S-1 1 inbxs-1.htm S-1 Document
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 27, 2020.
Registration No. 333-          
 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
INHIBRX, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)  
Delaware
2836
82-4257312
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
11025 N. Torrey Pines Road, Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
(858) 795-4220
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Mark Lappe
Chief Executive Officer
Inhibrx, Inc.
11025 N. Torrey Pines Road, Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
(858) 795-4220
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Jeremy Glaser
Megan Gates
Melanie Ruthrauff Levy
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky &
Popeo, P.C.
3580 Carmel Mountain Road, Suite 300
San Diego, CA 92130
(858) 314-1500
Kelly Deck
Chief Financial Officer
Inhibrx, Inc.
11025 N. Torrey Pines Road, Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
(858) 795-4220

Charles S. Kim
Sean Clayton
Richard Segal
David Peinsipp
Will H. Cai
Cooley LLP
4401 Eastgate Mall
San Diego, CA 92121
(858) 550-6000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box.  
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
 
 
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)
Amount of
Registration Fee(2)(3)
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share
$100,000,000
$12,980
(1)
Includes initial public offering price of additional shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase. Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(2)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) based on an estimate of the proposed maximum aggregate initial public offering price.
(3)
Pursuant to Rule 457(p) of the Securities Act, the registrant is offsetting $9,060 of the registration fee of $12,980 due under this registration statement, which equals the amount of the registration fee previously paid by the registrant with respect to the registration statement on Form S-1 filed on June 3, 2019 (File No. 333-231907), or the Prior Registration Statement. No securities were sold pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, which was withdrawn on November 8, 2019.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.  



The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state or other jurisdictions where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JULY 27, 2020
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
                Shares
inbxs1image1a.jpg
Common Stock
We are offering             shares of our common stock. This is our initial public offering, and no public market currently exists for our common stock. We expect the initial public offering price to be between $             and $            per share. We have applied to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “INBX.”
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced reporting requirements for this prospectus and may elect to do so in future filings.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risks. Please read “Risk Factors” beginning on page 13 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.  
 
 
 
 
 
PER SHARE
 
TOTAL
Initial Public Offering Price
 $                 
 
 $                 
Underwriting Discounts and Commissions(1)
 $        
 
 $            
Proceeds to Inhibrx, Inc. before expenses
 $        
 
 $            
 
 
 
 
(1)
See “Underwriting” beginning on page 192 for additional information regarding underwriter compensation.
Delivery of the shares of common stock is expected to be made on or about                , 2020. We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days to purchase an additional         shares of our common stock. If the underwriters exercise the option in full, the total underwriting discounts and commissions payable by us will be $        , and the total proceeds to us, before expenses, will be $        .
Joint Book-Running Managers  
Jefferies
Evercore ISI
Credit Suisse

Co-Manager
LifeSci Capital

Prospectus dated                     , 2020



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have prepared. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable free writing prospectus is current only as of its date, regardless of its time of delivery or any sale of shares of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus or any free writing prospectus we may provide you in connection with this offering in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than the United States. You are required to inform yourself about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus and any applicable free writing prospectus outside of the United States.
Through and including                , 2020 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This delivery requirement is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to an unsold allotment or subscription.



PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the information set forth in the sections of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Unless the context otherwise requires, we use the terms “Inhibrx,” “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” in this prospectus to refer to Inhibrx, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, INBRX 103, LLC, taken as a whole.
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company with a pipeline of novel biologic therapeutic candidates, developed using our protein engineering expertise and proprietary single domain antibody, or sdAb, platform. Our sdAb platform allows us to pursue validated targets with clinical promise, but where other antibody and biologic based approaches have failed. Highly modular, our sdAbs can be combined with precise valencies and multiple specificities, creating therapeutic candidates designed to be capable of enhanced cell signaling, conditional activation or combined synergistic functions. We currently have four programs in ongoing Phase 1 clinical trials, three for the treatment of various cancers, and one for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, or AATD. Our most advanced therapeutic candidate, INBRX-109, is a tetravalent death receptor 5, or DR5, agonist being evaluated in patients diagnosed with chondrosarcoma and mesothelioma, two difficult-to-treat cancers. INBRX-106 is a hexavalent OX40 agonist currently being investigated in patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors. Both INBRX-109 and INBRX-106 programs are designed to achieve target agonism through precise control of therapeutic valency. INBRX‑105 targets two proteins, each of which can lead to an enhanced anti-tumor immune response; it is engineered with the goal of improving safety through conditional target agonism. Based on preclinical mechanistic data, INBRX-106 and INBRX-105 may have the potential to be used in combination with, or in place of, currently approved checkpoint inhibitors. Our fourth program, INBRX-101, is an optimized, recombinant alpha 1 antitrypsin, or AAT, augmentation therapy for AATD. We anticipate additional data releases from all four of our clinical programs by the end of 2021.

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Our Pipeline
We have developed a diverse pipeline of therapeutic candidates that are specifically designed to leverage the power of our core sdAb platform and protein engineering expertise, as shown below:
inbxs1image50a.jpg
INBRX-109
 
INBRX-106
 
INBRX-105
 
INBRX-101
Tetravalent DR5 agonist
 
Hexavalent OX40 agonist
 
PD-L1x4-1BB tetravalent conditional agonist
 
AAT-Fc fusion protein
Program
Therapeutic Area
Target(s)/Format
STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
Anticipated Next Milestones
Preclinical
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
INBRX-109*
Oncology
DR5
Tetravalent Agonist
 
• Single agent cohort data – 4Q 2020
• Initial data from combination cohorts – 1H 2021
• Initiation of registration-enabling trials in mesothelioma and chondrosarcoma – 2021^
 
 
 
INBRX-106**
Oncology
OX40
Hexavalent Agonist
 
• Single agent dose escalation cohort data – Q4 2020
• Escalation with Keytruda data – 2H 2021
 
 
 
INBRX-105**
Oncology
PD-L1 x4-1BB
Tetravalent Conditional Agonist
 
• Dose escalation data – 1H 2021
• Initial data from expansion cohorts – Q4 2021
 
 
 
INBRX-101***
Orphan/Respiratory
Neutrophil Elastase
AAT-Fusion Protein
 
• Dose escalation data – 2H 2021
 
 
 
__________________
*
Third party partnership with Chinese biotechnology company, Transcenta Holding, Ltd. (formerly Hangzhou Just Biotherapeutics Co., Ltd.), or Transcenta, currently in place for development and commercialization in China, Hong Kong, Macau and/or Taiwan.
**
Third party partnership with Chinese biotechnology company, Elpiscience Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., or Elpiscience, currently in place for development and commercialization in China, Hong Kong, Macau and/or Taiwan.
***
Commercialization and development rights outside of the United States and Canada, subject to an option agreement with Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., or Chiesi.
^
Advancing INBRX-109 into registration-enabling randomized Phase 2 trials is contingent upon acceptable activity and safety in the ongoing Phase 1 trial.
INBRX-109
INBRX-109 is a precisely engineered tetravalent sdAb-based therapeutic candidate that agonizes DR5 to induce tumor selective programmed cell death. The Investigational New Drug application, or IND, for INBRX-109 became effective in August 2018, and we initiated a single agent, two-part, Phase 1 clinical trial in the United States in November 2018. Part 1, the traditional 3+3 dose escalation portion of this trial, was completed in August 2019, with enrollment of 20 patients. INBRX-109 was well-tolerated, with no significant toxicities observed at doses up to and including the maximum administered dose of 30 mg/kg. No maximum tolerated dose was reached.

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In September 2019, we commenced Part 2 of this trial with single agent dose expansion cohorts in patients with the following tumor types: colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and chondrosarcoma. To date, we have enrolled approximately 75 patients in the expansion cohorts, with continued enrollment ongoing.
We expect to announce additional data from the chondrosarcoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma treatment cohorts in the fourth quarter of 2020. Assuming positive results from our Phase 1 clinical trials, we plan to initiate registration-enabling Phase 2 trials in unresectable and metastatic chondrosarcoma (any line of therapy) and malignant pleural mesothelioma, epithelioid subtype (second- or third-line), patients in 2021. There is an unmet medical need for malignant pleural mesothelioma and chondrosarcoma, both of which are serious, life-threating medical conditions with very limited treatment options. In particular, there are no approved effective systemic therapy options for recurrent, unresectable and metastatic chondrosarcoma.
We plan to initiate an INBRX-109 single agent expansion cohort in an additional sarcoma subtype, as well as chemotherapy combination cohorts in malignant pleural mesothelioma, epithelioid subtype, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the third quarter of 2020. Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, epithelioid subtype, will receive INBRX-109 in combination with carboplatin or cisplatin, or a platinum and pemetrexed doublet chemotherapy. Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma will receive INBRX-109 in combination with fluorouracil and irinotecan chemotherapy. We expect to announce initial data from these combination cohorts during the first half of 2021.
We plan to investigate the therapeutic utility of INBRX-109 through a broad clinical development plan across difficult-to-treat cancers. Future clinical development of INBRX-109 may include combinations with additional chemotherapies and potentially synergistic agents in several solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. We are currently conducting preclinical studies with INBRX-109 and various rational combination agents, including targeted therapeutics and apoptotic pathway modulators, aimed at guiding our future clinical plans.
INBRX-106
INBRX-106 is a precisely engineered hexavalent sdAb-based therapeutic candidate targeting OX40 that has the potential to treat numerous tumor indications, both as a single agent and in combination. OX40, also known as TNFRSF4, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, or TNFRSF, and is predominately expressed on activated T-cells. Signaling through OX40 provides co-stimulation that promotes T-cell expansion, enhanced effector function and memory cell formation, and prevents activation induced cell death. Based on the capacity for OX40 signaling to enhance anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies, there have been many efforts to therapeutically exploit this pathway for cancer immunotherapy.
To date, OX40 agonism has mainly been clinically explored with bivalent antibodies. We believe the lack of success with many of these prior attempts resulted from insufficient valency to achieve receptor clustering. We believe INBRX-106, a hexavalent therapeutic candidate with the ability to bind six OX40 molecules per molecule of drug, has the potential to achieve improved receptor clustering and downstream signaling. In preclinical studies, we have observed that INBRX-106 mediated T-cell co-stimulation and also reduced the suppressive activity of regulatory T-cells, with superior activity to bivalent comparators.
The IND for INBRX-106 became effective in June 2019, and we initiated Part 1 of this Phase 1 trial, escalation of single agent INBRX-106, in the United States in December 2019.
We expect to announce completion of the single agent dose escalation cohorts during the fourth quarter of 2020. The current study design also includes evaluation of INBRX-106 combination activity with the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab, or Keytruda. Completion of the combination dose escalation cohorts is expected in the second half of 2021.
INBRX-105
INBRX-105 is a precisely engineered tetravalent sdAb based therapeutic candidate, acting both as an antagonist of programmed death ligand 1, or PD-L1, and a conditional agonist of 4-1BB. The approval of checkpoint inhibitors that block the interaction between PD-L1 and programmed cell death protein 1, or PD-1, has shifted the treatment paradigm of numerous cancers, due to improved response rates and overall survival benefit. These therapeutics, however, achieve a lasting benefit only for a minority of patients and numerous combination

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approaches have been tested clinically with the goal of further activating tumor reactive T-cells. One such approach is agonist antibodies targeting 4-1BB, a member of the TNFRSF that has been shown to provide co-stimulatory function to T-cells. While 4-1BB agonism has shown some clinical promise, the efficacy seen with this approach has been limited due to dose limiting toxicities that result from systemic activation of 4-1BB.
With the goal of overcoming these limitations, we designed INBRX-105 to conditionally agonize 4-1BB only in the presence of PD-L1, which is typically only found in the tumor microenvironment and associated lymphoid tissues. In addition, engagement of PD-L1 by INBRX-105 blocks PD-1 binding and provides checkpoint inhibition. We believe this unique combination of mechanisms of action has the potential to enhance anti-tumor responses and limit systemic toxicity of 4-1BB agonism. We are clinically evaluating INBRX-105’s ability to treat patients with PD-L1 expressing tumors, including those refractory to, or relapsed from, approved checkpoint inhibitor therapies.
The IND for INBRX-105 became effective in October 2018, and we initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial in February 2019. We expect to announce initial dose escalation data from this ongoing trial during the first half of 2021 and initial expansion cohort data in late 2021.
INBRX-101
INBRX-101 is a precisely engineered recombinant human AAT-Fc fusion protein therapeutic candidate, in development for the treatment of AATD. The current standard of care for patients with AATD has been unchanged for decades and relies on weekly infusions of plasma derived AAT, or pdAAT, therapeutics. In spite of the frequent dosing, this therapy is incapable of maintaining serum AAT levels in the normal range for individuals unaffected by the disease.
Combining proprietary protein engineering with robust process development in INBRX-101, we are seeking to overcome the previous challenge in this field of maintaining the function of recombinant AAT, while manufacturing at commercial scale. We believe INBRX-101 has the potential to be dosed every three weeks, while maintaining patients in the normal range of AAT exposure, which would be a significant improvement for patients currently receiving weekly infusions and sub-optimal augmentation.
The IND for INBRX-101 became effective in November 2018, and we initiated a Phase 1 dose escalation clinical trial in July 2019. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily suspended enrollment for this trial and expect to resume recruitment during the fourth quarter of 2020. This temporary suspension was not a result of an observation of adverse events and was solely related to circumstances relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Assuming enrollment resumes as we currently anticipate, we expect to announce initial Phase 1 data, including both single and multi-dose cohorts, during the second half of 2021.
In May 2019, we entered into an option agreement, as amended in August 2019, or the Chiesi Option Agreement, with Chiesi, pursuant to which we granted Chiesi an exclusive option to obtain an exclusive license to develop and commercialize INBRX-101 outside of the United States and Canada following completion of the Phase 1 trial.
Our Leadership Team and Investors
We have assembled a team with deep scientific and clinical experience in discovering and developing protein therapeutics. Our in-house capabilities span the disciplines of discovery, protein engineering, cell biology, translational research, chemistry, manufacturing and controls, or CMC, and clinical development. Members of our team bring experience from multiple organizations including Genentech, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc., Merck & Co. and Novartis AG. Our board of directors is comprised of individuals with proven business and scientific accomplishments and significant operating knowledge of our company.
We have raised capital through equity and debt financings and licensing and collaboration agreements. We have also secured funding through non-dilutive grants from Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Accelerator, or CARB-X, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense. Our investors include Viking Global Investors LP, ArrowMark Partners, RA Capital Healthcare Fund, L.P., Lilly Asia Ventures, WuXi Biologics (Hong Kong) Limited and Alexandria Venture Investments, among others.

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Our Strategy
Our mission is to discover and develop effective biologic treatments for people with life-threatening conditions and to evolve Inhibrx into a commercial-stage biotechnology company with a differentiated and sustainable product portfolio by focusing on the following:
Apply our sdAb platform and other protein technologies to create differentiated therapeutics in focused disease areas with particular emphasis on oncology.
Maintain our culture of innovation, execution and efficiency.
Maximize the potential of our therapeutic pipeline by retaining rights as well as selectively entering into additional strategic partnerships depending on the therapeutic candidate, indication and geography.
Selectively enter into additional strategic partnerships to maximize the potential of our protein engineering technologies in non-core areas or indications ancillary to oncology.

Convertible Note Financings
In May 2019, we sold and issued a convertible promissory note in the aggregate principal amount of $40.0 million, or the 2019 Note, to DRAGSA 50 LLC, an entity affiliated with Viking Global Investors LP, or Viking, in a private placement transaction. The 2019 Note began to accrue interest on February 15, 2020. In April 2020, we sold and issued additional convertible promissory notes in the aggregate principal amount of $15.0 million, or the 2020 Notes, to Viking and certain other accredited investors, in a private placement transaction. The 2019 Note was amended in connection with the sale and issuance of the 2020 Notes to align both maturity dates to March 31, 2022. Assuming a conversion date of              , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $     per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note will automatically convert and settle into              shares of our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering at a conversion price of $      per share, and the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes will automatically convert and settle into              shares of our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering at a conversion price of $      per share. Based on the conversions described above and the number of shares outstanding immediately after this offering described in the section of this prospectus titled “Prospectus Summary-The Offering,” the holder of the 2019 Note will own approximately             % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after the completion of this offering and the holders of the 2020 Notes will own approximately             % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after the completion of this offering.
Risks Associated with Our Business
Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors.” These risks include, among others, the following:
We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. Our history of recurring losses and anticipated expenditures for clinical development raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
Biotechnology product development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of uncertainty. We have never generated any revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
Our therapeutic candidates are in early stages of development and may fail or suffer delays that materially and adversely affect their commercial viability, and the results of any preclinical studies or clinical trials may not be predictive of the results of later clinical trials. If we, or our collaboration partners, are unable to advance our therapeutic candidates through clinical development, obtain regulatory approval and ultimately commercialize our therapeutic candidates, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
The regulatory approval processes of the United States Food and Drug Administration and comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our therapeutic candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

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We will need substantial additional funding in order to complete the development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates.
We rely on third parties to conduct all of our clinical trials, certain of our preclinical studies and for the manufacture of our therapeutic candidates and intend to continue to do so. If these third parties do not perform as contractually required, fail to satisfy regulatory or legal requirements or miss expected deadlines, our development programs could be delayed with material and adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If we are not able to obtain and enforce patent protection for our technologies or therapeutic candidates, development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates may be adversely affected.
We face significant competition and if our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the therapeutic candidates we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.
Our clinical trials, regulatory approval prospects, access to capital, performance of third parties and our business may be adversely affected by circumstances and uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Corporate and Other Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on November 17, 2017 under the name Tenium Therapeutics, Inc. In April 2018, we changed our name to Inhibrx, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 11025 N. Torrey Pines Road, Suite 200, La Jolla, CA 92037, and our telephone number is (858) 795-4220. Our website address is www.inhibrx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.
The mark “Inhibrx” is our registered trademark. All other service marks, trademarks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other companies.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company
We are an emerging growth company as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (i) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering; (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion; (iii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700.0 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of such fiscal year; or (iv) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period.
An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting requirements and is relieved of certain other significant requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. Those provisions include, but are not limited to:
being permitted to present in this prospectus only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited condensed financial statements for any interim period, with correspondingly reduced Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations disclosure;
not being required to comply with the requirement to obtain an attestation and report from our auditors on the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
reduced disclosure obligations regarding our executive compensation arrangements; and
exemptions from the requirements of holding stockholder non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.

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We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and we may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in the future. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different than, and not comparable to, information presented by other public reporting companies.
In addition, we have irrevocably elected not to take advantage of the extended transition period afforded by the JOBS Act for the implementation of new or revised accounting standards until the earlier of the date that we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Exchange Act, and have elected to take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies. We may be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company.

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The Offering
Common stock offered by us
            shares.
 
 
Underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares of common stock
The underwriters have an option, exercisable within 30 days of the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to              additional shares of our common stock.
 
 
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
            shares (or              shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).
 
 
Use of proceeds
We estimate the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $      million (or $     million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full), assuming an initial public offering price of $              per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, to fund our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trials for each of our four therapeutic candidates (INBRX-109, INBRX-106, INBRX-105 and INBRX-101) to initial data, and for related manufacturing scale-up activities for each, as well as for our other research and development activities, working capital and other general corporate purposes. See the section of this prospectus titled “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.
 
 
Risk factors
You should read the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
 
 
Proposed Nasdaq Global Market symbol
“INBX”
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 31,555,556 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and gives further effect to (i) the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock as of June 30, 2020 into 12,534,331 shares of our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering and (ii) the automatic conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note at an assumed conversion price of $     per share into          shares of our common stock and the conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes at an assumed conversion price of $     per share into              shares of our common stock (as described in greater detail in the section of this prospectus titled “Prospectus Summary-Convertible Note Financings”), and excludes:
4,020,289 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.31 per share;
335,266 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2017 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan, as amended, or the 2017 Plan, as of June 30, 2020;
              shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants issued on July 15, 2020 at an exercise price of $      per share; and

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any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the Amended and Restated 2017 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan to be in effect following this offering.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information contained in this prospectus assumes or gives effect to:
the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock as of June 30, 2020 into 12,534,331 shares of common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering;
the automatic conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note at a conversion price of $     per share into            shares of our common stock and the automatic conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes at a conversion price of $      per share into              shares of our common stock (assuming a conversion date of           , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $           per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);
no exercise of the outstanding options or warrants described above;
no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional              shares of our common stock;
the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws prior to the completion of this offering; and
a one-for-             reverse stock split of our common stock effected on           , 2020.


9


Summary Consolidated Financial Data
The following tables set forth a summary of our historical financial data as of, and for the periods ended on, the dates indicated. We have derived the summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the summary condensed consolidated statement of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and the summary condensed consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared on a basis consistent with our audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments that are necessary for the fair presentation of the financial information in those statements. The summary consolidated financial data included in this section are not intended to replace the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. You should read the following summary consolidated financial data together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the sections of this prospectus titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results that should be expected in the future and our results for the six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of results that should be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020.

10


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,  
 
SIX MONTHS ENDED
JUNE 30,
 
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License fee revenue
$
7,500

 
$
9,093

 
$
8,032

 
$
4,206

Grant revenue
1,095

 
4,118

 
3,697

 
5

Total revenue
8,595

 
13,211

 
11,729

 
4,211

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
33,454

 
47,907

 
22,839

 
35,990

General and administrative
4,654

 
6,257

 
3,103

 
2,999

Abandoned offering costs

 
2,761

 

 

Total operating expenses
38,108

 
56,925

 
25,942

 
38,989

Total other expense
(1,412
)
 
(6,788
)
 
(721
)
 
(3,200
)
Provision for income taxes
96

 
898

 
(2
)
 

Net loss
(31,021
)
 
(51,400
)
 
(14,932
)
 
(37,978
)
Accretion to redemption value of redeemable non-controlling interest
(737
)
 

 

 

Less: net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
595

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to Inhibrx, Inc.
$
(31,163
)
 
$
(51,400
)
 
$
(14,932
)
 
$
(37,978
)
Net loss per share attributable to Inhibrx, Inc., basic and diluted(1)
$
(0.99
)
 
$
(1.63
)
 
$
(0.47
)
 
$
(1.20
)
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding, basic and diluted(1)
31,556

 
31,556

 
31,556

 
31,556

Pro forma net loss per share, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
 
 
$
 
 
 
$
Pro forma weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for a description of how we compute basic and diluted net loss per share, basic and diluted unaudited pro forma net loss per share, and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of these per share amounts.

11


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AS OF JUNE 30, 2020
 
ACTUAL 
 
PRO FORMA(1) 
 
PRO FORMA AS
ADJUSTED(2) 
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
Cash
$
5,632

 
$        
 
$        
Total assets
21,301

 
            
 
            
Debt

 
            
 
            
Paycheck Protection Program loan
1,875

 
 
 
 
Convertible notes
44,658

 
            
 
            
Total liabilities
88,338

 
            
 
            
Convertible preferred stock
59,507

 
            
 
            
Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity
(126,544
)
 
            
 
            
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
The pro forma consolidated balance sheet data gives effect to (i) the conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock into shares of common stock prior to the completion of this offering; (ii) the conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes into              shares of our common stock, assuming a conversion date of         , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus (for more details, see the section of this prospectus titled “Prospectus Summary–Convertible Note Financings”); (iii) the receipt of $10.0 million of borrowings under a new loan and security agreement, or the 2020 Loan Agreement, with Oxford Finance LLC, or Oxford, entered into in July 2020; and (iv) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering. The pro forma information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.
(2)
The pro forma consolidated as adjusted balance sheet data gives effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth in footnote (1) above and (ii) the issuance and sale of              shares of our common stock in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, total assets and total stockholders’ (deficit) equity by approximately             , assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. Each increase or decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares we are offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amounts of each of cash, total assets and total stockholders’ (deficit) equity by approximately             , after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

12


RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before investing in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that affect us. If any of the following risks occur, our business, operating results and prospects could be materially harmed. In that event, the price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital
We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. Our history of recurring losses and anticipated expenditures for clinical development raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company. To date, we have financed our operations through equity and debt financings, license and milestone revenue and grants. We have incurred significant recurring operating losses since our inception. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, our net loss was $31.0 million and $51.4 million, respectively. Our net loss for the six months ended June 30, 2020 was $38.0 million. As of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $69.3 million and $107.2 million, respectively. We expect to incur additional losses in future years as we execute our plan to continue our discovery, research and development activities, including the manufacturing of and ongoing and planned preclinical and clinical development of our therapeutic candidates, and as we incur the additional costs of operating as a public company. We are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when we will become profitable, if ever. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.
As a result of the above, management concluded that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans to address this uncertainty are discussed in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements. The report of our independent registered public accountant on our financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 also includes explanatory language describing the existence of substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. There have been no adjustments to the accompanying financial statements to reflect this uncertainty.
Biotechnology product development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of uncertainty. We have never generated any revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
We have devoted substantially all of our financial resources and efforts to developing our therapeutic candidates, identifying potential therapeutic candidates and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials. We are still in the early stages of developing our therapeutic candidates, and we have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully conduct or complete any clinical trials, including large-scale, pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approval, manufacture a commercial scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Consequently, we have no meaningful operations upon which to evaluate our business and predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had more experience developing therapeutic candidates. We previously entered into an option agreement, dated August 19, 2019, by and between Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., or Chiesi, and us, or the Chiesi Option Agreement, and a license agreement, or the Celgene Agreement, with Celgene Corporation, a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or Celgene. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability, including any revenue we may receive pursuant to the Chiesi Option Agreement or the Celgene Agreement, depends in large part on our ability, alone or with license partners, to achieve milestones and to successfully complete the development of, obtain the necessary regulatory approvals for, and commercialize, our therapeutic candidates. For example,while we believe it is possible Celgene may incorporate our proprietary CD47 binding domain, or the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property, into a multispecific format with another antibody for future development pursuant to the Celgene Agreement, this may not occur. We

13


believe it is unlikely we will receive additional milestone payments pursuant to the Celgene Agreement unless Celgene develops a therapeutic candidate under the Celgene Agreement and advances that therapeutic candidate beyond Phase 1 clinical trials. Even if we achieve development or commercial milestones, generate product royalties or generate product sales, including any milestones and royalties we may be eligible to receive pursuant to the Celgene Agreement or the Chiesi Option Agreement, we may never achieve or sustain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. We do not anticipate generating revenue from sales of products for the foreseeable future. Our ability to generate future revenue from product sales depends heavily on our and our collaborators’ success in:
completing clinical trials through all phases of clinical development of our current therapeutic candidates, including INBRX-109, INBRX-106, INBRX-105, and INBRX-101;
advancing into clinical development our preclinical therapeutic candidates;
seeking and obtaining marketing approvals for our therapeutic candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
obtaining satisfactory acceptance, formulary placement coverage and adequate reimbursement for our approved products from third-party payors, including private health insurers, managed care providers and governmental payor programs, including Medicare and Medicaid;
launching and commercializing products for which we obtain marketing approval, with a collaborator or, if launched independently, successfully establishing a sales force, marketing and distribution infrastructure;
establishing and maintaining supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties;
obtaining market acceptance of any approved products by physicians, patients, third-party payors and the medical community;
maintaining, protecting, expanding and enforcing our intellectual property portfolio;
implementing additional internal systems and infrastructure, as needed; and
attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with biological product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. If we are required by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, or other comparable foreign authorities to perform preclinical studies or clinical trials in addition to those we currently anticipate, or if there are any delays in completing our clinical trials or the development of any of our therapeutic candidates, our expenses could increase and revenue could be further delayed.
We expect we will need to raise substantial additional funds to advance development of our therapeutic candidates, and we cannot guarantee this additional funding will be available on acceptable terms or at all. Failure to obtain this funding when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate our development efforts and, if any of our therapeutic candidates are approved, our commercialization efforts.
As of June 30, 2020, we had $5.6 million in cash. Additionally, we received $10.0 million in proceeds from borrowings under the 2020 Loan Agreement with Oxford entered into in July 2020. We expect our expenses to increase in future years as we execute our plan to continue our discovery, research and development activities, including the ongoing and planned preclinical and clinical development of our therapeutic candidates, and as we incur the additional costs of operating as a public company. Identifying potential therapeutic candidates and conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials are time consuming, expensive and uncertain processes that take years to complete, and we, or our collaborators, may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain regulatory approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our therapeutic candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success.
We believe that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, will be sufficient to fund our planned operations through             . However, changing circumstances or inaccurate estimates by us may cause us to use capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of circumstances beyond our control. For example, our current and our planned preclinical studies and clinical trials for our current therapeutic candidates or other therapeutic candidates we may seek to develop may encounter technical, enrollment or other issues that could cause our development costs to increase more than we expect. Because successful development of our therapeutic candidates is uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds we will require to complete research and development and

14


commercialize our therapeutic candidates. Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and market conditions and other factors, over which we may have no or limited control. In addition, our ability to obtain future funding when needed through equity financings, debt financings or strategic collaborations may be particularly challenging in light of the uncertainties and circumstances regarding the COVID-19 pandemic (as defined below).
If adequate funds are not available on commercially acceptable terms when needed, we may be forced to delay, reduce or terminate the development or commercialization of all or part of our research programs or clinical therapeutic candidates, or we may be unable to take advantage of future business opportunities. In addition, any additional capital raising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our current and future therapeutic candidates.
Raising additional capital by issuing equity or debt securities may cause dilution to existing stockholders, and raising funds through lending and licensing or collaboration agreements may restrict our operations or require us to relinquish proprietary rights.
Until such time as we can generate substantial revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity and debt financings, strategic collaborations and license and development agreements. We do not have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our existing stockholders’ ownership may experience substantial dilution, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a stockholder. Equity and debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as redeeming our shares, making investments, incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.
The incurrence of indebtedness could result in increased fixed payment obligations and we may be required to agree to certain restrictive covenants therein, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business. For example, we are currently subject to a variety of affirmative and negative covenants under the existing 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes, including covenants that restrict our ability to declare dividends or incur additional indebtedness. These covenants remain in effect until the conversion of these notes upon completion of this offering. Additionally, in July 2020, we borrowed $10.0 million under the 2020 Loan Agreement with Oxford, which, as further described below, also has covenants restricting our ability to declare dividends or incur additional indebtedness that will remain in effect upon completion of this offering
If we raise additional capital through collaborations, strategic alliances or third-party licensing agreements, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our intellectual property, future revenue streams, research programs or therapeutics candidates, or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional capital through equity or debt financings when needed (including if we are unable to do so as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic), we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts, or grant rights to develop and market therapeutic candidates that we would otherwise develop and market ourselves.
Our management concluded that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
Our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019 and unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 were prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern. However, we made a determination that there was substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern for the 12-month period following July 27, 2020. Our history of recurring losses and anticipated expenditures for clinical development raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Similarly, the report of our independent registered public accounting firm on our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019 includes explanatory language describing the existence of substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
Such language could materially limit our ability to raise additional funds through the issuance of new equity or debt securities or otherwise. As previously discussed, there is no assurance that sufficient financing will be available when needed to allow us to continue as a going concern. The perception that we may not be able to

15


continue as a going concern may also make it more difficult to operate our business due to concerns about our ability to meet our contractual obligations. Our ability to continue as a going concern is contingent upon, among other factors, the sale of the shares of our common stock in this offering or obtaining alternate financing. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital.
If we are unable to secure additional capital or are unable to secure additional capital when needed, we may be required to curtail our research and development initiatives and take additional measures to reduce costs in order to conserve our cash in amounts sufficient to sustain operations and meet our obligations. These measures could cause significant delays in our clinical and regulatory efforts, which are critical to the realization of our business plan.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that may be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern. If we cannot continue as a viable entity, you may lose some or all of your investment.
Risks Related to the Development, Clinical Testing and Commercialization of Our Therapeutic Candidates
Our therapeutic candidates are in early stages of development and may fail or suffer delays that materially and adversely affect their commercial viability. If we, or our collaborators, are unable to advance our therapeutic candidates through clinical development, obtain regulatory approval and ultimately commercialize our therapeutic candidates, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
We are early in our development efforts, with only four therapeutic candidates currently in clinical trials (INBRX-109, INBRX-106, INBRX-105 and INBRX-101). We have no products on the market and our ability to achieve and sustain profitability depends on obtaining regulatory approvals for and successfully commercializing our therapeutic candidates, either alone or with our collaborators. Before obtaining regulatory approval for the commercial distribution of our therapeutic candidates, we, or our collaborators, must conduct extensive preclinical tests and clinical trials to demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy of our therapeutic candidates in patients. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process and our future clinical trial results may not be successful. As a result, we may not have the financial resources to continue development of, or to modify existing or to enter into new license or collaboration for, a therapeutic candidate if we experience any issues that delay or prevent regulatory approval of, or our ability to commercialize, our therapeutic candidates, including:
negative or inconclusive results from our clinical trials, the clinical trials of our collaborators or the clinical trials of others for therapeutic candidates similar to ours, leading to a decision or requirement to conduct additional preclinical testing or clinical trials or abandon a program;
therapeutic-related side effects experienced by participants in our clinical trials, the clinical trials of our collaborators or by individuals using drugs or therapeutic biologics similar to our therapeutic candidates;
delays in submitting Investigational New Drug applications, or INDs, or comparable foreign applications or delays or failure in obtaining the necessary approvals from regulators to commence a clinical trial, or a suspension or termination of a clinical trial once commenced;
conditions imposed by the FDA or comparable foreign authorities regarding the scope or design of our clinical trials;
delays in enrolling research subjects or high drop-out rates of research subjects enrolled in clinical trials;
delays or difficulties in our clinical trials due to quarantines or other restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, including further delays or suspensions in enrollment in our Phase 1 clinical trial for INBRX-101;
unfavorable FDA or other regulatory agency inspection and review of a clinical trial site or the manufacturing location(s) for a therapeutic candidate;
inadequate supply or quality of therapeutic candidate clinical material or other raw materials or supplies necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials or the clinical trials of our collaborators;
delay in the development or approval of companion diagnostic tests for our therapeutic candidates;
failure of our third-party contractors or investigators to comply with regulatory requirements or otherwise meet their contractual obligations in a timely manner, or at all;

16


delays and changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines, including the imposition of additional regulatory oversight for human clinical testing generally or with respect to our technology in particular; or
varying interpretations of data by the FDA and similar foreign regulatory agencies.
The therapeutic candidates we or our collaborators pursue may not demonstrate the necessary safety or efficacy requirements for regulatory approval. Further, a clinical trial may be suspended or terminated by us, our collaborators, the Institutional Review Boards of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, the Data Safety Monitoring Board for such trial or by the FDA or other regulatory authorities due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug or therapeutic biologic, changes in governmental regulations, administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. Clinical holds may be placed prior to a clinical trial even beginning, in order to address potential safety and risk concerns of regulatory authorities, and partial or complete clinical holds can be imposed at any time during a trial. Furthermore, we expect to rely on contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites to ensure proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and while we expect to enter into and have entered into agreements governing those CROs’ committed activities, we have limited influence over their actual performance.
If we or our collaborators experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our therapeutic candidates, the commercial prospects of our therapeutic candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenue or receive royalties from any of these therapeutic candidates will be delayed. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our product development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenue. If we were to cancel the development of any of our therapeutic candidates, we may still be required to pay certain non-cancellable commitments to our CROs under the terms of our various CRO contracts. Our approach to protein engineering is novel and unproven, and as such, the cost, time needed to develop and likelihood of success of our therapeutic candidates may be more uncertain than if we employed more established drug development approaches. Any of these occurrences may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our therapeutic candidates.
The results of preclinical studies and early stage clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may not be predictive of the results of later stage clinical trials. Initial results or observations in our ongoing clinical trials may not be indicative of results obtained when these trials are completed or in later stage trials.
Success in preclinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later and pivotal clinical trials will generate the same results, or otherwise provide adequate data to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of a therapeutic candidate. Frequently, therapeutic candidates that have shown promising results in preclinical studies or early clinical trials have subsequently suffered significant setbacks in later or pivotal clinical trials. The initiation of registration-enabling trials for INBRX-109 (in 2021 or otherwise), or for any of our other therapeutic candidates, is and would be predicated on positive Phase 1 trial results. Our therapeutic candidates in clinical trials, including INBRX-109, INBRX-106, INBRX-105 and INBRX-101, may ultimately fail to show the desired safety and efficacy in clinical trials despite having progressed through preclinical studies and despite any initial observations of single agent activity, stable disease or partial responses. There can be no assurance that any of our clinical trials will ultimately be successful or support further clinical development, including development in registration-enabling trials, of any of our therapeutic candidates. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical development even after achieving promising results in earlier studies, and any of these setbacks in our clinical development could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
Our therapeutic candidates may cause undesirable side effects that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.
Undesirable side effects caused by our therapeutic candidates could cause us, our collaborators or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or

17


denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Results of our clinical trials or the clinical trials of our collaborators could reveal a high and unacceptable severity of adverse side effects and it is possible that patients enrolled in these clinical trials could respond in unexpected ways. For instance, INBRX-109, INBRX-106, and INBRX-105 are all therapeutic candidates targeting oncology indications that are clinically evaluated in very sick populations, and INBRX-101 is a therapeutic candidate focused on Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, or AATD, a rare disease with a relatively small patient population. It may be difficult to establish safety and efficacy in these types of patient populations. Further, we intend to develop certain of our therapeutic candidates in combination with one or more cancer therapies. This combination may have additional side effects that were not present in preclinical studies or clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates conducted as a monotherapy or in combination with other cancer therapies. The uncertainty resulting from the use of our therapeutic candidates in combination with other cancer therapies may make it difficult to accurately predict side effects in future clinical trials.
If our clinical trials or the clinical trials of our collaborators reveal adverse side effects, our trials or the clinical trials of our collaborators could be suspended or terminated and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could impose a clinical hold, order us to cease further development of or deny approval of our therapeutic candidates for any or all targeted indications. Such side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Further, clinical trials by their nature utilize a sample of the potential patient population. Rare and severe side effects of our therapeutic candidates may only be uncovered with a significantly larger number of patients exposed to our therapeutic candidates.
In the event that any of our therapeutic candidates receives regulatory approval and we, our collaborators or others identify undesirable side effects caused by a product or any other similar therapeutics, any of the following adverse events could occur:
regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product;
additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component of the product;
we may be subject to fines, injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties;
regulatory authorities may require the addition of safety-related labeling statements, such as a “black box” warning or a contraindication;
we may be required to create a Medication Guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients or to implement other aspects of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, such as a restricted distribution program or educational programs for prescribers;
we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;
the product may become less competitive; and
our reputation may suffer.
In addition, adverse side effects caused by any therapeutics that may be similar in nature to our therapeutic candidates could delay or prevent regulatory approval of our therapeutic candidates, limit the commercial profile of an approved label for our therapeutic candidates, or result in significant negative consequences for our therapeutic candidates following marketing approval.
We believe that any of the above described events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of our therapeutic candidates, if approved, and could delay, impede and/or substantially increase the costs of commercializing our therapeutic candidates thus significantly impacting our ability to successfully commercialize our therapeutic candidates and generate revenue. Any of the above described occurrences may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We expect to develop certain of our therapeutic candidates in combination with other therapies, and safety or supply issues with combination use products may delay or prevent development and approval of our therapeutic candidates.
We intend to develop certain of our therapeutic candidates in combination with one or more approved or investigational cancer therapies. Even if any therapeutic candidate we develop were to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with our product or that safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply

18


issues could arise with any of those existing therapies. If the therapies we use in combination with our therapeutic candidates are replaced as the standard of care for the indications we choose for any of our therapeutic candidates, the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States may require us to conduct additional clinical trials. The occurrence of any of these risks could result in our own products, if approved, being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.
We also may evaluate our therapeutic candidates in combination with one or more cancer therapies that have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. We will not be able to market and sell any therapeutic candidate we develop in combination with an unapproved cancer therapy if that unapproved cancer therapy does not ultimately obtain marketing approval. In addition, unapproved cancer therapies face the same risks described with respect to our therapeutic candidates currently in development and clinical trials, including the potential for serious adverse effects, delay in their clinical trials and lack of FDA approval.
If the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States do not approve these other drugs or revoke their approval of, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing, or supply issues arise with, the drugs we choose to evaluate in combination our therapeutic candidates, we may be unable to obtain approval of or market any such therapeutic candidate.
If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.
We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our therapeutic candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. We may have particular difficulty enrolling patients for our clinical trials for INBRX-101. In particular, patients with AATD are particularly susceptible to COVID-19 and the physicians acting as clinical investigators for our clinical sites are otherwise engaged with treating COVID-19 patients. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily suspended enrollment for our trial for INBRX-101. Should any competitors have ongoing clinical trials for therapeutic candidates treating the same indications as our therapeutic candidates, patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials may instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ therapeutic candidates.
Patient enrollment is affected by other factors including:
the severity of the disease under investigation;
the patient eligibility criteria for the study in question;
the perceived risks and benefits of the therapeutic candidate under study;
our payments for conducting clinical trials;
the patient referral practices of physicians; and
the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.
Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for any of our clinical trials could result in significant delays and could require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our therapeutic candidates and in delays to commercially launching our therapeutic candidates, if approved, which would materially harm our business.

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If we do not achieve our projected development and commercialization goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, the commercialization of any of our therapeutic candidates may be delayed, and our business will be harmed.
Elsewhere in this prospectus we have provided a number of timing estimates regarding the initiation of clinical trials and clinical development milestones, and the expected availability of data resulting from these trials for certain of our therapeutic candidates. We expect to continue to estimate the timing of these types of development milestones and our expected timing for the accomplishment of various other scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development objectives. From time to time following the completion of this offering, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these events. However, the achievement of many of these milestones and events may be outside of our control. All of these timing estimations are based on a variety of assumptions we make which may cause the actual timing of these events to differ from the timing we expect, including
our available capital resources and our ability to obtain additional funding as needed;
the rate of progress, costs and results of our clinical trials and research and development activities;
our ability to identify and enroll patients who meet clinical trial eligibility criteria;
our receipt of approvals by the FDA, EMA and other regulatory authorities and the timing of these approvals;
our ability to access sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of materials used in the manufacture of our therapeutic candidates;
the efforts of our collaborators and licensees, including Celgene, with respect to the commercialization of our therapeutics;
the securing of, costs related to, and timing issues associated with, manufacturing our therapeutic candidates and, if any of our therapeutic candidates are approved, associated with sales and marketing activities and the commercial manufacture of our therapeutic candidates; and
circumstances arising from or relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential effects on the global supply chain, our manufacturers and the availability of raw materials needed for the research and development of our therapeutic candidates.
If we fail to achieve announced milestones in the timeframes we expect, the commercialization of any of our therapeutic candidates may be delayed, and our business and results of operations may be harmed and our stock price may decline.
Initial, interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we may announce, observe or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.
As noted in this prospectus, we expect from time to time, to publish initial, interim, topline or preliminary data from our clinical trials. In particular, we noted observed signs of partial responses and stable disease in initial data from our Phase 1 clinical trial for INRBRX-109 and noted observed signs of partial responses, disease control and tumor regression in initial data from our Phase 1 clinical trial for INBRX-106. Our clinical trials are also conducted as “open-label” trials. An open-label trial is one where both the patient and investigator know whether the patient is receiving the therapeutic candidate and where we have access to trial data on an ongoing basis during the trial. This initial data from INBRX-109 and INBRX-106 and other initial, interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we may publish from time to time or that we may observe on an ongoing basis in our open-label trials may change as more patient data become available and are not necessarily predictive of final results. Preliminary and interim data are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues, more patient data become available and we issue our final clinical trial report. Initial, interim, topline and preliminary data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, initial, interim, topline and preliminary data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. Material adverse changes in the final data compared to the interim data could significantly harm our business prospects.

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The market opportunities for any current or future therapeutic candidate we develop, if and when approved, may be limited to those patients who are ineligible for established therapies or for whom prior therapies have failed, and may be small.
Cancer therapies are sometimes characterized as first-, second-, or third-line, and the FDA often approves new therapies initially only for third-line use. When cancer is detected early enough, first-line therapy, usually chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of these, is sometimes adequate to cure the cancer or prolong life without a cure. Second- and third-line therapies are administered to patients when prior therapy is not effective. We expect to initially seek approval of certain of our therapeutic candidates as a therapy for patients who have received one or more prior treatments. Subsequently, for those products that prove to be sufficiently beneficial, if any, we would expect to seek approval potentially as a first-line therapy, but there is no guarantee that therapeutic candidates we develop, even if approved, would be approved for first-line therapy, and, prior to any such approvals, we may have to conduct additional clinical trials.
The number of patients who have the cancers we are targeting may turn out to be lower than expected. Additionally, the potentially addressable patient population for our current programs or future therapeutic candidates may be limited, if and when approved. Even if we obtain significant market share for any therapeutic candidate, if and when approved, if the potential target populations are small, we may never achieve profitability without obtaining marketing approval for additional indications, including to be used as first- or second-line therapy.
We rely on third parties to conduct all of our clinical trials and certain of our preclinical studies and intend to continue to do so. If these third parties do not perform as contractually required, fail to satisfy regulatory or legal requirements or miss expected deadlines, our development programs could be delayed with material and adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
While we expect to continue our current clinical trials and expect to initiate clinical trials in the near term for many of our therapeutic candidates, we do not have the ability to independently conduct clinical trials. As such, we currently rely and intend to continue to rely on third-party clinical investigators, CROs, clinical data management organizations and consultants to help us design, conduct, supervise and monitor clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates. As a result, we will have less control over the timing, quality and other aspects of our clinical trials than we would have had we conducted them on our own. There is a limited number of third party service providers that specialize or have the expertise required to achieve our business objectives. If any of our relationships with these third-party CROs or clinical investigators terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or investigators or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. Further, these investigators, CROs and consultants are not our employees and we have limited control over the amount of time and resources that they dedicate to our programs. These third parties may have contractual relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors, which may draw time and resources from our programs. The third parties with which we contract might not be diligent, careful or timely in conducting our preclinical studies or clinical trials. These third parties may also be susceptible to disruption as a result of health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic or periods of societal unrest. We currently retain CROs located in Hong Kong. These CROs may be negatively affected by, or subject to disruption arising from, the societal unrest and regulatory regime change related to China’s recent passage of a national security law exerting additional control by mainland China over activities in Hong Kong. If we cannot contract with acceptable third parties on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or if these third parties do not carry out their contractual duties, satisfy the legal and regulatory requirements for the conduct of preclinical studies or clinical trials or meet expected deadlines for any reason, our clinical development programs could be delayed and otherwise adversely affected.
In all events, we will be responsible for ensuring that each of our preclinical studies and clinical trials are conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. The FDA requires preclinical studies to be conducted in accordance with good laboratory practices and clinical trials to be conducted in accordance with good clinical practices, or GCPs, including for designing, conducting, recording and reporting the results of preclinical studies and clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of clinical trial participants are protected. Our reliance on third parties we do not control will not relieve us of these responsibilities and requirements. Any adverse development or delay in our clinical trials could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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We are dependent on Celgene for the successful development, manufacture and commercialization of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. If Celgene does not devote sufficient resources to the development, manufacture and commercialization of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property, is unsuccessful in its efforts, or chooses to terminate the Celgene Agreement with us, we may not receive any further proceeds from the Celgene Agreement and our business could be materially harmed.
Pursuant to the terms of the Celgene Agreement, we have exclusively licensed (even as to us) to Celgene the right to develop, manufacture and commercialize the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. Celgene is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to clinically develop and commercialize the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. However, Celgene may ultimately determine it is not commercially reasonable to continue development of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. This outcome could occur for many reasons, including internal business reasons or because of unfavorable regulatory feedback. Further, on review of any safety and efficacy data then available for potential candidates relating to the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property, the FDA may impose requirements on a clinical trial program that would render the program commercially nonviable. In the event of any such decision, we would be unable to advance such program ourselves.
Per the terms of the Celgene Agreement, Celgene has full control and authority over the development and commercialization of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. We may disagree with Celgene about the development strategy it employs, but we will have limited rights to impose our preferred development strategy on Celgene. Celgene may elect to discontinue the development of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property.
The Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property may not be scientifically or commercially successful for us due to a number of important factors, including the following:
Celgene has wide discretion in determining the efforts and resources that it will apply to its development, manufacture and commercialization of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. The timing and amount of any development milestones, regulatory milestones and royalties that we may receive under the Celgene Agreement will depend on, among other things, Celgene’s efforts, allocation of resources and successful development and commercialization of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property and the other antibodies that are the subject of the Celgene Agreement;
Celgene may terminate the Celgene Agreement without cause and for circumstances outside of our control, which could make it difficult for us to attract new strategic partners or adversely affect how we are perceived in scientific and financial communities;
Celgene may develop or commercialize the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property in such a way as to elicit litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property rights or expose us to potential liability; and
Celgene may not comply with all applicable regulatory requirements, or may fail to report safety data in accordance with all applicable regulatory requirements.
If Celgene were to breach the Celgene Agreement, we may need to enforce our right to terminate the Celgene Agreement in legal proceedings, which could be costly and cause delay in our ability to receive our rights back to develop and commercialize the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. If we were to terminate the Celgene Agreement due to Celgene’s breach or if Celgene terminated the Celgene Agreement without cause upon 30 days’ written notice, the development and commercialization of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property could be delayed, curtailed or terminated. Additionally, even if the Celgene Agreement is terminated, we may not be able to dispose of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property in a strategic transaction without Celgene’s consent.
Celgene became a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company in November 2019. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company may again enter into one or more transactions with third parties, including other mergers, consolidations, reorganizations, sale of substantial assets, sales of substantial stock or other changes in control involving Celgene. These types of transactions could divert the attention of Celgene’s management and adversely affect Celgene’s ability to retain and motivate key personnel who are important to the continued development of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. In addition, the third party to any such transaction could determine to reprioritize Celgene’s development programs such that Celgene ceases to diligently pursue the development of the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property, and/or cause the Celgene Agreement to terminate. If Celgene does not devote sufficient resources to the development, manufacture and commercialization of the Celgene Licensed

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Intellectual Property, is unsuccessful in its efforts, or chooses to terminate the Celgene Agreement with us, we may not receive any further proceeds from the Celgene Agreement and our business could be materially harmed.
We are currently party to license agreements with Elpiscience and Transcenta for the development and, if approved, commercialization of INBRX-105 and INBRX-106, and INBRX-109, respectively. We may in the future enter into additional collaborations with third parties to develop our therapeutic candidates, including collaborations with Chiesi if Chiesi exercises its option pursuant to the Chiesi Option Agreement. If these collaborations are not successful, our business could be harmed.
We are currently party to two different license agreements, or the Elpiscience Agreements, with Elpiscience Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., or Elpiscience, pursuant to which we granted Elpiscience exclusive licenses for the development and, if approved, commercialization of INBRX-105 and INBRX-106 in China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. We are also party to a license agreement, or the Transcenta License Agreement, with Transcenta Holding, Ltd. (formerly Hangzhou Just Biotherapeutics Co., Ltd.), or Transcenta, pursuant to which we granted Transcenta an exclusive license for the development and, if approved, commercialization of INBRX-109 in China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Ultimately, Chiesi may not exercise its option pursuant to the Chiesi Agreement. If Chiesi does not exercise its option under the Chiesi Agreement, we could incur additional expenses for the development, and if approved, the commercialization of INBRX-101. We may enter into additional collaborations with third parties in the future, including collaborations with Chiesi if Chiesi exercises its option pursuant to the Chiesi Option Agreement. Any collaborations that we are party to may pose several risks, including the following:
collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;
collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;
the clinical trials conducted as part of these collaborations may not be successful;
collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of any therapeutic candidates that achieve regulatory approval or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results;
changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;
collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for clinical trials, stop a clinical trial or abandon a therapeutic candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a therapeutic candidate for clinical testing;
we may not have access to, or may be restricted from disclosing, certain information regarding therapeutic candidates being developed or commercialized under a collaboration and, consequently, may have limited ability to inform our stockholders about the status of such therapeutic candidates;
collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our therapeutic candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;
therapeutic candidates developed in collaboration with us may be viewed by our collaborators as competitive with their own therapeutic candidates or products, which may cause collaborators to cease to devote, or limit, resources to the commercialization of our therapeutic candidates;
a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to one or more of our therapeutic candidates that achieve regulatory approval may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of any such therapeutic candidate;
collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;
disputes may arise with respect to the ownership of intellectual property developed pursuant to our collaborations;
collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and
collaborations may be terminated for the convenience of the collaborator and, if terminated, we could be required to raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable therapeutic candidates.

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In addition, we may have disagreements with these collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, collaborator performance, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development of any therapeutic candidates. For example, in May 2020, we notified Transcenta of potential disputes or disagreements regarding its performance under the Transcenta License Agreement. We are currently in discussions with Transcenta regarding these matters. This, or any other disagreement we may have with our collaborators, may cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our therapeutic candidates pursuant to the applicable agreement, may lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to our therapeutic candidates or may result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive and which would likely divert the attention of our management from our core research and development activities. These types of disputes could materially harm our financial condition and our business.
The manufacture of biotechnology products is complex, and manufacturers often encounter difficulties in production. If we or any of our third party manufacturers encounter such difficulties, or otherwise fail to comply with their contractual obligations, the development or commercialization of our therapeutic candidates could be delayed or stopped.
While we have found that our sdAb-based therapeutic candidates can be readily manufactured at high yields with established processes used to produce therapeutic proteins, the manufacture of biotechnology products is generally complex and requires significant expertise and capital investment. We and our contract manufacturers must comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, regulations and guidelines for clinical trial product manufacture and for commercial product manufacture. Manufacturers of biotechnology products often encounter difficulties in production, particularly in scaling up, addressing product quality, product comparability, validating production processes and mitigating potential sources of contamination. These problems include difficulties with raw material procurement, production costs and yields, quality control, product quality, including stability of the product, quality assurance testing, operator error, shortages of qualified personnel, as well as compliance with strictly enforced federal, state and foreign regulations. Furthermore, if microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in our therapeutics or in the manufacturing facilities in which our therapeutics are made, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination.
We cannot assure you that manufacturing problems, including supply chain disruptions of any of our therapeutic candidates or products will not occur in the future. Any delay or interruption in the supply of preclinical or clinical trial supplies, including any delays arising from circumstances related to the COVID-19 pandemic, could delay the completion of these trials, increase the costs associated with maintaining these trial programs and, depending upon the period of delay, require us to commence new trials at additional expense or terminate trials completely.
If we were to experience an unexpected loss of supply of or if any supplier were unable to meet our demand for any of our therapeutic candidates or future approved products, if any, we seek to commercialize, we could experience delays in our research or planned clinical studies or commercialization or be forced to stop our development or commercialization efforts. We could be unable to find alternative suppliers of acceptable quality, in the appropriate volumes and at an acceptable cost. Moreover, our suppliers are often subject to strict manufacturing requirements and rigorous testing requirements, which could limit or delay production. The long transition periods necessary to switch manufacturers and suppliers, if necessary, would significantly delay our clinical studies and the commercialization of our therapeutics, if approved, which would materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operation.
We rely on third parties to supply and manufacture our therapeutic candidates, and we expect to continue to rely on third parties to manufacture and supply our therapeutics, if approved. The development of therapeutic candidates and the commercialization of any therapeutic candidates, if approved, could be stopped, delayed or made less profitable if any of these third parties fail to provide us with sufficient quantities of therapeutic candidates or therapeutics, fail to do so at acceptable quality levels or prices, or fail to maintain or achieve satisfactory regulatory compliance.
We do not currently have, nor do we plan to acquire, the infrastructure or capability internally to manufacture our therapeutic candidates for use in the conduct of our trials or for commercial supply, if our therapeutics are approved. Instead, we rely on, and expect to continue to rely on third-party providers for the manufacturing of the supplies for our preclinical studies and clinical trials. We currently rely on a limited number of third-party

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contract manufacturers for all of our required raw materials, antibodies, and other biologics for our preclinical research, clinical trials, and presently have relationships with three suppliers for the manufacture of supplies for our therapeutic candidates. To the extent any of our other manufacturing partners is unable to fulfill these obligations in a timely manner, including as a result of circumstances relating to the COVID-19 pandemic or circumstances related to China’s implementation of its recently adopted security law to exert additional control over activities in Hong Kong, our trials may be delayed and our business may be adversely affected. In general, reliance on third party providers may expose us to more risk than if we were to manufacture our therapeutic candidates ourselves. We do not control the operational processes of the contract manufacturing organizations with whom we contract, and are dependent on these third parties for the production of our therapeutic candidates in accordance with relevant regulations (such as cGMP), which includes, among other things, quality control, quality assurance and the maintenance of records and documentation.
Our third-party manufacturers may be unable to successfully scale up manufacturing of our therapeutic candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, which would delay or prevent us from developing our therapeutic candidates and commercializing any approved therapeutic candidates.
Our manufacturing partners may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for our therapeutic candidates in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all, as needed for our development efforts or, if our therapeutic candidates are approved, our commercialization efforts. Quality issues may also arise during scale-up activities. If we, or any manufacturing partners, are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our therapeutic candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing, and clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may be delayed or infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting therapeutic may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business.
Failure to successfully identify, develop and commercialize additional therapeutics or therapeutic candidates could impair our ability to grow.
Although a substantial amount of our efforts will focus on the continued preclinical and clinical testing and potential approval of our therapeutic candidates in our current pipeline, we expect to continue to innovate and potentially expand our portfolio. Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, research programs to identify therapeutic candidates may require substantial additional technical, financial and human resources, whether or not any new potential therapeutic candidates are ultimately identified. Our success may depend in part upon our ability to identify, select and develop promising therapeutic candidates and therapeutics. We may expend resources and ultimately fail to discover and generate additional therapeutic candidates suitable for further development. All therapeutic candidates are prone to risks of failure typical of biotechnology product development, including the possibility that a therapeutic candidate may not be suitable for clinical development as a result of its harmful side effects, limited efficacy or other characteristics indicating that it is unlikely to receive approval by the FDA, the EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities and achieve market acceptance. If we do not successfully develop and commercialize new therapeutic candidates we have identified and explored, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our business entails a significant risk of product liability and our ability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are exposed to significant product liability risks inherent in the development, testing, manufacturing and marketing of biotechnology treatments of any therapeutic candidates for which we or our collaborators may conduct clinical trials. Product liability claims could delay or prevent completion of our development programs. If we succeed in marketing any approved products, these claims could result in an FDA investigation of the safety and effectiveness of our products, our manufacturing processes and facilities (or the manufacturing processes and facilities of our third-party manufacturer) or our marketing programs, a recall of our products or more serious enforcement action, limitations on the approved indications for which they may be used or suspension or withdrawal of approvals. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may also result in decreased demand for our products, injury to our reputation, costs to defend the related litigation, a diversion of management’s time and our resources, substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients and a decline in our stock price. Any insurance we have or may obtain may not provide sufficient coverage against potential liabilities. Furthermore, clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As a result, we may be unable to obtain sufficient insurance at a reasonable cost to protect us against losses caused by product liability claims that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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If our therapeutic candidates are approved for marketing and commercialization and we are unable to develop sales, marketing and distribution capabilities on our own or enter into agreements with third parties to perform these functions on acceptable terms, we will be unable to commercialize successfully any such therapeutic candidates.
We currently have no sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. While, per the Celgene Agreement, Celgene presently has the responsibility to market and commercialize the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property to the extent a related therapeutic candidate is approved and Chiesi would have the responsibility for the development and, if approved, the marketing and commercialization of INBRX-101 outside of the United States and Canada if Chiesi were to exercise its option under the Chiesi Option Agreement, we will still need to develop our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities to commercialize our other approved therapeutic candidates, if any, or will need to enter into collaborations with third parties to perform these services. Any internal effort would be expensive and time-consuming, and we would need to commit significant financial and managerial resources to develop an internal marketing and sales force with technical expertise and the related supporting distribution, administration and compliance capabilities. If we were to rely on additional third parties with these capabilities to market our therapeutics or were to decide to co-promote products with any of our current or future collaborators, we would need to establish and maintain or revise existing marketing and distribution arrangements with these partners, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into such arrangements on acceptable terms or at all. Any revenue we receive in connection with third-party license, marketing or distribution arrangements, including the Celgene Agreement, the Chiesi Option Agreement and license agreements with our licensing partners in China, will depend upon the efforts of these third parties, and there can be no assurance these third parties will establish adequate sales and distribution capabilities or be successful in gaining market acceptance of any approved product. If we are not successful in commercializing any product approved in the future, either on our own or through third parties, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
The future commercial success of our therapeutic candidates will depend on the degree of market acceptance of our therapeutic candidates among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and the medical community.
Our therapeutic candidates are in early stages of development, and many of our therapeutic candidates are still in preclinical development; we may never have an approved product that is commercially successful. Due to the inherent risk in the development of biotechnology products, it is probable that not all or none of the therapeutic candidates in our pipeline, including any that are or may be licensed to third parties, will successfully complete development and be commercialized. Furthermore, even when available on the market, our products may not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, patients and the medical community, and we may not become profitable. In addition, efforts to educate the medical community and third-party payors on the benefits of our products may require significant resources and may never be successful, which would prevent us from generating significant revenue or becoming profitable. Market acceptance of any approved products by physicians, patients and healthcare payors will depend on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including, but not limited to:
changes in the standard of care for the targeted indications for any approved product;
wording in the product label;
sales, marketing and distribution support;
potential product liability claims;
acceptance by physicians, patients and healthcare payors of each product as safe, effective and cost-effective;
relative convenience, ease of use, ease of administration and other perceived advantages over alternative products;
prevalence and severity of adverse events or publicity;
limitations, precautions or warnings listed in the summary of product characteristics, patient information leaflet, package labeling or instructions for use;
the cost of treatment with our therapeutics in relation to alternative treatments;
the extent to which products are approved for inclusion and adequately reimbursed on formularies of hospitals and third-party payors, including managed care organizations; and
whether our products are designated in the label, under physician treatment guidelines or under reimbursement guidelines as a first, second, third or last line therapy.

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Risks Related to Our Organization and Operations
We face significant competition and if our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the therapeutic candidates we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.
The life sciences industry is highly competitive. We are currently developing therapeutic candidates that will compete, if approved, with other products and therapies that currently exist or are being developed. Our primary competitors fall into the following groups:
Companies developing novel therapeutics based on sdAb or alternative scaffold product candidates, including Alligator Bioscience AB, Camel-IDS N.V., Crescendo Biologics Ltd., GlaxoSmithKline plc, IGM Biosciences, Inc., Molecular Partners AG, Pieris Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sanofi S.A. and VHsquared Ltd.;
Antibody drug discovery companies that may compete with us in the search for novel therapeutic antibody targets, including Adimab LLC, Genmab A/S, Macrogenics, Inc., Merus N.V., MorphoSys AG, Numab Therapeutics AG, TeneoBio, Inc., Xencor Inc., Zymeworks Inc.; and
Companies developing therapeutics designed to treat AATD, including CSL Limited, Grifols, S.A., Kamada Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited and Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Our competitors also include large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies who may be developing therapeutic candidates with mechanisms similar to or targeting the same indications as our therapeutic candidates.
Products we may develop in the future are also likely to face competition from other products and therapies, some of which we may not currently be aware. We have competitors both in the United States and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, established biotechnology companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, universities and other research institutions. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, manufacturing, marketing, product development, technical and human resources than we do. Large pharmaceutical companies, in particular, have extensive experience in clinical testing, obtaining marketing approvals, recruiting patients and manufacturing pharmaceutical products. These companies also have significantly greater research and marketing capabilities than we do and may also have products that have been approved or are in late stages of development, and collaborative arrangements in our target markets with leading companies and research institutions. Established pharmaceutical companies may also invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license novel compounds that could make the therapeutic candidates that we develop obsolete. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. As a result of all of these factors, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection and/or marketing approval or discovering, developing and commercializing products in our field before we do.
Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe effects, are more convenient, have a broader label, are marketed more effectively, are reimbursed or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA, EMA or other marketing approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Even if the therapeutic candidates we develop achieve marketing approval, they may be priced at a significant premium over competitive products if any have been approved by then, resulting in reduced competitiveness.
Smaller and other early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. In addition, the biopharmaceutical industry is characterized by rapid technological change. If we fail to stay at the forefront of technological change, we may be unable to compete effectively. Technological advances or products developed by our competitors may render our therapeutic candidates obsolete, less competitive or not economical.

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Our business, the conduct of our clinical trials, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected by the widespread outbreak of an illness or any other communicable disease, or any other public health crisis, including the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
Our business could be adversely affected by widespread outbreak of illness or other communicable diseases, health epidemics, or any other public health crisis. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization, or the WHO, announced a global health emergency because of a novel strain of coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), or novel coronavirus, which causes coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, originating in Wuhan, China. In March 2020, the WHO classified the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic, based on the rapid increase in exposure globally.
During 2020, COVID-19 has spread to most regions of the world, including California, where our primary office and laboratory space is located.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience disruptions that could severely impact our business, preclinical studies and clinical trials, including:
We are, with our partners, conducting clinical trials and other research in geographies that are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our various clinical trials may include delays related to patient enrollment, dosing and study monitoring due to changes in policies at various clinical sites, federal, state, local or foreign laws, rules and regulations, including quarantines or other travel restrictions. They may also be impacted by the prioritization of healthcare resources toward pandemic efforts, including diminished attention of physicians serving as our clinical trial investigators and reduced availability of site staff supporting the conduct of our clinical trials, interruption or delays in the operations of the FDA, or other reasons related to the pandemic. For example, we temporarily suspended enrollment for our INBRX-101 Phase 1 clinical trial as a direct result of the COVID-19 pandemic. While our oncology-related clinical trials have not been materially impacted to date, it is possible that these programs may be negatively impacted in the future. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues, other aspects of our clinical trials may be adversely affected, delayed or interrupted, including, for example, site initiation, patient recruitment, further or additional delays in enrollment, availability of clinical trial materials, and data analysis. Some patients and clinical investigators may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols and patients may choose to withdraw from our trials. It is unknown how long these suspension, pauses or disruptions could continue. FDA has issued a guidance for industry, “FDA Guidance on Conduct of Clinical Trials of Medical Products during COVID-19 Pandemic Guidance for Industry, Investigators, and Institutional Review Boards,” which is being periodically updated to continue clarifying for affected stakeholders to ensure the safety of clinical trial participants, maintain compliance with good clinical practices (GCPs), and minimize risks to trial and clinical data integrity. We intend to follow FDA’s recommendations in order to address unavoidable protocol deviations due to COVID-19 illness or COVID-19 control measures, as appropriate.
We currently rely on third parties to, among other things, manufacture raw materials, manufacture our therapeutic candidates, ship investigational drugs and clinical samples, perform quality testing and supply other goods and services to run our business. If any third party in our supply chain for materials are adversely impacted by restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, including as a result of staffing shortages, production slowdowns and disruptions in delivery systems, our supply chain may be disrupted, limiting our ability to conduct our research and development operations.
We have requested that most of our employees, including all of our administrative employees, work remotely and have restricted on-site staff to only those personnel who must perform essential on-site activities such as activities in our research and development laboratories. Our increased reliance on employees working from home may negatively impact productivity, or disrupt, delay, or otherwise adversely impact our business. In addition, this could increase our cybersecurity risk, create data accessibility concerns, and make us more susceptible to communication disruptions, any of which could adversely impact our business operations or delay necessary interactions with local and federal regulators, ethics committees, manufacturing sites, research or clinical trial sites and other important agencies and contractors.
Our employees conducting research and development activities may be more limited in their ability to access our laboratories for an extended period of time as a result of the rigorous workplace policies and guidelines implemented as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, it is possible that

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governmental authorities will further modify current restrictions. As a result, this could delay timely completion of our research and development efforts and further delay of INBRX-101 trial efforts.
Health regulatory agencies globally may experience disruptions in their operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The FDA and comparable foreign regulatory agencies may have slower response times or be under-resourced to continue to monitor our clinical trials and, as a result, review, inspection, and other timelines may be materially delayed. It is unknown how long these disruptions could continue, were they to occur. Any elongation or de-prioritization of our clinical trials or delay in regulatory review resulting from such disruptions could materially affect the development and study of our therapeutic candidates. For example, regulatory authorities may require that we not distribute a therapeutic candidate lot until the relevant agency authorizes its release. Such release authorization may be delayed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and could result in delays to our clinical trials.
The trading prices for biopharmaceutical companies have been highly volatile as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, we may face difficulties raising capital through sales of our common shares in this offering or future offerings or such sales may be on unfavorable terms. In addition, a recession, depression or other sustained adverse market event resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could materially and adversely affect our business and the value of our common shares.
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve. The ultimate impact of the pandemic on our business operations is highly uncertain and subject to change and will depend on future developments, which cannot be accurately predicted, including the duration of the pandemic, the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, additional or modified government actions, new information that will emerge concerning the severity and impact of COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain COVID-19 or address its impact in the short and long term, among others. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, our clinical trials, our research programs, health care systems or the global economy.
Any inability to attract and retain qualified key management and technical personnel would impair our ability to implement our business plan.
Our success largely depends on the continued service of key management, advisors and other specialized personnel, including Mark P. Lappe, our Chief Executive Officer, Brendan P. Eckelman, Ph.D., our Chief Scientific Officer, Klaus W. Wagner, M.D., Ph.D., our Chief Medical Officer, and Kelly D. Deck, our Chief Financial Officer, who are all employed at will and for whom we do not have “key man” insurance coverage. The loss of one or more members of our management team or other key employees or advisors could delay our research and development programs and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We are dependent on the continued service of our technical personnel because of the highly technical nature of our therapeutic candidates and technologies and the specialized nature of the regulatory approval process. Our future success will depend in large part on our continued ability to attract and retain other highly qualified scientific, technical and management personnel, as well as personnel with expertise in clinical testing, manufacturing, governmental regulation and commercialization. We face competition for personnel from other companies, universities, public and private research institutions, government entities and other organizations (many of whom have substantially greater financial resources than us), and we might not be able to attract or retain these key employees on conditions that are economically acceptable. Our inability to attract and retain these key employees could prevent us from achieving our objectives and implementing our business strategy, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.
We have a significant amount of debt which may affect our ability to operate our business and secure additional financing in the future.
In May 2019, we sold and issued the 2019 Note with an aggregate principal amount of $40.0 million. In April 2020, we sold and issued the 2020 Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $15.0 million. Assuming a conversion date of          , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $     per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note would be settled and converted at an assumed conversion price of $      per share into              shares of our common stock and the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes would be settled and converted at an assumed conversion price of $      per share into          shares of our common stock in connection with the completion of this offering (as

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described in greater detail in the section of this prospectus titled “Prospectus Summary- Convertible Note Financings”).
In July 2020, we borrowed an additional $10.0 million under the 2020 Loan Agreement with Oxford. Our obligations under the 2020 Loan Agreement are secured by substantially all of our assets, other than our intellectual property. The 2020 Loan Agreement requires us, and any debt arrangements or instruments we may enter into in the future may require us, to comply with various covenants that limit our ability to, among other things:
dispose of assets;
complete mergers or acquisitions;
incur or guarantee indebtedness;
sell or encumber certain assets;
pay dividends or make other distributions to holders of our capital stock, including by way of certain stock buybacks;
make specified investments;
engage in different lines of business;
change certain key management personnel; and
engage in certain transactions with our affiliates.
These covenants may make it difficult to operate our business. A failure by us to comply with the covenants could result in an event of default, which could adversely affect our ability to respond to changes in our business and manage our operations. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, including the occurrence of a material adverse change, the lender could elect to declare all amounts outstanding to be due and payable and exercise other remedies. If the indebtedness were to be accelerated, our future financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
We may incur additional indebtedness in the future. The instruments governing such indebtedness could contain provisions that are as, or more, restrictive than our existing debt instruments. If we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our indebtedness when payment is due, the lenders could proceed against any collateral granted to them to secure such indebtedness or force us into bankruptcy or liquidation. Further, if our business is subject to liquidation, the right to repayment of Oxford and any other holders of indebtedness would be senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock to receive any proceeds from the liquidation.
Our employees and independent contractors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.
We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees or independent contractors. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations, provide accurate information to the FDA, comply with manufacturing standards we may establish for our therapeutic candidates, comply with federal and state data privacy, security, fraud and abuse, and other healthcare laws and regulations, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Activities subject to these laws could also involve the improper use or misrepresentation of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. Additionally, we are subject to the risk that a person or government could allege such fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, monetary damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, loss of eligibility to obtain marketing approvals from the FDA, exclusion from participation in government contracting, healthcare reimbursement or other government programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, reputational harm, diminished

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profits and future earnings, additional reporting requirements if subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with any of these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.
We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of their former employers or other third parties.
Certain of our employees, consultants or advisors are currently, or were previously, employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that these individuals or we have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
We expect to expand our development and regulatory capabilities, and as a result, we may encounter difficulties in managing our growth, which could disrupt our operations.
We expect to experience significant growth in the number of our employees and the scope of our operations, particularly in the areas of drug development and regulatory affairs, as well as sales and marketing to the extent any of our therapeutic candidates approach receipt of marketing authorization. To manage our anticipated future growth, we must continue to implement and improve our managerial, operational and financial systems, expand our facilities and continue to recruit and train additional qualified personnel. Due to our limited financial resources, we may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations or recruit and train additional qualified personnel. The expansion of our operations may lead to significant costs and may divert our management and business development resources. Any inability to manage growth could delay the execution of our business plans or disrupt our operations.
We may not be able to integrate efficiently or achieve the expected benefits of any acquisitions of complementary businesses, therapeutic candidates or technologies.
Should we in the future acquire any complementary business, therapeutic candidates or technologies, our ability to integrate and manage acquired businesses, therapeutic candidates or technologies effectively will depend upon a number of factors including the size of the acquired business, the complexity of any therapeutic candidate or technology and the resulting difficulty of integrating the acquired business’s operations, if any. Our relationship with current employees or employees of any acquired business may become impaired. We may also be subject to unexpected claims and liabilities arising from such acquisitions. These claims and liabilities could be costly to defend, could be material to our financial position and might exceed either the limitations of any applicable indemnification provisions or the financial resources of the indemnifying parties. There can also be no assurance that we will be able to assess ongoing profitability and identify all actual or potential liabilities of a business, therapeutic candidate or technology prior to its acquisition. If we acquire businesses, therapeutic candidates or technologies that result in assuming unforeseen liabilities in respect of which it has not obtained contractual protections or for which protection is not available, this could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business may be adversely affected as a result of computer system failures.
Any of the internal computer systems belonging to us or our third-party service providers are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failure. Any system failure, accident or security breach that causes interruptions in our own or in third-party service vendors’ operations could result in a material disruption of our development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our or our partners’ or collaborators’ regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs in order to recover or reproduce the lost data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we may incur liability, our development programs and competitive position may be adversely affected and the further development of our therapeutic candidates may be delayed. Furthermore, we may incur additional costs to remedy the damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches.

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Cybersecurity breaches could expose us to liability, damage our reputation, compromise our confidential information or otherwise adversely affect our business.
We maintain sensitive company data on our computer networks, including our intellectual property and proprietary business information. We face a number of threats to our networks from unauthorized access, security breaches and other system disruptions. As noted above, certain of our employees are presently and may in the future be working remotely as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. We may face additional cybersecurity risks as a result of these circumstances and despite our security measures, our infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or vulnerable to other disruptive problems.
The United States federal and various state and foreign governments have adopted or proposed requirements regarding the collection, distribution, use, security, and storage of personally identifiable information and other data relating to individuals, and federal and state consumer protection laws are being applied to enforce regulations related to the collection, use, and dissemination of data. Some of these federal, state and foreign government requirements include obligations of companies to notify individuals and others of security breaches involving particular personally identifiable information, which could result from breaches experienced by us or by our vendors, contractors, or organizations with which we have formed strategic relationships. Even though we may have contractual protections with such vendors, contractors, or other organizations, notifications and follow-up actions related to a security breach could impact our reputation, cause us to incur significant costs, including legal expenses, harm customer confidence, hurt our expansion into new markets, cause us to incur remediation costs, or cause us to lose existing customers.
Any such security breach may compromise information stored on our networks and may result in significant data losses or theft of our intellectual property or proprietary business information, it may also subject us to significant fines, penalties or liabilities for any noncompliance with certain privacy and security laws. A cybersecurity breach could adversely affect our reputation and could result in other negative consequences, including disruption of our internal operations, increased cyber security protection costs, lost revenue or litigation.
Our current operations are concentrated in one location, and we or the third parties upon whom we depend may be adversely affected by earthquakes, medical epidemics or pandemics, or other natural disasters.
Our current operations are located in our facilities in La Jolla, California. Any unplanned event, such as flood, fire, explosion, earthquake, extreme weather condition, medical epidemics or pandemics, power shortage, telecommunication failure or other natural or manmade accidents or incidents, including the COVID-19 pandemic, that results in us being unable to fully utilize our facilities, or the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, may have a material and adverse effect on our ability to operate our business, particularly on a daily basis, and have significant negative consequences on our financial and operating conditions. Loss of access to these facilities may result in increased costs, delays in the development of our therapeutic candidates or interruption of our business operations. Earthquakes, medical epidemics or pandemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, or other natural disasters could further disrupt our operations, and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If a natural disaster, pandemic, including the COVID-19 pandemic, power outage or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our headquarters, that damaged critical infrastructure, such as our research facilities or if similar events occurred elsewhere effecting the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. We may incur substantial expenses as a result of the limited nature of our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, which, could have a material and adverse effect on our business. As part of our risk management policy, we maintain insurance coverage at levels that we believe are appropriate for our business. However, in the event of an accident or incident at these facilities, we cannot assure you that the amounts of insurance will be sufficient to satisfy any damages and losses. If our facilities, or the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, are unable to operate because of an accident or incident or for any other reason, even for a short period of time, any or all of our research and development programs may be harmed. Any business interruption may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we are not able to obtain and enforce patent protection for our technologies or therapeutic candidates, development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates may be adversely affected.
Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patents and other forms of intellectual property rights, including in-licenses of intellectual property rights of others, patents and patent applications protecting, or seeking to protect, our therapeutic candidates and methods for treating patients using our therapeutic candidates, as well as our ability to preserve our trade secrets, to prevent third parties from infringing upon our proprietary rights and to operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others. As of July 15, 2020, our patent estate included 12 issued United States patents, 20 United States pending non-provisional patent applications, 16 United States pending provisional applications, 14 pending Patent Cooperation Treaty, or PCT, applications, 107 issued foreign patents and 260 foreign patent applications currently pending in various foreign jurisdictions. Our patent estate consists of 40 patent families generally directed to polypeptide therapeutics, including fusion proteins, monoclonal antibodies, single chain antibodies and multivalent antibodies. We currently have two patent families directed to anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies, licensed to Celgene, and two United States and 58 foreign patents have been granted in these families. See the section titled “Business—Intellectual Property”.
While we will endeavor to protect our therapeutic candidates with intellectual property rights such as patents, as appropriate, the process of obtaining, maintaining, and enforcing patents is time-consuming, expensive and sometimes unpredictable, and we may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications, or maintain, enforce and license any patents that may issue from such patent applications, at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection. We may not have the right to control the preparation, filing and prosecution of patent applications, or to maintain the rights to any patents we may license to or from third parties. Therefore, such patents and applications may not be prosecuted and enforced in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business.
Our existing issued and granted patents and any future patents we obtain may not be sufficiently broad to prevent others from using our technology or from developing competing products and technology. There is no guarantee that any of our pending patent applications will result in issued or granted patents, that any of our issued or granted patents will not later be found to be invalid or unenforceable or that any issued or granted patents will include claims that are sufficiently broad to provide meaningful protection from any competitors. Our competitors may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative therapeutic candidates in a non-infringing manner. We will be able to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that our current and future proprietary technology and therapeutic candidates are covered by valid and enforceable patents or are effectively maintained as trade secrets. If third parties disclose or misappropriate our proprietary rights, it may materially and adversely affect our business.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other provisions during the patent process. There are situations in which non-compliance can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, competitors might be able to enter the market earlier than would otherwise have been the case. The standards applied by the USPTO and foreign patent offices in granting patents are not always applied uniformly or predictably. For example, there is no uniform worldwide policy regarding patentable subject matter or the scope of claims allowable in biotechnology patents. As such, we do not know the degree of future protection that we will have on our proprietary therapeutics and technology.
The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal, technological and factual questions and has in recent years been the subject of much litigation. Once granted, patents may remain open to opposition, interference, re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes review, nullification or derivation action in court or before patent offices or similar proceedings for a given period after allowance or grant, during which time third parties can raise objections against such initial grant. In the course of such proceedings, which may continue for a protracted period of time, the patent owner may be compelled to limit the scope of the allowed or granted claims thus attacked, or may lose the allowed or granted

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claims altogether, e.g., due to a determination that the claims are invalid or unenforceable. In addition, there can be no assurance that:
others will not or will not be able to legally make, use or sell products or therapeutic candidates that are the same as or similar to our therapeutic candidates despite the claims of the patents that we own or license;
we or our licensors, or our collaborators are the first to make the inventions covered by each of our issued patents and pending patent applications that we own or license;
we or our licensors, or our collaborators are the first to file patent applications covering certain aspects of our inventions;
others will not independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;
any issued patents that we own or have licensed will provide us with any competitive advantage; or
the patents of others will not have a material or adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.
Obtaining a valid and enforceable issued or granted patents covering our therapeutic candidates in the United States and worldwide can be extremely costly. In jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection, competitors or third parties may use our technology to develop their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but where it is more difficult to enforce a patent as compared to the United States. Third-party or competitor products may compete with our future products in jurisdictions where we do not have issued or granted patents or where our issued or granted patent claims or other intellectual property rights are not sufficient to prevent competitor activities in these jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, make it difficult to enforce patents and such countries may not recognize other types of intellectual property protection, particularly that relating to biotechnology. This could make it difficult for us to prevent the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally in certain jurisdictions. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing, could provoke third parties to assert claims against us, and, whether or not successful, could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.
We generally file a provisional patent application first (a priority filing) at the USPTO. An international application under the PCT is usually filed within 12 months after the priority filing. Based on the PCT filing, national and regional patent applications may be filed in the United States, Europe, Japan, Australia and Canada and, depending on the individual case, also in one, several or all of Brazil, China, India, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia or Eurasian Patent Organization, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea and other jurisdictions. We have so far not filed for patent protection in all national and regional jurisdictions where such protection may be available. In addition, we may decide to abandon national and regional patent applications before grant. Finally, the grant proceeding of each national or regional patent is an independent proceeding which may lead to situations in which applications might in some jurisdictions be refused by the relevant registration authorities, while granted by others. It is also quite common that, depending on the country, various scopes of patent protection may be granted on the same therapeutic candidate or technology.
When a patent is granted by a regional patent office (e.g., Europe or Eurasia), the patent must be validated in individual countries in order to be in effect in those countries. We may decide not to validate regional patents in every available country or at all in any country in the region. In addition, we may decide to abandon national and regional patent applications before or after grant.
The laws of some jurisdictions do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws in the United States, and many companies have encountered significant difficulties in protecting and defending such rights in such jurisdictions. If we or any licensors encounter difficulties in protecting, or are otherwise precluded from effectively protecting, the intellectual property rights important for our business in such jurisdictions, the

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value of these rights may be diminished and we may face additional competition from others in those jurisdictions. Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any licensors are forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position in the relevant jurisdiction may be impaired and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Changes in patent laws could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our products.
Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States and other jurisdictions in which we file patent applications could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. For example, under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the America Invents Act, enacted in September 2011, the United States transitioned to a first inventor to file system in which, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application is entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. In contrast, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, assuming that other requirements for patentability were met. Furthermore, United States patent law under the America Invents Act allows for post issuance challenges to United States patents, including ex parte reexaminations, inter parte reviews and post grant oppositions. If our United States patents are challenged using such procedures, we may not prevail, possibly resulting in altered or diminished claim scope or loss of patent rights altogether. Similarly, some countries, notably members of the European Union, also have post grant opposition proceedings that can result in changes in scope and/or cancellation of patent claims.
The United States Supreme Court has also ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the value of patents, once obtained. Depending on decisions by the United States Congress, the federal courts and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future.
Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non compliance with these requirements.
The USPTO, the European Patent Office and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. For example, periodic maintenance and annuity fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to the USPTO, the European Patent Office and foreign patent agencies in several stages over the lifetime of the patent. Some jurisdictions also require payment of annuity fees during pendency of a patent application. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which non-compliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we or our licensors or collaboration partners fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our therapeutic candidates, our competitors might better be able to enter the market, which would have an adverse effect on our business.
We may be required to reduce the scope of our intellectual property due to intellectual property claims included in the patents or patent applications of others.
Third parties may have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications covering technology similar to ours. It is also possible that we have failed to identify relevant third-party patents or applications. For example, United States applications filed before November 29, 2000 and certain United States applications filed after that date that will not be filed outside the United States remain confidential until patents issue. Patent applications in

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the United States and elsewhere are published approximately 18 months after the earliest filing for which priority is claimed, with this earliest filing date being commonly referred to as the priority date. Therefore, patent applications covering our therapeutic candidates could have been filed by others without our knowledge. Additionally, pending patent applications that have been published can, subject to certain limitations, be later amended in a manner that could cover any future approved products or our therapeutic candidates. Any such patent application may have priority over our patent applications, which could further require us to obtain rights to issued patents covering such technologies, if possible, or block us from practicing certain aspects of our technology if we are unable to successfully pursue litigation to nullify or invalidate the third-party intellectual property right concerned.
If another party has filed a United States patent application on inventions similar to ours that claims priority to an application filed prior to March 16, 2013, we may have to participate in an interference proceeding declared by the USPTO to determine priority of invention in the United States. Similarly, if another party has filed a United States patent application on inventions similar to ours that claims priority to an application filed after March 16, 2013, we may have to participate in a derivation proceeding to determine whether that party derived the claimed invention from an inventor listed on our application and then filed the third-party application without authorization. The costs of these proceedings could be substantial, and it is possible that such efforts would be unsuccessful if, unbeknownst to us, the other party had independently arrived at the same or similar invention prior to our own invention, resulting in a loss of our United States patent position with respect to such inventions. In addition, an unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party. Our business could be harmed if the prevailing party does not offer us a license on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or if a non-exclusive license is offered and our competitors gain access to the same technology. Further, changes enacted on March 15, 2013 to the United States patent laws under the America Invents Act resulted in the United States changing from a “first to invent” country to a “first to file” country. As a result, we may lose the ability to obtain a patent if a third party files with the USPTO first and could become involved in proceedings before the USPTO to resolve disputes related to inventorship. We may also become involved in similar proceedings in other jurisdictions.
We or our licensors, licensees or any future strategic partners may become subject to third-party claims or litigation alleging infringement of patents or other proprietary rights or seeking to invalidate patents or other proprietary rights, and we may need to resort to litigation to protect or enforce our patents or other proprietary rights, all of which could be costly, time consuming, delay or prevent the development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates, or put our patents and other proprietary rights at risk.
Our commercial success depends in part on our avoiding infringement of the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. We or our licensors, licensees or any future strategic partners may be subject to third-party claims for infringement or misappropriation of patent or other proprietary rights. There is a substantial amount of litigation, both within and outside the United States, involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries including patent infringement lawsuits, interferences, derivations, oppositions and inter partes review proceedings before the USPTO, and corresponding foreign patent offices. Numerous United States and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications, which are owned by third parties, exist in the fields in which we are pursuing development candidates. As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that we may be subject to claims of infringement of the patent rights of third parties. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications which may later result in issued patents that our current or future therapeutic candidates may infringe. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents. If we, our licensees or our licensors, or any future strategic partners are found to infringe a third-party patent or other intellectual property rights, we could be required to pay damages, potentially including treble damages, if we are found to have willfully infringed. In addition, we, our licensees or our licensors, or any future strategic partners may choose to seek, or be required to seek, a license from a third party, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Even if a license can be obtained on acceptable terms, the rights may be non-exclusive, which could give any competitors access to the same technology or intellectual property rights licensed to us. If we fail to obtain a required license, the holders of any such patents may be able to block us, our licensees or our collaborators from marketing therapeutic candidates based on our technology until such patents expire, which could limit our ability to generate revenue or achieve profitability and possibly prevent us from generating revenue sufficient to sustain our operations.

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In addition, we may find it necessary to pursue claims or initiate lawsuits to protect or enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights. The cost to us in defending or initiating any litigation or other proceeding relating to patent or other proprietary rights, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial, and litigation would divert our management’s attention. Competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could delay our research and development efforts and limit our ability to continue our operations.
If we were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering one of our products or our technology, the defendant could counterclaim that our patent is invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, for example, lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability during patent litigation is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing or, in some cases, not at all. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on one or more of our products or certain aspects of our technology. This loss of patent protection could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Patents and other intellectual property rights also will not protect our technology if competitors design around our protected technology without legally infringing our patents or other intellectual property rights.
If we fail to comply with our obligations under the agreements pursuant to which we license intellectual property rights from third parties, or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose the rights to intellectual property licensed to us.
We are a party to license agreements under which we are granted rights to third-party intellectual property, and we expect that we may need to enter into additional license agreements in the future. License agreements may impose various development obligations, payment of royalties and fees based on achieving certain milestones, as well as other obligations. If we fail to comply with our obligations under these agreements, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license. The termination of any license agreements or failure to adequately protect such license agreements could prevent us from commercializing therapeutic candidates covered by the licensed intellectual property or otherwise adversely affect our business. Our license agreements may involve sublicenses from third parties which are not the original licensor of the intellectual property at issue. Under these agreements, we would rely on our licensor to comply with its obligations under the primary license agreements, where we may have no relationship with the original licensor of such rights. If the licensors fail to comply with their obligations under these upstream license agreements, the original third-party licensor may have the right to terminate the original license, which may terminate the sublicense. If this were to occur, we would no longer have rights to the applicable intellectual property and, in the case of a sublicense, if we were not able to secure our own direct license with the owner of the relevant rights, which we may not be able to do at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, it may adversely affect our ability to continue to develop and commercialize any of our therapeutic candidates incorporating the relevant intellectual property.
Disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a licensing agreement, including:
the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation related issues;
the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;
the sublicensing of patent and other rights under any collaboration relationships we might enter into in the future;
our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;
the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our collaborator; and

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the priority of invention of patented technology.
If disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain any licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected therapeutic candidates.
Our intellectual property agreements with our licensors, licensees, collaborators and third parties may be subject to disagreements over contract interpretation, which could narrow the scope of, or result in termination of, our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology or increase our financial or other obligations to such third parties, or reduce the financial or other obligations our licensees have to us.
Certain provisions in our intellectual property agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. For example, we may disagree with our licensors, licensees or collaborators regarding whether, when and to what extent various obligations under these agreements apply to certain of our/their therapeutic candidates and products, including various payment, development, commercialization, funding, diligence, sublicensing, insurance, patent prosecution and enforcement and/or other obligations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could affect the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or affect financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement. In either case, such disagreement could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the conception or development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact conceives or develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Our assignment agreements may not be self executing or may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property.
Intellectual property litigation could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.
Litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims, with or without merit, are unpredictable, generally expensive, time consuming and is likely to divert significant resources from our core business, including distracting our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities.
We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating or from successfully challenging our intellectual property rights. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.
In addition to seeking patent protection for certain aspects of our therapeutic candidates, we also consider trade secrets, including confidential and unpatented know-how important to our business. We may rely on trade secrets or confidential know-how to protect our technology, especially where patent protection is believed to be of limited value. Trade secrets and confidential know-how are difficult to maintain as confidential. We seek to protect trade secrets and confidential and unpatented know-how, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to such knowledge, such as our employees, partners, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. In

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addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the conception or development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact conceives or develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Our assignment agreements may not be self executing or may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property.
Moreover, even if relevant agreements are entered into, despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and unintentionally or willfully disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Confidentiality agreements may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. Moreover, a competitor who independently develops substantially equivalent proprietary information may even apply for patent protection in respect of the same. If successful in obtaining such patent protection, our competitors could limit our use of our trade secrets or confidential know-how. Under certain circumstances, we may also decide to publish some know-how to attempt to prevent others from obtaining patent rights covering such know-how. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position would be harmed. Additionally, if the steps taken to maintain our trade secrets are deemed inadequate, we may have insufficient recourse against third parties for misappropriating the trade secret.
We may be subject to claims that we or our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ or consultants’ former employers or their clients. These claims may be costly to defend and if we do not successfully do so, we may be required to pay monetary damages and may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel.
Many of our employees were previously employed at universities or biotechnology companies, including potential competitors. Although no claims against us are currently pending, we may be subject to claims that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. A loss of key research personnel or their work product could hamper our ability to commercialize, or prevent us from commercializing, our therapeutic candidates, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.
Our trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. Our trademarks may not be approved by one or more governmental trademark offices or may not be approved for use on our products by regulatory agencies, such as the FDA. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names or may be forced to stop using these names, which we need for name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. If we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected.
If our patent terms expire before or soon after our therapeutic candidates are approved, or if manufacturers of generic or biosimilar drugs successfully challenge our patents, our business may be materially harmed.
Patents have a limited duration. In the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest United States non provisional filing date. Various extensions may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering our therapeutic candidates, their manufacture, or use are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition from competitive medications, including biosimilar medications.

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Depending upon the timing, duration and conditions of FDA marketing approval of our therapeutic candidates, one or more of our United States patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Act and similar legislation in the European Union. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent term extension of up to five years for a patent covering an approved product as compensation for effective patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. The patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended. However, we may not receive an extension if we fail to apply within applicable deadlines, fail to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise fail to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the length of the extension could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, the period during which we can enforce our patent rights for that product will be shortened and our competitors may obtain approval to market competing products sooner than we expect. Also, the scope of our right to exclude during any patent term extension period may be limited or may not cover a competitor’s product or product use. As a result, our revenue from applicable therapeutic candidates, if approved, could be reduced, possibly materially.
Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents protecting such drug candidates might expire before or shortly after such drug candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patents and patent applications may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. If we are unable to obtain an exclusive license to any such third-party co-owners’ interest in such patents or patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners of our patents in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects.
Manufacturers of generic or biosimilar drugs may challenge the scope, validity, or enforceability of our patents in court or before a patent office, and we may not be successful in enforcing or defending those intellectual property rights and, as a result, may not be able to develop or market the relevant product exclusively, which would have a material adverse effect on any potential sales of that product. Upon the expiration of our issued patents or patents that may issue from our pending patent applications, we will not be able to assert such patent rights against potential competitors and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats to our competitive advantage.
The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business nor permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:
Others may be able to make therapeutic candidates that are the same as or similar to our therapeutic candidates but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or may have exclusively licensed.
Others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights.
Third parties might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets.
We may not develop additional technologies that are patentable.
Risks Related to Government Regulation
We or our collaborators may be unable to obtain regulatory approval for any product that we or a collaborator may develop and the regulatory approval processes of the FDA and other comparable regulatory authorities outside the United States are lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable.
Any product that we or our collaborators may attempt to develop, manufacture or market in the United States will be subject to extensive regulation by the FDA, including regulations relating to development, preclinical testing, performance of clinical trials, manufacturing and post-approval commercialization. Preclinical testing,

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clinical trials and manufacturing, among other activities, will be subjected to an extensive review process before a new therapeutic product may be sold in the United States. Satisfaction of these and other regulatory requirements is costly, time consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays, including delays arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. The time required to obtain FDA approval, and any other required approvals for biologic products is unpredictable but typically requires several years and may never be obtained.
Any product that we or our collaborators may wish to develop, manufacture or market in countries other than the United States will also be subject to numerous foreign regulatory requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing, pricing and third-party reimbursement among other things in such countries. The foreign regulatory approval process includes all of the risks and uncertainties associated with FDA approval described above as well as risks attributable to the satisfaction of local regulations in such foreign jurisdictions.
In particular, obtaining marketing approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the product candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing marketing approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process, and in many cases the inspection of manufacturing, processing, and packaging facilities by the regulatory authorities. Our product candidates may not be effective, may be only moderately effective or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use, or there may be deficiencies in cGMP compliance by us or by our CMOs that could result in the candidate not being approved. Moreover, we have not obtained regulatory approval for any drug candidate in any jurisdiction and it is possible that none of our existing drug candidates or any drug candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.
Our therapeutic candidates could fail to receive, or could be delayed in receiving, regulatory approval for many reasons, including any one or more of the following:
the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;
the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;
we may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of a BLA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;
upon review of our clinical trial sites and data, the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may find our record keeping or the record keeping of our clinical trial sites to be inadequate;
the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies may fail to meet the requirements of the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities; and    
the change of the medical standard of care or the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner that renders our clinical data insufficient for approval.
It is possible that none of the therapeutic candidates we or our collaborators may develop will obtain the approvals necessary for us or our collaborators to sell them either in the United States or any other country. Furthermore, approval by the FDA of a therapeutic product does not assure approval by regulatory authorities outside the United States or vice versa. Even if approval for a therapeutic product is obtained, such approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses or appropriate patient population that could result in a significantly reduced potential market size for the product.

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If we or our collaborators fail to obtain the appropriate regulatory approvals necessary for us or our collaborators to sell our therapeutic candidates, or if the approvals are more limited than those that we intend to seek, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially harmed.
We will be subject to stringent domestic and foreign therapeutic and drug regulation with respect to any potential products. Even if we receive regulatory approval for any of our therapeutic candidates, we will still be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued review, which may result in significant additional expense. If we fail to comply with United States and foreign regulatory requirements, regulatory authorities could limit or withdraw any marketing or commercialization approvals we may receive and subject us to other penalties. Any unfavorable regulatory action may materially and adversely affect our future financial condition and business operations.
Even if we receive marketing and commercialization approval of a therapeutic candidate, we will be subject to continuing post-marketing regulatory requirements. Our potential products, further development activities and manufacturing and distribution, once developed and determined, will be subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by numerous government agencies, including the FDA and comparable foreign agencies. To varying degrees, each of these agencies monitors and enforces our compliance with laws and regulations governing the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, marketing, distribution, and the safety and effectiveness of our therapeutic candidates and, if approved, our future products. The process of obtaining marketing approval or clearance from the FDA and comparable foreign bodies for new products, or for enhancements, expansion of the indications or modifications to existing products, could:
take a significant, indeterminate amount of time;
require the expenditure of substantial resources;
involve rigorous preclinical and clinical testing, and possibly post-market surveillance;
require design changes of our potential products; or
result in our never being granted the regulatory approval we seek.
Any of these occurrences may cause our operations or potential for success to suffer, harm our competitive standing and result in further losses that adversely affect our financial condition.
The FDA, as well as its foreign regulatory counterparts, also have significant post-market authority, including the authority to require labeling changes based on new safety information and to require post-market studies or clinical trials to evaluate safety risks related to the use of a product or to require withdrawal of the product from the market. Additionally, the FDA regulates the promotional claims that may be made about prescription products, such as our products, if approved. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA or other regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. However, we may share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with the product’s FDA approved labeling.
We will have ongoing responsibilities under these and other FDA and international regulations, both before and after a product is approved and commercially released. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements is subject to continual review and is monitored rigorously through periodic inspections by the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies. If we or our collaborators, manufacturers or service providers fail to comply with applicable continuing regulatory requirements in the United States or foreign jurisdictions in which we seek to market our products, we or they may be subject to, among other things, fines, warning letters, adverse regulatory inspection finding, holds on clinical trials, delay of approval or refusal by the FDA or applicable authorities to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approval, product recalls and seizures, administrative detention of products, refusal to permit the import or export of products, operating restrictions, exclusion of eligibility from government contracts, injunction, civil penalties and criminal prosecution. Any adverse regulatory action, depending on its magnitude, may restrict us from effectively commercializing our potential products and harm our business. In addition, negative publicity and product liability claims resulting from any adverse regulatory action could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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The FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from trials conducted outside of their respective jurisdictions. While we currently have partnerships in China designed to provide access to patient populations outside of the United States and in the future may conduct clinical trials in other foreign jurisdictions, there can be no assurance these data will be accepted by the FDA or EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities as a basis for regulatory approval.
To augment our U.S.-centric clinical strategy, we have formed partnerships in China designed to provide access patient populations for clinical trials not readily available in the United States and to facilitate rapid patient enrollment with the goal of generating more robust early clinical data from patients in China. We may in the future pursue partnerships to conduct other clinical trials outside of the United States. The acceptance of study data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States or another jurisdiction by the FDA, EMA or applicable foreign regulatory authority may be subject to certain conditions. In cases where data from foreign clinical trials are intended to serve as the basis for marketing approval in the United States, the FDA will generally not approve the application on the basis of foreign data alone unless (i) the data are applicable to the U.S. population and U.S. medical practice and (ii) the trials were performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence and pursuant to GCP regulations. Additionally, the FDA’s clinical trial requirements, including sufficient size of patient populations and statistical powering, must be met. Many foreign regulatory bodies have similar approval requirements. In addition, any foreign trials would be subject to the applicable local laws of the foreign jurisdictions where the trials are conducted. There can be no assurance that the FDA, EMA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States or the applicable jurisdiction, including any trials conducted in China.
Our partnerships in China subject us to risks and uncertainties relating to the laws and regulations of China and the changes in relations between the United States and China.
Under its current leadership, the government of China has been pursuing economic reform policies, including by encouraging foreign trade and investment. However, there is no assurance that the Chinese government will continue to pursue such policies, that such policies will be successfully implemented, that such policies will not be significantly altered, or that such policies will be beneficial to our partnerships in China. China’s system of laws can be unpredictable, especially with respect to foreign investment and foreign trade. The United States government has called for substantial changes to foreign trade policy with China and has raised, and has proposed to further raise in the future, tariffs on several Chinese goods. China has retaliated with increased tariffs on United States goods. Moreover, China’s legislature has recently adopted a national security law to substantially change the way Hong Kong has been governed since the territory was handed over by the United Kingdom to China in 1997. This law increases the power of the central government in Beijing over Hong Kong, limit the civil liberties of residents of Hong Kong and could restrict the ability of businesses in Hong Kong to continue to conduct business or to continue to with business as previously conducted. The U.S. State Department has indicated that the United States no longer considers Hong Kong to have significant autonomy from China and President Trump signed an executive order and the Hong Kong Autonomy Act to remove Hong Kong’s preferential trade status. The United States may impose the same tariffs and other trade restrictions on exports from Hong Kong that it places on goods from mainland China. Any further changes in United States trade policy could trigger retaliatory actions by affected countries, including China, resulting in trade wars. Additionally, the biopharmaceutical industry in particular in China is strictly regulated by the Chinese government. Changes to Chinese regulations affecting biopharmaceutical companies are also unpredictable. Any regulatory changes and changes in United States and China relations may have a material adverse effect on our partnerships in China which could materially harm our business and financial condition.
Unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives could harm our business in the future.
There is increasing pressure on biotechnology companies to reduce healthcare costs. In the United States, these pressures come from a variety of sources, such as managed care groups and institutional and government purchasers. Increased purchasing power of entities that negotiate on behalf of federal healthcare programs and private sector beneficiaries could increase pricing pressures in the future. Such pressures may also increase the risk of litigation or investigation by the government regarding pricing calculations. The biotechnology industry will likely face greater regulation and political and legal actions in the future.
Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more future therapeutic candidates, even if our future therapeutic candidates obtain regulatory approval. Adverse pricing limitations prior

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to approval will also adversely affect us by reducing our commercial potential. Our ability to commercialize any potential products successfully also will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and reimbursement for these products and related treatments becomes available from third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Third-party payors decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. In addition, companion diagnostic tests require coverage and reimbursement separate and apart from the coverage and reimbursement for their companion pharmaceutical or biological products. Similar challenges to obtaining coverage and reimbursement, applicable to pharmaceutical or biological products, will apply to companion diagnostics.
A significant trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize in the future and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product for which we obtain marketing approval in the future. If reimbursement is not available or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any therapeutic candidate that we successfully develop.
There may be significant delays in obtaining reimbursement for approved products, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the product is approved by the FDA or regulatory authorities in other countries. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any product will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim payments for new products, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Payment rates may vary according to the use of the product and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on payments allowed for lower cost products that are already reimbursed and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for products may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by third-party payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of products from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies, but also have their own methods and approval process apart from Medicare coverage and reimbursement determinations. Accordingly, one third-party payor’s determination to provide coverage for a product does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors for approved products could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize potential products and our overall financial condition.
Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Third-party payors, whether domestic or foreign, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and likely will continue to be, legislative and regulatory proposals at the foreign, federal, and state levels directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. We cannot predict the initiatives that may be adopted in the future. The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations, and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of healthcare and/or impose price controls may adversely affect:
the demand for our therapeutic candidates, if we obtain regulatory approval;
our ability to receive or set a price that we believe is fair for our products;
our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability;
the level of taxes that we are required to pay; and
the availability of capital.
In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care Education and Reconciliation Act, or collectively the ACA, was enacted, which includes measures that have significantly changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers in the United States. It also included the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or the BPCIA, which created an

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abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biological product. The ACA continues to significantly impact the United States’ pharmaceutical industry. Since its enactment, there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, and as a result certain sections of the ACA have not been fully implemented or effectively repealed. In particular, in December of 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, effective January 1, 2019. On December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the District Court ruling that the individual mandate was unconstitutional but remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether other reforms enacted as part of the ACA but not specifically related to the individual mandate or health insurance, including the provisions comprising the BPCIA, could be severed from the rest of the ACA so as not to be declared invalid as well. On March 2, 2020, the United States Supreme Court granted the petitions for writs of certiorari to review this case and has allocated one hour for oral arguments, which are expected to occur in the fall, with a decision likely to follow in 2021. It is unclear how such litigation and other efforts to repeal and replace the ACA will impact the ACA and our business. Complying with any new legislation or reversing changes implemented under the ACA could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011, which began in 2013 and will remain in effect through 2030 unless additional Congressional action is taken. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or the CARES Act, which was signed into law on March 27, 2020 and was designed to provide financial support and resources to individuals and businesses affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, suspended the 2% Medicare sequester from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020, and extended the sequester by one year, through 2030, in order to offset the added expense of the 2020 cancellation.
Moreover, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. On March 10, 2020, the Trump administration sent “principles” for drug pricing to Congress, calling for legislation that would, among other things, cap Medicare Part D beneficiary out-of-pocket pharmacy expenses, provide an option to cap Medicare Part D beneficiary monthly out-of-pocket expenses, and place limits on pharmaceutical price increases. In addition, the Trump administration previously released a “Blueprint” to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contained proposals to increase manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products and reduce the out-of-pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers. The Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, has solicited feedback on some of these measures and has implemented others under its existing authority. For example, at the end of December 2019, the FDA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish a system whereby state governmental entities could lawfully import and distribute prescription drugs sourced from Canada, although the impact of such future programs is uncertain. While some of these and other measures may require additional authorization to become effective, Congress and the Trump administration have each indicated that they will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs. Notably, on July 24, 2020, President Trump announced four executive orders related to prescription drug pricing that attempt to implement several of the Administration’s proposals, including a policy that would tie Medicare Part B drug prices to international drug prices; one that directs HHS to finalize the Canadian drug importation proposed rule previously issued by HHS and makes other changes allowing for personal importation of drugs from Canada; one that directs HHS to finalize the rulemaking process on modifying the anti-kickback law safe harbors for plans, pharmacies, and pharmaceutical benefit managers after HHS confirms that the action is not projected to increase federal spending, Medicare beneficiary premiums, or patients’ total out-of-pocket costs; and one that reduces costs of insulin and epipens to patients of federally qualified health centers. The probability of success of these newly announced policies and their impact on the U.S. prescription drug marketplace is unknown. There are likely to be political and legal challenges associated with implementing these reforms as they are currently envisioned.

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At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.
We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, lower reimbursement, and new payment methodologies. This could lower the price that we receive for any approved product. Any denial in coverage or reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar denial or reduction in payments from private payors, which may prevent us from being able to generate sufficient revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our therapeutic candidates, if approved.
In the European Union similar political, economic and regulatory developments may affect our ability to profitably commercialize our current or any future products. In addition to continuing pressure on prices and cost containment measures, legislative developments at the European Union or member state level may result in significant additional requirements or obstacles that may increase our operating costs. In international markets, reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary significantly by country, and many countries have instituted price ceilings on specific products and therapies. Our future products, if any, might not be considered medically reasonable and necessary for a specific indication or cost-effective by third-party payors, an adequate level of reimbursement might not be available for such products and third-party payors’ reimbursement policies might adversely affect our ability to sell any future products profitably.
Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for biologic therapeutics. For example, on December 20, 2019, President Trump signed the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act for 2020 into law (P.L. 116-94) that includes a piece of bipartisan legislation called the Creating and Restoring Equal Access to Equivalent Samples Act of 2019, or the CREATES Act. The CREATES Act aims to address the concern articulated by both the FDA and others in the industry that some brand manufacturers have improperly restricted the distribution of their products to deny generic and biosimilar product developers access to samples of brand products. Whether and how generic and biosimilar product developers will use this new pathway, as well as the likely outcome of any legal challenges to provisions of the CREATES Act, remain highly uncertain and its potential effects on the U.S. biopharmaceutical industry are unknown. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our therapeutic candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by the U.S. Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-approval testing and other requirements.
We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, our therapeutic candidates may lose any marketing approval that may have been obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business.

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If we or our partners, manufacturers or service providers fail to comply with healthcare laws and regulations, we or they could be subject to enforcement actions, which could affect our ability to develop, market and sell our products and may harm our reputation.
Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any therapeutic candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare providers, third-party payors and customers expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute our therapeutic candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. In addition, we may be subject to patient data privacy and security regulation by both the U.S. federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations, include the following:
the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, or order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
the federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the U.S. federal False Claims Act, which can be enforced through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, and the civil monetary penalties laws, which prohibit individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent, knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim, or from knowingly making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the U.S. federal False Claims Act;
the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, or knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services; similar to the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and their implementing regulations, which imposes obligations on certain healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouse, known as covered entities, as well as their business associates that perform certain services involving the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security, and transmission of individually identifiable health information, and require notification to affected individuals and regulatory authorities of certain breaches of individually identifiable health information;
the U.S. federal legislation commonly referred to as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, enacted as part of the ACA, and its implementing regulations, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies that are reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to HHS information related to certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, chiropractors and, beginning in 2022 for payments and other transfers of value provided in the previous year, certain advanced non-physician health care practitioners) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by the physicians described above and their immediate family members; and
analogous state laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws that may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government in addition to requiring drug and therapeutic biologics manufacturers to report information related to payments to physicians and other

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healthcare providers or marketing expenditures and pricing information; state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.
Ensuring that our future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations could involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any such requirements, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including monetary damages, fines, disgorgements, imprisonment, loss of eligibility to obtain approvals from the FDA, exclusion from participation in government contracting, healthcare reimbursement or other government programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, additional reporting requirements if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with any of these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely our financial results. Although effective compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, these risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Any action against us for an alleged or suspected violation could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and could divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business, even if our defense is successful. In addition, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable laws and regulations may be costly to us in terms of money, time and resources.
We may seek orphan drug status for one or more of our therapeutic candidates, but even if it is granted, we may be unable to maintain any benefits associated with orphan drug status, including market exclusivity.
Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biologic intended to treat a rare disease or condition or for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the United States a drug or biologic for a disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the United States for that drug or biologic. If a product that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity, which means that the FDA may not approve any other applications, including a full Biologics License Application, or a BLA, to market the same drug or biologic for the same indication for seven years, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan drug exclusivity.
We may seek orphan drug status for one or more of our therapeutic candidates, but the FDA may not approve any such request. Even if the FDA grants orphan drug status to one or more of our therapeutic candidates, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be limited if we seek FDA marketing approval for an indication broader than the orphan designated indication. Additionally, any therapeutic candidate that initially receives orphan drug status designation, may lose such designation if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantities of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. In addition, others may obtain orphan drug status for products addressing the same diseases or conditions as products we are developing, thus limiting our ability to compete in the markets addressing such diseases or conditions for a significant period of time.
We may seek fast-track designation for our therapeutic candidates. Even if received, fast-track designation may not actually lead to a faster review process.
We aim to benefit from the FDA’s fast track and accelerated approval processes. However, our therapeutic candidates may not receive an FDA fast-track designation or priority review. Without fast-track designation, submitting a BLA and getting through the regulatory process to gain marketing approval is a lengthier process. Under fast-track designation, the FDA may initiate a rolling review of sections of a fast-track drug’s BLA before the application is complete. However, the FDA’s time period goal for reviewing an application does not begin until the last section of the BLA is submitted. Additionally, the fast-track designation may be withdrawn by the FDA if the FDA believes that the designation is no longer supported by data emerging in the clinical trial process. Under the FDA policies, a drug candidate is eligible for priority review, or review within a six-month time frame from the time a complete BLA is accepted for filing, if the drug candidate provides a significant improvement compared to marketed drugs in the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of a disease. A fast-track designated drug candidate would ordinarily meet the FDA’s criteria for priority review.

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The fast-track designation for our therapeutic candidates, if obtained, may not actually lead to a faster review process and a delay in the review process or in the approval of our potential products will delay revenue from their potential sales and will increase the capital necessary to fund these product development programs.
Our therapeutic candidates for which we intend to seek approval may face competition sooner than anticipated.
Even if we are successful in achieving regulatory approval to commercialize a therapeutic candidate ahead of our competitors, our therapeutic candidates may face competition from biosimilar products. In the United States, our therapeutic candidates are regulated by the FDA as biological products and we intend to seek approval for these therapeutic candidates pursuant to the BLA pathway. The BPCIA created an abbreviated pathway for the FDA approval of biosimilar biological products based on a previously licensed innovator, or reference, biological product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar biological product cannot be approved by the FDA until 12 years after the original reference biological product was approved under a BLA. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty. While it is uncertain when such processes intended to implement BPCIA may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our therapeutic candidates.
We believe that any of our therapeutic candidates approved as a biological product under a BLA should qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity available to reference biological products. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to Congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider our therapeutic candidates to be reference biological products pursuant to its interpretation of the exclusivity provisions of the BPCIA, potentially creating the opportunity for follow-on biosimilar competition sooner than anticipated. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar product, once approved, will be substituted for any one of our reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biological products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing including whether a future competitor seeks an interchangeability designation for a biosimilar of one of our products. Under the BPCIA as well as state pharmacy laws, only so-called “interchangeable” biosimilar products are considered substitutable for the reference biological product without the intervention of the health care provider who prescribed the original biological product. However, as with all prescribing decisions made in the context of a patient-provider relationship and a patient’s specific medical needs, healthcare providers are not restricted from prescribing biosimilar products in an off-label manner. In addition, a competitor could decide to forego the abbreviated approval pathway available for biosimilar products and to submit a full BLA for product licensure after completing its own preclinical studies and clinical trials. In such a situation, any exclusivity to which we may be eligible under the BPCIA would not prevent the competitor from marketing its biological product as soon as it is approved.
In Europe, the European Commission has granted marketing authorizations for several biosimilar products pursuant to a set of general and product class-specific guidelines for biosimilar approvals issued over the past few years. In addition, companies may be developing biosimilar products in other countries that could compete with our products, if approved.
If competitors are able to obtain marketing approval for biosimilars referencing our therapeutic candidates, if approved, our future products may become subject to competition from such biosimilars, whether or not they are designated as interchangeable, with the attendant competitive pressure and potential adverse consequences. Such competitive products may be able to immediately compete with us in each indication for which our therapeutic candidates may have received approval.
We face regulation and potential liability related to the privacy, data protection and information security which may require significant resources and may adversely affect our business, operations and financial performance.
The regulatory environment surrounding information security, data collection and privacy is increasingly demanding. We are subject to numerous U.S. federal and state laws and non-U.S. regulations governing the protection of personal and confidential information of our clinical subjects, clinical investigators, employees and vendors/business contacts, including in relation to medical records, credit card data and financial information. For example, on May 25, 2018, the European General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, went into effect, implementing more stringent requirements in relation to our use of personal data relating to individuals located in the European Union. The GDPR repeals the Data Protection Directive (95/46/EC) and became directly applicable in all European Union member states starting on May 25, 2018. The GDPR significantly increases

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fining levels of up to 4% total worldwide annual turnover or up to €20 million (whichever is higher) for non-compliance with its requirements. We will be subject to the GDPR where we have a European Union presence or “establishment” (e.g. European Union based subsidiary or operations), when conducting clinical trials with European Union based data subjects (whether the trials are conducted directly by us or through a clinical vendor or partner) or offering approved products or services (if relevant) to European Union based data subjects (regardless of whether involving our European Union based subsidiary or operations).
The GDPR sets out a number of requirements that must be complied with when handling the personal data of such European Union based data subjects including: providing expanded disclosures about how their personal data will be used; higher standards for organizations to demonstrate that they have obtained valid consent or have another legal basis in place to justify their data processing activities; the obligation to appoint data protection officers in certain circumstances; new rights for individuals to be “forgotten” and rights to data portability, as well as enhanced current rights (e.g. access requests); the principal of accountability and demonstrating compliance through policies, procedures, training and audit; the new mandatory data breach regime. In particular, medical or health data, genetic data and biometric data where the latter is used to uniquely identify an individual are all classified as “special category” data under the GDPR and afford greater protection and require additional compliance obligations. Further, European Union member states have a broad right to impose additional conditions—including restrictions—on these data categories. This is because the GDPR allows European Union member states to derogate from the requirements of the GDPR mainly in regard to specific processing situations (including special category data and processing for scientific or statistical purposes). As the European Union states continue to reframe their national legislation to harmonize with the GDPR, we will need to monitor compliance with all relevant European Union member states’ laws and regulations, including where permitted derogations from the GDPR are introduced.
We will also be subject to evolving European Union laws on data export, where we transfer data outside the European Union to group companies or third parties. The GDPR only permits exports of data outside the European Union where there is a suitable data transfer solution in place to safeguard personal data (e.g. the European Union Commission approved Standard Contractual Clauses). On July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union or the CJEU, issued a landmark opinion in the case Maximilian Schrems vs. Facebook (Case C-311/18), called Schrems II. This decision calls into question certain data transfer mechanisms as between the European Union member states and the U.S. The CJEU is the highest court in Europe and the Schrems II decision heightens the burden on data importers to assess U.S. national security laws on their business and future actions of European Union data protection authorities are difficult to predict at the early date. Consequently, there is some risk of any of our data transfers from the European Union being halted.
Where we rely on third parties to carry out a number of services for us, including processing personal data on our behalf, we are required under GDPR to enter into contractual arrangements to help ensure that these third parties only process such data according to our instructions and have sufficient security measures in place. Any security breach or non-compliance with our contractual terms or breach of applicable law by such third parties could result in enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse impact on our reputation and business. Any contractual arrangements requiring the transfer of personal data from the European Union to us in the United States will require greater scrutiny and assessments as required under Schrems II and may have an adverse impact on cross-border transfers of personal data, or increase costs of compliance.
Further, the United Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union, often referred to as Brexit, has created uncertainty with regard to data protection regulation in the United Kingdom. In particular, while the Data Protection Act of 2018, that “implements” and complements the GDPR achieved Royal Assent on May 23, 2018 and is now effective in the United Kingdom, it is still unclear whether transfer of data from the European Economic Area to the United Kingdom will remain lawful under GDPR. During the period of “transition” (i.e., until December 31, 2020), European Union law will continue to apply in the United Kingdom, including the GDPR, after which the GDPR will be converted into United Kingdom law. Beginning in 2021, the United Kingdom will be a “third country” under the GDPR.
In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including federal health information privacy laws, state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act and California Consumer Privacy

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Act of 2018, or CCPA), that govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health-related and other personal information could apply to our operations or the operations of our collaborators, and the privacy regulatory area is in constant flux. The state of California, for example, recently adopted the CCPA, which went into effect beginning in January 2020. The CCPA has been characterized as the first “GDPR-like” privacy statute to be enacted in the United States because it mirrors a number of the key provisions of the GDPR. The CCPA establishes a new privacy framework for covered businesses by creating an expanded definition of personal information, establishing new data privacy rights for residents of the State of California, imposing special rules on the collection of personal information from minors, and creating a new and potentially severe statutory damages framework for violations of the CCPA and for businesses that fail to implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. An initiative called the California Privacy Rights Act, or CCPA 2.0, will be voted on in California in November and could impact our operations or that of our collaborators. Other states have been considering legislation similar to the CCPA, and several federal privacy proposals are under consideration in the current session of Congress.
In recent years, U.S. and European lawmakers and regulators have expressed concern over electronic marketing. In the European Union, marketing is defined broadly to include any promotional material and the rules specifically on e-marketing are currently set out in the ePrivacy Directive which will be replaced by a new ePrivacy Regulation. While the ePrivacy Regulation was originally intended to be adopted on May 25, 2018 (alongside the GDPR), it is still going through the European legislative process and commentators now expect it to be adopted in 2021. The current draft of the ePrivacy Regulation imposes strict opt-in e-marketing rules with limited exceptions to business to business communications and significantly increases fining powers to the same levels as GDPR (see above).
We may find it necessary or desirable to join self-regulatory bodies or other privacy-related organizations, particularly relating to biopharmacy and/or scientific research that may require compliance with their rules pertaining to privacy and data security.
The introduction of the GDPR, and any resultant changes in European Union member states’ national laws and regulations and the ePrivacy Regulation, will increase our compliance obligations and will necessitate the review and implementation of policies and processes relating to our collection and use of data. This increase in compliance obligations could also lead to an increase in compliance costs which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If any person, including any of our employees, clinical vendors or partners or those with whom we share such information, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches our established controls with respect to our clinical subject, clinical investigator or employee data, or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates that data, we could be subject to significant monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions, fines and/or criminal prosecution in one or more jurisdictions. As above, under the GDPR there are significant new punishments for non-compliance which could result in a penalty of up to 4% of a firm’s global annual revenue. In addition, a data breach could result in negative publicity which could damage our reputation and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Applicable laws may conflict with each other, and by complying with the laws or regulations of one jurisdiction, we may find that we are violating the laws or regulations of another jurisdiction. Despite our efforts, we may not have fully complied in the past and may not in the future. If we become liable under laws or regulations applicable to us, we could be required to pay significant fines and penalties, our reputation may be harmed and we may be forced to change the way we operate. That could require us to incur significant expenses or to discontinue certain services, which could negatively affect our business.
We are subject to U.S. and certain foreign export and import controls, sanctions, embargoes, anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws and regulations. Compliance with these legal standards could impair our ability to compete in domestic and international markets. We can face criminal liability and other serious consequences for violations, which can harm our business.
We are subject to export control and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations, various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA

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PATRIOT Act, and other state and national anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in the countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees, agents, contractors, and other collaborators from authorizing, promising, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or anything else of value to recipients in the public or private sector. We may engage third parties to sell our products sell our products outside the United States, to conduct clinical trials, and/or to obtain necessary permits, licenses, patent registrations, and other regulatory approvals. We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or government-affiliated hospitals, universities, and other organizations. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our employees, agents, contractors, and other collaborators, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities. Any violations of the laws and regulations described above may result in substantial civil and criminal fines and penalties, imprisonment, the loss of export or import privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, reputational harm, and other consequences.
Our application for the PPP Loan could in the future be determined to have been impermissible which could result in damage to our reputation or adversely impact our business. All or a portion of the PPP Loan may not be forgiveable.
In May 2020, we received proceeds of approximately $1.9 million from a loan under the Paycheck Protection Program, or the PPP Loan, of the CARES Act. The PPP Loan has a term of two years, is unsecured, and is guaranteed by the U.S. Small Business Administration, or the SBA. The PPP Loan carries a fixed interest rate of 1% per annum, with the first six months of interest deferred. Under the CARES Act, we may be eligible to apply for forgiveness of all loan proceeds used to pay payroll costs, rent, utilities and other qualifying expenses, provided that we retain a certain number of employees and maintain compensation within certain regulatory parameters of the Paycheck Protection Program. If the conditions outlined in the Paycheck Protection Program are adhered to by us, all or part of the PPP Loan could be forgiven. However, we cannot provide any assurance that we will be eligible for loan forgiveness or that any amount of the PPP Loan will ultimately be forgiven.
In applying for the PPP Loan, we were required to certify, among other things, that the then current economic uncertainty made the PPP Loan necessary to support our ongoing operations and that we did not, together with our affiliates, then employ more than 500 employees. We made these certifications in good faith after analyzing, among other things, our current business activity and our ability to access other sources of liquidity sufficient to support our ongoing operations in a manner that would not be significantly detrimental to our business. We believe that we satisfied all eligibility criteria for the PPP Loan, and that our receipt of the PPP Loan was consistent with the broad objectives of the PPP of the CARES Act. The certification regarding necessity described above did not at the time contain any objective criteria and continues to be subject to interpretation. We are continuing to evaluate the criteria and new guidance issued by the SBA. If, despite our good-faith belief that we satisfied all eligibility requirements for the PPP Loan, we are later determined to have violated any of the laws or governmental regulations that apply to us in connection with the PPP Loan, such as the False Claims Act, or it is otherwise determined that we were ineligible to receive the PPP Loan, we may be subject to civil, criminal and administrative penalties. Any violations or alleged violations may result in adverse publicity and damage to our reputation, a review or audit by the SBA or other government entity, or claims under the False Claims Act. These events could consume significant financial and management resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Use of net operating loss carryforwards may be limited and U.S. federal income tax reform could adversely affect us.
Our ability to utilize our net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with this offering. Corresponding rules may apply under state tax laws. We have not yet determined the amount of the cumulative change in our ownership resulting from this offering or other transactions, or any resulting limitations, if any, on our ability to utilize our NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes. Even if there is no limitation on utilization of our NOL carryforwards as the result of an ownership change, the utilization of NOL carryforwards originating from a loss incurred in a year after 2017 is limited and may reduce taxable income in any post-2020 year by no more than 80% of the pre-NOL taxable income in such year. If we earn taxable income in a future year, such limitations on utilization of NOL carryforwards could result in increased future tax liability to us and our future cash flows could be adversely affected.

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New legislation or regulation which could affect our tax burden could be enacted by any governmental authority. We cannot predict the timing or extent of such tax-related developments which could have a negative impact on our financial results. United States federal legislation affecting the tax laws was enacted in December 2017 (the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or TCJA), March 2020 (the Families First Coronavirus Response Act, or the FFCR Act), and again in March 2020 (the CARES Act). We cannot estimate how the changes in tax law from this legislation will affect our tax liability in future years, but we have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our NOLs and other deferred tax asses due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits from those assets.
Additionally, we use our best judgment in attempting to quantify and reserve for these tax obligations. However, a challenge by a taxing authority, our ability to utilize tax benefits such as carryforwards or tax credits, or a deviation from other tax-related assumptions may cause actual financial results to deviate from previous estimates.
If we do not comply with laws regulating the protection of the environment and health and human safety, our business could be adversely affected.
We maintain quantities of various flammable and toxic chemicals in our facilities in La Jolla, California required for our research and development activities. We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials. We believe our procedures for storing, handling and disposing these hazardous materials in our La Jolla facilities comply with the relevant guidelines of La Jolla, the state of California and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards mandated by applicable regulations, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be eliminated. If an accident occurs, we could be held liable for resulting damages, which could be substantial. We are also subject to numerous environmental, health and workplace safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures, exposure to blood-borne pathogens and the handling of animals and biohazardous materials. Any insurance coverage we have may not be sufficient to cover these liabilities. Additional federal, state and local laws and regulations affecting our operations may be adopted in the future. We may incur substantial costs to comply with, and substantial fines or penalties if we violate, any of these laws or regulations which would adversely affect our business.
Our future growth may depend, in part, on our ability to operate in foreign markets, where we would be subject to additional regulatory burdens and other risks and uncertainties.
Our future growth may depend, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our therapeutic candidates, if approved, in foreign markets for which we may rely on collaboration with third parties. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our therapeutic candidates before we receive regulatory approval from the applicable regulatory authority in that foreign market, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our therapeutic candidates. To obtain separate regulatory approval in many other countries we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such countries regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials and commercial sales, pricing and distribution of our therapeutic candidates, and we cannot predict success in these jurisdictions. If we obtain approval of our therapeutic candidates and ultimately commercialize our therapeutic candidates in foreign markets, we would be subject to the risks and uncertainties, including the burden of complying with complex and changing foreign regulatory, tax, accounting and legal requirements and the reduced protection of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries. We may need to rely on third parties to market, distribute and sell our products in foreign markets.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock and This Offering
We expect that our stock price may fluctuate significantly and investors may not be able to resell their shares at or above the initial public offering price. An active trading market for our common stock may never develop.
Prior to this offering, you could not buy or sell our common stock publicly. Although we have applied to have our common stock listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, an active trading market for our shares may never develop or be sustained following this offering. If an active market for our common stock does not develop or is not maintained, it may be difficult for you to sell shares you purchase in this offering without depressing the market price for the shares or at all. An inactive trading market may also impair our ability to raise capital to continue to

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fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our common stock as consideration.
The initial public offering price for our common stock will be determined through negotiations with the underwriters. This determined price may not reflect the price at which investors in the market will be willing to buy and sell our shares following this offering. You may be unable to sell your shares of common stock at or above the initial offering price. The market price of shares of our common stock following this offering could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to many risk factors listed in this section, and others beyond our control, including:
results of clinical trials and preclinical studies or those of our competitors;
the success of competitive products or technologies;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;
the level of expenses related to our therapeutic candidates or development programs;
changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems; actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;
announcements by us, our partners or our competitors of new therapeutics or therapeutic candidates, significant contracts, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations, commercial relationships or capital commitments;
failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;
issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts or recommendations for our stock;
disputes or other developments related to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters, and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;
commencement of, or our involvement in, litigation;
fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;
manufacturing disputes or delays;
any future sales of our common stock or other securities;
any change to the composition of the board of directors or key personnel;
expiration of contractual lock-up agreements with our executive officers, directors and security holders;
general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets;
share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;
announcement or expectation of additional debt or equity financing efforts;
circumstances and market conditions relating to the COVID-19 pandemic; and
other factors described in this section of the prospectus.
These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for our common stock to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, the stock market in general, and life science companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. In the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have on occasion instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. If any of our stockholders were to bring a lawsuit against us, the defense and disposition of the lawsuit could be costly and divert the time and attention of our management and harm our operating results.
Our management team has broad discretion to use the net proceeds from this offering and its investment of these proceeds may not yield a favorable return. We may invest the proceeds of this offering in ways with which investors disagree.
We have broad discretion as to how to spend and invest the proceeds from this offering, and we may spend or invest these proceeds in a way with which our stockholders disagree. Accordingly, investors will need to rely on our judgment with respect to the use of these proceeds. We currently intend to use the proceeds from this offering (i) to fund the remainder of dose expansion in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial to initial data, initiate combination studies as well as to fund commercial manufacturing scale-up activities for our INBRX-109 program, (ii) to fund the remainder of dose escalation in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial to initial data, for both single agent and in combination with Keytruda for our INBRX-106 program, (iii) to fund the remainder of dose escalation in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial to initial data and to fund commercial manufacturing scale-up activities for our INBRX-105 program, (iv) to fund the remainder of our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial to

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initial data and to fund commercial manufacturing scale-up activities for our INBRX-101 program, and (v) for our research and development activities, as well as working capital and other general corporate purposes. These uses may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.
We cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the completion of this offering. In addition, the amount, allocation and timing of our actual expenditures will depend upon numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, we will have broad discretion in using these proceeds. In addition, until the net proceeds are used, they may be placed in investments that do not produce significant income or that may lose value.
Investors in this offering will pay a higher price than the book value of our common stock.
The initial public offering price of our common stock is substantially higher than the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after giving effect to this offering. If you purchase common stock in this offering, you will pay more for your shares than the amounts paid by existing stockholders for their shares. You will incur immediate and substantial dilution of $             per share, representing the difference between our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. In the past, we issued options and warrants to acquire capital stock at prices significantly below the initial public offering price. To the extent the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares or any outstanding options or warrants are ultimately exercised, you will sustain further dilution. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after the offering, see the section titled “Dilution”.
Our executive officers, directors and holders of more than 5% of our capital stock own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exercise significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.
Our executive officers, directors and holders of more than 5% of our capital stock listed in the table in the section titled “Principal Stockholders” beneficially owned approximately             % of our shares of common stock outstanding as of July 15, 2020, which reflects the assumed conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock prior to the completion of this offering, the conversion of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes in connection with this offering, assuming a conversion date of          , 2020, and we expect that upon the completion of this offering, that same group will beneficially own at least             % of our common stock, which excludes shares of common stock, if any, purchased by our executive officers, directors and holders of more than 5% of our capital stock in this offering. Accordingly, after this offering, our executive officers, directors and holders of more than 5% of our capital stock will continue to have significant control over our operations. This concentration of ownership could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in our control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our stock price and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove the board of directors or management.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Our stock price could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock after this offering or the perception that these sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
Upon the completion of this offering and conversion of the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes,              shares of our common stock will be outstanding (or              shares assuming full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares) based on our shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020, a conversion date of          , 2020, an assumed conversion price under the 2019 Note of $     per share and an assumed conversion price under the 2020 Notes of $     per share. All shares of common stock expected to be sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, unless held by our “affiliates,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act, or Rule 144. The resale of the remaining              shares of common stock, or              % of our outstanding shares of common stock after this offering assuming that we sell the number of shares set forth on the cover of this prospectus, are currently prohibited or otherwise restricted as a result of securities law provisions, market

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standoff agreements entered into by our stockholders with us or lock-up agreements entered into by our stockholders with the underwriters, but will be able to be resold after this offering as described in the “Shares eligible for future sale” section of this prospectus. The lock-up agreements pertaining to this offering will expire 180 days from the date of this prospectus, subject to earlier release of all or a portion of the shares subject to such agreements by Jefferies LLC, Evercore Group L.L.C. and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC in their sole discretion. After the lock-up agreements expire, based upon the number of shares of common stock, on an as-converted basis (including the full conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes assuming a conversion date of          , 2020) outstanding as of June 30, 2020,              of the shares of common stock outstanding prior to this offering will be eligible for sale in the public market. Approximately             % of these shares are held by our executive officers, directors and their affiliates and will be subject to certain limitations of Rule 144.
In addition, the 4,020,289 shares of common stock subject to outstanding options, of which options to purchase 1,266,932 shares of common stock were exercisable as of June 30, 2020, and the shares reserved for future issuance under our stock option and equity incentive plans will become available for sale immediately upon the exercise of such options and the expiration of any applicable market stand-off or lock-up agreements. We intend to register the offer and sale of all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans.
Holders of approximately              shares of our common stock outstanding upon completion of this offering (assuming we sell the number of shares set forth on the cover of this prospectus and assuming a conversion date of          , 2020 and the conversion of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes) or             % of our common stock outstanding after the completion of this offering, plus           shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2020 as well as subsequent options granted after June 30, 2020) will have rights, subject to certain conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. If and when we register the offer and sale of shares for the holders of registration rights and option holders, they can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to the lock-up agreements described in the section of this prospectus titled “Underwriting.”
In addition, in the future, we may issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or debt securities convertible into common stock in connection with a financing, acquisition, litigation settlement, employee arrangements or otherwise. Any such issuance could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could cause our stock price to decline.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research reports about our business, or if they issue an adverse opinion about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. We may never obtain research coverage by industry or financial analysts. If no or few analysts commence coverage of us, the trading price of our stock would likely decrease. Even if we do obtain analyst coverage, if one or more of the analysts who cover us issues an adverse opinion about our company, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the public markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our stock.
We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. The 2020 Loan Agreement, 2019 Note, 2020 Notes and future debt financing agreements may require us to have the lender’s permission before declaring dividends on our common stock. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the appreciation of their stock.

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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, stockholders could lose confidence in our financial statements and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our common stock.
Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, our management will be required to report upon the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning in the year following the first required annual report.
The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation. To comply with the requirements of being a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, we will need to implement additional financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.
We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies identified in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In the future, if we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by The Nasdaq Stock Market, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
When we lose our status as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act, and once we become an “accelerated filer” as defined in the Exchange Act our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years from the closing of our initial public offering. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls could detect problems that our management’s assessment might not. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal controls could lead to financial statement restatements and require us to incur the expense of remediation.
We will incur significantly increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. We will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, which will require, among other things, that we file with the SEC annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently adopted by the SEC and Nasdaq to implement provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley impose significant requirements on public companies, including requiring establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. Further, in July 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, was enacted. There are significant corporate governance and executive compensation-related provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act that require the SEC to adopt additional rules and regulations in these areas such as “say on pay” and proxy access. Legislation permits emerging growth companies to implement many of these requirements over a longer period and up to five years from the pricing of this offering. We intend to take advantage of this legislation, but cannot guarantee that we will not be required to implement these requirements sooner than budgeted or planned and thereby incur unexpected expenses. Stockholder activism, the current political environment and the current high level of government intervention and regulatory reform may lead to substantial new regulations and disclosure obligations, which may lead to additional compliance costs and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate.

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We expect the rules and regulations applicable to public companies to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. If these requirements divert the attention of our management and personnel from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The increased costs will decrease our net income or increase our net loss, and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company”, and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and smaller reporting companies, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and a “smaller reporting company” under SEC regulations. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company or smaller reporting company, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” or “smaller reporting companies.” These exemptions include reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As long as we remain an emerging growth company (and thereafter for so long as we remain a non-accelerated filer), these exemptions also include an exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to take advantage of the extended transition period afforded by the JOBS Act for the implementation of new or revised accounting standards and, as a result, will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. As a result of our emerging growth company election and smaller reporting company status, investors may view our financial statements as not comparable to some other public companies. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on certain of these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company or a smaller reporting company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of this offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC. In addition, we will continue to be a smaller reporting company as long as we (a) have less than $250 million in public float (based on our common equity) measured as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, or (b) have annual revenues of less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year for which audited financial statements are available and have no public float or public float of less than $700 million (based on our common equity).

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Anti-takeover provisions contained in our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws to be effective upon the closing of the offering, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.
Our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions which could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors. Our corporate governance documents include or will, upon completion of this offering, include provisions:
authorizing our board of directors to issue up to              shares of preferred stock without stockholder approval upon the terms and conditions and with the rights, privileges and preferences as our board of directors may determine;
specifying that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or our Chief Executive Officer and that our stockholders may not act by written consent;
establishing an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;
providing that our board of directors may create new directorships and that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;
establishing that our board of directors is divided into three classes—Class I, Class II, and Class III—with each class serving staggered three-year terms;
providing that our board of directors may amend our restated bylaws without stockholder approval; and
requiring a super-majority of votes to amend certain of the above-mentioned provisions.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our management.
As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation law, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our outstanding common stock.
Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, to be in effect upon the completion of this offering, will designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or the Chancery Court, or the federal district court for the District of Delaware, or the District Court of Delaware, or the other federal district courts of the United States as the exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, to be in effect upon the completion of this offering, will require, unless we otherwise consent, that the Chancery Court will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law (subject to the Chancery Court having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants): (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers and employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or employees of the Company , arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be in effect upon the completion of this offering or our amended and restated bylaws to be in effect upon the completion of this offering, (iv) any action or proceeding to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws to be in effect upon the completion of this offering, (v) any action or proceeding as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction to the Chancery Court, or (vi) any action or proceeding asserting a claim against us, or our directors, officers or employees, governed by the internal affairs doctrine. If the Chancery Court does not have jurisdiction for these

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actions or proceedings, then the actions or proceedings must be brought in a state court located in the State of Delaware. If these state courts also do not have jurisdiction, these actions or proceedings must be brought in the District Court of Delaware. These limitations in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be in effect upon the completion of this offering will not apply to actions brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or to any claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. However, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also provides that, unless we otherwise consent in writing, the federal district courts of the United States shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. In addition, any person holding, owning or otherwise acquiring any interest in any shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. These Delaware and federal court choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees even though an action, if successful, might benefit our stockholders. Stockholders who do bring a claim in the Chancery Court or the District Court of Delaware could face additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claim, particularly if they do not reside in or near the jurisdiction. The Chancery Court or the District Court of Delaware may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments or results may be more favorable to us than to our stockholders. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be in effect upon the completion of this offering inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
On March 18, 2020, the Delaware Supreme Court ruled that provisions of a Delaware corporation’s certificate of incorporation that designate a federal forum for securities claims brought pursuant to the Securities Act, or federal forum provisions, are valid and enforceable under Delaware law, or the March 2020 Ruling. Various U.S. Supreme Court cases offer support for the argument that federal forum provisions do not violate federal policy. However, the March 2020 Ruling applies only to claims brought in Delaware state courts, and it is not binding on any other state court or the federal courts. Therefore, we are unable to predict whether a state court in any other state or a federal court would enforce a federal forum provision such as the one set forth in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
Participation in this offering by our existing stockholders and/or their affiliated entities may reduce the public float for our common stock.
To the extent certain of our existing stockholders and their affiliated entities participate in this offering, such purchases would reduce the non-affiliate public float of our shares, meaning the number of shares of our common stock that are not held by officers, directors and controlling stockholders. A reduction in the public float could reduce the number of shares that are available to be traded at any given time, thereby adversely impacting the liquidity of our common stock and depressing the price at which you may be able to sell shares of common stock purchased in this offering.


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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “design,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these words or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;
our ability to advance therapeutic candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;
our interpretation of initial, interim or preliminary data from our clinical trials, including interpretations regarding disease control and disease response;
the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;
the commercialization of our therapeutic candidates, if approved;
the pricing, coverage and reimbursement of our therapeutic candidates, if approved;
our ability to utilize our technology platform to generate and advance additional therapeutic candidates;
the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business and therapeutic candidates;
our ability to successfully manufacture our therapeutic candidates for clinical trials and commercial use, if approved;
our ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our therapeutic candidates;
our ability to enter into strategic partnerships and the potential benefits of such partnerships;
our estimates regarding expenses, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our financial performance;
our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
our and our third party partners and service providers’ ability to continue operations and advance our therapeutic candidates through clinical trials and the ability of our third party manufacturers to provide the required raw materials, antibodies and other biologics for our preclinical research and clinical trials in light of the COVID-19 pandemic and the recent developments in Hong Kong;
our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and
our expected use of the net proceeds from this offering.
These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements

61


will be achieved or occur. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to new information, actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed with the SEC, as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

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MARKET AND OTHER INDUSTRY DATA
Unless otherwise indicated, market data and certain industry forecasts used throughout this prospectus were obtained from various sources, including internal surveys, market research, consultant surveys, publicly available information and industry publications and surveys. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this information is derived. Industry surveys, publications, consultant surveys and forecasts generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. We have not independently verified any of the data from third-party sources nor have we ascertained the underlying economic assumptions relied upon therein. Similarly, internal surveys, industry forecasts and market research, which we believe to be reliable based upon our management’s knowledge of the industry, have not been independently verified. The future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in above, in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in these publications and reports.

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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $            million (or $            million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) assuming an initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, by approximately $            million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. Each increase or decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares we are offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, by approximately $            million.
The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our financial flexibility, create a public market for our common stock and to facilitate our access to the public equity markets. We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, as follows:
approximately $         million to fund the remainder of dose expansion in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial for our INBRX-109 program to initial data, initiate combination studies as well as to fund commercial manufacturing scale-up activities;
approximately $         million to fund the remainder of dose escalation in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial for our INBRX-106 program to initial data, for both single agent and in combination with Keytruda;
approximately $         million to fund the remainder of dose escalation in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial for our INBRX-105 program to initial data and to fund commercial manufacturing scale-up activities;
approximately $         million to fund the remainder of our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial for our INBRX-101 program to initial data and to fund commercial manufacturing scale-up activities; and
the remainder for our other research and development activities, as well as for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
Based on our current business plan, we believe that our existing cash, together with the net proceeds from this offering as described above, will be sufficient to enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next              months. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. We do not expect the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash to be sufficient to fund the development of our therapeutic candidates through regulatory approval and commercialization, and we will need to raise additional capital to complete the development and commercialization of all of our therapeutic candidates.
Although we currently anticipate that we will use the net proceeds from this offering as described above, there may be circumstances where a reallocation of funds is necessary. Due to the uncertainties inherent in the product development process, it is difficult to estimate with certainty the exact amounts of the net proceeds from this offering that may be used for the above purposes. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend upon numerous factors, including the progress of our development, the status of and results from preclinical studies or clinical trials we have ongoing or may commence in the future, any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates or strategic opportunities that become available to us, our sales and marketing and commercialization efforts, our operating costs, as well as unforeseen cash needs. Accordingly, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering.

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Pending their use as described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare and pay dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on various factors, including applicable laws, our results of operations, our financial condition, our capital requirements, general business conditions, our future prospects and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, the terms of the 2020 Loan Agreement restrict our ability to pay dividends without the prior written consent of Oxford. Investors should not purchase our common stock with the expectation of receiving cash dividends.

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MERGER AND FINANCINGS
Merger
On April 30, 2018, we entered into an agreement and plan of merger with the Target Parties (as defined below), or the Merger Agreement, whereby we completed a series of transactions pursuant to which multiple entities previously operating our business merged with and into Inhibrx with Inhibrx continuing as the surviving corporation. These entities consisted of Inhibrx, LP, Inhibrx 101, LP, Inhibrx 104, LP, INBRX 105, LP, INBRX 106, LP, INBRX 107, LP, INBRX 108, LP, INBRX 109, LP, INBRX 110, LP, INBRX 111, LP, INBRX 112, LP, each a limited partnership organized under the laws of the State of Delaware, and Inhibrx BioPharma, LLC, a limited liability company organized under the laws of the State of Delaware. We refer to each of these entities as a “Target Party”, and collectively as the “Target Parties” throughout this prospectus. In connection with the Merger (as defined below), by operation of law, we acquired all of the assets of the Target Parties and assumed all of the liabilities and obligations of the Target Parties. The issued and outstanding partnership or membership interest units held by all partners and members of the Target Parties other than LAV Summit Limited, or LAV SL, and entities affiliated with RA Capital Healthcare Fund, L.P., or RA Capital Fund, of each Target Party, outstanding immediately prior to the Merger were converted into and exchanged for shares of our common stock. The partnership or membership interests held by LAV SL of each Target Party were converted into and exchanged for shares of our Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, or the Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock. The partnership interests of Inhibrx 101, LP held by RA Capital Fund and one other investor were converted into and exchanged for shares of our Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, or the Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock. Further, in connection with the Merger, we entered into an Exchange Agreement, dated April 30, 2018, with INBRX 103, LLC whereby the issued and outstanding membership units held by all members of INBRX 103, LLC, other than LAV SL, were converted into and exchanged for shares of our common stock. The issued and outstanding membership units of INBRX 103, LLC held by LAV SL were converted into and exchanged for shares of our Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock. These transactions are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the “Merger.” The purpose of the Merger was to reorganize our corporate structure so that Inhibrx would continue as a consolidated corporation and so that the existing investors in the Target Parties and INBRX 103, LLC would own our capital stock rather than equity interests in the Target Parties and INBRX 103, LLC. Our corporate structure presently consists of Inhibrx and our wholly owned subsidiary, INBRX 103, LLC. Except as context otherwise requires, all information included in this prospectus is presented after giving effect to the Merger.
In connection with the Merger, we entered into an investors’ rights agreement, dated April 30, 2018, with certain recipients of our common stock, LAV SL and RA Capital Fund, as subsequently amended and restated, or the Investors’ Rights Agreement. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock—Registration Rights” for additional information about the Investors’ Rights Agreement.
Mezzanine Financings
In May 2018, after the consummation of the Merger, we entered into a Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement with certain accredited investors, or the Prior Investors, pursuant to which we issued an aggregate of 804,439 shares of our Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock to the Prior Investors for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $9.1 million (or $11.25 per share).
In September 2018, we amended the Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement to reduce the price per share of the Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock from $11.25 to $6.98 and issued additional shares of Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock at this lower price. Pursuant to an Amended and Restated Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement, as amended, dated September 28, 2018, that we entered into with certain accredited investors, or the Restated Purchase Agreement, from September 2018 through October 2018, we issued an aggregate of 2,933,049 shares of our Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock (which includes the original 804,439 shares of Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock issued to the Prior Investors in May 2018 and an additional 492,118 shares issued as a result of the reduction in the purchase price) at $6.98 per share for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $20.5 million. As contemplated by the Restated Purchase Agreement and in connection with the Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock price reduction, we issued additional shares of Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock to each Prior Investor such that each Prior Investor received the aggregate number of shares of Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock the Prior Investor would have received

67


pursuant to the original Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement had the Prior Investor purchased the Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock at the reduced price per share.
Further, in September 2018, in connection with the Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock price reduction, and pursuant to the Merger Agreement, we issued additional shares of our Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock to LAV SL and additional shares of Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock to RA Capital Fund and one other investor. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, in the event that we sold shares of Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock or Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock at a price per share less than $11.25 after the effective date of the Merger, we agreed to issue additional shares of Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock to LAV SL and shares of Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock to each of RA Capital Fund and one other investor. As a result, we issued an additional 1,632,652 shares of Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock to LAV SL and 1,108,843 and 251,701 shares of Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock to RA Capital Fund and one other investor, respectively. As of June 30, 2020, and upon closing of the Merger, LAV SL and RA Capital Fund each owned more than 5% of our issued and outstanding capital stock.
In December 2018, we amended the Restated Purchase Agreement to extend the deadline for additional closings from November 15, 2018 to the earlier of (i) February 28, 2019 or (ii) immediately prior to the closing of an underwritten initial public offering including this offering. In January 2019, we issued 1.7 million shares of our Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock at $6.98 per share for a purchase price of $12.0 million. The foregoing transactions are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the Mezzanine Financing. The securities issued in the Mezzanine Financing were issued in reliance upon exemptions from registration requirements pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act and Regulation D as promulgated thereunder.
Each share of our Series Mezzanine 1 Preferred Stock and each share of our Series Mezzanine 2 Preferred Stock will convert automatically into one share of our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering.
2019 Note and 2020 Notes Transactions
In May 2019, we sold and issued the 2019 Note in the aggregate principal amount of $40.0 million to Viking in a private placement transaction. The 2019 Note began to accrue interest on February 15, 2020. In April 2020, we sold and issued the 2020 Notes in the aggregate principal amount of $15.0 million to Viking and certain other accredited investors, in a private placement transaction. The 2020 Notes began to accrue interest upon execution. The 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes will automatically convert into shares of our common stock upon completion of this offering. Assuming a conversion date of          , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $     per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note would automatically convert and settle into          shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $     per share, and the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note would automatically convert and settle into          shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $     per share. Assuming a conversion date of          , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $     per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), the holder of the 2019 Note will own approximately          % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after the completion of this offering and the holders of the 2020 Notes will own approximately          % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after the completion of this offering. The 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes were issued in reliance upon exemptions from registration requirements pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act and Regulation D as promulgated thereunder.

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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and capitalization as of June 30, 2020:
on an actual basis;
on a pro forma basis to reflect (i) the conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock into shares of common stock prior to the completion of this offering, (ii) the conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note at a conversion price of $      per share into            shares of our common stock and the conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes at a conversion price of $      per share into              shares of our common stock (assuming a conversion date of         , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $      per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), (iii) the receipt of $10.0 million from borrowings under a new loan and security agreement, or the 2020 Loan Agreement, with Oxford Finance LLC, or Oxford, entered into in July 2020, and (iv) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and
on a pro forma and pro forma as adjusted basis to give further effect to the issuance and sale of              shares of our common stock in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

69


The pro forma and pro forma as adjusted information discussed below is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read this information together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and in the sections of this prospectus titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AS OF JUNE 30, 2020
 
ACTUAL
 
PRO FORMA
 
PRO FORMA 
AS ADJUSTED(1)
(in thousands, except share amounts and par values)
(unaudited)
Cash
$
5,632

 
$
 
$
Convertible note, net of discount
$
44,658

 
$
 
$
Long-term debt

 
 
 
 
Paycheck Protection Program loan
1,875

 
 
 
 
Convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 25,765,000 shares authorized, 12,534,331 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued or outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted (unaudited)
59,507

 
            
 
            
Stockholders’ (deficit) equity:
 
 
            
 
            
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; no shares authorized, issued or outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, no shares issued or outstanding, pro forma (unaudited);            shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted (unaudited)

 
            
 
            
Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 65,000,000 shares authorized, 31,555,556 shares issued and outstanding, actual;           shares authorized,           shares issued and outstanding, pro forma (unaudited);           shares authorized,           shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted (unaudited)
3

 
            
 
            
Additional paid in capital
(19,314
)
 
            
 
            
Accumulated deficit
(107,233
)
 
            
 
            
Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity
(126,544
)
 
            
 
            
Total capitalization
$
(20,504
)
 
$
 
$
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amounts of each of cash, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity and total capitalization by approximately $            million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us. Each increase or decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity and total capitalization by approximately $             million assuming that the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share remains the same after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The number of shares of common stock issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted in the table above is based on 31,555,556 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and excludes:
4,020,289 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.31 per share;
335,266 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2017 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan, as amended, or the 2017 Plan as of June 30, 2020;


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              shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants issued on July 15, 2020 at an exercise price of $      per share; and
any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the Amended and Restated 2017 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan to be in effect following this offering.

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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.
As of June 30, 2020, our historical net tangible book deficit was $(126.5) million, or $(4.01) per share of common stock, based on 31,555,556 shares of our common stock outstanding. Our historical net tangible book deficit per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less total liabilities and convertible preferred stock, divided by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock as of June 30, 2020.
On a pro forma basis, to reflect (i) the conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock into shares of common stock prior to the completion of this offering; (ii) the conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note at a conversion price of $   per share into              shares of our common stock and the conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes at a conversion price of $   per share into              shares of our common stock (assuming a conversion date of          , 2020 and an initial public offering price of $      per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus); (iii) the receipt of $10.0 million from borrowings under the 2020 Loan Agreement with Oxford entered into in July 2020; and (iv) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering, our pro forma net tangible book value (deficit) as of March 31, 2020 would have been approximately $         , or $         per share of our common stock.
After giving further effect to the sale of              shares of common stock in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020, would have been approximately $            million, or approximately $             per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma net tangible book value of $            per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma net tangible book value of approximately $             per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering.
Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the initial public offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution (without giving effect to any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares):
 
 
 
 
Assumed initial public offering price per share
 
 
$
Historical net tangible book deficit per share as of June 30, 2020
$
(4.01
)
 
 
Pro forma increase in historical net tangible value per share as of June 30, 2020 attributable to the pro forma adjustments
            

 
 
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020
            

 
 
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors participating in this offering
            

 
 
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
 
 
            
Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering
 
 
$
 
 
 
 
The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by $             per share and the dilution to new investors by $              per share, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this

72


prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. An increase of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by $             per share and decrease the dilution to new investors by $             per share, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us. Similarly, each decrease of 1.0 million shares offered by us would decrease the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by $             per share and increase the dilution to new investors by $             per share, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.
If, in this offering, the underwriters exercise their option to purchase              additional shares of our common stock in full, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after the offering would be $             per share, the increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders would be $             per share and the dilution per share to new investors would be $             per share, in each case assuming an initial public offering price of $             per share.
The following table summarizes as of June 30, 2020, on the pro forma as adjusted basis as described above, the differences between the number of shares of common stock purchased from us, the total consideration and the weighted-average price per share paid by existing stockholders (giving effect to the conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock into shares of common stock prior to the completion of this offering, as well as the conversion and settlement of the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes as described above, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses, at the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SHARES PURCHASED
 
TOTAL CONSIDERATION
 
WEIGHTED-AVERAGE
PRICE PER
SHARE 
 
NUMBER
 
PERCENT (%)
 
AMOUNT ($)
 
PERCENT (%)
 
Existing stockholders
            
 
%

 
$
 
%

 
$
New public investors
            
 
            
 

 
            
 
$
Total
            
 
100.0
%
 
$
 
100.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The table above assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase              additional shares in this offering. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, the number of shares of our common stock held by existing stockholders would be reduced to             % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering, and the number of shares of common stock held by new investors participating in the offering would be increased to             % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering.
The foregoing tables and calculations (other than historical net tangible book value calculation) are based on 31,555,556 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and exclude:
4,020,289 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.31 per share;
335,266 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2017 Plan as of June 30, 2020;
shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants issued on July 15, 2020 at an exercise price of $      per share; and
any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the Amended and Restated 2017 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan to be in effect following this offering.
To the extent that any options are exercised or other securities are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in

73


this offering. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital because of market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. If we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of such securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth our selected historical financial data as of, and for the periods ended on, the dates indicated. We have derived the selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the selected condensed consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and the selected condensed consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a basis consistent with our audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments that are necessary for the fair presentation of our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements. The selected consolidated financial data included in this section are not intended to replace the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. You should read the following selected consolidated financial data together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the section of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results that should be expected in the future and our results for the six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of results that should be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020.

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YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31, 
 
SIX MONTHS ENDED
JUNE 30,
 
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License fee revenue
$
7,500

 
$
9,093

 
$
8,032

 
$
4,206

Grant revenue
1,095

 
4,118

 
3,697

 
5

Total revenue
8,595

 
13,211

 
11,729

 
4,211

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
33,454

 
47,907

 
22,839

 
35,990

General and administrative
4,654

 
6,257

 
3,103

 
2,999

Abandoned offering costs

 
2,761

 

 

Total operating expenses
38,108

 
56,925

 
25,942

 
38,989

Total other expense
(1,412
)
 
(6,788
)
 
(721
)
 
(3,200
)
Provision for income taxes
96

 
898

 
(2
)
 

Net loss
(31,021
)
 
(51,400
)
 
(14,932
)
 
(37,978
)
Accretion to redemption value of redeemable non-controlling interest
(737
)
 

 

 

Less: net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
595

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to Inhibrx, Inc.
$
(31,163
)
 
$
(51,400
)
 
$
(14,932
)
 
$
(37,978
)
Net loss per share attributable to Inhibrx, Inc., basic and diluted(1)
$
(0.99
)
 
$
(1.63
)
 
$
(0.47
)
 
$
(1.20
)
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding, basic and diluted(1)
31,556

 
31,556

 
31,556

 
31,556

Pro forma net loss per share, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
 
 
$
 
 
 
$
Pro forma weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for a description of how we compute basic and diluted net loss per share, basic and diluted unaudited pro forma net loss per share, and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of these per share amounts.

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AS OF DECEMBER 31,
 
AS OF
JUNE 30, 2020
 
2018
 
2019
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
Cash
$
2,103

 
$
11,540

 
$
5,632

Total assets
9,984

 
26,489

 
21,301

Debt
9,494

 
3,563

 

Paycheck Protection Program loan

 

 
1,875

Convertible notes

 
30,367

 
44,658

Total liabilities
20,108

 
60,551

 
88,338

Convertible preferred stock
47,519

 
59,507

 
59,507

Total stockholders’ deficit
(57,643
)
 
(93,569
)
 
(126,544
)
 
 
 
 
 
 


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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the section of this prospectus titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and other parts of this prospectus contain forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainties, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors,” our actual results could differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company with a pipeline of novel biologic therapeutic candidates, developed using our protein engineering expertise and proprietary single domain antibody, or sdAb, platform. Our sdAb platform allows us to pursue validated targets with clinical promise, but where other antibody and biologic based approaches have failed. Highly modular, our sdAbs can be combined with precise valencies and multiple specificities, creating therapeutic candidates designed to be capable of enhanced cell signaling, conditional activation or combined synergistic functions. We currently have four programs in ongoing Phase 1 clinical trials, three for the treatment of various cancers, and one for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, or AATD. Our most advanced therapeutic candidate, INBRX-109, is a tetravalent death receptor 5, or DR5, agonist being evaluated in patients diagnosed with chondrosarcoma and mesothelioma, two difficult-to-treat cancers. INBRX-106 is a hexavalent OX40 agonist currently being investigated in patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors. Both INBRX-109 and INBRX-106 programs are designed to achieve target agonism through precise control of therapeutic valency. INBRX‑105 targets two proteins, each of which can lead to an enhanced anti-tumor immune response; it is engineered with the goal of improving safety through conditional target agonism. Based on preclinical mechanistic data, INBRX-106 and INBRX-105 may have the potential to be used in combination with, or in place of, currently approved checkpoint inhibitors. Our fourth program, INBRX-101, is an optimized, recombinant alpha 1 antitrypsin, or AAT, augmentation therapy for AATD. We anticipate additional data releases from all four of our clinical programs by the end of 2021.

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We have developed a diverse pipeline of therapeutic candidates that are specifically designed to leverage the power of our core sdAb platform and protein engineering expertise, as shown below:
inbxs1image50a.jpg
INBRX-109
 
INBRX-106
 
INBRX-105
 
INBRX-101
Tetravalent DR5 agonist
 
Hexavalent OX40 agonist
 
PD-L1x4-1BB tetravalent conditional agonist
 
AAT-Fc fusion protein
Program
Therapeutic Area
Target(s)/Format
STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
Anticipated Next Milestones
Preclinical
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
INBRX-109*
Oncology
DR5
Tetravalent Agonist
 
• Single agent cohort data – 4Q 2020
• Initial data from combination cohorts – 1H 2021
• Initiation of registration-enabling trials in mesothelioma and chondrosarcoma – 2021^
 
 
 
INBRX-106**
Oncology
OX40
Hexavalent Agonist
 
• Single agent dose escalation cohort data – Q4 2020
• Escalation with Keytruda data – 2H 2021
 
 
 
INBRX-105**
Oncology
PD-L1 x4-1BB
Tetravalent Conditional Agonist
 
• Dose escalation data – 1H 2021
• Initial data from expansion cohorts – Q4 2021
 
 
 
INBRX-101***
Orphan/Respiratory
Neutrophil Elastase
AAT-Fusion Protein
 
• Dose escalation data – 2H 2021
 
 
 
__________________
*
Third party partnership with Chinese biotechnology company, Transcenta Holding, Ltd. (formerly Hangzhou Just Biotherapeutics Co., Ltd.), or Transcenta, currently in place for development and commercialization in China, Hong Kong, Macau and/or Taiwan.
**
Third party partnership with Chinese biotechnology company, Elpiscience Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., or Elpiscience, currently in place for development and commercialization in China, Hong Kong, Macau and/or Taiwan.
***
Commercialization and development rights outside of the United States and Canada, subject to an option agreement with Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., or Chiesi.
^
Advancing INBRX-109 into registration-enabling randomized Phase 2 trials is contingent upon acceptable activity and safety in the ongoing Phase 1 trial.
Since our inception, we have had significant operating losses. Our net losses were $31.0 million and $51.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, respectively, and $14.9 million and $38.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively. As of June 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $107.2 million. Through June 30, 2020, we have principally been financed through the sale of equity securities, borrowings under our current and former loan and security agreements with Oxford Finance, LLC, or Oxford, proceeds from the sale of Convertible Promissory Notes to an entity affiliated with Viking Global Investors LP, or Viking, and certain other investors, or the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes, payments received from commercial partners for licensing rights to our therapeutic candidates under development, and grants and other government funding. We have devoted substantially all of our efforts to drug discovery and development and conducting preclinical and clinical studies. Our primary use of cash has been to fund operating expenses,

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which consist primarily of research and development expenditures, and to a lesser extent, general and administrative, or G&A, expenditures. Cash used to fund operating expenses is impacted by the timing of when we pay these expenses, as reflected in the change in our outstanding accounts payable and accrued expenses. We expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect our research and development expenses, G&A expenses and capital expenditures will continue to increase. In particular, we expect our expenses and losses to increase as we continue our development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our therapeutic candidates (especially as we move more candidates from preclinical to clinical development as well as study candidates in later stages of clinical development), and begin to commercialize any approved products, if ever. We also expect our expenses and losses to increase as we hire additional personnel and incur increased accounting, audit, legal, regulatory, compliance, and director and officer insurance costs and as we incur increased costs from investor and public relations expenses associated with operating as a public company. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year, depending on the timing of our clinical trials and our expenditures on other research and development activities.
Based upon our current business plan, we believe that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through the        month period following the date of completion of this offering. To date, we have not had any therapeutics approved for sale and have not generated any revenue from the commercial sale of approved therapeutic products. We do not expect to generate any revenue from therapeutic product sales unless and until we, or our collaboration partners, successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for one or more of our therapeutic candidates, which we expect will take a number of years. If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our therapeutic candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. As a result, until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue, we expect to finance our cash needs through equity offerings, debt financings or other capital sources, including strategic licensing and collaboration or other similar agreements. However, there can be no assurance as to the availability or terms upon which such finances or capital might be available in the future. If we are unable to secure adequate additional funding, we will need to reevaluate our operating plan and may be forced to make reductions in spending, extend payment terms with suppliers, liquidate assets where possible, delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our development programs, or relinquish rights to our technology on less favorable terms than we would otherwise choose. These actions could materially impact our business, results of operations and future prospects.
We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities for the production of any of our therapeutic candidates, nor do we have plans to develop our own manufacturing operations in the foreseeable future. We currently rely on a limited number of third-party contract manufacturers for all of our required raw materials, antibodies, and other biologics for our preclinical research, clinical trials, and if and when applicable, commercial product. We currently employ internal resources to manage our manufacturing relationships with these third parties.
Merger
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on November 17, 2017 under the name “Tenium Therapeutics, Inc.” In April 2018, we changed our name to “Inhibrx, Inc.” As further described in the section of this prospectus titled “Merger and Financings—Merger,” we completed a series of transactions on April 30, 2018 pursuant to which multiple Delaware limited partnerships and limited liability companies merged with and into Inhibrx, Inc. with Inhibrx, Inc. continuing as the surviving corporation, or the Merger. We refer to each of these entities as a Target Party, and collectively as the Target Parties. As appropriate for entities under common control, the historical consolidated financial statements of the Target Parties prior to the Merger became those of Inhibrx, Inc. Our corporate structure presently consists of Inhibrx, Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiary, INBRX 103, LLC, which relates to the development of the intellectual property licensed to Celgene Corporation, a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or Celgene.
License and Collaboration Agreements
Celgene Agreement
On July 1, 2013, we entered into a license agreement with Celgene, as amended on November 23, 2018, or the Celgene Agreement, pursuant to which we granted Celgene an exclusive, global license for the development, manufacture and commercialization of our proprietary CD47 binding domain, or the Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property. Per the terms of the Celgene Agreement, Celgene is operationally and financially

80


responsible for the development, manufacturing and commercialization activities of Celgene Licensed Intellectual Property and any additional related antibodies covered by the Celgene Agreement.
As payment for the license granted in the Celgene Agreement, we may be eligible to receive development and regulatory milestones of an aggregate of $934.1 million, assuming the achievement of all potential milestones in the Celgene Agreement, as well as percentage tiered royalties based on future worldwide sales, with rates ranging between the high single-digits and low teens, subject to potential reduction when and if comparable third party products attain certain levels of competitive market share (on a country-by-country basis) and, subject to certain limitations, payments to third parties for third-party intellectual property rights. We are obligated to pay 2% of future amounts received under the Celgene Agreement to advisors who assisted us with the negotiations and other matters in connection with the Celgene Agreement.
WuXi Agreement
On August 28, 2018, we entered into the Amended and Restated Master Services Agreement, as amended by Amendment No. 1 to Amended and Restated Master Services Agreement dated December 11, 2019, or the WuXi Agreement, with WuXi Biologics (Hong Kong) Limited, or WuXi, pursuant to which we agreed, for three years and subject to certain conditions, to exclusively use WuXi to manufacture our therapeutic candidates for which we plan to first initiate clinical studies outside of China. Under the WuXi Agreement, WuXi and certain of its affiliates will provide biologics development and manufacturing services on a project-by-project basis.
Per the terms of the WuXi Agreement, we will own all intellectual property created, developed or reduced to practice by WuXi in the course of providing services to us; provided that, certain intellectual property created or developed by WuXi may be owned exclusively by WuXi if this intellectual property (i) relates to generally applicable experimental methods, (ii) relates to generally applicable manufacturing processes, developed solely at WuXi’s expense, or (iii) is derivative of WuXi’s pre-existing intellectual property.
Per the terms of the WuXi Agreement, fees will be mutually agreed upon on a project-by-project basis. We also may be eligible to receive discounts in the low- to mid-single digits for certain projects and services per the terms of the WuXi Agreement.
bluebird bio Agreements
On December 20, 2018, we entered into an exclusive license agreement with bluebird bio, Inc., or bluebird, to research, develop and commercialize chimeric antigen receptor, or CAR, T-cell therapies using our proprietary sdAb platform. Under the terms of this license agreement we will provide bluebird the exclusive worldwide rights to develop, manufacture and commercialize certain cell therapy products containing sdAbs directed to various cancer targets. In January 2019, we received a $7.0 million payment and pursuant to the license agreement, we are entitled to receive developmental milestone payments of up to an aggregate of $51.5 million per therapeutic, as well as percentage tiered royalties on future product sales with rates in the mid-single digits.
On June 9, 2020, we entered into an option and license agreement, or the 2020 bluebird Agreement, with bluebird, pursuant to which we granted to bluebird exclusive worldwide rights to develop binders and cell therapy products containing sdAbs directed to specified targets, consisting of two initial programs and up to an additional 8 programs. Inhibrx retains all rights to the specific sdAbs outside of the cell therapy field. We received a non-refundable upfront option fee of $0.2 million in connection with each of the two initial programs, or $0.4 million in aggregate, and we are entitled to an upfront option fee for each additional program. We also granted to bluebird an option to acquire an exclusive license with respect to all binders and cell therapy products developed under the 2020 bluebird Agreement, which entitles us to additional fees upon exercise of the option. We are also entitled to receive certain developmental milestone payments of up to an aggregate of $51.5 million per therapeutic, as well as percentage tiered royalties on future product sales with rates in the mid-single-digits.
Other Collaboration Agreements
In addition to these contracts, we have entered into strategic collaborations with other third parties, including Chiesi, Transcenta Holding Ltd. (formerly Hangzhou Just Biotherapeutics Co., Ltd.), or Transcenta, and Elpiscience Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., or Elpiscience. For more information regarding these agreements, see the

81


discussion of these agreements in the section of this prospectus titled “Business-License and Collaboration Agreements” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
To date, all of our revenue has been derived from grant awards and licenses with collaboration partners. To date, we have been awarded five grants from governmental agencies including three grants from the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, a government agency, and one from the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs, or CDMRP, funded through the Department of Defense, or DoD, by the U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity, as well as one grant from Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Accelerator, or CARB-X, a non-profit public-private partnership.
Additionally, we have not generated any revenue from the commercial sale of approved therapeutic products, and we expect our revenue for the next several years will be derived primarily from payments under our current and any future grant awards and agreements with our collaboration partners.
Operating Expenses
Research and Development
To date, our research and development expenses have related primarily to research activities, including our discovery efforts, and preclinical and clinical development and the manufacturing of our therapeutic candidates. Research and development expenses are recognized as incurred and payments made prior to the receipt of goods or services to be used in research and development are capitalized until the goods or services are received. We do not track our internal research and development expenses on a program-by-program basis as they primarily relate to personnel, early research and consumable costs, which are deployed across multiple projects under development.
Research and development expenses consist primarily of:
External expenses, consisting of:
expenses incurred in connection with the preclinical development of our programs;
clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates, including under agreements with third parties, such as consultants and contract research organizations, or CROs;
expenses associated with manufacturing our contract development and manufacturing therapeutic candidates including under agreements with contract development and manufacturing organizations, or CDMOs; and
other external expenses, such as laboratory services related to our discovery programs and other shared services, and
Internal expenses, consisting of:
salaries, benefits and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel engaged in research and development functions;
facilities, depreciation and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for depreciation and amortization, rent and maintenance of facilities; and
other internal expenses, such as laboratory supplies and other shared research and development costs.
We expect that research and development expense will continue to increase over the next several years as we continue development of our therapeutic candidates currently in clinical stage development, support our preclinical programs, and continue to discover new therapeutic candidates, as well as increase our headcount. In particular, clinical development of our therapeutic candidates, as opposed to preclinical development, generally has higher development costs, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. Moreover, the costs associated with our CDMOs to manufacture our therapeutic candidates and future commercial products is also much more costly as compared to early stage preclinical development. We cannot determine with certainty the timing of initiation, the duration or the completion costs of current or future preclinical studies and clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates due to the inherently unpredictable nature of preclinical and clinical development. Preclinical and clinical development timelines, the probability of success

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and development costs can differ materially from expectations. We anticipate that we will make determinations as to which therapeutic candidates to pursue and how much funding to direct to each therapeutic candidate on an ongoing basis in response to the results of ongoing and future preclinical studies and clinical trials, regulatory developments and our ongoing assessments as to each therapeutic candidate’s commercial potential. We will need to raise substantial additional capital in the future. In addition, we cannot forecast which therapeutic candidates may be subject to future collaborations, when such arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree such arrangements would affect our development plans and capital requirements.
Our clinical development costs may vary significantly based on factors such as:
per patient trial costs;
the number of trials required for approval;
the number of sites included in the trials;
the countries in which the trials are conducted
the length of time required to enroll eligible patients;
the number of patients that participate in the trials;
the number of doses that patients receive;
the drop-out or discontinuation rates of patients;
potential additional safety monitoring requested by regulatory agencies;
the duration of patient participation in the trials and follow-up;
the cost and timing of manufacturing of our therapeutic candidates;
the phase and development of our therapeutic candidates;
the efficacy and safety profile of our therapeutic candidates; and
uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
General and Administrative
G&A expenses consist primarily of:
salaries, benefits and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel engaged in G&A functions;
expenses incurred in connection with accounting and audit services, legal services, business development and investor relations as well as consulting expense under agreements with third parties, such as consultants and contractors; and
facilities, depreciation and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for depreciation and amortization, rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and supplies.
We expect our G&A expenses will continue to increase over the next several years as we incur increased accounting, audit, legal, regulatory, compliance, director and officer insurance costs as well as investor and public relations expenses associated with operating as a public company and as we increase our headcount.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists primarily of interest expense on our debt from Oxford and interest expense related to the amortization of the debt discount related to the 2019 Note and the 2020 Notes, as well as gains or losses on the change in fair value of derivative liabilities.
Net Loss Attributable to Non-Controlling Interest
A minority shareholder in certain of our subsidiaries had the right to require us to acquire their ownership interest in those entities at a stated rate in the future. The non-controlling interest subject to these arrangements was accreted to its future redemption amount each reporting period with a corresponding adjustment to predecessor’s equity. Upon completion of the Merger in April 2018, the redeemable non-controlling interest no longer exists and therefore there will be no net loss attributable to non-controlling interest in future periods.

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Results of Operations
Comparison of the Six Months Ended June 30, 2019 and 2020
The following table summarizes our consolidated results of operations for each of the periods indicated (in thousands, except percentages):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30,
 
CHANGE
 
2019
 
2020
 
($)
 
(%)
 
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License fee revenue
$
8,032

 
$
4,206

 
$
(3,826
)
 
(48
)%
Grant revenue
3,697

 
5

 
(3,692
)
 
(100
)%
Total revenue
11,729