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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 19, 2018

Registration No. 333-226867


SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549



Amendment No. 1
to
FORM F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



CooTek (Cayman) Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant's name into English)



Cayman Islands
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  7374
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  Not Applicable
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

Building 7, No. 2007 Hongmei Road, Xuhui District
Shanghai, 201103
People's Republic of China
+86 21 6485-6352

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant's principal executive offices)

Puglisi & Associates
850 Library Avenue, Suite 204
Newark, Delaware 19711
+1 302-738-6680

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)



Copies to:

Z. Julie Gao, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
c/o 42/F, Edinburgh Tower, The Landmark
15 Queen's Road Central
Hong Kong
+852 3740-4700

 

Haiping Li, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
JingAn Kerry Centre, Tower II
46th Floor
1539 Nanjing West Road
Shanghai, the People's Republic of China
+86 21 6193-8200

 

Shuang Zhao, Esq.
Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton LLP
c/o 37th Floor,
Hysan Place
500 Hennessy Road
Causeway Bay, Hong Kong
+852 2521-4122



Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
as soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

           If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.    o

           If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company    ý

           If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.    o



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

               
 
Title of each class of securities
to be registered

  Amount to be
registered(2)(3)

  Proposed maximum
offering price per
share(3)

  Proposed maximum
aggregate offering
price(2)(3)

  Amount of
registration fee(4)

 

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share(1)

  250,125,000   US$0.28   US$70,035,000   US$8,719.36

 

(1)
American depositary shares issuable upon deposit of Class A ordinary shares registered hereby will be registered under a separate registration statement on Form F-6 (Registration No. 333-227412). Each American depositary share represents 50 Class A ordinary shares.

(2)
Includes Class A ordinary shares that are issuable upon the exercise of the underwriters' over-allotment option. Also includes Class A ordinary shares initially offered and sold outside the United States that may be resold from time to time in the United States either as part of their distribution or within 40 days after the later of the effective date of this registration statement and the date the shares are first bona fide offered to the public. These Class A ordinary shares are not being registered for the purpose of sales outside the United States.

(3)
Estimated solely for the purpose of determining the amount of registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933.

(4)
Previously paid.

           The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

   


The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion. Dated September 19, 2018.

4,350,000 American Depositary Shares

LOGO

CooTek (Cayman) Inc.

Representing 217,500,000 Class A Ordinary Shares



         This is an initial public offering of 4,350,000 American depositary shares, or ADSs, by CooTek (Cayman) Inc. Each ADS represents 50 of our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per ADS will be between US$12.00 and US$14.00.

         Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the ADSs or our shares. We have applied to list the ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "CTK."

         We are an "emerging growth company" under applicable U.S. federal securities laws and are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

         Upon the completion of this offering, our outstanding share capital will consist of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. Each Class A ordinary share is entitled to one vote, and each Class B ordinary share is entitled to twenty-five (25) votes and is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Our co-founder, Mr. Karl Kan Zhang, will beneficially own all of our issued Class B ordinary shares. Class B ordinary shares beneficially owned by Mr. Karl Kan Zhang will constitute approximately 7.7% of our total issued and outstanding share capital and 67.6% of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding share capital immediately after the completion of this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option. See "Principal Shareholders."

         Following the completion of this offering and as long as Mr. Karl Kan Zhang holds at least 50% of our total voting power, we will be a "controlled company" as defined under the Listed Company Manual of the NYSE.

         Qiming Venture Partners and Sequoia Capital China, two of our principal shareholders, and their affiliates have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to US$10.0 million worth of ADSs being offered in this offering at the initial public offering price and on the same terms as the other ADSs being offered. Assuming an initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, which is the mid-point of the estimated offering price range, the number of ADSs to be purchased by these potential purchasers would be up to 769,231 ADSs, representing approximately 17.7% of the ADSs being offered in this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option. However, because these indications of interest are not binding agreements or commitments to purchase, the underwriters could determine to sell more, fewer or no ADSs to any of these potential purchasers, and any of these potential purchasers could determine to purchase more, fewer or no ADSs in this offering. The underwriters will receive the same underwriting discounts and commissions on any ADSs purchased by these parties as they will on any other ADSs sold to the public in this offering. For additional information, see "Underwriting."

         Investing in our ADSs involve risks. See "Risk Factors" beginning on page 17.



PRICE US$                  PER ADS



 
  Price to
Public
  Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions(1)
  Proceeds
to us
 

Per ADS

  US$     US$     US$    

Total

  US$     US$     US$    

(1)
See "Underwriting" for additional disclosure regarding underwriting compensation payable by us.

         We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional 652,500 ADSs to cover over-allotments.

         Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

         The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment in U.S. dollars in New York, New York on or about                           , 2018.

Credit Suisse   BofA Merrill Lynch   Citigroup

KeyBanc Capital Markets



   

Prospectus dated                           , 2018.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

    1  

RISK FACTORS

    17  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    63  

USE OF PROCEEDS

    64  

DIVIDEND POLICY

    65  

CAPITALIZATION

    66  

DILUTION

    68  

ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

    70  

CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

    72  

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

    76  

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

    80  

INDUSTRY

    111  

BUSINESS

    116  

REGULATION

    134  

MANAGEMENT

    146  

PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS

    155  

RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

    159  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

    160  

DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

    172  

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALES

    183  

TAXATION

    185  

UNDERWRITING

    191  

EXPENSES RELATED TO THIS OFFERING

    200  

LEGAL MATTERS

    201  

EXPERTS

    202  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    203  

INDEX TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    F-1  



        No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representations. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the ADSs offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of its date.

        Neither we nor any of the underwriters has done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the ADSs and the distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus outside of the United States.

        Until                        , 2018 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that buy, sell or trade ADSs, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to this summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus carefully before deciding whether to buy our ADSs. You should carefully consider, among other things, our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and sections entitled "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Our Mission

        Our mission is to empower everyone to express themselves and enjoy relevant content seamlessly.

Our Business

        We are a fast-growing mobile internet company. Sophisticated big data analytics and proprietary AI capability are the backbone of our business.

        Our global portfolio of mobile applications serves a large global user base, comprised of an average of 132.6 million DAUs across more than 240 countries and regions in June 2018, compared to an average of 75.6 million DAUs in June 2017, representing 75.3% year-on-year growth.

        Our super app, TouchPal Smart Input, is an intelligent input method for mobile devices and generates a massive, diverse set of user interaction data. We employ proprietary AI and big data analytical technologies both to process such data and a large amount of multi-language content that we source and organize from the internet, and to develop advanced multilingual natural language processing and semantic understanding technologies. These technologies enable us to obtain in-depth user insights and identify market opportunities, which set the foundation for developing content-rich mobile applications that deliver relevant content for five selected verticals including fitness, lifestyle, healthcare, news and short videos, and entertainment. We have also built a rich library of user profiles and interests that allows us to grow our user base effectively.

        TouchPal Smart Input boasts an advanced multilingual language model that supports more than 110 languages and offers an effective and enjoyable typing experience on mobile devices. Named one of the Google Play Best Apps of 2015, TouchPal Smart Input has high popularity and superior engagement among mobile internet users around the world. In June 2018, it reached 125.4 million DAUs on average and was launched 72 times per day per active user on average. TouchPal Smart Input's distinctive feature is that it operates across virtually all other mobile applications such as social network apps, e-commerce apps and browsers.

        Building upon user insights accumulated through our TouchPal Smart Input, we have formulated a systematic approach to developing a global product portfolio, through which we deliver relevant content and grow our global user base. In addition to TouchPal Smart Input, we have launched a portfolio of 15 other mobile applications as of June 30, 2018 and most of them are content-rich applications. These content-rich applications are targeting five selected verticals with large addressable global markets, including fitness, lifestyle, healthcare, news and short videos, and entertainment. Those mobile applications reached 9.4 million MAUs and 2.9 million DAUs on average in December 2017 and 22.2 million MAUs and 7.3 million DAUs on average in June 2018. Most of our global portfolio applications have achieved high user ratings ranging from 4.5 to 4.7 out of 5 on Google Play Store.

        Our user-centric and data-driven approach has enabled us to release appealing products to capture mobile internet users' ever-evolving content needs and help us rapidly attract targeted users. For example, by leveraging our data analytics capabilities, we have identified an increasing number of users who are interested in fitness-related topics and content. To capture the business opportunity presented by this trend, we developed two fitness mobile applications, HiFit and ManFIT. We have also built a

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profile of target users based on our user insights. We believe that this approach has allowed us to effectively grow our user base. Through HiFit and ManFIT, we deliver rich content such as workout videos to our users based on their profiles. We believe that potential users matching such profile are more likely to be interested in these applications.

        We continue to improve our AI capabilities and, in March 2018, launched Talia, an AI-powered virtual personal assistant that understands everyday conversations and delivers relevant content to users in multiple scenarios. Talia is integrated seamlessly with our TouchPal Smart Input. Talia automatically offers services to users in a variety of usage scenarios, such as content recommendations, web searches and weather forecasts.

        We have a proven and scalable monetization capability in mobile advertising. We leverage our in-depth user insights to deliver targeted and engaging advertisements that are relevant to users across our various mobile applications. The effective price per impression and the number of our average daily impressions delivered on our global portfolio products increased by approximately 36% and 537%, respectively, from the first half of 2017 to the first half of 2018.

        We generate revenues primarily from mobile advertising. Our net revenues grew rapidly from US$11.0 million in 2016 to US$37.3 million in 2017, representing 238.5% year-on-year growth. Our net revenues grew rapidly from US$9.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 to US$50.3 million for the same period of 2018, representing 451.7% year-on-year growth. Our net loss decreased from US$30.7 million in 2016 to US$23.7 million in 2017 due to our revenue growth and operating leverage. We recorded net income of US$3.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018, compared to net loss of US$16.2 million for the same period of 2017. We generated gross profit of US$17.2 million in 2017, compared to gross loss of US$9.1 million in 2016, implying an improvement of gross profit margin from negative 82.8% in 2016 to 46.2% in 2017. We recorded gross profit of US$42.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018, as compared to gross loss of US$1.1 million for the same period of 2017, implying an improvement of gross profit margin from negative 11.6% for the six months ended June 30, 2017 to 84.0% for the same period of 2018. Of our total advertising revenue generated from our global portfolio products, our TouchPal Smart Input contributed substantially all in 2016, approximately 71% in 2017 and 33% in the six months ended June 30, 2018, and our other global portfolio products contributed approximately 29% in 2017 and 67% in the six months ended June 30, 2018.

Our Industry

        The adoption of mobile internet has become increasingly widespread and mobile devices have become an integral part of our daily lives. The number of global mobile internet users is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate, or CAGR, of 5.3% from 3.3 billion in 2017 to 5.0 billion by 2025 and the global mobile internet penetration rate is expected to grow from 43% in 2017 to 61% in 2025, according to GSMA Intelligence, a provider of mobile operator data. The global smartphone shipment volume is expected to grow from 1.5 billion units in 2017 to 1.7 billion units in 2022, according to IDC, a global provider of market intelligence and advisory services.

        Among mobile applications, mobile smart input is unique in that it is generally launched and used across multiple applications on mobile devices, which results in frequent use and generates high data value. The rapid expansion in mobile internet networks and mobile device user base over the past ten years has presented an enormous market opportunity for third-party mobile smart input providers like us.

        With internet users' rapidly shifting behaviors, mobile devices have become the primary devices for consumption of digital media and access to the internet, accounting for 69% of digital media time spent in 2017, according to comScore, a U.S. media measurement and analytics company, and mobile and tablet devices together accounted for 56.7% of global web browsing in terms of page views in August 2018, compared to 43.3% for desktop devices during the same period, according to

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StatCounter, a web traffic analysis tool. In addition, mobile device users tend to spend more time on mobile apps than mobile web browsers, with more than 80% of mobile minutes in all markets spent on apps, according to comScore. Mobile device users have shown a stronger degree of preference for apps over web browsers when it comes to consumption of content related to entertainment and social networking, according to IAB, a service provider to the online advertising industry.

        The global advertising industry continues to experience a shift in advertising spending from traditional offline channels such as television commercials to online channels. Global online advertising spending increased at a CAGR of 18.8% from US$72.4 billion in 2011 to US$203.6 billion in 2017 and is expected to reach US$273.8 billion in 2020, according to Zenith, a leading media agency offering communications planning and media buying. The growth in the broader online advertising market is primarily driven by the growth in global mobile advertising spending, which is expected to grow from US$107.1 billion in 2017 to US$179.7 billion in 2020, according to Zenith.

        AI technology and big data analytics have become crucial for businesses to utilize the rapidly growing amount of global digital data and to generate valuable user insights that enable targeted content delivery. IDC forecasts that the global data volume will grow tenfold from 16.1 zettabytes generated in 2016 to 163 zettabytes generated in 2025. In addition, the advancement of AI technology has led to the development and an increasing adoption of virtual assistants, which is expected to reach a market size of $15.8 billion by 2021 from $1.6 billion in 2015 in terms of revenue from sales of virtual assistants, according to Tractica, a market intelligence firm focused on human interactions with technology.

Our Strengths

        We believe the following strengths contribute to our success and distinguish us from our competitors:

    a fast-growing mobile internet company with a large global user base;

    superior user engagement and stickiness;

    in-depth user insights driven by big data analytics and AI technology;

    highly effective expansion of product offerings and user base;

    proven and highly scalable monetization capability; and

    experienced management team with strong track-record of innovation.

Our Strategies

        We intend to achieve our mission and further grow our business by pursuing the following strategies:

    continue to expand our user base;

    continue to invest in next-generation AI and natural language processing technologies;

    strengthen targeted content delivery based on user insights;

    further improve advertising performance; and

    pursue strategic acquisitions and investments.

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Our Challenges

        Our business and successful execution of our strategies are subject to various challenges, risk and uncertainties, including those related to our ability to:

    maintain and increase our user base and level of user engagement;

    retain and attract advertising customers;

    implement our strategies related to the expansion of global operations;

    innovate and develop new products and services;

    sustain our historical growth and maintain the effectiveness of our monetization;

    respond to and adopt evolving technologies for product development;

    successfully market and monetize our existing and new mobile applications throughout their life cycles;

    maintain and improve technology infrastructure and security measures designed to protect users' personal privacy and data security;

    compete effectively in our industry; and

    maintain good relationship with our business partners.

        Please see "Risk Factors" and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of these and other challenges, risks and uncertainties that we face.

Corporate History and Structure

        We commenced our mobile internet business and launched our first mobile application, TouchPal Smart Input, in 2008. We initially conducted our business through Shanghai Hanxiang (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Hanxiang, a PRC domestic company.

        In March 2012, we incorporated CooTek (Cayman) Inc., or CooTek Cayman, as our offshore holding company in order to facilitate foreign investment in our company. We established CooTek HongKong Limited, or CooTek HK, as our intermediate holding company, which in turn established a wholly-owned PRC subsidiary, Shanghai Chule (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., or the WFOE, in June 2012. Subsequently, we, through our WFOE, entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Hanxiang and its shareholders whereby we were established as the primary beneficiary of Shanghai Hanxiang. We have recognized the net assets of Shanghai Hanxiang at historical cost with no change in basis in the consolidated financial statements upon the completion of this reorganization.

        In March 2012, we formed a PRC domestic company, Shanghai Chubao (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Chubao, to operate part of our China business.

        In September 2014, we incorporated TouchPal HK Co., Limited to operate our international business.

        Due to restrictions imposed by PRC laws and regulations on foreign ownership of companies that engaged in mobile internet and mobile advertising businesses, our WFOE also entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Chubao and two other domestic companies we established in 2017, and their respective shareholders. We collectively refer to these three domestic entities and Shanghai Hanxiang as our VIEs in this prospectus. Shanghai Chubao is currently our principal operating entity in China. The business of Shanghai Hanxiang was migrated into our other entities, and Shanghai Hanxiang has gradually ceased its business operations since 2012. As of the date of this

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prospectus, Shanghai Hanxiang and the other two domestic companies do not have any substantive business operations. For more details and risks related to our variable interest entity structure, please see "—Contractual Arrangements with Our VIEs and Their Respective Shareholders" and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure." As a result of our direct ownership in our WFOE and the variable interest entity contractual arrangements, we are regarded as the primary beneficiary of our VIEs. We treat them as our consolidated affiliated entities under U.S. GAAP, and have consolidated the financial results of these entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

        Our officers, directors and principal shareholders currently hold an aggregate of 77.8% of the total voting power in our company. Immediately after this offering, our officers, directors and principal shareholders will hold an aggregate of 90.3% of the total voting power in our company and will continue to exercise substantial control over our company.

        Following the completion of this offering and as long as Mr. Karl Kan Zhang holds at least 50% of our total voting power, we will be a "controlled company" as defined under the Listed Company Manual of the NYSE.

        The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our significant subsidiaries and other entities that are material to our business, as of the date of this prospectus:

GRAPHIC


(1)
Karl Kan Zhang, Susan Qiaoling Li, Michael Jialiang Wang, Jim Jian Wang and Haiyan Zhu are beneficial owners of CooTek (Cayman) Inc. and hold 25.0%, 21.94%, 21.94%, 13.12% and 18.0% of the equity interests in Shanghai Chubao, respectively. Except for Haiyan Zhu, the other shareholders of Shanghai Chubao are directors and employees of CooTek (Cayman) Inc.

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Implication of Being an Emerging Growth Company

        As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenue for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an "emerging growth company" pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements compared to those that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of the emerging growth company's internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. Pursuant to the JOBS Act, we have elected to take advantage of the benefits of this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. As a result, our operating results and financial statements may not be comparable to the operating results and financial statements of other companies who have adopted the new or revised accounting standards.

        We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of at least US$1.07 billion; (b) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering; (c) the date on which we have, during the preceding three-year period, issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (d) the date on which we are deemed to be a "large accelerated filer" under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our ADSs that are held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above.

Corporate Information

        Our principal executive offices are located at Building 7, No. 2007 Hongmei Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 201103, People's Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 21 6485 6352. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.

        Investors should submit any inquiries to the address and telephone number of our principal executive offices. Our main website is www.cootek.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates, located at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711.

Conventions that Apply to this Prospectus

        Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to:

    "CooTek," "we," "us," "our company" and "our" are to CooTek (Cayman) Inc., its subsidiaries and its consolidated affiliated entities;

    "China" or the "PRC" are to the People's Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this prospectus only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

    "Class A ordinary shares" are to our Class A ordinary shares of par value US$0.00001 per share;

    "Class B ordinary shares" are to our Class B ordinary shares of par value US$0.00001 per share;

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    "shares" or "ordinary shares" are to our ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, and upon and after the completion of this offering, are to our Class A and Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;

    "ADSs" are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents 50 Class A ordinary shares;

    "ADRs" are to the American depositary receipts that evidence our ADSs;

    "AI" is to artificial intelligence;

    "DAUs" is to the number of active users of our products during a given day. For each individual product, we treat each mobile device on which at least one of the following actions is taken during a given day as one active user for that day: (i) activating or launching such product, (ii) logging in with the user account for such product, or (iii) any other actions that result in a successful network access to our services through such product. The DAUs of multiple products during a given day is the sum of active users of each such product for that day;

    "MAUs" is to the number of active users of our products during a given month. For each individual product, we treat each mobile device on which at least one of the following actions is taken during a given month as one active user for that month: (i) activating or launching such product, (ii) logging in with the user account for such product, or (iii) any other actions that result in a successful network access to our services through such product. The MAUs of multiple products during a given month is the sum of active users of each such product for that month;

    "our global product portfolio" or "our global portfolio products" is to the mobile applications that we develop and provide to our users and business partners, which excludes TouchPal Phonebook. TouchPal Phonebook targets the Chinese domestic market and is different from TouchPal Smart Input and our other mobile applications that are designed for the global market;

    "our other global portfolio products" or "our other global portfolio applications" is to the mobile applications that we develop and provide to our users and business partners, which excludes TouchPal Smart Input and TouchPal Phonebook;
    "RMB" and "Renminbi" are to the legal currency of China; and

    "US$," "U.S. dollars," "$," and "dollars" are to the legal currency of the United States.

        Unless the context indicates otherwise, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option.

        Our reporting currency is U.S. dollar. This prospectus also contains translations of certain foreign currency amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars were made at RMB6.5063 to US$1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board on December 29, 2017. We make no representation that the Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this prospectus could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. On September 14, 2018, the noon buying rate for Renminbi was RMB6.8673 to US$1.00.

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THE OFFERING

Offering price

  We currently estimate that the initial public offering price will be between US$12.00 and US$14.00 per ADS.

ADSs offered by us

 

4,350,000 ADSs (or 5,002,500 ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

ADSs outstanding immediately after this offering

 

4,350,000 ADSs (or 5,002,500 ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full)

Ordinary shares outstanding immediately after this offering

 

3,195,831,701 ordinary shares, comprised of 2,949,607,236 Class A ordinary shares and 246,224,465 Class B ordinary shares (or 3,228,456,701 ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, comprised of 2,982,232,236 Class A ordinary shares and 246,224,465 Class B ordinary shares). This number assumes the re-designation, on a one-for-one basis, of all outstanding ordinary shares and preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares upon the completion of this offering, except for the outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investment Inc. that will be re-designated into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering.

The ADSs

 

Each ADS represents 50 Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share.

 

The depositary will hold ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and holders and beneficial owners of ADSs from time to time.

 

We do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. If, however, we declare dividends on our Class A ordinary shares, the depositary will pay you the cash dividends and other distributions it receives on our Class A ordinary shares after deducting its fees and expenses in accordance with the terms set forth in the deposit agreement.

 

You may turn in your ADSs to the depositary in exchange for Class A ordinary shares. The depositary will charge you fees for any exchange.

 

We may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.

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To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the "Description of American Depositary Shares" section of this prospectus. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

Ordinary Shares

 

Immediately after the completion of this offering, our ordinary shares will comprise of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. In respect of all matters subject to a shareholder vote, each Class A ordinary share is entitled to one vote, and each Class B ordinary share is entitled to twenty-five (25) votes, voting together as one class. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any sale, transfer, assignment or disposition of any of the Class B ordinary shares by a shareholder to any person or entity who is not an affiliate of such shareholder, or upon a change of ultimate beneficial ownership of any Class B ordinary shares, to any person or entity who is not an affiliate of the registered shareholder of such Class B ordinary shares, such Class B ordinary shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equivalent number of Class A ordinary shares. See "Description of Share Capital" for more information.

Over-allotment option

 

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase on a pro rata basis up to an aggregate of 652,500 additional ADSs.

Use of proceeds

 

We expect that we will receive net proceeds of approximately US$49.2 million from this offering, or approximately US$57.1 million if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, assuming an initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, which is the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for (i) research and development, (ii) sales and marketing, and (iii) general corporate purposes. See "Use of Proceeds" for more information.

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Lock-up

 

We, our directors, executive officers, and all of our existing shareholders have agreed with the underwriters not to sell, transfer or dispose of any ADSs, ordinary shares or similar securities for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus, subject to certain exceptions. In addition, we have agreed to instruct the depositary not to accept any shares for deposit for the issuance of ADSs for 180 days after the date of this prospectus (other than in connection with this offering), without prior written consent from the representatives of the underwriters. See "Shares Eligible for Future Sale" and "Underwriting."

Indication of interest

 

Qiming Venture Partners and Sequoia Capital China, two of our principal shareholders, and their affiliates have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to US$10.0 million worth of ADSs being offered in this offering at the initial public offering price and on the same terms as the other ADSs being offered. Assuming an initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, which is the mid-point of the estimated offering price range, the number of ADSs to be purchased by these potential purchasers would be up to 769,231 ADSs, representing approximately 17.7% of the ADSs being offered in this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option. However, because these indications of interest are not binding agreements or commitments to purchase, the underwriters could determine to sell more, fewer or no ADSs to any of these potential purchasers, and any of these potential purchasers could determine to purchase more, fewer or no ADSs in this offering.

Listing

 

We have applied to have the ADSs listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "CTK." Our ADSs and shares will not be listed on any other stock exchange or traded on any automated quotation system.

Payment and settlement

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment therefor through the facilities of the Depository Trust Company on                            , 2018.

Depositary

 

Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas.

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

Summary Consolidated Financial Data

        The following summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and summary consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2018, the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2018 and summary consolidated cash flow data for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2018 are derived from our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods. You should read this Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this prospectus.

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  For the Year Ended
December 31,
  For the Six Months
Ended June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$, except for per share data)
 

Summary Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                         

Net revenues

    11,030,079     37,334,966     9,113,266     50,277,623  

Cost of revenues(1)

    (20,158,565 )   (20,101,386 )   (10,172,085 )   (8,037,508 )

Gross profit (loss)

    (9,128,486 )   17,233,580     (1,058,819 )   42,240,115  

Operating expenses:

                         

Sales and marketing expenses(1)

    (9,396,663 )   (20,161,353 )   (5,652,254 )   (26,345,856 )

Research and development expenses(1)

    (8,691,539 )   (12,868,356 )   (5,646,825 )   (8,322,788 )

General and administrative expenses(1)                      

    (3,920,057 )   (8,366,698 )   (4,034,049 )   (4,141,460 )

Other operating income, net           

    605,890     190,338     117,438     70,212  

Total operating expenses

    (21,402,369 )   (41,206,069 )   (15,215,690 )   (38,739,892 )

(Loss) income from operations

    (30,530,855 )   (23,972,489 )   (16,274,509 )   3,500,223  

Interest income, net

    12,887     481,932     166,087     70,475  

Foreign exchange losses, net

    (188,631 )   (169,556 )   (125,399 )   (59,269 )

(Loss) income before income taxes

    (30,706,599 )   (23,660,113 )   (16,233,821 )   3,511,429  

Income tax expense

        (800 )   (800 )    

Net (loss) income

    (30,706,599 )   (23,660,913 )   (16,234,621 )   3,511,429  

Net (loss) income per ordinary share:

                         

Basic

    (0.03 )   (0.03 )   (0.02 )   0.001  

Diluted

    (0.03 )   (0.03 )   (0.02 )   0.001  

Weighted average shares used in calculating net (loss) income per ordinary share:

                         

Basic

    912,551,946     898,781,587     899,175,914     898,393,690  

Diluted

    912,551,946     898,781,587     899,175,914     1,045,398,678  

Pro forma net (loss) income per ordinary share(2):

                         

Basic

        (0.01 )       0.001  

Diluted

        (0.01 )       0.001  

Pro forma weighted average shares used in calculating pro forma net (loss) income per ordinary share(2):

                         

Basic

        2,976,521,512         2,978,331,701  

Diluted

        2,976,521,512         3,125,336,689  

Non-GAAP Financial Data(3):

                         

Adjusted Net (Loss) Income

    (29,979,386 )   (21,235,969 )   (14,255,524 )   4,402,654  

Adjusted EBITDA

    (29,436,511 )   (20,818,083 )   (14,047,358 )   4,897,483  

(1)
Share-based compensation was allocated in costs of revenues and operating expenses as follows:
 
  For the Year
Ended
December 31,
  For the Six Months
Ended June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$)
 

Cost of revenues

    24,514     31,510     12,127     23,892  

Sales and marketing expenses

    35,298     70,707     29,956     39,391  

Research and development expenses

    445,084     544,786     274,795     666,679  

General and administrative expenses

    222,317     1,777,941     1,662,219     161,263  

Total

    727,213     2,424,944     1,979,097     891,225  
(2)
The pro forma ordinary shares information is based on the re-designation of 2,079,938,011 issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately upon the completion of this offering.

(3)
See "—Non-GAAP Financial Measure."

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Non-GAAP Financial Measures

        We consider Adjusted Net (Loss) Income and Adjusted EBITDA, each a non-GAAP financial measure, both as supplemental measures in evaluating and assessing our operating results.

        Adjusted Net (Loss) Income represents net (loss) income excluding share-based compensation related to share options and restricted share units and compensation expense related to ordinary share repurchase. Adjusted EBITDA represents net (loss) income excluding interest income and expense, income taxes, depreciation, share-based compensation and compensation expense related to ordinary share repurchase. We believe that Adjusted Net (Loss) Income and Adjusted EBITDA help identify underlying financial and business trends relating to our results of operations that could otherwise be distorted by the effect of certain expenses that we include in (loss) income from operations and net (loss) income. By making our financial results comparable period by period, we believe Adjusted Net (Loss) Income and Adjusted EBITDA provide useful information to better understand our historical business operations and future prospects and allow for greater visibility with respect to key metrics used by our management in financial and operational decision-making.

        The presentation of the non-GAAP financial measures is not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. You are encouraged to review the historical non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable GAAP measures, including, but not limited to, net (loss) income attributable to ordinary shares, (loss) income from operations, and net (loss) income. The non-GAAP financial measures presented by us may be calculated differently from and, therefore, may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures presented by other companies. We encourage you to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

        The table below sets forth a reconciliation of our net (loss) income to Adjusted Net (Loss) Income and Adjusted EBITDA for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Year Ended
December 31,
  For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$)
 

Adjusted Net (Loss) Income and Adjusted EBITDA reconciliation:

                         

Net (loss) income

    (30,706,599 )   (23,660,913 )   (16,234,621 )   3,511,429  

Add:

                         

Share-based compensation related to share options and restricted share units

    727,213     876,560     430,713     891,225  

Compensation expense related to ordinary share repurchase

        1,548,384     1,548,384      

Adjusted Net (Loss) Income (Non-GAAP)(1)

    (29,979,386 )   (21,235,969 )   (14,255,524 )   4,402,654  

Add:

                         

Interest income, net

    (12,887 )   (481,932 )   (166,087 )   (70,475 )

Income taxes

        800     800      

Depreciation

    555,762     899,018     373,453     565,304  

Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)(1)

    (29,436,511 )   (20,818,083 )   (14,047,358 )   4,897,483  

(1)
The non-GAAP adjustments do not take into consideration the impact of taxes on such adjustments.

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        The following table presents our summary consolidated balance sheet data for the periods indicated:

 
  As of December 31,   As of June 30, 2018  
 
  2016   2017   Actual   Pro forma(1)   Pro forma as adjusted(2)  
 
  (in US$)
 

Summary Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

                               

Cash and cash equivalents

    41,056,314     26,720,158     27,688,814     27,688,814     76,861,094  

Total current assets

    47,870,981     43,738,752     47,809,725     47,809,725     96,982,005  

Total assets

    49,353,697     46,261,022     51,008,954     51,008,954     100,181,234  

Total liabilities

    13,454,721     14,814,770     17,133,948     17,133,948     17,133,948  

Convertible redeemable preferred shares

    136,455,592     156,367,810     156,367,810          

Total shareholders' (deficit) equity

    (100,556,616 )   (124,921,558 )   (122,492,804 )   33,875,006     83,047,286  

(1)
The summary consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2018 are presented on a pro forma basis to reflect (i) the re-designation of all the 246,224,465 issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investments Inc. into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering; (ii) the re-designation of the remaining 652,169,225 issued and outstanding ordinary shares and 2,079,938,011 issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately upon the completion of this offering.

(2)
The summary consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2018 are presented on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect (i) the re-designation of all the 246,224,465 issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investments Inc. into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering; (ii) the re-designation of the remaining 652,169,225 issued and outstanding ordinary shares and 2,079,938,011 issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately upon the completion of this offering; (iii) the sale of 217,500,000 Class A ordinary shares in the form of ADSs by us in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price shown on the front cover of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, assuming the underwriters do not exercise the over-allotment option.

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        The following table presents our summary consolidated cash flow data for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Year Ended
December 31,
  For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$)
 

Summary Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

                         

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities

    (28,435,452 )   (28,049,152 )   (19,799,666 )   4,539,916  

Net cash used in investing activities

    (831,393 )   (1,758,412 )   (1,102,408 )   (948,043 )

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    51,306,960     14,401,620     13,694,494     (1,101,895 )

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

    22,040,115     (15,405,944 )   (7,207,580 )   2,489,978  

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of year

    19,845,488     41,344,623     41,344,623     27,026,240  

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

    (540,980 )   1,087,561     543,542     (1,827,404 )

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of year

    41,344,623     27,026,240     34,680,585     27,688,814  

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Summary Operating Data

        The following charts show the average DAUs and MAUs of our global portfolio products for each of the months indicated.

DAUs—TouchPal Smart Input
(daily average over the month of)
 
  DAUs—Other Global Portfolio Products
(daily average over the month of)
 

(in millions)

 

(in millions)

GRAPHIC

 

GRAPHIC

MAUs—TouchPal Smart Input 

 

MAUs—Other Global Portfolio Products 

(in millions)

 

(in millions)

GRAPHIC

 

GRAPHIC

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RISK FACTORS

        An investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus, including the risks and uncertainties described below, before making an investment in our ADSs. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In any such case, the market price of our ADSs could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

If we fail to maintain or expand our user base, or if user engagement with our products declines, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

        The size of our active user base and the level of users' engagement with our products are critical to our success. Our global product portfolio had an average of 132.6 million DAUs in June 2018, which grew from 75.6 million DAUs in June 2017, representing 75.3% year-on-year growth. Our financial performance has been and will continue to be significantly affected by our ability to grow and engage our active user base. As the size of our user base increases and our business enters a more mature stage of development over time, the growth rate of our user base may decline or become flat as a result of market saturation. In addition, we may fail to maintain or increase our user base or our users' engagement if, among other things:

    we fail to innovate or develop new products and services that provide relevant content and satisfactory experience to, or are favorably received by, our users;

    we fail to respond to or adopt evolving technologies for product development on a timely and cost-effective basis;

    we fail to successfully market and monetize our existing and new mobile applications throughout their life cycles;

    we fail to develop products that are compatible with existing or new mobile devices, mobile operating systems or their respective upgrades;

    we fail to maintain or improve our technology infrastructure and security measures designed to protect our users' personal privacy and data security;

    we lose users to competing products and services or due to concerns related to personal privacy and data security or other reasons;

    we fail to successfully implement our strategies related to the continued expansion of our global user base; or

    we are required by existing or new laws, regulations or government policies to implement changes to our products or services that are adverse to our business.

        If we are unable to maintain or increase our user base and user engagement, our advertising services may become less attractive to our advertising customers, which may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We generate substantially all of our revenues from advertising. Our failure to attract or retain advertising customers, or a reduction in their spending with us, could seriously harm our business, operating results and growth prospects.

        We generated 90.4%, 93.8% and 96.4% of our revenues from mobile advertising services in 2016, 2017 and the six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. Advertisers purchase advertising services either directly from us or through third-party advertising exchanges and advertising agencies. Our

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advertising customers, including advertisers and advertising exchanges and agencies, typically do not have long-term contractual arrangements with us. They may be dissatisfied with our advertising services or perceive our advertising services as ineffective. In addition, new advertising formats emerge from time to time and customer preferences can change. We may not be able to adapt our products and services to future advertising formats or changing customer preferences on a timely and cost-effective basis.

        We compete for advertising customers not only with other providers of digital advertising spaces, but also with other types of platforms and advertising service providers such as newspapers, magazines, billboards, television and radio. Some of our competitors have access to considerably greater financial and other resources for expanding their product offerings and present considerable challenges to gaining and maintaining additional market share.

        If we fail to deliver advertising services in an effective manner, or if our advertising customers believe that placing advertisements through our products and services does not generate a competitive return when compared to placing advertisements through our competitors' products, they may not continue to do business with us or they may only be willing to advertise with us at reduced prices. If our existing advertising customers reduce or discontinue their advertising spending with us, or if we fail to attract new advertising customers, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We depend on certain third-party advertising exchanges and agencies for a large portion of our mobile advertising revenues.

        We generate a large portion of our mobile advertising revenues from a limited number of third-party advertising exchanges and advertising agencies. Our top two advertising customers, which are advertising exchanges, accounted for approximately 38.5% of our total revenues in 2017. Our dependence on a limited number of advertising exchange customers increases their bargaining power and the need for us to maintain good relationships with them. The major advertising customers we work with typically offer standard terms and conditions that govern their contractual relationships with us. These standard terms and conditions in general allow either side to terminate the contractual relationship for any reason or no reason at all and with minimal notice and they generally do not provide for payment of any termination or compensatory fees. If any of these advertising customers we work with ceases to do business with us for any reason or alters its standard terms and conditions to our disadvantage, or if we fail to collect any significant amount of account receivables from these advertising customers, our business, financial conditions and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

        We provide sales rebates to certain PRC domestic advertising agencies in order to maintain good relationships with them and to incentivize them to maximize the volume of branding advertising business that they bring to us. In order to maintain the appropriate level of incentives for those advertising agencies, we may continue to incur expenses from providing such sales rebates, which could have an adverse effect on our financial conditions and operating results.

We rely on our business collaborations with third parties, including mobile device manufacturers and major digital distribution platforms, to maintain and expand our user base. Our failure to maintain good relationships with these business partners may materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

        We collaborate with various business partners to promote our products and enlarge our user base. We collaborate with mobile device manufacturers for the pre-installation of TouchPal Smart Input on new mobile devices as one way to distribute our product and to acquire users. There can be no guarantee that mobile device manufacturers will continue to pre-install TouchPal Smart Input or will

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agree to pre-install any of our other mobile applications on their devices. In addition, we use third-party digital distribution platforms such as Google Play and Apple App Store to distribute our mobile applications to users. The promotion and distribution of our mobile applications are subject to such digital distribution platforms' standard terms and policies for application developers, which are subject to the interpretation of, and frequent changes by, these platforms. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with our business partners or the business of our business partners declines, the reach of our products and services may be adversely affected and our ability to maintain and expand our user base may decrease. Most of the agreements with our business partners, including mobile device manufacturers and digital distribution platforms, do not prohibit them from working with our competitors or from offering competing services. If our partner distribution platforms change their standard terms and conditions in a manner that is detrimental to our business, or if our business partners decide not to continue working with us or choose to devote more resources to supporting our competitors or their own competing products, we may not be able to find a substitute on commercially favorable terms, or at all, and our competitive advantages may be diminished.

We have significant international operations and plan to continue expanding our operations globally. We may face challenges and risks presented by our growing global operations, which may have a material and adverse impact on our business and operating results.

        We are headquartered in China and provide our products and services to a global user base. We intend to continue the international expansion of our business operations and grow our user base globally. In June 2018, the user base of our global product portfolio reached an average of 132.6 million DAUs located in more than 240 countries and regions. The headquarters of our major advertising customers are located in the U.S. and China and therefore substantially all of our advertising revenues in 2016 and 2017 were derived from the U.S. and China.

        We believe the sustainable growth of our business depends on our ability to increase the penetration of our products in both developed and emerging markets. Our continued international operations and global expansion may expose us to a number of challenges and risks, including:

    challenges in developing successful products and implementing effective marketing strategies that respectively target mobile internet users and advertising customers from various countries and with a diverse range of preferences and demands;

    difficulties in managing and overseeing global operations and in affording increased costs associated with doing business in multiple international locations;

    local competition;

    difficulties in integrating and managing potential foreign acquisitions or investments;

    compliance with applicable laws and regulations in various countries worldwide, including but not limited to internet content requirements, data security and data privacy requirements, intellectual property protection rules, exchange controls, and cash repatriation restrictions;

    fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

    political, social or economic instability in markets or regions in which we operate; and

    compliance with statutory equity requirements and management of tax consequences.

        Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected by these challenges and risks associated with our global operations.

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Our product development and monetization strategies are highly dependent on our technology capabilities and infrastructure. If the amount of user data generated on our products declines, or if we fail to enhance or upgrade our technologies at a competitive pace, the effectiveness of our business model may be harmed and our operating results may be materially and severely affected.

        We depend on our technological capabilities and infrastructure to analyze our users' preferences and needs and to generate valuable user insights. Active users of our products generate a large amount of data across our applications and in a variety of use cases on a daily basis. The data generated by our users lays the foundation for us to build our user profiles. By analyzing such user data with our big data analytics, AI and other relevant technologies, we aim to understand our users' interests and needs for content in order to develop products that deliver relevant content catering to their interests and needs. Therefore, the effectiveness of our product development and monetization strategies is dependent on our ability to obtain and process data and to refine the algorithms used in processing such data. If we fail to maintain and expand the user base of our products to continually generate large amounts of user data, or if we fail to keep up with the rapid development and upgrade of big data analytics, AI and other relevant technologies on a timely and cost-effective basis, we may not be able to effectively grow and monetize our products, and our business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be able to sustain our historical growth and maintain the effectiveness of our monetization.

        We have grown significantly over a relatively short period. Over the past two and a half years, we have experienced rapid growth of the number of DAU and MAU of our global portfolio products. At the same time, our net revenues grew rapidly from US$11.0 million in 2016 to US$37.3 million in 2017, and from US$9.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 to US$50.3 million for the same period of 2018. Our advertising revenue increased by 251.5% from US$10.0 million in 2016 to US$35.0 million in 2017, and increased by 453.1% from US$8.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 to US$48.5 million for the same period of 2018. We may not be able to sustain a rate of growth in future periods similar to what we experienced in the past.

        In addition, growing our revenue in the future depends on successfully building our global portfolio products besides TouchPal Smart Input. We monetize our user base primarily through mobile advertising. Advertising revenue derived from TouchPal Smart Input is estimated to have accounted for approximately 55%, 49% and 26% of our total advertising revenue in 2016, 2017 and the six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively, and advertising revenue derived from our other global portfolio products to have accounted for nil, approximately 20% and 53% in 2016, 2017 and the six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. We expect that the share of revenues generated from our global portfolio products besides TouchPal Smart Input to increase in the future. If we are unable to build new products which are attractive to users, our ability to effectively monetize our advertising services and grow our revenues may be materially impacted.

If we fail to correctly anticipate user preferences and develop and commercialize new products and services, we may fail to attract or retain existing users, the lifecycles of our mobile applications may end prematurely and our operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

        Our success depends on our ability to maintain, grow and monetize our user base, which in turn depends on our ability to continually develop and commercialize new mobile applications, introduce new features or functions to our existing mobile applications and provide users with high-quality content and an enjoyable user experience. This is particularly important since the mobile internet industry is characterized by fast and frequent changes, including rapid technological evolution, shifting user demands, frequent introductions of new products and services, and constantly evolving industry standards, operating systems and practices. We launched our super app and first mobile application, TouchPal Smart Input, in 2008, and have launched 15 other global portfolio products as of June 30,

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2018. In June 2018, the user base of our global product portfolio reached an average of 132.6 million DAUs, and we intend to continue developing new products and services to attract more users who match our targeted profiles in the future. Our ability to roll out new or enhanced products and services depends on a number of factors, including timely and successful research and development efforts by us as well as correctly analyzing and predicting users' interests and demands for content using our AI and big data analytical capabilities. If we fail to correctly analyze and predict users' interests and demands for content, fail to cater to the anticipated needs and preferences of users, or fail to provide a superior user experience, our existing and new mobile applications may suffer from reduced user traffic or be unsuccessful in the market and our user base may decrease which in turn may impact our ability to earn advertising revenue. There can be no assurance that our new products and services will generate revenues or profits and we may not be able to recoup the investments and expenditures involved in such development. Our interim results may also experience significant fluctuations as we continue to invest in the development of new products and services.

        In addition, as a result of rapidly evolving user preferences, our existing mobile applications may reach the end of their lifecycles prematurely. There can be no assurance that we will be able to correctly predict the lifecycles of our new mobile applications, our estimates regarding the lifecycles of our existing mobile applications may turn out to be incorrect, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We had a net loss for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 and we may not be able to become profitable in the foreseeable future.

        For the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, we had a net loss of US$30.7 million and US$23.7 million, respectively, and negative cash flows from operations of US$28.4 million and US$28.0 million, respectively. Although we achieved net income of US$3.5 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018, we may not continue to be profitable. As of June 30, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of US$123.4 million. Our future revenue growth and profitability will depend on a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include market acceptance of our products, the effectiveness of our monetization strategy, market competition, macro-economic and regulatory environment. We also expect our costs to increase in the future as we continue to expand our operations internationally and to increase our investments in research and development. As a result, we may continue to generate net losses and negative cash flows from operations for the foreseeable future.

Our advertising services may display advertisements when our products are in use, or insert promoted marketing messages into users' feeds, which may negatively affect user experience and may lead to a decline in user engagement and, in turn, a reduction in revenues generated from our advertising services.

        We primarily generate revenues by distributing advertisements to targeted audience through our products. Advertisements are displayed in various formats when users launch or exit our products, in our theme stores or in-app stores, and in customized news feeds, among others. See "Business—Monetization." It is important for us to balance the frequency, prominence, size and content of advertisements that we display against ensuring a favorable user experience of our products. If our users find the advertisements displayed irrelevant, disturbing or negatively affecting their user experience of our products, they may become less engaged or stop using our products altogether. Furthermore, if advertisements contain controversial, false or misleading content, or the marketing messages we display or the products or services we advertise result in negative emotions or associations in our users, the user experience of our products could be diminished, our financial results could suffer and our reputation could be damaged. If we are unable to deliver advertisements in a way that is acceptable or favorable to our users, our users may not maintain the current level of engagement, and our advertising customers may perceive our advertising services as ineffective in generating a

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competitive return for them. As a result, our revenues may decline and our business, financial conditions and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

Data privacy concerns relating to our products and current practices may, particularly in light of increased regulatory scrutiny of and user expectations regarding the processing, collection, use, storage, dissemination, transfer and disposal of user data, require changes to our business practices and may result in declines in user growth or engagement, increased costs of operations and threats of lawsuits, enforcement actions and related liabilities, including financial penalties.

        Recently, companies' practices regarding collection, use, retention, transfer, disclosure and security of user data have been, and continue to be, the subject of enhanced regulations and increased public scrutiny. The regulatory frameworks regarding privacy issues in many jurisdictions are constantly evolving and can be subject to significant changes from time to time, and therefore we may not be able to comprehensively assess the scope and extent of our compliance responsibility at a global level. Moreover, certain of our users, particularly those in the United States and Europe, may have strong expectations for the level of privacy afforded to their personal data and the content of their communications. Further, the developing requirements around clear and prominent privacy notices (including in the context of obtaining informed and specific consent to the collection and processing of personal data, if applicable) can potentially deter users from consenting to certain uses of their personal information. In general, negative publicity of us or our industry regarding actual or perceived violations of our users' privacy-related rights may also impair users' trust in our privacy practices and make them reluctant to give their consent to share their data with us.

        Many jurisdictions, including China and the U.S., continue to consider the need for greater regulation or reform to the existing regulatory framework. In the U.S., all 50 states have now passed laws to regulate the actions that a business must take in the event of a data breach, such as prompt disclosure and notification to affected users and regulatory authorities. In addition to the data breach notification laws, some states have also enacted statutes and rules requiring businesses to reasonably protect certain types of personal information they hold or to otherwise comply with certain specified data security requirements for personal information. Additionally, the U.S. federal and state governments will likely continue to consider the need for greater regulation aimed at restricting certain uses of personal data for targeted advertising. In the European Union, or EU, the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which came into effect on May 25, 2018, increased our burden of regulatory compliance and requires us to change certain of our privacy and data security practices in order to achieve compliance. The GDPR implements more stringent operational requirements for processors and controllers of personal data, including, for example, requiring expanded disclosures about how personal information is to be used, limitations on retention of information, mandatory data breach notification requirements, and higher standards for data controllers to demonstrate that they have obtained either valid consent or have another legal basis in place to justify their data processing activities. The GDPR further provides that EU member states may make their own additional laws and regulations in relation to certain data processing activities, which could further limit our ability to use and share personal data and could require localized changes to our operating model. Under the GDPR, fines of up to €20 million or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher, may be assessed for non-compliance, which significantly increases our potential financial exposure for non-compliance. Since the GDPR only came into effect recently, the potential risks associated with non-compliance therewith are uniquely difficult to predict. Finally, in China, the PRC Cybersecurity Law, which became effective in June 2017, leaves substantial uncertainty as to the circumstances and standard under which the law would apply and violations would be found. See "Regulation—Regulations Relating to Personal Privacy and Data Protection."

        Outside of the U.S. and the EU, many jurisdictions have adopted or are adopting new data privacy and data protection laws that may impose further onerous compliance requirements, such as data

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localization, which prohibits companies from storing data relating to resident individuals in data centers outside the jurisdiction. The proliferation of such laws within jurisdictions and countries in which we operate may result in conflicting and contradictory requirements.

        In order for us to maintain or become compliant with applicable laws as they come into effect, it may require substantial expenditures on resources to continually evaluate our policies and processes and adapt to new requirements that are or become applicable to us. Complying with any additional or new regulatory requirements on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis would impose significant burdens and costs on our operations or may require us to alter our business practices. While we strive to protect our users' privacy and data security and to comply with material data protection laws and regulations applicable to us, it is possible that our practices are, and will continue to be, inconsistent with certain regulatory requirements. Our international business expansion could be adversely affected if these laws and regulations are interpreted or implemented in a manner that is inconsistent with our current business practices or that requires changes to these practices. In particular, the large amount of user data generated on and collected from our products has been, and will continue to be, critical for our business model, including to enable us to understand our users' interests and demands for content, improve their user experience with our products and services and deliver targeted advertising. Therefore, if these laws and regulations materially limit our ability to collect and use our users' data, our ability to continue our current operations without modification, develop new services or features of the products and expand our user base will be impaired. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with applicable data privacy laws and regulations, including in relation to the collection of necessary end-user consents and providing end-users with sufficient information with respect to our use of their personal data may result in fines and penalties imposed by regulators, governmental enforcement actions (including enforcement orders requiring us to cease collecting or processing data in a certain way), litigation and/or adverse publicity. Proceedings against us—regulatory, civil or otherwise—could force us to spend money and devote resources in the defense or settlement of, and remediation related to, such proceedings. Furthermore, any of the foregoing consequences could damage our reputation and discourage current and potential users from using our mobile applications. In addition, as users' expectations and regulatory attitudes with respect to personal privacy and data security continue to evolve, future regulations on the extent to which personal information and user-generated data can be used by us or shared with third parties may adversely affect our ability to leverage and derive economic value from the data that our users generate and share with us, which may limit our ability to carry out targeted advertising and thereby result in a decline in the mobile advertising revenues upon which our revenues are dependent.

If we fail to prevent security breaches, cyber-attacks or other unauthorized access to our systems or our users' data, we may be exposed to significant consequences, including legal and financial exposure and loss of users, and our reputation, business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

        We collect, store, transmit and process a large volume of personal and other sensitive data generated by our users through their interactions with our products. Although we have taken various security measures and adopted robust internal policies to protect our users' personal privacy and data security, we may nevertheless be exposed to risks of security breaches or unauthorized access to or cyber-attacks on our systems or the data we store. Given the size of our user base, and the types and volume of personal data on our systems, we believe that we may be a particularly attractive target for security breaches and cyber-attacks. Our efforts to protect our data may be unsuccessful due to software "bugs", system errors or other technical deficiencies, mistakes or malfeasance of our employees or contractors, vulnerabilities of our vendors and service providers, or other cybersecurity-related vulnerabilities. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches, cyber-attacks or other unauthorized access to our systems or disclosure of our users' data, including personal information, could result in loss or misuse of such data, interruptions to the services we provide, diminished user experience, loss of user confidence and trust in our products, impairment of our network and

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technological infrastructure, and harm to our reputation and business, significant legal and financial exposure and potential lawsuits brought by private individuals or regulators. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to prevent and detect security breaches and protect our users' data, we cannot guarantee that such measures will be sufficient defenses against the evolving techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade services or sabotage systems. In addition, as our data centers and servers are dispersed around the world, we may incur significant costs in protecting them against, or remediating, security breaches and cyber-attacks.

We have been and may continue to be subject to notices or complaints alleging our infringement of copyrights and delivery of illegal or inappropriate content through our products, which could lead to suspension or removal of such products from digital distribution platforms, a decrease of our user base, and a significantly adverse impact on our financial results and our reputation.

        In the ordinary course of our business, we and digital distribution platforms, such as Google Play and Apple App Store, have received, and may from time to time in the future receive, notices or complaints from third parties alleging that certain of our products infringe copyrights, deliver illegal, fraudulent, pornographic, violent, bullying or other inappropriate content, or otherwise fail to comply with applicable rules and regulations. Upon receipt of such notices or complaints, those digital distribution platforms may suspend or remove such products from such platforms. The processes for appealing such suspensions and removals with those platforms could be time-consuming, and we cannot guarantee that our appeals will always prevail or that any such suspended or removed application will be made available again. Such suspensions and removals of our products could lead to a decrease of our user base and, if they occur frequently and/or in a large scale, could significantly adversely affect our reputation, business operation and financial performance.

Our products and internal systems rely on software that is highly technical, and if it contains undetected errors or vulnerabilities, our business could be adversely affected.

        Our products and internal systems rely on numerous proprietary and licensed software that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our products and internal systems depend on the ability of certain software to encrypt, store, retrieve, process, and manage large amounts of data. The software on which we rely now or in the future may contain undetected errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities that may not be discovered until after the relevant source code is released and examined. Errors, vulnerabilities, or other design defects within the software on which we rely may result in a negative experience for users of our products, delay product introductions or enhancements, compromise our ability to protect the data of our users and/or our intellectual property or lead to reductions in our ability to provide some or all of our services. In addition, any errors, bugs, vulnerabilities, or defects discovered in the software on which we rely, and any associated degradations or interruptions of service, could result in damage to our reputation, loss of users, loss of revenue, or liability for damages, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

The industry in which our business operates is highly competitive. If we fail to compete effectively, our business will suffer.

        We face intense competition in every aspect of our business, including competition for users, usage time, advertising customers, technology, and highly-skilled employees. Our TouchPal Smart Input competes primarily with default mobile device input methods, including Gboard, Samsung mobile keyboard and Apple's default mobile device input method, as well as other alternative input method products for mobile devices that offer similar language prediction capabilities and other smart features, such as Microsoft/SwiftKey. Our other global portfolio applications such as HiFit and AhaCall compete with applications of the same or a similar kind. Talia may face competition from other intelligent personal assistant products such as Apple's Siri, Amazon's Alexa, Microsoft's Cortana and Google's

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Assistant if we further develop Talia into an independent mobile application not integrated with TouchPal Smart Input. In addition, we compete with all major internet companies for user attention and advertising spend.

        We compete with other developers of mobile applications for users, usage time and advertising customers on the basis of quality, features, availability and ease of use of products and services, and the number and quality of advertising distribution channels. We also compete with other developers for talented employees with technological expertise that is crucial for the sustained development of successful products and services. Our competitors may operate with more efficient business models and cost structures. They may prove more adaptable to new technological and other market developments than we are. Many of our competitors are larger and more established companies and may have significantly more financial, technological, marketing and other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sales and support of their products and services. They may allow our competitors to respond to new or emerging technologies and changes in market requirements better than we can. Our competitors may also develop products, features, or services that are similar to ours or that achieve greater market acceptance. These products, features, and services may undertake more far-reaching and successful product development efforts or marketing campaigns. As a result, our competitors may acquire and engage users at the expense of our user growth or engagement, which may seriously harm our business. If we cannot effectively compete, our user engagement may decrease, which could make us less attractive to users, advertisers and seriously harm our business and have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and growth potential.

Our mobile applications are mainly designed for Android operating systems. A decrease in the popularity of Android operating systems may materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

        Our business is dependent on the compatibility of our products with popular mobile operating systems that we do not control, including Android and iOS operating systems. Most of our mobile applications are designed to operate on the Android operating system. Any significant decline in the overall popularity of the Android ecosystem or Android devices could materially and adversely affect the demand for, and revenues generated from, our mobile applications. There can be no assurance that the Android ecosystem will grow in the future and at what growth rate. Another operating system for mobile devices may replace Android and decrease its popularity, especially considering the constantly evolving nature of the mobile internet industry. To the extent that our mobile applications continue to mainly support Android devices, our mobile business could be vulnerable to any decline in popularity of the Android operating system or Android devices. In addition, any changes, bugs, or technical issues in Android operating system may degrade our products' functionality and limit our ability to deliver, target, or measure the effectiveness of ads, or to charge fees related to our delivery of ads, which may have an adverse impact on our business and operating results.

User growth and engagement depend upon effective interoperation of our products with mobile devices, operating systems and standards that we do not control.

        Our products and services are available across a variety of mobile devices and mobile operating systems. In order to deliver high quality products and services to a broad spectrum of mobile internet users, it is important for our products and services to work well with a range of mobile devices, operating systems, networks and standards that we do not control, including Android and iOS operating systems. Any changes in such devices or operating systems that degrade the functionality of our products and services would affect our users' experience with our products. If we fail to develop relationships with the key participants in the mobile internet industry and mobile advertising industry, or if we fail to maintain the effective interoperation of our products and services with these mobile

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devices, operating systems, networks and standards, our user growth and user engagement could be harmed, and our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, distributed by, retrieved from or linked to the mobile applications integrated into our products, which may adversely impact our brand image and materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

        We may display third-party content, such as videos, pictures and other works, on our mobile applications without the explicit consent from such third party, and we may further explore market opportunities in the content-related business. Our users may misuse our products to disseminate content that contains inappropriate, fraudulent or illegal information or that infringes the intellectual property rights of third parties. We have implemented control measures and procedures to detect and block inappropriate, fraudulent or illegal content or activities uploaded to or conducted through our products, particularly those that violate our user agreements or applicable laws and regulations. However, such procedures may not be sufficient to block all such content uploads or activities in real time due to the large volume of user activities and the real-time nature of certain content streams, such as our live video function. Despite the procedures and measures we have taken, if the content displayed on our products are found to be fraudulent, illegal or inappropriate, we may suffer a loss of users and damage to our reputation. In response to any allegations of fraudulent, illegal or inappropriate activities conducted through our mobile applications or any negative media coverage about us, government authorities may intervene and hold us liable for non-compliance with laws and regulations concerning the dissemination of information on the internet and subject us to administrative penalties or other sanctions, such as requiring us to restrict or discontinue certain features and services provided by our mobile applications or to temporarily or permanently disable such mobile applications. If any of such events occurs, our reputation and business may suffer and our operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

        We regard our patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and other intellectual property as critical to our business. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties may adversely affect our business and reputation. We rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements to protect our proprietary rights. It is often difficult to register, maintain, and enforce intellectual property rights in countries with less developed regulatory regimes or inconsistent and unreliable enforcement mechanisms. Sometimes laws and regulations are subject to interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. In addition, our contractual agreements may be breached by our counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China and other jurisdictions in which we operate. Detecting and preventing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. For a detailed description of such a litigation, see "Business—Legal Proceedings." In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors.

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We may be subject to intellectual property infringement lawsuits which could be expensive to defend and may result in our payment of substantial damages or licensing fees, disruption to our product and service offerings, and reputational harm.

        The success of our business relies on the quality of our products, which in turn depends on the underlying software and related technology, including big data analytics and AI technology. The protection of such software and related technologies primarily relies on intellectual property rights including patents and trade secrets. Meanwhile, for the purpose of our business expansion, we may from time to time display third-party content, such as videos, pictures and other works, on our mobile applications without acquiring the explicit consent from such third party. Third parties, including our competitors, may assert claims against us for alleged infringements of their patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and internet content. The lengthy application procedures of software-related patents may lead to uncertainty on our intellectual property rights to our self-developed software because it increases the likelihood that there are pending patent applications whose priority dates pre-date the development of our own software that is identical or substantially similar to the software subject of the pending patent application. We have been subject to patent disputes, and expect that we may increasingly be subject to patent infringement claims as our products and monetization model expand in market share, scope and complexity.

        Intellectual property claims against us, whether meritorious or not, are time consuming and costly to resolve, could divert management attention away from our daily business, could require changes of the way we do business or develop our products, could require us to enter into costly royalty or licensing agreements or to make substantial payments to settle claims or satisfy judgments, and could require us to cease conducting certain operations or offering certain products in certain areas or generally. We do not conduct comprehensive patent searches to determine whether the technologies used in our products infringe upon patents held by others. In addition, product development is inherently uncertain in a rapidly evolving technological environment in which there may be numerous patent applications pending, many of which are confidential when filed, with regard to similar technologies. While we believe that our products do not infringe in any material respect upon any intellectual property rights of third parties, we cannot be certain that this is the case.

        In addition, in any potential dispute involving our patents or other intellectual property, our advertising customers and business partners could also become the target of litigation. We have certain contractual obligations to indemnify our advertising customers and the mobile device manufactures that pre-install our products on their devices for liability that they may incur based on third-party claims of intellectual property infringement for the use of our products or technology. Many of our collaboration contracts with mobile device manufacturers provide for a cap on our indemnity obligations. In addition, in the event of any such claims, our advertising customers or business partners may decide not to use our products in the future, which could harm our financial condition and operating results. For example, one mobile device manufacturer that pre-installs input methods on its mobile devices, including our TouchPal Smart Input under a license agreement with us, was sued by a multinational company in the United States in 2015. The plaintiff alleged that, among others, certain feature of the input methods installed on the mobile devices produced and sold by the defendant infringed on the plaintiff's input-related patent. In late 2016, a third party requested that the Patent Trial and Appeal Board of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or PTAB, to initiate inter partes review (IPR) proceedings against the input-related patent claim of the plaintiff and to invalidate such patent. The IPR request has been granted by the PTAB in 2016 and another third party joined the IPR proceedings as a petitioner in 2017. The patent litigation and the IPR proceedings remain at the preliminary stages. If both the PTAB and the court decide in favor of the plaintiff, the defendant may be ordered to pay damages to compensate the plaintiff for infringement on this patent, and therefore we may have to compensate the losses suffered by the defendant pursuant to our indemnity obligations under our license agreement with the defendant. In addition, if the plaintiff succeeds in its claim, we

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would need to obtain its license for using the patented technology and to pay license fees, or remove the related feature from our TouchPal Smart Input, either of which may adversely affect our business and financial conditions.

        Finally, we may also face infringement claims from the employees, consultants, agents and outside organizations we have engaged to develop our technology. While we have sought to protect ourselves against such claims through contractual means, there can be no assurance that such contractual provisions are adequate, and any of these parties might claim full or partial ownership of the intellectual property in the technology that they were engaged to develop for us.

If we fail to obtain or maintain the requisite licenses and approvals, or otherwise fail to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to our business operations in and outside China, or if we are required to apply for new licenses and approvals which are time-consuming or costly to obtain, our business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

        We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands and our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law (2018 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. We primarily conduct our business through our subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities incorporated in Hong Kong and mainland China. However, because our products and services are used worldwide, one or more other jurisdictions may claim that we are required to comply with their laws based on the location of our offices and staff, commercial operations, equipment or our users.

        The internet industry, including the mobile internet industry, is highly regulated in China. Our VIEs are required to obtain and maintain applicable licenses and approvals from different regulatory authorities in order to provide their current services to our users. In addition to PRC laws and regulations, we face additional regulatory risks and costs outside of China as a substantial portion of our active users and revenues are from markets outside of China. We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in China and foreign jurisdictions that involve matters central to our business, including but not limited to privacy and data protection, rights of publicity, content, intellectual property, advertising, marketing, distribution, data security, data retention and deletion, national security, electronic contracts and other communications, competition, consumer protection, telecommunications, taxation, and economic or other trade prohibitions or sanctions. The introduction of new products, services or expansion of our business in certain jurisdictions may subject us to additional laws and regulations. Furthermore, PRC and foreign laws and regulations are constantly evolving and can be subject to significant change from time to time. As a result, the application, interpretation, and enforcement of these laws and regulations are often uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving mobile internet industry in which we operate, and may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country and inconsistently with our current policies and practices. There can be no assurance that we will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or violation of any of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities' implementation or interpretation of such laws and regulations.

        Under the current PRC regulatory scheme, a number of regulatory agencies, including but not limited to the State Administration of Radio and Television (previously known as the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television), or SART, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism (previously known as the Ministry of Culture), or MCT, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, the State Council Information Office, or SCIO, and the Cyberspace Administration of China, jointly regulate all major aspects of the internet industry, including mobile internet businesses. Operators in this industry must obtain various government approvals and licenses for relevant internet or mobile business.

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        The operation of our TouchPal Phonebook in China may require additional licenses and failure to obtain such licenses could subject us to severe penalties. Our TouchPal Phonebook provides VoIP services which enable our users to make calls to other users of this application or other mobile phone devices. We have obtained the value-added telecommunications service business operation license, or VAT License, with a service scope of information services, domestic multiparty communication services, real-time information communication and domestic call center business. According to the PRC Telecommunications Regulations and other relevant laws and regulations, we may be required to obtain a basic telecommunications business service business operating license for our services to facilitate calls between users of the application and other mobile phone devices through internet and telecommunication network. Our TouchPal Phonebook also delivers personalized content to users, including live broadcasting, news and videos. According to the Administrative Provisions for the Internet Audio-Video Program Service jointly issued by SART and MIIT in 2007 and amended in August 2015, we may be required to obtain the internet audio-video program transmission license for displaying videos in TouchPal Phonebook. According to the Administrative Regulations for Internet News Information Services promulgated by the CAC in 2017, we may be required to obtain the internet news information service license for dissemination of political and other news. In addition, according to the Provisional Regulations for the Administration of Online Culture, or the Online Culture Regulations, promulgated by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the PRC in 2011, Shanghai Chubao, which operates our live broadcasting business on the TouchPal Phonebook, may be required to update its online culture operating permit to include the operation of live broadcasting business. We intend to transfer our live broadcasting business in the near future from Shanghai Chubao to one of our VIEs which holds an online culture operating permit covering the operation of live broadcasting business. If we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required licenses or approvals, make any necessary filings, fail to complete the intended live broadcasting business transfer, or otherwise fail to comply with the applicable laws and regulations, we may be subject to various penalties, such as confiscation of revenues that were generated through the unlicensed internet or mobile activities, the imposition of fines and the discontinuation or restriction of our operations. Any such penalties may disrupt our business operations and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

        Our international VoIP application, AhaCall, may be subject to laws, regulations and policies related to internet communications of multiple jurisdictions. These laws, regulations and policies may not specifically address the issues related to internet and its related technologies, and their interpretation and application remain largely uncertain. The laws, regulations and policies in certain countries may restrict the use of VoIP products, block access to such products or impose extensive regulatory requirements on operations of such products. We cannot be certain that we are currently in compliance with regulatory or legal requirements in the numerous countries in which AhaCall is available for download and use. Regulators may disagree with our interpretations of existing laws or regulations or the applicability of such laws or regulations to our business, or they may alter their view of the products and services we provide, due to a change in laws or regulations or a change in the interpretation of existing laws or regulations or otherwise. Our failure to comply with existing or future regulatory requirements could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Some of our mobile applications contain open source software, which may pose risks to our proprietary software.

        We use open source software in our products and services and expect to continue to use open source software in the future. The terms of many open source licenses to which we are subject have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to sell or distribute our mobile applications. Additionally, we may from time to time face threats or claims from third parties

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claiming ownership of, or demanding release of, the alleged open source software or derivative works we developed using such software, which could include our proprietary source code, or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These threats or claims could result in litigation and could require us to make our source code freely available, purchase a costly license or cease offering the implicated mobile applications unless and until we can re-engineer them to avoid infringement. Such a re-engineering process could require significant additional research and development resources, and we may not be able to complete it successfully. In addition to risks related to license requirements, our use of certain open source software may lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Additionally, because any software source code we contribute to open source projects is publicly available, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights with respect to such software source code may be limited or lost entirely, and we are unable to prevent our competitors or others from using such contributed software source code. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage and, if not addressed, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Our business depends on a number of key employees, including our executive officers and other employees with key technical skills and knowledge. If we fail to hire, retain, or motivate our key employees, our business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

        We depend on the continued contributions of our executive officers and other key employees, including those with key technological expertise, many of whom are difficult to replace. Any loss of the services of any of our senior management or other key employees could harm our business. Competition for qualified employees in and outside China is intense. Some of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees may have greater resources than we do and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. Our future success is dependent on our ability to attract a significant number of qualified employees and retain our existing key employees. If our key employees cease to work for us, our business may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel to replace them.

        Although we have entered into confidentiality and non-compete agreements with our key employees, our key employees may join our competitors or form a competing business. If any dispute arises between our current or former officers and us, we may have to incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce such agreements in China or we may be unable to enforce them at all. We commit significant time and other resources to training our employees, which increases their value to competitors if they subsequently leave us for our competitors.

Our failure to effectively manage our growth or implement our business strategies may harm our business and operating results.

        We have experienced rapid growth in the number of active users, and we plan to continue to expand our product offerings in the global market. Managing our growth requires allocation of valuable management time and resources, and significant expenditures. As part of our strategy, we intend to continue making investments to expand our user base and increase user engagement, strengthen our research and development efforts, including AI and natural language processing technologies, and enhance our ability to deliver highly-targeted content. To execute our business plan and growth strategy, we need to continuously improve our operational and financial systems, procedures and controls, and hire, train, manage and maintain good relations with our employees. Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for our users, advertising customers and business partners. We have limited operational experience in managing the business at the current scale and we cannot assure you we will be able to maintain the current level of growth rate in the future.

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From time to time we may conduct strategic investments and acquisitions, which may require significant management attention, disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial conditions.

        We may take advantage of opportunities to invest in or acquire additional businesses, services, assets or technologies. However, we may fail to select appropriate investment or acquisition targets, or we may not be able to negotiate optimal arrangements, including arrangements to finance any acquisitions. Acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own could require significant management attention and could result in a diversion of resources away from our existing business. Investments and acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, increased leverage, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential liabilities of the acquired business. In addition, the invested or acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating these transactions may be significant. In addition to obtaining the necessary corporate governance approvals, we may also need to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and investments to comply with applicable laws and regulations, which could result in increased costs and delays.

We rely on our assumptions and estimates to calculate certain key operating metrics. Any real or perceived inaccuracies in our calculations may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.

        The numbers of daily and monthly active users of our products are calculated using our internal data that has not been independently verified. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable calculations for the applicable periods of measurement, there are inherent challenges in accurately measuring usage and user engagement across our large user base. For example, we treat each mobile device or each application on a mobile device as a separate user for purposes of calculating our DAU and MAU, and we may not be able to distinguish individual users who use multiple applications from us or have multiple mobile devices. Accordingly, the calculations of our active users may not accurately reflect the actual number of people using our products.

        We regularly review and may adjust our processes for calculating our internal metrics to improve their accuracy. Our measures of user growth and user engagement may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly titled metrics used by our competitors due to differences in methodology. If our advertising customers, business partners or investors do not perceive our user metrics to be accurate representations of our user base or user engagement, or if we discover material inaccuracies in our user metrics, our reputation may be harmed and our advertising customers and business partners may be less willing to allocate their spending or resources to our products, which could negatively affect our business and operating results.

Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations due to a number of factors, any of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.

        We are subject to seasonality and other fluctuations in our business. Revenues from our mobile advertising services, which constituted substantially all of our revenues in 2017, are affected by seasonality in advertising spending in both international and China markets. We believe that such seasonality in advertising spending affects our quarterly results, resulting in the significant growth in our mobile advertising revenues between the third and the fourth quarters but a decline from the fourth quarter to the next quarter. Thus, our operating results for one or more future quarters or years may fluctuate substantially or fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors. In such event, the trading price of the ADSs may fluctuate significantly.

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The successful operation of our business depends upon the performance and reliability of the internet infrastructure in China and in other countries as well as the safety of our network and infrastructure.

        Our growth and expansion will depend in part on the reliability of state-owned telecommunications services providers in China and similar providers in other countries in maintaining and expanding internet and telecommunications infrastructure, standards, protocols, and complementary products and services.

        Almost all access to the internet in China is offered through China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom, which are under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the MIIT. We rely on the internet infrastructure of China Mobile, China Unicom, and China Telecom to provide bandwidth and transmit data. Although the Chinese government has announced plans to develop China's national information infrastructure, this infrastructure may not be developed in time or at all, and the existing internet infrastructure in China may not be able to support the continued growth of internet usage. In addition, it is unlikely that we will have access to alternative networks and services on a timely basis, if at all, in the event of any infrastructure disruption or failure.

Users of our mobile applications may employ existing or new technologies to block advertisements placed by us, which may limit our ability to generate revenues from our advertising services.

        Existing or new technologies that can disable the display of our advertisements may impair the growth of our mobile advertising business. Most of our revenues are derived from fees paid to us by advertising exchange customers based on the effective price per impression, which is impacted by the number of our users' valid clicks, conversions, impressions delivered or other measurable results. If technologies capable of blocking advertisements on our products are adopted by a significant number of our users, we may not be able to continue delivering such advertisements to our users and our revenues may decrease. In addition, advertisers may choose not to advertise on or through our products in light of the perceived use by our users of advertisement-blocking measures, which may adversely affect our business and growth prospects.

If we fail to detect click-through fraud, we could lose the confidence of our advertisers and our revenues may decline as a result.

        Our business is exposed to the risk of click-through fraud on our mobile applications. Click-through fraud occurs when a person clicks an advertisement displayed by us for a reason other than to view the underlying content of such advertisement. If we fail to detect significant fraudulent click-throughs or otherwise are unable to prevent significant fraudulent activity, the affected advertisers may experience a reduced return on their investment in our mobile advertising services and may lose confidence in the integrity of our systems. As a result, we may have to issue refunds to our advertisers and we may be unable to retain existing advertising customers and attract new advertising customers for our advertising services, and our mobile advertising revenues may decline. In addition, affected advertisers may commence legal action against us for claims related to click-through fraud. Any such claims or similar claims, regardless of their merit, could be time-consuming and costly for us to defend against and could also adversely affect our brand and operating results.

Our business emphasizes rapid innovation and prioritizes long-term user engagement over short-term financial or operating results. That strategy may produce results that do not align with investors' expectation and our stock price may be negatively affected as a result.

        Our growth depends on our ability to actively develop and launch new and innovative products and services. We intend to quickly adapt our products to changes in market trends and user needs, but we have no control over whether these adaptions will be well received by our users, advertising customers or business partners, and may result in unintended outcomes or consequences. We prioritize long-term

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user engagement over short-term financial results. For example, we monitor how our delivery of advertisements on our products affects our users' experience with the products and we may decide to decrease the number of advertisements placed on our products to ensure our users' satisfaction with our products. This could result in a loss of advertising customers and negatively impact our mobile advertising revenue. Our decisions may not be consistent with the short-term expectations of investors and may not produce the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case the maintenance and growth of our user base and user engagement, our relationships with advertising customers, and our business and operating results could be adversely and materially harmed.

We have granted, and may continue to grant, options, restricted shares units and other types of share-based incentive awards, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

        We adopted a stock incentive plan in 2012 and a share incentive plan in 2018, as amended from time to time, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to our directors, officers, employees and advisors to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. Expenses associated with share-based compensation have affected our net income and may reduce our net income in the future, and any additional securities issued pursuant to share-based incentive awards will dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders, including holders of the ADSs. We believe the granting of share-based incentive awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key employees, and we plan to grant share-based incentive awards in the future. As a result, our share-based compensation expenses may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

If we fail to build, maintain and enhance our brands, or if we incur a disproportionate amount of expenses pursuing this effort, our business, operating results and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

        We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand is critical to expanding our user base and number of advertising customers. We also believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide useful, reliable, trustworthy, and innovative products, which we may not be able to do successfully in the future. We will also continue to experience media, legislative, or regulatory scrutiny of our decisions regarding user privacy, content, advertising, and other issues, which may adversely affect our reputation and brands. We also may fail to respond expeditiously to the sharing and uploading of objectionable content on our products and services or objectionable practices by advertising customers, or may fail to otherwise address user concerns, which could erode confidence in our brands. In addition, maintaining and enhancing our brands may require us to make substantial investments and these investments may not be successful. We promote our brand and products through online advertising networks, which primarily include Facebook Ads and Google AdWords. These branding and marketing efforts may not result in increased user traffic in a cost-effective way. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brands or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business and financial results may be adversely affected. In addition, any negative publicity in relation to our mobile applications, regardless of its veracity, could harm our brands and reputation and, in turn, our business and financial results.

Pending or future litigation could have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and operating results.

        We have been, and may continue to be, subject to lawsuits brought by our competitors, individuals, or other entities against us. For example, we may be involved in legal proceedings between us and the mobile device manufactures who had contractual arrangements with us with respect to the pre-installation of our products on their mobile devices. In addition, we have been involved in lawsuits brought by our competitors alleging the infringement of intellectual property from time to time. See "—We may be subject to intellectual property infringement lawsuits which could be expensive to defend

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and may result in our payment of substantial damages or licensing fees, disruption to our product and service offerings and reputational harm."

        Where we can make a reasonable estimate of the liability relating to pending litigation against us and can determine that an adverse liability resulting from such litigation is probable, we record a related contingent liability. As additional information becomes available, we assess the potential liability and revise estimates as appropriate. However, due to the inherent uncertainties relating to litigation, the amount of our estimates may be inaccurate, in which case our financial condition and results of operation may be adversely affected. In addition, the outcomes of actions we institute may not be successful or favorable to us. Lawsuits against us may also generate negative publicity that significantly harms our reputation, which in turn may adversely affect our user base and adverting customer base. In addition to the related cost, managing and defending litigation and related indemnity obligations can significantly divert our management's attention from operating our daily business. We may also need to pay damages or settle lawsuits with substantial amounts of cash, which may adversely affect our cash flow and financial conditions. While we do not believe that any currently pending proceedings are likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows, if there were adverse determinations in legal proceedings against us, we could be required to pay substantial monetary damages or to materially alter our business practices, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, and cash flows.

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal control, we may be unable to accurately report our operating results, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud.

        Prior to this offering, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. Our management has not completed an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, and our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. In auditing our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified one material weakness and two significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting as well as other control deficiencies as of December 31, 2017, in accordance with the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States.

        The material weakness identified related to the lack of accounting personnel with requisite knowledge of U.S. GAAP and SEC financial reporting requirements, and lack of accounting policies and procedures relating to financial reporting in accordance with U.S. GAAP and SEC financial reporting requirements. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Internal Control over Financial Reporting."

        Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 will require that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2019. In addition, once we cease to be an "emerging growth company" as such term is defined under the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, after we become a public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and

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financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

        During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Generally, if we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.

Non-compliance on the part of third parties with whom we conduct business could disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial conditions and operating results.

        We may be implicated by the non-compliant or improper activities of our users, advertising customers and business partners. For example, we may be involved in litigation related to user-generated content uploaded to our mobile applications. See also "—We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, distributed by, retrieved from or linked to the mobile applications integrated into our products, which may adversely impact our brand image and materially and adversely affect our business and operating results." Similarly, we may also be subject to disputes related to advertisements displayed on our mobile applications. Although we have adopted a comprehensive internal control and screening procedure over the content of advertisements, a third party may find advertisements displaying on our mobile applications improper or illegal, and may take actions against us over such advertisements.

        In addition, we may be impacted by lawsuits against our business partners, such as mobile devices manufacturers that have contractual arrangements with us. Although we have no control over the design, system, network or standard of the manufacturing of smartphones by these business partners, any lawsuits against them claiming infringement of intellectual property and any cessation of handset production resulting from such lawsuits may interrupt our collaborative operations and result in the reduction of our delivery of products and services to potential users.

We will be a "controlled company" within the meaning of the NYSE Listed Company Manual and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.

        We are a "controlled company" as defined under the NYSE Listed Company Manual because Mr. Karl Kan Zhang owns more than 50% of our total voting power. For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to elect to rely, and may rely, on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors or that we have to establish a nominating committee and a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors. As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.

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We lease premises and may not be able to fully control the rental costs, quality, maintenance and our leasehold interest in these premises, nor can we guarantee that we will be able to successfully renew or find suitable premises to replace our existing premises upon expiration of the existing leases.

        We lease all premises used in our operations from third parties and we require the landlords' cooperation to effectively manage the condition of such premises, buildings and facilities. In the event that the condition of the office premises, buildings and facilities deteriorates, or if any or all of our landlords fail to properly maintain and renovate such premises, buildings or facilities in a timely manner or at all, the operation of our offices could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, with respect to our leased premises, at the end of each lease term, we may need to negotiate an extension of the lease when the lease expires. If we are unable to successfully extend or renew our leases upon expiration of the current term on commercially reasonable terms or at all, we may be forced to relocate our offices, or the rental costs may increase significantly.

        Moreover, certain lessors have not provided us with valid ownership certificates or authorizations of sublease for our leased properties. Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, if the lessors are unable to obtain certificate of title because such real estates were built illegally or failed to pass the inspection, such lease contracts may be recognized as void. In addition, if our lessors are not the owners of the properties and they have not obtained consents from the owners or their lessors or permits from the relevant government authorities, our leases could be invalidated. If this occurs, we may have to renegotiate the leases with owners or parties who have the right to lease the properties, and the terms of the new leases may be less favorable to us.

        As of the date of this prospectus, we are not aware of any material claims or actions being contemplated or initiated by government authorities, property owners or any other third parties with respect to our leasehold interests in or use of such properties. However, we cannot assure you that our use of such leased properties will not be challenged. In the event that our use of properties is successfully challenged, we may be subject to fines and forced to relocate the affected operations. In addition, we may become involved in disputes with the property owners or third parties who otherwise have rights to or interests in our leased properties. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to find suitable replacement sites on terms acceptable to us on a timely basis, or at all, or that we will not be subject to liabilities resulting from third parties' challenges on our use of such properties. As a result, our business operations may be interrupted, and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We have limited business insurance coverage. Any interruption of our business may result in substantial costs to us and the diversion of our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

        Insurance products available in China currently are not as extensive as those offered in more developed economies. Consistent with customary industry practice in China, our business insurance is limited and we do not carry business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for related risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to obtain or maintain such insurance. Any uninsured damage to our systems or disruption of our business operations could require us to incur substantial costs and divert our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of data, estimates, and projections in this prospectus that we obtained from third-party sources, and such information involves assumptions and liabilities.

        Certain facts, forecasts, and other statistics contained in this prospectus relating to the industry in which we operate have been derived from various public data sources and industry reports of third-party industry consultants. In deriving the market size of these industries, these industry consultants may have adopted different assumptions and estimates for certain metrics. While we generally believe such reports to be reliable, we have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of such information. Such reports may not be prepared on a comparable basis or may not be consistent with other sources.

        Industry data and projections involve a number of assumptions and limitations. Our industry data and market share data should be interpreted in light of the industries in which we operate. Any discrepancy in the interpretation of such data could lead to different measurements and projections, and actual results could differ from the projections.

We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our business operations.

        Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics. In recent years, there have been breakouts of epidemics in and outside China. Our business operations could be disrupted if any of our employees is suspected of having H1N1 flu, avian flu or another epidemic, since it could require our employees to be quarantined and/or our offices to be disinfected. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the outbreak harms the Chinese or global economy or our business environment in particular. We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities, which may give rise to server interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, and may adversely affect our ability to provide advertising services through our products.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our businesses in China do not comply with PRC regulations on foreign investment in internet and other related businesses, or if these regulations or their interpretation change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

        Current PRC laws and regulations impose certain restrictions or prohibitions on foreign ownership of companies that engage in internet and other related businesses, including the provision of internet information services. Specifically, foreign ownership of an internet information services provider may not exceed 50%. We are a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands and Shanghai Chule (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., which we refer to as Shanghai Chule or the WFOE, is our wholly-owned PRC subsidiary and therefore is considered as a foreign-invested enterprise. To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we conduct our business in China through our consolidated affiliated entities, including Shanghai Chubao (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Chubao, as our major PRC operating entity, and three other PRC domestic entities, based on a series of contractual arrangements by and among Shanghai Chule, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we exert control over our consolidated affiliated entities and consolidate or combine their operating results in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP. Our consolidated affiliated entities hold the licenses, approvals and certain key assets that are essential for our business operations.

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        In the opinion of our PRC counsel, Junhe LLP, based on its understanding of the relevant PRC laws and regulations, the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiary, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders are valid, binding and enforceable under the existing PRC laws and regulations. There are, however, substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current or future PRC laws and regulations. Thus, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not ultimately take a view contrary to the opinion of our PRC counsel. If we are found in violation of any PRC laws or regulations or if the contractual arrangements among Shanghai Chule, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders are determined as illegal or invalid by the PRC court, arbitral tribunal or regulatory authorities, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including, without limitation:

    revoke our business and operating licenses;

    levy fines on us;

    confiscate any of our income that they deem to be obtained through illegal operations;

    require us to discontinue or restrict operations;

    restrict our right to collect revenues;

    block our mobile applications;

    require us to restructure the operations in such a way as to compel us to establish a new enterprise, re-apply for the necessary licenses or relocate our businesses, staff and assets;

    impose additional conditions or requirements with which we may not be able to comply; or

    take other regulatory or enforcement actions against our group that could be harmful to our group's business.

        The imposition of any of these penalties may result in a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct the business. In addition, if the imposition of any of these penalties causes us to lose the rights to direct the activities of our consolidated affiliated entities or the right to receive their economic benefits, we would no longer be able to consolidate our consolidated affiliated entities. We do not believe that any penalties imposed or actions taken by the PRC government would result in the liquidation of our company, Shanghai Chule, or our consolidated affiliated entities.

We rely on contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders for our operations in China, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership.

        Due to the PRC restrictions or prohibitions on foreign ownership of internet and other related businesses in China, we operate our business in China through our consolidated affiliated entities, in which we have no ownership interest. We rely on a series of contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders, including the powers of attorney, to control and operate their business.

        Our ability to control the consolidated affiliated entities depends on the powers of attorney, pursuant to which Shanghai Chule can vote on all matters requiring shareholder approval in our consolidated affiliated entities. We believe these powers of attorney are legally enforceable but may not be as effective as direct equity ownership. These contractual arrangements are intended to provide us with effective control over our consolidated affiliated entities and allow us to obtain economic benefits from them. See "Corporate History and Structure—Contractual Arrangements with Our VIEs and Their Respective Shareholders" for more details about these contractual arrangements.

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        Although we have been advised by our PRC counsel, Junhe LLP, that the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiary, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders are valid, binding and enforceable under existing PRC laws and regulations, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing control over our consolidated affiliated entities as direct ownership. If our consolidated affiliated entities or their shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may incur substantial costs and expend substantial resources to enforce our rights. All of these contractual arrangements are governed by and interpreted in accordance with PRC laws, and disputes arising from these contractual arrangements will be resolved through arbitration in China. Such disputes do not include claims arising under the United States federal securities laws and therefore these arbitration provisions do not prevent you from pursuing claims arising under the United States federal securities laws. However, the legal system in China, particularly as it relates to arbitration proceedings, is not as developed as in other jurisdictions, such as the United States. See "—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us." There are very few precedents and little official guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a variable interest entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of arbitration should legal action become necessary. These uncertainties could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. In addition, arbitration awards are final and can only be enforced in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which could cause additional expenses and delays. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements or we experience significant delays or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our affiliated entities and may lose control over the assets owned by our consolidated affiliated entities. As a result, we may be unable to consolidate our consolidated affiliated entities in our consolidated financial statements, our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected, and our business operations could be severely disrupted, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We may lose the ability to use and maintain the benefit of assets held by our consolidated affiliated entities that are important to the operation of our business if our consolidated affiliated entities declare bankruptcy or become subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

        Our consolidated affiliated entities hold certain assets that are important to our business operations, including the VAT License concerning information services, domestic multiparty communication services, real-time information communication and domestic call center services and the Online Culture Operating Permit. Under our contractual arrangements, the shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities may not voluntarily liquidate our consolidated affiliated entities or approve them to sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or legal or beneficial interests exceeding certain threshold in the business in any manner without our prior consent. However, in the event that the shareholders breach this obligation and voluntarily liquidate our consolidated affiliated entities, or our consolidated affiliated entities declare bankruptcy, or all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business operations, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, if our consolidated affiliated entities undergo a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, their shareholders or unrelated third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of their assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Contractual arrangements we have entered into with our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities. A finding that we owe additional taxes could significantly reduce our consolidated net income and the value of your investment.

        Pursuant to applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities. We may be subject to adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiary, our consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders are not on an arm's length basis and therefore constitute favorable transfer pricing. As a result, the PRC tax authorities could require that our consolidated affiliated entities adjust its taxable income upward for PRC tax purposes. Such an adjustment could adversely affect us by increasing our consolidated affiliated entities' tax expenses without reducing the tax expenses of our PRC subsidiary, subjecting our consolidated affiliated entities to late payment fees and other penalties for under-payment of taxes, and resulting in our PRC subsidiary's loss of its preferential tax treatment. Our consolidated results of operations may be adversely affected if our consolidated affiliated entities' tax liabilities increase or if it is subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

If the chops of our PRC subsidiary, our consolidated affiliated entities, are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised.

        In China, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company towards third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in China is required to maintain a company chop, which must be registered with the local Public Security Bureau. In addition to this mandatory company chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiary, our consolidated affiliated entities are generally held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent those chops are not kept safe, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised and those corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so.

The shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business.

        The shareholders of our major consolidated affiliated entities include Karl Kan Zhang, Susan Qiaoling Li, Michael Jialiang Wang, Jim Jian Wang and Haiyan Zhu. Karl Kan Zhang, Susan Qiaoling Li, Michael Jialiang Wang and Jim Jian Wang are our co-founders, directors and executive officers. Haiyan Zhu is one of our early investors. In addition to these five individuals, Qiming Century (HK) Limited, Orange Capital Management and Qualcomm International, Inc are also the shareholders of Shanghai Hanxiang (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., one of our consolidated affiliated entities which has ceased business operations. Conflicts of interest may arise between the roles of these persons as shareholders, directors or officers of our company and as shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities. We rely on these individuals to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands, which provide that our directors and officers owe a fiduciary duty to our company to act in good faith and in the best interest of our company and not to use their positions for personal gain. The shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities have executed powers of attorney to appoint Shanghai Chule, our PRC subsidiary, or a person designated by Shanghai Chule to vote on their behalf and exercise voting rights as shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities. We cannot assure you that when conflicts arise, shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities will act in the best interest of our company or that conflicts will be resolved in our favor. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes

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between us and these shareholders, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations. There is also substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

We may rely on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiary to fund cash and financing requirements. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business and to pay dividends to holders of the ADSs and our ordinary shares.

        We are a holding company, and we may rely on dividends to be paid by our PRC subsidiary for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to the holders of the ADSs and our ordinary shares and service any debt we may incur. If our PRC subsidiary incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us.

        Under PRC laws and regulations, our wholly-owned subsidiary in the PRC, Shanghai Chule, may pay dividends only out of its accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, after making up previous years' accumulated losses, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such a fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. At the discretion of the board of director of the wholly foreign-owned enterprise, it may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to staff welfare and bonus funds. These reserve funds and staff welfare and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends. Any limitation on the ability of our wholly-owned PRC subsidiary to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable and final content of a draft new PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure and business operations.

        In January 2015, the Ministry of Commerce of the PRC, or the MOFCOM, published a discussion draft of the Foreign Investment Law for public review and comments. Among other things, the draft Foreign Investment Law expands the definition of foreign investment and introduces the principle of "actual control" in determining whether a company should be treated as an FIE. It specifically provides that entities established in China (without direct foreign equity ownership) but "controlled" by foreign investors, through contract or trust for example, will be treated as FIEs. Once an entity falls within the definition of FIE, it may be subject to foreign investment "restrictions" or "prohibitions" set forth in a "negative list" to be separately issued by the State Council later. If an FIE proposes to conduct business in an industry subject to foreign investment "restrictions" in the "negative list," the FIE must go through a MOFCOM pre-approval process.

        Under the draft Foreign Investment Law, variable interest entities, or VIEs, that are controlled via contractual arrangements would be deemed as FIEs if they are ultimately "controlled" by foreign investors, and any of their operations in the industry categories included in the "negative list" without MOFCOM pre-approval may be considered illegal. Conversely, for any companies with a VIE structure engaged in a "restricted" business included in the "negative list," the VIE structure may be deemed legitimate if it is ultimately controlled by PRC nationals. The draft Foreign Investment Law is not specific on what will happen to companies with an existing VIE structure.

        The internet content service, internet audio-visual program services and online culture activities that we conduct through our consolidated affiliated entities, which are our VIEs, are subject to foreign investment restrictions set forth in the Guidance Catalogue of Industries for Foreign Investment (2017

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Revision) issued by the MOFCOM and the National Development and Reform Commission, or the Catalogue. It is unclear whether the new "negative list" under the draft Foreign Investment Law will be different from the relevant categories in the Catalogue. Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable and final content of the draft Foreign Investment Law. To date, there is no timetable for the enactment of the draft Foreign Investment Law. If the enacted version of the Foreign Investment Law and the final "negative list" mandate further actions to be taken by us, such as a MOFCOM pre-approval process, there is no assurance that we can obtain such pre-approval on a timely basis, or at all.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

        The PRC legal system is based on written statutes and court decisions have limited precedential value. The PRC legal system evolves rapidly, and the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules may contain inconsistencies and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

        From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC judicial and administrative authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of a judicial or administrative proceeding than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based, in part, on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published in a timely manner, or at all, but which may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not always be aware of any potential violation of these policies and rules. Such unpredictability towards our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights could adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

Content posted or displayed on our platform may be found objectionable by PRC regulatory authorities and may subject us to penalties and other severe consequences.

        The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet and wireless access and the distribution of information over the internet and wireless telecommunication networks. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet or wireless networks content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China or the public interest, or is obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Furthermore, internet content providers are also prohibited from displaying content that may be deemed by relevant government authorities as "socially destabilizing" or leaking "state secrets" of the PRC. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in the revocation of licenses to provide internet content or other licenses, the closure of the concerned platforms and reputational harm. The operator may also be held liable for any censored information displayed on or linked to their platform. For a detailed discussion, see "Regulation—Regulations Relating to Cyber Security."

        We operate one mobile application, TouchPal Phonebook, in China, which provide VoIP services as well as social media functions. We have implemented procedures to monitor the content displayed on our products in order to comply with relevant laws and regulations. However, it may not be possible to determine in all cases the types of content that could result in our liability as a distributor of such content and, if any of the content posted or displayed on our products is deemed by the PRC government to violate any content restrictions, we would not be able to continue to display such content and could become subject to penalties, including confiscation of income, fines, suspension of

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business and revocation of required licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        We may also be subject to potential liability for any unlawful actions by our users on our products. It may be difficult to determine the type of content or actions that may result in liability to us and, if we are found to be liable, we may be prevented from operating our business in China. Moreover, the costs of compliance with these regulations may continue to increase as a result of more content being made available by an increasing number of users of our platform, which may adversely affect our results of operations. Although we have adopted internal procedures to monitor content and to remove offending content once we become aware of any potential or alleged violation, we may not be able to identify all the content that may violate relevant laws and regulations or third-party intellectual property rights. Even if we manage to identify and remove offensive content, we may still be held liable. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received government sanctions in connection with content posted on our platform. However, we cannot assure you that our business and operations will be immune from government actions or sanctions in the future. To the extent that PRC regulatory authorities find any content displayed on our platform objectionable, they may require us to limit or eliminate the dissemination of such content on our platform in the form of take-down orders or otherwise. In addition, these laws and regulations are subject to interpretation by the relevant authorities, and it may not be possible to determine in all cases the types of content that could result in our liability as a platform operator.

Advertisements shown on our platform may subject us to penalties and other administrative actions.

        Under PRC advertising laws and regulations, we are obligated to monitor the advertising content shown on our platform to ensure that such content is true and accurate and in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, where a special government review is required for specific types of advertisements prior to internet posting, such as advertisements relating to pharmaceuticals, medical instruments, agrochemicals and veterinary pharmaceuticals, we are obligated to confirm that such review has been performed and approval has been obtained. Violation of these laws and regulations may subject us to penalties, including fines, confiscation of our advertising income, orders to cease dissemination of the advertisements and orders to publish an announcement correcting the misleading information. In circumstances involving serious violations by us, PRC governmental authorities may force us to terminate our advertising operations or revoke our licenses.

        While we have made significant efforts to ensure that the advertisements shown on our platform are in full compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that all the content contained in such advertisements or offers is true and accurate as required by the advertising laws and regulations, especially given the uncertainty in the interpretation of these PRC laws and regulations. If we are found to be in violation of applicable PRC advertising laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties and our reputation may be harmed, which may negatively affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations and prospects.

Adverse changes in economic and political policies of the PRC government could have a material and adverse effect on overall economic growth in China, which could materially and adversely affect our business.

        Our principal offices are based in China. Accordingly, our operating results, financial condition and prospects are influenced by economic, political and legal developments in China. Economic reforms begun in the late 1970s have resulted in significant economic growth. However, any economic reform policies or measures in China may from time to time be modified or revised. China's economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including with respect to the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past 30 years, growth has been uneven across different regions and among different economic sectors. The

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PRC government exercises significant control over China's economic growth through strategically allocating resources, controlling the payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. Although the Chinese economy has grown significantly in the past decade, that growth may not continue, as evidenced by the slowing of the growth of the Chinese economy since 2012. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to reduction in demand for our services and adversely affect our competitive position.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be classified as a PRC "resident enterprise," which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

        Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, which became effective in January 2008 and amended in February 2017, an enterprise established outside the PRC with "de facto management bodies" within the PRC is considered a "resident enterprise" for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and is generally subject to a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate on its worldwide income. In 2009, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Overseas Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprise on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the "de facto management body" of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Further to SAT Circular 82, in 2011, the SAT issued the Administrative Measures for Enterprise Income Tax of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Incorporated Resident Enterprises (Trial), or SAT Bulletin 45, to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82. SAT Bulletin 45 clarified certain issues in the areas of resident status determination, post-determination administration and competent tax authorities' procedures.

        According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be considered as a PRC tax resident enterprise by virtue of having its "de facto management body" in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its worldwide income only if all of the following conditions are met: (a) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function have their presence mainly in the PRC; (b) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in the PRC; (c) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders' meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (d) more than half of the enterprise's directors or senior management with voting rights habitually reside in the PRC. SAT Bulletin 45 specifies that when provided with a copy of Chinese tax resident determination certificate from a resident Chinese controlled offshore incorporated enterprise, the payer should not withhold 10% income tax when paying the Chinese-sourced dividends, interest, royalties, etc. to the Chinese controlled offshore incorporated enterprise.

        Although SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore incorporated enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups and not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the determination criteria set forth therein may reflect the SAT's general position on how the term "de facto management body" could be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises, individuals or foreigners.

        In addition, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues concerning the Determination of Resident Enterprises Based on the Standards of Actual Management Institutions in January 2014 to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82. This bulletin further provides that, among other things, an entity that is classified as a "resident enterprise"

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in accordance with the circular shall file the application for classifying its status of residential enterprise with the local tax authorities where its main domestic investors are registered. From the year in which the entity is determined to be a "resident enterprise," any dividend, profit and other equity investment gain shall be taxed in accordance with the enterprise income tax law and its implementing rules.

        Although our offshore holding entity is not controlled by PRC enterprises or a PRC enterprise group and our revenues are primarily generated from business operations conducted outside of China, we cannot rule out the possibility that the PRC tax authorities determine that we or any of our non-PRC subsidiaries is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, which could subject our company or any of our non-PRC subsidiaries to PRC tax at a rate of 25% on its world-wide income, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we may also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations.

        If the PRC tax authorities determine that our company is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares may be subject to PRC tax, at a rate of 10% in the case of non-PRC enterprises or 20% in the case of non-PRC individuals (in each case, subject to the provisions of any applicable tax treaty), if such gains are deemed to be from PRC sources. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in the ADSs.

There are significant uncertainties under the EIT Law relating to the withholding tax liabilities of our PRC subsidiary, and dividends payable by our PRC subsidiary to our offshore subsidiaries may not qualify to enjoy certain treaty benefits.

        Under the EIT Law and its implementation rules, the profits of a foreign-invested enterprise generated through operations, which are distributed to its immediate holding company outside China, will be subject to a withholding tax rate of 10.0%. Pursuant to a special arrangement between Hong Kong and China, such rate may be reduced to 5.0% if a Hong Kong resident enterprise owns more than 25.0% of the equity interest in the PRC company. Our current PRC subsidiary is wholly owned by our Hong Kong subsidiary, CooTek HongKong Limited, or CooTek HK. Accordingly, CooTek HK may qualify for a 5.0% tax rate in respect of distributions from its PRC subsidiary. Under the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues regarding the Administration of the Dividend Provision in Tax Treaties promulgated on February 20, 2009, the taxpayer needs to satisfy certain conditions to enjoy the benefits under a tax treaty. These conditions include: (1) the taxpayer must be the beneficial owner of the relevant dividends, and (2) the corporate shareholder to receive dividends from the PRC subsidiary must have continuously met the direct ownership thresholds during the 12 consecutive months preceding the receipt of the dividends. Further, the SAT promulgated the Notice on How to Understand and Recognize the "Beneficial Owner" in Tax Treaties on October 27, 2009, which limits the "beneficial owner" to individuals, enterprises or other organizations normally engaged in substantive operations, and sets forth certain detailed factors in determining the "beneficial owner" status.

        Entitlement to a lower tax rate on dividends according to tax treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions is subject to SAT Circular 60 which provides that non-resident enterprises are not required to obtain pre-approval from the relevant tax authority in order to enjoy the reduced withholding tax. Instead, non-resident enterprises and their withholding agents may, by self-assessment and on confirmation that the prescribed criteria to enjoy the tax treaty benefits are met, directly apply the reduced withholding tax rate, and file necessary forms and supporting documents when performing tax filings, which will be subject to post-tax filing examinations by the relevant tax authorities. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be entitled to any preferential withholding tax rate under tax treaties for dividends received from our PRC subsidiary.

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We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfer of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

        We face uncertainties regarding the reporting on and consequences of previous private equity financing transactions involving the transfer and exchange of shares in our company by non-resident investors.

        In February 2015, the SAT issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7, as amended in 2017. which replaced certain clauses of the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on Strengthening the Administration of Enterprise Income Tax on Non-resident Enterprises' Equity Transfer Income issued by the SAT in December 2009. Pursuant to this bulletin, an "indirect transfer" of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. According to SAT Bulletin 7, "PRC taxable assets" include assets attributed to an establishment in China, immovable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a "reasonable commercial purpose" of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consist of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the tax situation of such indirect transfer and applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immovable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax of 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. Where the payor fails to withhold any or sufficient tax, the transferor is required to declare and pay such tax to the tax authority by itself within the statutory time limit. Late payment of applicable tax will subject the transferor to default interest. SAT Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.

        There is uncertainty as to the application of SAT Bulletin 7. We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries or investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions under SAT Bulletin 7. In 2014, we repurchased certain number of ordinary shares in CooTek (Cayman) Inc. from an existing shareholder for the consideration of US$9.3 million. The existing shareholder undertook to make the necessary tax filings in relation to this repurchase by herself and to indemnify us against any losses arising from the failure to make such tax filings. However, we cannot assure you that, if the existing shareholder fails to make necessary tax filings, the

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tax authority would not require us to make such tax filings and even subject us to fines. As of the date of this prospectus, we have neither received any notice of warning nor been subject to any penalties or other disciplinary action from the relevant government authorities regarding such tax filing. For transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiary may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars.

China's M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

        The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, and other recently adopted regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex. For example, the M&A Rules require that MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise, if (i) any important industry is concerned, (ii) such transaction involves factors that impact or may impact national economic security, or (iii) such transaction will lead to a change in control of a domestic enterprise which holds a famous trademark or PRC time-honored brand. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress in August 2007 and effective in August 2008 requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds (i.e., during the previous fiscal year, (i) the total global turnover of all operators participating in the transaction exceeds RMB10 billion and at least two of these operators each had a turnover of more than RMB400 million within China, or (ii) the total turnover within China of all the operators participating in the concentration exceeded RMB2 billion, and at least two of these operators each had a turnover of more than RMB400 million within China) must be cleared by MOFCOM before they can be completed. In addition, in February 2011, the General Office of the State Council promulgated a Notice on Establishing the Security Review System for Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the Circular 6, which officially established a security review system for mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises by foreign investors. Further, in August 2011, MOFCOM promulgated the Regulations on Implementation of Security Review System for the Merger and Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the MOFCOM Security Review Regulations, to implement the Circular 6. Under Circular 6, a security review is required for mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors having "national defense and security" concerns and mergers and acquisitions by which foreign investors may acquire the "de facto control" of domestic enterprises with "national security" concerns. Under the MOFCOM Security Review Regulations, MOFCOM will focus on the substance and actual impact of the transaction when deciding whether a specific merger or acquisition is subject to security review. If MOFCOM decides that a specific merger or acquisition is subject to security review, it will submit it to the Inter-Ministerial Panel, an authority established under the Circular 6 led by the National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC, and MOFCOM under the leadership of the State Council, to carry out security review. The regulations prohibit foreign investors from bypassing the security review by structuring transactions through trusts, indirect investments, leases, loans, control through contractual arrangements or offshore transactions. There is no explicit provision or official interpretation stating that the merging or acquisition of a company engaged in the internet information services, online games, online audio-visual program services and related businesses requires security review, and there is no requirement that acquisitions completed prior to the promulgation of the Security Review Circular are subject to MOFCOM review.

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        In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or its local counterparts may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions. It is unclear whether our business would be deemed to be in an industry that raises "national defense and security" or "national security" concerns. However, MOFCOM or other government agencies may publish explanations in the future determining that our business is in an industry subject to the security review, in which case our future acquisitions in the PRC, including those by way of entering into contractual control arrangements with target entities, may be closely scrutinized or prohibited.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiary's ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us to liability and penalties under PRC law.

        In July 2014, the SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Relating to Domestic Resident's Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, which replaced the Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents' Corporate Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles, or Circular 75. Circular 37 requires PRC residents or entities to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing. In addition, such PRC residents or entities must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes material events relating to any change of basic information (including change of such PRC citizens or residents, name and operation term), increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, or mergers or divisions. According to the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Policies for the Foreign Exchange Administration of Direct Investment released on February 13, 2015 by the SAFE, local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registration for overseas direct investment, including the initial foreign exchange registration and amendment registration, under SAFE Circular 37 from June 1, 2015.

        If our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiary may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the SAFE registration described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.

        Karl Kan Zhang, Susan Qiaoling Li, Michael Jialing Wang, Jim Jian Wang and Haiyan Zhu, who directly or indirectly hold shares in CooTek (Cayman) Inc. and who are PRC residents, have completed the SAFE registration in connection with our financings and have committed to update their registration filings with SAFE under SAFE Circular 75 or Circular 37 when any changes should be registered under SAFE Circular 75 or Circular 37. However, we may not at all times be fully aware or informed of the identities of all our shareholders or beneficial owners that are required to make such registrations, and we cannot compel our beneficial owners to comply with SAFE registration requirements. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE regulations. Failure by such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with SAFE regulations, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiary, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our subsidiary's ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

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Failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock ownership plans or share option plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

        Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies due to their position as director, senior management or employees of the PRC subsidiaries of the overseas companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. Our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted options may follow SAFE Circular 37 to apply for the foreign exchange registration before our company becomes an overseas listed company. In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies, or the Stock Option Rules. Under the Stock Option Rules and other relevant rules and regulations, PRC residents who participate in stock incentive plan in an overseas publicly-listed company are required to register with SAFE or its local branches and complete certain other procedures. Participants of a stock incentive plan who are PRC residents must retain a qualified PRC agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas publicly listed company or another qualified institution selected by such PRC subsidiary, to conduct the SAFE registration and other procedures with respect to the stock incentive plan on behalf of its participants. Such participants must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of stock options, the purchase and sale of corresponding stocks or interests and fund transfers. In addition, the PRC agent is required to amend the SAFE registration with respect to the stock incentive plan if there is any material change to the stock incentive plan, the PRC agent or the overseas entrusted institution or other material changes. We and our PRC employees who have been granted stock options will be subject to these regulations upon the completion of this offering. Failure of our PRC stock option holders to complete their SAFE registrations may subject these PRC residents to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiary, limit our PRC subsidiary's ability to distribute dividends to us, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business.

PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering to make loans to our PRC subsidiary and consolidated affiliated entities, or to make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary.

        We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our PRC subsidiary and consolidated affiliated entities. We may make loans to our PRC subsidiary and consolidated affiliated entities, or we may make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, or we may establish new PRC subsidiary and make capital contributions to these new PRC subsidiaries, or we may acquire offshore entities with business operations in China in an offshore transaction.

        Most of these ways are subject to PRC regulations and approvals. For example, loans by us to our wholly owned PRC subsidiary to finance its activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of SAFE. If we decide to finance our wholly owned PRC subsidiary by means of capital contributions, these capital contributions are subject to the requirement of making necessary filings with the MOFCOM and registration with other governmental authorities in China. Due to the restrictions imposed on loans in foreign currencies extended to any PRC domestic companies, we are not likely to make such loans to our consolidated affiliated entities, which are PRC domestic company. Further, we are not likely to finance the activities of our consolidated affiliated entities by means of capital contributions due to regulatory restrictions relating to foreign investment in PRC domestic enterprises engaged in internet information services, online games, online audio-visual program services and related businesses.

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        The SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, effective in June 2015. According to SAFE Circular 19, the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that RMB capital may not be used for the issuance of RMB entrusted loans, the repayment of inter-enterprise loans or the repayment of banks loans that have been transferred to a third party. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within the PRC, it also reiterates the principle that RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. Thus, it is unclear whether SAFE will permit such capital to be used for equity investments in the PRC in actual practice. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective in June 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold, including the net proceeds from this offering, to our PRC subsidiary, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in the PRC.

        In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our PRC subsidiary or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiary. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we received from our initial public offering and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

Fluctuation in the value of the RMB may have a material adverse effect on the value of your investment.

        The value of the RMB against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions in China and by China's foreign exchange policies. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its decade-old policy of pegging the value of the RMB to the U.S. dollar, and the RMB appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since October 1, 2016, the RMB has joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF)'s basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right (SDR), along with the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the British pound. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the RMB has depreciated significantly in the backdrop of a surging U.S. dollar and persistent capital outflows of China. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and RMB internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system and we cannot assure you that the RMB will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar in the future.

        A majority of our costs and a certain percentage of our revenues are denominated in RMB. Any significant depreciation of the RMB may materially adversely affect the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. Dollars. To the extent that we need to convert U.S. Dollars we receive

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from this offering into RMB for our operations, appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. Dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our RMB into U.S. Dollars for the purpose of paying dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. Dollar against the RMB would have an adverse effect on the U.S. Dollar amount available to us.

The audit report included in this prospectus is prepared by an auditor who is not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

        The independent registered public accounting firm that issued the audit report included in this prospectus, as auditors of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditors are located in the PRC, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditors are not currently inspected by the PCAOB.

        Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside the PRC have identified deficiencies in those firms' audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. This lack of PCAOB inspections in the PRC prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor's audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

        The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in the PRC makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor's audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of the PRC that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

If additional remedial measures are imposed on major PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the SEC requirements.

        Beginning in 2011, the Chinese affiliates of the "big four" accounting firms (including our independent registered public accounting firm) were affected by a conflict between the U.S. and Chinese law. Specifically, for certain U.S. listed companies operating and audited in the PRC, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain access to the audit work papers and related documents of the Chinese affiliates of the "big four" accounting firms. The accounting firms were, however, advised and directed that, under Chinese law, they could not respond directly to the requests of the SEC and the PCAOB and that such requests, and similar requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in the PRC, had to be channeled through the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC.

        In late 2012, this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the "big four" accounting firms (including our independent registered public accounting firm). A first instance trial of these proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC's internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms, including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC. Implementation of the latter penalty was postponed pending review by the SEC Commissioners. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the SEC Commissioners had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepts that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents will normally be made to the CSRC. The firms will receive matching Section 106 requests, and are required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance require them

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to facilitate production via the CSRC. If the firms fail to follow these procedures and meet certain other specified criteria, the SEC retains the authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures, including, as appropriate, an automatic six-month bar on a firm's ability to perform certain audit work, commencement of new proceedings against a firm or, in extreme cases, the resumption of the current administrative proceeding against all four firms.

        In the event that the SEC restarts administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the U.S. with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in their financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against the firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding PRC-based, U.S.-listed companies and the market price of their shares may be adversely affected.

        If our independent registered public accounting firm was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our shares from the New York Stock Exchange or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our shares in the U.S.

Risks Related to Our ADSs and This Offering

The trading price of our ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

        The trading price of our ADSs is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other mobile internet companies based in China that have listed their securities in the United States. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our ADSs may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

    variations in our revenues, earnings, cash flow and data related to our operating metrics;

    announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;

    announcements of new product and service offerings, solutions and expansions by us or our competitors;

    changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

    financial projections that may be provided by us and changes to these projections;

    detrimental adverse publicity about us, our products and services or our industry;

    additions or departures of key personnel;

    release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities; and

    potential litigation or regulatory investigations.

        Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.

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        In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management's attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our operating results. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our dual-class share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

        Upon the completion of this offering, we will create a dual-class share structure such that our ordinary shares shall consist of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. In respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, holders of Class A ordinary shares will be entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B ordinary shares will be entitled to twenty-five (25) votes per share based on our dual-class share structure. We will sell ADSs representing Class A ordinary shares in this offering. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B ordinary shares by a holder to any person or entity other than holders of Class B ordinary shares or their affiliates, such Class B ordinary shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equivalent number of Class A ordinary shares

        Upon the completion of this offering, our chairman of the board of directors and chief architect, Karl Kan Zhang will beneficially own all of our issued Class B ordinary shares. These Class B ordinary shares will constitute approximately 7.7% of our total issued and outstanding share capital and 67.6% of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding share capital immediately after the completion of this offering due to the disparate voting powers associated with our dual-class share structure, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option. See "Principal Shareholders." As a result of the dual-class share structure and the concentration of ownership, holders of Class B ordinary shares will have considerable influence over matters such as decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. Such holders may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could have the effect of depriving our other shareholders of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of our ADSs. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares may adversely affect the trading market for our ADSs.

        S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell have recently announced changes to their eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies on certain indices, including the S&P 500, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares and companies whose public shareholders hold no more than 5% of total voting power from being added to such indices. In addition, several shareholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structures. As a result, the dual class structure of our ordinary shares may prevent the inclusion of our ADSs representing Class A ordinary shares in such indices and may cause shareholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about our corporate governance practices or otherwise seek to cause us to change our capital structure. Any

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such exclusion from indices could result in a less active trading market for our ADSs. Any actions or publications by shareholder advisory firms critical of our corporate governance practices or capital structure could also adversely affect the value of our ADSs.

An active trading market for our ordinary shares or our ADSs may not develop and the trading price for our ADSs may fluctuate significantly.

        We have applied to list our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange. Prior to the completion of this offering, there has been no public market for our ADSs or our ordinary shares, and we cannot assure you that a liquid public market for our ADSs will develop. If an active public market for our ADSs does not develop following the completion of this offering, the market price and liquidity of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected. The initial public offering price for our ADSs was determined by negotiation between us and the underwriters based upon several factors, and we can provide no assurance that the trading price of our ADSs after this offering will not decline below the initial public offering price. As a result, investors in our securities may experience a significant decrease in the value of their ADSs.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

        The trading market for our ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us, or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

Future sale or the perception of a potential sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect our ADRs' market price.

        Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market after the completion of this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. The ADSs sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. There will be 4,350,000 ADSs (equivalent to 217,500,000 Class A ordinary shares) outstanding immediately after this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option. In connection with this offering, we and our officers, directors and existing shareholders have agreed not to sell any ordinary shares or ADSs for 180 days after the date of this prospectus without the prior written consent of the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions. However, the underwriters may release these securities from these restrictions at any time, subject to applicable regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs. See "Underwriting" and "Shares Eligible for Future Sale" for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our securities after this offering.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our ADSs for return on your investment.

        We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

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        Pursuant to our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend either out of profits or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our ADSs.

We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds from this offering, and we may use these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree.

        We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds of this offering, and our management will have considerable discretion in deciding how to apply these proceeds. You will not have the opportunity to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately before you make your investment decision. You must rely on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds of this offering. We cannot assure you that the net proceeds will be used in a manner that would improve our results of operations or increase our ADS price, nor that these net proceeds will be placed only in investments that generate income or appreciate in value.

You may be subject to PRC income tax on dividends from us or on any gain realized on the transfer of our ADSs.

        Under the EIT Law and its implementation rules, subject to any applicable tax treaty or similar arrangement between the PRC and your jurisdiction of residence that provides for a different income tax arrangement, PRC withholding tax at the rate of 10% is normally applicable to dividends from PRC sources payable to investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC, or which have such establishment or place of business if the relevant income is not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business. Any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such non-PRC resident enterprise investors is also subject to 10% PRC income tax if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC, unless a tax treaty or similar arrangement provides otherwise. Under the PRC Individual Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, dividends from sources within the PRC paid to foreign individual investors who are not PRC residents are generally subject to a PRC withholding tax at a rate of 20% and gains from PRC sources realized by such investors on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares are generally subject to 20% PRC income tax, in each case, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties and similar arrangements and PRC laws. Although substantially all of our business operations are in China, it is unclear whether dividends we pay with respect to our ADSs, or the gain realized from the transfer of our ADSs, would be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and as a result be subject to PRC income tax if we were considered a PRC resident enterprise, as described above. If PRC income tax were imposed on gains realized through the transfer of our ADSs or on dividends paid to our non-PRC resident investors, the value of your investment in our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, our ADS holders whose jurisdictions

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of residence have tax treaties or similar arrangements with China may not qualify for benefits under such tax treaties or arrangements.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares.

        A non-U.S. corporation will be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of its gross income for such year consists of certain types of "passive" income; or (ii) at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets) during such year is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income (the "asset test"). Based on our current and expected income and assets (taking into account the expected cash proceeds and our anticipated market capitalization following this offering), we do not presently expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future. However, no assurance can be given in this regard because the determination of whether we are or will become a PFIC is a fact-intensive inquiry made on an annual basis that depends, in part, upon the composition of our income and assets. Fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years because the value of our assets for the purpose of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs. The composition of our income and assets may also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets and the cash raised in this offering.

        If we were to be or become a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in "Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations") holds our ADSs or ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. Holder. See "Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules."

The approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission may be required in connection with this offering under PRC law.

        The M&A Rules, which were adopted in 2006 by six PRC regulatory agencies, including the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or CSRC, and amended in 2009, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain CSRC approval prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. In September 2006, the CSRC published on its official website procedures regarding its approval of overseas listings by special purpose vehicles. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear, and this offering may ultimately require approval from the CSRC. If CSRC approval is required, it is uncertain how long it will take us to obtain the approval. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining CSRC approval for this offering would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC regulatory agencies, which could include fines and penalties on our operations in China, restrictions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends outside of China, and other forms of sanctions that may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        Our PRC counsel, Junhe LLP, has advised us that, based on its understanding of the current PRC laws and regulations, we are not required to submit an application to the CSRC for the approval of the listing and trading of our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange because (i) the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings like ours under this prospectus are subject to this regulation, and (ii) our wholly owned PRC subsidiary was established for accepting foreign direct investment, rather than through a merger or acquisition of a domestic company as defined under the M&A Rules, and no provision in the M&A Rules clearly classifies the contractual arrangements among Shanghai Chule, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective

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shareholders as a type of transaction subject to the M&A Rules. However, we cannot assure you that relevant PRC government agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as our PRC counsel, and hence we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before settlement and delivery of the ADSs offered hereby. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, you do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory agencies later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals for this offering, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties and/or negative publicity regarding such approval requirement could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of the ADSs.

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

        We have adopted amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering. Our new memorandum and articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our planned dual-class voting structure gives disproportionate voting power to holders of the Class B ordinary shares. In addition, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our Class A ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

        We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law (2018 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders, and the fiduciary duties owed to us by our directors under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties owed to us by our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman

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Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

        Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our memorandum and articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for our shareholders to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for them to motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

        As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Companies Law of the Cayman Islands and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see "Description of Share Capital—Differences in Corporate Law."

ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

        The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our ordinary shares provides that, subject to the depositary's right to require a claim to be submitted to arbitration, the federal or state courts in the City of New York have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine claims arising under the deposit agreement and in that regard, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

        If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable U.S. state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the U.S. federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before entering into the deposit agreement.

        If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under U.S. federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and/or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

        Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not enforced, to the extent a court action proceeds, it would proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or

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beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

        We are a Cayman Islands company and almost all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Substantially all of our daily operations are conducted in China. In addition, substantially all of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States, and substantially all of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. For more information regarding the relevant laws of the Cayman Islands and China, see "Enforceability of Civil Liabilities."

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

        We are an "emerging growth company," as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 for so long as we remain an emerging growth company until the fifth anniversary from the date of our initial listing. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important. In addition, pursuant to the JOBS Act, we have elected to take advantage of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. As a result, our operating results and financial statements may not be comparable to the operating results and financial statements of other companies who have adopted the new or revised accounting standards. If we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will no longer be able to take advantage of these exemptions or the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards.

        We cannot predict if investors will find our ADSs less attractive or our company less comparable to certain other public companies because we will rely on these exemptions and election. If some investors find our ADSs less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ADSs and our ADS price may be more volatile.

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an "emerging growth company."

        Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an "emerging growth company" pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, in the assessment of the emerging growth company's internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private

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companies. We have elected to take advantage of such extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies.

        We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an "emerging growth company," we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

As a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.

        As a Cayman Islands company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, we are subject to the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. However, NYSE rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. Currently, we do not plan to rely on home country practice with respect to our corporate governance after we complete this offering. However, if we choose to follow home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they would otherwise enjoy under the NYSE governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

        Because we are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

    the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC;

    the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

    the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

    the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

        We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. Press releases

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relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information, which would be made available to you, were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to vote your Class A ordinary shares.

        Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder of our ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights which are carried by the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in directly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try, as far as is practicable, to vote the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. If we ask for your instructions, then upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with these instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions you give, but it is not required to do so. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares unless you withdraw the shares, and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of the meeting to withdraw the shares underlying your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares to allow you to attend the general meeting and to vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. In addition, under our post-offering amended and restated articles of association that will become effective prior to completion of this offering, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled to attend and vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members and/or fix in advance a record date for such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs and becoming the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. If we ask for your instructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the shares underlying your ADSs are voted and you may have no legal remedy if the shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

You may experience dilution of your holdings due to inability to participate in rights offerings.

        We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have

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a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

        Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled "Prospectus Summary," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business." Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under "Risk Factors," may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

        You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as "may," "will," "expect," "anticipate," "aim," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "believe," "is/are likely to," "potential," "continue" or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

    our mission and strategies;

    our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations;

    the expected growth of the mobile internet industry and mobile advertising industry;

    the expected growth of mobile advertising;

    our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

    competition in our industry; and

    relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.

        These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Important risks and factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations are generally set forth in "Prospectus Summary—Our Challenges," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," "Business," "Regulation" and other sections in this prospectus. You should read thoroughly this prospectus and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

        This prospectus contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The mobile internet industry and mobile advertising industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of our ADSs. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of the mobile internet industry and mobile advertising industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

        The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$49.2 million, or approximately US$57.1 million if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and the estimated offering expenses payable by us. These estimates are based upon an assumed initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, the mid-point of the price range shown on the front cover page of this prospectus. A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by US$4.0 million, assuming no change to the number of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.

        The primary purposes of this offering are to create a public market for our shares for the benefit of all shareholders, retain talented employees by providing them with equity incentives, and obtain additional capital. We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering as follows:

    Approximately US$15.0 million for research and development, to continue to invest in our technological capabilities, particularly big data analytics and AI technology, and to develop new products and services;

    Approximately US$15.0 million for sales and marketing efforts, including promotional activities for our products to acquire users; and

    the balance for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital needs, and potential strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances.

        The foregoing represents our current intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions to use and allocate the net proceeds of this offering. Our management, however, will have significant flexibility and discretion to apply the net proceeds of this offering. If an unforeseen event occurs or business conditions change, we may use the proceeds of this offering differently than as described in this prospectus. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our ADSs and This Offering—We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds from this offering, and we may use these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree."

        Pending any use described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing, debt instruments or demand deposits.

        In using the proceeds of this offering, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations as an offshore holding company to provide funding to our PRC subsidiary only through loans or capital contributions and to our VIEs only through loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering to make loans to our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities and its subsidiaries, or to make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries."

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DIVIDEND POLICY

        Our board of directors has complete discretion on whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend either out of profit or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant.

        We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business.

        We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We may rely on dividends from our subsidiaries in China for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. PRC regulations may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us. See "Regulation—Regulations Related to Foreign Currency Exchange and Dividend Distribution."

        If we pay any dividends on our ordinary shares, we will pay those dividends which are payable in respect of the Class A ordinary shares underlying our ADSs to the depositary, as the registered holder of such Class A ordinary shares, and the depositary then will pay such amounts to our ADS holders in proportion to Class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs held by such ADS holders, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, including the fees and expenses payable thereunder. See "Description of American Depositary Shares." Cash dividends on our Class A ordinary shares, if any, will be paid in U.S. dollars.

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CAPITALIZATION

        The following table sets forth our capitalization as of June 30, 2018:

    on an actual basis;

    on a pro forma basis to reflect (i) the re-designation of all the 246,224,465 issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investments Inc. into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering; (ii) the re-designation of all of our remaining issued and outstanding ordinary shares and all of our issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately upon the completion of this offering; and

    on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect (i) the re-designation of all the 246,224,465 issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investments Inc. into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering; (ii) the re-designation of all of our remaining issued and outstanding ordinary shares and all of our issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately upon the completion of this offering and (ii) the sale of 217,500,000 Class A ordinary shares in the form of ADSs by us in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price shown on the front cover of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, assuming the underwriters do not exercise the over-allotment option.

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        You should read this table together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the information under "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

 
  As of June 30, 2018  
 
  Actual   Pro Forma   Pro Forma As
Adjusted(1)
 
 
  US$
  US$
  US$
 

Convertible redeemable preferred shares:

                   

Convertible redeemable preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value; 2,079,938,011 shares authorized, issued and outstanding on an actual basis; none issued and outstanding on a pro forma or a pro forma as adjusted basis)

    156,367,810          

Shareholders' equity (deficit):

                   

Ordinary shares (US$0.00001 par value; 2,920,061,989 shares authorized, 898,393,690 shares issued and outstanding on an actual basis)

    8,984          

Class A ordinary shares (US$0.00001 par value; 13,750,000,000 shares authorized(3), 2,732,107,236 shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis and 2,949,607,236 shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma as adjusted basis)

        27,321     29,496  

Class B ordinary shares (US$0.00001 par value; 250,000,000 shares authorized(3), 246,224,465 shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis and on a pro forma adjusted basis)

        2,462     2,462  

Additional paid-in capital(2)

    1,767,785     158,114,796     207,284,901  

Accumulated deficit

    (123,388,321 )   (123,388,321 )   (123,388,321 )

Accumulated other comprehensive income

    (881,252 )   (881,252 )   (881,252 )

Total shareholders' (deficit) equity(2)

    (122,492,804 )   33,875,006     83,047,286  

Total capitalization(2)

    33,875,006     33,875,006     83,047,286  

(1)
The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our additional paid-in capital, total shareholders' equity and total capitalization following the completion of this offering are subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

(2)
A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) each of additional paid-in capital, total shareholders' equity, total equity and total capitalization by US$4.0 million.

(3)
Immediately upon the completion of this offering, 13,750,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares and 250,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares will be authorized, as shown in the pro forma as adjusted information discussed above. Additionally 1,000,000,000 shares of such class or classes will be authorized as the Board may determine in accordance with our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association.

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DILUTION

        If you invest in our ADSs, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ADS and our net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the initial public offering price per ordinary share is substantially in excess of the book value per ordinary share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding ordinary shares.

        Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2018 was approximately US$(122.5) million, or US$(0.14) per ordinary share as of that date and US$(6.82) per ADS. Net tangible book value represents the amount of our total consolidated tangible assets, less the amount of our total consolidated liabilities. Dilution is determined by subtracting net tangible book value per ordinary share, after giving effect to the additional proceeds we will receive from this offering, from the assumed initial public offering price of US$0.26 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus adjusted to reflect the ADS-to-ordinary share ratio, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Because the Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same dividend and other rights, except for voting and conversion rights, the dilution is presented based on all issued and outstanding ordinary shares, including Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares.

        Without taking into account any other changes in net tangible book value after June 30, 2018, other than to give effect to (i) the re-designation of all the 246,224,465 issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investments Inc. into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering; (ii) the re-designation of all of our remaining issued and outstanding ordinary shares and all of our issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering; and (iii) our sale of the ADSs offered in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS, the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price, after deduction of the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2018 would have been US$83.0 million, or US$0.03 per ordinary share and US$1.30 per ADS. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$0.17 per ordinary share and US$8.12 per ADS to the existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$0.23 per ordinary share and US$11.70 per ADS to investors purchasing ADSs in this offering. The following table illustrates such dilution:

 
  Per Ordinary
Share
  Per ADS  

Assumed initial public offering price

  US$ 0.26   US$ 13.00  

Net tangible book value as of June 30, 2018

  US$ (0.14 ) US$ (6.82 )

Pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to (i) the re-designation of all the issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investments Inc. into Class B ordinary shares; (ii) the re-designation of all of our remaining issued and outstanding ordinary shares and all of our issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares

  US$ 0.01   US$ 0.57  

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to (i) the re-designation of all the issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by Kan's Global CoolStuff Investments Inc. into Class B ordinary shares; (ii) the re-designation of all of our remaining issued and outstanding ordinary shares and all of our issued and outstanding preferred shares into Class A ordinary shares; and (iii) this offering

  US$ 0.03   US$ 1.30  

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value to new investors in this offering

  US$ 0.23   US$ 11.70  

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        A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of US$13.00 per ADS would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to this offering by US$4.0 million, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share and per ADS after giving effect to this offering by US$0.001 per ordinary share and US$0.06 per ADS and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share and per ADS to new investors in this offering by US$0.02 per ordinary share and US$0.94 per ADS, assuming no change to the number of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses.

        The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of June 30, 2018, the differences between existing shareholders and the new investors with respect to the number of ordinary shares (in the form of ADSs or shares) purchased from us, the total consideration paid and the average price per ordinary share and per ADS paid before deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The total number of ordinary shares does not include ordinary shares underlying the ADSs issuable upon the exercise of the over-allotment option granted to the underwriters.

 
  Ordinary Shares
Purchased
   
   
   
   
 
 
  Total Consideration    
   
 
 
  Average
Price Per
Ordinary Share
  Average
Price Per
ADS
 
 
  Number   Percent   Amount   Percent  

Existing shareholders

    2,978,331,701     93.19 % US$ 158,144,579     73.66 % US$ 0.05   US$ 2.65  

New investors

    217,500,000     6.81 % US$ 56,550,000     26.34 % US$ 0.26   US$ 13.00  

Total

    3,195,831,701     100.00 % US$ 214,694,579     100.0 %                              

        The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our net tangible book value following the completion of this offering is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of our ADSs and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

        The discussion and tables above assume no exercise of any outstanding share options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus. Our net tangible book value following the completion of this offering is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of our ADSs and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

        We are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company with limited liability. We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands because of certain benefits associated with being a Cayman Islands exempted company, such as political and economic stability, an effective judicial system, a favorable tax system, the absence of foreign exchange control or currency restrictions and the availability of professional and support services. However, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States and provides less protection for investors. In addition, Cayman Islands companies do not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

        Substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. In addition, most of our directors and officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and all or a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or these persons, or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against us or them, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. It may also be difficult for you to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors.

        We have appointed Puglisi & Associates, located at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711, as our agent to receive service of process with respect to any action brought against us in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York in connection with this offering under the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any State in the United States or any action brought against us in the Supreme Court of the State of New York in the County of New York in connection with this offering under the securities laws of the State of New York.

        Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP, our legal counsel as to Cayman Islands law, has advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands would (1) recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any state in the United States, or (2) entertain original actions brought in the Cayman Islands against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any state in the United States.

        Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP has informed us that although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States (and the Cayman Islands are not a party to any treaties for the reciprocal enforcement or recognition of such judgments), a judgment in personam obtained in such jurisdiction will be recognized and enforced in the courts of the Cayman Islands at common law, without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute, by an action commenced on the foreign judgment debt in the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, provided such judgment (a) is given by a competent foreign court with jurisdiction to give the judgment, (b) imposes a specific positive obligation on the judgment debtor (such as an obligation to pay a liquidated sum or perform a specified obligation), (c) is final and conclusive, (d) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty; and (e) was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands. However, the Cayman Islands courts are unlikely to enforce a judgment obtained from the U.S. courts under civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities law if such judgment is determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands to give rise to obligations to make payments that are penal or punitive in nature. Because such a determination has not yet been made by a court of the Cayman Islands, it is uncertain whether such civil liability judgments from U.S. courts would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands. A Cayman Islands Court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.

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        Junhe LLP, our counsel as to PRC law, has advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of China would (1) recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States, or (2) entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

        Junhe LLP has further advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or in the Cayman Islands. Under the PRC Civil Procedures Law, foreign shareholders may originate actions based on PRC law against a company in the PRC for disputes relating to contracts or other property interests, the PRC court may accept a course of action based on the laws or the parties' express mutual agreement in contracts choosing PRC courts for dispute resolution if (a) the contract is signed and/or performed within the PRC, (b) the subject of the action is located within the PRC, (c) the company (as defendant) has seizable properties within the PRC, (d) the company has a representative organization within the PRC, or (e) other circumstances prescribed under the PRC law. The action may be initiated by a shareholder through filing a complaint with the PRC court. The PRC court will determine whether to accept the complaint in accordance with the PRC Civil Procedures Law. The shareholder may participate in the action by itself or entrust any other person or PRC legal counsel to participate on behalf of such shareholder. Foreign citizens and companies will have the same rights as PRC citizens and companies in an action unless the home jurisdiction of such foreign citizens or companies restricts the rights of PRC citizens and companies.

        In addition, it will be difficult for U.S. shareholders to originate actions against us in the PRC in accordance with PRC laws because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and it will be difficult for U.S. shareholders, by virtue only of holding our ADSs or ordinary shares, to establish a connection to the PRC for a PRC court to have jurisdiction as required under the PRC Civil Procedures Law.

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CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

        We commenced our mobile internet business and launched our first mobile application, TouchPal Smart Input, in 2008. We initially conducted our business through Shanghai Hanxiang (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Hanxiang, a PRC domestic company.

        In March 2012, we incorporated CooTek (Cayman) Inc., or CooTek Cayman, as our offshore holding company in order to facilitate foreign investment in our company. We established CooTek Hong Kong Limited, or CooTek HK, as our intermediate holding company, which in turn established a wholly-owned PRC subsidiary, Shanghai Chule (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Chule or WFOE, in June 2012. Subsequently, we, through our WFOE, entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Hanxiang and its shareholders whereby we were established as the primary beneficiary of Shanghai Hanxiang. We have recognized the net assets of Shanghai Hanxiang at historical cost with no change in basis in the consolidated financial statements upon the completion of this reorganization.

        In March 2012, we formed a PRC domestic company, Shanghai Chubao (CooTek) Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Chubao, to operate part of our Chinese business.

        In September 2014, we incorporated TouchPal HK Co., Limited to operate our overseas business.

        In July 2015, we incorporated TouchPal Inc., a U.S. company, to operate a research and development center in Silicon Valley and acquire talents from the U.S.

        Due to restrictions imposed by PRC laws and regulations on foreign ownership of companies that engaged in mobile internet and mobile advertising businesses, our WFOE also entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Chubao and two other domestic companies we established in 2017, and their respective shareholders. We collectively refer to these three domestic entities and Shanghai Hanxiang as our VIEs in this prospectus. Shanghai Chubao is currently our principal operating entity in China. The business of Shanghai Hanxiang was migrated into other entities in our group, and Shanghai Hanxiang has gradually ceased its business operations since 2012. As of the date of this prospectus, Shanghai Hanxiang and the other two domestic companies do not have any substantive business operations. For more details and risks related to our variable interest entity structure, please see "—Contractual Arrangements with Our VIEs and Their Respective Shareholders" and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure." As a result of our direct ownership in our WFOE and the variable interest entity contractual arrangements, we are regarded as the primary beneficiary of our VIEs. We treat them as our consolidated affiliated entities under U.S. GAAP, and have consolidated the financial results of these entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

        Our officers, directors and principal shareholders currently hold an aggregate of 77.8% of the total voting power in our company. Immediately after this offering, our officers, directors and principal shareholders will hold an aggregate of 90.3% of the total voting power in our company and will continue to exercise substantial control over our company.

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        The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our significant subsidiaries and other entities that are material to our business, as of the date of this prospectus:

GRAPHIC


(1)
Karl Kan Zhang, Susan Qiaoling Li, Michael Jialiang Wang, Jim Jian Wang and Haiyan Zhu are beneficial owners of CooTek (Cayman) Inc. and hold 25.0%, 21.94%, 21.94%, 13.12% and 18.0% of the equity interests in Shanghai Chubao, respectively. Except for Haiyan Zhu, the other shareholders of Shanghai Chubao are directors and employees of CooTek (Cayman) Inc.

Contractual Arrangements with Our VIEs and Their Respective Shareholders

        The following is a summary of our contractual arrangements with respect to Shanghai Chubao and other VIEs.

Agreements that provide us effective control over Shanghai Chubao

        Loan Agreement.    On August 6, 2012, the WFOE and each shareholder of Shanghai Chubao entered into loan agreement. Pursuant to such agreements, the WFOE will provide loan to the shareholders of Shanghai Chubao solely for the purpose of capital contribution. The shareholders of Shanghai Chubao should pledge their equity interests in Shanghai Chubao and enter into an equity pledge agreement to secure such loan and other obligations. The shareholders can only repay the loans by the sale of all their equity interest in Shanghai Chubao to WFOE or its designated person. Each loan agreement will remain effective for 10 years, and will be automatically renewed by 3 years upon the option of the WFOE.

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        Equity Pledge Agreement.    On August 6, 2012, the WFOE and Shanghai Chubao and each of its shareholders entered into an equity pledge agreement, which was subsequently amended and restated on October 30, 2012. Pursuant to the amended and restated equity pledge agreement, each shareholder of Shanghai Chubao shall pledges 100% equity interests in Shanghai Chubao to the WFOE to guarantee their and Shanghai Chubao's performance of their obligations under the contractual arrangements including the exclusive business cooperation agreement, exclusive purchase option agreement and the power of attorney. In the event of a breach by Shanghai Chubao or its shareholders of their contractual obligations under these agreements, the WFOE, as pledgee, will have the right to dispose of the pledged equity interests in Shanghai Chubao. The shareholders of Shanghai Chubao also undertakes that, during the term of the equity pledge agreements, they will not dispose of the pledged equity interests or create or allow any encumbrance on the pledged equity interests. During the term of the equity pledge agreements, our WFOE has the right to receive all of the dividends and profits distributed on the pledged equity interests. As of the date of this prospectus, we have completed the registration of the equity pledges with the relevant office of the administration for industry and commerce in accordance with the PRC Property Rights Law.

        Power of Attorney.    On October 30, 2012, each shareholder of Shanghai Chubao granted irrevocable and exclusive power of attorney to the WFOE as his/her attorney-in-fact to exercise all shareholder rights, including, but not limited to, attend shareholders meeting of Shanghai Chubao, voting on their behalf on all matters of Shanghai Chubao, disposing of all or part of the shareholder's equity interest in Shanghai Chubao, and electing, appointing or removing legal representative, directors, supervisors and executive officers of Shanghai Chubao. Each power of attorney will remain in force for so long as the shareholder remains a shareholder of Shanghai Chubao. Each shareholder has waived all the rights which have been authorized to our WFOE under each power of attorney.

        Spouse Consent Letters.    Pursuant to the spouse consent letters dated October 30, 2012, each spouse of the shareholders of Shanghai Chubao, if any, confirmed that his/her spouse can perform the obligations under the contractual arrangements and has sole discretion to amend and terminate the contractual arrangements. Each spouse agreed that the equity interest in Shanghai Chubao held by and registered in the name of his/her spouse will be disposed of pursuant to the amended and restated equity pledge agreement, the amended and restated exclusive option agreement and the power of attorney. In addition, in the event that each spouse obtains any equity interest in Shanghai Chubao held by his/her spouse for any reason, he/she agreed to be bound by the contractual arrangements.

Agreement that allows us to receive economic benefits from Shanghai Chubao

        Exclusive Business Cooperation Agreement.    On August 6, 2012, our WFOE and Shanghai Chubao entered into an exclusive business cooperation agreement. Under such agreement, our WFOE has the exclusive right to provide Shanghai Chubao with operational support and technology and consulting services. The WFOE owns the exclusive intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. Shanghai Chubao agrees to pay our WFOE a monthly service fee, at an amount equal to 100% of Shanghai Chubao's monthly revenue or an amount otherwise agreed by the WFOE. This agreement will remain effective unless terminated unilaterally by the WFOE or otherwise as required by applicable PRC laws and regulations.

Agreement that provides us with the option to purchase the equity interest in Shanghai Chubao

        Exclusive Purchase Option Agreement.    On August 6, 2012, the WFOE and each shareholder of Shanghai Chubao entered into an exclusive purchase option agreement, which was subsequently amended and restated on October 30, 2012. Pursuant to the amended and restated exclusive purchase option agreement, each shareholder of Shanghai Chubao irrevocably grants our WFOE an exclusive option to purchase, or have its designated person to purchase, at its discretion, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of the shareholder's equity interests in Shanghai Chubao. In addition, the

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purchase price should be the amount of registered capital, which may be subject to fair value adjustments if required by the PRC laws. Without the prior written consent of the WFOE, the shareholders of Shanghai Chubao may not amend its articles of association, increase or decrease the registered capital, dispose of its assets or business, create any encumbrance on its assets or business, incur any debts or guarantee liabilities, enter into any material contracts, merger with or acquire any other persons or make any investments, provide any loans for any third parties or distribute dividends to the shareholders. Each shareholder of Shanghai Chubao agrees that, without the prior written consent of the WFOE, he/she will not dispose of his/her equity interests in Shanghai Chubao or create or allow any encumbrance on the equity interests. Each exclusive purchase option agreement will remain effective unless the agreement is required to be terminated by applicable PRC laws and regulations.

        The WFOE, the other three VIEs and their respective shareholders have entered into contractual arrangements which contain agreements and terms substantially similar to our contractual arrangements with Shanghai Chubao and its shareholders described above, except that the WFOE did not extended any loans to the shareholders of Shanghai Hanxiang and the option to purchase the equity interest of Shanghai Hanxiang can be exercised at a nominal price pursuant to its exclusive purchase option agreement. As of the date of this prospectus, the registration of the equity pledges over the equity interests of the other three VIEs have been completed with the relevant office of the administration for industry and commerce in accordance with the PRC Property Rights Law.

        In the opinion of Junhe LLP, our PRC legal counsel:

    the ownership structure of the WFOE and our VIEs is not in violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect; and

    the contractual arrangements among the WFOE, our VIEs and their respective shareholders governed by PRC law are valid, binding and enforceable, and do not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect.

        However, we have been further advised by our PRC legal counsel that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules, and there can be no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will ultimately take a view that is consistent with the opinion stated above. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may in the future take a view that is contrary to or otherwise different from the above opinion of our PRC legal counsel. If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our mobile internet business do not comply with PRC government restrictions on foreign investment in our businesses, we could be subject to severe penalties including being prohibited from continuing operations. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our businesses in China do not comply with PRC regulations on foreign investment in internet and other related businesses, or if these regulations or their interpretation change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations, and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us."

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

        The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and selected consolidated cash flow data have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2018, the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2018 and selected consolidated cash flow data for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2018 are derived from our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods. You should read this Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this prospectus.

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  For the Year Ended
December 31,
  For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$, except for share)
 

Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                         

Net revenues

    11,030,079     37,334,966     9,113,266     50,277,623  

Cost of revenues(1)

    (20,158,565 )   (20,101,386 )   (10,172,085 )   (8,037,508 )

Gross (loss) profit

    (9,128,486 )   17,233,580     (1,058,819 )   42,240,115  

Operating expenses:

                         

Sales and marketing expenses(1)

    (9,396,663 )   (20,161,353 )   (5,652,254 )   (26,345,856 )

Research and development expenses(1)

    (8,691,539 )   (12,868,356 )   (5,646,825 )   (8,322,788 )

General and administrative expenses(1)

    (3,920,057 )   (8,366,698 )   (4,034,049 )   (4,141,460 )

Other operating income, net

    605,890     190,338     117,438     70,212  

Total operating expenses

    (21,402,369 )   (41,206,069 )   (15,215,690 )   (38,739,892 )

(Loss) income from operations

    (30,530,855 )   (23,972,489 )   (16,274,509 )   3,500,223  

Interest income, net

    12,887     481,932     166,087     70,475  

Foreign exchange losses, net

    (188,631 )   (169,556 )   (125,399 )   (59,269 )

(Loss) income before income taxes

    (30,706,599 )   (23,660,113 )   (16,233,821 )   3,511,429  

Income tax expense

        (800 )   (800 )    

Net (loss) income

    (30,706,599 )   (23,660,913 )   (16,234,621 )   3,511,429  

Net (loss) income per ordinary share:

                         

Basic

    (0.03 )   (0.03 )   (0.02 )   0.001  

Diluted

    (0.03 )   (0.03 )   (0.02 )   0.001  

Weighted average shares used in calculating net (loss) income per ordinary share:

                         

Basic

    912,551,946     898,781,587     899,175,914     898,393,690  

Diluted

    912,551,946     898,781,587     899,175,914     1,045,398,678  

Pro forma net (loss) income per ordinary share(2):

                         

Basic

        (0.01 )       0.001  

Diluted

        (0.01 )       0.001  

Pro forma weighted average shares used in calculating pro forma net (loss) income per ordinary share(2):

                         

Basic

        2,976,521,512         2,978,331,701  

Diluted

        2,976,521,512         3,125,336,689  

Non-GAAP Financial Data(3):

                         

Adjusted Net (Loss) Income

    (29,979,386 )   (21,235,969 )   (14,255,524 )   4,402,654  

Adjusted EBITDA

    (29,436,511 )   (20,818,083 )   (14,047,358 )   4,897,483  

(1)
Share-based compensation was allocated in costs of revenues and operating expenses as follows:
 
  For the Year
Ended
December 31,
  For the
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$)
 

Cost of revenues

    24,514     31,510     12,127     23,892  

Sales and marketing expenses

    35,298     70,707     29,956     39,391  

Research and development expenses

    445,084     544,786     274,795     666,679  

General and administrative expenses

    222,317     1,777,941     1,662,219     161,263  

Total

    727,213     2,424,944     1,979,097     891,225  
(2)
The pro forma ordinary shares information is based on the automatic conversion of 2,079,938,011 issued and outstanding preferred shares into ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately upon the completion of this offering.

(3)
See "Prospectus Summary—Summary Consolidated Financial Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measure."

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        The following table presents our selected consolidated balance sheet data for the periods indicated:

 
  As of December 31,   As of
June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$)
 

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

                   

Cash and cash equivalents

    41,056,314     26,720,158     27,688,814  

Total current assets

    47,870,981     43,738,752     47,809,725  

Total assets

    49,353,697     46,261,022     51,008,954  

Total liabilities

    13,454,721     14,814,770     17,133,948  

Convertible redeemable preferred shares

    136,455,592     156,367,810     156,367,810  

Total shareholders' deficit

    (100,556,616 )   (124,921,558 )   (122,492,804 )

        The following table presents our selected consolidated cash flow data for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Year ended
December 31,
  For the Six Months
Ended June 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  (in US$)
 

Selected Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

                         

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities

    (28,435,452 )   (28,049,152 )   (19,799,666 )   4,539,916  

Net cash used in investing activities

    (831,393 )   (1,758,412 )   (1,102,408 )   (948,043 )

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    51,306,960     14,401,620     13,694,494     (1,101,895 )

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

    22,040,115     (15,405,944 )   (7,207,580 )   2,489,978  

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of year

    19,845,488     41,344,623     41,344,623     27,026,240  

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

    (540,980 )   1,087,561     543,542     (1,827,404 )

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of year

    41,344,623     27,026,240     34,680,585     27,688,814  

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Selected Operating Data

DAUs—TouchPal Smart Input
(daily average over the month of)
 
  DAUs—Other Global Portfolio Products
(daily average over the month of)
 

(in millions)

 

(in millions)

GRAPHIC

 

GRAPHIC

MAUs—TouchPal Smart Input 

 

MAUs—Other Global Portfolio Products 

(in millions)

 

(in millions)

GRAPHIC

 

GRAPHIC

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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        You should read the following discussion together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business and operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those we currently anticipate as a result of many factors, including those we describe under "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this prospectus. See "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."

Overview

        We are a fast-growing mobile internet company. Sophisticated big data analytics and proprietary AI capability are the backbone of our business.

        Our global portfolio of mobile applications serves a large global user base, comprised of an average of 132.6 million DAUs across more than 240 countries and regions in June 2018, compared to an average of 75.6 million DAUs in June 2017, representing 75.3% year-on-year growth.

        Our super app, TouchPal Smart Input, is an intelligent input method for mobile devices that supports more than 110 languages. In June 2018, it reached 125.4 million DAUs on average and was launched 72 times per day per active user on average. TouchPal Smart Input generates a massive, diverse set of user interaction data on a daily basis. We employ proprietary AI and big data analytical technologies both to process such data and a large amount of multi-language content that we source and organize from the internet and to develop advanced multilingual natural language processing and semantic understanding technologies. These technologies enable us to obtain in-depth user insights and identify market opportunities, which set the foundation for developing mobile applications that deliver relevant content for five selected verticals including fitness, lifestyle, healthcare, news and short videos, and entertainment. We have also built a rich library of user profiles and interests that allows us to grow our user base effectively.

        Building upon user insights accumulated through our TouchPal Smart Input, we have formulated a systematic approach to developing a global product portfolio, through which we deliver relevant content and grow our user base. These content-rich applications are targeting five selected verticals with large addressable global markets, including fitness, lifestyle, healthcare, news and short videos, and entertainment. In addition to TouchPal Smart Input, we have launched a portfolio of 15 other mobile applications as of June 30, 2018 and most of them are content-rich applications. Those mobile applications reached 9.4 million MAUs and 2.9 million DAUs on average in December 2017 and 22.2 million MAUs and 7.3 million DAUs on average in June 2018. Our user-centric and data-driven approach has enabled us to release appealing products to capture mobile internet users' ever-evolving content needs and help us rapidly attract targeted users.

        We have a proven and scalable monetization capability in mobile advertising. We leverage our in-depth user insights to deliver targeted and engaging advertisements that are relevant to users across our various mobile applications. The effective price per impression and the number of our average daily impressions delivered on our global portfolio products increased by approximately 36% and 537%, respectively, from the first half of 2017 to the first half of 2018.

        We generate revenues primarily from mobile advertising. Our net revenues grew rapidly from US$11.0 million in 2016 to US$37.3 million in 2017, representing 238.5% year-on-year growth. Our net revenues grew rapidly from US$9.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 to US$50.3 million for the same period of 2018, representing 451.7% year-on-year growth. Our net loss decreased from US$30.7 million in 2016 to US$23.7 million in 2017 due to our revenue growth and operating leverage. We recorded net income of US$3.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018, compared to net loss of US$16.2 million for the same period of 2017. We generated gross profit of US$17.2 million in

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2017, compared to gross loss of US$9.1 million in 2016, implying an improvement of gross profit margin from negative 82.8% in 2016 to 46.2% in 2017. We recorded gross profit of US$42.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018, as compared to gross loss of US$1.1 million for the same period of 2017, implying an improvement of gross profit margin from negative 11.6% for the six months ended June 30, 2017 to 84.0% for the same period of 2018. Of our total advertising revenue generated from our global portfolio products, our TouchPal Smart Input contributed substantially all in 2016, approximately 71% in 2017 and 33% in the six months ended June 30, 2018, and our other global portfolio products contributed approximately 29% in 2017 and 67% in the six months ended June 30, 2018.

Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

        We believe our business and results of operations are affected by the following major factors.

Our ability to increase our user base and user engagement

        Our business depends on our ability to grow our global user base and increase users' engagement with our products. As our revenues are primarily derived from our advertising services, the number of users and the frequency with which they use our products and services directly affect the number of advertisements we are able to show and the value of those advertisements. Since our inception, we have experienced rapid growth of the user base of our global product portfolio and we have amassed a diverse user base located in more than 240 countries and regions. In June 2018, the DAUs of our global product portfolio reached 132.6 million on average, compared to 75.6 million in June 2017, representing 75.3% year-on-year growth. Moreover, our global portfolio products also enjoy a high level of user engagement. In June 2018, the DAU/MAU ratio of our super app, TouchPal Smart Input, was 73.0% and it was launched 72 times per day per active user on average. The average number of launch times of TouchPal Smart Input per day per active user in each of the four consecutive quarters ended June 30, 2018 was generally consistent.

        The following table sets forth the average DAUs, MAUs, and DAU/MAU ratios of our global portfolio products for each of the months indicated:

 
  For the Month Ended  
 
  March 31,
2017
  June 30,
2017
  September 30,
2017
  December 31,
2017
  March 31,
2018
  June 30,
2018
 
 
  (in millions, except for the percentages)
 

TouchPal Smart Input

                                     

DAUs

    61.7     75.3     88.7     101.9     115.7     125.4  

MAUs

    96.6     113.8     131.6     148.2     161.6     171.7  

DAU/MAU ratio(1)

    63.8%     66.2%     67.4%     68.7%     71.6%     73.0%  

Other global portfolio products

   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
 

DAUs

    0.1     0.3     0.7     2.9     4.6     7.3  

MAUs

    0.5     0.8     2.3     9.4     14.4     22.2  

DAU/MAU ratio(1)

    22.7%     43.7%     30.0%     31.3%     31.7%     32.7%  

(1)
DAU/MAU ratio refers to, for any period, the ratio calculated by dividing (i) the average DAUs of certain product(s) in the given month, by (ii) the MAU of such product(s) in the given month.

        We also break out the MAUs of our global portfolio products by users' geographic locations. We estimate the geographic locations of our users based on a number of factors, such as a user's IP address and self-disclosed location. Leveraging our established systematic approach to business expansion, we believe that both developed markets and emerging markets present great opportunities

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for us to grow our users and business. The following table sets forth the geographic breakdown of the MAUs of our global portfolio products for the month indicated:

 
  For the month ended
June 30, 2018
 
 
  MAUs of
TouchPal Smart
Input
  MAUs of Other
Global Portfolio
Products
 

North America, Europe & Oceania

    11.2 %   36.3 %

East Asia(1)

    2.7 %   3.6 %

South Asia(2)

    32.6 %   15.7 %

Southeast Asia(3)

    34.0 %   7.6 %

Africa

    15.3 %   11.9 %

Rest of the world

    4.2 %   24.9 %

Total

    100.0 %   100.0 %

(1)
East Asia consists of the following countries and regions: China (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan), Japan, North Korea, Mongolia and South Korea.

(2)
South Asia consists of the following countries and regions: Bhutan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Maldives.

(3)
Southeast Asia consists of the following countries and regions: Timor-Leste, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Philippines, Vietnam and Malaysia.

        The growth of our user base and the increase of our users' engagement benefited from a range of factors, including our continuous innovation of and improvements in user experience with our products and services, improved relevance of the content we deliver with our technology, and effective user acquisition through pre-installation arrangements with mobile device manufacturers and through online distribution platforms, all of which are guided and driven by our in-depth user insights. We expect our user base to further grow and engagement level to further improve. However, our actual results may be materially different from our expectations due to certain factors inherent in our business and industry. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—If we fail to maintain or expand our user base, or if user engagement with our products declines, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected." and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We have significant international operations and plan to continue expanding our operations globally. We may face challenges and business risks presented by our global operations, which may have a material and adverse impact on our business and operating results."

        Different from TouchPal Smart Input and our other global portfolio products, our TouchPal Phonebook app targets the Chinese domestic market, allowing users in China to make phone calls through internet for free, search contacts on the dial pad, and block spam calls. The average number of DAUs of TouchPal Phonebook was 77.5 million, 75.8 million, 72.2 million, 66.2 million, 60.0 million and 52.8 million, including users acquired through both pre-installations and downloads, in the last month for each of the six consecutive quarters ended June 30, 2018, respectively. In the same periods, the number of MAUs of TouchPal Phonebook was 109.3 million, 106.7 million, 106.9 million, 100.7 million, 88.4 million and 80.7 million, including users acquired through both pre-installations and downloads, respectively. As we strategically focus on developing a global mobile product portfolio for the overseas markets, we expect that TouchPal Phonebook will contribute a decreasing percentage of our total user base and total advertising revenues.

        As a long-term strategy, we plan to continuously offer innovative and diversified products and services to meet the interests and demands of our targeted mobile internet users and to further improve our users' experience with our products to achieve a sustained high level of user satisfaction, which we believe is the most cost-effective way to attract, engage and retain our users.

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Effectiveness of monetization

        We monetize our user base primarily through mobile advertising. Our advertising revenue increased by 251.5% from US$10.0 million in 2016 to US$35.0 million in 2017, and increased by 453.1% from US$8.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 to US$48.5 million for the same period of 2018. It is estimated that, of the total advertising revenue, TouchPal Smart Input contributed approximately 55% in 2016, 49% in 2017 and 26% in the six months ended June 30, 2018, and our other global portfolio products contributed nil in 2016, approximately 20% in 2017 and 53% in the six months ended June 30, 2018. In addition, TouchPal Phonebook contributed approximately 45%, 31% and 21% of our total advertising revenue in 2016, 2017 and the six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. We estimate the percentage of our advertising revenue derived from each product based on our determination of the percentage of advertisements delivered on each individual product to the total advertisements we delivered.

        The effectiveness of our monetization and our results of operations are affected by a number of factors, including the number of our available advertising spaces, our ability to attract and retain advertising customers, and our ability to deliver targeted advertisements to our users.

    Our available advertising spaces

        Our available advertising spaces represent the number, size and prominence of advertisements we can display, which in turn affect our revenues and results of operations. As we have continued to improve user engagement with our existing products (especially our content-rich products), launch new content-rich products, and grow our user base, the number of our available advertising spaces increased rapidly in recent years. We plan to continue to invest in the development of innovative products catering to users' interests in and demands for relevant content in order to create more advertising spaces.

    Our ability to attract and retain advertising customers

        We source our advertisers primarily through our network of advertising exchanges and agencies, and to a lesser extent, direct contractual arrangements with individual advertisers. Our revenues and results of operations depend largely on our ability to engage, directly or indirectly, more advertisers with our advertising services. We generate advertising revenue primarily from performance-based advertisements and we also offer brand advertising arrangements. In 2017, our top two advertising customers, which are advertising exchanges, contributed 20.0% and 18.5% of our total revenues, respectively. Our business may be materially and adversely affected if our cooperation with these two advertising customers is impaired or terminated. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We depend on certain number of third-party advertising exchanges and agencies for a large portion of our mobile advertising revenues." We plan to further strengthen our network of advertising exchanges and agencies to serve a larger number of advertisers. We also plan to further expand and diversify our advertiser base and to maximize the value of our services to the advertisers by improving our targeting capability and increasing our user base.

    Our ability to deliver targeted advertisements

        Leveraging our in-depth user insights, we help advertisers reach their desired audiences and our advertising exchange customers charge them advertising fees based primarily on valid clicks, conversions or other measurable actions of the audience, each of which can have an impact on the effective price per impression paid to us by our advertising exchange customers. Our ability to deliver advertisements that are relevant to our users across our various mobile applications is critical to maintaining high click-through rates or conversion rates, which in turn directly impacts the value of our advertising services. We strive to deepen our understanding of our users' content interests and demands in order to improve

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our targeted delivery of advertising services, which will ultimately increase the effective price per impression paid by an advertiser regardless of the desired objective such as impression, click-through, conversion or other measurable result. The effective price per impression is an implied metric calculated by dividing (i) the total advertising revenue of a certain period by (ii) the total number of impressions we delivered during the same period. From the first half of 2017 to the first half of 2018, such effective price per impression increased by approximately 36%. During the same period, the number of average daily impressions delivered on our global portfolio products increased by approximately 537%. The following table sets forth the quarter-over-quarter percentage changes in these two metrics for each quarter since the first quarter of 2017:

 
  For the Three Months Ended  
 
  Mar 31,
2017
  Jun 30,
2017
  Sep 30,
2017
  Dec 31,
2017
  Mar 31,
2018
  Jun 30,
2018
 

Quarter-over-quarter percentage change (%) in:

                                     

Effective price per impression

    (36.3 )%   49.3 %   (28.5 )%   36.3 %   17.1 %   10.9 %

Number of average daily impressions delivered on global portfolio products

    11.5 %   86.3 %   147.3 %   70.1 %   8.9 %   14.1 %

        Our effective price per impression and number of average daily impressions delivered on global portfolio products generally increased since 2017, while fluctuating from quarter to quarter as shown by the percentage increases and decreases above. The quarter-over-quarter changes of these two metrics are affected by our business development, such as the growth of user base, increase of user engagement, launch of new products and improvement of targeting capability, as well as the seasonal trends of the mobile advertising industry. Increasing user base of and user engagement with our global product portfolio largely contributed to the rapid growth of the number of average daily impressions delivered on our global portfolio in 2017 and first half of 2018. Meanwhile, the effective price per impression also showed an upward trend as we continued to improve our targeting capability by leveraging our user insight. However, our effective price per impression declined in the third quarter of 2017 as a result of our exploration of new monetization opportunities after we started to monetize other global portfolio products in this quarter. Since our business scale was relatively modest in 2017, the overall quarterly fluctuations of these two metrics were more significant in this period as compared to that in 2018. As we further expanded our user base, successfully developed more content-rich mobile applications, and enhanced our targeting capability, both metrics increased steadily in the first half of 2018. In addition, due to the seasonality of the mobile advertising industry, the growth of both metrics tends to be slower in the first quarter of each fiscal year than the other quarters. As these two metrics reflect the status of our global product portfolio that comprises of various products at different development stages on a blended basis and are affected by seasonality, we expect them to continue to fluctuate around a rising trend in the foreseeable future.

Effective investment in technology and talent

        Our cutting edge technological capabilities allow us to analyze large amounts of data and generate in-depth insight into our users' interests and demands for content. In recent years, technologies critical to our business, especially big data analytics and AI technology, have advanced rapidly and significantly. To maintain our advanced technological capabilities and in order to be able to keep up with any future technological developments, we have continued to make significant investments in enhancing our technology infrastructure and in acquiring and retaining talent with technological expertise. Our investment in technology and talent has effectively met our needs for technology upgrades and increases in product development capacity along with the rapid growth of our business. As of December 31, 2017, we had 383 full-time employees, of which 229 were software engineers and product designers. Our research and development expenses increased by 48.1% from US$8.7 million in 2016 to US$12.9 million in 2017, and increased by 47.4% from US$5.6 million for the six months ended

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June 30, 2017 to US$8.3 million for the same period of 2018. In the foreseeable future, we expect to continuously increase our investment in our research and development team and our AI technology and big data analytics capabilities.

Ability to manage costs and expenses

        Our results of operations depend on our ability to manage our costs and expenses. We spend primarily on server and bandwidth costs, telecommunication service charges and expenses related to voice over internet protocol, or VoIP, services, and staff costs. We expect the absolute amount of our bandwidth and server costs and our staff costs to steadily increase as we continue to grow our business. In order to expand our user base, we also incur sales and marketing expenses to acquire new users through pre-installation arrangements with mobile device manufactures and through online marketing and promotion activities. We expect to continue spending on user acquisition channels to further enlarge our user base in the foreseeable future. At the same time, we expect to stabilize and improve our economic efficiency of user acquisition cost as a result of the economies of scale and our accumulated knowledge and experience related to user growth. In addition, we expect our costs and operating expenses to decrease as a percentage of our total net revenues, as our business further increases in scale and our operating efficiency improves.

Key Components of Results of Operations

Net Revenues

        The following table sets forth the components of our net revenues, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of our total net revenues, for the periods presented:

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,   For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  US$   %   US$   %   US$   %   US$   %  

Net Revenues:

                                                 

Advertising revenue

    9,967,282     90.4     35,032,557     93.8     8,762,535     96.2     48,468,287     96.4  

Other revenue

    1,062,797     9.6     2,302,409     6.2     350,731     3.8     1,809,336     3.6  

Total net revenues

    11,030,079     100.0     37,334,966     100.0     9,113,266     100.0     50,277,623     100.0  

    Advertising Revenue

        We generate advertising revenue primarily from delivering advertisements through our products. Based on our in-depth user insights, we target users who are likely to have interests and demands for the advertised products and services. We generally enter into arrangements with advertising exchanges and agencies that purchase advertising services and spaces from us on behalf of the end advertisers, and we also enter into advertising arrangements with individual advertisers directly. Our advertising revenue is primarily generated from performance-based advertisements, and we also offer brand advertising arrangements. For performance-based advertisements, we are paid by our advertising exchange customers based on the effective price per impression, which is impacted by the number of valid clicks, conversions or other measurable actions of our users in relation to the advertisements. For brand advertisements, we charge our advertising customers based on the number of impressions on our advertising spaces.

        Revenue from our advertising services accounted for 90.4%, 93.8% and 96.4% of our total net revenues in 2016, 2017 and the six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. We estimate that, of our total advertising revenue, TouchPal Smart Input contributed approximately 55% in 2016, 49% in 2017 and 26% in the six months ended June 30, 2018, and our other global portfolio products contributed nil

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in 2016, approximately 20% in 2017 and 53% in the six months ended June 30, 2018. In addition, TouchPal Phonebook contributed approximately 45%, 31% and 21% of our total advertising revenue in 2016, 2017 and the six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. We estimate the percentage of our advertising revenue derived from each product based on our determination of the percentage of advertisements delivered on each individual product to the total advertisements we delivered. From time to time, we provide sales rebates in cash to certain advertising agencies to incentivize their referral of more brand advertising arrangements to us. Our advertising revenue is presented net of sales rebates to these advertising agencies.

        We expect our advertising revenue to increase in the foreseeable future as we continue to expand our global user base, increase user engagement with our products, improve the effectiveness of our targeted advertising services, and attract more advertising customers.

    Other Revenue

        We generate other revenue from sales of virtual items in a live social video community on our TouchPal Phonebook launched in 2017, which primarily targets users in China. We also generate revenue from licensing of our TouchPal Smart Input to certain mobile device manufacturers for pre-installation.

Cost of revenues

        The following table sets forth our cost of revenues and gross profit (loss), both in absolute amount and as a percentage of our total net revenues, for the periods presented.

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,   For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  US$   %   US$   %   US$   %   US$   %  

Cost of revenues

    20,158,565     182.8     20,101,386     53.8     10,172,085     111.6     8,037,508     16.0  

Gross (loss) profit

    (9,128,486 )   (82.8 )   17,233,580     46.2     (1,058,819 )   (11.6 )   42,240,115     84.0  

        Our cost of revenues consists primarily of bandwidth costs, VoIP related expenses and staff costs. Bandwidth costs are the fees we pay to telecommunications carriers and other service providers for telecommunications and other content delivery-related services. VoIP related expenses are the fees we pay to telecommunications carriers and other service providers for the VoIP services we offer through our VoIP products such as TouchPal Phonebook and AhaCall. Staff costs consist of salaries and benefits for our employees involved in the operation and maintenance of our network and mobile applications. Our other costs of revenues include revenue-sharing fees related to live broadcasting services, hardware, server and internet equipment depreciation expenses and internet data center service fees. In the foreseeable future, we expect our total cost of revenues to increase in absolute amount as we continue to expand our user base and business operations globally and we expect our cost of revenue as a percentage of net revenue to decrease due to economies of scale.

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Operating Expenses

        The following table sets forth the components of our operating expenses, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of our total net revenues, for the periods presented.

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,   For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  US$   %   US$   %   US$   %   US$   %  

Operating expenses:

                                                 

Sales and marketing expenses

    9,396,663     85.2     20,161,353     54.0     5,652,254     62.0     26,345,856     52.4  

Research and development expenses

    8,691,539     78.8     12,868,356     34.5     5,646,825     62.0     8,322,788     16.6  

General and administrative expenses

    3,920,057     35.5     8,366,698     22.4     4,034,049     44.3     4,141,460     8.2  

Other operating income, net

    (605,890 )   (5.5 )   (190,338 )   (0.5 )   (117,438 )   1.3     (70,212 )   0.1  

Total operating expenses

    21,402,369     194.0     41,206,069     110.4     15,215,690     167.0     38,739,892     77.1  

    Sales and Marketing Expenses

        Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of user acquisition costs, general brand promotion costs, and salaries and benefits, including share-based compensation, for our sales and marketing personnel. Our user acquisition costs represent expenses for acquiring new users of our products, including expenses on targeted campaigns to acquire users and fees paid to mobile device manufacturers under pre-installation arrangements with respect to TouchPal Smart Input and TouchPal Phonebook. We expect our sales and marketing expenses to increase in the foreseeable future as we continue to acquire new users and enlarge our user base. In the meantime, we expect to improve our unit economics and the efficiency of our sales and marketing expenses by leveraging our in-depth user insights and our growing product offerings.

    Research and Development Expenses

        Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits, including share-based compensation, for our technology and product development personnel, and depreciation and other expenses associated with the use of facilities for research and development purposes. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in the foreseeable future as we expand our team of technology and product development professionals and continue to invest in our technology infrastructure to enhance our big data analytics and AI capabilities.

    General and Administrative Expenses

        Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits, including share-based compensation, for our employees involved in general corporate operations, facility rental, as well as professional service fees related to various corporate activities. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute amount in the foreseeable future as we continue to grow our business and incur increased costs in accounting, compliance, reporting and other costs associated with operating as a public company.

    Other Operating Income, net

        Other operating income consists of government subsidies we received from time to time.

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Taxation

Cayman Islands

        We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Islands currently levies no taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciation and there are currently no estate duty, inheritance tax or gift tax. There are no other taxes likely to be material to us levied by the government of the Cayman Islands except for stamp duties which may be applicable on instruments executed in, or after execution brought within the jurisdiction of the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Islands is not party to any double tax treaties that are applicable to any payments made to or by our company. There are no exchange control regulations or currency restrictions in the Cayman Islands.

        Payments of dividends and capital in respect of the shares will not be subject to taxation in the Cayman Islands and no withholding will be required on the payment of a dividend or capital to any holder of our ADSs or ordinary shares, nor will gains derived from the disposal of our ADSs or ordinary shares be subject to Cayman Islands income or corporation tax.

Hong Kong

        Our subsidiaries incorporated in Hong Kong are subject to Hong Kong profit tax at a rate of 16.5%. No Hong Kong profit tax has been levied as we did not have assessable profit that was earned in or derived from our Hong Kong subsidiary during the periods presented. Hong Kong does not impose a withholding tax on dividends.

PRC

    Enterprise Income Tax

        Generally, our PRC subsidiary, variable interest entities and their subsidiaries, which are considered PRC resident enterprises under PRC tax law, are subject to enterprise income tax on their worldwide taxable income as determined under PRC tax laws and accounting standards at a rate of 25%. A "high and new technology enterprise", or an HNTE, is entitled to a favorable statutory tax rate of 15% and this qualification is reassessed by relevant government authorities every three years. Our PRC subsidiary, Shanghai Chule, qualified as an HNTE and can enjoy a preferential tax rate of 15% for the three years from 2017 to 2019. If our holding company in the Cayman Islands or any of our subsidiaries outside the PRC is considered as a PRC resident enterprise for tax purposes, then our global income will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25%. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be classified as a PRC "resident enterprise," which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment."

    Value-Added Tax

        We are subject to VAT at a rate of 6% on the services we provide to advertising customers in the PRC, less any deductible VAT we have already paid or borne. We are also subject to surcharges on VAT payments in accordance with PRC law.

    Withholding Tax on Dividends

        Dividends paid by our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary in China to our intermediary holding company in Hong Kong will be subject to a withholding tax rate of 10%, unless the relevant Hong Kong entity satisfies all the requirements under the Arrangement between the PRC and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital and receives approval from the relevant tax

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authority. If our Hong Kong subsidiary satisfies the requirements under the tax arrangement and receives approval from the relevant tax authority, then the dividends paid to the Hong Kong subsidiary would be subject to withholding tax at a reduced tax rate of 5%. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—There are significant uncertainties under the EIT Law relating to the withholding tax liabilities of our PRC subsidiary, and dividends payable by our PRC subsidiary to our offshore subsidiaries may not qualify to enjoy certain treaty benefits."

Results of Operations

        The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the periods presented, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of our total net revenues for the periods presented. This information should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and

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related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The results of operations in any period are not necessarily indicative of our future trends.

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  US$   %   US$   %   US$   %   US$   %  

Net revenues:

                                                 

Advertising revenue

    9,967,282     90.4     35,032,557     93.8     8,762,535     96.2     48,468,287     96.4  

Other revenue

    1,062,797     9.6     2,302,409     6.2     350,731     3.8     1,809,336     3.6  

Total net revenues

    11,030,079     100.0     37,334,966     100.0     9,113,266     100.0     50,277,623     100.0  

Cost of revenues(1)

    (20,158,565 )   (182.8 )   (20,101,386 )   (53.8 )   (10,172,085 )   (111.6 )   (8,037,508 )   (16.0 )

Gross (loss) profit

    (9,128,486 ))   (82.8 )   17,233,580     46.2     (1,058,819 )   (11.6 )   42,240,115     84.0  

Operating expenses:

                                                 

Sales and marketing expenses(1)

    (9,396,663 )   (85.2 )   (20,161,353 )   (54.0 )   (5,652,254 )   (62.0 )   (26,345,856 )   (52.4 )

Research and development expenses(1)

    (8,691,539 )   (78.8 )   (12,868,356 )   (34.5 )   (5,646,825 )   (62.0 )   (8,322,788 )   (16.6 )

General and administrative expenses(1)

    (3,920,057 )   (35.5 )   (8,366,698 )   (22.4 )   (4,034,049 )   (44.3 )   (4,141,460 )   (8.2 )

Other operating income, net

    605,890     5.5     190,338     0.5     117,438     1.3     70,212     0.1  

Total operating expenses

    (21,402,369 )   (194.0 )   (41,206,069 )   (110.4 )   (15,215,690 )   (167.0 )   (38,739,892 )   (77.1 )

(Loss) income from operations

    (30,530,855 )   (276.8 )   (23,972,489 )   (64.2 )   (16,274,509 )   (178.6 )   3,500,223     7.0  

Interest income, net

    12,887     0.1     481,932     1.3     166,087     1.8     70,475     0.1  

Foreign exchange losses, net

    (188,631 )   (1.7 )   (169,556 )   (0.5 )   (125,399 )   (1.4 )   (59,269 )   (0.1 )

(Loss) income before income taxes

    (30,706,599 )   (278.4 )   (23,660,113 )   (63.4 )   (16,233,821 )   (178.1 )   3,511,429     7.0  

Income tax expense

            (800 )   0.0     (800 )   0.0          

Net (loss) income

    (30,706,599 )   (278.4 )   (23,660,913 )   (63.4 )   (16,234,621 )   (178.1 )   3,511,429     7.0  

(1)
Share-based compensation was allocated in costs of revenues and operating expenses as follows:
   
  For the Year
Ended
December 31,
  For the Six
Months Ended
June 30,
 
   
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
   
  US$   US$   US$   US$  
 

Cost of revenues

    24,514     31,510     12,127     23,892  
 

Sales and marketing expenses

    35,298     70,707     29,956     39,391  
 

Research and development expenses

    445,084     544,786     274,795     666,679  
 

General and administrative expenses

    222,317     1,777,941     1,662,219     161,263  
 

Total