0001736946-21-000010.txt : 20210226 0001736946-21-000010.hdr.sgml : 20210226 20210226161459 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001736946-21-000010 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 129 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20201231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20210226 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20210226 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Arlo Technologies, Inc. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001736946 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: HOUSEHOLD AUDIO & VIDEO EQUIPMENT [3651] IRS NUMBER: 384061754 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-38618 FILM NUMBER: 21688960 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 3030 ORCHARD PARKWAY CITY: SAN JOSE STATE: CA ZIP: 95134 BUSINESS PHONE: (408) 890-3900 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 3030 ORCHARD PARKWAY CITY: SAN JOSE STATE: CA ZIP: 95134 10-K 1 arlo-20201231.htm 10-K arlo-20201231
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________
FORM 10-K

  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the transition period from                    to         

           Commission file number: 001-38618
_______________
ARLO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware38-4061754
(State or other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
3030 Orchard Parkway
San Jose,California95134
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number including area code
(408) 890-3900
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class Trading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareARLONew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes    No   

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes    No   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes    No   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.)  Yes    No   

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 28, 2020 was $161.7 million. Such aggregate market value was computed by reference to the closing price of the common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on June 26, 2020 (the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed fiscal second quarter). Shares of the registrant's common stock held by each executive officer and director and certain entities that own 15% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. The determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value, was 80,503,730 shares as of February 19, 2021.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2021 annual meeting of stockholders, which will be filed within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year end, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ItemPART IPage
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.

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PART I

Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”), including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II, Item 7 below, includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “should,” “plan,” “expect” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A below, and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including, among other things: health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and other outbreaks could significantly disrupt our operations; future demand for our products may be lower than anticipated; consumers may choose not to adopt our new product offerings or adopt competing products; the actual price, performance and ease of use of our products may not meet the price, performance and ease of use requirements of consumers; our dependence on certain significant customers; our reliance on a limited number of third-party suppliers and manufacturers; new cyber threats may challenge the effectiveness or threaten the security of our products; the collaboration with Verisure may not be successful; the financial capacity available under the revolving credit line; and the impact and timing of the restructuring plan and our business strategies and development plans may not be successful. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on information available to us as of the date hereof, such information may be limited or incomplete, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Summary of Risk Factors

Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below under the heading “Item 1A — Risk Factors” in Part I of
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this Form 10-K and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

The effects of health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, could have an adverse impact on our business, operations and the markets and communities in which we, our partners and customers operate.

We expect our results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.

If we fail to continue to introduce or acquire new products or services that achieve broad market acceptance on a timely basis, or if our products or services are not adopted as expected, we will not be able to compete effectively and we will be unable to increase or maintain revenue and gross margin.

We obtain several key components from limited or sole sources, and if these sources fail to satisfy our supply requirements or we are unable to properly manage our supply requirements with our third-party manufacturers, we may lose sales and experience increased component costs.

We may need additional financing to meet our future long-term capital requirements and may be unable to raise sufficient capital on favorable terms or at all.

Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do, and to be competitive we may be required to lower our prices or increase our sales and marketing expenses, which could result in reduced margins and loss of market share.

If we lose the services of key personnel, we may not be able to execute our business strategy effectively.

We entered into an asset purchase agreement (the “Asset Purchase Agreement”) and supply agreement (the “Supply Agreement”) with Verisure Sàrl (“Verisure”) that will give Verisure exclusive marketing and distribution rights for our products in Europe as well as the ability to sell our products through their direct channel globally. We cannot provide assurance that the arrangement with Verisure will be a successful collaboration.

We are subject to financial and operating covenants in our business financing agreement with Western Alliance Bank (the “Credit Agreement”) and any failure to comply with such covenants, or obtain waivers in the event of non-compliance, could limit our borrowing availability under the Credit Agreement, resulting in our being unable to borrow under the Credit Agreement and materially adversely impact our liquidity. In addition, our operations may not provide sufficient cash to meet the repayment obligations of debt incurred under the Credit Agreement.

We are dependent on information technology systems, infrastructure and data. System security risks, data protection breaches and cyber-attacks could disrupt our products, services, internal operations, or information technology systems, and could lead to theft of our intellectual property, and any such disruption could reduce our expected revenue, increase our expenses, damage our reputation, and cause our stock price to decline significantly.

Our future success depends on our ability to increase sales of our paid subscription services.

We depend on a limited number of third-party manufacturers for substantially all of our manufacturing needs. If these third-party manufacturers experience any delay, disruption, or quality control problems in their operations, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we could lose market share and our brand may suffer.

If disruptions in our transportation network occur or our shipping costs substantially increase, we may be unable to sell or timely deliver our products, and our operating expenses could increase.

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Interruptions with the cloud-based systems that we use in our operations provided by an affiliate of Amazon.com, Inc. ("Amazon"), which is also one of our primary competitors, may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our current and future products may experience quality problems, including defects or errors, from time to time that can result in adverse publicity, product recalls, litigation, regulatory proceedings, and warranty claims resulting in significant direct or indirect costs, decreased revenue, and operating margin, and harm to our brand.

Item 1. Business

Overview

Arlo Technologies, Inc. (“we”, “Arlo” or the “Company”) combines an intelligent cloud infrastructure and mobile app with a variety of smart connected devices that is transforming the way people experience the connected lifestyle. Arlo’s deep expertise in product design, wireless connectivity, cloud infrastructure and cutting-edge AI capabilities focuses on delivering a seamless, smart home experience for Arlo users that is easy to setup and interact with every day. Our cloud-based platform provides users with visibility, insight and a powerful means to help protect and connect in real-time with the people and things that matter most, from any location with a Wi-Fi or a cellular connection. To date, we have launched several categories of award-winning smart connected devices, including wired and wire-free smart Wi-Fi and LTE-enabled cameras, audio and video doorbells, and floodlight cameras. In addition, Arlo’s broad compatibility allows the platform to seamlessly integrate with third-party internet-of-things (“IoT”) products and protocols, such as Amazon Alexa, Apple HomeKit, Apple TV, Google Assistant, IFTTT, Stringify and Samsung SmartThings. Since the launch of our first product in December 2014, we have shipped over 19.2 million smart connected devices, and, as of December 31, 2020, our smart platform had approximately 5.0 million cumulative registered accounts across more than 100 countries around the world. We plan to continue to introduce new smart connected devices to the Arlo platform both in cameras and new categories, increase the number of registered accounts on our platform, keep them highly engaged through our mobile app and generate incremental recurring revenue by offering them paid subscription services.

On February 6, 2018, NETGEAR, Inc. (“NETGEAR”) announced that its board of directors had unanimously approved the pursuit of a separation of its Arlo business from NETGEAR (the “Separation”) to be effected through an initial public offering (the “IPO”) of newly issued shares of the common stock of Arlo, then a wholly owned subsidiary of NETGEAR. On July 6, 2018, the Company filed a registration statement (as amended, the "IPO Registration Statement") relating to the IPO of common stock of Arlo with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Following a series of restructuring steps prior to the completion of the IPO of Arlo common stock, the Arlo business was transferred from NETGEAR to Arlo (collectively, the " Contribution").

On August 2, 2018, NETGEAR and Arlo announced the pricing of the IPO of 10,215,000 shares of Arlo’s common stock at a price to the public of $16.00 per share. On August 3, 2018, Arlo’s shares began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “ARLO.” On August 7, 2018, the Company completed its IPO of 11,747,250 shares of common stock (including 1,532,250 shares of common stock pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, which was exercised in full on August 3, 2018), at $16.00 per share, before underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering costs. Cash proceeds from the IPO were $173.4 million, net of the portion of the offering cost paid by Arlo, which portion was $1.4 million. The total offering cost was $4.6 million, of which $3.2 million was paid by NETGEAR.

Prior to the completion of the IPO, the Company was a wholly owned subsidiary of NETGEAR and upon the closing of the IPO (including the issuance of additional shares of common stock pursuant to the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares, which was exercised in full) on August 7, 2018, NETGEAR owned approximately 84.2% of the shares of Arlo’s outstanding common stock.

On November 29, 2018, NETGEAR announced that its board of directors had approved a special stock dividend (the “Distribution”) to NETGEAR stockholders of the 62,500,000 shares of Arlo common stock owned by NETGEAR.
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The Distribution was made on December 31, 2018 (the "Distribution Date") to all NETGEAR stockholders of record as of the close of business on December 17, 2018 (the "Record Date"). In the Distribution, each NETGEAR stockholder of record on the Record Date received 1.980295 shares of Arlo common stock for every share of NETGEAR common stock held on the Record Date, subject to cash in lieu of fractional shares. The Distribution was intended to qualify as generally tax free to NETGEAR stockholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In connection with the Distribution, 62,500,000 shares of Arlo common stock held by NETGEAR were distributed to its stockholders and NETGEAR is no longer considered a related party to the Company.

Market

Our total addressable market consists of individuals and business owners who use connected devices to enhance their lives. Outside of the home, we have seen adoption of our cellular-enabled products in a variety of use cases, such as neighborhood watch, construction site monitoring, wildlife and outdoor trail surveillance and event monitoring. We believe the small business, government and direct home monitoring channels provide growth areas for us in addition to our retail and e-commerce presence. In early 2020, we launched Arlo SmartCloud a Software as a Service (“SaaS”) solution to deliver scalable security cloud services for business. With Arlo SmartCloud, we are extending our platform to partners to help innovate and deploy new opportunities beyond our own camera ecosystem. We believe we are well-positioned to extend our current reach to the broader connected lifestyle market both within and beyond the home as we continue to launch new products and services within our connected lifestyle platform.

Products

Smart Connected Devices

Arlo Q and Arlo Q Plus, released in the fourth quarter of 2015, bring Arlo’s performance and design to an indoor wired solution that allows users to easily monitor their surroundings with 1080p HD video quality. With two-way audio communication, users cannot only watch but also interact with their children, pets or other guests in their home or business. Arlo Q and Arlo Q Plus also feature optional 24/7 recording on a subscription basis. Arlo Q Plus includes the additional functionality of being powered-over-ethernet, which is common for business environments.

Arlo Go, released in the first quarter of 2017, is the world’s first commercially available LTE-enabled wire-free camera and provides untethered mobile security with support by major networks in key markets around the world, including AT&T and Verizon in the United States. Its IP65-rated weather-resistant design, 720p HD video quality, two-way audio and battery-powered operation allow small business owners, construction sites, outdoor enthusiasts and anyone in need of a truly mobile solution to virtually be at any location, anytime, and maintain monitoring capabilities.

Arlo Baby, released in the second quarter of 2017, combines performance and convenience with smart features that give added peace of mind for parents and caregivers. With 1080p HD video quality, air quality and temperature sensors, motion and audio detection, and advanced night vision, parents can be alerted to movement and changes in their child’s environment, and they can also remotely engage with their child using Arlo’s two-way audio feature, play music or custom recordings or even turn on Arlo Baby’s multi-colored night light to soothe their child to sleep. Parents can also easily move Arlo Baby, powered by its rechargeable batteries or by an electrical outlet, to different rooms.

Arlo Chime, released in the third quarter of 2018 and designed to plug into any standard wall outlet and pairs with the Arlo Audio Doorbell to play a variety of ringtones or act as a siren, and even contains a silent mode for those times when users don’t want to be bothered. The Arlo Chime runs on two standard AA batteries which can last up to an entire year based on normal usage and features a weather-resistant exterior finish. For added ease and versatility, users also have the option to connect with their existing door chimes without needing to install any additional hardware or wiring.

Arlo Ultra, released in the first quarter of 2019 and designed with advanced 4K high dynamic range ("HDR") video quality with color night vision, wire-free setup, a 180-degree diagonal field-of-view, an integrated spotlight and crystal-clear two-way audio with advanced noise cancellations, Ultra delivers ultimate peace of mind for anyone looking to monitor their home or business. Users will experience enhanced detail and clarity and are able to zoom in on video clips to
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uncover details such as license plate and clothing. Ultra delivers one of the widest viewing angles in the wire-free security camera industry. Ultra is paired with a new Arlo SmartHub that functions as the nucleus of the smart home and engineered with Arlo RFTM, a proprietary two-way audio frequency technology. Arlo Ultra also includes one year of free Arlo Smart so the users can experience the benefits we deliver.

Arlo Pro 3, released in the third quarter of 2019 and designed to provide home and small business owners with a high-performance, simple, wire-free security solution, Pro 3 features 2K resolution with HDR, an integrated spotlight with color night vision and a super-wide 160-degree field of view. Engineered to work indoors or outdoors, Pro 3 offers advanced image quality for DIY security that anyone can easily install in minutes and monitor from anywhere using the Arlo app. Pro 3 also includes a new Arlo SmartHub that securely manages network traffic to the camera in addition to enhancing power and WiFi performance for better range and battery life. Arlo Pro 3 includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

Arlo Video Doorbell, released in the fourth quarter of 2019 and designed to capture what traditional video doorbells can’t, the new smart entry solution boasts an industry-leading vertical field-of-view, allowing users to get a bigger, more precise picture of their front porch. The Video Doorbell captures footage in a square aspect ratio to allow users to fully view packages on the ground, or visitors from head to toe. It also offers features such as HD resolution image quality along with clear, two-way audio for users to simultaneously see and speak to visitors. Unlike conventional doorbell cameras, the Arlo Video Doorbell delivers direct-to-mobile video calls and personalized alerts when packages, people, vehicles, or animals are detected, allowing for users to quickly reply or take action provided they are an Arlo Smart subscriber or in a trial period. The Arlo Video Doorbell connects to an existing mechanical or digital chime for simple installation and continuous power. Arlo Video Doorbell includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

Arlo Floodlight Camera, released in the first quarter of 2020 and is the first wire-free variant on the market. The floodlight camera brings powerful LEDs, an integrated 2K HDR camera, 160-degree field of view, two-way audio, custom lighting configurations and a built-in siren to any home or small business. The floodlight camera can automatically measure the amount of surrounding light to allow for true customization for when the floodlight automatically turns on. The floodlight camera also offers three different light patterns – constant, flashing, and pulsating – which users can control manually on-demand or via automation rules. Arlo Floodlight Camera includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

Arlo Essential Spotlight, released in the second quarter of 2020 and designed with an industry-leading, 180-degree viewing angle with a square, 1:1 aspect ratio that ensures users can see packages on the ground or visitors from head-to-toe on their mobile devices. Arlo Essential Spotlight features HD video resolution combined with direct-to-mobile video calls, clear, two-way audio, an integrated spotlight with color night vision, built in siren and personalized alerts that allow users to quickly reply to guests or take action. Able to connect directly to WiFi, the latest solution can be powered by its rechargeable battery or be hardwired for continuous charging. Arlo Essential Spotlight includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

Arlo Ultra 2, released in the second quarter of 2020 and designed to deliver an enhanced user experience with improved range, building on advanced features such as 4K video with HDR, an ultra-wide, 180-degree field of view, auto zoom and tracking on moving object with clarity and detail, color night vision allowing you to see video in color rather than traditional black and white, built-in siren that automatically triggered by motion or audio, or manually triggered via the Arlo App and more. Arlo Ultra 2 works with Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, Apple Homekit, and IFTTT for easy interaction, automation and control. Arlo Ultra 2 includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

Arlo Essential XL Spotlight, released in the third quarter of 2020 and which features an integrated, wire-free, extended-life battery that works for up to one year on one charge, an integrated spotlight with color night vision, HD video, two-way audio, motion detection alerts and a built-in siren. A direct to a WiFi connection enables the Arlo Essential XL Spotlight camera to function as a stand-alone home security solution without the need for a separate Arlo SmartHub or Base Station. Arlo Essential XL Spotlight includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

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Arlo Essential Wire-Free Video Doorbell, released in the third quarter of 2020, features an easy-to-install, wire-free, battery-powered design. Arlo’s latest front-entry solution – which joins a robust ecosystem of home security products and services – captures what conventional video doorbells can’t. An industry-leading, 180-degree viewing angle with a square, 1:1 aspect ratio ensures users can see packages on the ground or visitors from head-to-toe on their mobile devices. HD video resolution combined with direct-to-mobile video calls, clear, two-way audio and personalized alerts, allow users to quickly reply to guests or take action. Able to connect directly to WiFi, the latest solution can be powered by its rechargeable battery or be hardwired for continuous charging. Arlo Essential Wire-Free Video Doorbell includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

Arlo Pro 4 Wire-Free Spotlight, released in the fourth quarter of 2020 and designed with weather resistance, wide 160-degree field of view, 2K video resolution with HDR, and six-month battery life. Pro 4 also includes two-way audio, built-in siren, and integrated spotlight. The updated Pro 4 has the ability to connect directly to home Wi-Fi networks without the need for a dedicated Arlo SmartHub or Base Station, which allows the camera to work as a standalone system for easier installation and setup. Arlo Pro 4 Wire-Free Spotlight camera includes a three-month trial period of Arlo Smart.

Arlo Accessories
 
Arlo Charging Accessories are designed to offer additional convenient ways to keep Arlo wire-free cameras up and running even longer. With the Arlo Charging Station, users can charge up to two Arlo Pro, Arlo Pro 2 or Arlo Go batteries with fast-charging technology so there is always a battery ready to go. For those looking to eliminate battery swaps entirely, the mountable and weather-resistant Arlo Solar Panel connects to Arlo Pro or Arlo Go cameras to keep batteries charged with just a few hours of direct sunlight.

Arlo Mounts feature innovative designs that allow users to mount their cameras outdoors or indoors, on ceilings or countertops. The Arlo Quadpod is a flexible mount featuring four legs crafted from flexible stainless steel and silicone that allows users to mount their camera even in challenging spots such as tree branches or metal poles.

Arlo Skins allow Arlo owners to customize their Arlo cameras to blend into their environments or add a pop of personality. Popular with outdoor enthusiasts, Arlo Camouflage and Ghillie skins are ultraviolet and water-resistant and made of durable silicone material for easy slip-on, slip-off convenience. Arlo Baby accessory characters add some playfulness to the nursery with fun disguises that turn Arlo Baby cameras into puppies, kittens or bunnies.

 
The Arlo App

The Arlo app, available for iOS and Android devices, is designed to provide our users with an easy-to-use, flexible, mobile-first experience that connects our users to the people and things that matter most to them. Our proprietary AI-based capabilities generate relevant and actionable real-time notifications, which enable users to live stream video or contact emergency services through the app notifications when Arlo devices detect motion or sound. The Arlo app also
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enables users to view their library of video clips and share them via text, email or social networks, and varies depending on the types of service plans that the user has. The app has four main screens: devices, library, mode, and setting:

The Devices screen provides a quick at-a-glance dashboard of the user’s devices linked to their account, with valuable status icons like device battery life, and actionable buttons to live stream from their Arlo camera, call e911, activate a siren, or access the device’s settings.

The Library screen delivers a timeline view of recorded video clips in the user’s Arlo Smart account, with additional tagging of clips that contain subject matter identified by Arlo Smart’s AI- and CV-based object detection, such as person, package, vehicle or even animal.

The Mode screen enables users to quickly Arm or Disarm their Arlo system.

The Settings screen provides access to additional device or account level information and features, including customization of Arlo Smart notifications and detection capabilities.

 
Services

Launched in 2018, Arlo Smart is a paid subscription service that adds powerful AI capabilities to our cameras that enhance the user experience. Arlo Smart incorporates and replaces our legacy paid subscription services. Through real-time computer vision algorithms, Arlo Smart provides users a more personalized experience, deeper insights into detected activity and streamlined access to take responsive actions in urgent situations, such as contacting local emergency services. A three-month free trial period of Arlo Smart is provided with various Arlo camera and doorbell products. Our paid services subscriber base has grown from over 144,000 paid accounts as of December 31, 2018 to about 435,000 as of December 31, 2020. In addition, some of our older camera products come with a prepaid service that provides users with rolling seven-day cloud video storage, the ability to connect up to five cameras and 90 days of customer support.

In January 2020, we launched Arlo SmartCloud, a SaaS solution to deliver scalable security cloud services for business. Its comprehensive offering includes computer vision, multi-object detection, audio analysis, security services, scaled storage and numerous ecosystem integrations. Arlo SmartCloud is a fully managed robust global platform of capabilities built for security, scalability, and reliability that can be deployed as part of advanced subscription services for hardware companies, automotive companies, service providers, insurance companies, home builders, smart communities, smart cities, traditional security companies, and other related verticals.

Our services also include certain development services provided to Verisure S.à.r.l. under a Non-recurring Engineering arrangement as part of the disposal of our commercial operations in Europe in the fourth quarter of 2019. Refer to the "Agreements with Verisure" section below for details.

Sales Channels

We sell our products through multiple sales channels worldwide, including traditional and online retailers, wholesale distributors, broadcast channels, wireless carriers and security solution providers.

Retailers. We sell to traditional and online retailers, either directly or through wholesale distributors. We work directly with our retail channels on market development activities, such as co-advertising, including digital and traditional media, online promotions and video demonstrations, instant rebate programs, event sponsorship and sales associate training. Our largest retailers include Costco, Best Buy, and Amazon and their affiliates. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we derived 20.6%, 14.6% and 12.2% of our revenue from Costco, Best Buy and Amazon and their respective affiliates, respectively. In the third quarter of 2019, we launched our online direct to consumer store to sell our products directly to our customers.

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Wholesale Distributors. Our distribution channel supplies our products to retailers, e-commerce resellers, wireless carriers and broadcast channels. We sell directly to our distributors, including Ingram Micro, Inc., D&H Distributing Company, and Synnex Corporation.

Broadcast Channels. We also sell our products through TV shopping networks such as HSN.

Wireless Carriers. We supply our products to major wireless carriers around the world, including AT&T, Verizon, Telstra and Vodafone. This sales channel is and will continue to be the key route-to-market for our current portable LTE-enabled camera and any future cellular-enabled connected lifestyle devices.

Security Solution Providers. We sell our products and services to security solution providers, including Verisure S.à.r.l, from which we derived 17.3% of our revenue, and Securitas Security Services USA, Inc.

Agreements with Verisure S.à.r.l.

On November 4, 2019, we concurrently entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) and Supply Agreement (the “Supply Agreement” and together with the Purchase Agreement, the “Verisure Agreements”) with Verisure S.à.r.l. ("Verisure"). Verisure is a leading European provider of professionally monitored security systems with 24/7 response services to both residential and small business customers. The Verisure Agreements created a strategic partnership that leverages both the Company and Verisure’s capabilities to create incremental scale to address the ever-growing demand for residential and commercial security. The strategic partnership will combine our innovative connected cameras and cloud services platform with Verisure’s professionally monitored security solutions to provide a new level of smart security for European customers. The transactions contemplated by the Verisure Agreements closed on December 30, 2019.

The Purchase Agreement provided that, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, we transferred, sold and assigned to Verisure certain assets (the "Assets") related to our commercial operations in Europe (the "Business") to Verisure for $50.0 million in cash plus additional cash for certain inventory. The Purchase Agreement contains customary representations and warranties regarding Verisure, the Business and the Assets, indemnification provisions, termination rights and other customary provisions. Further, we agreed not to engage in any business that competes with the Business for a period of three years.

The Supply Agreement provides that, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Supply Agreement, Verisure will become the exclusive distributor of our products in Europe for all channels, and will non-exclusively distribute our products through its direct channels globally in connection with Verisure’s security business. During the five-year period commencing January 1, 2020, Verisure has an aggregate purchase commitment of $500.0 million. As of December 31, 2020, $47.3 million of the purchase commitment has been fulfilled. On December 30, 2019, Verisure prepaid $20.0 million for product purchases in fiscal 2020 and on December 21, 2020, Verisure prepaid $40.0 million for product purchases in fiscal 2021 and fiscal 2022.

The Supply Agreement also provides for certain development services to Verisure under the Non-recurring Engineering ("NRE") arrangement, including development of certain custom products specified by Verisure, in exchange for an aggregate of $10.0 million, payable in installments upon meeting certain development milestones. In the second fiscal quarter of 2020, an additional $3.5 million was added to the contract price as a result of a modification to Verisure's specification for the Outdoor Custom Camera.

As part of the Purchase Agreement, we also entered into a Transition Services Agreement with Verisure ("Verisure TSA") to assist Verisure with the transition of the Company’s European commercial operations. These transition services primarily include IT support and other services, including sales and marketing, operations and supply chain, finance, legal, and human resources. As compensation for these transition services, we will be reimbursed by Verisure based on actual direct costs plus allocation of overhead.

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Competition

We believe we are well-positioned to compete within the broader connected lifestyle market, both within and beyond the home as we continue to launch new product lines and services within our smart platform. However, our market is highly competitive and evolving, and we expect competition to increase in the future. We believe the principal competitive factors impacting the market for our products include price, service offerings, functionality, brand, technology, design, distribution channels and customer service.

We believe that we compete favorably in these areas on the basis of our market leadership position in the U.S. consumer network connected camera systems market, best-in-class technology, direct relationship with users and user engagement, trusted Arlo platform, strong Arlo brand and channel partners and deep strategic partnerships with key suppliers, such as Cypress Semiconductor Co., OmniVision Technologies Inc. and Qualcomm Incorporated. Moreover, our focus on building a connected lifestyle platform, combined with our leadership in innovation in the consumer network connected camera systems market, has led to the strength of our Arlo brand worldwide. We believe this focus allows us to compete favorably with companies that have introduced or have announced plans to introduce devices with connected lifestyle functionalities. Nevertheless, the connected lifestyle market remains highly competitive, and has a multitude of participants, including: large global technology companies, such as Amazon (Ring and Blink) and Google (Nest); security service vendors, such as ADT; telecom service providers, such as AT&T and Comcast; and smaller point product companies.

Many of our existing and potential competitors have longer operating histories, greater name recognition and substantially greater financial, technical, sales, marketing and other resources than we do. We anticipate that current and potential competitors will also intensify their efforts to penetrate our target markets. For additional information, see “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Business-Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do, and to be competitive we may be required to lower our prices or increase our sales and marketing expenses, which could result in reduced margins and loss of market share.”

Research and Development

We are passionate about developing new and innovative products and services that enable the connected lifestyle. Our research and development team collaborates with our product team to design and build differentiated new products and improve upon our existing products and services. Our goal is to create unique user experiences within the connected lifestyle. For example, our original Arlo camera was the world’s first commercially available 100% battery-operated Wi-Fi security camera with 720p HD video, IP65-rated weather resistance and night vision. The groundbreaking nature of the product, first launched in December 2014, gathered critical acclaim and market success. Our research and development team has taken this same approach to all of our subsequent product releases, constantly innovating to stay ahead of the competition.

As of December 31, 2020, our research and development staff consisted of 137 employees, located in our offices worldwide, and was comprised of front-end and back-end software engineers, RF engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, system test engineers, computer vision scientists and data analysis engineers, UX and industrial design engineers and mobile app developers. We intend to continue to invest in research and development to expand our platform and capabilities in the future.

Manufacturing

While all of our products are primarily designed in North America, we currently outsource manufacturing to Foxconn Cloud Network Technology Singapore Pte. Ltd., Pegatron Corporation, and Sky Light Industrial Ltd. , which are all headquartered in Asia. Although we do not have any long-term purchase contracts, we have executed master product supply agreements with these manufacturers, which typically provide indemnification for intellectual property infringement, epidemic failure clauses, agreed-upon price concessions, division of each party’s intellectual property and product quality requirements. Since we outsource our manufacturing, we have the flexibility and ability to adapt to market
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changes, product supply and component pricing while keeping our costs low. In addition to their responsibility for the manufacturing of our products, our manufacturers typically purchase all necessary parts and materials to produce finished goods. To maintain quality standards for our suppliers, we have established our own product quality organization based in Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Indonesia, and mainland China, which is responsible for auditing and inspecting process and product quality on the premises of our manufacturers. Our strategic relationships with our manufacturers are an important component of our ability to introduce new products and grow our business.

We focus on driving alignment of our product roadmaps with our manufacturers and determining what we can do collectively to reduce costs across the supply chain. Our operations teams based in the United States, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia and mainland China coordinate with our manufacturers’ engineering, manufacturing and quality control personnel to develop the requisite manufacturing processes, quality checks and testing and general oversight of the manufacturing activities. We believe this model has enabled us to quickly and efficiently deliver high-quality and innovative products, while enabling us to minimize costs and manage inventory.

Our products are manufactured and packaged for retail sale by our manufacturers mostly in Vietnam and Indonesia, with minimal manufacturers in China, and shipped to our logistics hubs located in the United States, Hong Kong and Australia. Our operations team coordinates with our manufacturers to ensure that the shipment of our products from the manufacturers to these logistics hubs meets customer demand.

Marketing

Our marketing programs are focused on building global brand awareness, increasing product adoption and driving sales. Our marketing efforts target individuals interested in a connected lifestyle and we believe our marketing programs allow us to attract and engage with customers efficiently and at scale. We also increase brand awareness by augmenting word-of-mouth recommendations from Arlo customers and key influencers, interact digitally with current and prospective customers and maintain and develop our strong channel partnerships and strong shelf presence. We collaborate with our retail partners on market development activities to drive in-store and online engagement with the brand and drive purchases.

Customer Care

We provide customer care to Arlo users globally through a variety of communication channels, including phone, chat, email, social media and our Arlo Community, as well as self-guided resources such as knowledge-base articles, how-to videos and technical documentation on our website. We believe that providing timely, responsive customer support and educational content to our users helps foster an ongoing engagement that builds loyalty to our brand and also enables Arlo to understand user needs as they evolve. The online Arlo Community in particular serves as an efficient and engaging platform through which we can deliver customer care and receive feedback from users. We gather and analyze user feedback from all platforms to help inform our design and engineering teams about future enhancements to our products and services.

In order to best serve our users globally, we manage and continually adjust our resources worldwide through a mixture of permanent employees and subcontracted, outsourced resources. As our installed base continues to grow in new geographies, new categories and technologies, we will continue to focus on building a scalable support infrastructure that enables our users to engage with us through the channel that is most convenient and efficient for their needs.

Arlo Cloud Engineering Operations

We currently serve our users from third-party data center hosting facilities. Our cloud platform runs in data centers in the United States and a data center in Ireland to serve our European Union users. We also utilize data centers in Singapore, Australia and China. We have designed our cloud environments to be highly resilient with built-in redundancy and provide failover to other data centers in our network.

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Fiscal periods

Our fiscal year begins on January 1 of the year stated and ends on December 31 of the same year. We report our results on a fiscal quarter basis rather than on a calendar quarter basis. Under the fiscal quarter basis, each of the first three fiscal quarters ends on the Sunday closest to the calendar quarter end, with the fourth quarter ending on December 31.

Seasonality

Historically, we have generated higher revenue in the third and fourth quarters of each year compared to the first and second quarters due to seasonal demand from consumer markets, primarily relating to the beginning of the school year and the holiday season. For example, for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our third and fourth quarters collectively represented 63.0%, 61.8% and 54.5%, respectively, of our revenue for such years. Therefore, timely and effective product and service introductions are critical to our results of operations.

Backlog

Our backlog consists of products for which customer purchase orders have been received and that are scheduled or in the process of being scheduled for shipment. As of December 31, 2020, we had a backlog of $5.7 million, compared to $5.4 million as of December 31, 2019 and $18.9 million as of December 31, 2018. As we typically fulfill orders received within a relatively short period after receipt, our revenue in any fiscal year depends primarily upon orders booked and the availability of supply of our products in that year. In addition, most of our backlog is subject to rescheduling or cancellation with minimal penalties. As a result, our backlog as of any particular date may not be an indicator of revenue for any succeeding period. Similarly, there is a lack of meaningful correlation between year-over-year changes in backlog as compared with year-over-year changes in revenue. Accordingly, we do not believe that backlog information is material to an understanding of our overall business, and backlog as of any particular date should not be considered a reliable indicator of our ability to achieve any particular level of revenue or financial performance.

Intellectual Property

Our ability to protect our intellectual property will be an important factor in the success and continued growth of our business. We rely upon a combination of patent, copyright, trade secret, and trademark laws and contractual restrictions, such as confidentiality agreements and licenses, to establish and protect our proprietary rights. Some of our technology relies upon third-party licensed intellectual property.

We currently hold 72 U.S. issued patents, 32 pending U.S. patent applications, seven international patents, including patents issued by China and and the EU, 13 pending patent applications outside of the United States. All the patents and patent applications generally relate to certain aspects of our hardware devices, accessories, software and services. We continually review our development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new intellectual property.

We also pursue the registration of our domain names and trademarks and service marks in the United States and in certain locations outside the United States. We currently have six registered trademarks and three pending trademark applications in the United States, as well as 38 registered trademarks and 10 pending trademark applications outside of the United States. We currently hold trademark registrations for “ARLO” in nine countries, including the United States, Australia, Canada, China, and Japan, as well as the World Intellectual Property Organization. For more information, see “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Business-If we are unable to secure and protect our intellectual property rights, our ability to compete could be harmed.”
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Environmental Laws

Our products and manufacturing processes are subject to numerous governmental regulations, which cover both the use of various materials and environmental concerns. Environmental issues such as pollution and climate change have had significant legislative and regulatory efforts on a global basis, and there are expected to be additional changes to the regulations in these areas. These changes could directly increase the cost of energy, which may have an impact on the way we manufacture products. In addition, any new regulations or laws in the environmental area might increase the cost of the raw materials we use in our products and the cost of compliance. Other regulations in the environmental area may require us to continue to monitor and ensure proper disposal or recycling of our products. To the best of our knowledge, we maintain compliance with all current government regulations concerning our production processes for all locations in which we operate. Since we operate on a global basis, this is also a complex process that requires continual monitoring of regulations and an ongoing compliance process to ensure that we and our suppliers are in compliance with all existing regulations.

Our Culture and Our Employees

Our culture, mission and core values are a critical part of our success. Our culture is built on a foundation that encourages creativity through entrepreneurship, diversity, empowerment, ethics and open dialogue to continually innovate and improve our technology, solutions, brand and partnerships. We continue to recruit and hire exceptionally talented, diverse and ethical employees and are proud of Arlo culture we have been able to build. We believe that we maintain a good working relationship with our employees, and we have not experienced any labor disputes. As of December 31, 2020, we had 359 full-time employees.

Company Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in January 2018 in connection with the Separation. We have dual corporate headquarters and our principal executive offices are located at 3030 Orchard Parkway, San Jose, California 95134, and our telephone number is (408) 890-3900. Our secondary executive offices are located at 2200 Faraday Ave., Suite #150, Carlsbad, CA 92008. Our website is www.arlo.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The contents of our websites are not incorporated into this Annual Report. Further, our references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual reference only.

Available Information

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), are filed with the SEC. We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and file or furnish reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy our reports, proxy statements and other information filed by us at the SEC’s Public Reference Room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information about the Public Reference Room. Our filings are also available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

Our website provides a link to our SEC filings, which are available free of charge on the same day such filings are made. The specific location on the website where these reports can be found is http://investor.arlo.com. Our website also provides a link to Section 16 filings which are available free of charge on the same day as such filings are made. Information contained on these websites is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Information about our Executive Officers

The following table sets forth the names, ages and positions of our executive officers as of February 19, 2021.
NameAgePosition(s)
Matthew McRae47Chief Executive Officer and Director
Gordon Mattingly50Chief Financial Officer
Brian Busse52General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

Matthew McRae. Matthew McRae has served as our Chief Executive Officer since February 2018 and as a member of our Board since August 2018. Mr. McRae served as NETGEAR’s Senior Vice President of Strategy from October 2017 until August 2018. Mr. McRae previously served as the Chief Technology Officer of Vizio Inc. from 2010 to March 2017, and prior to that served as its Vice President and General Manager, Advanced Products Group, from 2008 to 2010. From 2007 to 2008, Mr. McRae was Vice President of Marketing and Business Development of Fabrik (now part of HGST, Inc.), a provider of data storage and next generation web services, and prior to that, from 2001 to 2007, was the Senior Director, Worldwide Business Development at Cisco Systems Inc., a leader in networking services. Mr. McRae has served on the board of directors of Dedicated Hosting Services, Inc. (d/b/a Streaming Media Hosting), a private content delivery network company, since 2014, and he has been on the board of directors of the UC Irvine Institute for Innovation since 2015. He previously served on the board of directors of the Leatherby Center for Entrepreneurship and Business Ethics at the Business School of Chapman University from 2012 to 2015.

Gordon Mattingly. Gordon Mattingly has served as our Chief Financial Officer since June 15, 2020. Mr. Mattingly served as our Senior Vice President, Finance from July 2018 to June 2020. From 2003 through June 2018, Mr. Mattingly held various financial roles with NETGEAR and its affiliates, most recently serving as Vice President, Financial Planning & Analysis from August 2011 through June 2018. Before joining NETGEAR, Inc., Mr. Mattingly held various European finance positions within U.S. technology companies such as RealNetworks, Inc., International Business Machines Corporation and Tivoli Systems Inc. Mr. Mattingly began his career in finance with the London audit firm of Mazars Group, where he specialized in audits at Lloyd’s of London and qualified as a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales. Mr. Mattingly also qualified in 2013 as a member of the Chartered Institute of Taxation. Mr. Mattingly received a BSc in Economics and Accountancy from the University of Southampton.

Brian Busse. Brian Busse has served as our General Counsel since July 2018. Previously, Mr. Busse was NETGEAR’s Vice President Intellectual Property & Litigation where he was responsible for overseeing NETGEAR’s worldwide litigation, intellectual property, privacy and licensing matters. Before joining NETGEAR in September 2009, Mr. Busse served as Counsel in the Intellectual Property Litigation Department of O’Melveny & Myers LLP in Menlo Park, California beginning in December 2008 where he represented public and private technology companies in a wide range of intellectual property litigation matters, including all aspects of patent litigation, including trial, discovery, law and motion, and claim construction. Mr. Busse began practicing law with the New York firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, advising clients on various areas of litigation. Mr. Busse holds a J.D. from The University of Texas at Austin School of Law, an M.S. and Ph.D. in Physics from Oregon State University, and a B.S. in Physics from Virginia Tech. Mr. Busse is admitted to practice law in California and New York.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves substantial risk. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” when evaluating our business and before deciding whether to invest in shares of our common stock. We describe below what we believe are currently the material risks and uncertainties we face, but they are not the only risks and uncertainties we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business

The effects of health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, could have an adverse impact on our business, operations and the markets and communities in which we, our partners and customers operate.
 
Our business and operations could be adversely affected by health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, impacting the markets and communities in which we, our partners and our customers operate. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced that COVID-19, a respiratory illness, caused by a novel coronavirus is a pandemic. The President of the United States has declared the COVID-19 pandemic a national emergency. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many state, local and foreign governments have put in place, and others in the future may put in place, quarantines, executive orders, shelter-in-place orders and similar government orders and restrictions in order to control the spread of the disease. Such orders or restrictions, or the perception that such orders or restrictions could occur, have resulted in business closures, work stoppages, slowdowns and delays, work-from-home policies, travel restrictions and cancellation of events, among other effects that could negatively impact productivity and disrupt our operations and those of our partners and our customers. For example, we have implemented a work-from-home policy for the vast majority of employees, and we may take further actions that alter our operations as may be required by federal, state or local authorities, or which we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners and stockholders. The effects of pandemic adversely affected our product shipments and financial results for the year ended December 31, 2020.

In addition, while the potential impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and our business in particular may be difficult to assess or predict, the pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. The COVID-19 pandemic also could reduce demand for our products and services as our largest channel partners focus on selling essential goods, temporarily close stores or experience decreases in foot traffic. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could further decrease technology spending, adversely affecting demand for our products and services, our business and the value of our common stock. As of December 31, 2020, our retail channel inventory in Americas declined compared to December 31, 2019 due to disruption to our sales channel, contributing to a decline in net revenue in Americas by 6.8%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019.

The COVID-19 pandemic may adversely affect the ability of our third-party manufacturers and other suppliers to fulfill their obligations to us. We rely on these manufacturers to procure components and, in some cases, subcontract engineering work. We cannot guarantee that our third-party manufacturers or other suppliers will be able to meet our near-term or long-term manufacturing requirements. If we experience supply constraints from our third-party manufacturers, we may be required to allocate the affected products amongst our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our relationships with these customers and on our financial condition. In addition, if we are unable to meet customer demand due to fluctuating or late supply from our third-party manufacturers and other suppliers, it could result in lost sales and have a material adverse effect on our business. We also rely on other suppliers such as cloud infrastructure services
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providers, distribution centers and logistics and transportation services providers. If our manufacturers and other suppliers are unable to fulfill their obligations to us, we could face products shortages, delay in new product introductions, services to our customers could be interrupted, and our products distribution could be delayed and thus adversely affecting our revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our freight-in expense increased by 56%, compared to the prior year.
 
The global pandemic of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve, and we will continue to monitor the COVID-19 situation closely. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, operations or the global economy as a whole.

We expect our results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.

Our results of operations are difficult to predict and may fluctuate substantially from quarter-to-quarter or year-to-year for a variety of reasons, many of which are beyond our control. If our actual results were to fall below our estimates or the expectations of public market analysts or investors, our quarterly and annual results would be negatively impacted and the price of our stock could decline. Other factors that could affect our quarterly and annual operating results include, but are not limited to:

changes in the pricing policies of, or the introduction of new products by, us or our competitors;

delays in the introduction of new products by us or market acceptance of these products;

health epidemics and other outbreaks, including the COVID-19 pandemic, which could significantly disrupt our operations;

introductions of new technologies and changes in consumer preferences that result in either unanticipated or unexpectedly rapid product category shifts;

competition with greater resources may cause us to lower prices and in turn could result in reduced margins and loss of market share;
epidemic or widespread product failure, or unanticipated safety issues, in one or more of our products;

slow or negative growth in the connected lifestyle, home electronics, and related technology markets;

seasonal shifts in end-market demand for our products;

unanticipated decreases or delays in purchases of our products by our significant retailers, distributors, and other channel partners;

component supply constraints from our vendors;

unanticipated increases in costs, including air freight, associated with shipping and delivery of our products;

the inability to maintain stable operations by our suppliers and other parties with whom we have commercial relationships;

discovery of security vulnerabilities in our products, services or systems, leading to negative publicity, decreased demand, or potential liability;

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foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations in the jurisdictions where we transact sales and expenditures in local currency;

excess levels of inventory and low turns;

changes in or consolidation of our sales channels and wholesale distributor relationships or failure to manage our sales channel inventory and warehousing requirements;

delay or failure to fulfill orders for our products on a timely basis;

delay or failure of our retailers, distributors, and other channel partners to purchase at their historic volumes or at the volumes that they or we forecast;

changes in tax rates or adverse changes in tax laws that expose us to additional income tax liabilities;

changes in U.S. and international tax policy, including changes that adversely affect customs, tax or duty rates such as tariffs on product imports, as well as income tax legislation and regulations that affect the countries where we conduct business;

operational disruptions, such as transportation delays or failure of our order processing system, particularly if they occur at the end of a fiscal quarter;

disruptions or delays related to our financial and enterprise resource planning systems;

our inability to accurately forecast product demand, resulting in increased inventory exposure;

allowance for credit losses exposure with our existing retailers, distributors and other channel partners and new retailers, distributors and other channel partners, particularly as we expand into new international markets;

geopolitical disruption, including sudden changes in immigration policies, leading to disruption in our workforce or delay or even stoppage of our operations in manufacturing, transportation, technical support, and research and development;

terms of our contracts with channel partners or suppliers that cause us to incur additional expenses or assume additional liabilities;

an increase in price protection claims, redemptions of marketing rebates, product warranty and stock rotation returns or allowance for credit losses;

litigation involving alleged patent infringement;

failure to effectively manage our third-party customer support partners, which may result in customer complaints and/or harm to the Arlo brand;

our inability to monitor and ensure compliance with our code of ethics, our anti-corruption compliance program, and domestic and international anti-corruption laws and regulations, whether in relation to our employees or with our suppliers or retailers, distributors, or other channel partners;

labor unrest at facilities managed by our third-party manufacturers;

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workplace or human rights violations in certain countries in which our third-party manufacturers or suppliers operate, which may affect the Arlo brand and negatively affect our products’ acceptance by consumers;

unanticipated shifts or declines in profit by geographical region that would adversely impact our tax rate;

failure to implement and maintain the appropriate internal controls over financial reporting, which may result in restatements of our financial statements; and

any changes in accounting rules.

As a result, period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful, and you should not rely on them as an indication of our future performance.

If we fail to continue to introduce or acquire new products or services that achieve broad market acceptance on a timely basis, or if our products or services are not adopted as expected, we will not be able to compete effectively and we will be unable to increase or maintain revenue and gross margin.

We operate in a highly competitive, quickly changing environment, and our future success depends on our ability to develop or acquire and introduce new products and services that achieve broad market acceptance. Our future success will depend in large part upon our ability to identify demand trends in the connected lifestyle market and quickly develop or acquire, and design, manufacture and sell, products and services that satisfy these demands in a cost-effective manner.

In order to differentiate our products and services from our competitors’ products, we must continue to increase our focus and capital investment in research and development, including software development. We have committed a substantial amount of resources to the manufacture, development and sale of our Arlo Smart services and our wire-free smart Wi-Fi cameras, advanced baby monitors, and smart lights, and to introducing additional and improved models in these lines. In addition, we plan to continue to introduce new categories of smart connected devices to the Arlo platform in the near future. If our existing products and services do not continue, or if our new products or services fail, to achieve widespread market acceptance, if existing customers do not subscribe to our paid subscription services such as Arlo Smart, if those services do not achieve widespread market acceptance, or if we are unsuccessful in capitalizing on opportunities in the connected lifestyle market, as well as in the related market in the small business segment, our future growth may be slowed and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Successfully predicting demand trends is difficult, and it is very difficult to predict the effect that introducing a new product or service will have on existing product or service sales. It is possible that Arlo may not be as successful with its new products and services, and as a result our future growth may be slowed and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Also, we may not be able to respond effectively to new product or service announcements by our competitors by quickly introducing competitive products and services.

In addition, we may acquire companies and technologies in the future and, consistent with our vision for Arlo, introduce new product and service lines in the connected lifestyle market. In these circumstances, we may not be able to successfully manage integration of the new product and service lines with our existing suite of products and services. If we are unable to effectively and successfully further develop these new product and service lines, we may not be able to increase or maintain our sales, and our gross margin may be adversely affected.

We may experience delays and quality issues in releasing new products and services, which may result in lower quarterly revenue than expected. In addition, we may in the future experience product or service introductions that fall short of our projected rates of market adoption. Currently, reviews of our products and services are a significant factor in the success of our new product and service launches. If we are unable to generate a high number of positive reviews or quickly respond to negative reviews, including end-user reviews posted on various prominent online retailers, our ability to sell our products and services will be harmed. Any future delays in product and service development and introduction, or
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product and service introductions that do not meet broad market acceptance, or unsuccessful launches of new product and service lines could result in:

loss of or delay in revenue and loss of market share;

negative publicity and damage to our reputation and brand;

a decline in the average selling price of our products and services;

adverse reactions in our sales channels, such as reduced shelf space, reduced online product visibility, or loss of sales channels; and

increased levels of product returns.

Throughout the past few years, Arlo has significantly increased the rate of new product and service introductions, with the introduction of new lines of Arlo cameras, smart lights, and doorbell products, as well as the introduction of our Arlo Smart services. If we cannot sustain that pace of product and service introductions, either through rapid innovation or acquisition of new products and services or product and service lines, we may not be able to maintain or increase the market share of our products and services or expand further into the connected lifestyle market in accordance with our current plans. In addition, if we are unable to successfully introduce or acquire new products and services with higher gross margin, our revenue and overall gross margin would likely decline.

We obtain several key components from limited or sole sources, and if these sources fail to satisfy our supply requirements or we are unable to properly manage our supply requirements with our third-party manufacturers, we may lose sales and experience increased component costs.

Any shortage or delay in the supply of key product components would harm our ability to meet scheduled product deliveries. Many of the components used in our products are specifically designed for use in our products, some of which are obtained from sole source suppliers. These components include lens, lens-sensors, and passive infrared (“PIR”) sensors that have been customized for the Arlo application, as well as custom-made batteries that provide power conservation and safety features. In addition, the components used in our end products have been optimized to extend battery life. Our third-party manufacturers generally purchase these components on our behalf, and we do not have any contractual commitments or guaranteed supply arrangements with our suppliers. If demand for a specific component increases, we may not be able to obtain an adequate number of that component in a timely manner. In addition, if worldwide demand for the components increases significantly, the availability of these components could be limited. For example, increased demand for electronics as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, effects of the U.S. trade war with China, increased demand for chips in the automotive industry and certain other factors have led to a global shortage of semiconductors. Due to such shortage, starting in the fourth quarter of 2020 we started to experience component shortages, including longer lead times for components, and supply constraints, which we expect to continue into 2021. Such shortages and constraints are affecting our ability to meet scheduled product deliveries and worldwide demand for our products in the first quarter of 2021 and potentially beyond. Further, our suppliers may experience financial or other difficulties as a result of uncertain and weak worldwide economic conditions. Other factors that may affect our suppliers’ ability or willingness to supply components to us include internal management or reorganizational issues, such as roll-out of new equipment which may delay or disrupt supply of previously forecasted components, or industry consolidation and divestitures, which may result in changed business and product priorities among certain suppliers. It could be difficult, costly, and time consuming to obtain alternative sources for these components, or to change product designs to make use of alternative components. In addition, difficulties in transitioning from an existing supplier to a new supplier could create delays in component availability that would have a significant impact on our ability to fulfill orders for our products.

We provide our third-party manufacturers with a rolling forecast of demand, which they use to determine our material and component requirements. Lead times for ordering materials and components vary significantly and depend on various factors, such as the specific supplier, contract terms, and demand and supply for a component at a given time.
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Some of our components have long lead times, such as wireless local area network chipsets, physical layer transceivers, connector jacks, and metal and plastic enclosures. If our forecasts are not timely provided or are less than our actual requirements, our third-party manufacturers may be unable to manufacture products in a timely manner. If our forecasts are too high, our third-party manufacturers will be unable to use the components they have purchased on our behalf. The cost of the components used in our products tends to drop rapidly as volumes increase and the technologies mature. Therefore, if our third-party manufacturers are unable to promptly use components purchased on our behalf, our cost of producing products may be higher than our competitors due to an oversupply of higher-priced components. Moreover, if they are unable to use components ordered at our direction, we will need to reimburse them for any losses they incur.

If we are unable to obtain a sufficient supply of components, or if we experience any interruption in the supply of components, our product shipments could be reduced or delayed or our cost of obtaining these components may increase. For example, in December 2018 we announced a delay in the expected timing of shipment of our Ultra product due to a battery-related issue from one of our suppliers. Component shortages and delays affect our ability to meet scheduled product deliveries, damage our brand and reputation in the market, and cause us to lose sales and market share. For example, component shortages and disruptions in supply in the past have limited our ability to supply all the worldwide demand for our products, and our revenue was affected. At times, we have elected to use more expensive transportation methods, such as air freight, to make up for manufacturing delays caused by component shortages, which reduces our margins. In addition, at times sole suppliers of highly specialized components have provided components that were either defective or did not meet the criteria required by our retailers, distributors, or other channel partners, resulting in delays, lost revenue opportunities, and potentially substantial write-offs.

We may need additional financing to meet our future long-term capital requirements and may be unable to raise sufficient capital on favorable terms or at all.

We have recorded a net loss of $101.3 million, $86.0 million and $75.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and we have a history of losses and may continue to incur operating and net losses for the foreseeable future. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, our accumulated deficit was $232.8 million and $131.5 million, respectively.

As of December 31, 2020, our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments totaled $206.1 million. In November 2019, we entered into a business financing agreement with Western Alliance Bank providing for a credit facility to up to $40.0 million and as of December 31, 2020, we have not borrowed against this credit facility. Refer to Note 10. Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details on such business financing agreement. While based on our current plans, the business financing agreement with Western Alliance Bank, and market conditions, we believe that such sources of liquidity will be sufficient to satisfy our anticipated cash requirements for at least the next 12 months, we may require additional funds, either through equity or debt financings or collaborative agreements or from other sources. We have no commitments to obtain such additional financing, and we may not be able to obtain any such additional financing on terms favorable to us, or at all. If adequate financing is not available, we may further delay, postpone or terminate product and service expansion and curtail certain selling, general and administrative operations. The inability to raise additional financing may have a material adverse effect on our future performance. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has already resulted in a significant disruption of global financial markets. If the disruption persists and deepens, we could experience an inability to access additional capital.

Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do, and to be competitive we may be required to lower our prices or increase our sales and marketing expenses, which could result in reduced margins and loss of market share.

We compete in a rapidly evolving and fiercely competitive market, and we expect competition to continue to be intense, including price competition. Our principal competitors include Amazon (Blink and Ring), Google (Nest), Swann, Night Owl, Wyze, Foxconn Corporation (Belkin), Samsung, D-Link, and Canary. Other competitors include numerous local vendors such as Netatmo, Logitech, Bosch, Instar, and Uniden. In addition, these local vendors may target markets outside of their local regions and may increasingly compete with us in other regions worldwide. Many of our existing and
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potential competitors have longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, and substantially greater financial, technical, sales, marketing, and other resources. These competitors may, among other things, undertake more extensive marketing campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing policies, obtain more favorable pricing from suppliers and manufacturers, and exert more influence on sales channels than we can. In addition, certain competitors may have different business models, such as integrated manufacturing capabilities, that may allow them to achieve cost savings and to compete on the basis of price. Other competitors may have fewer resources, but may be more nimble in developing new or disruptive technology or in entering new markets.

We anticipate that current and potential competitors will also intensify their efforts to penetrate our target markets. For example, price competition is intense in our industry in certain geographical regions and product categories. Many of our competitors price their products significantly below our product costs. Average sales prices have declined in the past and may again decline in the future. These competitors may have more advanced technology, more extensive distribution channels, stronger brand names, greater access to shelf space in retail locations, bigger promotional budgets, and larger retailers, distributors, and other channel partners, and end-user bases than we do.

In addition, many of these competitors leverage a broader product portfolio and offer lower pricing as part of a more comprehensive end-to-end solution. These companies could devote more capital resources to develop, manufacture, and market competing products than we could.

Amazon is both a competitor and a distribution channel for our products as well as a provider of services to support our cloud-based storage. If Amazon decided to end our distribution channel relationship or ceased providing cloud storage services to us, our sales and product performance could be harmed, which could seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our competitors may also acquire other companies in the market and leverage combined resources to gain market share. If any of these companies are successful in competing against us, our sales could decline, our margins could be negatively impacted, and we could lose market share, any of which could seriously harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

If we lose the services of key personnel, we may not be able to execute our business strategy effectively.

Our future success depends in large part upon the continued services of our key technical, engineering, sales, marketing, finance, and senior management personnel. The competition for qualified personnel with significant experience in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and sales in the markets in which we operate is intense, both where our U.S. operations are based, including Silicon Valley, and in global markets in which we operate. Our inability to attract qualified personnel, including hardware and software engineers and sales and marketing personnel, could delay the development and introduction of, and harm our ability to sell, our products and services. Decreases in our stock price may negatively affect our efforts to attract and retain qualified personnel. Changes to U.S. immigration policies that restrict our ability to attract and retain technical personnel may negatively affect our research and development efforts. We will continue to replace key personnel, from within or looking outside, wherever we find the best candidates.

We do not maintain any key person life insurance policies. Our business model requires extremely skilled and experienced senior management who are able to withstand the rigorous requirements and expectations of our business. Our success depends on senior management being able to execute at a very high level. The loss of any of our senior management or other key engineering, research, development, sales, or marketing personnel, particularly if lost to competitors, could harm our ability to implement our business strategy and respond to the rapidly changing needs of our business. If we suffer the loss of services of any key executive or key personnel, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, we may not be able to have the proper personnel in place to effectively execute our long-term business strategy if key personnel retire, resign or are otherwise terminated.

We entered into an asset purchase agreement (the “Asset Purchase Agreement”) and supply agreement (the “Supply Agreement”) with Verisure Sàrl (“Verisure”) that will give Verisure exclusive marketing and distribution rights
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for our products in Europe as well as the ability to sell our products through their direct channel globally. We cannot provide assurance that the arrangement with Verisure will be a successful collaboration.

Verisure will have the exclusive right to market and distribute our products in Europe.  Our results of operations may be negatively impacted if Verisure is not successful in selling our products in Europe. Even though the Supply Agreement provides for minimum purchase commitments, if Verisure fails to pay on a timely basis, or at all, including because of effects from COVID-19, or otherwise does not perform under the Supply Agreement our cash flow would be reduced. We are also exposed to increased credit risk if Verisure fails or becomes insolvent. We also cannot provide any assurance that we will successfully develop custom products as specified by Verisure under the Supply Agreement.

The Purchase Agreement and Supply Agreement with Verisure contains customary representations and warranties regarding, the Business and the Assets, indemnification provisions, termination rights, certain financial covenants and other customary provisions. Additionally, we have agreed not to engage in any business that competes with the Business for a period of three years. Our failure to comply with these provisions may have a material adverse effect on our future performance.

We are subject to financial and operating covenants in our business financing agreement with Western Alliance Bank (the “Credit Agreement”) and any failure to comply with such covenants, or obtain waivers in the event of non-compliance, could limit our borrowing availability under the Credit Agreement, resulting in our being unable to borrow under the Credit Agreement and materially adversely impact our liquidity. In addition, our operations may not provide sufficient cash to meet the repayment obligations of debt incurred under the Credit Agreement.

The Credit Agreement contains provisions that limit our future borrowing availability to the lesser of (x) $40.0 million and (y) an amount equal to 60% of our eligible receivables and eligible accounts receivable, less such reserves as Western Alliance Bank may deem proper and necessary from time to time. The Credit Agreement also contains other customary covenants, including certain restrictions on maintaining a minimum cash balance, our ability to incur additional indebtedness, consolidate or merge, enter into acquisitions, pay any dividend or distribution on our capital stock, redeem, retire or purchase shares of our capital stock, make investments or pledge or transfer assets, in each case subject to limited exceptions.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the financial and other covenants in the Credit Agreement, and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the risk of our inability to comply with such covenants. Our failure to comply with these covenants could cause us to be unable to borrow under the Credit Agreement and may constitute an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of the maturity of any indebtedness then outstanding under the Credit Agreement, which would require us to pay all amounts then outstanding. If we are unable to repay those amounts, the Lender could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that debt, which would seriously harm our business.  Such an event could materially adversely affect our financial condition and liquidity. Additionally, such events of non-compliance could impact the terms of any additional borrowings and/or any credit renewal terms. Any failure to comply with such covenants may be a disclosable event and may be perceived negatively. Such perception could adversely affect the market price for our common stock and our ability to obtain financing in the future.

We are dependent on information technology systems, infrastructure and data. System security risks, data protection breaches and cyber-attacks could disrupt our products, services, internal operations, or information technology systems, and could lead to theft of our intellectual property, and any such disruption could reduce our expected revenue, increase our expenses, damage our reputation, and cause our stock price to decline significantly.

Information security risks have significantly increased in recent years in part due to the proliferation of new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists and other external parties, including foreign private parties and state actors. Our products and services may contain unknown security vulnerabilities. For example, the firmware, software, and open source software that we or our manufacturing partners have installed on our products may be susceptible to hacking, unauthorized manipulation, or misuse. In addition, we offer a
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comprehensive online cloud management service, Arlo Smart, paired with our end products, including our cameras, baby monitors, and smart lights and we recently launched our direct to consumer store to sell our products directly to our customers. If malicious actors compromise this cloud service or our direct to consumer store, or if customer confidential information is accessed without authorization, our business will be harmed. Operating an online cloud service and direct to consumer store are a relatively new businesses for us, and we may not have the expertise to properly manage risks related to data security and systems security. We rely on third-party providers for a number of critical aspects of our cloud services and customer support, including web hosting services, billing, and payment processing, and consequently we do not maintain direct control over the security or stability of the associated systems. If we or our third-party providers are unable to properly secure our system or successfully prevent breaches of security relating to our products, services, or user private information, including user videos and user personal identification information, or if these third-party systems fail for other reasons, our management could need to spend increasing amounts of time and effort in this area. As a result, we could incur substantial expenses, our brand and reputation could suffer and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Maintaining the security of our computer information systems and communication systems is a critical issue for us and our customers but the multitude and complexity of our computer systems may make them vulnerable to service interruption or destruction, disruption of data integrity, inadvertent errors that expose our data or systems, malicious intrusion, or random attacks. Likewise, data privacy or security incidents or breaches by employees or others may pose a risk that sensitive data, including our intellectual property, trade secrets or personal information of our employees, customers or other business partners may be exposed to unauthorized persons or to the public. Malicious actors may develop and deploy malware that is designed to manipulate our systems, including our internal network, or those of our vendors or customers. Additionally, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce our employees to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our information technology systems, our data or our customers’ data. We have established a crisis management plan and business continuity program. While we regularly test the plan and the program, there can be no assurance that the plan and program can withstand an actual or serious disruption in our business, including cyber-attack. While we have established service-level and geographic redundancy for our critical systems, our ability to utilize these redundant systems must be tested regularly, failing over to such systems always carries risk and we cannot be assured that such systems are fully functional. For example, much of our order fulfillment process is automated and the order information is stored on our servers. A significant business interruption could result in losses or damages and harm our business. If our computer systems and servers become unavailable at the end of a fiscal quarter, our ability to recognize revenue may be delayed until we are able to utilize back-up systems and continue to process and ship our orders. This could cause our stock price to decline significantly. Changes in how our employees work and access our systems during the current COVID-19 pandemic also could lead to additional opportunities for bad actors to launch cyberattacks or for employees to cause inadvertent security risks or incidents.

We devote considerable internal and external resources to network security, data encryption, and other security measures to protect our systems, customers, and users, but these security measures cannot provide absolute security. Potential breaches of our security measures and the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure, or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data about us, our employees, or our customers or users, including the potential loss or disclosure of such information or data as a result of employee error or other employee actions or inactions, hacking, fraud, social engineering, or other forms of deception could expose us, our customers, or the individuals affected to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, result in litigation and potential liability for us, damage our brand and reputation, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. The effects of a security breach or privacy violation could be further amplified during the current COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant and theft of our intellectual property or proprietary business information could require substantial expenditures to remedy. Further, we cannot be certain that (a) our liability insurance will be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to security breaches, cyberattacks and other related breaches; (b) such coverage will cover any indemnification claims against us relating to any incident, will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all; or (c) any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the
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imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our future success depends on our ability to increase sales of our paid subscription services.

Our future success is largely dependent on increasing sales of our paid subscription services. Even if we are successful in selling our smart connected devices and accessories, if we are unable to maintain or increase sales of Arlo Smart services, our revenue and overall gross margin would likely decline.

We depend on a limited number of third-party manufacturers for substantially all of our manufacturing needs. If these third-party manufacturers experience any delay, disruption, or quality control problems in their operations, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we could lose market share and our brand may suffer.

All of our products are manufactured, assembled, tested and generally packaged by a limited number of third-party original design manufacturers (“ODMs”). In most cases, we rely on these manufacturers to procure components and, in some cases, subcontract engineering work. We currently outsource manufacturing to Foxconn Cloud Network Technology Singapore Pte. Ltd., Pegatron Corporation, and Sky Light Industrial Ltd. We do not have any long-term contracts with any of these third-party manufacturers, although we have executed product supply agreements with these manufacturers, which typically provide indemnification for intellectual property infringement, epidemic failure clauses, agreed-upon price concessions, and certain product quality requirements. Some of these third-party manufacturers produce products for our competitors. In addition, one of our principal manufacturers, Foxconn closed its acquisition of Belkin International in September 2018, which includes the WeMo brand of home automation products, which may compete directly with us. Due to changing economic conditions, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the viability of some of these third-party manufacturers may be at risk. The loss of the services of any of our primary third-party manufacturers could cause a significant disruption in operations and delays in product shipments. Qualifying a new manufacturer and commencing volume production is expensive and time consuming. Ensuring that a contract manufacturer is qualified to manufacture our products to our standards is time consuming. In addition, there is no assurance that a contract manufacturer can scale its production of our products at the volumes and in the quality that we require. If a contract manufacturer is unable to do these things, we may have to move production for the products to a new or existing third-party manufacturer, which would take significant effort and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, as we contemplate moving manufacturing into different jurisdictions, we may be subject to additional significant challenges in ensuring that quality, processes, and costs, among other issues, are consistent with our expectations. For example, while we expect our manufacturers to be responsible for penalties assessed on us because of excessive failures of the products, there is no assurance that we will be able to collect such reimbursements from these manufacturers, which causes us to take on additional risk for potential failures of our products.

Our reliance on third-party manufacturers also exposes us to the following risks over which we have limited control:
unexpected increases in manufacturing and repair costs;

inability to control the quality and reliability of finished products;

inability to control delivery schedules;

potential liability for expenses incurred by third-party manufacturers in reliance on our forecasts that later prove to be inaccurate;

potential lack of adequate capacity to manufacture all or a part of the products we require; and

potential labor unrest affecting the ability of the third-party manufacturers to produce our products.

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All of our products must satisfy safety and regulatory standards and some of our products must also receive government certifications. Our third-party manufacturers are primarily responsible for conducting the tests that support our applications for most regulatory approvals for our products. If our third-party manufacturers fail to timely and accurately conduct these tests, we would be unable to obtain the necessary domestic or foreign regulatory approvals or certificates to sell our products in certain jurisdictions. As a result, we would be unable to sell our products and our sales and profitability could be reduced, our relationships with our sales channel could be harmed, and our reputation and brand would suffer.

Specifically, substantially all of our manufacturing and assembly occurs in the Asia Pacific region, primarily in Vietnam, and any disruptions due to natural disasters, health epidemics, and political, social, and economic instability in the region would affect the ability of our third-party manufacturers to manufacture our products. In particular, in the event the labor market in Vietnam becomes saturated, our third-party manufacturers in Vietnam may increase our costs of production. If these costs increase, it may affect our margins and ability to lower prices for our products to stay competitive. Labor unrest may also affect our third-party manufacturers, as workers may strike and cause production delays. If our third-party manufacturers fail to maintain good relations with their employees or contractors, and production and manufacturing of our products are affected, then we may be subject to shortages of products and the quality of products delivered may be affected. Further, if our manufacturers or warehousing facilities are disrupted or destroyed, we could have no other readily available alternatives for manufacturing and assembling our products, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

In the future, we may work with more third-party manufacturers on a contract manufacturing basis, which could result in our exposure to additional risks not inherent in a typical ODM arrangement. Such risks may include our inability to properly source and qualify components for the products, lack of software expertise resulting in increased software defects, and lack of resources to properly monitor the manufacturing process. In our typical ODM arrangement, our ODMs are generally responsible for sourcing the components of the products and warranting that the products will work according to a product’s specification, including any software specifications. In a contract manufacturing arrangement, we would take on much more, if not all, of the responsibility around these areas. If we are unable to properly manage these risks, our products may be more susceptible to defects, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

If disruptions in our transportation network occur or our shipping costs substantially increase, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we may be unable to sell or timely deliver our products, and our operating expenses could increase.

We are highly dependent upon the transportation systems we use to ship our products, including surface, ocean and air freight. Our attempts to closely match our inventory levels to our product demand intensify the need for our transportation systems to function effectively and without delay. On a quarterly basis, our shipping volume also tends to steadily increase as the quarter progresses, which means that any disruption in our transportation network in the latter half of a quarter will likely have a more material effect on our business than a disruption at the beginning of a quarter.

The transportation network is subject to disruption or congestion from a variety of causes, including labor disputes or port strikes, acts of war or terrorism, natural disasters, and congestion resulting from higher shipping volumes. Labor disputes among freight carriers and at ports of entry are common, particularly in Europe, and we expect labor unrest and its effects on shipping our products to be a continuing challenge for us. A port worker strike, work slow-down, or other transportation disruption in Long Beach, California, where we import our products to fulfill our Americas orders, could significantly disrupt our business. Our international freight is regularly subjected to inspection by governmental entities. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, international freight capacity has dropped, causing air and ocean freight rates to materially increase. Transit times have also increased. If our delivery times increase unexpectedly for these or any other reasons, our ability to deliver products on time would be materially adversely affected and result in delayed or lost revenue as well as customer imposed penalties. In addition, if increases in fuel prices occur, our transportation costs would likely increase. Moreover, the cost of shipping our products by air freight is greater than other methods. From time to time in the past, we have shipped products using extensive air freight to meet unexpected spikes in demand and shifts in demand between product categories, to bring new product introductions to market quickly and to timely ship products previously
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ordered. If we rely more heavily upon air freight to deliver our products, our overall shipping costs will increase. A prolonged transportation disruption or a significant increase in the cost of freight could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Interruptions with the cloud-based systems that we use in our operations provided by an affiliate of Amazon.com, Inc. ("Amazon"), which is also one of our primary competitors, may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We host our platform using Amazon Web Services (“AWS”) data centers, a provider of cloud infrastructure services, and may in the future use other third-party cloud-based systems in our operations. All of our solutions currently reside on systems leased and operated by us in these locations. Accordingly, our operations depend on protecting the virtual cloud infrastructure hosted in AWS by maintaining its configuration, architecture, features, and interconnection specifications, as well as the information stored in these virtual data centers and which third-party internet service providers transmit. Although we have disaster recovery plans that utilize multiple AWS locations, any incident affecting their infrastructure that may be caused by human error, fire, flood, severe storm, earthquake, or other natural disasters, cyber-attacks, terrorist or other attacks, and other similar events beyond our control could negatively affect our platform. A prolonged AWS service disruption affecting our platform for any of the foregoing reasons would negatively impact our ability to serve our end-users and could damage our reputation with current and potential end-users, expose us to liability, cause us to lose customers, or otherwise harm our business. We may also incur significant costs for using alternative equipment or taking other actions in preparation for, or in reaction to, events that damage the AWS services we use. Further, if we were to make updates to our platforms that were not compatible with the configuration, architecture, features, and interconnection specifications of the third-party platform, our service could be disrupted.

Amazon produces the Amazon Cloud Cam, which competes with our security camera products, and recently acquired two of our competitors, Blink and Ring. Amazon may choose to hamper our competitive efforts, using provision of AWS services as leverage. In the event that there is a lapse of service, elimination of AWS services or features that we use, interruption of internet service provider connectivity, or damage to such facilities, we could experience interruptions in access to our platform as well as significant delays and additional expense in arranging or creating new facilities and services and/or re-architecting our solutions for deployment on a different cloud infrastructure service provider, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our current and future products may experience quality problems, including defects or errors, from time to time that can result in adverse publicity, product recalls, litigation, regulatory proceedings, and warranty claims resulting in significant direct or indirect costs, decreased revenue, and operating margin, and harm to our brand.

We sell complex products that could contain design and manufacturing defects in their materials, hardware, and firmware. These defects could include defective materials or components that can unexpectedly interfere with the products’ intended operations or cause injuries to users or property damage. Although we extensively and rigorously test new and enhanced products and services before their release, we cannot assure we will be able to detect, prevent, or fix all defects. Failure to detect, prevent, or fix defects, or an increase in defects, could result in a variety of consequences, including a greater number of product returns than expected from users and retailers, increases in warranty costs, regulatory proceedings, product recalls, and litigation, each of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. We generally provide a one-year hardware warranty on all of our products. The occurrence of real or perceived quality problems or material defects in our current and future products could expose us to warranty claims in excess of our current reserves. If we experience greater returns from retailers or users, or greater warranty claims, in excess of our reserves, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed. In addition, any negative publicity or lawsuits filed against us related to the perceived quality and safety of our products could also adversely affect our brand, decrease demand for our products and services, and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In addition, epidemic failure clauses are found in certain of our customer contracts. If invoked, these clauses may entitle the customer to return for replacement or obtain credits for products and inventory, as well as assess liquidated
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damage penalties and terminate an existing contract and cancel future or then-current purchase orders. In such instances, we may also be obligated to cover significant costs incurred by the customer associated with the consequences of such epidemic failure, including freight and transportation required for product replacement and out-of-pocket costs for truck rolls to end-user sites to collect the defective products. Costs or payments we make in connection with an epidemic failure could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

If our products contain defects or errors, or are found to be noncompliant with industry standards, we could experience decreased sales and increased product returns, loss of customers and market share, and increased service, warranty, and insurance costs. In addition, defects in, or misuse of, certain of our products could cause safety concerns, including the risk of property damage or personal injury. If any of these events occurred, our reputation and brand could be damaged, and we could face product liability or other claims regarding our products, resulting in unexpected expenses and adversely impacting our operating results. For instance, if a third party were able to successfully overcome the security measures in our products, such a person or entity could misappropriate end-user data, third-party data stored by our users, and other information, including intellectual property. If that happens, affected end-users or others may file actions against us alleging product liability, tort, or breach of warranty claims.

We rely on a limited number of traditional and online retailers and wholesale distributors for a substantial portion of our sales, and our revenue could decline if they refuse to pay our requested prices or reduce their level of purchases or if there is significant consolidation in our sales channels, which results in fewer sales channels for our products.

We sell a substantial portion of our products through traditional and online retailers, including Amazon, Best Buy Co., Inc. ("Best Buy"), and Costco Wholesale Corporation (“Costco”) and Verisure and their respective affiliates. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we derived 20.6%, 17.3%, 14.6% and 12.2%of our revenue from Costco, Verisure, Best Buy and Amazon and their affiliates, respectively. In addition, we sell to wholesale distributors, including Ingram Micro, Inc., D&H Distributing Company, and Synnex Corporation. We expect that a significant portion of our revenue will continue to come from sales to a small number of such retailers, distributors, and other channel partners. In addition, because our accounts receivable are often concentrated within a small group of retailers, distributors, and other channel partners, the failure of any of them to pay on a timely basis, or at all, would reduce our cash flow. If Best Buy or other retailers closes any of its retail stores due to COVID-19 pandemic, our revenue could be adversely impacted. We are also exposed to increased credit risk if any one of these limited numbers of retailer and distributor channel partners fails or becomes insolvent. We generally have no minimum purchase commitments or long-term contracts with any of these retailers, distributors and other channel partners. These purchasers could decide at any time to discontinue, decrease, or delay their purchases of our products. If our retailers, distributors, and other channel partners increase the size of their product orders without sufficient lead-time for us to process the order, our ability to fulfill product orders would be compromised. These channel partners have a variety of suppliers to choose from and therefore can make substantial demands on us, including demands on product pricing and on contractual terms, which often results in the allocation of risk to us as the supplier. Accordingly, the prices that they pay for our products are subject to negotiation and could change at any time. We have historically benefited from NETGEAR’s strong relationships with these retailers, distributors, and other channel partners, and we may not be able to maintain these relationships following our separation from NETGEAR. Our ability to maintain strong relationships with these channel partners is essential to our future performance. If any of our major channel partners reduce their level of purchases or refuse to pay the prices that we set for our products, our revenue and results of operations could be harmed. The traditional retailers that purchase from us have faced increased and significant competition from online retailers. If our key traditional retailers continue to reduce their level of purchases from us, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.

Additionally, concentration and consolidation among our channel partner base may allow certain retailers and distributors to command increased leverage in negotiating prices and other terms of sale, which could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, if, as a result of increased leverage, channel partner pressures require us to reduce our pricing such that our gross margin is diminished, we could decide not to sell our products to a particular channel partner, which could result in a decrease in our revenue. Consolidation among our channel partner base may also lead to reduced demand for our products, elimination of sales opportunities, replacement of our products with those of our competitors, and
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cancellations of orders, each of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. If consolidation among the retailers, distributors, or other channel partners who purchase our products becomes more prevalent, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

In particular, the retail and connected home markets in some countries, including the United States, are dominated by a few large retailers with many stores. These retailers have in the past increased their market share and may continue to do so in the future by expanding through acquisitions and construction of additional stores. These situations concentrate our credit risk with a relatively small number of retailers, and, if any of these retailers were to experience a shortage of liquidity, it could increase the risk that their outstanding payables to us may not be paid. In addition, increasing market share concentration among one or a few retailers in a particular country or region increases the risk that if any one of them substantially reduces its purchases of our devices, we may be unable to find a sufficient number of other retail outlets for our products to sustain the same level of sales. Any reduction in sales by our retailers could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We depend on large, recurring purchases from certain significant retailers, distributors, and other channel partners, and a loss, cancellation, or delay in purchases by these channel partners could negatively affect our revenue.

The loss of recurring orders from any of our more significant retailers, distributors, and other channel partners could cause our revenue and profitability to suffer. Our ability to attract new retailers, distributors, and other channel partners will depend on a variety of factors, including the cost-effectiveness, reliability, scalability, breadth, and depth of our products. In addition, a change in the mix of our retailers, distributors, and other channel partners, or a change in the mix of direct and indirect sales, could adversely affect our revenue and gross margin.

Although our financial performance may depend on large, recurring orders from certain retailers, distributors, and other channel partners, we do not generally have binding commitments from them. For example:

our channel partner agreements generally do not require minimum purchases;

our retailers, distributors, and other channel partners can stop purchasing and stop marketing our products at any time; and

our channel partner agreements generally are not exclusive.

Further, our revenue may be impacted by significant one-time purchases that are not contemplated to be repeatable. While such purchases are reflected in our financial statements, we do not rely on and do not forecast for continued significant one-time purchases. As a result, lack of repeatable one-time purchases will adversely affect our revenue. Additionally, we may from time to time grant our retailers, distributors, and other channel partners the exceptional right to return certain products, based on the best interests of our mutual businesses, and such returns, if material, could adversely affect our revenue and gross margin.

Because our expenses are based on our revenue forecasts, a substantial reduction or delay in sales of our products to, or unexpected returns from, channel partners, or the loss of any significant channel partners, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Although our largest channel partners may vary from period to period, we anticipate that our results of operations for any given period will continue to depend on large orders from a small number of channel partners.

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The average selling prices of our products typically decrease rapidly over the sales cycle of the product, which may negatively affect our revenue and gross margin.

Our products typically experience price erosion, a fairly rapid reduction in the average unit selling prices over their sales cycles. In order to sell products that have a falling average unit selling price and maintain margins at the same time, we need to continually reduce product and manufacturing costs. To manage manufacturing costs, we must partner with our third-party manufacturers to engineer the most cost-effective design for our products. In addition, we must carefully manage the price paid for components used in our products, and we must also successfully manage our freight and inventory costs to reduce overall product costs. We also need to continually introduce new products with higher sales prices and gross margin in order to maintain our overall gross margin. If we are unable to manage the cost of older products or successfully introduce new products with higher gross margin, our revenue and overall gross margin would likely decline.

The reputation of our services may be damaged, and we may face significant direct or indirect costs, decreased revenue, and operating margins if our services contain significant defects or fail to perform as intended.

Our services, including our intelligent cloud and App platform and our Arlo Smart services, are complex, and may not always perform as intended due to outages of our systems or defects affecting our services. Systems outages could be disruptive to our business and damage the reputation of our services and result in potential loss of revenue.

Significant defects affecting our services may be found following the introduction of new software or enhancements to existing software or in software implementations in varied information technology environments. Internal quality assurance testing and end-user testing may reveal service performance issues or desirable feature enhancements that could lead us to reallocate service development resources or postpone the release of new versions of our software. The reallocation of resources or any postponement could cause delays in the development and release of future enhancements to our currently available software, damage the reputation of our services in the marketplace, and result in potential loss of revenue. Although we attempt to resolve all errors that we believe would be considered serious by our partners and customers, the software powering our services is not error-free. Undetected errors or performance problems may be discovered in the future, and known errors that we consider minor may be considered serious by our channel partners and end-users.

System disruptions and defects in our services could result in lost revenue, delays in customer deployment, or legal claims and could be detrimental to our reputation.

Because we store, process, and use data, some of which contain personal information, we are subject to complex and evolving federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy, data protection, and other related matters, which are subject to change.

We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States and other countries that involve matters central to our business, including with respect to user privacy, rights of publicity, data protection, content, protection of minors, and consumer protection. These laws can be particularly restrictive in countries outside the United States. Both in the United States and abroad, these laws and regulations constantly evolve and remain subject to significant change. In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws and regulations are often unpredictable and uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry in which we operate. Because we store, process, and use data, some of which contain personal information, we are subject to complex and evolving federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy, data protection, and other matters. Many of these laws and regulations could result in investigations, claims, changes to our business practices, increased cost of operations, and declines in user growth, retention, or engagement, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In the EU/EEA, the General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679) (“GDPR”) went into effect in 2018 and replaced Directive 95/46/EC (the EU Privacy Directive), becoming directly applicable in all European Union member states. The GDPR establishes new requirements applicable to the processing of personal data (i.e., data which identifies an
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individual or from which an individual is identifiable), affords new data protection rights to individuals (e.g., the right to erasure of personal data) and imposes penalties for serious data breaches. Individuals also have a right to compensation under GDPR for financial or non-financial losses. Additionally, Brexit took effect in January 2020, which will lead to further legislative and regulatory changes. While the Data Protection Act of 2018, that “implements” and complements the GDPR achieved Royal Assent on May 23, 2018 and is now effective in the United Kingdom, it is still unclear whether transfer of data from the EEA to the United Kingdom will remain lawful in the long term under GDPR. With the expiry of the transition period on December 31, 2020, companies will have to comply with the GDPR and the GDPR as incorporated into United Kingdom national law, which has the ability to separately fine up to the greater of £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. The relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains unclear, for example around how data can lawfully be transferred between each jurisdiction, which exposes us to further compliance risk. We may incur liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses under GDPR and applicable EU Member States and the United Kingdom privacy laws in connection with any measures we take to comply with them.

California also recently enacted legislation that has been dubbed the first “GDPR-like” law in the U.S. Known as the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), it creates new individual privacy rights for consumers (as that word is broadly defined in the law) and places increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal data of consumers or households. The CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, requires covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers, and provides such consumers new ways to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability.

Further, California voters approved a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) in the November 3, 2020 election. Effective starting on January 1, 2023, the CPRA will significantly modify the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive personal information. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. New legislation proposed or enacted in various other states will continue to shape the data privacy environment nationally. Certain state laws may be more stringent or broader in scope, or offer greater individual rights, with respect to confidential, sensitive and personal information than federal, international or other state laws, and such laws may differ from each other, which may complicate compliance efforts.

Some observers have noted that the CCPA and CPRA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the U.S., which could increase our potential liability and adversely affect our business. GDPR and CCPA will impose additional responsibility and liability in relation to our processing of personal data. GDPR, CCPA, and CPRA may require us to change our policies and procedures and, if we are not compliant, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Global economic conditions could materially adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.

Our business has been and may continue to be affected by a number of factors that are beyond our control, such as general geopolitical, economic, and business conditions, conditions in the financial markets, and changes in the overall demand for connected lifestyle products. Our products and services may be considered discretionary items for our consumer and small business end-users. A severe and/or prolonged economic downturn, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect our customers’ financial condition and the levels of business activity of our customers. Weakness in, and uncertainty about, global economic conditions may cause businesses to postpone spending in response to tighter credit, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values, which could have a material negative effect on the demand for our products.

In the recent past, various regions worldwide have experienced slow economic growth. In addition, current economic challenges in China, including any global economic ramifications of these challenges, may continue to put negative pressure on global economic conditions. If conditions in the global economy, including Europe, China, Australia and the United States, or other key vertical or geographic markets deteriorate, such conditions could materially adversely
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affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. If we are unable to successfully anticipate changing economic and political conditions, we may be unable to effectively plan for and respond to those changes, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, the economic problems affecting the financial markets and the uncertainty in global economic conditions resulted in a number of adverse effects, including a low level of liquidity in many financial markets, extreme volatility in credit, equity, currency, and fixed income markets, instability in the stock market, and high unemployment.

For example, the challenges faced by the European Union to stabilize some of its member economies, such as Greece, Portugal, Spain, Hungary, and Italy, have had international implications, affecting the stability of global financial markets and hindering economies worldwide. Many member nations in the European Union have been addressing the issues with controversial austerity measures. In addition, the potential consequences of the “Brexit” process in the United Kingdom have led to significant uncertainty in the region. Should the European Union monetary policy measures be insufficient to restore confidence and stability to the financial markets, or should the United Kingdom’s “Brexit” decision lead to additional economic or political instability, the global economy, including the U.S. and European Union economies where we have a significant presence, could be hindered, which could have a material adverse effect on us. There could also be a number of other follow-on effects from these economic developments on our business, including the inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products, customer insolvencies, decreased customer confidence to make purchasing decisions, decreased customer demand, and decreased customer ability to pay their trade obligations.

In addition, availability of our products from third-party manufacturers and our ability to distribute our products into non-U.S. jurisdictions may be impacted by factors such as an increase in duties, tariffs, or other restrictions on trade; raw material shortages, work stoppages, strikes and political unrest; economic crises and international disputes or conflicts; changes in leadership and the political climate in countries from which we import products; and failure of the United States to maintain normal trade relations with China and other countries.

A portion of our global and U.S. sales are comprised of goods assembled and manufactured in our facilities in Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China, and components for a number of our goods are sourced from suppliers in the People’s Republic of China. When tariffs, duties, or other restrictions are placed on goods imported into the United States from China or any related counter-measures are taken by China, our revenue and results of operations may be materially harmed.
    
On September 17, 2018, President Trump announced the imposition of an additional 10% ad valorem duty on approximately $200 billion worth of Chinese imports, known as List 3, pursuant to Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative concurrently published the final list of products that are subject to the additional duty, effective September 24, 2018. On May 10, 2019, the President increased the additional duty to 25% ad valorem, and has since proposed a further increase of this rate to 30%, though the increase is not currently scheduled to take effect. In addition, on August 20, 2019, the President announced an additional 15% import duty on other Chinese imports, known as List 4, with the additional duties on certain items (List 4A) effective September 1, 2019, and the remainder (List 4B) effective December 15, 2019. While the additional duty on List 4A has gone into effect, the implementation of the additional duty on List 4B has been suspended in definitely. Further, as of February 14, 2020, the additional duty rate on items listed on List 4A is reduced from 15% to 7.5%. We are actively addressing the risks related to these additional and potential ad valorem duties, which have affected, or have the potential to affect, at least some of our imports from China. Although we have already taken some steps to mitigate these risks, including by moving a significant portion of our manufacturing and assembly to Vietnam and other areas in the Asia Pacific region outside of China, if these duties are imposed, the cost of our products may increase. These duties may also make our products more expensive for consumers, which may reduce consumer demand. We may need to offset the financial impact by, among other things, moving even more of our product manufacturing to other locations, modifying other business practices or raising prices. If we are not successful in offsetting the impact of any such duties, our revenue, gross margins, and operating results may be materially adversely affected.

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Our stock price may be volatile and your investment in our common stock could suffer a decline in value.

There has been significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of securities of technology and other companies, including recently in connection with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which may be unrelated to the financial performance of these companies. These broad market fluctuations may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

Some specific factors that may have a significant effect on the market price of our common stock include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our results of operations or our competitors’ operating results;

actual or anticipated changes in the growth rate of the connected lifestyle market, our growth rate or our competitors’ growth rates;

delays in the introduction of new products by us or market acceptance of these products;
    
conditions in the financial markets in general or changes in general economic conditions, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic;

changes in governmental regulation, including taxation and tariff policies;

interest rate or currency exchange rate fluctuations;

our ability to forecast or report accurate financial results; and

changes in stock market analyst recommendations regarding our common stock, other comparable companies, or our industry generally.

We depend substantially on our sales channels, and our failure to maintain and expand our sales channels would result in lower sales and reduced revenue.

To maintain and grow our market share, revenue, and brand, we must maintain and expand our sales channels. Our sales channels consist primarily of traditional retailers, online retailers, and wholesale distributors, but also include service providers such as wireless carriers and telecommunications providers. We generally have no minimum purchase commitments or long-term contracts with any of these third parties.

Traditional retailers have limited shelf space and promotional budgets, and competition is intense for these resources. A competitor with more extensive product lines and stronger brand identity may have greater bargaining power with these retailers. Any reduction in available shelf space or increased competition for such shelf space would require us to increase our marketing expenditures simply to maintain current levels of retail shelf space, which would harm our operating margin. Our traditional retail customers have faced increased and significant competition from online retailers. If we cannot effectively manage our business amongst our online customers and traditional retail customers, our business would be harmed. The recent trend in the consolidation of online retailers has resulted in intensified competition for preferred product placement, such as product placement on an online retailer’s internet home page. In addition, our efforts to realign or consolidate our sales channels may cause temporary disruptions in our product sales and revenue, and these efforts may not result in the expected longer-term benefits that prompted them.

In addition, to the extent our retail and distributor channel partners supply products that compete with our own, it is possible that these channel partners may choose not to offer our products to end-users or to offer our products to end-users on less favorable terms, including with respect to product placement. If this were to occur, we may not be able to increase or maintain our sales, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. For example, Amazon, one of our primary retailers, produces the Amazon Cloud Cam, which competes with our
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security camera products, and also recently acquired two of our competitors, Blink and Ring. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we derived 12.2% of our revenue from Amazon and its affiliates.

We must also continuously monitor and evaluate emerging sales channels. If we fail to establish a presence in an important developing sales channel, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

If we do not effectively manage our sales channel inventory and product mix, we may incur costs associated with excess inventory, or lose sales from having too few products.

If we are unable to properly monitor, control, and manage our sales channel inventory and maintain an appropriate level and mix of products with our distributors and within our sales channels, we may incur increased and unexpected costs associated with this inventory. We generally allow distributors and traditional retailers to return a limited amount of our products in exchange for other products. Under our price protection policy, if we reduce the list price of a product, we are often required to issue a credit in an amount equal to the reduction for each of the products held in inventory by our wholesale distributors and retailers. If our wholesale distributors and retailers are unable to sell their inventory in a timely manner, we might lower the price of the products, or these parties may exchange the products for newer products. Also, during the transition from an existing product to a new replacement product, we must accurately predict the demand for the existing and the new product.

We determine production levels based on our forecasts of demand for our products. Actual demand for our products depends on many factors, which makes it difficult to forecast. We have experienced differences between our actual and our forecasted demand in the past and expect differences to arise in the future. If we improperly forecast demand for our products, we could end up with too many products and be unable to sell the excess inventory in a timely manner, if at all, or, alternatively, we could end up with too few products and not be able to satisfy demand. This problem is exacerbated because we attempt to closely match inventory levels with product demand, leaving limited margin for error. If these events occur, we could incur increased expenses associated with writing off excessive or obsolete inventory, lose sales, incur penalties for late delivery, or have to ship products by air freight to meet immediate demand, thereby incurring incremental freight costs above the sea freight costs, a preferred method, and suffering a corresponding decline in gross margin.

If we are unable to secure and protect our intellectual property rights, our ability to compete could be harmed.

We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws, nondisclosure agreements with employees, consultants, and suppliers, and other contractual provisions to establish, maintain, and protect our intellectual property and technology. Despite efforts to protect our intellectual property, unauthorized third parties may attempt to design around, copy aspects of our product design or obtain and use technology or other intellectual property associated with our products. Furthermore, our competitors may independently develop similar technology or design around our intellectual property. Our inability to secure and protect our intellectual property rights could materially adversely affect our brand and business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We rely upon third parties for technology that is critical to our products, and if we are unable to continue to use this technology and future technology, our ability to develop, sell, maintain, and support technologically innovative products would be limited.

We rely on third parties to obtain non-exclusive patented hardware and software license rights in technologies that are incorporated into and necessary for the operation and functionality of most of our products. In these cases, because the intellectual property we license is available from third parties, barriers to entry into certain markets may be lower for potential or existing competitors than if we owned exclusive rights to the technology that we license and use. Moreover, if a competitor or potential competitor enters into an exclusive arrangement with any of our key third-party technology providers, or if any of these providers unilaterally decides not to do business with us for any reason, our ability to develop and sell products containing that technology would be severely limited. In addition, certain of Arlo’s firmware and the AI-
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based algorithms that we use in our Arlo Smart services incorporate open source software, the licenses for which may include customary requirements for, and restrictions on, use of the open source software.

If we are offering products or services that contain third-party technology that we subsequently lose the right to license, then we will not be able to continue to offer or support those products or services. In addition, these licenses may require royalty payments or other consideration to the third-party licensor. Our success will depend, in part, on our continued ability to access these technologies, and we do not know whether these third-party technologies will continue to be licensed to us on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, if these third-party licensors fail or experience instability, then we may be unable to continue to sell products and services that incorporate the licensed technologies, in addition to being unable to continue to maintain and support these products and services. We do require escrow arrangements with respect to certain third-party software which entitle us to certain limited rights to the source code, in the event of certain failures by the third party, in order to maintain and support such software. However, there is no guarantee that we would be able to fully understand and use the source code, as we may not have the expertise to do so. We are increasingly exposed to these risks as we continue to develop and market more products containing third-party technology and software. If we are unable to license the necessary technology, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternative technology, which could be of lower quality or performance standards. The acquisition or development of alternative technology may limit and delay our ability to offer new or competitive products and services and increase our costs of production. As a result, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

We also utilize third-party software development companies and contractors to develop, customize, maintain, and support software that is incorporated into our products and services. If these companies and contractors fail to timely deliver or continuously maintain and support the software, as we require of them, we may experience delays in releasing new products and services or difficulties with supporting existing products, services, and our users.

Our sales and operations in international markets expose us to operational, financial and regulatory risks.

International sales comprise a significant amount of our overall revenue. International sales were 28.4%, 26.6%, and 22.6% of overall revenue in fiscal 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. We continue to be committed to growing our international sales, and while we have committed resources to expanding our international operations and sales channels, these efforts may not be successful and could be impacted by COVID-19 pandemic. International operations are subject to a number of risks, including but not limited to:

exchange rate fluctuations;

political and economic instability, international terrorism, and anti-American sentiment, particularly in emerging markets;

potential for violations of anti-corruption laws and regulations, such as those related to bribery and fraud;

preference for locally branded products, and laws and business practices favoring local competition;

potential consequences of, and uncertainty related to, the “Brexit” process in the United Kingdom, which could lead to additional expense and complexity in doing business there;

increased difficulty in managing inventory;

delayed revenue recognition;

less effective protection of intellectual property;

stringent consumer protection and product compliance regulations, including but not limited to General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union, European competition law, the Restriction of
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Hazardous Substances directive, the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment directive and the European Ecodesign directive, that are costly to comply with and may vary from country to country;

difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations;

business difficulties, including potential bankruptcy or liquidation, of any of our worldwide third-party logistics providers; and

changes in local tax and customs duty laws or changes in the enforcement, application, or interpretation of such laws.

We are also required to comply with local environmental legislation, and those who sell our products rely on this compliance in order to sell our products. If those who sell our products do not agree with our interpretations and requirements of new legislation, they may cease to order our products and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Governmental regulations of imports or exports affecting internet security could affect our revenue.

Any additional governmental regulation of imports or exports or failure to obtain required export approval of our encryption technologies could adversely affect our international and domestic sales. The United States and various foreign governments have imposed controls, export license requirements, and restrictions on the import or export of some technologies, particularly encryption technology. In addition, from time to time, governmental agencies have proposed additional regulation of encryption technology, such as requiring the escrow and governmental recovery of private encryption keys. In response to terrorist activity, governments could enact additional regulation or restriction on the use, import, or export of encryption technology. This additional regulation of encryption technology could delay or prevent the acceptance and use of encryption products and public networks for secure communications, resulting in decreased demand for our products and services. In addition, some foreign competitors are subject to less stringent controls on exporting their encryption technologies. As a result, they may be able to compete more effectively than we can in the United States and the international internet security market.

We are involved in litigation matters in the ordinary course and may in the future become involved in additional litigation, including litigation regarding intellectual property rights, which could be costly and subject us to significant liability.

Our industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding infringement of patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property rights. From time to time, third parties have asserted, and may continue to assert, exclusive patent, copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property rights against us, demanding license or royalty payments or seeking payment for damages, injunctive relief, and other available legal remedies through litigation. These also include third-party non-practicing entities who claim to own patents or other intellectual property that they believe cover our products. If we are unable to resolve these matters or obtain licenses on acceptable or commercially reasonable terms, we could be sued or we may be forced to initiate litigation to protect our rights. The cost of any necessary licenses and litigation related to alleged infringement could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In the event successful claims of infringement are brought by third parties, and we are unable to obtain licenses or independently develop alternative technology on a timely basis, we may be subject to indemnification obligations, be unable to offer competitive products, or be subject to increased expenses. If we do not resolve these claims on a favorable basis, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

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As part of growing our business, we may make acquisitions. If we fail to successfully select, execute, or integrate our acquisitions, then our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected and our stock price could decline.

From time to time, we may undertake acquisitions to add new product and service lines and technologies, acquire talent, gain new sales channels, or enter into new sales territories. Acquisitions involve numerous risks and challenges, including relating to the successful integration of the acquired business, entering into new territories or markets with which we have limited or no prior experience, establishing or maintaining business relationships with new retailers, distributors, or other channel partners, vendors, and suppliers, and potential post-closing disputes.

We cannot ensure that we will be successful in selecting, executing, and integrating acquisitions. Failure to manage and successfully integrate acquisitions could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, if stock market analysts or our stockholders do not support or believe in the value of the acquisitions that we choose to undertake, our stock price may decline.

The success of our business depends on customers’ continued and unimpeded access to our platform on the internet.

Our users must have internet access in order to use our platform. Some providers may take measures that affect their customers’ ability to use our platform, such as degrading the quality of the data packets we transmit over their lines, giving those packets lower priority, giving other packets higher priority than ours, blocking our packets entirely, or attempting to charge their customers more for using our platform.

In December 2010, the Federal Communications Commission (the “FCC”), adopted net neutrality rules barring internet providers from blocking or slowing down access to online content, protecting services like ours from such interference. Recently, the FCC voted in favor of repealing the net neutrality rules, and it is currently uncertain how the U.S. Congress will respond to this decision. To the extent network operators attempt to interfere with our services, extract fees from us to deliver our solution, or otherwise engage in discriminatory practices, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Within such a regulatory environment, we could experience discriminatory or anti-competitive practices that could impede our domestic and international growth, cause us to incur additional expense, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Changes in tax laws or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our future profitability.

Factors that could materially affect our future effective tax rates include, but are not limited to:

changes in tax laws or the regulatory environment;

changes in the valuation allowance against deferred tax assets;

increases in interests and penalties related to income taxes;

changes in accounting and tax standards or practices;

changes in the composition of operating income by tax jurisdiction; and

changes in our operating results before taxes.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Because we do not have a long history of operating as a separate company and we have significant expansion plans, our effective tax rate may fluctuate in the future. Future effective tax rates could be affected by operating losses in jurisdictions where no tax benefit
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can be recognized under GAAP, changes in the composition of earnings in countries with differing tax rates, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws.

The Internal Revenue Services ("IRS") and several foreign tax authorities have increasingly focused attention on intercompany transfer pricing with respect to sales of products and services and the use of intangibles. Tax authorities could disagree with our intercompany charges, cross-jurisdictional transfer pricing or other matters and assess additional taxes. If we do not prevail in any such disagreements, our profitability may be affected.

In addition, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) have been working on new laws on the taxation of the digital economy to provide taxing rights to jurisdictions where the customers or users are located. Some countries have enacted, and others have proposed the new laws to tax digital transactions. These developments may result in material impacts to our financial statements.

We must comply with indirect tax laws in multiple jurisdictions, as well as complex customs duty regimes worldwide. Audits of our compliance with these rules may result in additional liabilities for taxes, duties, interest and penalties related to our international operations which would reduce our profitability.

Our operations are routinely subject to audit by tax authorities in various countries. Many countries have indirect tax systems where the sale and purchase of goods and services are subject to tax based on the transaction value. These taxes are commonly referred to as value-added tax (“VAT”) or goods and services tax (“GST”). In addition, the distribution of our products subjects us to numerous complex customs regulations, which frequently change over time. Failure to comply with these systems and regulations can result in the assessment of additional taxes, duties, interest, and penalties. While we believe we are in compliance with local laws, we cannot assure that tax and customs authorities will agree with our reporting positions and upon audit such tax and customs authorities may assess additional taxes, duties, interest, and penalties against us.

Additionally, some of our products are subject to U.S. export controls, including the Export Administration Regulations and economic sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control. We also incorporate encryption technology into certain of our solutions. These encryption solutions and underlying technology may be exported outside of the United States only with the required export authorizations or exceptions, including by license, a license exception, appropriate classification notification requirement, and encryption authorization.

Furthermore, our activities are subject to U.S. economic sanctions laws and regulations that prohibit the shipment of certain products and services without the required export authorizations, including to countries, governments, and persons targeted by U.S. embargoes or sanctions. Additionally, the Trump administration has been critical of existing trade agreements and may impose more stringent export and import controls. Obtaining the necessary export license or other authorization for a particular sale may be time consuming, and may result in delay or loss of sales opportunities even if the export license ultimately is granted. While we take precautions to prevent our solutions from being exported in violation of these laws, including using authorizations or exceptions for our encryption products and implementing IP address blocking and screenings against U.S. government and international lists of restricted and prohibited persons and countries, we have not been able to guarantee, and cannot guarantee, that the precautions we take will prevent all violations of export control and sanctions laws, including if purchasers of our products bring our products and services into sanctioned countries without our knowledge. Violations of U.S. sanctions or export control laws can result in significant fines or penalties and incarceration could be imposed on employees and managers for criminal violations of these laws.

Also, various countries, in addition to the United States, regulate the import and export of certain encryption and other technology, including import and export licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products and services or our end-users’ ability to utilize our solutions in their countries. Changes in our products and services or changes in import and export regulations may create delays in the introduction of our products in international markets. Furthermore, recent actions by the Trump administration announcing increased duties on products imported from China may severely impact the price of our goods imported into the United States in the future, and other countries may follow suit and increase duties on goods produced in China.
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Adverse action by any government agencies related to indirect tax laws could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to, and must remain in compliance with, numerous laws and governmental regulations concerning the manufacturing, use, distribution, and sale of our products, as well as any such future laws and regulations. Some of our customers also require that we comply with their own unique requirements relating to these matters. Any failure to comply with such laws, regulations, and requirements, and any associated unanticipated costs, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We manufacture and sell products which contain electronic components, and such components may contain materials that are subject to government regulation in both the locations where we manufacture and assemble our products, as well as the locations where we sell our products. For example, certain regulations limit the use of lead in electronic components. To our knowledge, we maintain compliance with all applicable current government regulations concerning the materials utilized in our products for all the locations in which we operate. Since we operate on a global basis, this is a complex process which requires continual monitoring of regulations and an ongoing compliance process to ensure that we and our suppliers are in compliance with all existing regulations. There are areas where new regulations have been enacted which could increase our cost of the components that we utilize or require us to expend additional resources to ensure compliance. For example, the SEC’s “conflict minerals” rules apply to our business, and we are expending resources to ensure compliance. The implementation of these requirements by government regulators and our partners and/or customers could adversely affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of minerals used in the manufacture of certain components used in our products. In addition, the supply-chain due diligence investigation required by the conflict minerals rules will require expenditures of resources and management attention regardless of the results of the investigation. If there is an unanticipated new regulation which significantly impacts our use of various components or requires more expensive components, that regulation could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

One area that has a large number of regulations is environmental compliance. Management of environmental pollution and climate change has produced significant legislative and regulatory efforts on a global basis, and we believe this will continue both in scope and in the number of countries participating. These changes could directly increase the cost of energy, which may have an impact on the way we manufacture products or utilize energy to produce our products. In addition, any new regulations or laws in the environmental area might increase the cost of raw materials we use in our products. Environmental regulations require us to reduce product energy usage, monitor and exclude an expanding list of restricted substances, and participate in required recovery and recycling of our products. While future changes in regulations are certain, we are currently unable to predict how any such changes will impact us and if such impacts will be material to our business. If there is a new law or regulation that significantly increases our costs of manufacturing or causes us to significantly alter the way that we manufacture our products, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our selling and distribution practices are also regulated in large part by U.S. federal and state as well as foreign, antitrust and competition laws and regulations. In general, the objective of these laws is to promote and maintain free competition by prohibiting certain forms of conduct that tend to restrict production, raise prices or otherwise control the market for goods or services to the detriment of consumers of those goods and services. Potentially prohibited activities under these laws may include unilateral conduct or conduct undertaken as the result of an agreement with one or more of our suppliers, competitors, or customers. The potential for liability under these laws can be difficult to predict as it often depends on a finding that the challenged conduct resulted in harm to competition, such as higher prices, restricted supply, or a reduction in the quality or variety of products available to consumers. We utilize a number of different distribution channels to deliver our products to customers and end-users and regularly enter into agreements with resellers of our products at various levels in the distribution chain that could be subject to scrutiny under these laws in the event of private litigation or an investigation by a governmental competition authority. In addition, many of our products are sold to consumers via the internet. Many of the competition-related laws that govern these internet sales were adopted prior to the advent of the internet and, as a result, do not contemplate or address the unique issues raised by online sales. New interpretations of existing laws and regulations, whether by courts or by the state, federal, or foreign governmental
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authorities charged with the enforcement of those laws and regulations, may also impact our business in ways we are currently unable to predict. Any failure on our part or on the part of our employees, agents, distributors, or other business partners to comply with the laws and regulations governing competition can result in negative publicity and diversion of management time and effort and may subject us to significant litigation liabilities and other penalties.

We are exposed to the credit risk of some of our customers and to credit exposures in certain markets, which could result in material losses.

A substantial portion of our sales are on an open credit basis, with typical payment terms of 30 to 60 days in the United States and, because of local customs or conditions, longer in some markets outside the United States. We monitor individual customer financial viability in granting such open credit arrangements, seek to limit such open credit to amounts we believe the customers can pay and maintain reserves we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts.

Any bankruptcies or illiquidity among our customer base could harm our business and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. To the degree that turmoil in the credit markets makes it more difficult for some customers to obtain financing, our customers’ ability to pay could be adversely impacted, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

If our products are not compatible with some or all leading third-party IoT products and protocols, we could be materially adversely affected.

A core part of our solution is the interoperability of our platform with third-party IoT products and protocols. The Arlo platform seamlessly integrates with third-party IoT products and protocols, such as Amazon Alexa, Apple HomeKit, Apple TV, Google Assistant, IFTTT, Stringify, and Samsung SmartThings. If these third parties were to alter their products, we could be adversely impacted if we fail to timely create compatible versions of our products, and such incompatibility could negatively impact the adoption of our products and solutions. A lack of interoperability may also result in significant redesign costs, and harm relations with our customers. Further, the mere announcement of an incompatibility problem relating to our products could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In addition, to the extent our competitors supply products that compete with our own, it is possible these competitors could design their technologies to be closed or proprietary systems that are incompatible with our products or work less effectively with our products than their own. As a result, end-users may have an incentive to purchase products that are compatible with the products and technologies of our competitors over our products.

The marketability of our products may suffer if wireless telecommunications operators do not deliver acceptable wireless services.

The success of our business depends, in part, on the capacity, affordability, reliability, and prevalence of wireless data networks provided by wireless telecommunications operators and on which our IoT hardware products and solutions operate. Growth in demand for wireless data access may be limited if, for example, wireless telecommunications operators cease or materially curtail operations, fail to offer services that customers consider valuable at acceptable prices, fail to maintain sufficient capacity to meet demand for wireless data access, delay the expansion of their wireless networks and services, fail to offer and maintain reliable wireless network services, or fail to market their services effectively.

We are exposed to adverse currency exchange rate fluctuations in jurisdictions where we transact in local currency, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Because a significant portion of our business is conducted outside the United States, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. These exposures may change over time as business practices evolve, and they could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Although a portion of our international sales are currently invoiced in U.S. dollars, we have implemented and continue to implement
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for certain countries and customers both invoicing and payment in foreign currencies. Our primary exposure to movements in foreign currency exchange rates relates to non-U.S. dollar-denominated sales primarily in Europe and Australia, as well as our global operations, and non-U.S. dollar-denominated operating expenses and certain assets and liabilities. In addition, weaknesses in foreign currencies for U.S. dollar-denominated sales could adversely affect demand for our products. Conversely, a strengthening in foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar could increase foreign currency-denominated costs. As a result, we may attempt to renegotiate pricing of existing contracts or request payment to be made in U.S. dollars. We cannot be sure that our customers would agree to renegotiate along these lines. This could result in customers eventually terminating contracts with us or in our decision to terminate certain contracts, which would adversely affect our sales.

We established a hedging program after the IPO to hedge our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates as a response to the risk of changes in the value of foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities. We may enter into foreign currency forward contracts or other instruments. We expect that such foreign currency forward contracts will reduce, but will not eliminate, the impact of currency exchange rate movements. For example, we may not execute forward contracts in all currencies in which we conduct business. In addition, we may hedge to reduce the impact of volatile exchange rates on revenue, gross profit and operating profit for limited periods of time. However, the use of these hedging activities may only offset a portion of the adverse financial effect resulting from unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates.

Risks Related to Our Separation from NETGEAR

If the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, does not qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, NETGEAR, Arlo and Arlo stockholders could be subject to significant tax liabilities, and, in certain circumstances, we could be required to indemnify NETGEAR for material taxes and other related amounts pursuant to indemnification obligations under the tax matters agreement.

NETGEAR received an opinion from outside tax counsel regarding qualification of the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code. The opinion was based upon and relied on, among other things, certain facts and assumptions, as well as certain representations, statements and undertakings of NETGEAR and us, including those relating to the past and future conduct of NETGEAR and us. If any of these representations, statements or undertakings are, or become, incomplete or inaccurate, or if we or NETGEAR breach any of the respective covenants in any of the separation-related agreements, the opinion of the outside tax counsel could be invalid and the conclusions reached therein could be jeopardized.

Notwithstanding the opinion of the outside tax counsel, the IRS could determine on an audit that the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, should be taxable if it determines that any of the facts, assumptions, representations, statements or undertakings were incorrect or had been violated, or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinion. The opinion of counsel is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and we cannot assure that the IRS or a court would not assert a contrary position. NETGEAR has not requested, and does not intend to request, a ruling from the IRS with respect to the treatment of the Distribution or certain related transactions for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

The consolidated U.S federal income tax return for the calendar year 2018 that we filed with NETGEAR to report the Distribution together with certain related transactions is currently under audit by the IRS. If the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, were to fail to qualify as a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, in general, NETGEAR would recognize taxable gain as if it had sold our common stock in a taxable sale for its fair market value, and NETGEAR stockholders who receive shares of our common stock in the Distribution would be subject to tax as if they had received a taxable distribution equal to the fair market value of such shares.

We entered into the tax matters agreement with NETGEAR to indemnify NETGEAR for any taxes (and any related costs and other damages) resulting from the Separation and Distribution, and certain other related transactions, to
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the extent such amounts were to result from (i) an acquisition after the Distribution of all or a portion of our equity securities, whether by merger or otherwise (and regardless of whether we participated in or otherwise facilitated the acquisition), (ii) other actions or failures to act by us or (iii) any of the representations or undertakings contained in any of the Separation-related agreements or in the documents relating to the opinion of counsel being incorrect or violated. Any such indemnity obligations arising under the tax matters agreement could be material.

NETGEAR has agreed to indemnify us for certain liabilities. However, we cannot assure that the indemnity will be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that NETGEAR’s ability to satisfy its indemnification obligation will not be impaired in the future.

Pursuant to the master separation agreement entered into between us and NETGEAR and certain other agreements with NETGEAR, NETGEAR has agreed to indemnify us for certain liabilities. The master separation agreement provides for cross-indemnities principally designed to place financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of our business with us and financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of NETGEAR’s business with NETGEAR. Under the intellectual property rights cross-license agreement entered into between us and NETGEAR, each party, in its capacity as a licensee, indemnifies the other party, in its capacity as a licensor, as well as its directors, officers, agents, successors and subsidiaries against any losses suffered by such indemnified party as a result of the indemnifying party’s practice of the intellectual property licensed to such indemnifying party under the intellectual property rights cross-license agreement. Also, under the tax matters agreement entered into between us and NETGEAR, each party is liable for, and indemnifies the other party and its subsidiaries from and against any liability for, taxes that are allocated to such party under the tax matters agreement. In addition, we have agreed in the tax matters agreement that each party will generally be responsible for any taxes and related amounts imposed on us or NETGEAR as a result of the failure of the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) and certain other relevant provisions of the Code, to the extent that the failure to so qualify is attributable to actions, events or transactions relating to such party’s respective stock, assets or business, or a breach of the relevant representations or covenants made by that party in the tax matters agreement. The transition services agreement generally provides that the applicable service recipient indemnifies the applicable service provider for liabilities that such service provider incurs arising from the provision of services other than liabilities arising from such service provider’s gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct or material breach of the transition services agreement, and that the applicable service provider indemnifies the applicable service recipient for liabilities that such service recipient incurs arising from such service provider’s gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct or material breach of the transition services agreement. Pursuant to the registration rights agreement, we have agreed to indemnify NETGEAR and its subsidiaries that hold registrable securities (and their directors, officers, agents and, if applicable, each other person who controls such holder under Section 15 of the Securities Act) registering shares pursuant to the registration rights agreement against certain losses, expenses and liabilities under the Securities Act, common law or otherwise. NETGEAR and its subsidiaries that hold registrable securities similarly indemnify us but such indemnification will be limited to an amount equal to the net proceeds received by such holder under the sale of registrable securities giving rise to the indemnification obligation.

However, third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that NETGEAR has agreed to retain, and we cannot assure that an indemnity from NETGEAR will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that NETGEAR will be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations in the future. Even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from NETGEAR any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses. Each of these risks could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

We may change our dividend policy at any time.

Although we currently intend to retain future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business and therefore do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, our dividend policy may change at any time without notice to our stockholders. The declaration and amount of any future dividends to holders of our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors in accordance with applicable law and after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, current and anticipated cash needs, cash flows, impact on our effective tax rate, indebtedness, contractual obligations, legal requirements, and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will pay dividends at any rate or at all.

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of our common stock may depress the price of our common stock.

The market price of our common stock could decline significantly as a result of sales or other distributions of a large number of shares of our common stock in the market. The perception that these sales might occur could depress the market price of our common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, might also make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.

The 11,747,250 shares of our common stock sold in the IPO are freely tradable in the public market. On December 31, 2018, NETGEAR completed the Distribution to its stockholders of the 62,500,000 shares of Arlo common stock that it owned. As of December 31, 2020, we have 79,336,242 shares of common stock outstanding.

In the future, we may issue our securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The amount of shares of our common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of our common stock.

Any impairment of goodwill, other intangible assets, and long-lived assets could negatively impact our results of operations.

Under generally accepted accounting principles, we review our intangible assets and long-lived assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at least annually. Factors that may be considered when determining if the carrying value of our goodwill, other intangible assets and long-lived assets may not be recoverable include a significant decline in our expected future cash flows or a sustained, significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization.

If, in any period our stock price decreases to the point where the fair value of our assets (as partially indicated by our market capitalization) is less than our book value, this could indicate a potential impairment and we may be required to record an impairment charge in that period. Our valuation methodology for assessing impairment requires management to make judgments and assumptions based on projections of future operating performance. We operate in highly competitive environments and projections of future operating results and cash flows may vary significantly from actual results. As a result, we may incur substantial impairment charges to earnings in our financial statements should an impairment of our goodwill, other intangible assets and long-lived assets be determined resulting in an adverse impact on our results of operations. If there is a decline in the Company’s stock price based on market conditions and deterioration of the Company’s business, the Company may have to record a charge to its earnings for the associated goodwill impairment of up to $11.0 million.
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We are subject to securities class action and derivative litigation.

We are subject to various securities class action and derivative complaints, as more fully discussed in the heading under “Litigation and Other Legal Matters” in Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies, in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II of Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Regardless of the merits or ultimate results of the above-described litigation matters, they could result in substantial costs, which would hurt the Company's financial condition and results of operations and divert management’s attention and resources from our business. At this point, however, it is too early to reasonably estimate any financial impact to the Company resulting from these litigation matters.

Your percentage ownership in Arlo may be diluted in the future.

In the future, your percentage ownership in Arlo may be diluted because of equity awards that Arlo may grant to Arlo’s directors, officers, and employees or otherwise as a result of equity issuances for acquisitions or capital market transactions. In addition, following the Distribution, Arlo and NETGEAR employees hold awards in respect of shares of our common stock as a result of the conversion of certain NETGEAR stock awards (in whole or in part) to Arlo stock awards in connection with the Distribution. Such awards have a dilutive effect on Arlo’s earnings per share, which could adversely affect the market price of Arlo common stock. From time to time, Arlo will issue additional stock-based awards to its employees under Arlo’s employee benefits plans.

In addition, Arlo’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes Arlo to issue, without the approval of Arlo’s stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designation, powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional and other special rights, including preferences over Arlo’s common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as Arlo’s board of directors generally may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could dilute the voting power or reduce the value of our common stock. For example, Arlo could grant the holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of Arlo’s directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences that Arlo could assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the common stock.

We are an emerging growth company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common shares less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) December 31, 2023, (2) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (3) the last day of the fiscal year in which we become a large accelerated filer, which means that we have been public for at least 12 months, have filed at least one annual report and the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last day of our then most recently completed second fiscal quarter, or (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements.

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We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our share price may be more volatile.

Certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and of Delaware law may prevent or delay an acquisition of Arlo, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain, and Delaware law contains, provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the bidder and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include, among others:

the inability of our stockholders to call a special meeting;

the inability of our stockholders to act without a meeting of stockholders;

rules regarding how stockholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at stockholder meetings;

the right of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval;

the division of our board of directors into three classes of directors, with each class serving a staggered three-year term, and this classified board provision could have the effect of making the replacement of incumbent directors more time consuming and difficult;

a provision that stockholders may only remove directors with cause while the board of directors is classified; and

the ability of our directors, and not stockholders, to fill vacancies on our board of directors.
In addition, because we have not elected to be exempt from Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), this provision could also delay or prevent a change of control that you may favor. Section 203 provides that, subject to limited exceptions, persons that acquire, or are affiliated with a person that acquires, more than 15% of the outstanding voting stock of a Delaware corporation (an “interested stockholder”) shall not engage in any business combination with that corporation, including by merger, consolidation or acquisitions of additional shares, for a three-year period following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder, unless (i) prior to such time, the board of directors of such corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder; (ii) upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of such corporation at the time the transaction commenced (excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) the voting stock owned by directors who are also officers or held in employee benefit plans in which the employees do not have a confidential right to tender or vote stock held by the plan); or (iii) on or subsequent to such time the business combination is approved by the board of directors of such corporation and authorized at a meeting of stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock of such corporation not owned by the interested stockholder.

We believe these provisions will protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors and by providing our board of directors with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make Arlo immune from takeovers. However, these provisions will apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders and could delay or prevent
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an acquisition that our board of directors determines is not in the best interests of Arlo and its stockholders. These provisions may also prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains exclusive forum provisions that may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors and officers.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that unless the board of directors otherwise determines, the state courts in the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal court for the District of Delaware, will be the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of Arlo, any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer of Arlo to Arlo or Arlo’s stockholders, any action asserting a claim against Arlo or any director or officer of Arlo arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or Arlo’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against Arlo or any director or officer of Arlo governed by the internal affairs doctrine under Delaware law. This provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This may require significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions and there can be no assurance that the provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions. These exclusive forum provisions may limit the ability of Arlo’s stockholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum that such stockholders find favorable for disputes with Arlo or Arlo’s directors or officers, which may discourage such lawsuits against Arlo and Arlo’s directors and officers. Alternatively, if a court were to find one or more of these exclusive forum provisions inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings described above, Arlo may incur further significant additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions or forums, all of which could materially and adversely affect Arlo’s business, financial condition, or results of operations.

Our board of directors has the ability to issue blank check preferred stock, which may discourage or impede acquisition attempts or other transactions.

Our board of directors has the power, subject to applicable law, to issue series of preferred stock that could, depending on the terms of the series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. For instance, subject to applicable law, a series of preferred stock may impede a business combination by including class voting rights, which would enable the holder or holders of such series to block a proposed transaction. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue shares of preferred stock on its judgment as to our and our stockholders’ best interests. Our board of directors, in so acting, could issue shares of preferred stock having terms which could discourage an acquisition attempt or other transaction that some, or a majority, of the stockholders may believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders would have received a premium for their stock over the then prevailing market price of the stock.

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General Risks

The market price of our common stock could be volatile and is influenced by many factors, some of which are beyond our control.

The market price of our common stock could be volatile and is influenced by many factors, some of which are beyond our control, including those described above in “Risks Related to Our Business” and the following:

the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock or changes in financial estimates by analysts;

the inability to meet the financial estimates of securities analysts who follow our common stock or changes in earnings estimates by analysts;

strategic actions by us or our competitors;

announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint marketing relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other companies in our industry;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results and those of our competitors;

general economic and stock market conditions;

the public reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

risks related to our business and our industry, including those discussed above;

changes in conditions or trends in our industry, markets or customers;

the trading volume of our common stock;

future sales of our common stock or other securities; and

investor perceptions of the investment opportunity associated with our common stock relative to other investment alternatives.

In particular, the realization of any of the risks described in these “Risk Factors” could have a material adverse impact on the market price of our common stock in the future and cause the value of your investment to decline. In addition, the stock market in general has experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our common stock is low.

We incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management devotes substantial time to complying with public company regulations.

Prior to the Separation, we historically operated our business as a segment of a public company. As a standalone public company, we have additional legal, accounting, insurance, compliance, and other expenses that we had not incurred historically. We are obligated to file with the SEC annual and quarterly reports and other reports that are specified in Section 13 and other sections of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). We are also required to ensure that we have the ability to prepare financial statements that are fully compliant with all SEC reporting
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requirements on a timely basis. In addition, we are and will continue to become subject to other reporting and corporate governance requirements, including certain requirements of the NYSE, and certain provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley”) and the regulations promulgated thereunder, which will impose significant compliance obligations upon us.

Sarbanes-Oxley, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the NYSE, have imposed increased regulation and disclosure and required enhanced corporate governance practices of public companies. We are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, and our efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards in this regard are likely to result in increased selling and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. These changes will require a significant commitment of additional resources. We may not be successful in implementing these requirements and implementing them could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, if we fail to implement the requirements with respect to our internal accounting and audit functions, our ability to report our operating results on a timely and accurate basis could be impaired. If we do not implement such requirements in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we might be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC and the NYSE. Any such action could harm our reputation and the confidence of investors and customers in us and could materially adversely affect our business and cause our share price to fall.

Failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and stock price.

As a public company, we are required to document and test our internal control procedures in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley (“Section 404”), which will require annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning with our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. Upon loss of status as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”), an annual report by our independent registered public accounting firm that addresses the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting will be required. During the course of our testing, we may identify deficiencies which we may not be able to remediate in time to meet our deadline for compliance with Section 404. Testing and maintaining internal control can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. We also expect the regulations under Sarbanes-Oxley to increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified officers and members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee, and make some activities more difficult, time consuming, and costly. We may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over our financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 or our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able or willing to issue an unqualified report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective, we cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing and remediation actions or their effect on our operations because there is presently no precedent available by which to measure compliance adequacy. If either we are unable to conclude that we have effective internal control over our financial reporting or our independent auditors are unable to provide us with an unqualified report as required by Section 404, then investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our stock.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock, or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research, reports and recommendations that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrades our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

We are a global company with dual corporate headquarters located in San Jose, California and Carlsbad, California. Effective June 2018, we entered into a lease agreement for our San Jose corporate headquarters for approximately 77,800 square feet of office space, which expires in June 2029. Effective December 1, 2018, we entered into a lease for Carlsbad headquarters for approximately 63,500 square feet of office space, which expires in November 2024. Until December 31, 2018, we shared office space with NETGEAR in NETGEAR’s San Jose and Carlsbad headquarters and paid NETGEAR a fee in connection with such use.

Our international headquarters occupy approximately 5,000 square feet in an office complex in Cork, Ireland, under a lease that expires in December 2026. During fiscal 2020, our international sales personnel are based out of local sales offices or home offices in Australia and Canada. Our operations personnel use leased facilities in Hong Kong. We maintain our marketing and research and development facilities in San Jose (the United States), Irvine (the United States), Carlsbad (the United States), Richmond (Canada) and Taipei (Taiwan). In addition, we use third parties to provide warehousing services to us, consisting of facilities in Southern California, Texas, Tennessee, Mexico and Hong Kong.

We believe that the facilities described above are suitable and adequate for our present purposes and that the productive capacity in our facilities is substantially being utilized or we have plans to utilize it. Beginning in March 2020, our employees across all geographic regions have shifted to working from home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our focus remains on promoting employee health and safety as we carefully evaluate reopening plans and timelines. As of December 31, 2020, we have not terminated any significant lease arrangements. We believe our facilities are adequate for the conduct of our business should we decide to reopen our facilities in the next twelve months.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The information set forth under the heading “Litigation and Other Legal Matters” in Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies, in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, is incorporated herein by reference. For additional discussion of certain risks associated with legal proceedings, see Item 1A, Risk Factors.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “ARLO”.

Holders of Common Stock

On February 19, 2021, we had 8 stockholders of record of our common stock. The number of record holders is based upon the actual number of holders registered on our books at such date and does not include holders of shares in “street names” or persons, partnerships, associations, corporations or other entities identified in security position listings maintained by depository trust companies.

Dividends

We have not historically declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Sales of Unregistered Securities and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we did not sell any unregistered securities.

Stock Performance Graph

Notwithstanding any statement to the contrary in any of our previous or future filings with the SEC, the following information relating to the price performance of our common stock shall not be deemed “filed” with the SEC or “soliciting material” under the Exchange Act and shall not be incorporated by reference into any such filings.

The following graph shows a comparison from August 3, 2018 through December 31, 2020 of cumulative total return for our common stock, the NYSE Composite Index, the Standard and Poor’s 600 Information Technology Index, (“S&P 600 Information Technology Index”) and the Standard and Poor’s Small Cap 600 Index (“S&P Small Cap 600 Index”). The measurement points in the graph below are August 3, 2018 (the first trading day of our common stock on the NYSE) and the last trading day of each fiscal quarter through the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in Arlo common stock at the closing price of $22.10 on August 3, 2018 and in the NYSE Composite Index, the S&P 600 Information Technology Index, and the S&P Small Cap 600 Index on August 3, 2018, and assumes reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance shown in the following graph is not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future stock price performance.
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following selected consolidated financial data are qualified in their entirety, and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto, and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The consolidated statements of operations data for each of the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. The consolidated statements of income data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, except as otherwise noted, that are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for future periods.

The full years of 2016 and 2017 and first quarter and second quarter of 2018, are based on carve-out financials and reflect the transactions which are directly attributable to Arlo and certain allocated costs, whereas third quarter and fourth quarter of 2018 and fiscal years of 2019 and 2020 are based on our actual results for the periods as a standalone public company.

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data
 Year Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
(In thousands, except per share data)
Revenue (1)
$357,154 $370,007 $464,918 $370,658 $184,604 
Cost of revenue (2)
301,765 334,203 372,843 279,424 146,570 
Gross profit55,389 35,804 92,075 91,234 38,034 
Operating expenses:
Research and development (2)
60,137 69,384 58,794 34,683 24,438 
Sales and marketing (2)
49,064 56,985 52,593 34,340 18,455 
General and administrative (2)
51,096 47,624 28,209 15,096 8,289 
Separation expense248 1,913 27,252 1,384 — 
Gain on sale of business (3)
(292)(54,881)— — — 
Total operating expenses160,253 121,025 166,848 85,503 51,182 
Income (loss) from operations(104,864)(85,221)(74,773)5,731 (13,148)
Interest income802 2,737 1,239 — — 
Other income (expense), net3,436 913 (1,177)1,946 (512)
Income (loss) before income taxes(100,626)(81,571)(74,711)7,677 (13,660)
Provision for income taxes625 4,380 772 1,128 83 
Net income (loss)$(101,251)$(85,951)$(75,483)$6,549 $(13,743)
Net income (loss) per share:
Basic (4)
$(1.30)$(1.14)$(1.12)$0.11 $(0.22)
Diluted (4)
$(1.30)$(1.14)$(1.12)$0.11 $(0.22)
_________________________
(1)    On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (Topic 606) (“ASC 606”) and applied this guidance to those contracts which were not completed at the date of adoption using the modified retrospective method. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods (“ASC 605”). The Company recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying ASC 606 as an adjustment to the opening balance of Net parent investment.
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(2)     Stock-based compensation expense was allocated as follows:
 Year Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
TotalTotalDirectIndirectTotalDirectIndirectTotalDirectIndirectTotal
(In thousands)
Cost of revenue$2,961 $2,013 $608 $583 $1,191 $102 $599 $701 $61 $266 $327 
Research and development9,055 6,868 3,078 396 3,474 1,959 455 2,414 1,349 195 1,544 
Sales and marketing4,106 3,859 1,992 969 2,961 390 866 1,256 110 407 517 
General and administrative19,125 10,154 3,153 2,100 5,253 — 2,547 2,547 — 1,216 1,216 
Total$35,247 $22,894 $8,831 $4,048 $12,879 $2,451 $4,467 $6,918 $1,520 $2,084 $3,604 

(3)    Relates to the sale of our commercial operations in Europe in the fourth quarter of 2019. Refer to Note 4, Disposal of Business, in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a complete discussion of this disposal.

(4) Information regarding calculation of per share data is described in Note 14, Net Income (Loss) Per Share, in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:
 As of December 31,
20202019201820172016
(In thousands)
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments (1)
$206,124 $256,670 $201,027 $108 $220 
Working capital$119,202 $175,668 $233,484 $112,878 $54,967 
Total assets (2)
$413,968 $542,712 $595,946 $269,820 $158,581 
Deferred revenue (current and non-current)$69,705 $66,098 $49,991 $47,404 $23,393 
Non-current operating lease liabilities (2)
$25,029 $29,001 $— $— $— 
Non-current financing lease obligation (3)
$— $— $19,978 $— $— 
Total liabilities$280,201 $339,336 $326,444 $144,401 $85,407 
Stockholders’ equity$133,767 $203,376 $269,502 $125,419 $73,174 
_________________________
(1)    In fiscal year 2018, reflects $70.9 million in cash contributed by NETGEAR prior to the completion of the IPO in 2018, and the net proceeds of $173.4 million raised from the IPO, net of the portion of the offering cost paid by Arlo, which portion was $1.4 million. Our total offering cost is $4.6 million, of which $3.2 million was paid by NETGEAR. In fiscal year 2019, reflects $75.2 million from Verisure related to sale of the Company's commercial operations in Europe, an advance payment for product purchases, and NRE services under the Supply Agreement.

(2)    On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-12, "Leases" (Topic 842) and applied this guidance utilizing the modified retrospective transition method through a cumulative-effect adjustment at the beginning of the first fiscal quarter of 2019. Refer to Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information about our leases.

(3)    The Company was deemed to be the accounting owner of its build-to-suit lease arrangement for its San Jose corporate headquarters and the construction was in progress at adoption date. As such, the Company reevaluated its build-to-suit lease arrangement under ASU 2016-02 to ascertain whether it meets the criteria as the accounting owner of the build-to-suit lease arrangement through control of the underlying leased asset. The Company concluded that it did not have control over the underlying leased asset. As a result, the Company de-recognized the build to suit asset and liability as of January 1, 2019.
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations together with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes to the financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements are not historical facts, but rather are based on current expectations, estimates, assumptions and projections about our industry, business and future financial results. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those discussed under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A above.

Business and Executive Overview

Arlo combines an intelligent cloud infrastructure and mobile app with a variety of smart connected devices that is transforming the way people experience the connected lifestyle. Arlo’s deep expertise in product design, wireless connectivity, cloud infrastructure and cutting-edge AI capabilities focuses on delivering a seamless, smart home experience for Arlo users that is easy to setup and interact with every day. Our cloud-based platform provides users with visibility, insight and a powerful means to help protect and connect in real-time with the people and things that matter most, from any location with a Wi-Fi or a cellular connection. Since the launch of our first product in December 2014, we have shipped over 19.2 million smart connected devices, and as of December 31, 2020, our smart platform had approximately 5.0 million cumulative registered accounts across more than 100 countries around the world.

We conduct business across three geographic regions-the Americas; Europe, Middle-East and Africa (“EMEA”); and Asia Pacific (“APAC”) and we primarily generate revenue by selling devices through retail, wholesale distribution, wireless carrier channels, security solution providers, Arlo's direct to consumer store and paid subscription services. International revenue was 28.4%, 26.6% and 22.6% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, we generated revenue of $357.2 million, $370.0 million and $464.9 million, respectively. Loss from operations was $104.9 million, $85.2 million, $74.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Income (loss) from operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 included separation expense of $0.2 million, $1.9 million and $27.3 million, respectively. Income (loss) from operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 included gain on sale of business of $0.3 million and $54.9 million, respectively.

Our goal is to continue to develop innovative, world-class connected lifestyle solutions to expand and further monetize our current and future user and subscriber bases. We believe that the growth of our business is dependent on many factors, including our ability to innovate and launch successful new products on a timely basis and grow our installed base, to increase subscription-based recurring revenue, to invest in brand awareness and channel partnerships and to continue our global expansion. We expect to maintain our investment in research and development going forward as we continue to introduce new and innovative products and services to enhance the Arlo platform.
Key Business Metrics

In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements, we use the following key metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, develop financial forecasts and make strategic decisions. In 2019, management’s incentive compensation was partially determined using certain of these key business metrics. We believe these key business metrics provide useful information by offering the ability to make more meaningful period-to-period comparisons of our on-going operating results and a better understanding of how management plans and measures our underlying business. Our key business metrics may be calculated in a manner different from the same key business metrics used by other companies. We regularly review our processes for calculating these metrics, and from time to time we may discover inaccuracies in our metrics or make adjustments to better reflect our business or to improve their accuracy,
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including adjustments that may result in the recalculation of our historical metrics. We believe that any such inaccuracies or adjustments are immaterial unless otherwise stated.
Year Ended As of and for the Year Ended December 31,
2020% Change2019% Change2018
(In thousands, except percentage data)
Cumulative registered accounts5,047 25.7 %4,015 40.9 %2,850 
Cumulative paid accounts435 89.1 %230 59.7 %144 

Cumulative Registered Accounts. We believe that our ability to increase our user base is an indicator of our market penetration and growth of our business as we continue to expand and innovate our Arlo platform. We define our registered accounts at the end of a particular period as the number of unique registered accounts on the Arlo platform as of the end of such particular period. The number of registered accounts does not necessarily reflect the number of end-users on the Arlo platform, as one registered account may be used by multiple people. We changed our definition from registered users to registered accounts starting in the fourth quarter of 2019 due to the Verisure transaction. Verisure will own the registered accounts but we will continue to provide services to these European customers under the Verisure Agreements.

Cumulative Paid Accounts. Paid accounts worldwide measured as any account where a subscription to a paid service is being collected (either by the Company or by the Company’s customers or channel partners), plus paid service plans of a duration of more than 3 months bundled with products (such bundles being counted as a paid account after 90 days have elapsed from the date of registration). In the fourth quarter of 2019, we redefined paid subscribers as paid accounts to include customers that were transferred to Verisure as part of the disposal of our commercial operations in Europe because we will continue to provide services to these European customers and receive payments associated with them, under the Verisure Agreements.

Impact of COVID-19

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced that COVID-19, a respiratory illness, caused by a novel coronavirus, is a pandemic. COVID-19 has spread to many of the countries in which we, our customers, our suppliers and our other business partners conduct business. Governments in affected regions have implemented, and may continue to implement, safety precautions which include quarantines, travel restrictions, business closures, cancellations of public gatherings and other measures as they deem necessary. Many organizations and individuals, including the Company and its employees are taking additional steps to avoid or reduce infection, including limiting travel and staying home from work. These measures are disrupting normal business operations both in and outside of affected areas and have had significant negative impacts on businesses and financial markets worldwide. We anticipate that our financial results could be adversely impacted due to:

temporary closure or decrease in foot traffic to our major customers' retail stores and shift of focus to essential goods distribution;
disruption to our supply chain caused by delayed delivery of components from our third-party manufacturers and other suppliers located in regions affected by COVID-19;

deferment of customer spending due to economic uncertainty;

decreased productivity due to travel bans, work-from-home policies or shelter in place orders; and

a slow-down in the global economy or a credit crisis.

The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic started to affect our product shipments in the second quarter of 2020 due to our major customers' retail stores facing temporary closures and decreases in foot traffic, certain of our customers shifting focus to essential goods distribution, and other uncertainties caused by the pandemic. The decline in product shipments continued throughout the fourth quarter of 2020. As of December 31, 2020, Americas retail channel inventory
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declined compared to December 31, 2019 due to lower inventory holding by our Retail Channel customers during the pandemic. This has contributed to a 6.8% decline in net revenue in the Americas, compared to the prior year. In addition, international freight capacity has dropped, causing air and ocean freight rates to materially increase. Furthermore, transit times have also increased. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we saw a 56% increase in freight-in expense compared to the prior year, as a result of the higher sea and airfreight rates.

While this is expected to be temporary, the current circumstances are dynamic and the future impacts of COVID-19 on our business operations, including their duration and impact on overall customer demand, cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. Our priorities and actions during the COVID-19 pandemic are focused on protecting the health and safety of all those we serve, our employees, our customers, our suppliers and our communities, including implementing early and continuous updates to our health and safety policies and processes. We have successfully migrated all but a limited number of our global workforce to work remotely while local and state governments have imposed shelter-in-place orders in the United States and around the world. We are focused on providing our team with the resources that they need to meet the needs of our customers and deliver new innovations to the markets we serve, despite challenges introduced by the COVID-19 pandemic. We continue to work with our suppliers to address any supply chain disruptions, which might include larger component backlogs, travel restrictions and logistics changes that can impact our operations. For example, increased demand for electronics as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, effects of the U.S. trade war with China, increased demand for chips in the automotive industry and certain other factors have led to a global shortage of semiconductors. Due to such shortage, starting in the fourth quarter of 2020 we started to experience component shortages, including longer lead times for components, and supply constraints, which we expect to continue into 2021. Such shortages and constraints are affecting our ability to meet scheduled product deliveries and worldwide demand for our products in the first quarter of 2021 and potentially beyond. As a result, we could experience material charges from potential adjustments of the carrying value of our inventories and trade receivables, impairment charges on our long-lived assets, intangible assets and goodwill, and changes in the effectiveness of the Company’s hedging instruments, among others. We also anticipate that COVID-19 could continue to reduce our revenues and increase product and service costs and operating expenses for fiscal year 2021.

We are focused on navigating these recent challenges presented by COVID-19 through preserving our liquidity and managing our cash flow through taking preemptive action to enhance our ability to meet our short-term liquidity needs. These actions include, but are not limited to, proactively managing working capital by closely monitoring customers' credit and collections, renegotiating payment terms with third-party manufacturers and key suppliers, closely monitoring inventory levels and purchases against forecasted demand, reducing or eliminating non-essential spending, and deferment of hiring. We continue to monitor this rapidly developing situation and may, as necessary, reduce expenditures further, borrow under our revolving credit facility, or pursue other sources of capital that may include other forms of external financing in order to maintain our cash position and preserve financial flexibility in response to the uncertainty in the United States and global markets resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Comparability of Historical Results

Through July 1, 2018, the operating results of Arlo had historically been disclosed as a reportable segment within the consolidated financial statements of NETGEAR, enabling the identification of directly attributable transactional information, functional departments, and headcount. Revenue and Cost of revenue, with the exception of channel sales incentives, were derived from transactional information specific to Arlo products and services. Directly attributable operating expenses were derived from activities relating to Arlo functional departments and headcount. Arlo employees also historically participated in NETGEAR’s stock-based incentive plans, in the form of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), stock options, and purchase rights issued pursuant to NETGEAR’s employee stock purchase plan. Stock-based compensation expense has been either directly reported by or allocated to Arlo based on the awards and terms previously granted to NETGEAR’s employees.

The consolidated statements of operations of the Company as presented for the year ended 2018 reflect the directly attributable transactional information specific to Arlo and certain additional allocated costs through July 1, 2018. The allocated costs for corporate functions included, but were not limited to, allocations of general corporate expenses
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from NETGEAR including expenses related to corporate services, such as executive management, information technology, legal, finance and accounting, human resources, tax, treasury, research and development, sales and marketing, shared facilities and other shared services. These costs were allocated based on revenue, headcount, or other measures the Company has determined as reasonable. Following July 1, 2018, the consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries.

The amount of these allocations from NETGEAR reflected within operating expenses in the consolidated statements of operations was $30.6 million from January 1, 2018 to the date of the completion of the IPO, which included $9.4 million for research and development, $10.0 million for sales and marketing, and $11.2 million for general and administrative expense.

The management of Arlo believes the assumptions underlying the consolidated financial statements, including the assumptions regarding the allocated expenses, reasonably reflect the utilization of services provided, or the benefit received by Arlo during the periods presented. Nevertheless, the consolidated financial statements may not be indicative of Arlo’s future performance and do not necessarily reflect Arlo’s results of operations, financial position, and cash flows had Arlo been a standalone company during the period presented.

Components of Our Operating Results

Revenue

Our gross revenue consists primarily of sales of devices, prepaid and paid subscription service revenue and NRE service revenue from Verisure. We generally recognize revenue from product sales at the time the product is shipped and transfer of control from us to the customer occurs. Our First generation camera products under our old business model come with a prepaid service that provides users with rolling seven-day cloud video storage, the ability to connect up to five cameras and 90 days of customer support. Our second generation camera, doorbell and floodlight products under our new business model come with a prepaid service that includes a one-year free trial period of Arlo Smart bundled with our Arlo Ultra products launched in early 2019, and a three-month free trial period of Arlo Smart bundled with our products launched after September 2019. Upon device shipment, we attribute a portion of the sales price to the prepaid service, deferring this revenue at the outset and subsequently recognizing it ratably over the estimated useful life of the device or free trial period, as applicable. Our paid subscription services relate to sales of subscription plans to our registered accounts. Our services also include certain development services provided to Verisure under a NRE arrangement as part of the disposal of our commercial operations in Europe in the fourth quarter of 2019. Refer to Note 4, Disposal of Business, in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a complete discussion of the NRE arrangement.

Our revenue consists of gross revenue, less end-user customer rebates and other channel sales incentives deemed to be a reduction of revenue per the authoritative guidance for revenue recognition, allowances for estimated sales returns, price protection, and net changes in deferred revenue. A significant portion of our marketing expenditure is with customers and is deemed to be a reduction of revenue under authoritative guidance for revenue recognition.

Under the Supply Agreement, Verisure became the exclusive distributor of our products in Europe for all channels, and will non-exclusively distribute our products through its direct channels globally. We expect that our revenue and profitability in Europe will improve over the lifetime of the Supply Agreement. Refer to Note 4, Disposal of Business, in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a complete discussion of the Supply Agreement.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists of both product costs and costs of service. Product costs primarily consist of: the cost of finished products from our third-party manufacturers; overhead costs, including purchasing, product planning, inventory control, warehousing and distribution logistics, third-party software licensing fees, inbound freight, IT and facilities overhead, warranty costs associated with returned goods, write-downs for excess and obsolete inventory, royalties to third
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parties; and amortization expense of certain acquired intangibles. Cost of service consists of costs attributable to the provision and maintenance of our cloud-based platform, including personnel, storage, security and computing, as well as NRE service costs incurred under the Verisure NRE arrangement.

Our cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue can vary based upon a number of factors, including those that may affect our revenue set forth above and factors that may affect our cost of revenue, including, without limitation: product mix, sales channel mix, registered accounts' acceptance of paid subscription service offerings, fluctuation in foreign exchange rates and changes in our cost of goods sold due to fluctuations in prices paid for components, net of vendor rebates, cloud platform costs, warranty and overhead costs, inbound freight and duty product conversion costs, charges for excess or obsolete inventory, and amortization of acquired intangibles. We outsource our manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution logistics. We also outsource certain components of the required infrastructure to support our cloud-based back-end IT infrastructure. We believe this outsourcing strategy allows us to better manage our product and services costs and gross margin.

Research and Development

Research and development expense consists primarily of personnel-related expense, safety, security, regulatory services and testing, other research and development consulting fees, and IT and facilities overhead. We recognize research and development expense as it is incurred. We have invested in and expanded our research and development organization to enhance our ability to introduce innovative products and services. We believe that innovation and technological leadership are critical to our future success, and we are committed to continuing a significant level of research and development to develop new technologies, products, and services, including our hardware devices, cloud-based software, AI-based algorithms, and machine learning capabilities. We expect research and development expense to stay relatively flat in absolute dollars for fiscal 2021 as we manage our expenses while continuing to develop new product and service offerings to support the connected lifestyle market.

Sales and Marketing

Sales and marketing expense consists primarily of personnel expense for sales and marketing staff; technical support expense; advertising; trade shows; corporate communications and other marketing expense; product marketing expense; IT and facilities overhead; and outbound freight costs. We expect our sales and marketing expense to fluctuate for the foreseeable future based on the seasonality of our business, the growth of our direct to consumer store, and the extent to which we invest in marketing to drive awareness of our brand and drive demand for our products.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel-related expense for certain executives, finance and accounting, investor relations, human resources, legal, information technology, professional fees, IT and facilities overhead, strategic initiative expense, and other general corporate expense. We expect our general and administrative expense to stay relatively flat in absolute dollars. However, we also expect our general and administrative expense to fluctuate as a percentage of our revenue in future periods based on fluctuations in our revenue and the timing of such expense.

Separation Expense

Separation expense consists primarily of costs associated with our separation from NETGEAR, including third-party advisory, consulting, legal and professional services for separation matters including IPO-related litigation, IT-related expenses directly related to our separation from NETGEAR, and other items that are incremental and one-time in nature. To operate as a standalone company, we have incurred separation costs of $0.2 million, $1.9 million and $27.3 million during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, to replicate certain services previously provided by NETGEAR. The significant reduction during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was as a result of the substantial completion of our Separation from NETGEAR on December 31, 2018.
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Gain on sale of business

Gain on sale of business represents the gain on sale of the Company's commercial operations in Europe in the fourth quarter of 2019.

Interest Income
Interest income represents interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments. We expect our interest income in absolute dollars to decrease as we use up our short-term investments and cash and cash equivalents to fund our operations, while interest rates have also declined.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net primarily represents gains and losses on transactions denominated in foreign currencies, foreign currency contract gain (loss), net, and other miscellaneous income and expense. We have also included any reimbursement for the Verisure TSA in Other income.

Income Taxes

We record our provision for income taxes in our consolidated financial statements using the asset and liability method. Under this method, we recognize income tax liabilities or receivable for the current year. We also recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, as well as for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates that are expected to apply to taxable income for the years in which those tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the net amount that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. Our assessment considers the recognition of deferred tax assets on a jurisdictional basis. Accordingly, in assessing our future taxable income on a jurisdictional basis, we consider the effect of its transfer pricing policies on that income. We have placed a valuation allowance against U.S. federal and state deferred tax assets and certain foreign tax attribute carryforwards since we do not anticipate to realize the benefits of deferred tax assets.

We recognize tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if we believe that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. As we expand internationally, we will face increased complexity in determining the appropriate tax jurisdictions for revenue and expense items. Our policy is to adjust these unrecognized tax benefits in the period when facts and circumstances change, such as the closing of a tax audit, the expiration of statute of limitation for a relevant taxing authority to examine a tax position, or when additional information becomes available. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will affect the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made and could have a material impact on our financial condition and operating results. The provision for income taxes includes the effects of any accruals that we believe are appropriate, as well as the related interest and penalties.

The Tax Cut and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Act") introduced the global intangible low-taxed income (“GILTI”) provisions effective in 2018, which generally impose a tax on the net income earned by foreign subsidiaries of U.S company in excess of a deemed return on their tangible assets. We recognize the tax on GILTI as a period cost when the tax is incurred.

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Results of Operations

We operate as one operating and reportable segment. The following table sets forth, for the periods presented, the consolidated statements of operations data, which we derived from the accompanying consolidated financial statements:
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Revenue:
Products$284,868 79.8 %$323,242 87.4 %$427,113 91.9 %
Services72,286 20.2 %46,765 12.6 %37,805 8.1 %
Total revenue357,154 100.0 %370,007 100.0 %464,918 100.0 %
Cost of revenue:
Products263,905 73.9 %307,348 83.1 %354,023 76.1 %
Services37,860 10.6 %26,855 7.3 %18,820 4.0 %
Total cost of revenue301,765 84.5 %334,203 90.3 %372,843 80.2 %
Gross profit55,389 15.5 %35,804 9.7 %92,075 19.8 %
Operating expenses:
Research and development60,137 16.8 %69,384 18.8 %58,794 12.6 %
Sales and marketing49,064 13.7 %56,985 15.4 %52,593 11.3 %
General and administrative51,096 14.3 %47,624 12.9 %28,209 6.1 %
Separation expense248 0.1 %1,913 0.5 %27,252 5.9 %
Gain on sale of business(292)(0.1)%(54,881)(14.8)%— — %
Total operating expenses160,253 44.9 %121,025 32.7 %166,848 35.9 %
Loss from operations(104,864)(29.4)%(85,221)(23.0)%(74,773)(16.1)%
Interest income802 0.2 %2,737 0.7 %1,239 0.3 %
Other income (expense), net3,436 1.1 %913 0.2 %(1,177)(0.3)%
Loss before income taxes(100,626)(28.1)%(81,571)(22.0)%(74,711)(16.1)%
Provision for income taxes625 0.2 %4,380 1.2 %772 0.1 %
Net loss$(101,251)(28.3)%$(85,951)(23.2)%$(75,483)(16.2)%

Revenue

We conduct business across three geographic regions: Americas, EMEA, and APAC. We generally base revenue by geography on the ship-to location of the customer for device sales and device location for service sales.
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Americas$269,395 (6.8)%$289,160 (23.3)%$376,805 
Percentage of revenue75.4 %78.1 %81.0 %
EMEA$61,832 8.0 %$57,232 (12.6)%$65,462 
Percentage of revenue17.3 %15.5 %14.1 %
APAC$25,927 9.8 %$23,615 4.3 %$22,651 
Percentage of revenue7.3 %6.4 %4.9 %
Total revenue$357,154 (3.5)%$370,007 (20.4)%$464,918 

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Revenue decreased 3.5% across all geographic regions for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year. The decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in product shipments as a result of disruption to our sales channels due to the COVID-19 pandemic and a slowdown in our customer demand for connected cameras, partially offset by an increase in service revenue and less provisions for sales returns, price protection and marketing expenditures that are deemed to be a reduction of revenue. Service revenue increased by $25.5 million, or 54.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year, due to increased paid accounts and recognition of NRE and other incremental service revenue from Verisure in the fiscal year 2020.

Revenue decreased 20.4% across all geographic regions for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the prior year. The decrease was primarily driven by a slowdown in our customer demand for connected cameras, increased competition, higher marketing expenditures deemed to be a reduction of revenues, increased provisions for price protection that are deemed to be a reduction of revenue, offset by higher service revenue. We launched Arlo Ultra, with 4K video resolution capability, in the first fiscal quarter of 2019, Arlo Pro 3, with 2K video resolution capability, in the third fiscal quarter of 2019 and Arlo Video Doorbell with 180 degree viewing angle, in the fourth quarter of 2019. Service revenue increased by $9.0 million, or 23.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the prior year, as our paid subscribers increased compared to the prior year.

Cost of Revenue     

The following table presents cost of revenue for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Cost of revenue:
Products$263,905 (14.1)%$307,348 (13.2)%$354,023 
Services37,860 41.0 %26,855 42.7 %18,820 
Total cost of revenue$301,765 (9.7)%$334,203 (10.4)%$372,843 

Cost of products revenue decreased for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily due to the decrease in product revenue and overhead costs, partially offset by higher excess and obsolete inventory provision compared to the prior year. The increase in excess and obsolete inventory provision reflects lower expected future demand for certain older product lines for the fiscal year 2020 as we transition to newer technologies. The increase in cost of services revenue is in line with the service revenue growth and due to our continued investment in our cloud service offerings to improve our customer experience and to enhance our security profile, as well as Verisure NRE service costs, offset by cost optimizations implemented during the year.

Cost of products revenue decreased for the year ended December 31, 2019, due primarily to a decline in product revenue compared to the prior year. Cost of services revenue increased for the year ended December 31, 2019, in line with the service revenue growth and due to our continued investment in our cloud service offerings to improve our customer experience and to enhance our security profile, offset by cost optimizations implemented during the year.

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Gross Margin

The following table presents gross margin for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Gross profit:
Products$20,963 31.9 %$15,894 (78.3)%$73,090 
Services34,426 72.9 %19,910 4.9 %18,985 
Total gross profit$55,389 54.7 %$35,804 (61.1)%$92,075 
Gross profit percentage:
Products7.4 %4.9 %17.1 %
Services47.6 %42.6 %50.2 %
Total gross profit percentage15.5 %9.7 %19.8 %

Gross margin increased for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year, due to a combination of both product and service margin increases. The product margin increase is primarily due to decreased provisions for price protection and marketing expenditures that are deemed to be reductions of revenue and decreased product overhead, partially offset by higher excess and obsolete inventory provision. Service margin increased for year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the prior year, primarily due to an increase in paid service revenue and cost optimizations implemented.

Gross margin decreased for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the prior year, due to a combination of both product and service margin declines. The product margin decline is primarily due to increased marketing expenditures deemed to be a reduction of revenues, increased provisions for price protection that are deemed to be reductions of revenue, increased warranty costs, product overhead and freight-related costs, offset by less charges for excess or obsolete inventory. Service margin decreased for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the prior year, primarily due to higher service cost growth which included the cost of the free 3-month and 12-month trials of Arlo Smart included in our new product offerings in fiscal 2019.

Operating Expenses

The first and second quarters of 2018, are based on carve-out financials and reflect the transactions which are directly attributable to Arlo and certain allocated costs, whereas third quarter and fourth quarter of 2018 and full years of 2019 and 2020 are based on our actual results for the periods as a standalone public company.

Research and Development 

The following table presents research and development expense for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Research and development expense$60,137 (13.3)%$69,384 18.0 %$58,794 

Research and development expense decreased for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year, due to decreases of $2.6 million in personnel-related expenses primarily as a result of the reduction in force implemented in the last quarter of 2019, and $4.1 million in IT and facility overhead, partially offset by an increase of $2.0 million in expenses related to outside professional services. Also contributing to the reduction in Research and development expense, various research and development expenses amounting to $4.1 million were attributed to the Verisure NRE arrangement, and are classified as cost of service revenue in fiscal year 2020.

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Research and development expense increased for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the prior year due to increases of $2.5 million in personnel-related expenses and $8.3 million in IT and facilities overhead. The increased expenditures on personnel-related expense and engineering projects were due to continuous investment in strategic focus areas, principally the expansion of our Arlo product and service offerings and the growth of our cloud platform capabilities. The increase in IT and facilities overhead is due to the fact that starting in late 2018 Arlo moved to separate facilities globally and for the full year of 2019 Arlo maintained its own facilities and IT infrastructures and systems globally as a standalone public company.

Sales and Marketing
 
The following table presents sales and marketing expense for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Sales and marketing expense$49,064 (13.9)%$56,985 8.4 %$52,593 

Sales and marketing expense decreased for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year, primarily due to decreases in personnel-related expenses of $5.5 million, outside professional services of $2.1 million, and IT and facility overhead of $2.1 million, partially offset by an increase in credit card processing fees of $1.0 million driven by the growth in sales from Arlo's direct to consumer store and paid accounts service revenue. The decreases are as a result of a general reduction of headcount within sales and marketing as well as the transfer of our European sales and marketing team to Verisure on December 30, 2019, coupled with a reduction in travel related expense as a result of COVID-19 restrictions.

Sales and marketing expense increased for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the prior year, primarily due to an increase in outside professional services of $2.0 million, IT and facilities overhead of $2.7 million, and personnel-related expenses of $1.2 million. The increases were partially offset by a decrease of $1.5 million in expenses related to NETGEAR Transition Service Agreement ("TSA"). The increase in IT and facilities overhead is due to the fact that starting in late 2018 Arlo moved to separate facilities globally and for the whole of 2019 Arlo maintained its own facilities and IT infrastructures and systems globally as a standalone public company.

General and Administrative

The following table presents general and administrative expense for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
General and administrative expense$51,096 7.3 %$47,624 68.8 %$28,209 

General and administrative expense increased for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year, primarily due to higher personnel-related expenditures of $7.8 million, partially offset by decreases of $2.2 million in legal and professional services and $1.1 million of transaction costs related to the disposal of our commercial operations in Europe in the fourth quarter of 2019. The increase in personnel-related expenditures were mainly driven by the $7.4 million stock-based compensation expense recognized for the voluntary forfeiture of certain options by our Chief Executive Officer in January 2020, partially offset by the reversal of the previously recognized stock-based compensation expense amounting to $1.2 million of unvested options and restricted stock units upon the separation of our former Chief Financial Officer in June 2020.

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General and administrative expense increased for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the prior year, primarily due to higher IT and facilities overhead of $9.7 million, higher personnel-related expenditures of $6.0 million, higher legal and professional services of $5.3 million, and transaction costs of $1.9 million related to the disposal of our commercial operations in Europe, partially offset by $4.2 million decrease in NETGEAR TSA related expenses. The increase in general and administrative expense was driven by the increase in related IT and facilities overhead due to the fact that starting in late 2018 Arlo moved to separate facilities globally and for the whole of 2019 Arlo maintained its own facilities and IT infrastructures and systems globally, increased customary public company costs, including outside legal and audit fees, insurance and other costs as our company became a standalone public company since August 2018.

Separation Expense

The following table presents separation expense for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Separation expense$248 (87.0)%$1,913 **$27,252 
**Percentage change not meaningful.
Separation expense consists primarily of charges for third-party advisory, consulting, legal and professional services, IT-related expenses, and other items that are incremental and one-time in nature related to our separation from NETGEAR. To operate as a standalone company, we have incurred separation costs. The significant reduction for fiscal years of 2020 and 2019 was as a result of the substantial completion of our Separation from NETGEAR effective December 31, 2018.

Gain on sale of business
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Gain on sale of business$(292)**$(54,881)**$— 
**Percentage change not meaningful.

In the fourth quarter of 2019, we sold our commercial operations in Europe which resulted in a gain on sale of business of $54.9 million. In the first quarter of 2020, we recognized an additional gain of $0.3 million as a result of the final working capital adjustment. There was no gain on sale of business for the year ended December 31, 2018. Refer to Note 4, Disposal of Business, in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a complete discussion of this disposal.

Interest Income and Other Income (Expense), Net
The following table presents other income (expense), net for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 2020% Change2019% Change2018
 (In thousands, except percentage data)
Interest income802 **2,737 **1,239 
Other income (expense), net3,436 **913 **(1,177)
**Percentage change not meaningful.

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During the year ended December 31, 2020, we earned interest income of $0.8 million from our cash equivalents and short-term investments. The reduction, compared to the prior year, is primarily due to the decrease in our short-term investments and cash and cash equivalents as we funded our operations and the decline in interest rates. Other income (expense), net increased for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year, primarily due to Verisure TSA related income of $4.0 million recognized in fiscal year 2020.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we earned interest income of $2.7 million from our cash equivalents and short-term investments. Other income (expense), net increased for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared t