-term capital gain dividends received by a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more (subject to special

37



rules that count days from the past two years) during the taxable year are not exempt from this 30% withholding tax. Gains realized by foreign shareholders from the sale or other disposition of Shares generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless the recipient is an individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 (subject to special rules that count days from the past two years) days or more per year. Foreign shareholders who fail to provide an applicable IRS form may be subject to backup withholding on certain payments from the Fund. Backup withholding will not be applied to payments that are subject to the 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) withholding tax described in this paragraph. Different tax consequences may result if the foreign shareholder is engaged in a trade or business within the United States. In addition, the tax consequences to a foreign shareholder entitled to claim the benefits of a tax treaty may be different than those described above.
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), the Fund may be required to withhold a generally nonrefundable 30% tax on (i) distributions of investment company taxable income, and (ii) distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds of a sale, exchange, or redemption of Fund shares paid after December 31, 2018 to (A) certain “foreign financial institutions” (each an “FFI”) unless such FFI agrees to verify, monitor, and report to the IRS the identity of certain of its accountholders, among other items (unless the FFI is otherwise deemed compliant under the terms of an intergovernmental agreement with the United States and the FFI’s country of residence), and (B) certain “non-financial foreign entities” unless such entity certifies to the Fund that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or provides the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner, among other items. In December 2018, the IRS and Treasury Department released proposed Treasury Regulations that would eliminate FATCA withholding on Fund distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds from a sale or redemption of Fund shares. Although taxpayers are entitled to rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued, these proposed Treasury Regulations have not been finalized, may not be finalized in their proposed form, and are potentially subject to change. This FATCA withholding tax could also affect the Fund’s return on its investments in foreign securities or affect a shareholder’s return if the shareholder holds its Fund shares through a foreign intermediary. You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding the application of this FATCA withholding tax to your investment in the Fund and the potential certification, compliance, due diligence, reporting, and withholding obligations to which you may become subject in order to avoid this withholding tax.
For foreign shareholders to qualify for an exemption from backup withholding, described above, the foreign shareholder must comply with special certification and filing requirements. Foreign shareholders in the Fund should consult their tax advisors in this regard.
Tax-Exempt Shareholders. Certain tax-exempt shareholders, including qualified pension plans, individual retirement accounts, salary deferral arrangements, 401(k) plans, and other tax-exempt entities, generally are exempt from federal income taxation, except with respect to their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). Under the Tax Act, tax-exempt entities are not permitted to offset losses from one unrelated trade or business against the income or gain of another unrelated trade or business. Certain net losses incurred prior to January 1, 2018 are permitted to offset gain and income created by an unrelated trade or business, if otherwise available. Under current law, the Fund generally serves to block UBTI from being realized by its tax-exempt shareholders with respect to their shares of Fund income. However, notwithstanding the foregoing, tax-exempt shareholders could realize UBTI by virtue of their investment in the Fund if, for example, (i) the Fund invests in residual interests of Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”), (ii) the Fund invests in a REIT that is a taxable mortgage pool (“TMP”) or that has a subsidiary that is a TMP or that invests in the residual interest of a REMIC, or (iii) Shares in the Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholders within the meaning of section 514(b) of the Code. Charitable remainder trusts are subject to special rules and should consult their tax advisers. The IRS has issued guidance with respect to these issues and prospective shareholders, especially charitable remainder trusts, are strongly encouraged to consult with their tax advisers regarding these issues.
Certain Potential Tax Reporting Requirements. Under U.S. Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss on disposition of the Shares of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder (or certain greater amounts over a combination of years), the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on IRS Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. Significant penalties may be imposed for the failure to comply with the reporting requirements. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.
Other Issues. In those states which have income tax laws, the tax treatment of the Fund and of Fund shareholders with respect to distributions by the Fund may differ from federal tax treatment.
Financial Statements
Financial Statements and Annual Reports will be available after the Fund has completed a fiscal year of operations. When available, you may request a copy of the Fund’s Annual Report at no charge by calling 833-540-0039 or through the Fund’s website at www.rparetf.com.

38



APPENDIX A
The Fund generally intends to effect deliveries of Creation Units and portfolio securities on a basis of “T plus two” business days (“T+2”). The Fund may effect deliveries of Creation Units and portfolio securities on a basis other than T+2 to accommodate local holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates, or under certain other circumstances. The ability of the Fund to effect in-kind creations and redemptions within two business days of receipt of an order in good form is subject, among other things, to the condition that, within the time period from the date of the order to the date of delivery of the securities, there are no days that are holidays in the applicable foreign market. For every occurrence of one or more intervening holidays in the applicable foreign market that are not holidays observed in the U.S. equity market, the redemption settlement cycle will be extended by the number of such intervening holidays. In addition to holidays, other unforeseeable closings in a foreign market due to emergencies may also prevent the Fund from delivering securities within the normal settlement period. The securities delivery cycles currently practicable for transferring portfolio securities to redeeming investors, coupled with foreign market holiday schedules, will require a delivery process longer than seven calendar days in certain circumstances.
The dates of the Regular Holidays in the United States in calendar year 2019 are:
Holiday
2019
New Year’s Day
Tuesday, January 1
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
Monday, January 21
President’s Day
Monday, February 18
Good Friday
Friday, April 19
Memorial Day
Monday, May 27
Independence Day
Thursday, July 4*
Labor Day
Monday, September 2
Thanksgiving Day
Thursday, November 28**
Christmas
Wednesday, December 25***
* The NYSE, NYSE AMEX and NASDAQ will close early at 1:00 p.m. Eastern time on Wednesday, July 3, 2019.
** The NYSE, NYSE AMEX and NASDAQ will close early at 1:00 p.m. Eastern time on Friday, November 29, 2019 (the day after Thanksgiving).
*** The NYSE, NYSE AMEX and NASDAQ will close early at 1:00 p.m. Eastern time on Tuesday, December 24, 2019.

Listed below are the dates in calendar year 2019 in which the regular holidays in non-U.S. markets may impact Fund settlement. This list is based on information available to the Fund. The list may not be accurate or complete and is subject to change.
2019
AUSTRALIA
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
August 5
December 25
January 28
April 25
October 7
November 5
April 19
May 6
 
 

AUSTRIA
 
 
 
January 1
May 1
December 25
 
April 19
June 10
December 26
 
April 22
December 24
December 31
 

BRAZIL
 
 
 
January 1
April 19
September 7
December 25
March 4
May 1
October 12
 
March 5
June 20
November 2
 
March 6
July 9
November 15
 

A- 1



CANADA
 
 
 
January 1
April 19
July 1
November 11
February 11
April 22
August 5
December 25
February 18
May 20
September 2
December 26
CAYMAN ISLANDS
 
 
January 1
March 30
June 11
December 25
January 22
April 2
July 2
 
February 14
May 21
November 12
December 26
CHILE
 
 
 
January 1
May 21
September 18
November 1
April 19
July 1
September 19
December 8
April 20
July 16
October 14
December 25
May 1
August 15
 
 
CHINA
 
 
 
January 1
February 9
June 7
October 2
February 4
February 10
September 13
October 3
February 5
April 5
September 30
October 4
February 6
May 1
October 1
October 7
February 7
 
 
 
COLOMBIA
 
 
 
January 1
May 1
August 7
December 8
January 7
June 3
August 19
December 25
March 25
June 24
October 14
 
April 18
July 1
November 4
 
April 19
July 20
November 11
 
DENMARK
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
June 5
December 25
April 18
May 17
June 10
December 26
April 19
May 30
December 24
December 31
FAROE ISLANDS
 
 
No holidays listed
 
 
 
FRANCE
 
 
 
January 1
May 8
July 14
November 11
April 22
May 30
August 15
December 25
May 1
June 10
November 1
December 26
GERMANY
 
 
 
January 1
May 1
June 10
December 25
April 9
May 30
October 3
December 26
April 22
 
 
 

A- 2



HONG KONG
 
 
 
January 1
April 5
May 13
October 1
February 4
April 19
June 7
October 7
February 5
April 20
July 1
December 25
February 6
April 22
September 14
December 26
February 7
May 1
 
 
INDIA
 
 
 
January 26
March 21
May 1
October 2
February 19
April 19
August 15
December 25
March 4
 
 
 
IRELAND
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
August 5
December 26
March 18
May 6
October 28
December 27
April 19
June 3
December 25
 
ITALY
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
June 2
December 8
January 6
April 25
August 15
December 25
April 19
May 1
November 1
December 26
JAPAN
 
 
 
January 1
March 21
July 15
October 14
January 2
April 19
August 12
November 4
January 3
May 3
September 16
November 25
January 14
May 4
September 23
December 23
February 11
May 6
 
 
JERSEY
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
May 9
August 26
April 19
May 6
May 27
December 25
December 26
 
 
 
NETHERLANDS
 
 
 
January 1
April 27
May 30
December 25
April 19
May 4
June 10
December 26
April 22
May 5
 
 
NORWAY
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
May 30
December 25
April 18
May 1
June 10
December 26
April 19
May 17
December 24
 
RUSSIA
 
 
 
January 1
January 4
March 8
June 12
January 2
January 7
May 1
November 4
January 3
February 23
May 9
 

A- 3



SPAIN
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
September 11
December 6
January 6
May 1
October 12
December 8
April 18
July 25
November 1
December 25
April 19
August 15
 
 
SWEDEN
 
 
 
January 1
May 1
June 22
December 25
January 6
May 30
November 2
December 26
April 19
June 6
December 24
December 31
April 22
June 21
 
 
SWITZERLAND
 
 
 
January 1
April 22
June 10
December 25
January 2
May 30
August 1
December 26
April 19
 
 
 
UNITED KINGDOM
 
 
January 1
May 6
August 5
December 25
April 19
May 27
August 6
December 26
April 22
 
 
 
The longest redemption cycle is a function of the longest redemption cycle among the countries whose securities comprise the Fund. In the calendar year 2019, the dates of regular holidays affecting the following securities markets present the worst-case (longest) redemption cycle as below. This list is based on information available to the Fund. The list may not be accurate or complete and is subject to change.
Settlement periods greater than seven days for 2019
 
Beginning of Settlement Period

End of Settlement Period
Number of Days in Settlement Period
Australia
4/18/2019
4/26/2019
8
 
12/19/2019
12/27/2019
8
 
12/20/2019
12/30/2019
10
 
12/23/2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brazil
2/27/2019
3/7/2019
8
 
2/28/2019
3/8/2019
8
 
3/1/2019
3/11/2019
10
 
 
 
 
China
1/30/2019
2/11/2019
12
 
1/31/2019
2/12/2019
12
 
2/1/2019
2/11/2019
10
 
2/1/2019
2/13/2019
12
 
 
 
 
Hong Kong
1/31/2019
2/8/2019
8
 
2/1/2019
2/11/2019
10
 
 
 
 
Japan
2/1/2019
2/11/2019
10

A- 4



 
Beginning of Settlement Period

End of Settlement Period
Number of Days in Settlement Period
 
 
 
 
Norway
4/15/2019
4/23/2019
8
 
4/16/2019
4/24/2019
8
 
12/19/2019
12/27/2019
8
 
12/20/2019
12/30/2019
10
 
12/23/2019
1/2/2020
11


A- 5



TIDAL ETF TRUST

PART C: OTHER INFORMATION

Item 28. Exhibits
Exhibit No.
 
Description of Exhibit
(a)
(i)
 
Certificate of Trust of Tidal ETF Trust (the “Trust” or the “Registrant”) - previously filed with the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on September 12, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(ii)
 
Registrant’s Declaration of Trust - previously filed with the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on September 12, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(b)
 
 
Registrant’s Amended and Restated By-Laws - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 22, 2018 and are incorporated herein by reference.
(c)
 
 
Instruments Defining Rights of Security Holders - See relevant portions of Declaration of Trust and By-Laws.
(d)
(i)
 
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) and Toroso Investments, LLC ("Toroso") - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(ii)
 
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of SoFi Select 500 ETF, SoFi Next 500 ETF, SoFi 50 ETF and SoFi Gig Economy ETF (the "SoFi ETFs")) and Toroso - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(iii)
 
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of RPAR Risk Parity ETF) and Toroso - filed herewith.
 
(iv)
 
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and Aware Asset Management, Inc. (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(v)
 
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(vi)
 
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - filed herewith.
(e)
(i)
 
ETF Distribution Agreement between the Trust and Foreside Fund Services, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(1)
First Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(2)
Second Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement - filed herewith.
 
(ii)
 
Form of Authorized Participant Agreement - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 22, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(iii)
 
Distribution Services Agreement between Toroso and Foreside Fund Services, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(f)
 
 
Not applicable.
(g)
(i)
 
Custody Agreement between the Trust and U.S. Bank National Association - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(1)
First Amendment to Custody Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(2)
Second Amendment to Custody Agreement - filed herewith.
(h)
(i)
 
Fund Administration Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Tidal ETF Services LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(1)
First Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(2)
Second Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement - filed herewith.
 
(ii)
 
Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement between Tidal ETF Services LLC and U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.

C- 1



 
 
(1)
First Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(2)
Second Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement - filed herewith.
 
(iii)
 
Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement between the Trust and U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(1)
First Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(2)
Second Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement - filed herewith.
 
(iv)
 
Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement between the Trust and U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(1)
First Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
(2)
Second Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement - filed herewith.
 
(v)
 
Compliance Services Agreement between the Trust and Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC – previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 3 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on January 28, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(vi)
 
Powers of Attorney - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 22, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(vii)
 
Fee Waiver Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of the SoFi Select 500 ETF and SoFi Next 500 ETF) and Toroso - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 to the Trust's Registration Statement on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(viii)
 
Fee Waiver Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of RPAR Risk Parity ETF) and Toroso - filed herewith.
(i)
(i)
 
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) – previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 21, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(ii)
 
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(iii)
 
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - filed herewith.
(j)
 
 
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm - filed herewith.
(k)
 
 
Not applicable.
(l)
(i)
 
Subscription Agreement - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 22, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(ii)
 
Letter of Representations between the Trust and Depository Trust Company - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 22, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(m)
 
 
Amended and Restated Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan - filed herewith.
(n)
 
 
Not applicable.
(o)
 
 
Reserved.
(p)
(i)
 
Code of Ethics for Tidal ETF Trust - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 22, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(ii)
 
Code of Ethics for Toroso - filed herewith.
 
(iii)
 
Code of Ethics for CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
(iv)
 
Code of Ethics for Distributor - not applicable per Rule 17j-1(c)(3).
 
(v)
 
Code of Ethics for Aware Asset Management, Inc. - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 29. Persons Controlled by or Under Common Control with Registrant
No person is directly or indirectly controlled by or under common control with the Registrant.
Item 30. Indemnification
Every person who is, has been, or becomes a Trustee or officer of the Trust (hereinafter referred to as a “Covered Person”) shall be indemnified by the Trust to the fullest extent permitted by law against any and all liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred or paid by

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them in connection with the defense of any proceeding in which they become involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of their being or having been such a Trustee or officer, and against amounts paid or incurred by them in the settlement thereof. Every person who is, has been, or becomes an agent of the Trust may, upon due approval of the Trustees (including a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust), be indemnified by the Trust, to the fullest extent permitted by law, against any and all liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred or paid by them in connection with the defense of any proceeding in which they become involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of their being or having been an agent, and against amounts paid or incurred by him in the settlement thereof. Every Person who is serving or has served at the request of the Trust as a director, officer, partner, trustee, employee, agent or fiduciary of another domestic or foreign corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, other enterprise or employee benefit plan (“Other Position”) and who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any proceeding by reason of alleged acts or omissions while acting within the scope of his or her service in such Other Position, may, upon due approval of the Trustees (including a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust), be indemnified by the Trust, to the fullest extent permitted by law, against any and all liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred or paid by them in connection with the defense of any proceeding in which they become involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of their being or having held such Other Position, and against amounts paid or incurred by them in the settlement thereof.
The Trust shall indemnify each Covered Person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any proceeding, by reason of alleged acts or omissions within the scope of their service as a Covered Person, against judgments, fines, penalties, settlements and reasonable expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually incurred by them in connection with such proceeding to the maximum extent consistent with state law and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
No indemnification shall be provided to any person who shall have been adjudicated by a court or body before which the proceeding was brought: (i) to be liable to the Trust or its shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of their office, or (ii) not to have acted in good faith in the reasonable belief that his action was in the best interest of the Trust.
Insofar as indemnification for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, may be permitted to Trustees, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such Trustee, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
Item 31. Business and Other Connections of Investment Adviser
This Item incorporates by reference each investment adviser’s Uniform Application for Investment Adviser Registration (“Form ADV”) on file with the SEC, as listed below. Each Form ADV may be obtained, free of charge, at the SEC’s website at www.adviserinfo.sec.gov. Additional information as to any other business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by each officer and director of the below-listed investment advisers is included in the Trust’s Statement of Additional Information.
 
Investment Adviser
SEC File No.
 
Toroso Investments, LLC
801-76857
 
CSat Investment Advisory, L.P.
801-74619

Item 32. Principal Underwriter
Item 32(a)
Foreside Fund Services, LLC serves as principal underwriter for the Registrant and the following investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended:
1.
ABS Long/Short Strategies Fund
2.
Absolute Shares Trust
3.
Active Weighting Funds ETF Trust
4.
AdvisorShares Trust
5.
American Century ETF Trust
6.
ARK ETF Trust
7.
Bluestone Community Development Fund
8.
Braddock Multi-Strategy Income Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust
9.
Bridgeway Funds, Inc.
10.
Brinker Capital Destinations Trust

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11.
Calvert Ultra-Short Duration Income NextShares, Series of Calvert Management Series
12.
Center Coast Brookfield MLP & Energy Infrastructure Fund
13.
CornerCap Group of Funds
14.
Davis Fundamental ETF Trust
15.
Direxion Shares ETF Trust
16.
Eaton Vance NextShares Trust
17.
Eaton Vance NextShares Trust II
18.
EIP Investment Trust
19.
EntrepreneurShares Series Trust
20.
Evanston Alternative Opportunities Fund
21.
Exchange Listed Funds Trust (f/k/a Exchange Traded Concepts Trust II)
22.
FEG Absolute Access Fund I LLC
23.
Fiera Capital Series Trust
24.
FlexShares Trust
25.
Forum Funds
26.
Forum Funds II
27.
FQF Trust
28.
Friess Small Cap Growth Fund, Series of Managed Portfolio Series
29.
GraniteShares ETF Trust
30.
Guinness Atkinson Funds
31.
Horizons ETF Trust I (f/k/a Recon Capital Series Trust)
32.
Infinity Core Alternative Fund
33.
Innovator ETFs Trust
34.
Innovator ETFs Trust II (f/k/a Elkhorn ETF Trust)
35.
Ironwood Institutional Multi-Strategy Fund LLC
36.
Ironwood Multi-Strategy Fund LLC
37.
John Hancock Exchange-Traded Fund Trust
38.
Manor Investment Funds
39.
Miller/Howard Funds Trust
40.
Miller/Howard High Income Equity Fund
41.
Moerus Worldwide Value Fund, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
42.
Morningstar Funds Trust
43.
MProved Systematic Long-Short Fund, Series Portfolios Trust
44.
MProved Systematic Merger Arbitrage Fund, Series Portfolios Trust
45.
MProved Systematic Multi-Strategy Fund, Series Portfolios Trust
46.
NYSE® Pickens Oil Response™ ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
47.
OSI ETF Trust
48.
Palmer Square Opportunistic Income Fund
49.
Partners Group Private Income Opportunities, LLC
50.
PENN Capital Funds Trust
51.
Performance Trust Mutual Funds, Series of Trust for Professional Managers
52.
Plan Investment Fund, Inc.
53.
PMC Funds, Series of Trust for Professional Managers
54.
Point Bridge GOP Stock Tracker ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
55.
Quaker Investment Trust
56.
Ranger Funds Investment Trust
57.
Renaissance Capital Greenwich Funds
58.
RMB Investors Trust (f/k/a Burnham Investors Trust)
59.
Robinson Opportunistic Income Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust
60.
Robinson Tax Advantaged Income Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust
61.
Salient MF Trust
62.
SharesPost 100 Fund
63.
Six Circles Trust
64.
Sound Shore Fund, Inc.

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65.
Steben Alternative Investment Funds
66.
Steben Select Multi-Strategy Fund
67.
Strategy Shares
68.
The Chartwell Funds
69.
The Community Development Fund
70.
The Relative Value Fund
71.
Third Avenue Trust
72.
Third Avenue Variable Series Trust
73.
TIFF Investment Program
74.
Transamerica ETF Trust
75.
U.S. Global Investors Funds
76.
Variant Alternative Income Fund
77.
VictoryShares Developed Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
78.
VictoryShares Dividend Accelerator ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
79.
VictoryShares Emerging Market High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
80.
VictoryShares Emerging Market Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
81.
VictoryShares International High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
82.
VictoryShares International Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
83.
VictoryShares US 500 Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
84.
VictoryShares US 500 Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
85.
VictoryShares US Discovery Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
86.
VictoryShares US EQ Income Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
87.
VictoryShares US Large Cap High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
88.
VictoryShares US Multi-Factor Minimum Volatility ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
89.
VictoryShares US Small Cap High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
90.
VictoryShares US Small Cap Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
91.
Vivaldi Opportunities Fund
92.
West Loop Realty Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust (f/k/a Chilton Realty Income & Growth Fund)
93.
Wintergreen Fund, Inc.
94.
WisdomTree Trust
95.
WST Investment Trust
Item 32(b)
To the best of Registrant’s knowledge, the directors and executive officers of Foreside Fund Services, LLC are as follows:
Name
  
Address
  
Position with
Underwriter
  
Position with
Registrant
 
 
 
 
Richard J. Berthy
  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  
President, Treasurer and Manager
  
None
Mark A. Fairbanks
  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  
Vice President
  
None
Jennifer K. DiValerio
 
899 Cassatt Road,
400 Berwyn Park, Suite 110 Berwyn, PA 19312
 
Vice President
 
None
Nanette K. Chern
  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  
Vice President and
Chief Compliance Officer
  
None
Jennifer E. Hoopes
  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  
Secretary
  
None



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Item 32 (c)    Not applicable
Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records
The books and records required to be maintained by Section 31(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 are maintained at the following locations:
Records Relating to:
Are located at:
Registrant’s Administrator
Tidal ETF Services LLC
898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, NY 11758
Registrant’s Sub-Administrator, Fund Accountant and Transfer Agent
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Registrant’s Custodian
U.S. Bank, National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Drive
Milwaukee, WI 53212
Registrant’s Principal Underwriter
Foreside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100
Portland, Maine 04101
Registrant’s Investment Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC
898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, NY 11758
Registrant’s Sub-Adviser
CSat Investment Advisory, L.P.
625 Avis Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Item 34. Management Services
Not applicable.
Item 35. Undertakings
Not applicable.

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it meets all of the requirements for effectiveness of this Post‑Effective Amendment No. 14 to its Registration Statement on Form N-1A under Rule 485(b) under the Securities Act and has duly caused this Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 to its Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, duly authorized, in the City of Milwaukee, State of Wisconsin, on November 22, 2019.

Tidal ETF Trust
By:/s/ Eric W. Falkeis
Eric W. Falkeis
President
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 to the Registrant's Registration Statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities indicated on November 22, 2019.
Signature
Title
 
 
/s/ Eric W. Falkeis
President (principal executive officer), Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary
Eric W. Falkeis
 
 
 
*/s/ Dusko Culafic
Trustee
Dusko Culafic
 
 
 
*/s/ Mark H. W. Baltimore
Trustee
Mark H. W. Baltimore
 
 
 
*/s/ Ian C. Carroll
Trustee
Ian C. Carroll
 
 
 
*/s/ Eduardo Mendoza
Trustee
Eduardo Mendoza
 
 
 
/s/ Daniel H. Carlson
Treasurer (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)
Daniel H. Carlson
 
 


*By:/s/ Eric W. Falkeis
Eric W. Falkeis, Attorney-in-Fact
pursuant to Powers of Attorney previously filed

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EXHIBIT INDEX
Exhibit Number
 
Description
(d) (iii)
 
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of RPAR Risk Parity ETF) and Toroso Investments, LLC
(d) (vi)
 
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF)
(e) (i) (2)
 
Second Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement
(g) (i) (2)
 
Second Amendment to Custody Agreement
(h) (i) (2)
 
Second Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement
(h) (ii) (2)
 
Second Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement
(h) (iii) (2)
 
Second Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement
(h) (iv) (2)
 
Second Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement
(h) (viii)
 
Fee Waiver Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of RPAR Risk Parity ETF) and Toroso
(i) (iii)
 
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF)
(j)
 
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
(m)
 
Amended and Restated Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan
(p) (ii)
 
Code of Ethics for Toroso


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