10-K 1 rpay-10k_20191231.htm 10-K rpay-10k_20191231.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-38531

 

Repay Holdings Corporation

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

98-1496050

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

3 West Paces Ferry Road,

Suite 200

Atlanta, GA

30305

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (404) 504-7472

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

RPAY

 

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  YES  NO 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on The NASDAQ Stock Market on June 30, 2019, was $269,094,000.

As of March 1, 2020, there were 39,387,538 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, outstanding (which number includes 1,731,560 of unvested restricted stock that have voting rights) and 100 shares of the registrant’s Class V Common Stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, outstanding.  As of March 1, 2020, the holders of such outstanding shares of Class V common stock also hold 29,505,623 units in a subsidiary of the registrant and such units are exchangeable into shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis. 

.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

The registrant has incorporated by reference into Part III of this report certain portions of either an amendment to this Form 10-K or its proxy statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which are expected to be filed within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

2

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

11

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

36

Item 2.

Properties

36

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

37

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

37

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

38

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

40

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

41

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

58

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

60

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

92

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

92

Item 9B.

Other Information

92

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

93

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

93

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

93

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

93

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

93

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

94

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

98

 

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, the expected benefits from the business combination with Thunder Bridge Acquisition. Ltd., the expected benefits of the acquisitions of TriSource Solutions, L.L.C. (“TriSource”), APS Payments, (defined herein), and CDT Technologies, LTD d/b/a Ventanex (“Ventanex”), our financial performance, our business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for future operations. You generally can identify these statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “potential,” “continue,” “may,” “seek,” “approximately,” “predict,” “believe,” “expect,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate” or “anticipate” and similar expressions or the negative versions of these words or comparable words, as well as future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “should,” “would,” “likely” and “could.” These statements may be found under Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those included in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those risks described under Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and, except to the extent required by federal securities laws, we disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. In light of these risks and uncertainties, there is no assurance that the events or results suggested by the forward-looking statements will in fact occur, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.


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PART i

Item 1.  Business

Organizational Structure and Corporate Information

Repay Holdings Corporation was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on July 11, 2019 in connection with the closing of a transaction (the “Business Combination”) pursuant to which Thunder Bridge Acquisition Ltd., a special purpose acquisition company organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands (“Thunder Bridge”), (a) domesticated into a Delaware corporation and changed its name to “Repay Holdings Corporation” and (b) consummated the merger of a wholly owned subsidiary with and into Hawk Parent Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“Hawk Parent”).

Unless otherwise noted or unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we”, “us”, “Repay” and the “Company” and similar references refer (1) before the Business Combination, to Hawk Parent and its consolidated subsidiaries and (2) from and after the Business Combination, to Repay Holdings Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries.  Unless otherwise noted or unless the context otherwise requires, “Thunder Bridge” refers to Thunder Bridge Acquisition. Ltd. prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.  

We are headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.  Our legacy business was founded as M & A Ventures, LLC, a Georgia limited liability company doing business as REPAY: Realtime Electronic Payments (“REPAY LLC”), in 2006 by current executives John Morris and Shaler Alias. Hawk Parent was formed in 2016 in connection with the acquisition of a majority interest in the successor entity of REPAY LLC and its subsidiaries (the “2016 Recapitalization”) by certain investment funds sponsored by, or affiliated with, Corsair Capital LLC (“Corsair”).

Business Overview

We are a leading payments technology company. We provide integrated payment processing solutions to industry-oriented vertical markets in which businesses have specific and bespoke transaction processing needs. We refer to these markets as “vertical markets” or “verticals.”

We are a payments innovator, differentiated by our proprietary, integrated payment technology platform and our ability to reduce the complexity of electronic payments for businesses. We intend to continue to strategically target verticals where we believe our ability to tailor payment solutions to our customers’ needs, our deep knowledge of our vertical markets, and the embedded nature of our integrated payment solutions will drive strong growth by attracting new customers and fostering long-term customer relationships.

We processed approximately $10.7 billion of total card payment volume in 2019. Our year-over-year card payment volume growth was approximately 44% in 2019 and 42% in 2018. As of December 31, 2019, we had over 14,000 customers. Our top 10 customers, with an average tenure of approximately four years, contributed to approximately 28% and 33% of total gross profit during the year ended December 31, 2019 and the year ended December 31, 2018, respectively.

Our leading competitive position and differentiated solutions have enabled us to achieve unique advantages in fast-growing and strategically-important segments of the payments market. We provide payment processing solutions to customers primarily operating in the personal loans, automotive loans, receivables management, and business-to-business verticals. Our payment processing solutions enable consumers and businesses in these verticals to make payments using electronic payment methods, rather than cash or check, which have historically been the primary methods of payment in these verticals. We believe that a growing number of consumers and businesses prefer the convenience and efficiency of paying with cards and other electronic methods and that we are poised to benefit from the significant growth opportunity of electronic payment processing as these verticals continue to shift from cash and check to electronic payments. The personal loans vertical is predominately characterized by installment loans, which are typically utilized by consumers to finance everyday expenses. The automotive loans vertical predominantly includes subprime automotive loans, automotive title loans and automotive buy-here-pay-here loans and also includes near-prime and prime automotive loans. Our receivables management vertical relates to consumer loan collections, which typically enter the receivables management process due to delinquency on credit card bills or as a result of major life events, such as job loss or major medical issues. The business-to-business vertical relates to transactions occurring between a wide variety of enterprise customers, many of which operate in the manufacturing, wholesale, and distribution industries.

Our go-to-market strategy combines direct sales with integrations with key software providers in our target verticals. The integration of our technology with key software providers in the verticals that we serve, including loan management systems, dealer management systems, collection management systems, and enterprise resource planning software systems, allows us to embed our omni-channel payment processing technology into our customers’ critical workflow software and ensure seamless operation of our solutions within our customers’ enterprise management systems. We refer to these software

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providers as our “software integration partners.” This integration allows our sales force to readily access new customer opportunities or respond to inbound leads because, in many cases, a business will prefer, or in some cases only consider, a payments provider that has already integrated or is able to integrate its solutions with the business’ primary enterprise management system. We have successfully integrated our technology solutions with numerous, widely-used enterprise management systems in the verticals that we serve, which makes our platform a more compelling choice for the businesses that use them. Moreover, our relationships with our partners help us to develop deep industry knowledge regarding trends in customer needs. Our integrated model fosters long-term relationships with our customers, which supports our volume retention rates that we believe are above industry averages. As of December 31, 2019, we maintained approximately 70 integrations with various software providers.

Strategic acquisitions are another important part of our long-term strategy. Our acquisitions have allowed us to further penetrate existing vertical markets, access new strategic vertical markets, broaden our technology and solutions suite, and expand our customer base. Our growth strategy is to continue to build our company through a disciplined combination of organic and acquisitive growth. We continue to focus on identifying strategic acquisition candidates in an effort to drive accretive growth.

Growth Strategies

We intend to drive future growth in the following ways:

Increase Penetration in Existing Verticals

We expect to grow meaningfully by continuing to provide innovative payment solutions and customer support to our existing customers as well as new customers in the verticals that we currently serve. In addition, our business model allows us to benefit from the growth of our customers and software integration partners. As our customers’ payment volumes and transactions increase, our revenues increase as a result of the fees we charge for processing these payments. Many of the vertical markets in which we compete are experiencing a secular shift from legacy payment mediums — primarily cash and check — to electronic forms of payment. We stand to benefit from this trend as our customers increasingly opt to process payments via the electronic forms of payment in which we specialize.

New Vertical and Geographic Expansion

We also expect that we will find attractive growth potential in certain verticals in which we currently have limited operations. Though we offer highly customized payment solutions to our customers, our core technology platform is comprehensive and can be leveraged to penetrate other strategic vertical markets. Several verticals, including but not limited to, healthcare, credit unions, and niche business-to-business, are natural extensions of our existing verticals and are well suited to benefit from our core technology offerings. Additionally, we envision growing our geographic footprint, as new territories continue to present new business opportunities. For example, we are focused on expanding our Canadian operations, as the demand for our solutions among existing and prospective Canadian customers remains strong.

Strengthen and Extend Our Solution Portfolio through Continued Innovation.

 

As we further integrate our solution into our client’s workflow, we will look to continue to innovate on our solution set and broaden our suite of services. Our acquisition of TriSource and our continued investment in our technology capabilities position us to provide value-added services that will address the evolving needs of our clients as they seek to best serve their customers. The ability to serve clients across market verticals and to be integrated across various software platforms enables us to understand the needs of clients across markets and to scale our innovative solutions to a broad segment of the market.

Continue to Drive Operational Efficiencies

As we continue to grow, we expect to become a more significant partner to our sponsor banks, third party processors and software integration partners, which we expect will give us greater leverage as we expand our contractual relationships with them. We will continue to drive operating leverage in our non-technology personnel expenditures, as we believe that we can process larger payment volumes without significant increases to our personnel and operating expenses.

Strategic Acquisitions

From January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2019, we have successfully acquired eight businesses. Given the large size and attractive growth trends of our current addressable market, we are primarily focused on growing our business

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organically. However, we may selectively pursue strategic acquisitions as opportunities arise that meet our internal requirements for the use of capital and return on investment. Some of these opportunities may include those that enable us to acquire new capabilities that may be harder to develop in-house, gain entrance into new segments of the market, enter new markets, or consolidate our existing market.

Solutions

We provide our customers with comprehensive solutions relating to the following methods of electronic payment:

•        Credit and Debit Processing — Allows our customers to send and accept card payments. These payments can be made using any of our payment channels, as further described below.

•        Automated Clearing House (“ACH”) Processing — Our ACH processing capabilities allow our customers to send and accept traditional and same-day ACH transactions.

•        Instant Funding — Our instant funding capabilities allow our customers to transfer funds directly to a consumer’s debit or prepaid card. We have created a proprietary process that decreases processing delays typically associated with traditional fund disbursements.

The above payment and funding methods are processed through our proprietary payment channels:

•        Web-based

•        Virtual Terminal — A terminal that provides virtual payment access for processing of ACH or card transactions.

•        Hosted Payment Page — A customer-branded terminal that enables ACH and card transaction processing.

•        Online Customer Portal — A consumer-facing, merchant-specific website that gives a merchant’s customer the ability to pay online and view account information anywhere, anytime. A Repay hosted website may be stand alone or integrated with any other software application.

•        Mobile Application — We provide customers the ability to accept payments via a mobile application on a customized, white-label basis.

•        Text-to-Pay — Allows a business’ customer to pay with a simple text message after receiving an SMS alert that reminds such customer when payments are due.

•        Interactive Voice Response (“IVR”) — A secure and flexible option to pay over the phone, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, via a 1-800 number with bilingual capabilities.

•        Point of Sale (“POS”) — We provide payment acceptance at brick-and-mortar locations through POS equipment that requires a merchant’s customer to provide a card.

Sales and Distribution

Our sales strategy consists of our direct sales representatives, who focus on each of our core verticals, and our software integration partners, which primarily focus on prospective customers within their targeted verticals whose businesses could be best served by their enterprise software solutions.

Direct Sales Representatives

Our sales representatives are organized by vertical market and account size. Direct sales representatives work with our customers and software integration partners to understand our customers’ desired payment solutions and then communicate those desires to our product and technology teams, who build a customized suite of products and payment channels tailored to our customers’ specific needs.

Software Integration Partners

We are currently integrated with approximately 70 software partners that are providers of our customers’ primary enterprise management systems. Our integrations ensure seamless delivery of our full suite of payment processing capabilities to our customers. These integrations are also a critical part of our marketing strategy, as many customers will

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prefer to award their payments business to payments processors who have worked to integrate their solutions into the customer’s enterprise management systems.

Operations

We believe that we have developed an effective operations system, including our proprietary onboarding, compliance and merchant oversight processes, which is structured to enhance the performance of our platform and support our customers.

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Customer and Transaction Risk Management

We target customers that we identify as low-risk through the development of underwriting policies and transaction management procedures to manage approval of new accounts and to establish ongoing monitoring of customer accounts. Effective risk management aids us in minimizing merchant losses relating to chargebacks, rejecting losses and avoiding merchant fraud for the mutual benefit of our customers, our sponsor banks and ourselves.

Proprietary Compliance Management System.    We have developed proprietary onboarding, compliance, and merchant oversight processes, of which our Compliance Management System (“CMS”) is a part. Our CMS, developed in conjunction with the Third Party Payment Processors Association (“TPPPA”), is based on four main components — board and management oversight, a compliance program with written policies and procedures and employee training and monitoring, response to consumer complaints and annual compliance audits from an independent third party — and is inclusive of the Electronic Transaction Association (“ETA”) guidelines on underwriting and risk.

Customer Onboarding.    We believe we maintain rigorous underwriting standards. Prospective customers submit applications to our credit underwriting department, which performs verification and credit-related checks on all applicants. Each customer is assigned a risk profile based on sponsor bank requirements, as well as additional criteria specified by us. Our sponsor banks periodically review and approve of our underwriting policies to ensure compliance with applicable law, regulations and payment network rules. Upon approval, the ongoing risk level of a customer is monitored and adjusted on a monthly basis based on additional data relating to such customer.

Customer Monitoring.    Each customer’s file is assigned one of three risk levels (low, medium or high) corresponding to several customer behaviors. We review and adjust these risk levels on a monthly basis and additionally subject them to more in-depth quarterly reviews. We also engage third parties and rely on internal reporting to identify and monitor credit/fraud risk. We generate customer-specific reports that compile daily and historical transactions, which may include average ticket, transaction volume, refund and chargeback levels and authorization history, which we utilize in order to identify suspicious processing activity. We review these reports on a daily basis and suspend any irregular processing activity, which is subject to review, remediation and, as appropriate, suspension of either an individual or batch of transactions or a particular customer, as applicable.

Investigation and Loss Prevention.    If a customer exceeds the parameters established by our underwriting and/or risk management team or we determine that a customer has violated the payment network rules or the terms of its service agreement with us, one of our team members will identify and document the incident. We then review the incident to determine the actions taken or that we can take to reduce our exposure to loss and the exposure of our customer to liability. As a part of this process, we may request additional transaction information, withhold or divert funds, verify delivery of merchandise or, in some circumstances, deactivate the customer account, include the customer on the Network Match List to notify our industry of the customer’s behavior or take legal action against the customer.

Collateral.    We require some of our customers to establish cash or non-cash collateral reserves, which may include certificates of deposit, letters of credit, rolling merchant reserves or upfront cash. This collateral is utilized in order to offset potential credit or fraud risk liability that we may incur. We attempt to hold such collateral reserves for as long as we are exposed to a loss resulting from a customer’s payment processing activity.

Chargebacks.    The payment networks permit the reversal of a money transfer, a chargeback, up to six months (or in rare cases, a longer time frame) after the later of the date the transaction is processed or the delivery of the product or service to the cardholder. If the customer incurring the chargeback is unable to fund the refund to the card-issuing bank, we are required to do so by the rules of the payment networks and our contractual arrangements with our sponsor banks. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we believe our chargeback rate was under 1% of our payment volume.

Security, Disaster Recovery, and Back-up Systems

We adhere to strict security standards to protect the payment information that we process. We regularly update our network and provide operating system security releases and virus defenses. We have retained an external party to audit our systems’ compliance with current security standards as established by the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (“PCI DSS”), Service Organization Control (“SOC”), and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) and to test our systems against vulnerability to unauthorized access. Further, we use one of the most advanced commercially available technologies to encrypt the cardholder numbers and customer data that we store in our databases. Additionally, we have a dedicated team responsible for security incident response, which team develops, maintains, tests and verifies our incident response plan. Disaster recovery is built into our infrastructure through redundant hardware and software applications hosted in two distinct cloud regions. Our primary cloud region is set up to be replicated, substantially on a real time basis, by our secondary cloud region such that if our primary cloud region becomes impaired or unavailable, operations

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are redirected to the secondary cloud region. Our incident response team tests these systems each quarter to assess the effectiveness of our disaster recovery plan, including staff readiness and operational capability.

Third Party Processors and Sponsor Banks

We partner with institutions in the payment chain to provide authorization, settlement and funding services in connection with our customers’ transactions. These institutions include third party processors and sponsor banks, who sit between us, acting as the merchant acquirer, and the payment networks, such as Visa, MasterCard and Discover. When we facilitate a transaction as a merchant acquirer, we utilize third party processors such as Total Systems Services, Inc. (a subsidiary of Global Payments, Inc.), Worldpay, Inc. (a subsidiary of Fidelity National Information Services, Inc.), and Fiserv Inc. Under such processing arrangements, the third party processors and vendors receive processing fees based on a percentage of the payment volume they process. These processors and vendors in turn have agreements with the payment networks, which permit them to route transaction information through their networks in exchange for fees.

In addition, in order for us to process and settle transactions for our customers, we have entered into sponsorship agreements with banks that are members of the payment networks. We are required to register with the payment networks through these bank partners because we, as payment processors, are not “member banks” as defined by the major payment networks. Our member bank partners sponsor our adherence to the rules and standards of the payment networks and enable us to route transactions under the sponsor banks’ control and identification numbers (for example, known as BIN for Visa and ICA for MasterCard) across the card and ACH networks to authorize and clear transactions. Our relationships with multiple sponsor banks give us the flexibility to shift payment volumes between them, which helps us to secure more competitive pricing for our customers and to maintain redundancy.

Competition

We compete with a variety of payment processing companies that have different business models, go-to-market strategies and technical capabilities. We compete with a large number of small payments processing companies that provide integrated payments solutions and/or related hardware to customers within our existing verticals. More broadly in the overall payments industry, our payment and software solutions compete against many forms of financial services and payment systems, including Open Edge (a division of Global Payments), ACI Worldwide, Inc., JetPay Corporation (a subsidiary of NCR Corporation), Electronic Payment Providers, Inc. (d.b.a. BillingTree), Paya, Inc., Paymentus Corporation and Zelis. We also compete against many traditional merchant acquirers, such as financial institutions, affiliates of financial institutions and payment processing companies in the payment processing industry, including Bank of America Merchant Services, Elavon, Inc. (a subsidiary of U.S. Bancorp), Wells Fargo Merchant Services, Global Payments, Inc., WorldPay, Inc. (a subsidiary of Fidelity National Information Services, Inc.) and Total Systems Services, Inc. (a subsidiary of Global Payments, Inc.). We believe the most significant competitive factors in the markets in which we compete are: (1) economics, including fees charged to merchants and commission payouts to software integration partners; (2) product offering, including emerging technologies and development by other participants in the payments ecosystem; (3) service, including product functionality, value-added solutions and strong customer support for both merchants and software integration partners; and (4) reliability, including a strong reputation for quality service and trusted software integration partners. Our competitors include large and well-established companies, including banks, credit card providers, technology and ecommerce companies and traditional retailers, many of which are larger than we are, have a dominant and secure position in the markets in which they operate or offer other products and services to consumers and customers which we do not offer. Moreover, we compete against all forms of payments, including credit cards, bank transfers, and traditional payment methods, such as cash and check.

Acquisitions

Our historical acquisition activity has allowed us to access new markets, acquire industry talent, broaden our product suite, and supplement organic growth.  Our first three acquisitions — of TBT, Inc., National Translink Corp. and Merchants Choice, Inc. and Falcon Payment Solutions, LLC — were small portfolio acquisitions completed prior to 2016 that provided us with valuable merchant contract rights, industry talent and additions to our sales teams. These acquisitions are not representative of our current acquisition strategy, which will focus on integrated payments companies serving attractive vertical markets and opportunities to broaden our product offerings. Since 2016 through December 31, 2019, we have completed five larger acquisitions, which are described below. These acquisitions were of payment companies and are representative of the acquisitions we envision consummating in the future.

Sigma Acquisition

Effective as of January 1, 2016, we acquired substantially all of the assets of Sigma Payment Solutions, Inc. (“Sigma”). Sigma was an electronic payment solutions provider to the automotive finance industry. The transaction marked

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Repay’s expansion into the automotive finance space. We have benefitted greatly from Sigma’s deep integrations with automotive finance software platforms, or Dealer Management Systems.

PaidSuite Acquisition

On September 28, 2017, we acquired substantially all of the assets of PaidSuite, Inc. and PaidMD, LLC (collectively, “PaidSuite”). PaidSuite was an electronic payment solutions provider to the accounts receivable management industry. The transaction accelerated our growth into the accounts receivable management space via customer and software integration partner relationships.

Paymaxx Acquisition

On December 15, 2017, we acquired substantially all of the assets of Paymaxx Pro, LLC (“Paymaxx”). The acquisition of Paymaxx has been highly complementary to our earlier acquisition of Sigma and has bolstered our position in the niche automotive finance market. As part of the acquisition, we acquired increased distribution capabilities in the form of an internal sales force and numerous DMS integrations.

TriSource Acquisition

On August 14, 2019, we acquired all of the equity interests of TriSource for $60.1 million in cash. In addition to the $60.1 million cash consideration, the TriSource selling equityholders may be entitled to a $5.0 million cash earnout payment, dependent on the achievement of certain growth targets. Since 2012, we have used TriSource as one of our primary third-party processors for settlement solutions when we facilitate transactions as a merchant acquirer. The acquisition of TriSource has provided further control over our transaction processing ecosystem and accelerated product delivery capabilities.

APS Acquisition

On October 14, 2019, we acquired substantially all of the assets of American Payment Services of Coeur D’Alene, LLC, North American Payment Solutions LLC, and North American Payment Solutions Inc. (collectively, “APS”) for $30.0 million in cash. In addition to the $30.0 million cash consideration, the APS selling equityholders may be entitled to a total of $30.0 million in three separate cash earnout payments, dependent on the achievement of certain growth targets. The acquisition of APS meaningfully expanded our addressable market by enabling us to access the business-to-business vertical.

Government Regulation

We operate in an increasingly complex and ever evolving legal and regulatory environment. Our and our customers’ businesses are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations, as well as the rules and standards of the payment networks that we utilize to provide our electronic payment services. While in some cases payment processors such as Repay are not directly regulated by governmental agencies, because of the rules and regulations enacted at the state and federal level that affect our customers and sponsor banks, we have developed and continually evaluate and update our compliance models to keep up with the rapid evolution of the legal and regulatory regime our customers and sponsor banks face. We are also subject to legal and regulatory requirements which govern the use, storage and distribution of the information we collect from our customers and cardholders while processing transactions.

Dodd-Frank Act

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and its related rules and regulations have resulted in significant changes to the regulation of the financial services industry, including the electronic payment industry. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, debit interchange transaction fees that a card issuer receives and are established by a payment card network for an electronic debit transaction are regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). The Dodd-Frank Act and the Federal Reserve’s implementing regulations require that such interchange fees be “reasonable and proportional” to the cost incurred by the issuer in processing the transactions. Federal Reserve regulations implementing this “reasonable and proportional” requirement have capped debit interchange rates for card issuers operating in the United States with assets of $10 billion or more at the sum of $0.21 per transaction and 5 basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction to reflect a portion of the issuer’s fraud losses plus, for qualifying issuers, an additional $0.01 per transaction in debit interchange for fraud prevention costs. In addition, the regulations contain non-exclusivity provisions that ban debit card networks from prohibiting an issuer from contracting with any other card network that may process an electronic debit transaction involving an issuer’s debit cards and prohibit card issuers and card networks from inhibiting the ability of merchants to direct the routing of debit card transactions over any network that can process the transaction. Beginning April 1, 2012, most debit card issuers in the United States were required

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to participate in at least two unaffiliated debit card networks. On April 1, 2013, the ban on network exclusivity arrangements became effective for prepaid card and healthcare debit card issuers, with certain exceptions for prepaid cards issued before that date. On May 1, 2013, the ban on network exclusivity arrangements became effective for all reloadable general use prepaid cards.

Effective July 22, 2010, merchants were allowed to set minimum dollar amounts (not to exceed $10) for the acceptance of a credit card (while federal governmental entities and institutions of higher education may set maximum amounts for the acceptance of credit cards). They were also allowed to provide discounts or incentives to entice consumers to pay with an alternative payment method, such as cash, checks or debit cards.

The Dodd-Frank Act also created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”), which has rulemaking authority over consumer protection laws, including the authority to regulate consumer financial products in the United States, including consumer credit, deposit, payment, and similar products. The CFPB may also have authority over us as a provider of services to regulated financial institutions in connection with consumer financial products. Any new rules or regulations implemented by the CFPB, and other similar regulatory agencies in other jurisdictions, or pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act that are applicable to us or our customers’ businesses, or any adverse changes thereto, could increase our cost of doing business or limit our current offerings of integrated payment solutions.

Privacy and Information Security Regulations

We provide services that may be subject to various state and federal privacy laws and regulations. Relevant federal privacy laws include the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which (along with its implementing regulations) restricts certain collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal information, requires notice to individuals of privacy practices and provides individuals with certain rights to prevent the use and disclosure of certain nonpublic or otherwise legally protected information. These rules also impose requirements for the safeguarding and proper destruction of personal information through the issuance of data security standards or guidelines. Our business may also be subject to the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970, as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003, which regulates the use and reporting of consumer credit information and imposes disclosure requirements on entities who take adverse action based on information obtained from credit reporting agencies. In addition, there are state laws governing the collection of personal information, including those restricting the ability to collect and utilize certain types of information such as Social Security and driver’s license numbers. Certain state laws impose similar privacy obligations as well as obligations to provide notification of security breaches of computer databases that contain personal information to affected individuals, state officers and others. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) of 2018, which became effective January 1, 2020, imposes more stringent requirements with respect to California data privacy. The CCPA includes provisions that give California residents expanded rights to access and delete certain personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how certain personal information is used.

Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Regulation

Our business is subject to U.S. federal anti-money laundering laws and regulations. We are also subject to certain economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by OFAC that prohibit or restrict transactions to or from (or transactions dealing with) narcotics traffickers, terrorists, terrorist organizations, certain individuals, specified countries, their governments and, in certain circumstances, their nationals. Similar anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing and proceeds of crime laws apply to movements of currency and payments through electronic transactions and to dealings with persons specified on lists maintained by organizations similar to OFAC in several other countries and which may impose specific data retention obligations or prohibitions on intermediaries in the payment process. We have developed and continue to enhance compliance programs and policies to monitor and address related legal and regulatory requirements and developments.

Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices

We and many of our customers are subject to Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices and various state laws similar in scope and subject matter thereto. In addition, laws prohibiting these activities and other laws, rules and or regulations, including the Telemarketing Sales Act, may directly impact the activities of certain of our customers, and in some cases may subject us, as the customer’s payment processor or provider of certain services, to investigations, fees, fines and disgorgement of funds if we are deemed to have aided and abetted or otherwise provided the means and instrumentalities to facilitate the illegal or improper activities of a customer through our services. Various federal and state regulatory enforcement agencies, including the Federal Trade Commission and the states attorneys general, have authority to take action against payment processors who violate such laws, rules and regulations. To the extent we are processing payments or providing services for a customer suspected of violating such laws, rules and

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regulations, we may face enforcement actions and, as a result, incur losses and liabilities that may adversely affect our business.

In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act gave the CFPB broad authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices” in connection with the provision of consumer financial products and services. The CFPB recently issued a policy statement providing a framework for how it defines “abusive” conduct and how it will enforce the prohibition against abusive acts or practices in enforcement actions against financial services companies and their service providers (including payment processors). UDAAP violations include omissions or misrepresentations of important information to consumers or practices that take advantage of vulnerable consumers, such as elderly or low-income consumers. The CFPB has left open the possibility of engaging in a future rulemaking to further define the abusiveness standard and it is uncertain how future rulemaking may impact our business operations and risk.

Indirect Regulatory Requirements

Certain of our customers and our sponsor banks are financial institutions that are directly subject to various regulations and compliance obligations issued by the CFPB, the Federal Reserve, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Administration and other agencies responsible for regulating financial institutions, which includes state financial institution regulators. While these regulatory requirements and compliance obligations do not apply directly to us, many of these requirements materially affect the services we provide to our customers and us overall. The financial institution regulators have imposed requirements on regulated financial institutions to manage their third-party service providers. Among other things, these requirements include performing appropriate due diligence when selecting third-party service providers; evaluating the risk management, information security, and information management systems of third-party service providers; imposing contractual protections in agreements with third-party service providers (such as performance measures, audit and remediation rights, indemnification, compliance requirements, confidentiality and information security obligations, insurance requirements and limits on liability); and conducting ongoing monitoring, diligence and audit of the performance of third-party service providers. Accommodating these requirements applicable to our customers imposes additional costs and risks in connection with our relationships with financial institutions. We expect to expend significant resources on an ongoing basis in an effort to assist our customers in meeting their legal requirements.

Additionally, our customers, particularly those in the consumer finance market, are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations that impose restrictions and requirements on their businesses, such as limitations on interest rates and fees, maximum loan amounts and the number of simultaneous or consecutive loans, imposition of required waiting periods between loans, loan extensions and refinancing, requiring payment schedules (including maximum and minimum loan durations) or repayment plans for borrowers claiming inability to repay loans, mandating disclosures, security for loans, licensing requirements and, in certain jurisdictions, database reporting and loan utilization information.

Payment Network Rules and Standards

Payment networks, such as Visa, MasterCard and American Express, establish their own rules and standards that allocate liabilities and responsibilities among the payment networks and their participants. These rules and standards, including the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards, govern a variety of areas, including how consumers and customers may use their cards, the security features of cards, security standards for processing, data security and allocation of liability for certain acts or omissions, including liability in the event of a data breach. The payment networks may change these rules and standards from time to time as they may determine in their sole discretion and with or without advance notice to their participants. These changes may be made for any number of reasons, including as a result of changes in the regulatory environment, to maintain or attract new participants, or to serve the strategic initiatives of the networks, and may impose additional costs and expenses on or be disadvantageous to certain participants. Participants are subject to audit by the payment networks to ensure compliance with applicable rules and standards. The networks may fine, penalize or suspend the registration of participants for certain acts or omissions or the failure of the participants to comply with applicable rules and standards.

In order for us to process and settle transactions for our customers, we have entered into sponsorship agreements with banks that are members of the payment systems. We are required to register with the payment networks through these bank partners because we, as payment processors, are not “member banks” as defined by the major payment networks’ rules and standards governing access to those networks. Our bank partners sponsor our adherence to the rules and standards of the payment networks and enable us to route transactions under the sponsor banks’ control and identification numbers (known as BIN for Visa and ICA for MasterCard) across the card and ACH networks to authorize and clear transactions. Payment network rules restrict us from performing funds settlement and require that merchant settlement funds be in the possession of

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the member bank until the merchant is funded. These restrictions place the settlement assets and liabilities under the control of the member bank.

Our sponsorship agreements give our sponsor banks substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices, including our solicitation, application and qualification procedures for customers and the terms of our agreements with customers, and provide them with the right to audit our compliance with the payment network rules and guidelines. We are also subject to network operating rules and guidelines promulgated by the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA”) relating to payment transactions we process using the Automated Clearing House Network. Like the payment networks, NACHA may update its operating rules and guidelines at any time, which can require us to take more costly compliance measures or to develop more complex monitoring systems. Similarly, our ACH sponsor banks have the right to audit our compliance with NACHA’s rules and guidelines, and are given wide discretion to approve certain aspects of our business practices and terms of our agreements with ACH customers.

Other Regulation

We are subject to U.S. federal and state unclaimed or abandoned property (escheat) laws, which require us to turn over to certain government authorities the property of others we hold that has been unclaimed for a specified period of time, such as account balances that are due to a software integration partner or customer following discontinuation of its relationship with us. The Housing Assistance Tax Act of 2008 requires certain merchant acquiring entities and third-party settlement organizations to provide information returns for each calendar year with respect to payments made in settlement of electronic payment transactions and third-party payment network transactions occurring in that calendar year. Reportable transactions are also subject to backup withholding requirements.

The foregoing is not an exhaustive list of the laws and regulations to which we are subject and the regulatory framework governing our business is changing continuously. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Intellectual Property

Certain of our products and services are based on proprietary software and related payment systems solutions. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws, as well as employee and third-party non-disclosure, confidentiality, and other contractual arrangements to establish, maintain, and enforce our intellectual property rights in our technology, including with respect to our proprietary rights related to our products and services. In addition, we license technology from third parties that is integrated into some of our solutions.

We own a number of registered service marks, including REPAY® and REPAY REALTIME ELECTRONIC PAYMENTS®, and we have other pending applications. We also own a number of domain names, including www.repay.com. For additional information regarding some of the risks relating to our intellectual property see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — We may not be able to successfully manage our intellectual property and may be subject to infringement claims.” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Employees

As of December 31, 2019, we had 243 employees. None of our employees is represented by a labor union and we have experienced no work stoppages. We consider our employee relations to be good.

Available Information

We maintain a website at www.repay.com, through which you may access our public filings free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Information contained on our website is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the inclusion of our website address in this report is an inactive textual reference only.

 

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

Our business involves significant risks. In addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed above under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth herein. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. As a result, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additionally, the risks and uncertainties described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any document incorporated by

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reference herein are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may become material and adversely affect our business.

Unless the context requires otherwise, “we,” “us,” “our,” “Repay” and the “Company” refer to the business of Repay Holdings Corporation and its subsidiaries. In the section of the Risk Factors entitled “Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock, “we,” us” and “our” refer only to Repay Holdings Corporation excluding, unless the context requires otherwise or as expressly stated, its subsidiaries.

Risks Related to Our Business

The payment processing industry is highly competitive. Such competition could adversely affect the fees we receive, and as a result, our margins, business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The market for payment processing services is highly competitive. There are other payment processing service providers that have established a sizable market share in the merchant acquiring sector and service more customers than we do. Our growth will depend, in part, on a combination of the continued growth of the electronic payment market and our ability to increase our market share.

Our payment and software solutions compete against many forms of financial services and payment systems, including electronic, mobile and integrated payment platforms as well as cash and checks. Our competitors include Open Edge (a division of Global Payments), ACI Worldwide, Inc., JetPay Corporation (a subsidiary of NCR Corporation), Electronic Payment Providers, Inc. (d.b.a. BillingTree), Paya, Inc., Paymentus Corporation and Zelis. There are also many traditional merchant acquirers, such as financial institutions, affiliates of financial institutions and well-established payment processing companies, in the payment processing industry, including Bank of America Merchant Services, Elavon, Inc. (a subsidiary of U.S. Bancorp), Wells Fargo Merchant Services, Global Payments, Inc., WorldPay, Inc. (a subsidiary of Fidelity National Information Services, Inc.) and Total Systems Services, Inc. (a subsidiary of Global Payments, Inc.). These institutions have established, or may establish in the future, payment processing businesses that could target our existing and potential customers.

 

Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technological, management and marketing resources than we have. Accordingly, if these competitors target our business model and, in particular, the vertical markets that we serve, they may be able to offer more attractive fees or payment terms and advances to our customers and more attractive compensation to our software integration partners. They also may be able to offer and provide services and solutions that we do not offer. There are also a large number of small providers of processing services, including emerging technology and non-traditional payment processing companies, that provide various ranges of services to our existing and potential customers. This competition may effectively limit the prices we can charge, cause us to increase the compensation we pay to our software integration partners and require us to control costs aggressively in order to maintain acceptable profit margins. Further, if the use of payment cards other than Visa, MasterCard or Discover grows, or if there is an overall decrease in the use of debit cards as compared to other payment methods, our profitability could be reduced. Competition could also result in a loss of existing customers and greater difficulty attracting new customers, and could impact our relationships with software integration partners that integrate our services into the software used by our customers. Although we carefully monitor attrition levels of our existing customers, we cannot predict such attrition rates in the future. One or more of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Unauthorized disclosure of merchant or consumer data, whether through breach of our computer systems, computer viruses, or otherwise, could expose us to liability and protracted and costly litigation, and damage our reputation.

 

We are responsible for data security for us and for third parties with whom we partner, including with respect to rules and regulations established by the payment networks, such as Visa, MasterCard and Discover, and debit card networks. These third parties include our customers, software integration partners and other third-party service providers and agents. We and other third parties collect, process, store and/or transmit sensitive data, such as names, addresses, social security numbers, credit or debit card numbers, expiration dates, driver’s license numbers and bank account numbers. We have ultimate liability to the payment networks and our sponsor banks that register us with the payment networks for our failure or the failure of other third parties with whom we contract to protect this data in accordance with payment network requirements. The loss, destruction or unauthorized modification of merchant or consumer data by us or our contracted third parties could result in significant fines, sanctions, proceedings or actions against us by the payment networks, governmental bodies, consumers or others.

 

Threats may result from human error, fraud or malice on the part of employees or third parties, or from accidental technological failure. For example, certain of our employees have access to sensitive data that could be used to commit

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identity theft or fraud. Concerns about security increase when we transmit information electronically because such transmissions can be subject to attack, interception or loss. Also, computer viruses can be distributed and spread rapidly over the Internet and could infiltrate our systems or those of our contracted third parties. Denial of service or other attacks could be launched against us for a variety of purposes, including interfering with our services or to create a diversion for other malicious activities. These types of actions and attacks and others could disrupt our delivery of services or make them unavailable.

 

We and our contracted third parties could be subject to breaches of security by hackers. Our encryption of data and other protective measures may not prevent unauthorized access to or use of sensitive data. A systems breach may subject us to material losses or liability, including payment network fines, assessments and claims for unauthorized purchases with misappropriated credit, debit or card information, impersonation or other similar fraud claims. A misuse of such data or a cybersecurity breach could harm our reputation and deter merchants or other customers from using electronic payments generally and our services specifically, thus reducing our revenue. In addition, any such misuse or breach could cause us to incur costs to correct the breaches or failures, expose us to uninsured liability, increase our risk of regulatory scrutiny, subject us to lawsuits, and result in the imposition of material penalties and fines under state and federal laws or by the payment networks or limitations on our ability to process payment transactions on such payment networks. While we maintain cyber insurance coverage (which, in certain cases, is required pursuant to certain of our contractual commitments) that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of these risks, our insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses. Additionally, we may be required to increase our cyber insurance coverage pursuant to our contractual commitments entered into in the future. The costs to maintain or increase our cyber insurance coverage could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any human error, fraud, malice, accidental technological failure or attacks against us or our contracted third parties could hurt our reputation, force us to incur significant expenses in remediating the resulting impacts, expose us to uninsured liability, result in the loss of our sponsor bank relationships or our ability to participate in the payment networks, subject us to lawsuits, fines or sanctions, distract our management, increase our costs of doing business and/or materially impede our ability to conduct business.

 

Although we generally require that our agreements with our software integration partners or service providers include confidentiality obligations that restrict these parties from using or disclosing any merchant or consumer data except as necessary to perform their services under the applicable agreements, we cannot guarantee that these contractual measures will prevent the unauthorized use, modification, destruction or disclosure of data or allow us to seek reimbursement from the contracted party. In addition, many of our customers are small and medium-sized businesses that may have limited competency regarding data security and handling requirements and may thus experience data breaches. Any unauthorized use, modification, destruction or disclosure of data could result in protracted and costly litigation, and the incurrence of significant losses by us.

 

In addition, our agreements with our sponsor banks and our third-party payment processors (as well as payment network requirements) require us to take certain protective measures to ensure the confidentiality of merchant and consumer data. Any failure to adequately comply with these protective measures could result in fees, penalties, litigation or termination of our sponsor bank agreements.

 

Security breaches may be subject to scrutiny from governmental agencies such as the CFPB. See the risk factor entitled “Compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act and other federal and state regulations may increase our compliance costs, limit our revenues and otherwise negatively affect our business.

 

If we cannot keep pace with rapid developments and changes in our industry, the use of our products and services could decline, causing a reduction in our revenues.

 

The electronic payments market is subject to constant and significant changes. This market is characterized by rapid technological evolution, new product and service introductions, evolving industry standards, changing customer needs and the entrance of new competitors, including products and services that enable card networks and banks to transact with consumers directly. To remain competitive, we continually pursue initiatives to develop new products and services to compete with these new market entrants. These projects carry risks, such as difficulty in determining market demand and timing for delivery, cost overruns, delays in delivery, performance problems and lack of customer acceptance, and some projects may require investment in non-revenue generating products or services that our software integration partners and customers expect to be included in our offerings. In addition, new products and offerings may not perform as intended or generate the business or revenue growth expected.

 

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Additionally, we look for acquisition opportunities, investments and alliance relationships with other businesses that will increase our market penetration and enhance our technological capabilities, product offerings and distribution capabilities. Any delay in the delivery of new products and services or the failure to differentiate our products and services or to accurately predict and address market demand could increase the costs of our development efforts and render our products and services less desirable or even obsolete to our customers and to our software integration partners. Any defects in our products and errors or delays in our processing of transactions could also increase costs of development efforts and result in harm to our reputation or liability claims against us. Furthermore, even though the market for integrated payment processing products and services is evolving, we may develop too rapidly or not rapidly enough for us to recover the costs we have incurred in developing new products and services targeted at this market. Any of the foregoing could have a material and adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

 

The continued growth and development of our payment processing services and solutions will depend on our ability to anticipate and adapt to changes in consumer behavior. For example, consumer behavior may change regarding the use of payment card transactions, including the relative increased use of cash, crypto-currencies, other emerging or alternative payment methods and payment card systems that we or our processing partners do not adequately support or that do not provide adequate commissions to parties like us. Any failure to timely integrate emerging payment methods into our software, to anticipate consumer behavior changes or to contract with processing partners that support such emerging payment technologies could cause us to lose traction among our customers or referral sources, including industry associations, resulting in a corresponding loss of revenue, if those methods become popular among end-users of their services.

 

Our products and services are designed to process complex transactions and provide reports and other information on those transactions, all at very high volumes and processing speeds. Our technology offerings must also integrate with a variety of network, hardware, mobile and software platforms and technologies, and we need to continuously modify and enhance our products and services to adapt to changes and innovation in these technologies. Any failure to deliver an effective, reliable and secure service or any performance issue that arises with a new product or service could result in significant processing or reporting errors or other losses. If we do not deliver a promised new product or service to our customers or software integration partners in a timely manner or the product or service does not perform as anticipated, our development efforts could result in increased costs and a loss in business, reducing our earnings and causing a loss of revenue. We also rely in part on third parties, including some of our competitors and potential competitors, for the development of and access to, or production of, new technologies, including software and hardware. For example, we rely on our software integration partners to integrate our services and products into the software platforms being used by our customers. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to develop or adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards. If we are unable to develop, adapt to or access technological changes or evolving industry standards on a timely and cost-effective basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

Potential changes in the competitive landscape, including disintermediation from other participants in the payments value chain, could harm our business.

 

We expect that the competitive landscape will continue to change and challenge us to respond to developments such as:

 

 

Rapid and significant changes in technology and new and innovative payment methods and programs;

 

 

Competitors, software integration partners, and other industry participants developing products that compete with or replace our value-added services and solutions;

 

 

Participants in the financial services payments and technology industries creating new payment services that compete with us or merging, creating joint ventures or forming other business combinations that strengthen their existing business services; and

 

 

New services and technologies that we develop being impacted by industry-wide solutions and standards related to migration to tokenization or other security-related technologies.

 

Failure to compete effectively against or otherwise address any of these and other competitive threats could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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If our vertical markets do not increase their acceptance of electronic payments or if there are adverse developments in the electronic payment industry in general, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

The vertical markets we primarily serve have traditionally not utilized electronic payments. If consumers and businesses in these vertical markets do not increase their use of cards as payment methods for their transactions or if the mix of payment methods changes in a way that is adverse to us, such developments may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Regulatory changes may also result in our customers seeking to charge their own customers additional fees for use of credit or debit cards which may result in such customers using other payment methods. Additionally, in recent years, increased incidents of security breaches have caused some consumers to lose confidence in the ability of businesses to protect their information, causing certain consumers to discontinue use of electronic payment methods. Security breaches could result in financial institutions canceling large numbers of credit and debit cards, or consumers or businesses electing to cancel their cards following such incidents.

 

Potential customers or software integration partners may be reluctant to switch to, or develop a relationship with, a new merchant acquirer, which may adversely affect our growth.

 

Many potential customers and software integration partners worry about potential disadvantages associated with switching merchant acquirers, such as a loss of accustomed functionality, increased costs and business disruption. For merchants that are potential customers and software providers that are potential software integration partners, switching to us from another merchant acquirer or integrating with us may be a significant undertaking. There can be no assurance that our strategies for overcoming potential reluctance to change merchant acquirers or to initiate a relationship with us will be successful, and this resistance may adversely affect our growth and our business overall. 

 

If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of payment networks and industry self-regulatory organizations, those payment networks or organizations could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations through our sponsor banks.

 

We rely on sponsor banks and, in certain cases, third-party processors to access the payment card networks, such as Visa, MasterCard and Discover, that enable our ability to offer to our customers the acceptance of credit cards and debit cards, and we must pay fees for such services. To provide our merchant acquiring services, we are registered through our sponsor banks with the Visa, MasterCard and Discover networks as a service provider for member institutions. As such, we, our sponsor banks and many of our customers are subject to complex and evolving payment network rules. The payment networks routinely update and modify requirements applicable to merchant acquirers, including rules regulating data integrity, third-party relationships (such as those with respect to sponsor banks and independent sales organization (“ISOs”)), merchant chargeback standards and PCI DSS. The rules of the card networks are set by their boards, which may be influenced by card issuers, some of which offer competing transaction processing services.

 

If we or our sponsor banks fail to comply with the applicable rules and requirements of any of the payment networks, such payment network could suspend or terminate our registration. Further, our transaction processing capabilities, including with respect to settlement processes, could be delayed or otherwise disrupted, and recurring non-compliance could result in the payment networks seeking to fine us or suspend or terminate our registrations that allow us to process transactions on their networks, which would make it impossible for us to conduct our business on its current scale.

 

Under certain circumstances specified in the payment network rules, we may be required to submit to periodic audits, self-assessments or other assessments with regard to our compliance with the PCI DSS. Such audits or assessments may reveal that we have failed to comply with the PCI DSS. In addition, even if we comply with the PCI DSS, there is no assurance that we will be protected from a security breach. The termination of our registrations with the payment networks, or any changes in payment network or issuer rules that limit our ability to provide merchant acquiring services, could have an adverse effect on our payment processing volumes, revenues and operating costs. If we are unable to comply with the requirements applicable to our payment processing activities, the payment networks could no longer allow us to provide these solutions, which would render us unable to conduct our business. If we were precluded from processing Visa and MasterCard electronic payments, we would lose a substantial portion of our revenues.

 

We are also subject to the operating rules of the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA”). NACHA is a self-regulatory organization which administers and facilitates private-sector operating rules for ACH payments and defines the roles and responsibilities of financial institutions and other ACH network participants. The NACHA Rules and Operating Guidelines impose obligations on us and our partner financial institutions. These obligations include audit and oversight by the financial institutions and the imposition of mandatory corrective action, including termination, for serious

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violations. If an audit or self-assessment under PCI DSS or NACHA identifies any deficiencies that we need to remediate, the remediation efforts may distract our management team and be expensive and time consuming.

 

Changes in payment network rules or standards could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Payment network rules are established and changed from time to time by each payment network as they may determine in their sole discretion and with or without advance notice to their participants. The timelines imposed by the payment networks for expected compliance with new rules have historically been, and may continue to be, highly compressed, requiring us to quickly implement changes to our systems which increases the risk of non-compliance with new standards. In addition, the payment networks could make changes to interchange or other elements of the pricing structure of the merchant acquiring industry that would have a negative impact on our results of operations.

 

We rely on sponsor banks in order to process electronic payment transactions, and such sponsor banks have substantial discretion with respect to certain elements of our business practices. If these sponsorships are terminated and we are not able to secure new sponsor banks, we will not be able to conduct our business.

  

Because we are not a bank, we are not eligible for membership in the Visa, MasterCard and other payment networks, and are, therefore, unable to directly access these payment networks, which are required to process transactions.

 

These networks’ operating regulations require us to be sponsored by a member bank in order to process electronic payment transactions. We are currently registered with payment networks through our sponsor banks. We primarily work with such sponsor banks directly to settle transactions, whereas many of our competitors are generally more dependent on third party super-ISOs.

 

In general, our sponsor banks may terminate their agreements with us if we materially breach the agreements and do not cure the breach within an established cure period, if we enter bankruptcy or file for bankruptcy, or if applicable laws or regulations, including Visa and/or MasterCard regulations, change to prevent either the applicable bank or us from performing services under the agreement. If these sponsorships are terminated and we are unable to secure a replacement sponsor bank within the applicable wind down period, we will not be able to process electronic payment transactions. While we maintain relationships with multiple sponsor banks for flexibility in the processing of payment volume and in the pricing of our customers’ solutions, the loss of or termination of a relationship with a sponsor bank or a significant decrease in the amount of payment volume that a sponsor bank processes for us could reduce such flexibility and negatively affect our business. As a result, we may be unable to obtain favorable pricing for our customers, which could negatively impact our ability to attract and retain customers. To the extent the number of our sponsor banks decreases, we will become increasingly reliant on our remaining sponsor banks, which would materially adversely affect our business should our relationship with any of such remaining banks be terminated or otherwise disrupted.

 

Furthermore, our agreements with our sponsor banks provide the sponsor banks with substantial discretion in approving certain elements of our business practices, including our solicitation, application and underwriting procedures for merchants. We cannot guarantee that our sponsor banks’ actions under these agreements will not be detrimental to us, nor can it provide assurance that any of our sponsor banks will not terminate their sponsorship of us in the future. Our sponsor banks have broad discretion to impose new business or operational requirements on us for purposes of compliance with payment network rules, which may materially adversely affect our business. If our sponsorship agreements are terminated and we are unable to secure another sponsor bank, we will not be able to offer Visa or MasterCard transactions or settle transactions which would likely cause us to terminate our operations.

 

Our sponsor banks also provide or supplement funding and settlement services in connection with our card processing services. If our sponsorship agreements are terminated and we are unable to secure another sponsor bank or maintain relationships with other existing sponsor banks, we will not be able to process Visa and MasterCard transactions which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

To acquire and retain customers, we depend on our software integration partners that integrate our services and solutions into software used by our customers.

 

We rely heavily on the efforts of our software integration partners to ensure our services and solutions are properly integrated into the software that our customers use. Generally, our agreements with software integration partners are not exclusive and these partners retain the right to refer potential customers to other payment processors.

 

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We may need to provide financial concessions to maintain relationships with current software integration partners or to attract potential software integration partners from our competitors. We have been required, and expect to be required in the future, to make concessions when renewing contracts with our software integration partners, and such concessions can have a material impact on our financial condition or operating performance.

 

If our software integration partners focus more heavily on working with other payment processors, cease operations or become insolvent, we may be at risk of losing existing customers with whom these software integration partners have relationships. If we are unable to maintain our existing base of software integration partners or develop relationships with new software integration partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. In addition, our efforts to form relationships with new software integration partners may be hindered to the extent they perceive that integrating with a new payment processor or switching to us from another payment processor is too costly or time-consuming. Many software providers choose to integrate with only a small number of payments processors due to the requisite time and cost of integrating their systems with a payment processor’s solutions. To the extent that a potential software integration partner has already integrated with several payments processors, it may be difficult for us to convince them to expand the number of payments processors they are integrated with and incur the expense and potential business disruption needed to successfully integrate our software with their systems.

 

Further, to the extent our software integration partners engage in, or are alleged to have engaged in, behavior that involves intentional or negligent misrepresentation of pricing or other contractual terms to customers or potential customers related to our processing services or solutions, we may be named in legal proceedings in connection with such actions of our software integration partners. Our software integration partners are independent businesses and we have no control over their day-to-day business activities, including their customer marketing and solicitation practices. While in some cases we may have indemnification rights against our software integration partners for these activities, there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully enforce those indemnification rights or that our software integration partners are adequately capitalized in a manner necessary to satisfy their indemnification obligations to us. If one or more judgments or settlements in any litigation or other investigation, or related defense and investigation costs, significantly exceed our insurance coverage and we are unable to enforce our indemnification rights against a software integration partner or partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could materially suffer.

 

Failure to effectively manage risk and prevent fraud could increase our chargeback liability and other liability.

 

We are potentially liable for losses caused by fraudulent card transactions or business fraud. Card fraud occurs when a merchant’s customer uses a stolen card (or a stolen card number in a card-not-present transaction) to purchase merchandise or services. In a traditional card-present transaction, if the merchant swipes the card, receives authorization for the transaction from the card issuing bank and verifies the signature on the back of the card against the paper receipt signed by its customer, the card issuing bank remains liable for any loss. In a fraudulent card-not-present transaction, even if the merchant receives authorization for the transaction, the merchant may be liable for any loss arising from the transaction. In addition, consumers may dispute repayments on a loan by claiming it was unlawful under applicable law.

 

Business fraud occurs when a business or organization, rather than a cardholder, opens a fraudulent merchant account and conducts fraudulent transactions or when a business, rather than a consumer (though sometimes working together with a consumer engaged in fraudulent activities), knowingly uses a stolen or counterfeit card or card number to record a false sales transaction, intentionally fails to deliver the merchandise or services sold in an otherwise valid transaction, or provides services in violation of applicable law. Business fraud also occurs when employees of businesses change the business demand deposit accounts to their personal bank account numbers, so that payments are improperly credited to the employee’s personal account.

 

These types of fraud present potential liability for chargebacks associated with our customers’ processing transactions. If a billing dispute between a customer and a consumer is not ultimately resolved in favor of our customer, the disputed transaction is “charged back” to the customer’s bank and credited to the consumer’s bank. Anytime our customer is unable to satisfy a chargeback, we are responsible for that chargeback. We have a number of contractual protections and other means of recourse to mitigate those risks, including collateral or reserve accounts that we may require our customers to maintain for these types of contingencies. Nonetheless, if we are unable to collect the chargeback from the customers’ account or reserve account (if applicable), or if the customer refuses or is financially unable due to bankruptcy or other reasons to reimburse us for the chargeback, we bear the loss for the amount of the refund paid to the cardholder’s bank. We have established systems and procedures to detect and reduce the impact of business fraud, but these measures may not be effective, and incidents of fraud could increase in the future. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we believe our chargeback rate was less than 1% of payment volume. Any increase in chargebacks not paid by our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our processes to reduce fraud losses depend in part on our ability to restrict the deposit of processing funds while we investigate suspicious transactions. We could be sued by parties alleging that our restriction and investigation processes violate federal and state laws on consumer protection and unfair business practice. If we are unable to defend any such claim successfully, we could be required to restructure our anti-fraud processes in ways that would harm our business or pay substantial fines.

 

As part of our program to reduce fraud losses, we may temporarily restrict the ability of customers to access certain processing deposits if those transactions or their account activity are identified by our anti-fraud models as suspicious. We could be sued by parties alleging that our restriction and investigation processes violate federal and state laws on consumer protection and unfair business practice. If we are unable to defend any such claim successfully, we could be required to restructure our anti-fraud processes in ways that could harm our business, and to pay substantial fines. Even if we are able to defend a claim successfully, the litigation could damage our reputation, consume substantial amounts of our management’s time and attention, and require us to change our customer service and operations in ways that could increase our costs and decrease the effectiveness of our anti-fraud program.

 

We receive savings related to favorable pricing on interchange and other payment network fees. To the extent we cannot maintain such savings and cannot pass along any corresponding increases in such fees to our customers, our operating results and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.

 

We bear interchange, assessment, transaction and other fees set by the payment networks to the card issuing banks and the payment networks for each transaction we process. Under certain circumstances, the payment networks afford us preferential rates with respect to such fees, which helps us to control our operating costs. From time to time, the payment networks increase the interchange fees and other fees that they charge payment processors and the sponsor banks. At their sole discretion, our sponsor banks have the right to pass any increases in interchange and other fees on to us, and they have consistently done so in the past. We are generally permitted under the contracts into which we enter with our customers, and in the past have been able to, pass these fee increases along to our customers through corresponding increases in our processing fees. However, if we are unable to pass through these and other fees in the future, or if the payment networks decline to offer us preferential rates on such fees as compared to those charged to other payment processors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In addition, the various card associations and networks prescribe certain capital requirements on us, such as reserves in respect of certain customers for chargeback liabilities. Any increase in the capital level required would further limit our use of capital for other purposes. 

 

Our systems and those of our third-party providers may fail due to factors beyond our control, which could interrupt our service, resulting in our inability to process payments, loss of business, increase in costs and exposure to liability.

 

We depend on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of numerous systems, including our computer network systems, software, data centers and telecommunication networks, as well as the systems and services of our sponsor banks, the payment networks, third-party providers of processing services and other third parties. Our systems and operations, or those of our third-party providers, such as our provider of dial-up authorization services, or the payment networks themselves, could be exposed to damage or interruption from, among other things, hardware and software defects or malfunctions, telecommunications failure, computer denial-of-service and other cyberattacks, unauthorized entry, computer viruses or other malware, human error, natural disaster, power loss, acts of terrorism or sabotage, financial insolvency of such providers and similar events. These threats, and errors or delays in the processing of payment transactions, system outages or other difficulties, could result in failure to process transactions, additional operating and development costs, diversion of technical and other resources, loss of revenue, customers and software integration partners, loss of merchant and cardholder data, harm to our business or reputation, exposure to fraud losses or other liabilities and fines and other sanctions imposed by payment networks. Our property and business interruption insurance may not be adequate to compensate us for all losses or failures that may occur.

 

At present, our critical operational systems, such as our payment gateway, are fully redundant, while certain of our less critical systems are not. Therefore, certain aspects of our operations may be subject to interruption. Also, while we have disaster recovery policies and arrangements in place, they have not been tested under actual disasters or similar events. Maintaining and upgrading our system is costly and time-consuming, involves significant technical risk and may divert our resources from new features and products, and there can be no assurances that such systems will be effective. Frequent or persistent site interruptions could lead to regulatory scrutiny, significant fines and penalties, and mandatory and costly changes to our business practices.

 

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In addition, we are continually improving and upgrading our information systems and technologies. Implementation of new systems and technologies is complex, expensive and time-consuming. If we fail to timely and successfully implement new information systems and technologies or improvements or upgrades to existing information systems and technologies, or if such systems and technologies do not operate as intended, this could have an adverse impact on our business, internal controls (including internal controls over financial reporting), results of operations and financial condition.

 

We rely on other service and technology providers. If such providers fail in or discontinue providing their services or technology to us, our ability to provide services to customers may be interrupted, and, as a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.

 

We rely on third parties to provide or supplement card processing services and for infrastructure hosting services. We also rely on third parties for specific software and hardware used in providing our products and services. The termination by our service or technology providers of their arrangements with us or their failure to perform their services efficiently and effectively may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and, if we cannot find alternate providers quickly, may cause those customers to terminate their relationships with us.

 

Our third-party processors, which provide us with front-end authorization services and certain other services, compete with us or may compete with us in the future in the vertical markets that we serve. There can be no assurance that these processors will maintain their relationships with us in the future or that they will refrain from competing directly with the solutions that we offer. 

 

If we are unable to renew our existing contracts with our most significant vendors, we might not be able to replace the related products or services at the same cost, which would negatively impact our profitability. Additionally, while we believe we would be able to locate alternative vendors to provide substantially similar services at comparable rates, or otherwise replicate such services internally, no assurance can be made that a change would not be disruptive to our business, which could potentially lead to a material adverse impact on our revenue and profitability until resolved.

 

We also rely in part on third parties for the development of and access to new technologies, and updates to existing products and services for which third parties provide ongoing support, which reliance increases the cost associated with new and existing product and service offerings. Failure by these third-party providers to devote an appropriate level of attention to our products and services could result in delays in introducing new products or services, or delays in resolving any issues with existing products or services for which third-party providers provide ongoing support.

 

We are subject to economic and political risk, the business cycles of our customers and software integration partners and the overall level of consumer and commercial spending, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The electronic payment industry depends heavily on the overall level of consumer and commercial spending. We are exposed to general economic conditions that affect consumer confidence, consumer spending, consumer discretionary income and changes in consumer purchasing habits, including natural disasters and health emergencies, including earthquakes, fires, power outages, typhoons, floods, pandemics or epidemics such as the coronavirus and manmade events such as civil unrest, labor disruption, international trade disputes, international conflicts, terrorism, wars and critical infrastructure attacks. A sustained deterioration in general economic conditions, particularly in the United States, or increases in interest rates, could adversely affect our financial performance by reducing the number or aggregate volume of transactions made using electronic payments. For example, the recent COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak may impact the global economy or negatively affect various aspects of our business, including reductions in the amount of consumer spending and lending which could result in a decrease in our revenue and profits. If our customers make fewer sales of products and services using electronic payments, or consumers spend less money through electronic payments, we will have fewer transactions to process at lower dollar amounts, resulting in lower revenue.

 

A weakening in the economy could have a negative impact on our customers, as well as their customers who purchase products and services using the payment processing systems to which we provide access, which could, in turn, negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in the primary vertical markets that we serve, merchants are affected by macroeconomic conditions such as employment, personal income and consumer sentiment. If economic conditions deteriorate and our customers experience decreased demand for consumer lending (particularly in the automobile finance market as consumers cut down on discretionary spending), we would experience a decrease both in volume and number of transactions processed. In addition, a weakening in the economy could force merchants to close at higher than historical rates in part because many of them are not as well capitalized as larger organizations, which could expose us to potential credit losses and future transaction declines. Further, credit card issuers

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may reduce credit limits and become more selective in their card issuance practices. We also have a certain amount of fixed and semi-fixed costs, including rent, debt service and salaries, which could limit our ability to quickly adjust costs and respond to changes in our business and the economy.

 

In addition, a significant portion of our customers are consumer lenders that provide personal loans and automotive loans to consumers that have varying degrees of credit risk. The regulatory environment that these customers operate in is very complex because applicable regulations are often enacted by multiple agencies in the state and federal governments. For example, the CFPB promulgated new rules applicable to such loans that could have an adverse effect on our customers’ businesses, and numerous state laws impose similar requirements. Such customers are also subject to negative public perceptions that their consumer lending activities constitute predatory or abusive lending to consumers, and concerns raised by consumer advocacy groups and government officials may lead to efforts to further regulate the industry in which many of our customers operate. The combination of these factors, and in particular the uncertainties associated with the regulatory environments in the various jurisdictions in which our customers operate, could materially adversely affect the business of our customers and may force our consumer lender customers to change their business models. As a result, we may need to be nimble and quickly respond to the evolving needs of the vertical markets that we serve. If the business of our customers is materially adversely affected by the uncertainties described above and if we or our customers fail to respond to such changes in the industry in a timely manner, or if there are significant changes in such vertical markets that we do not anticipate, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. 

 

Our risk management policies and procedures may not be fully effective in mitigating our risk exposure in all market environments or against all types of risks.

 

We operate in a rapidly changing industry. Accordingly, our risk management policies and procedures may not be fully effective to identify, monitor, manage and remediate our risks. Some of our risk evaluation methods depend upon information provided by others and public information regarding markets, merchants or other matters that are otherwise inaccessible by us. In some cases, that information may not be accurate, complete or up-to-date. Additionally, our risk detection system is subject to a high degree of “false positive” risks being detected, which makes it difficult for us to identify real risks in a timely manner. If our policies and procedures are not fully effective or we are not always successful in capturing all risks to which we are or may be exposed, we may suffer harm to our reputation or be subject to litigation or regulatory actions that materially increase our costs and limit our ability to grow and may cause us to lose existing customers.

 

We may not be able to continue to expand our share in our existing vertical markets or continue to expand into new vertical markets, which would inhibit our ability to grow and increase our profitability.

 

Our future growth and profitability depend, in part, upon our continued expansion within the vertical markets in which we currently operate, the emergence of other vertical markets for electronic payments and our integrated solutions, and our ability to penetrate new vertical markets and our current software integration partners’ customer bases. As part of our strategy to expand into new vertical markets and increase our share in our existing vertical markets, we look for acquisition opportunities and partnerships with other businesses that will allow us to increase our market penetration, technological capabilities, product offerings and distribution capabilities. We may not be able to successfully identify suitable acquisition or partnership candidates in the future, and if we do identify them, they may not provide us with the benefits we anticipated. In addition, we recently began offering our products and services in Canada, a market in which we have no prior operating experience. As a result, our ability to grow and profitably service customers in Canada is uncertain and will require additional resources and controls, and we may encounter unanticipated challenges.

 

Our expansion into new vertical markets also depends on our ability to adapt our existing technology or to develop new technologies to meet the particular needs of each new vertical market. We may not have adequate financial or technological resources to develop effective and secure services or distribution channels that will satisfy the demands of these new vertical markets. Penetrating these new vertical markets may also prove to be more challenging or costly or may take longer than we may anticipate. If we fail to expand into new vertical markets and increase our penetration into existing vertical markets, we may not be able to continue to grow our revenues and earnings.

 

We may not be able to successfully execute our strategy of growth through acquisitions.

 

A significant part of our growth strategy is to enter into new vertical markets through platform acquisitions of vertically-focused integrated payment and software solutions providers, to expand within our existing vertical markets through selective tuck-in acquisitions and to otherwise increase our presence in the payments processing market. From 2016 until the closing of the Business Combination, we completed a total of three platform acquisitions that enabled us to enter

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new, or expand within existing, vertical markets.  Since the closing of the Business Combination, we have completed three additional acquisitions described in more detail below.

 

Although we expect to continue to execute our acquisition strategy:

 

 

we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or acquire additional assets on favorable terms;

 

 

we may compete with others to acquire assets, which competition may increase, and any level of competition could result in decreased availability or increased prices for acquisition candidates;

 

 

competing bidders for such acquisitions may be larger, better-funded organizations with more resources and easier access to capital;

 

 

we may experience difficulty in anticipating the timing and availability of acquisition candidates;

 

 

we may not be able to obtain the necessary financing, on favorable terms or at all, to finance any of our potential acquisitions;

 

 

potential acquisitions may be subject to regulatory approvals, which may cause delays and uncertainties; and

 

 

we may not be able to generate cash necessary to execute our acquisition strategy.

 

The occurrence of any of these factors could adversely affect our growth strategy.

 

Our acquisitions subject us to a variety of risks that could harm our business.

 

We review and complete selective acquisition opportunities. There can be no assurances that we will be able to complete suitable acquisitions for a variety of reasons, including the difficulties associated with the identification of and competition for acquisition targets, the need for regulatory approvals, the inability of the parties to agree to the structure or purchase price of the transaction and our inability to finance the transaction on commercially acceptable terms. In addition, any completed acquisition will subject us to a variety of other risks:

 

 

we may need to allocate substantial operational, financial and management resources in integrating new businesses, technologies and products, and management may encounter difficulties in integrating the operations, personnel or systems of the acquired business;

 

 

the acquisition may have a material adverse effect on our business relationships with existing or future customers or software integration partners;

 

 

we may assume substantial actual or contingent liabilities, known and unknown;

 

 

the acquisition may not meet our expectations of future financial performance;

 

 

we may experience delays or reductions in realizing expected synergies or benefits;

 

 

wet may incur substantial unanticipated costs or encounter other problems associated with the acquired business, including challenges associated with transfer of various data processing functions and connections to our systems and those of our third-party service providers;

 

 

we may be unable to achieve our intended objectives for the transaction; and

 

 

we may not be able to retain the key personnel, customers and suppliers of the acquired business.

 

These challenges and costs and expenses may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The anticipated benefits from our recently announced acquisitions may not be realized on the expected timeline or at all.

 

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On August 14, 2019, we announced our acquisition of TriSource. Since 2012, TriSource has been our primary third-party processor for back-end settlement solutions.  We have no prior experience in providing back-end payment processing services, which represents TriSource’s primary capability.  Accordingly, our lack of experience in the back-end processing market may result in operational difficulties, which could cause a delay or failure to integrate and realize the benefits of the TriSource acquisition.

 

On October 14, 2019, we announced our acquisition of APS.  APS is an integrated payments provider focused on the business-to-business (or “B2B”) vertical.  APS markets its products and services in the B2B vertical through key integrations with leading enterprise resource planning (or “ERP”) software platforms.  The B2B vertical represents a new vertical market for us, and we do not have any prior experience with the key ERP platforms that are critical to the B2B vertical.  Accordingly, our lack of experience in the B2B vertical and with the key ERP platforms may result in operational difficulties, which could cause a delay or failure to integrate and realize the benefits of the APS acquisition.

 

On February 10, 2020, we announced our acquisition of Ventanex.  Ventanex is an integrated payment solutions provider to consumer finance (including mortgage servicers) and B2B healthcare verticals.  The mortgage loan servicer and B2B healthcare verticals represent a material expansion of our existing focus.  Accordingly, our lack of experience in the mortgage and B2B healthcare verticals may result in operational difficulties, which could cause a delay or failure to integrate and realize the benefits of the Ventanex acquisition.  

 

We may also experience other challenges associated with operating these acquired businesses, including (1) difficulties and delays in integrating each acquired business, including with respect to implementing systems to prevent a material security breach of any internal systems or to successfully manage credit and fraud risks; (2) business disruptions from the acquisition that will harm us or the acquired business, including current plans and operations; (3) potential adverse reactions or changes to business relationships resulting from the announcement or completion of each acquisition, including as it relates to our or the acquired business’ ability to successfully renew existing customer contracts on favorable terms or at all and obtain new customers; (4) retaining the acquired business’ customers, key personnel, vendors and other business relations; and (5) other unexpected costs or problems with integrating each acquired business.

 

Our level of indebtedness could adversely affect our ability to meet our obligations under our indebtedness, react to changes in the economy or our industry and to raise additional capital to fund operations.

 

In connection with the Ventanex acquisition, we entered into an amendment to our Credit Agreement (as amended, the “Amended Credit Agreement”) with Truist Bank and certain other lenders, upsizing the existing credit facility to $345.0 million. As of the closing of the Ventanex acquisition, approximately $255.0 million of aggregate principal amount was outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement, and such level of indebtedness could have important consequences to our stockholders. For example, such level of indebtedness could:

 

 

make it more difficult to satisfy our obligations with respect to any indebtedness, resulting in possible defaults on, and acceleration of, such indebtedness;

 

 

increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

 

 

require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of such cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate requirements or to carry out other aspects of our business;

 

 

limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate requirements or to carry out other aspects of our business;

 

 

limit our ability to make material acquisitions or take advantage of business opportunities that may arise; and

 

 

place us at a potential competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt.

 

We may also incur future debt obligations that might subject us to additional restrictive covenants that could affect our financial and operational flexibility.

 

A portion of our indebtedness bears interest at variable interest rates, primarily based on LIBOR. LIBOR is the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform, which may cause LIBOR to

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disappear entirely after 2021 or to perform differently than in the past. While we expect that reasonable alternatives to LIBOR will be implemented prior to the 2021 target date, we cannot predict the consequences and timing of these development, and they could include an increase in our interest expense and/or reduction in our interest income.

 

Future operating flexibility is limited in significant respects by the restrictive covenants in the Amended Credit Agreement, and we may be unable to comply with all covenants in the future.

 

The Amended Credit Agreement imposes restrictions that could impede our ability to enter into certain corporate transactions, as well as increases our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, by limiting our flexibility in planning for, and reacting to, changes in our business and industry. These restrictions will limit our ability to, among other things:

 

 

incur or guarantee additional debt;

 

 

pay dividends on capital stock or redeem, repurchase, retire or otherwise acquire any capital stock;

 

 

make certain payments, dividends, distributions or investments; and

 

 

merge or consolidate with other companies or transfer all or substantially all of our assets.

 

In addition, the Amended Credit Agreement contains certain negative covenants that restrict the incurrence of indebtedness unless certain incurrence-based financial covenant requirements are met. The restrictions may prevent us from taking actions that we believe would be in the best interests of the business and may make it difficult for us to successfully execute our business strategy or effectively compete with companies that are not similarly restricted. Our ability to comply with these restrictive covenants in future periods will largely depend on our ability to successfully implement our overall business strategy. The breach of any of these covenants or restrictions could result in a default, which could result in the acceleration of our debt. In the event of an acceleration of our indebtedness, we could be forced to apply all available cash flows to repay such debt, which would reduce or eliminate distributions to us, which could also force us into bankruptcy or liquidation. 

 

We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition and our share price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.

 

As a result of unidentified issues or factors outside of our control, we may be forced to later write-down or write-off assets, restructure operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in reporting losses. Unexpected risks may arise and previously known risks may materialize in a manner not consistent with our preliminary risk analysis conducted. Even though these charges may be non-cash items that would not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities. In addition, charges of this nature may cause us to violate leverage or other covenants to which we may be subject. Accordingly, our stockholders could suffer a reduction in the value of their shares from any such write-down or write-downs.

 

Changes in tax laws or their judicial or administrative interpretations, or becoming subject to additional U.S., state or local taxes that cannot be passed through to our customers, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our operations are subject to extensive tax liabilities, including federal and state and transactional taxes such as excise, sales/use, payroll, franchise, withholding, and ad valorem taxes. Changes in tax laws or their judicial or administrative interpretations could decrease the amount of revenues we receive, the value of any tax loss carryforwards and tax credits recorded on our balance sheet and the amount of our cash flow, and may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Some of our tax liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the applicable taxing authority which could increase our tax liabilities. Furthermore, companies in the payment processing industry, including us, may become subject to incremental taxation in various taxing jurisdictions. Taxing jurisdictions have not yet adopted uniform positions on this topic. If we are required to pay additional taxes and are unable to pass the tax expense through to our customers, our costs would increase and our net income would be reduced, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may not be able to successfully manage our intellectual property and may be subject to infringement claims.

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We rely on a combination of contractual rights and copyright, trademark, patent and trade secret laws to establish and protect our proprietary technology, which is critical to our success, particularly in our strategic verticals where we may offer proprietary software solutions to our customers. Third parties may challenge, circumvent, infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to permit us to take advantage of current market trends or otherwise to provide competitive advantages, which could result in costly redesign efforts, discontinuance of service offerings or other competitive harm. Other parties, including our competitors, may independently develop similar technology and duplicate our services or design around our intellectual property and, in such cases, we may not be able to assert our intellectual property rights against such parties. Further, our contractual arrangements may be subject to termination or renegotiation with unfavorable terms to us, and our third-party licensors may be subject to bankruptcy, insolvency and other adverse business dynamics, any of which might affect our ability to use and exploit the products licensed to us by such third-party licensors. Additionally, our contractual arrangements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of our confidential information. We may have to litigate to enforce or determine the scope and enforceability of our intellectual property rights and know-how, which is expensive, could cause a diversion of resources and may not prove successful. Also, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, aspects of our business and our services rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or retain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms or at all. The loss of intellectual property protection or the inability to license or otherwise use third-party intellectual property could harm our business and ability to compete. 

 

We may also be subject to costly litigation if our services and technology are alleged to infringe upon or otherwise violate a third party’s proprietary rights. Third parties may have, or may eventually be issued, patents that could be infringed by our products, services or technology. Any of these third parties could make a claim of infringement, breach or other violation of third-party intellectual property rights against us with respect to our products, services or technology. Any claim from third parties may result in a limitation on our ability to use the intellectual property subject to these claims. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and groups have been purchasing intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement or other violations and attempting to extract settlements from companies like us. Even if we believe that intellectual property related claims are without merit, defending against such claims is time consuming and expensive and could result in the diversion of time and attention of our management and employees. Claims of intellectual property infringement or violation also may require us to redesign affected products or services, enter into costly settlement or license agreements, pay costly damage awards, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or selling certain of our products or services. Even if we have an agreement for indemnification against such costs, the indemnifying party, if any in such circumstance, may be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. If we cannot or do not license the infringed technology on reasonable terms or substitute similar technology from another source, our revenue and earnings could be adversely impacted.

 

If we are unable to develop and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

Prior to the Business Combination, for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, Hawk Parent identified control deficiencies that constituted material weaknesses in controls over financial reporting, which were remediated as of the year ended December 31, 2018. The material weaknesses previously identified and subsequently remediated were related to (i) insufficient segregation of duties, (ii) lack of formal documentation and the development of policies and procedures, and (iii) insufficient evidential matter to support the implementation of control activities, all of which were remediated as of the year ended December 31, 2018. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the issuer’s annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or deleted on a timely basis.

 

As a private company not subject to the internal control provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Hawk Parent had limited accounting and finance personnel and other resources with which to address its internal controls and procedures consistent with PCAOB standards. As of the year ended December 31, 2018, Hawk Parent had remediated its previously identified material weaknesses by taking certain remedial actions, including hiring key accounting personnel and creating a formal month-end financial statement review process, which have been completed. We intend to continue to evaluate actions to enhance our internal controls over financial reporting, but there is no assurance that we will not identify other control deficiencies or material weaknesses in the future.   In addition, we may be required to incur costs in improving our internal controls, including the costs of hiring additional personnel.  

 

If we identify future material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting or fail to meet the demands that will be placed upon us as a public company, including the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may be unable to

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accurately report our financial results or report them within the timeframes required by law or stock exchange regulations. Failure to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could also potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. If additional material weaknesses exist or are discovered in the future, and we are unable to remediate any such material weaknesses, our reputation, financial condition and operating results could suffer.  

  

Our customers and their respective businesses are subject to extensive government regulation, and any new laws and regulations, industry standards or revisions made to existing laws, regulations or industry standards affecting our customers’ businesses or the electronic payments industry, or our or our customers’ actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations, may have an unfavorable impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The customers we serve are subject to numerous federal and state regulations that affect the electronic payments industry. While payment processors like us are not typically subject to examination by government agencies, they are subject to laws and regulations prohibiting unfair, deceptive acts and practices (“UDAAP”). Because of the rules and regulations enacted at the state and federal level that affect our customers, we have developed compliance mechanisms that are designed to limit both our and our sponsor banks’ exposure to such regulations and risks associated with our customers’ industries.

 

Regulation of the consumer finance industry has increased significantly in the past several years and is continually evolving. In order to manage our exposure to such laws and regulations, we employ a substantial compliance management system designed to identify and mitigate risks associated with our merchant relationships. Our system is audited annually by a third-party and compared against industry standards, including System and Organization Controls and the PCI DSS described above, and we evaluate and update our compliance models to improve our performance and keep up with the rapid evolution of the legal and regulatory regime our customers face. However, changes to statutes, regulations or industry standards, including interpretations and implementation of such statutes, regulations or standards, could increase our cost of doing business or affect our competitive advantage. Our customers are subject to U.S. financial services regulations, numerous consumer protection laws, escheat regulations and privacy and information security regulations, among other laws, rules and regulations. Failure of our customers to comply with regulations may have an adverse effect on our business, including the limitation, suspension or termination of services provided to, or by, third parties, and the imposition of penalties or fines. To the extent these regulations negatively impact the business, operations or financial condition of our customers, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected because, among other matters, our customers may experience decreases in payment transactions processed, could decide to avoid or abandon certain lines of business, or could seek to pass on increased costs to us by negotiating price reductions. We could be required to invest a significant amount of time and resources to comply with additional regulations or oversight or to modify the manner in which we contract with or provide services and solutions to our customers and regulations could directly or indirectly limit how much we can charge for our services. In addition, we may not be able to update our existing products and services or develop new ones in a timely manner to address the evolving compliance needs of our customers. Any of these events, if realized, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Laws and regulations, even if not directed at us, may require us to take significant efforts to change our services and solutions and may require that we incur additional compliance costs and change how we price our products and services to our customers and software integration partners. Implementing new compliance efforts is difficult because of the complexity of new regulatory requirements, and we are devoting and will continue to devote significant resources to ensure compliance. Furthermore, regulatory actions may precipitate changes in business practices by us and other industry participants which could affect how we market, price and distribute our products and services, and which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, even an inadvertent failure to comply with laws and regulations or evolving public perceptions of our business could damage our business or our reputation.

 

The businesses of our consumer lender customers are strictly regulated in every jurisdiction in which they operate, and such regulations, and our consumer lender customers’ failure to comply with them, could have an adverse effect on our customers’ businesses and, as a result, our results of operations.

 

Our customers are subject to a variety of statutes and regulations enacted by government entities at the federal, state and local levels, which, for our customers that are consumer lenders, include regulations relating to: the amount they may charge in interest rates and fees; the terms of their loans (such as maximum and minimum durations), repayment requirements and limitations, number and frequency of loans, maximum loan amounts, renewals and extensions, required repayment plans and reporting and use of state-wide databases; collection and servicing activity; the establishment and operation of their businesses; licensing, disclosure and reporting requirements; restrictions on advertising and marketing; and requirements governing electronic payments and money transmission.

  

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These regulations affect our consumer lender customers’ businesses in many ways, including their loan volume, revenues, delinquencies of their borrowers and results of operations. These changes to these customers’ businesses may affect the payment volume we process, including the number and size of scheduled repayments and the number of originated loans subject to repayment. To the extent these laws and regulations curtail consumer lending activity, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

Compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act and other federal and state regulations may increase our compliance costs, limit our revenues and otherwise negatively affect our business.

 

Since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, there have been substantial reforms to the supervision and operation of the financial services industry, including numerous new regulations that have imposed compliance costs on us and our financial institution partners and customers. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB, which is empowered to conduct rule-making and supervision related to, and enforcement of, federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB has issued guidance that applies to “supervised service providers,” which the CFPB has defined to include service providers, like us, to CFPB supervised banks and nonbanks. The Dodd-Frank Act also established the Financial Stability Oversight Council, which has the authority to determine whether any non-bank financial company should be supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Reserve, because it is systemically important to the U.S. financial system. In addition, federal and state agencies have recently proposed or enacted cybersecurity regulations, such as the Cybersecurity Requirements for Financial Services Companies issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services and the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Enhanced Cyber Risk Management Standards issued by The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation in October 2016. Such cybersecurity regulations are applicable to large bank holding companies and their subsidiaries, as well as to service providers to those organizations. Any new rules and regulations implemented by the CFPB or state or other authorities or in connection with the Dodd-Frank Act could, among other things, slow our ability to adapt to a rapidly changing industry, require us to make significant additional investments to comply with them, redirect time and resources to compliance obligations, modify our products or services or the manner in which they are provided, or limit or change the amount or types of revenue we are able to generate.

 

Interchange fees, which the payment processor typically pays to the card issuer in connection with credit and debit card transactions, are subject to increasingly intense legal, regulatory and legislative scrutiny. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act regulates and limits debit card fees charged by certain card issuers and allows businesses and organizations to set minimum dollar amounts for the acceptance of credit cards. Specifically, under the so-called “Durbin Amendment” to the Dodd-Frank Act, the interchange fees that certain issuers charge businesses and organizations for debit transactions are regulated by the Federal Reserve and must be “reasonable and proportional” to the cost incurred by the issuer in authorizing, clearing and settling the transactions. Rules released by the Federal Reserve in July 2011 to implement the Durbin Amendment mandate a cap on debit transaction interchange fees for card issuers with assets of $10.0 billion or greater. Since October 2011, a payment network may not prohibit a card issuer from contracting with any other payment network for the processing of electronic debit transactions involving the card issuer’s debit cards, and card issuers and payment networks may not inhibit the ability of businesses and organizations to direct the routing of debit card transactions over any payment networks that can process the transactions. These restrictions could negatively affect the number of debit transactions, and prices charged per transaction, which would negatively affect our business.

 

We must comply with laws and regulations prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices, and any failure to do so could materially and adversely affect our business.

 

We and many of our customers are subject to Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices and various state laws that are similar in scope and subject matter. In addition, provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices, the Telemarketing Sales Act and other laws, rules and/or regulations, may directly impact the activities of certain of our customers, and in some cases may subject us, as the electronic payment processor or provider of payment settlement services, to investigations, fees, fines and disgorgement of funds if we are found to have improperly aided and abetted or otherwise provided the means and instrumentalities to facilitate the illegal or improper activities of a customer through our services. Various federal and state regulatory enforcement agencies, including the Federal Trade Commission and state attorneys general have authority to take action against non-banks that engage in UDAAP, or violate other laws, rules and regulations. To the extent we are processing payments or providing products and services for a customer suspected of violating such laws, rules and regulations, we may face enforcement actions and incur losses and liabilities that may adversely affect our business.

 

Numerous other federal or state laws affect our business, and any failure to comply with those laws could harm our business.

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Currently, we do not believe we are deemed a money transmitter and have no expectation that we would be deemed as such in the foreseeable future. We, along with our third-party service providers, use structural arrangements designed to prevent us from receiving or controlling our customers’ funds and therefore remove our activities from the scope of money transmitter regulation. There can be no assurance that these structural arrangements will remain effective as money transmitter laws continue to evolve or that the applicable regulatory bodies, particularly state agencies, will view our payment processing activities as compliant.

 

Our business may also be subject to the Fair Credit Reporting Act (the “FCRA”), which regulates the use and reporting of consumer credit information and also imposes disclosure requirements on entities that take adverse action based on information obtained from credit reporting agencies. We could be liable if our practices do not comply with the FCRA or regulations under it.

 

The Housing Assistance Tax Act of 2008 included an amendment to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, that requires information returns to be made for each calendar year by payment processing entities and third-party settlement organizations with respect to payments made in settlement of electronic payment transactions and third-party payment network transactions occurring in that calendar year. Reportable transactions are also subject to backup withholding requirements. We could be liable for penalties if our information returns are not in compliance with these regulations.

 

Our solutions may be required to conform, in certain circumstances, to requirements set forth in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, which governs the privacy and security of “protected health information.”

 

Additionally, we are required to comply with certain anti-money laundering regulations in connection with our payment processing activities and are subject to certain economic and trade sanctions programs, which prohibit or restrict transactions to or from or dealings with specified countries, their governments, and in certain circumstances, their nationals, and with individuals and entities that are specially-designated nationals of those countries, narcotics traffickers, and terrorists or terrorist organizations. These regulations are generally governed by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Office of Foreign Assets Control.

 

Depending on how our products and services evolve, we may be subject to a variety of additional laws and regulations, including those governing money transmission, gift cards and other prepaid access instruments, electronic funds transfers, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing, restrictions on foreign assets, gambling, banking and lending, and import and export restrictions.

 

Our efforts to comply with these laws and regulations could be costly and result in diversion of management time and effort and may still not guarantee compliance. In addition, to the extent we decide to offer our products and services in additional jurisdictions (for example, our recent expansion into Canada), we may incur additional compliance-related costs with respect to operating in such jurisdictions. Additionally, as our products and services evolve, and as regulators continue to increase their scrutiny of compliance with these obligations, we may be subject to a variety of additional laws and regulations, or we may be required to further revise or expand our compliance management system, including the procedures we use to verify the identity of our customers, their end customers, and to monitor transactions. If we are found to be in violation of any such legal or regulatory requirements, we may be subject to monetary fines or other penalties, such as a cease and desist order, or we may be required to alter the nature or packaging of our services and solutions, any of which could adversely affect our business or operating results.

  

Governmental regulations designed to protect or limit access to or use of consumer information could adversely affect our ability to effectively provide our products and services.

 

In addition to those regulations discussed previously that are imposed by the card networks and NACHA, governmental bodies in the United States have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, laws and regulations restricting the use, collection, storage, transfer and disposal of, and requiring safeguarding of, non-public personal information. Our operations are subject to certain provisions of these laws. Relevant federal privacy laws include the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which applies directly to a broad range of financial institutions and indirectly, or in some instances directly, to companies that provide services to financial institutions. The U.S. Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act also regulates the collection of information by operators of websites and other electronic solutions that are directed to children under 13 years of age. These laws and regulations restrict our collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal information, may require us to notify individuals of our privacy practices and provide individuals with certain rights to prevent the use and disclosure of

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protected information, and mandate certain procedures with respect to safeguarding and proper description of stored information. Certain state laws impose similar privacy obligations as well as obligations to provide notification of security breaches of personal information to affected individuals, state officers, consumer reporting agencies and businesses and governmental agencies. The applicable regulatory framework for privacy issues is evolving and is likely to continue doing so for the foreseeable future, which creates uncertainty. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) of 2018, which became effective January 1, 2020, imposes more stringent requirements with respect to California data privacy. The CCPA includes provisions that give California residents expanded rights to access and delete certain personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how certain personal information is used.

 

Further, we are obligated by our customers, sponsor banks and software integration partners to maintain the confidentiality and security of non-public consumer information that our customers and their end customers share with us. Our contracts may require periodic audits by independent parties regarding our compliance with applicable standards, and may permit our counterparties to audit our compliance with best practices established by regulatory guidelines with respect to confidentiality and security of non-public personal information. Our ability to maintain compliance with these standards and satisfy these audits will affect our ability to attract, grow and maintain business in the future, and any failure to do so could subject us to contractual liability, each of which could have a material effect on our business and results of operations.

 

If we fail to comply with these laws, regulations or contractual terms, or if we experience security breaches, we could face regulatory enforcement proceedings, suits for breach of contract and monetary liabilities. Additionally, any such failure could harm the relationships and reputation we depend on to retain existing customers and software integration partners and obtain new customers and software integration partners. If federal and state governmental bodies adopt more restrictive privacy laws in the future, our compliance costs could increase, and it could make our due diligence reviews and monitoring regarding the risk of our customers more difficult, complex and expensive. As our business grows, we may also be required to invest in a more substantive and complex compliance management system than the one we currently employ.

 

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and we have taken advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies; this could make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare our performance with other public companies.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), as modified by the JOBS Act and have taken advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on certain executive compensation matters. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important. We may be an emerging growth company for up to five years from the IPO, although circumstances could cause the loss of that status earlier, including if the market value of our common stock held by non- affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. We cannot predict whether investors will find our securities less attractive because we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find the securities less attractive as a result of reliance on these exemptions, the trading prices of our securities may be lower than they otherwise would be, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the trading prices of our securities may be more volatile.

  

Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period. Accordingly, when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, will adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard, unless early adoption is permitted by the standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

  

The loss of key personnel or the loss of our ability to attract, recruit, retain and develop qualified employees, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We depend on the ability and experience of a number of our key personnel who have substantial experience with our operations, the rapidly changing payment processing industry and the vertical markets in which we offer our products and services. Many of our key personnel have worked for us for a significant amount of time or were recruited by us specifically due to their experience. Our success depends in part upon the reputation and influence within the industry of our senior managers who have, over the years, developed long standing and favorable relationships with our software integration partners, vendors, card associations, sponsor banks and other payment processing and service providers. It is possible that the loss of the services of one or a combination of our senior executives or key managers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, contractual obligations related to confidentiality and assignment of intellectual property rights may be ineffective or unenforceable, and departing employees may share our proprietary information with competitors or seek to solicit our software integration partners or customers or recruit our key personnel to competing businesses in ways that could adversely impact us.

  

Further, in order for us to continue to successfully compete and grow, we must attract, recruit, develop and retain personnel who will provide us with the expertise we need. Our success also depends on the skill and experience of our sales force, which we must continuously work to maintain. While we have a number of key personnel who have substantial experience with our operations, we must also develop our personnel so that our personnel is capable of maintaining the continuity of our operations, supporting the development of new services and solutions, and expanding our customer base. In addition, our personnel may not be familiar with the requirement of operating a public company and our management will need to continue to expend time and resources to become familiar with such requirements. The market for qualified personnel is competitive, and we may not succeed in recruiting additional personnel or may fail to effectively replace current personnel who depart with qualified or effective successors.

 

We have been the subject of various claims and legal proceedings and may become the subject of claims, litigation or investigations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

In the ordinary course of business, we are the subject of various claims and legal proceedings and may become the subject of claims, litigation or investigations, including commercial disputes and employee claims, such as claims of age discrimination, sexual harassment, gender discrimination, immigration violations or other local, state and federal labor law violations, and from time to time may be involved in governmental or regulatory investigations or similar matters arising out of our current or future business. Any claims asserted against us or our management, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, could harm our reputation and have an adverse impact on our relationships with our customers, software integration partners and other third parties and could lead to additional related claims. In light of the potential cost and uncertainty involved in litigation, we have in the past and may in the future settle matters even when we believe we have a meritorious defense. Certain claims may seek injunctive relief, which could disrupt the ordinary conduct of our business and operations or increase our costs of doing business. Our insurance or indemnities may not cover all claims that may be asserted against us. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in defending pending or future litigation or similar matters under various laws. Any judgments or settlements in any pending or future claims, litigation or investigations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business and operations could be negatively affected if we become subject to any securities litigation or shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of business and growth strategy and impact our stock price.

 

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Shareholder activism, which could take many forms or arise in a variety of situations, has been increasing recently. Volatility in the stock price of our common stock or other reasons may in the future cause us to become the target of securities litigation or shareholder activism. Securities litigation and shareholder activism, including potential proxy contests, could result in substantial costs and divert management’s and board of directors’ attention and resources from our business. Additionally, such securities litigation and shareholder activism could give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future, adversely affect our relationships with service providers and make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel. Also, we may be required to incur significant legal fees and other expenses related to any securities litigation and activist shareholder matters. Further, our stock price could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks and uncertainties of any securities litigation and shareholder activism.

 

Risks Related to the Business Combination

 

If the Business Combination’s benefits do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.

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If the benefits of the Business Combination do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.

 

Fluctuations in the price of our securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. Immediately prior to the Business Combination, there was no public market for and no trading in Hawk Parent’s stock. As an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

  

Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include:

 

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;

 

 

changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results or changes to our previously announced financial forecasts;

 

 

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

 

 

speculation in the press or investment community;

 

 

success of competitors;

 

 

our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors or our previously announced financial forecasts in a particular period;

 

 

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning us or the market in general;

 

 

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;

 

 

our ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;

 

 

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

 

 

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;

 

 

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

 

 

the volume of shares of our Class A common stock available for public sale;

 

 

any major change in our board of directors or management;

 

 

sales of substantial amounts of common stock by our directors, officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and

 

 

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism and outbreaks of disease or other adverse public health developments such as the recent COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak (the impact of which are highly uncertain and cannot be reasonably estimated or predicted at this time).

 

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general and Nasdaq have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for

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the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

  

Our results of operations may differ significantly from the unaudited pro forma financial information included in our SEC reports.

 

              Thunder Bridge and Hawk Parent have had no prior history as a combined entity, and Thunder Bridge’s and Hawk Parent’s operations have not previously been managed on a combined basis. The pro forma financial information included in our SEC reports has been presented for informational purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the financial position or results of operations that would have actually occurred had the Business Combination or TriSource acquisition been completed at or as of the dates indicated, nor is it indicative of our future operating results or financial position. Such pro forma statement of operations does not reflect future nonrecurring charges resulting from the Business Combination or the TriSource acquisition. Such unaudited pro forma financial information does not reflect future events that have occurred or may occur after the Business Combination and TriSource acquisition and does not consider potential impacts of future market conditions on revenues or expenses and instead it was derived from Thunder Bridge’s and Hawk Parent’s historical financial statements, or TriSource’s historical financial statements, and certain adjustments and assumptions have been made regarding us after giving effect to the Business Combination and the TriSource acquisition. There may be differences between preliminary estimates in the pro forma financial information and the final acquisition accounting, which could result in material differences from the pro forma information presented and our results of operations.

 

              In addition, the assumptions used in preparing the pro forma financial information may not prove to be accurate and other factors may affect our financial condition or results of operations following the closing of the Business Combination and the TriSource acquisition. Any potential decline in our financial condition or results of operations may cause significant variations in our stock price.

 

Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock

 

We are a holding company and our only material asset is our interest in Hawk Parent, and we are accordingly dependent upon distributions made by our subsidiaries to pay taxes, make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement and pay dividends.

 

As part of the Business Combination, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Thunder Bridge merged with and into Hawk Parent, with Hawk Parent continuing as the surviving entity of the merger and becoming our subsidiary. As a result, we became a holding company with no material assets other than our ownership of limited liability company interests of Hawk Parent (the “Post-Merger Repay Units” and holders of such Post-Merger Repay Units other than the Company, the “Repay Unitholders”) and our managing member interest in Hawk Parent, and we have no independent means of generating revenue or cash flow. Upon the completion of the Business Combination, we entered into that certain Tax Receivable Agreement (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”) with the Repay Unitholders. Our ability to pay taxes, make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement and pay dividends will depend on the financial results and cash flows of Hawk Parent and its subsidiaries and the distributions we receive from Hawk Parent. Deterioration in the financial condition, earnings or cash flow of Hawk Parent and its subsidiaries, including its operating subsidiaries, for any reason could limit or impair Hawk Parent’s ability to pay such distributions. Additionally, to the extent that we need funds and Hawk Parent and/or any of its subsidiaries are restricted from making such distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of any financing arrangements, or Hawk Parent is otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.

 

Hawk Parent is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, generally is not subject to any entity-level U.S. federal income tax. Instead, taxable income is allocated to Repay Unitholders (including us). Accordingly, we will be required to pay income taxes on our allocable share of any net taxable income of Hawk Parent. Under the terms of Hawk Parent’s Amended and Restated Operating Agreement, Hawk Parent is obligated to make tax distributions to Repay Unitholders (including us) calculated at certain assumed tax rates. In addition to tax expenses, we will also incur expenses related to our operations, including payment obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement (and the cost of administering such payment obligations), which could be significant. We intend to cause Hawk Parent to make distributions to Repay Unitholders in amounts sufficient to cover all applicable taxes (calculated at assumed tax rates), relevant operating expenses, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement and dividends, if any, declared by Hawk Parent. However, as discussed below, Hawk Parent’s ability to make such distributions may be subject to various limitations and restrictions including, but not limited to, restrictions on distributions that would either violate any contract or agreement to which Hawk Parent is then a party, including debt agreements, or any applicable law, or that would have the effect of

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rendering Hawk Parent insolvent. If our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement and to fund our obligations, we may be required to incur additional indebtedness to provide the liquidity needed to make such payments, which could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition and subject us to various restrictions imposed by any such lenders. To the extent that we are unable to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for any reason, such payments will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid; provided, however, that nonpayment for a specified period may constitute a material breach of a material obligation under the Tax Receivable Agreement and therefore accelerate payments due under the Tax Receivable Agreement.

 

Additionally, although Hawk Parent generally is not subject to any entity-level U.S. federal income tax, it may be liable under recent federal tax legislation for adjustments to its tax return, absent an election to the contrary. In the event Hawk Parent’s calculations of taxable income are incorrect, its members, including us, in later years may be subject to material liabilities pursuant to this federal legislation and its related guidance.

 

We anticipate that the distributions we will receive from Hawk Parent may, in certain periods, exceed our actual tax liabilities and obligations to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. Our board of the directors, in its sole discretion, will make any determination from time to time with respect to the use of any such excess cash so accumulated, which may include, among other uses, to acquire additional newly issued Post-Merger Repay Units from Hawk Parent at a per unit price determined by reference to the market value of the Class A common stock; to pay dividends, which may include special dividends, on our Class A common stock; to fund repurchases of Class A common stock; or any combination of the foregoing. We will have no obligation to distribute such cash (or other available cash other than any declared dividend) to our stockholders. To the extent that we do not distribute such excess cash as dividends on Class A common stock or otherwise undertake ameliorative actions between Post-Merger Repay Units and shares of Class A common stock and instead, for example, hold such cash balances, Repay Unitholders that hold interests in Hawk Parent pre-Business Combination may benefit from any value attributable to such cash balances as a result of their ownership of Class A common stock following an exchange of their Post-Merger Repay Units, notwithstanding that such holders may previously have participated as holders of Post- Merger Repay Units in distributions by Hawk Parent that resulted in such excess cash balances being held by us.

 

Dividends on our common stock, if any, will be paid at the discretion of our board of directors, which will consider, among other things, our business, operating results, financial condition, current and expected cash needs, plans for expansion and any legal or contractual limitations on our ability to pay such dividends. Financing arrangements may include restrictive covenants that restrict our ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to our stockholders. In addition, Hawk Parent is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a member to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of Hawk Parent (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets. Hawk Parent’s subsidiaries are generally subject to similar legal limitations on their ability to make distributions to Hawk Parent. If Hawk Parent does not have sufficient funds to make distributions, our ability to declare and pay cash dividends may also be restricted or impaired.

 

Under the Tax Receivable Agreement, we will be required to pay 100% of the tax benefits relating to tax depreciation or amortization deductions as a result of the tax basis step-up we receive in connection with the exchanges of Post-Merger Repay Units into our Class A common stock and related transactions, and those payments may be substantial.

 

The Repay Unitholders may exchange their Post-Merger Repay Units for shares of Class A common stock pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, subject to certain conditions as set forth therein and in Hawk Parent’s Amended and Restated Operating Agreement. These exchanges are expected to result in increases in our allocable share of the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Hawk Parent. These increases in tax basis may increase (for tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions and therefore reduce the amount of income or franchise tax that we would otherwise be required to pay in the future had such exchanges never occurred.

 

In connection with the Business Combination, we entered into the Tax Receivable Agreement, which generally provides for the payment to the Repay Unitholders by us of 100% of certain tax benefits, if any, that we realize (or in certain cases are deemed to realize) (a portion of which will be paid in turn to certain service providers on behalf of them in respect of certain transaction expenses) as a result of these increases in tax basis and certain other tax attributes of Hawk Parent and tax benefits related to entering into the Tax Receivable Agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. These payments are our obligation and not an obligation of Hawk Parent. The actual increase in our allocable share of Hawk Parent’s tax basis in its assets, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges, the market price of the Class A common stock at the time of the exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable and the amount and timing of the recognition of our income. While many of the factors that will determine the amount of payments that we will

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make under the Tax Receivable Agreement are outside of our control, we expect that the payments we will make under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. Any payments made by us under the Tax Receivable Agreement will generally reduce the amount of overall cash flow that might have otherwise been available to us. To the extent that we are unable to make timely payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for any reason, the unpaid amounts will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid. Furthermore, our future obligation to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement could make us a less attractive target for an acquisition, particularly in the case of an acquirer that cannot use some or all of the tax benefits that may be deemed realized under the Tax Receivable Agreement.

 

In certain cases, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement may exceed the actual tax benefits we realize or be accelerated.

 

Payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be based on the tax reporting positions that we determine, and the Internal Revenue Service or another taxing authority may challenge all or any part of the tax basis increases, as well as other tax positions that we take, and a court may sustain such a challenge. In the event any tax benefits initially claimed by us are disallowed, the current Repay Unitholders will not be required to reimburse us for any excess payments that may previously have been made under the Tax Receivable Agreement, for example, due to adjustments resulting from examinations by taxing authorities. Rather, excess payments made to such holders will be netted against any future cash payments otherwise required to be made by us, if any, after the determination of such excess. However, a challenge to any tax benefits initially claimed by us may not arise for a number of years following the initial time of such payment or, even if challenged early, such excess cash payment may be greater than the amount of future cash payments that we might otherwise be required to make under the terms of the Tax Receivable Agreement and, as a result, there might not be future cash payments from which to net against. As a result, in certain circumstances, we could make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement in excess of our actual income or franchise tax savings, which could materially impair our financial condition.

 

Moreover, the Tax Receivable Agreement provides that, in the event that (i) we exercise our early termination rights under the Tax Receivable Agreement, (ii) we become bankrupt or undergo a similar insolvency event, (iii) certain changes of control of us occur (as described in the Tax Receivable Agreement) or (iv) we are more than three months late in making of a payment due under the Tax Receivable Agreement (unless we in good faith determine that we have insufficient funds to make such payment), our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement will accelerate and we will be required to make an immediate lump-sum cash payment to the Repay Unitholders equal to the present value of all forecasted future payments that would have otherwise been made under the Tax Receivable Agreement, which lump-sum payment would be based on certain assumptions, including those relating to our future taxable income. The lump-sum payment to the Repay Unitholders could be substantial and could exceed the actual tax benefits that we realize subsequent to such payment because such payment would be calculated assuming, among other things, that we would be able to use the assumed potential tax benefits in future years, and that tax rates applicable to us would be the same as they were in the year of the termination.

 

There may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if the payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement exceed the actual income or franchise tax savings that we realize. Furthermore, our obligations to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control. We may need to incur additional indebtedness to finance payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement to the extent our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise. Such indebtedness may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

 

Resales of the shares of Class A common stock could depress the market price of our Class A common stock.

 

There may be a large number of shares of Class A common stock sold in the market in the near future. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our Class A common stock. A substantial number of our Class A common stock previously held by the pre-Business Combination public shareholders of Thunder Bridge at the closing of the Business Combination are available for sale in the public market. In addition, 17,615,000 shares of Class A common stock and up to 8,450,000 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of our warrants have been registered for resale on the registration statement on Form S-3 declared effective as of September 24, 2019.

 

We have also registered up to 7,326,728 shares of Class A common stock that we may issue under the Repay Holdings Corporation 2019 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2019 Plan”). To the extent such shares have vested or vest in the future (and settle into shares, in the case of restricted stock units), they can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates.

33


 

In addition, we have granted certain registration rights in respect of all shares of Class A common stock that are obtainable in exchange for Post-Merger Repay Units held by the Repay Unitholders, including Corsair.

 

Potential sales of shares of Class A common stock described above or the perception of such sales may depress the market price of our Class A common stock. A market for our Class A common stock may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

 

The price of our Class A common stock may fluctuate significantly due to the market’s reaction to the Business Combination and general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for our Class A common stock may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our Class A common stock can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports. Additionally, if our Class A common stock is not listed on, or becomes delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and is quoted on an over-the-counter market, the liquidity and price of such securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your Class A common stock unless a market is sustained. Furthermore, our warrants, when exercised, will increase the number of issued and outstanding shares and may reduce the market price of our Class A common stock.

 

If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our Class A common stock adversely, then the price and trading volume of our Class A common stock could decline.

 

The trading market for our Class A common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our Class A common stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

Delaware law and our governing documents contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover provisions that limit the ability of stockholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.

 

Our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors and therefore depress the trading price of our Class A common stock. These provisions could also make it difficult for stockholders to take certain actions, including electing directors who are not nominated by the current members of our board of directors or taking other corporate actions, including effecting changes in management. Among other things, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include provisions regarding:

 

 

a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

 

the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock, including “blank check” preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;

 

 

the limitation of the liability of, and the indemnification of, our directors and officers;

 

 

the right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

 

the requirement that directors may only be removed from the board of directors for cause;

 

 

a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent (except for actions by the holders of our Class V common stock or as required for holders of future series of preferred stock), which forces stockholder action to

34


 

be taken at an annual or special meeting of stockholders and could delay the ability of stockholders to force consideration of a stockholder proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;

 

 

the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or our chief executive officer, which could delay the ability of stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;

 

 

controlling the procedures for the conduct and scheduling of our board of directors and stockholder meetings;

 

 

the requirement for the affirmative vote of holders of (i) at least 80% and (ii) 66⅔% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of the voting stock, voting together as a single class, to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision of our bylaws and certain provisions in our certificate of incorporation, respectively, which could preclude stockholders from bringing matters before annual or special meetings of stockholders and delay changes in our board of directors and also may inhibit the ability of an acquirer to effect such amendments to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt;

 

 

the ability of our board of directors to amend our bylaws, which may allow our board of directors to take additional actions to prevent an unsolicited takeover and inhibit the ability of an acquirer to amend our bylaws to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt; and

 

 

advance notice procedures with which stockholders must comply to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which could preclude stockholders from bringing matters before annual or special meetings of stockholders and delay changes in our board of directors and also may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

 

These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our board of directors or management.

 

In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we are generally subject to provisions of Delaware law, including the DGCL. Although we have elected not to be governed by Section 203 of the DGCL, certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation, in a manner substantially similar to Section 203 of the DGCL, prohibit certain of our stockholders (other than those stockholders who are party to a stockholders’ agreement with us) who hold 15% or more of our outstanding capital stock from engaging in certain business combination transactions with us for a specified period of time unless certain conditions are met.

 

Any provision of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control could limit the opportunity for stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our capital stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

 

In addition, the provisions of the Stockholders Agreements (as defined below) provide the stockholders party thereto with certain board rights which could also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control.

 

Our certificate of incorporation designates a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to choose the judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

 

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction, any other court located in the State of Delaware with subject matter jurisdiction, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers, other employees or stockholders to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or our officers or directors arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the law of the State of Delaware.

 

35


Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of our securities will be deemed to have notice of and consented to this provision. These exclusive-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of its choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us or our directors, officers, and other employees. If a court were to find these exclusive-forum provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could harm our results of operations.

 

Certain of our significant stockholders whose interests may differ from those of our public stockholders will have the ability to significantly influence our business and management.

 

Pursuant to the stockholders agreements (each, a “Stockholders Agreement,” and collectively the “Stockholders Agreements”) that we entered into with Corsair, Thunder Bridge Acquisition LLC (the “Sponsor”), and John Morris and Shaler Alias at the closing of the Business Combination, we agreed to nominate Corsair’s designees and Paul Garcia to serve on our board of directors for so long as each of them and their respective affiliates beneficially own certain specified percentages of our Class A common stock. In addition, John Morris, who serves as our Chief Executive Officer, and Shaler Alias, who serves as our President, pursuant to their Stockholders Agreement, have the right to be designated or nominated as directors of our board of directors so long as they serve us in those respective positions and have the right to designate one separate director (subject to Corsair approval) if they do not continue to serve, as long as they together beneficially own a certain specified percentage of our common stock (including Post-Merger Repay Units exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock pursuant to the Exchange Agreement). Accordingly, the persons party to these Stockholders Agreements will be able to significantly influence the approval of actions requiring approval by our board of directors through their voting power. Such stockholders will retain significant influence with respect to our management, business plans and policies, including the appointment and removal of our officers. In particular, the persons party to these Stockholder Agreements could influence whether acquisitions, dispositions and other change of control transactions are approved.

 

Our certificate of incorporation does not limit the ability of the Sponsor or Corsair to compete with us.

 

The Sponsor, Corsair and their respective affiliates engage in a broad spectrum of activities, including investments in the financial services and technology industries. In the ordinary course of their business activities, the Sponsor, Corsair and their respective affiliates may engage in activities where their interests conflict with our interests or those of our stockholders. Our certificate of incorporation provides that none of the Sponsor, Corsair, any of their respective affiliates or any director who is not employed by us (including any non-employee director who serves as one of its officers in both his director and officer capacities) or his or her affiliates has any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. The Sponsor and Corsair also may pursue, in their capacities other than as members of our board of directors, acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. In addition, each of the Sponsor and Corsair may have an interest in pursuing acquisitions, divestitures and other transactions that, in its judgment, could enhance its investment, even though such transactions might involve risks to you.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

The following table sets forth selected information concerning our principal facilities, as of December 31, 2019.

 

36


Location

 

Owned/Leased

 

Approximate Square Footage

Corporate Headquarters:

 

 

 

 

Atlanta, Georgia

 

Leased

 

8,700

Additional Facilities:

 

 

 

 

Bettendorf, Iowa

 

Leased

 

4,100

Chattanooga, Tennessee

 

Leased

 

1,000

Chicago, Illinois

 

Leased

 

1,700

East Moline, Illinois

 

Leased

 

7,400

Ft. Worth, Texas

 

Leased

 

6,300

Mesa, Arizona

 

Leased

 

12,800

Phoenix, Arizona

 

Leased

 

7,500

Sarasota, Florida

 

Leased

 

8,900

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

 

We are currently not a party to any legal proceedings that would be expected to have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition. From time to time, we may be subject to litigation incidental to our business, as well as other litigation of a non-material nature in the ordinary course of business.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE.

Not applicable.


37


PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Market Information

Our Class A common stock is traded on Nasdaq under the symbol “RPAY”.  As of March 2, 2020, the closing price for our Class A common stock was $18.11.

Market price information regarding our Class V common stock and Post-Merger Repay Units is not provided because there is no public market for our Class V common stock or our Post-Merger Repay Units.

Holders

As of March 1, 2020, there were 26 holders of record of our Class A common stock, 34 holders of record of our Class V common stock and 34 holders of record of Post-Merger Repay Units.  The number of record holders does not include beneficial owners of our securities whose shares are held in the names of various security brokers, dealers, and registered clearing agencies.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our Class A common stock. We currently do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Performance

 

The following graph compares the total shareholder return from July 17, 2018, the date on which our Class A common shares commenced trading on the Nasdaq, through December 31, 2019 of (i) our Class A common stock, (ii) the Standard and Poor's 500 Stock Index (“S&P 500 Index”) and (iii) the Standard and Poor’s 500 Information Technology Index (“S&P Information Technology Index”). The stock performance graph and table assume an initial investment of $100 on July 17, 2018, and that all dividends of the S&P 500 Index and S&P Information Technology Index, were reinvested.

 

The performance graph and table are not intended to be indicative of future performance. The performance graph and table shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act.

38


 

 

 

 

Repay Holdings Corporation

 

S&P 500 Index

 

S&P Information Technology Index

July 17, 2018

 

$100.00

 

$100.00

 

$100.00

September 30, 2018

 

100.62

 

104.13

 

103.42

December 31, 2018

 

102.59

 

90.05

 

85.49

March 31, 2019

 

105.70

 

102.34

 

102.46

June 30, 2019

 

108.08

 

106.75

 

108.68

September 30, 2019

 

138.13

 

108.56

 

112.31

December 31, 2019

 

151.81

 

118.40

 

128.48

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

In connection with the vesting of restricted stock awards, shares of Class A common stock are delivered to the Company by employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations. The following table summarizes such purchases of Class A common stock from July 11, 2019 to December 31, 2019:

 

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)

 

Average Price Paid per Share

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs

 

Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs

October 1-31, 2019

 

152,976

 

$13.31

 

-

 

$-

November 1-30, 2019

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

December 1-31, 2019

 

168,287

 

14.79

 

-

 

-

Total

 

321,263

 

$14.09

 

-

 

$-

39


 

(1)

During period ended December 31, 2019, pursuant to the 2019 Omnibus Incentive Plan, we withheld 321,263 shares at an average price per share of $14.09 in order to satisfy employees' tax withholding and payment obligations in connection with the vesting of awards of restricted stock, which we withheld at fair market value on the vesting date.

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.

 

You should read the selected financial data set forth below in conjunction with “Item 7 Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

 

 

 

From

July 11,

2019 to

December 31,

2019

 

 

From

January 1,

2019

to July 10,

2019

 

Year Ended

December 31,

2018

 

Year Ended

December 31,

2017

 

From September 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016

 

 

From

January 1,

2016

to August 31,

2016

(in thousands)

 

(Successor)

 

 

(Predecessor)

 

 

(Predecessor) (2)

Statement of operations data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue (1)

 

$57,560

 

 

$47,043

 

$130,013

 

$93,951

 

$28,747

 

 

$55,548

Income (loss) from operations

 

(27,611)

 

 

(20,597)

 

16,611

 

16,389

 

1,613

 

 

133

Net income (loss)

 

(31,561)

 

 

(23,743)

 

10,537

 

9,448

 

(311)

 

 

(201)

Net income (loss) attributable to the Company

 

(16,290)

 

 

(23,743)

 

10,537

 

9,448

 

(311)

 

 

(201)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings (loss) per Class A share (3):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

$(0.46)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Revenue for the reporting periods beginning in 2019 is presented under ASC 606, defined herein, while prior period revenue is reported in accordance with the Company’s historic accounting practices under previous guidance. Refer to Part II, Item 8, Note 2, “Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies”, for further discussion of the revenue accounting policy and recent adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2014-09.

 

(2)

This period includes the operation results for REPAY LLC (a predecessor entity of Hawk Parent), prior to the 2016 Recapitalization.

 

(3)

Basic and diluted earnings per Class A share is presented only for the Successor Period, defined herein.  

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2019

 

 

As of December 31, 2018

 

As of December 31, 2017

(in thousands)

 

(Successor)

 

 

(Predecessor)

Balance sheet data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$782,042

 

 

$219,058

 

$211,598

Line of credit

 

10,000

 

 

3,500

 

500

Long-term debt

 

203,443

 

 

90,715

 

95,208

Tax receivable agreement

 

67,176

 

 

-

 

-

Total members’ equity

 

-

 

 

109,078

 

104,052

Total stockholders’ equity

 

254,353

 

 

-

 

-

Equity attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

206,162

 

 

-

 

-

 

40


ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations should be read together with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes to those statements included under Item 8, hereof.  For purposes of this section, "Repay", the “Company", "we", or "our" refer to (i) Hawk Parent Holdings, LLC and its subsidiaries ("Predecessor") for the years ended December 31, 2017, December 31, 2018 and the period from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019 (each referred to herein as a "Predecessor Period") prior to the consummation of the Business Combination and (ii) Repay Holdings Corporation and its subsidiaries (the "Successor ") for the period from July 11, 2019 through December 31, 2019 (the "Successor Period") after the consummation of the Business Combination, unless the context otherwise requires. Certain figures have been rounded for ease of presentation and may not sum due to rounding.  The combined year ended December 31, 2019 represents the aggregated total of the Predecessor Period and Successor Period.

Overview

We provide integrated payment processing solutions to industry-oriented markets in which merchants have specific transaction processing needs. We refer to these markets as “vertical markets” or “verticals.” Our proprietary, integrated payment technology platform reduces the complexity of the electronic payments process for businesses, while enhancing their consumers’ overall experience. We intend to continue to strategically target verticals where we believe our ability to tailor payment solutions to our customer needs, our deep knowledge of our vertical markets and the embedded nature of our integrated payment solutions will drive strong growth by attracting new customers and fostering long-term customer relationships.

Since a significant portion of our revenue is derived from volume-based payment processing fees, card payment volume is a key operating metric that we use to evaluate our business. We processed approximately $10.7 billion of total card payment volume for the year ending December 31, 2019, and our year-over-year card payment volume growth was approximately 44%.

Business Combination

The Company was formed upon closing of the merger (the “Business Combination”) of Hawk Parent Holdings LLC (together with Repay Holdings, LLC and its other subsidiaries, “Hawk Parent”) with a subsidiary of Thunder Bridge Acquisition, Ltd, (“Thunder Bridge”), a special purpose acquisition company, on July 11, 2019 (the “Closing Date”).  On the Closing Date, Thunder Bridge changed its name to “Repay Holdings Corporation.”  

As a result of the Business Combination, Thunder Bridge was identified as the acquirer for accounting purposes, and Hawk Parent, which is the business conducted prior to the closing of the Business Combination, is the acquiree and accounting Predecessor. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting, and the Successor’s financial statements reflect a new basis of accounting that is based on the fair value of net assets acquired. As a result of the application of the acquisition method of accounting as of the effective time of the Business Combination, the financial statements for the Predecessor period and for the Successor period are presented on different bases. The historical financial information of Thunder Bridge prior to the Business Combination has not been reflected in the Predecessor period financial statements.

Key Factors Affecting Our Business

Key factors that we believe impact our business, results of operations and financial condition include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

the dollar amount volume and the number of transactions that are processed by the customers that we currently serve;

 

our ability to attract new merchants and onboard them as active processing customers;

 

our ability to (i) successfully integrate recent acquisitions and (ii) complete future acquisitions;

 

our ability to offer new and competitive payment technology solutions to our customers; and

 

general economic conditions and consumer finance trends.

41


Acquisitions

On August 14, 2019, the Company announced the acquisition of TriSource, for up to $65.0 million, which includes a $5.0 million performance based earn-out. The acquisition was financed with a combination of cash on hand and proceeds from borrowings under the New Credit Agreement.  See Note 4 to the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

On October 11, 2019, the Company announced the acquisition of APS, for up to $60.0 million, which includes a $30.0 million performance based earn-out. The acquisition was financed with a combination of cash on hand and proceeds from borrowings under the New Credit Agreement.  See Note 4 to the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Key Components of Our Revenues and Expenses

Revenues

Revenue.    As our customers process increased volumes of payments, our revenues increase as a result of the fees we charge for processing these payments. Most of our revenues are derived from volume-based payment processing fees (“discount fees”) and other related fixed per transaction fees. Discount fees represent a percentage of the dollar amount of each credit or debit transaction processed and include fees relating to processing and services that we provide. The transaction price for such processing services are determined, based on the judgment of the Company’s management, considering factors such as margin objectives, pricing practices and controls, customer segment pricing strategies, the product life cycle and the observable price of the service charged to similarly situated customers. We believe our chargeback rate was less than 1% of our card payment volume, during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.

As discussed in Note 3 in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Repay adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective method and applying the standard to all contracts not completed on the date of adoption. Results for the reporting period beginning January 1, 2019 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts continue to be reported in accordance with the Company's historic accounting practices under previous guidance.

The primary impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements as a result of the adoption of ASC 606 is a change in total net revenue attributable to the presentation of interchange, network and other fees on a net basis, driven by changes in principal and agent considerations, as compared to previously being presented on a gross basis. Under the modified retrospective method, the Company has not restated its comparative consolidated financial statements for these effects.

Expenses

Interchange and network fees.    Interchange and network fees consist primarily of pass-through fees which generally increase in proportion to card payment volume increases. These include interchange fees, dues and assessments, and other pass-through costs.  Beginning January 1, 2019, as a result of the adoption of ASC 606, interchange and network fees are not presented as operating expenses, but as a reduction of revenue.

Other costs of services.    Other costs of services primarily include commissions to our software integration partners and other third-party processing costs, such as front and back-end processing costs and sponsor bank fees.

Selling, general and administrative.    Selling, general and administrative expenses include salaries, share-based compensation and other employment costs, professional service fees, rent and utilities, and other operating costs.

Depreciation and amortization.    Depreciation expense consists of depreciation on our investments in property, equipment and computer hardware. Depreciation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. Amortization expense for software development costs and purchased software is recognized on the straight-line method over a three-year estimated useful life, over a ten-year estimated useful life for customer relationships and channel relationships, and a two-year estimated useful life for non-competition agreements.

Interest expense.    Prior to the closing of the Business Combination, interest expense consisted of interest in respect of our indebtedness under our Prior Credit Agreement (as defined below), which was terminated in connection with the closing of the Business Combination. In periods after the closing of the Business Combination, interest expense consists of

42


interest in respect of our indebtedness under the New Credit Agreement, which was entered into in connection with the Business Combination.

Other expenses.    Other expenses primarily consist of write-off of debt issuance costs relating to our Prior Credit Agreement (prior to the Business Combination) and prepayment penalties relating to the Prior Credit Agreement, which was terminated at the closing of the Business Combination, and the write-offs related to certain fixed assets.

Results of Operations

 

 

From

July 11,

2019 to

December 31,

2019

 

 

From

January 1,

2019

to July 10,

2019

 

Year Ended

December 31,

2018

 

Year Ended

December 31,

2017

(in thousands)

 

(Successor)

 

 

(Predecessor)

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Processing and service fees

 

$57,560

 

 

$47,043

 

$82,186

 

$57,063

Interchange and network fees

 

 

 

 

47,827

 

36,888

Total Revenue

 

57,560

 

 

47,043

 

130,013

 

93,951

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interchange and network fees

 

$                          —

 

 

 

47,827

 

36,888

Other costs of services

 

15,657

 

 

10,216

 

27,160

 

20,713

Selling general and administrative

 

45,758

 

 

51,201

 

29,097

 

14,604

Depreciation and amortization

 

23,757

 

 

6,223

 

10,421

 

7,456

Change in fair value of contingent consideration

 

 

 

 

(1,103)

 

(2,100)

Total operating expenses

 

85,172

 

 

67,640

 

113,402

 

77,562

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations

 

(27,611)

 

 

(20,597)

 

16,611

 

16,389

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other income (expense)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense

 

(5,922)

 

 

(3,145)

 

(6,073)

 

(5,706)

Change in fair value of tax receivable liability

 

(1,638)

 

 

 

 

Other income (expense)

 

(1,380)

 

 

0

 

(1)

 

(1,235)

Total other income (expenses)

 

(8,940)

 

 

(3,145)

 

(6,074)

 

(6,941)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income tax expense

 

(36,552)

 

 

(23,743)

 

10,537

 

9,448

Income tax benefit (expense)

 

4,991

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

$(31,561)

 

 

$(23,743)

 

$10,537

 

$9,448

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling

   interests

 

$(15,271)

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to the Company

 

$(16,290)

 

 

$(23,743)

 

$10,537

 

$9,448

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings (loss) per Class A share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

$(0.46)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares outstanding:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

35,731,220

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 2019 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2018

Revenue

Total revenue was $57.6 million for the Successor Period, $47.0 million from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019, and $130.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. Total revenue for the combined year ended December 31, 2019 was $104.6 million, a decrease of $25.4 million or 19.5% from $130.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

43


The primary reason for the decrease is the impact of adopting ASC 606 in 2019 and the result of recording processing revenue “net” of the fees collected on behalf of the payment networks and card issuers, as opposed to the “gross” presentation for certain of these fees in 2018. The decrease is offset by increases as a result of newly signed customers, the growth of our existing customers, as well as the acquisitions of TriSource and APS. For the year ended December 31, 2019, incremental revenues of approximately $13.6 million are attributable to TriSource and APS.

Interchange and Network Fees

Interchange and network fees were $0.0 million for the Successor Period, $0.0 million from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019 and $47.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. The primary reason for the decrease is due to the impact of adopting ASC 606 in 2019 and the result of recording fees collected on behalf of the payment networks and card issuers “net” of the amounts paid to them, as opposed to the “gross” presentation for certain of these fees in 2018.

Other Costs of Services

Other costs of services were $15.7 million for the Successor Period, $10.2 million from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019 and $27.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. Other costs of services for the combined year ended December 31, 2019 was $25.9 million, a decrease of $1.3 million or 4.7% from $27.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The primary reason for the decrease is due to the impact of adopting ASC 606 in 2019 and the recording of certain processing and service fees “net” as opposed to the “gross” presentation in 2018. Other costs of services generally increase in proportion to card processing volume.  For the year ended December 31, 2019, incremental costs of services of approximately $6.1 million are attributable to TriSource and APS.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses were $45.2 million for the Successor Period, $51.2 million from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019 and $29.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. Selling, general and administrative expenses for the combined year ended December 31, 2019 were $96.4 million, an increase of $67.3 million or 231.3% from $29.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This increase was primarily due to one-time expenses associated with the Business Combination, general business growth, increases in stock compensation expense, and increases in expenses relating to software and technological services, rent, telecommunication costs, advertising and marketing.

Change in Fair Value of Contingent Consideration

There was no change in the fair value of contingent consideration in the Successor Period or the period from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019.

Depreciation and Amortization Expenses

Depreciation and amortization expenses were $23.8 million for the Successor Period, $6.2 million from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019 and $10.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. Depreciation and amortization expenses for the combined year ended December 31, 2019 were $30.0 million, an increase of $19.6 million or 187.7% from $10.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase was primarily due to fair value adjustments to intangibles resulting from the Business Combination, as well as additional depreciation and amortization of fixed assets and intangibles from the acquisitions of TriSource and APS.

Interest Expense

Interest expense was $5.9 million for the Successor Period, $3.1 million from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019 and $6.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. Interest expense for the combined year ended December 31, 2019 was $9.1 million, an increase of $3.0 million or 49.3% from $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This increase was due to a higher average outstanding principal balance under our New Credit Agreement as compared to the average outstanding principal balance under the Prior Credit Agreement.

Change in Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities

Change in fair value of assets and liabilities were $1.6 million for the Successor Period which consisted of fair value adjustments related to the tax receivable liability.

Other Expenses

44


Other expenses were $1.4 million for the Successor Period which primarily consisted of write-off expenses of debt issuance costs relating to our Prior Credit Agreement, which was settled on July 11, 2019, in connection with the Business Combination and New Credit Agreement. There were de minimis other expenses from January 1, 2019 through July 10, 2019 and for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Income Tax

Prior to the Business Combination, the Company was not subject to corporate income taxation and, thus, did not have any corporate income tax expense in 2018 or 2017. Therefore, comparison of the year ended December 31, 2019 versus 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2018 versus 2017 are not meaningful.

The income tax benefit recorded during 2019 of $5.0 million reflected the expected income tax benefit to be received on the net earnings for the Successor Period related to the Company’s economic interest in Hawk Parent. This was a result of the operating loss incurred by the Company, primarily driven by the expenses incurred in conjunction with Business Combination and stock-based compensation deductions.

Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017

Revenue

Total revenue increased $36.1 million, or 38.4%, to $130.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $94.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2018, incremental revenues of approximately $5.4 million and $17.3 million are attributable to the clients of PaidSuite and Paymaxx, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2018, revenue from discount fees and fixed transaction and service fees was approximately $128.0 million, which increased $35.1 million, or 37.8%, from $92.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Processing and service fees increased $25.1 million or 44.0%, to $82.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $57.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Interchange and Network Fees

Interchange and network fees increased $10.9 million, or 29.7%, to $47.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $36.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, driven by increases in card payment volume associated with the PaidSuite and Paymaxx acquisitions, new clients, and same sales growth from existing clients. Interchange and network fees increased in general proportion to card payment volume increases.

Other Costs of Services

Other costs of services increased $6.4 million, or 31.1%, to $27.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $20.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Increased card payment volume resulted in greater third-party processing costs and an increase in commissions paid to our software integration partners.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $14.5 million, or 99.2%, to $29.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $14.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in compensation expenses due to an increase in headcount from acquisitions and general business growth. Increases in software and technological services, rent, telecommunication costs, advertising and marketing expenses accounted for the remainder of the increase. We expect selling, general and administrative expenses to increase going forward, as we further develop our personnel infrastructure and make other investments needed to support the continued development and distribution of our solutions.

Depreciation and Amortization

Depreciation and amortization increased $3.0 million, or 39.7%, to $10.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $7.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to greater amortization expense resulting from the PaidSuite and Paymaxx acquisitions

Change in Fair Value of Contingent Consideration

45


There was $1.1 million of change in fair value of contingent consideration for the year ended December 31, 2018 associated with the earnout payment in connection with the 2016 Recapitalization. The change in fair value of contingent consideration for the year ended December 31, 2017 was income of $2.1 million, associated with an earnout relating to an acquisition that occurred prior to 2016.

Interest Expense

Interest expense increased $0.4 million, or 6.4%, to $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $5.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. While our total debt during the year ended December 31, 2018 was higher than that of the year ended December 31, 2017, our Prior Credit Agreement, which was obtained in September 2017, allowed for significantly lower borrowing costs relative to our previous debt facility, which was refinanced and replaced with our Prior Credit Agreement.

Other Expense

Other expenses decreased to $1.1 thousand during the year ended December 31, 2018, from $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, $0.7 million of which were related to the write-off of debt issuance costs relating to our Prior Credit Agreement and $0.5 million of which were prepayment penalties relating to our previous debt facility, which was refinanced and replaced with our Prior Credit Agreement.

 


46


Non-GAAP Financial Measures

This communication includes certain non-GAAP financial measures that management uses to evaluate our operating business, measure our performance and make strategic decisions.

Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that represents net income prior to interest expense, tax expense, depreciation and amortization, as adjusted to add back certain non-cash and non-recurring charges, such as loss on extinguishment of debt, non-cash change in fair value of contingent consideration, share-based compensation charges, transaction expenses, management fees, legacy commission related charges, employee recruiting costs, loss on disposition of property and equipment, other taxes, strategic initiative related costs and other non-recurring charges.

Adjusted Net Income is a non-GAAP financial measure that represents net income prior to amortization of acquisition-related intangibles, as adjusted to add back certain non-cash and non-recurring charges, such as loss on extinguishment of debt, non-cash change in fair value of contingent consideration, transaction expenses, share-based compensation expense, management fees, legacy commission related charges, employee recruiting costs, loss on disposition of property and equipment, strategic initiative related costs and other non-recurring charges. Adjusted Net Income is adjusted to exclude amortization of all acquisition-related intangibles as such amounts are inconsistent in amount and frequency and are significantly impacted by the timing and/or size of acquisitions. Management believes that the adjustment of acquisition-related intangible amortization supplements GAAP financial measures because it allows for greater comparability of operating performance. Although we exclude amortization from acquisition-related intangibles from our non-GAAP expenses, management believes that it is important for investors to understand that such intangibles were recorded as part of purchase accounting and contribute to revenue generation.  

Adjusted Net Income per share is a non-GAAP financial measure that represents Adjusted Net Income divided by the weighted average number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding (on as-converted basis) for the three months ended December 31, 2019, and for the Successor period from July 11, 2019 to December 31, 2019 (excluding certain shares that were subject to forfeiture). Organic gross profit growth is a non-GAAP financial measure that represents the year-on-year gross profit growth that excludes gross profit attributed to acquisitions made in 2019.

We believe that Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Net Income per share and organic gross profit growth provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating its operating results in the same manner as management. However, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Net Income per share and organic gross profit growth are not financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP and should not be considered as a substitute for net income, operating profit, or any other operating performance measure calculated in accordance with GAAP. Using these non-GAAP financial measures to analyze our business has material limitations because the calculations are based on the subjective determination of management regarding the nature and classification of events and circumstances that investors may find significant. In addition, although other companies in our industry may report measures titled Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Net Income per share, organic gross profit growth or similar measures, such non-GAAP financial measures may be calculated differently from how we calculate our non-GAAP financial measures, which reduces their overall usefulness as comparative measures. Because of these limitations, you should consider Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Net Income per share and organic gross profit growth alongside other financial performance measures, including net income and our other financial results presented in accordance with GAAP.  You should be aware of additional limitations with respect to Adjusted Net Income per share because the GAAP presentation of net loss per share is only reflected for the Successor period.

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the Successor Period, Predecessor Periods, and year ended December 31, 2019 on a Predecessor/Successor combined basis.

Due to the Predecessor and Successor periods, for the convenience of readers, we have presented the year ended December 31, 2019 on a combined basis (reflecting simple arithmetic combination of the GAAP Predecessor and Successor Periods without further adjustment) in order to present a meaningful comparison against the corresponding period in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.


47


REPAY HOLDINGS CORPORATION

Reconciliation of GAAP Net Income to Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITDA

 

 

 

From

July 11,

2019 to

December 31,

2019

 

 

From

January 1,

2019

to July 10,

2019

 

Combined 2019

 

Adjustments(o)

 

Pro Forma year ended December 31, 2019

 

 

Year Ended

December 31,

2018

 

Year Ended

December 31,

2017

(in thousands)

 

(Successor)

 

 

(Predecessor)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Predecessor)

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Processing and service fees

 

$57,560

 

 

$47,043

 

$104,603

 

$                          —

 

$104,603

 

 

$82,186

 

$57,063

Interchange and network fees

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47,827

 

36,888

Total Revenue

 

57,560

 

 

47,043

 

104,603

 

 

104,603

 

 

130,013

 

93,951

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interchange and network fees

 

$                          —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47,827

 

36,888

Other costs of services

 

15,657

 

 

10,216

 

25,873

 

 

25,873

 

 

27,160

 

20,713

Selling general and administrative

 

45,758

 

 

51,201

 

96,960

 

 

96,960

 

 

29,097

 

14,604

Depreciation and amortization

 

23,757

 

 

6,223

 

29,980

 

(15,412)

 

14,568

 

 

10,421

 

7,456

Change in fair value of contingent consideration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1,103)

 

(2,100)

Total operating expenses

 

85,172

 

 

67,640

 

152,812

 

(15,412)

 

137,401

 

 

113,402

 

77,562

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations

 

(27,611)

 

 

(20,597)

 

(48,209)

 

15,412

 

(32,797)

 

 

16,611

 

16,389

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other income (expense)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense

 

(5,922)

 

 

(3,145)

 

(9,067)

 

 

(9,067)

 

 

(6,073)

 

(5,706)

Change in fair value of tax receivable liability

 

(1,638)

 

 

 

(1,638)

 

 

(1,638)

 

 

 

Other income (expense)

 

(1,380)

 

 

0

 

(1,380)

 

 

(1,380)

 

 

(1)

 

(1,235)

Total other income (expenses)

 

(8,940)

 

 

(3,145)

 

(12,085)

 

 

(12,085)

 

 

(6,074)

 

(6,941)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income tax expense

 

(36,552)

 

 

(23,743)

 

(60,294)

 

15,412

 

(44,882)

 

 

10,537

 

9,448

Income tax benefit (expense)

 

4,991

 

 

 

4,991

 

 

4,991

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

$(31,561)

 

 

$(23,743)

 

$(55,303)

 

$15,412

 

$(39,891)

 

 

$10,537

 

$9,448

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Add:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,067

 

 

6,073

 

5,706

Depreciation and amortization (a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14,568

 

 

10,421

 

7,456

Income tax (benefit)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4,991)

 

 

 

EBITDA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$(21,247)

 

 

27,031

 

22,611

Loss on extinguishment of debt (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,380

 

 

1

 

1,235

Non-cash change in fair value of contingent consideration (c)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

(1,103)

 

(2,100)

Non-cash change in fair value of assets and liabilities (d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,638

 

 

-

 

-

Share-based compensation expense (e)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22,922

 

 

797

 

622

Transaction expenses (f)