10-K 1 klr-10k_20191231.htm 10-K klr-10k_20191231.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-38320

 

Kaleyra, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

82-3027430

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

Via Marco D’Aviano, 2, Milano MI, Italy

20131

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +39 02 288 5841

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class:

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered:

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

KLR

 

NYSE American LLC

Warrants to receive one share of Common Stock

 

KLR WS

 

NYSE American LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES  NO 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on The NYSE Stock Market on June 30, 2019, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $180,373,799.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of April 15, 2020 was 19,969,048.

 

 

 


 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

As previously reported by Kaleyra, Inc. (the “Company”) in its Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 16, 2020, in accordance with the Securities and Exchange Commission Order Under Section 36 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Granting Exemptions from Specified Provisions of the Exchange Act and Certain Rules Thereunder, SEC Release No. 34-88318, dated March 4, 2020 (the “Order”), the Company disclosed: (i) that it was relying on the relief provided by the Order in connection with the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 (the “Annual Report”), and (ii) as the Company is headquartered in Milan, Italy, the ongoing lockdown and quarantine imposed by the Italian government in response to the COVID-19 public health emergency made it impossible (a) for the Company and third parties in Italy to provide information to the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm to enable the completion of the audit of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in time to allow for, or (b) to otherwise enable, the Company to complete the internal processes required to approve and file the Annual Report on a timely basis.

 


 

Kaleyra, Inc.

Annual Report on Form 10-K

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

2

Item 1.

 

Business

 

2

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

11

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

42

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

42

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

42

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

43

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

44

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

44

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

45

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

46

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

63

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

64

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

115

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

115

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

116

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

118

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

118

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

124

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

130

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

132

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

136

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

138

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

138

 

 

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CERTAIN TERMS

References in this annual report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report”) to “we,” “us,” “our” “Kaleyra” or the “Company” refer to Kaleyra, Inc. References to our “management” or our “management team” refer to our executive officers and directors.  The following discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto contained elsewhere in this Annual Report. Certain information contained in the discussion and analysis set forth below includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended that are not historical facts, and involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expected and projected. All statements, other than statements of historical fact included in this Annual Report including, without limitation, statements in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” regarding the Company’s financial position, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. Words such as “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “seek” and variations and similar words and expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements relate to future events or future performance, but reflect management’s current beliefs, based on information currently available. A number of factors could cause actual events, performance or results to differ materially from the events, performance and results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Actual results and stockholders’ value will be affected by a variety of risks and factors, including, without limitation, international, national and local economic conditions, merger, acquisition and business combination risks, financing risks, geo-political risks, acts of terror or war, and those risk factors described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” Many of the risks and factors that will determine these results and stockholders’ value are beyond the Company’s ability to control or predict. Except as expressly required by applicable securities law, the Company disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

All such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report. The Company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect any change in the Company’s expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on the Company’s behalf are qualified in their entirety by this Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

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PART I

Item 1. Business.

Introduction

We are a Delaware corporation formerly known as GigCapital, Inc., and as a result of our business combination with Kaleyra S.p.A. on November 25, 2019, we changed our name to Kaleyra, Inc. (which we refer to throughout this Annual Report as our “Business Combination”).

Business Overview

Our Vision

Kaleyra provides its customers and business partners with a trusted cloud communications platform (the “Platform”) that seamlessly integrates software services and applications for business-to-consumer communications between Kaleyra’s customers and their end-user customers and partners on a global basis. The demand for cloud communications is increasingly driven by the growing, and often mandated, need for enterprises to undertake a digital transformation that includes omni-channel, mobile first interactive end-user customer communications. This complements new workflows that Kaleyra’s customers have developed which are driven by software and artificial intelligence to automate certain end-user customer-facing processes before, during and after transactions. These communications are increasingly managed through mobile network operators as the gateway to reach end-user consumers’ mobile devices. Kaleyra’s Platform enables these communications by integrating mobile alert notifications and interactive capabilities to reach and engage end user customers. Kaleyra’s Platform couples a “Software as a Service” or SaaS business model, creating what is generally referred to as a “cloud communications platform as a service”, or simply CPaaS.

Kaleyra’s vision is to be the CPaaS provider which best aligns with its customers’ and business partners’ communication requirements, or the most trusted provider, in the world. This requires a combination of security, compliance and integration capabilities that protects the integrity and privacy of Kaleyra’s customers’ transactions and includes other key features such as ease of provisioning, reliable network connectivity, high availability for scaling, redundancy, embedded regulatory compliance, configurable monitoring and reporting. Kaleyra believes the percentage of CPaaS customers that will require security, compliance and integration will represent an increasingly larger portion of the market, particularly with expected exponential growth of transactional-by-nature cloud communications applications, better enabling Kaleyra to set itself apart from its competition.

Kaleyra Today

Kaleyra is a result of the expansion of the former Ubiquity, which was founded in Milan, Italy in 1999. Ubiquity secured a leading market position in mobile messaging on behalf of the Italian financial services industry and then sought to expand its products and geographic offerings. Ubiquity acquired Solutions Infini of Bangalore, India beginning in 2017 and Buc Mobile of Vienna, Virginia in 2018. It was rebranded as Kaleyra S.p.A. in February 2018. Following the integration of the acquired entities, the combined company is collectively engaged in the operation of the Platform on behalf of Kaleyra’s customers.

Kaleyra has more than 3,000 customers and business partners worldwide across industry verticals such as financial services, ecommerce and transportation, with no single customer representing more than 15% of revenues. Kaleyra’s customers are located in regions throughout the world including in Europe, Asia Pacific and North America. Kaleyra’s revenue by country for the year ended December 31, 2019 is as follows: Italy (46.4%), India (27.1%) and the United States (7.3%). The remainder of revenue is primarily generated in Europe and Asia in countries other than Italy and India (19.2%).

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, 86% of revenues came from customers of Kaleyra which have been on the Platform for at least one year. Although Kaleyra continues to expand by introducing new customers to the Platform, the breadth and stability of its existing customers provide it with a solid base of revenue upon which it can continue to innovate and make investment to strengthen its product portfolio, expand its global presence, and in particular into the Americas and Asia-Pacific markets following the acquisitions of Buc Mobile and Solutions Infini, recruit world-class talent and target accretive acquisitions to capitalize on its growing market penetration opportunities and value creation.

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Kaleyra’s underlying technology used in the Platform is the same across all of its communication services which can generally be described as “omni-channel mobile first interactive notifications via a public or private cloud implementation.” These services include programmable voice/Interactive Voice Response (IVR) configurations, inbound/outbound short message service (SMS) capabilities, hosted telephone numbers, and other types of IP communications services such as e-mail and WhatsApp®.

Customers

Kaleyra’s customers are enterprises which use digital mobile communications in the conduct of their business. Kaleyra’s Platform enables these communications by integrating mobile alert notifications and interactive capabilities to reach and engage end user customers. Kaleyra enables its customers and business partners to connect enterprise software and applications to mobile network operators by providing a single simple interface by which Kaleyra can undertake as necessary to make upgrades in its service offerings to account for new end-user consumer behavior changes and progress (such as adding WhatsApp integration). In most cases, Kaleyra provides multiple levels of customer support 24x7 to ensure service levels and network reliability to meet the expectations and requirements of Kaleyra’s customers. Customers and business partners which use the Platform value the Platform’s network reliability, and Kaleyra’s responsive customer support, competitive pricing, and collaborative approach.

Kaleyra services a broad base of customers and business partners throughout the world operating in diverse businesses and regions. Kaleyra’s business is generated by providing data to the telecommunications provider and transmitting message data from its customers and business partners. Kaleyra has a concentration of business within the financial services industry that serve their major European banking end-user customers. With each relationship Kaleyra is the link between the financial institutions and their unique, end-user customers. In linking these two parties, Kaleyra’s Platform leverages the end-user telecommunications provider to transmit critical message data to these end-user customers.

For example, banks and financial institutions deploy Kaleyra’s services that include omni-channel mobile first password reset, account access, two-factor authentications (2FA), transaction notification, and anti-fraud alerts, among other services, via a cloud implementation that meets their strict requirements for security and compliance. Kaleyra’s Platform has facilitated compliant communications for its existing financial institution customer base in Europe. European Central Bank (ECB) regulations have begun to mandate additional customer protection regulations, such as those requiring strong customer authentications for all payment transactions over 30 euros, causing both traditional banks and new entrants to undergo a digital transformation. In the financial sector, security and compliance are generally top of mind and the sales process relies on a dedicated local sales team focused on strong integration capabilities with the full suite of services needed to satisfy customer requirements.

Other enterprise customers of Kaleyra use Kaleyra’s cloud communications services as packaged offerings that are easy to configure and manage around key end-user customer touchpoints. Although these enterprise customers require a lesser level of system integration than do financial institution customers, they still demand a sufficiently flexible system such as that which a cloud solution can provide in order to facilitate rapid communications system modification to accommodate changes in end-user customer behaviors. Furthermore, there are other enterprise customers for which connectivity to their end user customers is their primary requirement, and these customers are using the Platform to gain access to mobile network operators worldwide. This additional volume, which is expected to continue to grow as the transformation from e-mail-based communications to messaging-based communications is being enhanced, allows Kaleyra to leverage relationships to sell and resell network connectivity on a more cost-effective basis.

In both 2019 and 2018, Kaleyra had one customer, Telecom Italia S.p.A. which accounted for more than 10% of Kaleyra’s revenues.

Kaleyra has multiple, large European commercial banks as business partners, with one of these partners, Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A., accounting for more than 10% of Kaleyra’s volumes in 2019 and 2018.

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Seasonality

Historically, Kaleyra has experienced clear seasonality in its revenue generation, with slower traction in the first calendar quarter, and increasing revenues as the year progresses toward the higher revenues in messaging and notification services during the fourth calendar quarter. This patterned revenue generation behavior takes place due to Kaleyra’s customers sending more messages to their end-user customers who are engaged in consumer transactions at the end of the calendar year, resulting in an increase in notifications of electronic payments, credit card transactions and e-commerce.

The Market for Kaleyra’s Products

The CPaaS market is evolving and is expanding in several directions as enterprise adoption of cloud-based communications occurs. The need for enterprises to provide enhanced end-user customer experiences is driving adoption by enterprises of embedded, real-time messaging communications for enhanced end-user customer-interfacing interactions. According to 451 Research, in 2019 the total CPaaS market was approximately $2.2 billion and forecasted to increase to approximately $6.2 billion by the end of 20221. Furthermore, according to GSMA, the SMS business messaging revenue market was approximately $60.0 billion in 2018 and will increase to approximately $90.0 billion by the end of 2022.2 Kaleyra’s products and services available through the Platform address both of these markets.

Kaleyra’s Key Products

The Platform

Kaleyra operates its core technology, the Platform, in the public cloud and as private clouds, and in hybrid situations. The Platform has a high-volume infrastructure that has been designed to easily scale and support large volumes of data. The Platform consists of two separate types of interfaces; one for connectivity to mobile network operators and the other, a set of Application Programming Interfaces (“APIs”) that provide convenient and user-friendly tools that enable Kaleyra’s customers to engage in communications with their end-user customers. The Platform’s underlying software code base contains communication protocols that allow connectivity with mobile network operators around the globe.

In addition, the Platform’s APIs, which sit on top of the underlying connectivity stack, enable the creation of specific applications (messaging or voice-over-IP calls) or workflows (2FA or password resets). These applications can be designed by Kaleyra, Kaleyra’s customers’ information technologies personnel or third-party developers. The open Platform’s architecture enables Kaleyra’s customers and business partners to accomplish all of their communication needs from one simple interface that connects into a broad range of their systems. The relationship with Kaleyra’s customers is strengthened by providing its customers with a broad and flexible platform. Retention of Kaleyra’s customers is also enhanced as a result of the switching costs that Kaleyra’s customers would incur to transition to alternate platforms.

1

Source: 451 Research, Communications PaaS: Turning Business Communications Inside Out (December 2018).

2

Source: GSMA, RCS Overview, Future Networks Programme (October 2018).

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Communications Services

The following graphic summarizes the capabilities of Kaleyra’s suite of communications services:

 

 

This suite of services is further described below. During the year ended December 31, 2019 Kaleyra processed nearly 27 billion billable SMS messages and 3 billion voice calls on behalf of Kaleyra’s customers. In 2020, this is expected to exceed 30 billion billable SMS messages and 4 billion voice calls.

Messaging

The Platform’s APIs include software and infrastructure that process and manage SMS, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) and Rich Communications Service (RCS), with network connectivity to mobile network operators around the world. The Platform is currently designed to process five thousand messages per second, with the capability to increase the throughput with additional server power and speed. The Platform supports 87 languages and is capable of stitching together concatenated messages of up to 4,000 characters. The Platform is also designed to manage automated opt-in and opt-out procedures per mobile network operator requirements and best practices. As noted above, in 2019 the Platform processed nearly 27 billion SMS messages.

Voice

The Platform’s APIs includes software and infrastructure that process and manage voice calls, including IVR and conferencing bridge capabilities. The Platform offers features such as call masking, visual configurations of call routing, click to call, and allows Nature Language Processing (NLP) integrations. In 2019, the Platform processed nearly 3 billion voice calls.

FinTech

The Platform’s APIs also include software and infrastructure to process and manage financial transactions that has been enabled by the open banking initiative and was regulated in September 2019. However the European Banking Authority has granted a 15-month extension to banks to adopt the new law, until December 2020. The driving force behind open banking is the second Payment Services Directive (PSD2), an European Union (“EU”) directive designed to expand end-user consumer choice of products in banking, credit cards, and payment services. The Platform includes features and capabilities to perform PSD2 compliant banking or payment transactions.

Numbers

Finally, the Platform’s APIs include software and infrastructure that process and manage telephone numbers and short code services. Short codes are often used to send or receive a large volume of broadcast or bulk SMS messages. The Platform currently supports provisioning and configuration of telephone numbers or short codes in 50 countries. Other Numbers services include telephone number lookup query and local number portability.

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Operations

Kaleyra generates revenue from usage-based fees earned from the sale of communications services utilizing the Platform. These services are offered through software solutions to large enterprises, as well as small and medium-sized customers. Revenue can be billed in advance or in arrears depending on the term of the agreement; for the majority of customers, revenue is invoiced on a monthly basis in arrears.

Kaleyra’s CPaaS contracts do not provide customers and business partners with the right to take possession of the software supporting the applications.

As a part of the arrangement with its customers, Kaleyra offers customer advanced support services, to guarantee the continuity and promptly delivery of the services. Revenue for these services is recognized ratably over the term of the service period.

Kaleyra utilizes a cloud infrastructure and its Platform to deliver its communication services. The services are also provided using a private cloud as required by the customers and business partners. The costs of the Platform and communication services purchased from mobile network operators is considered to be a cost of revenue.

Products in Development

Kaleyra has a number of new communications services in its organic development pipeline. For example, Kaleyra is developing a visual “drag-and-drop” builder user interface for use by both developers and non-developers that reduces the complexity of implementing cloud communications services. Kaleyra has a growing team of software developers in Bangalore, India engaged in research and development of additional product features based on customer feedback and market research. In addition, Kaleyra is looking at possible acquisitions that can enhance its product portfolio.

Research and Development

As of December 31, 2019, 130 employees serve in Kaleyra’s research and development and engineering departments representing about 49% of its workforce, focused on maintaining and enhancing the Platform and the communications service offerings, as well as developing new communications services and engaging with Kaleyra’s customers in this development.

Sales and Marketing

Kaleyra has multiple methods for engaging with its customers, depending upon the specific service offerings that a customer uses on the Platform, 35% of Kaleyra’s employee base are dedicated to sales of communications services to Kaleyra’s customers or business partners. The go-to-market strategy utilizes a mixture of direct sales and channel development such as using third party developers which are developing communications solutions for multiple customers. Kaleyra also actively participates in trade shows and other general industry marketing efforts on a global basis for the purpose of lead generation and building of brand awareness.

Competitive Strengths

Over Kaleyra’s 20-year history, Kaleyra has developed a powerful CPaaS solution that it believes represents a unique, high growth opportunity in the CPaaS market. The Platform is accessible everywhere in the world, has a high-volume infrastructure that has been designed to be easily scalable, and allows for communications services that have been designed having security, compliance and integration capabilities that can meet the needs of Kaleyra’s customers and their customers and regulators. Furthermore, Kaleyra continues to develop organically and strategically new communications services to meet the evolving needs of its customers and business partners. In addition, Kaleyra has identified the following competitive strengths:

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Experienced Management Team

Kaleyra has a proven management team with many decades of combined experience at industry relevant companies. Along with the existing management team, it is anticipated that additional senior management personnel will be added to supplement the current management team.

Existing Customers and Relationships

Kaleyra believes its deep customer relationships provide it with the opportunity to expand deployment of the Platform and the opportunity to quickly deploy new communications service offerings.

Growth Strategy

Kaleyra’s organic growth focuses on three core areas:

 

Exploiting cross-sale opportunities among Kaleyra’s recent acquisitions—in this area, Kaleyra focuses on growing existing product teams, accelerating joint product management and growing key technology integrations with industry leading independent software vendors;

 

Product evolution—in this area, Kaleyra works to enhance and expand features such as RCS and PSD2; and

 

Geographic expansion—in this area, Kaleyra focuses on entering new markets such as South East Asia and Latin America.

Furthermore, mergers and acquisitions remain a key component of Kaleyra’s growth strategy. As it has in the past with its acquisitions of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile, Kaleyra has continuously explored the global market with the intention to evaluate and acquire additional companies that are adding significant value from technology and product perspectives, and are accretive in terms of revenue, net income and capitalization. Kaleyra intends to execute acquisitions in the least dilutive and most cost-effective manner, using cash from its balance sheet or other sources, equity or a combination of both.

Competition

The CPaaS market is highly competitive and characterized by continuous technological change. The principal competitive factors in this market include: completeness of offering, credibility with developers, global reach, ease of integration, product features, platform scalability, brand reputation and awareness, customer support, and the cost of deployment of product offerings. Kaleyra believes that it competes favorably within each of these categories.

Kaleyra competes with several vendors across its various product lines, including:

 

Legacy on-premises vendors, such as Avaya Holdings Corp., Cisco Systems, Inc., and SAP SE;

 

Direct competitors, such as CLX Communications AB (d/b/a Sinch), Twilio Inc., and Vonage Holdings Corp.;

 

Smaller software companies that compete with certain portions of Kaleyra’s communications services offerings; and

 

SaaS companies that offer prepackaged applications for a narrow set of use cases.

Some competitors have greater financial, technical and other resources, greater name and brand recognition, larger sales and marketing efforts and larger portfolios of intellectual property. As a result, certain competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or changing technologies, opportunities, standards or customer needs and requests. With the introduction of new products and services and new market entrants, Kaleyra expects competition to intensify in the future. Furthermore, as Kaleyra continues to expand the scope of its platform, it may face additional competition. Kaleyra is also addressing enterprises that have developed over the years “in-house” products for which Kaleyra can offer a more cost-effective, robust and richer set of products to enhance the total cost of ownership and return on investment for such customers.

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Employees

As of December 31, 2019, Kaleyra has 267 employees, of which 130 were in research and development, 93 were in sales, marketing and business development and 44 were in general and administrative. None of Kaleyra’s employees are currently covered under any collective bargaining agreements. Kaleyra believes its relations with its employees are good and it has never experienced a material work stoppage.

Facilities

Kaleyra leases 14 properties, with its headquarters in Milan, Italy. Kaleyra maintains a global footprint with additional leased facilities located in Vienna, Virginia; New York, New York; Palo Alto, California, Bengaluru, India; Chennai, India; Cochin, India; Delhi, India; Hyderabad, India; Kolkata, India; Mumbai, India; Singapore; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Manno, Switzerland. Kaleyra believes that its current facilities are adequate to meet its ongoing needs and that, if it requires adjusted or additional space, it will be able to obtain additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms, or further consolidate facilities. Going forward, Kaleyra will continue to assess its facilities requirements and make appropriate adjustments as needed and dictated by the business.

Kaleyra operates 31 data centers, including cloud platforms operated by Amazon Web Services, and Kaleyra maintains private clouds on behalf of its customers. The Kaleyra private cloud devices are custom-built hardware running the Kaleyra platform and, thus, can be deployed virtually anywhere. Kaleyra currently runs these private cloud devices out of its headquarters in Milan, Italy.

Intellectual Property

Kaleyra relies on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws in the U. S. and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements and other contractual protections, to protect Kaleyra’s proprietary technology. In addition, Kaleyra protects intellectual property rights by implementing a policy that requires its employees and independent contractors involved in development of intellectual property on its behalf to enter into agreements acknowledging that all works or other intellectual property generated or conceived by them on its behalf are Kaleyra’s property, and assigning to Kaleyra any rights, including intellectual property rights, that they may claim or otherwise have in those works or property, to the extent allowable under applicable law.

 

Kaleyra, as of December 31, 2019, has been issued 2 patents in the United States.

 

Kaleyra’s trademark and certain variations thereof are registered or are the subject of pending trademark applications in the U.S. In addition to the Kaleyra trademark, Kaleyra has 18 additional trademark registrations or pending registrations in three different classes with the following authorities/countries: EU, India, South Africa, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, and the International Bureau (WIPO) China, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Singapore.

 

Kaleyra owns an Internet domain registration for kaleyra.com and certain other domains.

 

Kaleyra generally controls access and the use of its proprietary software and other confidential information through internal and external controls including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners. Unauthorized parties may, nonetheless, still copy or otherwise obtain and use Kaleyra’s software and technology despite Kaleyra’s efforts to protect its trade secrets and proprietary rights through intellectual property rights, licenses and confidentiality agreements.

Regulatory

Kaleyra is subject to a number of U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations that involve matters central to its business. These laws and regulations may involve privacy, data protection, intellectual property, competition, consumer protection, export taxation or other subjects. Many of the laws and regulations to which Kaleyra is subject are still evolving and being tested in courts and could be interpreted in ways that could harm its business. In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws and regulations often are uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry in which Kaleyra operates. Because global laws and regulations have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that it or its communications services or the Platform may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such applicable law or regulation.

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In addition, as Kaleyra expands internationally, it will be subject to laws and regulations in the countries in which it offers services. Many foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the EU member states, have laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of Personally Identifiable Information (“PII”) obtained from individuals located in the EU or by businesses operating within their jurisdiction, which are often more restrictive than those in the U.S. Laws and regulations in these jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure and security of PII that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, telephone numbers, message addresses and, in some jurisdictions, IP addresses and other online identifiers.

For example, in April 2016 the EU adopted General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which took full effect on May 25, 2018. GDPR enhances data protection obligations for businesses and requires service providers (data processors) processing personal data on behalf of customers to cooperate with European data protection authorities, implement security measures and keep records of personal data processing activities. Noncompliance with the GDPR can trigger fines equal to or greater of €20 million or 4% of global annual revenues. Given the breadth and depth of changes in data protection obligations, preparing to meet the requirements of GDPR has required significant time and resources, including a review of Kaleyra’s technology and systems currently in use against the requirements of GDPR. There are also additional EU laws and regulations (and member states’ implementations thereof) which govern the protection of consumers and of electronic communications.

Furthermore, outside of the EU, Kaleyra continues to see increased regulation of data privacy and security, including the adoption of more stringent subject matter specific state laws in the U.S. For example, on June 28, 2018, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation.

Kaleyra is subject to individual or joint jurisdiction of the FCC, the Federal Trade Commission, and state attorneys general with respect to privacy and data security obligations. If Kaleyra was to suffer or if one of Kaleyra’s customers were to suffer a breach, Kaleyra may be subject to the jurisdiction of a variety of federal agencies’ jurisdictions as well as state attorneys general. Kaleyra may have to comply with a variety of data breach laws at the federal and state levels, comply with any resulting investigations, as well as offer mitigation to customers and potential end users of certain customers to which Kaleyra provides services. Kaleyra could also be subject to fines, forfeitures and other penalties that may adversely impact Kaleyra’s business.

As Kaleyra continues to expand internationally, Kaleyra has become subject to telecommunications laws and regulations in the foreign countries where Kaleyra offers its products. Kaleyra’s international operations are subject to country-specific governmental regulation and related actions that have increased and may continue to increase Kaleyra’s costs or impact its products and platform or prevent Kaleyra from offering or providing Kaleyra’s products in certain countries.

For example, in Italy, Kaleyra holds a license to be a fixed line operator and is subject to the Electronic Communications Code, or the ECC, which has been enacted with Legislative Decree no. 259/2003, as amended, which transposed a package of European Directives adopted in 2002 and amended in 2009; the National Numbering Plan, issued with AGCom’s resolution no. 8/15/CIR as amended, which governs the usage of national numbers for the provision of electronic communications services as a whole; resolutions on the use of alphanumeric indications for the identification of the calling subject in SMS (so-called Alias), that are periodically issued by AGCom, starting from AGCom’s resolution no. 42/13/CIR; and the GDPR (UE Decree 2016/679).

In addition, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) restricts telemarketing and the use of automatic text messages without proper consent. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to the delivery of text messages are continuously evolving and developing. If Kaleyra does not comply with these laws, or regulations or if Kaleyra becomes liable under these laws or regulations due to the failure of its customers to comply with these laws by obtaining proper consent, Kaleyra could face direct liability.

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The Federal Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN-SPAM Act) establishes certain requirements for commercial messages and transactional messages and specifies penalties for the transmission of messages that are intended to deceive the recipient as to source or content. Among other things, the CAN-SPAM Act, obligates the sender of commercial messages to provide recipients with the ability to “opt-out” of receiving future commercial communications from the sender. In addition, some states have passed laws regulating commercial communication practices that are significantly more restrictive and difficult to comply with than the CAN-SPAM Act. For example, Utah and Michigan prohibit the sending of communication messages that advertise products or services that minors are prohibited by law from purchasing (e.g., alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, illegal drugs) or that contain content harmful to minors (e.g., pornography) to message addresses listed on specified child protection registries. Some portions of these state laws may not be preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act. In addition, certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, such as Australia, Canada, and the EU, have enacted laws that regulate sending messages, and some of these laws are more restrictive than U.S. laws. For example, some foreign laws prohibit sending broad categories of messages unless the recipient has provided the sender advance consent to receipt of such messages, or in other words has “opted-in” to receiving such communication. If Kaleyra were found to be in violation of the CAN-SPAM Act, applicable state laws governing messages not preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act or foreign laws regulating the distribution of messages, whether as a result of violations by Kaleyra’s customers or its own acts or omissions, Kaleyra could be required to pay large penalties, which would adversely affect its financial condition, significantly harm Kaleyra’s business, injure Kaleyra’s reputation and erode customer trust. The terms of any injunctions, judgments, consent decrees or settlement agreements entered into in connection with enforcement actions or investigations against Kaleyra in connection with any of the foregoing laws may also require Kaleyra to change one or more aspects of the way Kaleyra operates its business, which could impair Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain customers or could increase its operating costs.

In addition, in order to procure, distribute and retain telephone numbers from the EU or certain other regions, Kaleyra may be required to register with the local telecommunications regulatory authorities, some of which have been increasingly monitoring and regulating the categories of phone numbers that are eligible for provisioning to Kaleyra’s customers. Kaleyra has registered and is in the process of registering in various countries in which Kaleyra does business, but in some countries, the regulatory regime around provisioning of phone numbers is unclear, subject to change over time, and sometimes may conflict from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Furthermore, these regulations and governments’ approach to their enforcement, as well as Kaleyra’s products and services, are still evolving and Kaleyra may be unable to maintain compliance with applicable regulations, or enforce compliance by Kaleyra’s customers, on a timely basis or without significant cost. Also, compliance with these types of regulation may require changes in products or business practices that result in reduced revenue.

Additionally, certain of Kaleyra’s products and services may be subject to export control and economic sanctions regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of Kaleyra’s products and the provision of Kaleyra’s services must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations.

 

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully all of the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this Annual Report, before making a decision to invest in our securities. If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.  

The market in which Kaleyra participates is highly competitive, and if Kaleyra does not compete effectively, its business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.

The market for cloud communications is rapidly evolving, significantly fragmented and highly competitive, with relatively low barriers to entry in some segments. The principal competitive factors in Kaleyra’s market include completeness of offering, credibility with developers, global reach, ease of integration and programmability, product features, platform scalability, reliability, security and performance, brand awareness and reputation, the strength of sales and marketing efforts, customer support, as well as the cost of deploying and using Kaleyra’s services. Kaleyra’s competitors fall into two primary categories:

 

CPaaS companies that offer a narrower set of software APIs, less robust customer support and fewer other features while relying on third-party networks and physical infrastructure; and

 

Network service providers that offer limited developer functionality on top of their own networks and physical infrastructure.

Some of Kaleyra’s competitors and potential competitors are larger and have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, more established customer relationships, a larger global reach, larger budgets and significantly greater resources than Kaleyra does. In addition, they have the operating flexibility to bundle competing products and services at little or no incremental cost, including offering them at a lower price as part of a larger sales transaction. As a result, Kaleyra’s competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than Kaleyra can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. In addition, some competitors may offer services that address one or a limited number of functions at lower prices, with greater depth than Kaleyra’s services or in different geographies. Kaleyra’s current and potential competitors may develop and market new services with comparable functionality to Kaleyra’s services, and this could lead to Kaleyra having to decrease prices in order to remain competitive. In addition, some of Kaleyra’s competitors have lower list prices than us, which may be attractive to certain customers even if those services have different or lesser functionality. If Kaleyra is unable to maintain Kaleyra’s current pricing due to the competitive pressures, its margins will be reduced and Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected. Customers utilize Kaleyra’s services in many ways and use varying levels of functionality that Kaleyra’s services offer or are capable of supporting or enabling within their applications.

Customers that use many of the features of Kaleyra’s services or use Kaleyra’s services to support or enable core functionality for their applications may have difficulty or find it impractical to replace Kaleyra’s services with a competitor’s services, while customers that use only limited functionality may be able to more easily replace Kaleyra’s services with competitive offerings.

With the introduction of new services and new market entrants, Kaleyra expects competition to intensify in the future. In addition, some of Kaleyra’s customers choose to use Kaleyra’s services and Kaleyra’s competitors’ services at the same time. Moreover, as Kaleyra expands the scope of Kaleyra’s services, Kaleyra may face additional competition. Further, customers and consumers may choose to adopt other forms of electronic communications or alternative communication platforms, including developing necessary networks and platforms in-house. 

Furthermore, if Kaleyra’s competitors were to merge such that the combined entity would be able to compete fully with Kaleyra’s service offering, then Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. If one or more of Kaleyra’s competitors were to merge or partner with another of Kaleyra’s competitors, the change in the competitive landscape could also adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to compete effectively. In addition, pricing pressures and increased competition generally could result in reduced revenue, reduced margins, increased losses or the failure of Kaleyra’s services to achieve or maintain widespread market acceptance.

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Kaleyra’s current and potential competitors have developed and may develop in the future product solutions that are available internationally. To the extent that customers seek product solutions that include support and scaling internationally, they may choose to use other service providers to fill their communication service needs. Each of these factors could harm Kaleyra’s business by leading to reduced revenues, slower growth and lower brand name recognition than Kaleyra’s competitors.

If Kaleyra is unable to expand or renew sales to existing clients, or attract new customers, Kaleyra’s growth could be slower than it expects and its business may be harmed.

Kaleyra’s future growth depends upon expanding sales of Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services with existing customers and with new customers. Kaleyra’s customers may not purchase Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services, or Kaleyra’s customers may reduce their purchasing volumes, if Kaleyra does not demonstrate the value proposition for their investment, and Kaleyra may not be able to replace existing customers with new customers. In addition, Kaleyra’s customers may not renew their contracts with Kaleyra on the same terms, or at all, because of dissatisfaction with Kaleyra’s service. If Kaleyra’s customers do not renew their contracts, Kaleyra’s revenue may grow more slowly than expected, may not grow at all, or may decline. Additionally, increasing incremental sales to Kaleyra’s current client base may require increasingly sophisticated and costly sales efforts that are targeted at senior management. Kaleyra plans to continue expanding its sales efforts but it may be unable to hire qualified sales personnel, may be unable to successfully train those sales personnel that Kaleyra is able to hire, and sales personnel may not become fully productive on the timelines that it has projected, or at all. Additionally, although Kaleyra dedicates significant resources to sales and marketing programs, these sales and marketing programs may not have the desired effect and may not expand sales. Kaleyra cannot assure you that its efforts will increase sales to existing customers or additional revenue. If Kaleyra’s efforts to upsell to its customers are not successful, its future growth may be limited.

Kaleyra’s ability to achieve significant growth in revenue in the future will also depend upon its ability to attract new customers. This may be particularly challenging where an organization has already invested substantial personnel and financial resources to integrate competing technology offerings and services into its business, as such organization may be reluctant or unwilling to invest in new technology offerings and services. If Kaleyra fails to attract new customers and maintain and expand those client relationships, its revenue may grow more slowly than expected and its business may be harmed.

Kaleyra currently generates significant revenue from its largest customers, and the loss or decline in revenue from any of these customers could limit Kaleyra’s revenue and results of operations.

In the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, Kaleyra’s 10 largest customers generated an aggregate of 50% and 66% of its revenue, respectively. In the event that Kaleyra’s large customers do not continue to use its products, use fewer of its products, or use its products in a more limited capacity, or not at all, Kaleyra’s revenue could be limited and Kaleyra’s business could be harmed.

Kaleyra must increase the network traffic and resulting revenue from the services that it offers to realize its targets for anticipated revenue growth, cash flow and operating performance.

Kaleyra must increase the network traffic and resulting revenue from its inbound and outbound voice calling, text messaging, telephone numbers and related services at acceptable margins to realize Kaleyra’s targets for anticipated revenue growth, cash flow and operating performance. If Kaleyra does not maintain or improve its current relationships with existing key customers; is not able to expand the available capacity on its network to meet its customers’ demands in a timely manner; does not develop new large enterprise customers; or its customers determine to obtain these services from either their own network or from one of Kaleyra’s competitors, then Kaleyra may be unable to increase or maintain its revenue at acceptable margins.

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Kaleyra’s business depends on customers increasing their use of Kaleyra’s services and any loss of customers or decline in their use of Kaleyra’s services could reduce Kaleyra’s profitability.

Kaleyra’s ability to grow and generate incremental revenue depends, in part, on Kaleyra’s ability to maintain and grow its relationships with existing customers and to have them increase their usage of Kaleyra’s Platform. If Kaleyra’s customers do not increase their use of Kaleyra’s services, then Kaleyra’s revenue may decline and Kaleyra’s results of operations may be harmed. Customers generally are charged based on the usage of Kaleyra’s services. Many of Kaleyra’s customers do not have long-term contractual financial commitments to Kaleyra and, therefore, many of Kaleyra’s customers may reduce or cease their use of Kaleyra’s services at any time without penalty or termination charges. Kaleyra cannot accurately predict customers’ usage levels and the loss of customers or reductions in their usage levels of Kaleyra’s services may each have a negative impact on Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition and may cause Kaleyra’s dollar-based net retention rate to decline in the future if Kaleyra’s customers are not satisfied with Kaleyra’s services. If a significant number of customers cease using, or reduce their usage of, Kaleyra’s services, then Kaleyra may be required to spend significantly more on sales and marketing than Kaleyra’s currently plan to spend in order to maintain or increase revenue from customers. Such additional sales and marketing expenditures could reduce Kaleyra’s profitability and harm its business.

Demand for Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services could be adversely affected by volatile, negative, or uncertain economic conditions and the effects of these conditions on Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses.

Kaleyra’s revenue and profitability depend on the demand for its technology offerings and services, which could be negatively affected by numerous factors, many of which are beyond Kaleyra’s control. Volatile, negative, or uncertain economic conditions affect Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses and the markets Kaleyra serves. Such economic conditions in Kaleyra’s markets have undermined, and could in the future undermine, business confidence in Kaleyra’s markets and cause Kaleyra’s customers to reduce or defer their spending on new technology offerings and services, or may result in customers reducing, delaying or eliminating spending under existing contracts with Kaleyra, which would negatively affect Kaleyra’s business. Growth in the markets Kaleyra serves could be at a slow rate, or could stagnate or contract, in each case for an extended period of time. Ongoing economic volatility and uncertainty and changing demand patterns affect Kaleyra’s business in a number of other ways, including making it more difficult to accurately forecast client demand and effectively build Kaleyra’s revenue and resource plans.

Economic volatility and uncertainty is particularly challenging because it may take some time for the effects and changes in demand patterns resulting from these and other factors to manifest themselves in Kaleyra’s business and results of operations. Changing demand patterns from economic volatility and uncertainty could harm Kaleyra’s business and results of operations.

Kaleyra has limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for its products.

Kaleyra charges its customers based on their use of its products. Kaleyra expects that it may need to change its pricing from time to time. In the past Kaleyra has sometimes reduced their prices either for individual customers in connection with long-term agreements or for a particular product. One of the challenges to Kaleyra’s pricing is that the fees that they pay to network service providers over whose networks Kaleyra transmits communications can vary daily or weekly and are affected by volume and other factors that may be outside of Kaleyra’s control and difficult to predict. This can result in Kaleyra incurring increased costs that Kaleyra may be unable or unwilling to pass through to its customers, which could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Further, as competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours or reduce their prices, Kaleyra may be unable to attract new customers or retain existing customers based on Kaleyra’s historical pricing. As Kaleyra expands internationally, Kaleyra also must determine the appropriate price to enable Kaleyra to compete effectively internationally. Moreover, enterprises, which are a primary focus for Kaleyra’s direct sales efforts, may demand substantial price concessions. In addition, if the mix of products sold changes, including for a shift to Internet protocol (“IP”) based products, then Kaleyra may need to, or choose to, revise its pricing. As a result, in the future Kaleyra may be required or choose to reduce its prices or change its pricing model, which could harm Kaleyra’s business.

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Breaches of Kaleyra’s networks or systems, or those of Amazon Web Services (“AWS”) or Kaleyra’s other service providers, could compromise the integrity of its products, platform and data, result in significant data losses and otherwise harm its business.

Kaleyra depends upon its information technology (“IT”) systems to conduct virtually all of its business operations, ranging from Kaleyra’s internal operations and research and development activities to its marketing and sales efforts and communications with Kaleyra’s customers and business partners. Individuals or entities may attempt to penetrate Kaleyra’s network security, or that of its platform, and to cause harm to Kaleyra’s business operations, including by misappropriating its proprietary information or that of its customers, employees and business partners or to cause interruptions of Kaleyra’s products and platform. In particular, cyberattacks and other malicious Internet-based activity continue to increase in frequency and in magnitude generally, and cloud-based companies have been targeted in the past. In addition to threats from traditional computer hackers, malicious code (such as malware, viruses, worms, and ransomware), employee theft or misuse, password spraying, phishing, credential stuffing, and denial-of-service attacks, Kaleyra also faces threats from sophisticated organized crime, nation-state, and nation-state supported actors who engage in attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions) that add to the risk to Kaleyra’s systems (including those hosted on AWS or other cloud services), internal networks, its customers’ systems and the information that they store and process. While Kaleyra devotes significant financial and personnel resources to implement and maintain security measures, because the techniques used by such individuals or entities to access, disrupt or sabotage devices, systems and networks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, Kaleyra may be required to make further investments over time to protect data and infrastructure as cybersecurity threats develop, evolve and grow more complex over time. Kaleyra may also be unable to anticipate these techniques, and Kaleyra may not become aware in a timely manner of such a security breach, which could exacerbate any damage Kaleyra experiences. Additionally, Kaleyra depends upon its employees and contractors to appropriately handle confidential and sensitive data, including customer data, and to deploy Kaleyra’s IT resources in a safe and secure manner that does not expose Kaleyra’s network systems to security breaches or the loss of data. Any data security incidents, including internal malfeasance by its employees or a third party’s fraudulent inducement of Kaleyra’s employees to disclose information, unauthorized access or usage, virus or similar breach or disruption of Kaleyra’s or its service providers, such as AWS or service providers, could result in loss of confidential information, damage to Kaleyra’s reputation, erosion of customer trust, loss of customers, litigation, regulatory investigations, fines, penalties and other liabilities. Accordingly, if Kaleyra’s cybersecurity measures or those of AWS or Kaleyra’s service providers, fail to protect against unauthorized access, attacks (which may include sophisticated cyberattacks), compromise or the mishandling of data by Kaleyra’s employees and contractors, then Kaleyra’s reputation, customer trust, business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. While Kaleyra maintains errors, omissions, and cyber liability insurance policies covering certain security and privacy damages, Kaleyra cannot be certain that its existing insurance coverage will continue to be available on acceptable terms or will be available in sufficient amounts to cover the potentially significant losses that may result from a security incident or breach or that the insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim.

To deliver Kaleyra’s products, Kaleyra relies on network service providers and Internet service providers for its network service and connectivity.

Kaleyra currently interconnects with network service providers around the world to enable the use by Kaleyra’s customers of its products over their networks. Kaleyra expects that it will continue to rely heavily on network service providers for these services going forward. Kaleyra’s reliance on network service providers has reduced Kaleyra’s operating flexibility, ability to make timely service changes and control quality of service. In addition, the fees that Kaleyra is charged by network service providers may change daily or weekly, while Kaleyra does not typically change its customers’ pricing as rapidly.

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At times, some network service providers have instituted additional fees due to regulatory, competitive or other industry related changes that increase Kaleyra network costs. For example, in 2018 Kaleyra was subject to a pricing increase of more than 10% from certain mobile network service providers for delivered messages. While Kaleyra has historically responded to these types of fee increases through a combination of further negotiating efforts with Kaleyra’s network service providers, absorbing the increased costs or changing Kaleyra’s prices to customers, here Kaleyra identified a unique strategy that allowed it to change its customers prices without effecting Kaleyra’s business. There is no guarantee that Kaleyra will continue to be able to use the same strategy in the future without a material negative impact to Kaleyra business. Additionally, Kaleyra’s ability to respond to any new fees may be constrained if all network service providers in a particular market impose equivalent fee structures, if the magnitude of the fees is disproportionately large when compared to the underlying prices paid by Kaleyra customers, or if the market conditions limit Kaleyra ability to increase the price Kaleyra charges its customers.

Furthermore, some of these network service providers do not have long-term committed contracts with Kaleyra and may terminate their agreements with Kaleyra without notice or restriction. If a significant portion of Kaleyra’s network service providers stop providing Kaleyra with access to their infrastructure, fail to provide these services to Kaleyra on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to other network service providers could be time consuming and costly and could adversely affect Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Further, if problems occur with Kaleyra’s network service providers, it may cause errors or poor-quality communications with Kaleyra’s products, and it could encounter difficulty identifying the source of the problem. The occurrence of errors or poor-quality communications on Kaleyra’s products, whether caused by Kaleyra’s platform or a network service provider, may result in the loss of Kaleyra’s existing customers or the delay of adoption of Kaleyra’s products by potential customers and may adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition.

Kaleyra also interconnects with Internet service providers around the world to enable the use of Kaleyra’s communication products by its customers, and Kaleyra expects that it will continue to rely heavily on Internet service providers for network connectivity going forward. Kaleyra’s reliance on Internet service providers reduces Kaleyra’s control over quality of service and exposes Kaleyra to potential service outages and rate fluctuations. If a significant portion of Kaleyra’s Internet service providers stop providing Kaleyra with access to their network infrastructure, fail to provide access on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate access, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to other Internet service providers could be time consuming and costly and could harm Kaleyra’s business and operations.

If Kaleyra is unable to expand its relationships with existing technology partner customers and add new technology partner customers, Kaleyra’s business could be harmed.

Kaleyra believes that the continued growth of its business depends in part upon developing and expanding strategic relationships with technology partner customers. Technology partner customers embed Kaleyra software products in their solutions, such as software applications for contact centers and sales force and marketing automation, and then sell such solutions to other businesses. When potential customers do not have the available developer resources to build their own applications, Kaleyra refers them to either its technology partners who embed Kaleyra’s products in the solutions that they sell to other businesses or Kaleyra’s consulting partners who provide consulting and development services for organizations that have limited software development expertise to build Kaleyra’s platform into their software applications.

As part of Kaleyra’s growth strategy, it intends to expand Kaleyra’s relationships with existing technology partner customers and add new technology partner customers. If Kaleyra fails to expand its relationships with existing technology partner customers or establish relationships with new technology partner customers in a timely and cost-effective manner, or at all, then Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. Additionally, even if Kaleyra is successful at building these relationships but there are problems or issues with integrating Kaleyra’s products into the solutions of these customers, Kaleyra’s reputation and ability to grow its business may be harmed.

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Kaleyra’s investments in new services and technologies may not be successful.

Kaleyra continues to invest in new services and technologies. The complexity of these solutions, Kaleyra’s learning curve in developing and supporting them, and significant competition in the markets for these solutions could make it difficult for Kaleyra to market and implement these solutions successfully. Additionally, there is a risk that Kaleyra’s customers may not adopt these solutions widely, which would prevent Kaleyra from realizing expected returns on these investments. Even if these solutions are successful in the market, they still rely on third-party hardware and software and Kaleyra’s ability to meet stringent service levels. If Kaleyra is unable to deploy these solutions successfully or profitably, it could adversely impact its business.

If Kaleyra fails to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, changing regulations, and changing customer needs, requirements or preferences, Kaleyra’s products may become less competitive.

The market for communications in general, and cloud communications in particular, is subject to rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, changing regulations, as well as changing customer needs, requirements and preferences. The success of Kaleyra’s business will depend, in part, on Kaleyra’s ability to adapt and respond effectively to these changes on a timely basis. If Kaleyra is unable to develop new products that satisfy Kaleyra customers and provide enhancements and new features for Kaleyra’s existing products that keep pace with rapid technological and industry change, Kaleyra business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. If new technologies emerge that are able to deliver competitive products and services at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely, such technologies could adversely impact Kaleyra’s ability to compete effectively.

If Kaleyra loses any of its key personnel or is unable to attract and retain the talent required for its business, Kaleyra’s business could be disrupted and its financial performance could suffer.

Kaleyra’s success is heavily dependent upon its ability to attract, develop, engage, and retain key personnel to manage and grow its business, including Kaleyra’s key executive, management, sales, services, and technical personnel.

Kaleyra’s future success will depend to a significant extent on the efforts of Kaleyra’s executive team including the leadership of Kaleyra’s Chief Executive Officer, Dario Calogero, as well as the continued service and support of other key employees. Kaleyra’s future success also will depend on its ability to attract and retain highly skilled technology specialists, engineers, and consultants, for whom the market is extremely competitive. All of Kaleyra’s officers and key employees are at-will employees, meaning that they can terminate their employment with Kaleyra at any time. Kaleyra’s inability to attract, develop, and retain key personnel could have an adverse effect on its relationships with its technology partners and customers and adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to expand its offerings of technology offerings and services. Moreover, Kaleyra’s inability to train its sales, services, and technical personnel effectively to meet the rapidly changing technology needs of its customers could cause a decrease in the overall quality and efficiency of such personnel. Such consequences could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain business and personnel may depend on its reputation in the marketplace.

Kaleyra believes its brand name and its reputation in the marketplace are important corporate assets that help distinguish Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services from those of competitors and also contribute to Kaleyra’s ability to recruit and retain talented personnel, in particular its engineers and consulting professionals. However, Kaleyra’s corporate reputation is potentially susceptible to material damage by events such as disputes with customers, cybersecurity breaches, service outages, internal control deficiencies, delivery failures, or compliance violations. Similarly, Kaleyra’s reputation could be damaged by actions or statements of current or former customers, directors, employees, competitors, vendors, partners, Kaleyra’s joint ventures or joint venture partners, adversaries in legal proceedings, legislators, or government regulators, as well as members of the investment community or the media. There is a risk that negative information about Kaleyra, even if based on rumor or misunderstanding, could adversely affect its business. Damage to Kaleyra’s reputation could be difficult, expensive and time-consuming to repair, could make potential or existing customers reluctant to select Kaleyra for new engagements, resulting in a loss of business, and could adversely affect Kaleyra’s recruitment and retention efforts. Damage to Kaleyra’s reputation could also reduce the value and effectiveness of Kaleyra’s brand name and could reduce investor confidence in the post-combination company, adversely affecting its share price.

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Kaleyra has experienced rapid internal growth as well as growth through acquisitions in recent periods. If Kaleyra fails to manage its growth effectively, or its business does not grow as expected, Kaleyra’s operating results may suffer.

Kaleyra’s headcount and operations have grown substantially. Kaleyra had approximately 267 employees as of December 31, 2019, as compared with 235 employees as of December 31, 2018. This growth has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on Kaleyra’s operational, financial, and management infrastructure. Kaleyra anticipates further increases in headcount will be required to support increases in its technology offerings and continued expansion. To manage this growth effectively, Kaleyra must continue to improve its operational, financial, and management systems and controls by, among other things:

 

effectively attracting, training, and integrating a large number of new employees, particularly technical personnel and members of Kaleyra’s management and sales teams;

 

further improving Kaleyra’s key business systems, processes, and information technology infrastructure to support Kaleyra’s business needs;

 

enhancing Kaleyra’s information and communication systems to ensure that Kaleyra’s employees are well-coordinated and can effectively communicate with each other and Kaleyra’s customers; and

 

improving Kaleyra’s internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures to ensure timely and accurate reporting of Kaleyra’s operational and financial results.

If Kaleyra fails to manage its expansion or implement Kaleyra’s new systems, or if Kaleyra fails to implement improvements or maintain effective internal controls and procedures, Kaleyra’s costs and expenses may increase more than expected and Kaleyra may not expand its client base, increase existing customer volumes and renewal rates, enhance its existing applications, develop new applications, satisfy its customers, respond to competitive pressures, or otherwise execute its business plan. If Kaleyra is unable to manage its growth, Kaleyra’s operating results likely will be harmed.

Future acquisitions could disrupt Kaleyra’s business and may divert management’s attention, and if unsuccessful, harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra may choose to expand by making additional acquisitions that could be material to its business. Acquisitions involve many risks, including the following:

 

an acquisition may negatively affect Kaleyra’s results of operations and financial condition because it may require Kaleyra to incur charges or assume substantial debt or other liabilities, may cause adverse tax consequences or unfavorable accounting treatment, may expose Kaleyra to claims and disputes by third parties, including intellectual property claims and disputes, or may not generate sufficient financial return to offset additional costs and expenses related to the Business Combination;

 

Kaleyra may encounter difficulties or unforeseen expenditures in integrating the business, technologies, products, personnel, or operations of any company that it acquires, particularly if key personnel of the acquired company decide not to work for Kaleyra;

 

an acquisition may disrupt its ongoing business, divert resources, increase Kaleyra’s expenses, or distract its management;

 

an acquisition may result in a delay or reduction of client purchases for both Kaleyra and the company it acquired due to client uncertainty about continuity and effectiveness of service from either company;

 

Kaleyra may encounter difficulties in, or may be unable to, successfully sell any acquired technology offerings or services;

 

an acquisition may involve the entry into geographic or business markets in which Kaleyra has little or no prior experience or where competitors have stronger market positions;

 

the challenges inherent in effectively managing an increased number of employees in diverse locations;

 

the potential strain on its financial and managerial controls and reporting systems and procedures;

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the potential known and unknown liabilities associated with an acquired company;

 

Kaleyra’s use of cash to pay for acquisitions would limit other potential uses for its cash;

 

if Kaleyra incurs additional debt to fund such acquisitions, such debt may subject Kaleyra to additional material restrictions on its ability to conduct its business as well as additional financial maintenance covenants;

 

the risk of impairment charges related to potential write-downs of acquired assets or goodwill in future acquisitions;

 

to the extent that Kaleyra issues a significant amount of equity or equity-linked securities in connection with future acquisitions, existing stockholders may be diluted and earnings per share may decrease; and

 

managing the varying intellectual property protection strategies and other activities of an acquired company.

Kaleyra may not succeed in addressing these or other risks or any other problems encountered in connection with the integration of any acquired business. The inability to integrate successfully the business, technologies, products, personnel, or operations of any acquired business, or any significant delay in achieving integration, could harm its business and results of operations.

Kaleyra may experience quarterly fluctuations in its operating results due to a number of factors, which makes its future results difficult to predict and could cause its operating results to fall below expectations.

Kaleyra’s quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and Kaleyra expects them to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of Kaleyra’s control. As a result, Kaleyra’s past results may not be indicative of its future performance and comparing Kaleyra’s operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the other risks described in this Annual Report, factors that may affect Kaleyra’s quarterly operating results include:

 

changes in spending on collaboration and technology offerings and services by Kaleyra’s current or prospective customers;

 

pricing Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services effectively so that Kaleyra is able to attract and retain customers without compromising its operating results;

 

attracting new customers and increasing Kaleyra’s existing customers’ use of Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services;

 

the mix between wholesale and retail maintenance new contracts and renewals;

 

client renewal rates and the amounts for which agreements are renewed;

 

seasonality and its effect on client demand;

 

awareness of Kaleyra’s brand;

 

changes in the competitive dynamics of Kaleyra’s market, including consolidation among competitors or customers and the introduction of new technologies and technology enhancements;

 

changes to the commission plans, quotas, and other compensation-related metrics for Kaleyra’s sales representatives;

 

the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly sales and marketing expense;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to manage its existing business and future growth, domestically and internationally;

 

unforeseen costs and expenses related to the expansion of Kaleyra’s business, operations, and infrastructure, including disruptions in Kaleyra’s hosting network infrastructure and privacy and data security; and

 

general economic and political conditions in Kaleyra’s domestic and international markets.

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Kaleyra may not be able to accurately forecast the amount and mix of future technology offerings and services, size or duration of contracts, revenue, and expenses and, as a result, Kaleyra’s operating results may fall below its estimates. Risks related to confidentiality and security provisions or privacy laws will increase as Kaleyra continues to grow its cloud-based offerings and services and store and process increasingly large amounts of Kaleyra’s customers’ confidential information and data and host or manage parts of Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses, especially in industries involving particularly sensitive data such as the financial services industry and the healthcare industry. The loss or unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or employee data, including personal data, whether through breach of computer systems, systems failure, employee negligence, fraud or misappropriation, or otherwise, could damage Kaleyra’s reputation and cause it to lose customers. Similarly, unauthorized access to or through Kaleyra’s information systems and networks or those Kaleyra develops or manages for its customers, whether by Kaleyra’s employees or third parties, could result in negative publicity, legal liability, and damage to Kaleyra’s reputation, which could in turn harm Kaleyra’s business and results of operations.

If Kaleyra causes disruptions in its customers’ businesses or provides inadequate service, Kaleyra’s customers may have claims for substantial damages against Kaleyra, which could cause Kaleyra to lose customers, have a negative effect on Kaleyra’s reputation, and adversely affect its results of operations.

If Kaleyra makes errors in the course of delivering services for its customers or business partners, or fails to consistently meet its service level obligations or other service requirements of Kaleyra’s customers, these errors or failures could disrupt Kaleyra’s client’s business, which could result in a reduction in its revenue or a claim for substantial damages against Kaleyra. In addition, a failure or inability by Kaleyra to meet a contractual requirement could subject Kaleyra to penalties, cause Kaleyra to lose customers or damage Kaleyra’s brand or corporate reputation, and limit Kaleyra’s ability to attract new business.

The services Kaleyra provides are often critical to Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses. Certain of Kaleyra’s client contracts require Kaleyra to comply with security obligations including maintaining network security and backup data, ensuring Kaleyra’s network is virus-free, maintaining business continuity planning procedures, and verifying the integrity of employees that work with Kaleyra’s customers by conducting background checks. Any failure in a client’s system, failure of Kaleyra’s data center, cloud or other offerings, or breach of security relating to the services Kaleyra provides to the client could damage Kaleyra’s reputation or result in a claim for substantial damages against Kaleyra. Any significant failure of Kaleyra’s equipment or systems, or any major disruption to basic infrastructure in the locations in which Kaleyra operates, such as power and telecommunications, could impede Kaleyra’s ability to provide services to Kaleyra’s customers, have a negative impact on Kaleyra’s reputation, cause Kaleyra to lose customers, and adversely affect its results of operations.

Under Kaleyra’s client contracts, Kaleyra’s liability for breach of its obligations is in some cases limited pursuant to the terms of the contract. Such limitations may be unenforceable or otherwise may not protect it from liability for damages. In addition, certain liabilities, such as claims of third parties for which Kaleyra may be required to indemnify its customers, are generally not limited under Kaleyra’s contracts. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against Kaleyra in amounts greater than those covered by Kaleyra’s current insurance policies could harm Kaleyra’s financial condition. Even if such assertions against it are unsuccessful, Kaleyra may incur reputational harm and substantial legal fees.

The length and unpredictability of the sales cycle for Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services could delay new sales and cause Kaleyra’s revenue and cash flows for any given quarter to fail to meet Kaleyra’s projections or market expectations.

The sales cycle between Kaleyra’s initial contact with a potential client and the signing of a contract to provide technology offerings and services varies. As a result of the variability and length of the sales cycle, Kaleyra has a limited ability to forecast the timing of sales. A delay in or failure to complete transactions could harm Kaleyra’s business and financial results, and could cause Kaleyra’s financial results to vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Kaleyra’s sales cycle varies widely, reflecting differences in Kaleyra’s potential customers’ decision-making processes, procurement requirements, and budget cycles, and is subject to significant risks over which Kaleyra has little or no control, including:

 

Kaleyra’s customers’ budgetary constraints and priorities;

 

the timing of Kaleyra’s customers’ budget cycles; and

 

the length and timing of customers’ approval processes.

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Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services could infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others or Kaleyra might lose its ability to utilize the intellectual property of others.

Kaleyra cannot be sure that its brand, technology offerings, and services, including, for example, the software solutions of others that Kaleyra offers to its customers, do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties, and these third parties could claim that Kaleyra or its customers are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. These claims could harm Kaleyra’s reputation, cause Kaleyra to incur substantial costs or prevent Kaleyra from offering some services or solutions in the future or require Kaleyra to rebrand. Any related proceedings could require Kaleyra to expend significant resources over an extended period of time. In most of Kaleyra’s contracts, Kaleyra agrees to indemnify its customers for expenses and liabilities resulting from claimed infringements of the intellectual property rights of third parties. Any claims or litigation in this area, regardless of merit, could be time-consuming and costly, damage Kaleyra’s reputation, and/or require Kaleyra to incur additional costs to obtain the right to continue to offer a service or solution to its customers. If Kaleyra cannot secure this right at all or on reasonable terms, or, alternatively, substitute a non-infringing technology, Kaleyra’s business, results of operations, or financial condition could be harmed. Similarly, if Kaleyra is unsuccessful in defending a trademark claim, Kaleyra could be forced to re-brand, which could harm its business, results of operations, or financial condition. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and firms have purchased intellectual property assets where their sole or primary purpose is to assert claims of infringement against technology providers and customers that use such technology. Any such action naming Kaleyra or its customers could be costly to defend or lead to an expensive settlement or judgment against Kaleyra. Moreover, such an action could result in an injunction being ordered against Kaleyra’s client or Kaleyra’s own services or operations, causing further damages.

If Kaleyra is unable to protect its intellectual property rights from unauthorized use or infringement by third parties, its business could be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s success depends, in part, upon its ability to protect its proprietary methodologies and other intellectual property. Existing laws offer only limited protection of Kaleyra’s intellectual property rights, and the protection in some countries in which Kaleyra operates or may operate in the future may be very limited. Kaleyra relies upon a combination of confidentiality policies, nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements, and trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws to protect its intellectual property rights. These laws are subject to change at any time and could further limit its ability to protect its intellectual property. There is uncertainty concerning the scope of available intellectual property protection for software and business methods, which are fields in which Kaleyra relies on intellectual property laws to protect its rights. The validity and enforceability of any intellectual property right Kaleyra obtains may be challenged by others and, to the extent it has enforceable intellectual property rights, those intellectual property rights may not prevent competitors from reverse engineering its proprietary information or independently developing technology offerings and services similar to or duplicative of Kaleyra. Further, the steps Kaleyra takes in this regard might not be adequate to prevent or deter infringement or other misappropriation of its intellectual property by competitors, former employees or other third parties, and Kaleyra might not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce, its intellectual property rights. Enforcing Kaleyra’s rights might also require considerable time, money, and oversight, and Kaleyra may not be successful in enforcing its rights.

Kaleyra’s use of open source software could negatively affect its ability to sell Kaleyra’s products and subject Kaleyra to possible litigation.

Kaleyra’s products and Platform incorporate open source software, and Kaleyra expects to continue to incorporate open source software in its products and Platform in the future. Few of the licenses applicable to open source software have been interpreted by courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on Kaleyra’s ability to commercialize its products and Platform. Moreover, although Kaleyra has implemented policies to regulate the use and incorporation of open source software into Kaleyra’s products and Platform, Kaleyra cannot be certain that it has not incorporated open source software in Kaleyra products or Platform in a manner that is inconsistent with such policies. If Kaleyra fail to comply with open source licenses, Kaleyra may be subject to certain requirements, including requirements that it offer Kaleyra’s products that incorporate the open source software for no cost, that Kaleyra make available source code for modifications or derivative works Kaleyra creates based upon, incorporating or using the open source software and that it license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of applicable open source licenses. If an author or other third party that distributes such open source software were to allege that Kaleyra has not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, Kaleyra could be required to incur significant

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legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from generating revenue from customers using products that contained the open source software and required to comply with onerous conditions or restrictions on these products. In any of these events, Kaleyra and its customers could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering Kaleyra’s products and Platform and to re-engineer Kaleyra’s products or Platform or discontinue offering its products to customers in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis. Any of the foregoing could require Kaleyra to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer Kaleyra’s products or Platform, which could result in customer dissatisfaction and could harm Kaleyra’s business.

If Kaleyra is unable to collect its receivables from, or bill its unbilled services to its customers, its business and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s business depends on its ability to successfully obtain payment from its customers of the amounts they owe Kaleyra for technology offerings sold or services performed. Kaleyra typically evaluates the financial condition of its customers and usually bills and collects on relatively short cycles. Kaleyra maintains allowances against receivables and unbilled services. Actual losses on client balances could differ from those that Kaleyra currently anticipate and, as a result, Kaleyra might need to adjust its allowances. There is no guarantee that Kaleyra will accurately assess the creditworthiness of its customers. Macroeconomic conditions could also result in financial difficulties for Kaleyra’s customers, including limited access to the credit markets, insolvency, or bankruptcy, and, as a result, could cause customers to delay payments to Kaleyra, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase Kaleyra’s receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to Kaleyra. Timely collection of client balances also depends on Kaleyra’s ability to complete its contractual commitments and bill and collect its contracted revenue. If Kaleyra is unable to meet its contractual requirements, it might experience delays in collection of and/or be unable to collect its client balances. In addition, if Kaleyra experiences an increase in the time to bill and to collect for its services, Kaleyra’s cash flows could be negatively impacted.

The market for Kaleyra’s products and platform is new and unproven, may decline or experience limited growth and is dependent in part on developers continuing to adopt its platform and use its products.

Kaleyra was founded in 1999. Kaleyra has been developing and providing a cloud-based platform that enables developers and organizations to integrate voice, messaging and other communications capabilities into their software applications. This market is relatively new and unproven and is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. Kaleyra believes that its revenue currently constitutes a significant portion of the total revenue in this market, and therefore, Kaleyra believes that its future success will depend in large part on the growth, if any, of this market. The utilization of APIs by developers and organizations to build communications functionality into their applications is still relatively new, and developers and organizations may not recognize the need for, or benefits of, Kaleyra products and platform. Moreover, if they do not recognize the need for and benefits of Kaleyra products and platform, they may decide to adopt alternative products and services to satisfy some portion of their business needs.

In order to grow Kaleyra business and extend Kaleyra market position, Kaleyra intend to focus on educating developers and other potential customers about the benefits of Kaleyra products and platform, expanding the functionality of Kaleyra products and bringing new technologies to market to increase market acceptance and use of Kaleyra platform. Kaleyra’s ability to expand the market that Kaleyra products and platform address depends upon a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with such products and platform. The market for Kaleyra’s products and platform could fail to grow significantly or there could be a reduction in demand for Kaleyra products as a result of a lack of developer acceptance, technological challenges, competing products and services, decreases in spending by current and prospective customers, weakening economic conditions and other causes. If Kaleyra’s market does not experience significant growth or demand for Kaleyra products decreases, then Kaleyra’s business and operations could be harmed.

Kaleyra’s Platform must integrate with a variety of network, hardware, mobile and software platforms and technologies, and its need to continuously modify and enhance Kaleyra’s products and platform to adapt to changes and innovation in these technologies. For example, Apple, Google and other cell-phone operating system providers or inbox service providers may develop new applications or functions intended to filter spam and unwanted phone calls, messages or other communications. Similarly, Kaleyra’s network service providers may adopt new filtering technologies in an effort to combat spam or robocalling. Such technologies may inadvertently filter desired messages or calls to or from Kaleyra’s customers. If cell-phone operating system providers, network service

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providers, Kaleyra’s customers or their end users adopt new software platforms or infrastructure, Kaleyra may be required to develop new versions of its products to work with those new platforms or infrastructure. This development effort may require significant resources, which would adversely affect Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Any failure of Kaleyra’s products and platform to operate effectively with evolving or new platforms and technologies could reduce the demand for Kaleyra’s products. If Kaleyra is unable to respond to market changes in a cost-effective manner, Kaleyra’s products may become less marketable and less competitive or obsolete.

Kaleyra’s future success depends in part on its ability to drive the adoption of its products by international customers.

In the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, Kaleyra derived 73.6% and 88.9% of its revenue, respectively, from customer accounts located in Italy and India. Revenue deriving from customer accounts located in the United States increased from 2.9% in 2018 to 7.3% in 2019, while revenue deriving from customer accounts located in the European countries other than Italy increased from 6.3% in 2018 to 12.1% in 2019. This is in line with the expansion strategy out of Italy and India identified by the Company. The future success of Kaleyra’s business will depend, in part, on Kaleyra ability to expand its customer base worldwide in new geographies. If Kaleyra is unable to increase the revenue that it derives from international customers, Kaleyra’s business and results of operations could be harmed.

Kaleyra’s global operations are subject to complex risks, some of which might be beyond its control.

Kaleyra is headquartered in Milan, Italy, has a sizable presence in India, and operates in other countries throughout the world. In addition, Kaleyra’s customers have operations throughout the world, and Kaleyra derives a substantial part of its revenue internationally. As a result, Kaleyra may be subject to risks inherently associated with international operations, including risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and/or contractual rights, the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations, potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, quotas, and other barriers, potential difficulties in collecting trade receivables, international hostilities, terrorism, and natural disasters. Expansion of international operations also increases the likelihood of potential or actual violations of domestic and international anticorruption laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or of U.S. and international export control and sanctions regulations. Kaleyra may also face difficulties integrating any new facilities in different countries into its existing operations, as well as integrating employees that it hires in different countries into its existing corporate culture. If Kaleyra is unable to manage the risks of its global operations, its business could be harmed.

Kaleyra is in the process of expanding its international operations, which exposes Kaleyra to significant risks.

Kaleyra is continuing to expand its international operations to increase its revenue from customers outside of Italy, India and the U.S. as part of Kaleyra’s growth strategy. Between 2017 and 2019, Kaleyra’s international headcount grew from 60 employees to 267 employees. Kaleyra expects to open additional international offices and hire employees to work at these offices in order to reach new customers and gain access to additional technical talent. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject Kaleyra to regulatory, economic and political risks in addition to those Kaleyra already faces in Italy, India and the U.S. Because of Kaleyra’s limited experience with international operations or with developing and managing sales in additional international markets beyond Italy and India, Kaleyra’s international expansion efforts may not be successful.

In addition, Kaleyra will face risks in doing business internationally that could adversely affect its business, including:

 

exposure to political developments in the United Kingdom (“U.K.”), including the departure of the U.K. from the EU in 2020, which has created an uncertain political and economic environment, instability for businesses and volatility in global financial markets;

 

the difficulty of managing and staffing international operations and the increased operations, travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with servicing international customers and operating numerous international locations;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to effectively price its products in competitive international markets;

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new and different sources of competition;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to comply with GDPR, which went into effect on May 25, 2018;

 

potentially greater difficulty collecting trade receivables and longer payment cycles;

 

higher or more variable network service provider fees outside of the U.S.;

 

the need to adapt and localize Kaleyra’s products for specific countries;

 

the need to offer customer support in various languages;

 

difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations and customs in non-U.S. jurisdictions;

 

understanding and reconciling different technical standards, data privacy and telecommunications regulations, registration and certification requirements outside the U.S., which could prevent customers from deploying Kaleyra’s products or limit their usage;

 

export controls and economic sanctions administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security and the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control;

 

compliance with various anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and United Kingdom Bribery Act of 2010;

 

tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules;

 

more limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

adverse tax consequences;

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could increase the price of Kaleyra’s products outside of the U.S., increase the expenses of Kaleyra’s international operations and expose Kaleyra to foreign currency exchange rate risk;

 

currency control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit Kaleyra’s conversion of other currencies into U.S. dollars;

 

restrictions on the transfer of funds;

 

deterioration of political relations between the U.S. and other countries; and

 

political or social unrest or economic instability in a specific country or region in which Kaleyra operates, which could have an adverse impact on Kaleyra’s operations in that location.

Also, due to costs from Kaleyra’s international expansion efforts and network service provider fees outside of the U.S., which generally are higher than domestic rates, Kaleyra’s gross margin for international customers is typically lower than its gross margin for domestic customers. As a result, Kaleyra’s gross margin may be impacted and fluctuate as Kaleyra expands its operations and customer base worldwide.

Kaleyra’s failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm Kaleyra’s business and international operations.

Kaleyra’s operations are subject to regulation and require Kaleyra to obtain and maintain several governmental licenses and permits. If Kaleyra violates those regulatory requirements or fail to obtain and maintain those licenses and permits, including payment of related fees, if any, Kaleyra may not be able to conduct its business. Moreover, those regulatory requirements could change in a manner that significantly increases Kaleyra’s costs or otherwise adversely affects Kaleyra’s operations.

In the ordinary course of operating Kaleyra’s network and providing its services, Kaleyra must obtain and maintain a variety of telecommunications and other licenses and authorizations. Kaleyra also must comply with a variety of regulatory obligations. There can be no assurance Kaleyra can maintain its licenses or that they will be renewed upon their expiration. Kaleyra’s failure to obtain or maintain necessary licenses, authorizations or to comply with the obligations imposed upon license holders, including the payment of fees, may cause sanctions or additional costs, including the revocation of authority to provide services.

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Kaleyra’s operations are subject to regulation at the national level and, often, at the state and local levels. Kaleyra’s operations will become subject to additional regulation by other countries as Kaleyra expands to international markets. Changes to existing regulations or rules, or the failure to regulate going forward in areas historically regulated on matters such as network neutrality, licensing fees, environmental, health and safety, privacy, intercarrier compensation, emergency 911 services interconnection and other areas, in general or particular to Kaleyra’s industry, may increase costs, restrict operations or decrease revenue. As Kaleyra expands internationally, Kaleyra will also become subject to telecommunications laws and regulations in the foreign countries where Kaleyra offers its products. Kaleyra’s international operations are subject to country-specific governmental regulation that may increase its costs or impact its products and Platform or prevent Kaleyra from offering or providing Kaleyra’s products in certain countries. Kaleyra’s inability or failure to comply with telecommunications and other laws and regulations could cause the temporary or permanent suspension of Kaleyra’s operations, and if Kaleyra cannot provide emergency calling functionality through its Platform to meet any new federal or state requirements, or any applicable requirements from other countries, the competitive advantages that Kaleyra currently has may not persist, adversely affecting Kaleyra ability to obtain and to retain enterprise customers which could have an adverse impact on Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra’s products and Platform and its business are subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws and regulations, including those regarding data protection and information security, and Kaleyra customers may be subject to regulations related to the handling and transfer of certain types of sensitive and confidential information. Any failure of Kaleyra’s products to comply with or enable its customers and channel partners to comply with applicable laws and regulations could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra and its customers that use Kaleyra’s products may be subject to data protection-related laws and regulations that impose obligations in connection with the collection, processing and use of personal data, financial data, health or other similar data. The U.S. federal and various state and foreign governments have adopted or proposed limitations on, or requirements regarding, the collection, distribution, use, security and storage of personally identifiable information of individuals. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission and numerous state attorneys general are applying federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards on the online collection, use and dissemination of data, and to the security measures applied to such data.

Similarly, many foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the EU member states, have laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of personally identifiable information obtained from individuals located in the EU or by businesses operating within their jurisdiction, which are often more restrictive than those in the U.S. Laws and regulations in these jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure and security of personally identifiable information that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, telephone numbers, message addresses and, in some jurisdictions, IP addresses and other online identifiers.

For example, in April 2016 the EU adopted the GDPR, which took full effect on May 25, 2018. GDPR enhances data protection obligations for businesses and requires service providers (data processors) processing personal data on behalf of customers to cooperate with European data protection authorities, implement security measures and keep records of personal data processing activities. Noncompliance with the GDPR can trigger fines equal to or greater of €20 million or 4% of global annual revenues. Given the breadth and depth of changes in data protection obligations, preparing to meet the requirements of GDPR has required significant time and resources, including a review of Kaleyra’s technology and systems currently in use against the requirements of GDPR. There are also additional EU laws and regulations (and member states’ implementations thereof) which govern the protection of consumers and of electronic communications. If Kaleyra’s efforts to comply with GDPR or other applicable EU laws and regulations are not successful, Kaleyra may be subject to penalties and fines that would adversely impact Kaleyra’s business and results of operations, and Kaleyra’s ability to conduct business in the EU could be significantly impaired.

Furthermore, outside of the EU, Kaleyra continues to see increased regulation of data privacy and security, including the adoption of more stringent subject matter specific state laws in the U.S. For example, on June 28, 2018, California enacted the CCPA, which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase Kaleyra’s compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent state privacy legislation in the U.S., which could increase Kaleyra’s potential liability and adversely affect its business.

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Kaleyra continues to see jurisdictions imposing data localization laws, which require personal information, or certain subcategories of personal information to be stored in the jurisdiction of origin. These regulations may inhibit Kaleyra’s ability to expand into those markets or prohibit Kaleyra from continuing to offer services in those markets without significant additional costs. The uncertainty and changes in the requirements of multiple jurisdictions may increase the cost of compliance, delay or reduce demand for Kaleyra’s services, restrict Kaleyra’s ability to offer services in certain locations, impact Kaleyra’s customers’ ability to deploy its solutions in certain jurisdictions, or subject Kaleyra to sanctions, by national data protection regulators.

Additionally, although Kaleyra endeavors to have its products and Platform comply with applicable laws and regulations, these and other obligations may be modified, they may be interpreted and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another, and they may conflict with one another, other regulatory requirements, contractual commitments or Kaleyra’s internal practices

Kaleyra also may be bound by contractual obligations relating to its collection, use and disclosure of personal, financial and other data or may find it necessary or desirable to join industry or other self-regulatory bodies or other privacy- or data protection-related organizations that require compliance with their rules pertaining to privacy and data protection.

Kaleyra expects that there will continue to be new proposed laws, rules of self-regulatory bodies, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the U.S., the EU and other jurisdictions, and Kaleyra cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, rules, regulations and standards may have on Kaleyra’s business. Moreover, existing U.S. federal and various state and foreign privacy- and data protection-related laws and regulations are evolving and subject to potentially differing interpretations, and various legislative and regulatory bodies may expand current or enact new laws and regulations regarding privacy- and data protection-related matters. Because global laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy and data security have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that Kaleyra or its products or Platform may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such applicable law, regulation and industry standard and compliance with such new laws or to changes to existing laws may impact Kaleyra’s business and practices, requires Kaleyra to expend significant resources to adapt to these changes, or to stop offering Kaleyra’s products in certain countries. These developments could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Any failure or perceived failure by Kaleyra, its products or its Platform to comply with new or existing U.S., EU or other foreign privacy or data security laws, regulations, policies, industry standards or legal obligations, or any security incident that results in the unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of, personally identifiable information or other customer data may result in governmental investigations, inquiries, enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties, adverse publicity or potential loss of business.

Kaleyra is subject to privacy and data security obligations in the United States. Any failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations or contractual obligations may harm Kaleyra’s business. The Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), other federal agencies or state attorneys general could fine or subject Kaleyra to other adverse actions that may negatively impact Kaleyra’s business reputation. If Kaleyra is subject to an investigation or suffers a breach, Kaleyra may incur costs or be subject to forfeitures and penalties that could reduce Kaleyra’s profitability.

Kaleyra is subject to privacy and data security laws and regulations that impose obligations in connection with the collection, processing and use of personal data. Federal and state laws or proposed laws impose limits on, or requirements regarding, the collection, distribution, use, security and storage of PII of individuals. Kaleyra sees increased regulation of data privacy and security, including the adoption of more stringent subject matter specific state laws in the U.S. For example, in 2018, California enacted the CCPA, which becomes effective on January 1, 2020. As discussed above, the CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase Kaleyra’s compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent state privacy legislation in the U.S., which could increase Kaleyra’s potential liability and adversely affect its business.

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Kaleyra also may be bound by contractual obligations relating to Kaleyra’s collection, use and disclosure of personal data or may find it necessary or desirable to join industry or other self-regulatory bodies or other privacy or security related organizations that require compliance with their rules pertaining to privacy and data protection.

Kaleyra is subject to individual or joint jurisdiction of the FCC, the Federal Trade Commission, and state attorneys general with respect to privacy and data security obligations. If Kaleyra was to suffer or if one of Kaleyra’s customers were to suffer a breach, Kaleyra may be subject to the jurisdiction of a variety of federal agencies’ jurisdictions as well as state attorneys general. Kaleyra may have to comply with a variety of data breach laws at the federal and state levels, comply with any resulting investigations, as well as offer mitigation to customers and potential end users of certain customers to which Kaleyra provides services. Kaleyra could also be subject to fines, forfeitures and other penalties that may adversely impact Kaleyra’s business.

Any failure or perceived failure by Kaleyra, its products or its Platform to comply with new or existing U.S. privacy or data security laws, regulations, policies, industry standards or contractual or legal obligations, or any security incident that results in the unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of, PII or other customer data may result in governmental investigations, inquiries, enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties, adverse publicity or potential loss of business.

The storage, processing and use of personal information and related data subjects Kaleyra to evolving governmental laws and regulation, commercial standards, contractual obligations and other legal obligations related to consumer and data privacy, which may have a material impact on Kaleyra’s costs, use of Kaleyra’s services, or expose Kaleyra to increased liability.

Federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, commercial obligations and industry standards, each provide for obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security, as well as the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure and protection of personal information and other customer data, including customer proprietary network information under applicable federal law. The evolving nature of these obligations and restrictions subjects Kaleyra to the risk of differing interpretations, inconsistency or conflicts among countries or rules, and creates uncertainty regarding their application to Kaleyra’s business.

These obligations and restrictions may limit Kaleyra’s ability to collect, store, process, use, transmit and share data with Kaleyra’s customers, employees and third-party providers and to allow Kaleyra’s customers to collect, store, retain, protect, use, process, transmit, share and disclose data with others through Kaleyra’s services. Compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, such obligations and restrictions could increase the cost of Kaleyra’s operations and impact its ability to market its services through effective segmentation.

Failure to comply with obligations and restrictions related to applicable data protection laws, regulations, standards, and codes of conduct, as well as Kaleyra’s own posted privacy policies and contractual commitments could subject Kaleyra to lawsuits, fines, criminal penalties, statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity, loss of user confidence in Kaleyra’s services, and loss of users, which could materially harm Kaleyra’s business. Because these obligations and restrictions have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that Kaleyra may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such obligation and restriction. Additionally, third-party contractors may have access to customer or employee data. If these or other third-party vendors violate obligations and restrictions related to applicable data protection laws or Kaleyra’s policies, such violations may also put Kaleyra’s customers’ or employees’ information at risk and could in turn harm Kaleyra’s business.

United States federal legislation and international laws impose certain obligations on the senders of commercial communications, which could minimize the effectiveness of Kaleyra’s Platform, and establish financial penalties for non-compliance, which could increase the costs of Kaleyra’s business.

The Federal Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN-SPAM Act) establishes certain requirements for commercial messages and transactional messages and specifies penalties for the transmission of messages that are intended to deceive the recipient as to source or content. Among other things, the CAN-SPAM Act, obligates the sender of commercial messages to provide recipients with the ability to “opt-out” of receiving future commercial communications from the sender. In addition, some states have passed laws regulating commercial communication practices that are significantly more restrictive and difficult to comply with than the CAN-SPAM Act. For example, Utah and Michigan prohibit the sending of communication messages that advertise products or services that minors are prohibited by law from purchasing (e.g., alcoholic

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beverages, tobacco products, illegal drugs) or that contain content harmful to minors (e.g., pornography) to message addresses listed on specified child protection registries. Some portions of these state laws may not be preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act. In addition, certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, such as Australia, Canada, and the EU, have enacted laws that regulate sending messages, and some of these laws are more restrictive than U.S. laws. For example, some foreign laws prohibit sending broad categories of messages unless the recipient has provided the sender advance consent to receipt of such messages, or in other words has “opted-in” to receiving such communications. If Kaleyra were found to be in violation of the CAN-SPAM Act, applicable state laws governing messages not preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act or foreign laws regulating the distribution of messages, whether as a result of violations by Kaleyra’s customers or its own acts or omissions, Kaleyra could be required to pay large penalties, which would adversely affect its financial condition, significantly harm Kaleyra’s business, injure Kaleyra’s reputation and erode customer trust. The terms of any injunctions, judgments, consent decrees or settlement agreements entered into in connection with enforcement actions or investigations against Kaleyra in connection with any of the foregoing laws may also require Kaleyra to change one or more aspects of the way Kaleyra operates its business, which could impair Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain customers or could increase its operating costs.

Changes in laws and regulations related to the Internet or changes in the Internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for Kaleyra’s products.

The future success of Kaleyra’s business depends upon the continued use of the Internet as a primary medium for commerce, communications and business applications. Federal, state or foreign government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the Internet as a commercial medium. Changes in these laws or regulations could require Kaleyra to modify its products and Platform in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations have imposed and may impose additional taxes, fees or other charges for accessing the Internet or commerce conducted via the Internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of Internet-related commerce or communications generally or result in reductions in the demand for Internet-based products and services such as Kaleyra’s products and Platform. In addition, the use of the Internet as a business tool could be adversely affected due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of Internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility and quality of service. The performance of the Internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been adversely affected by “viruses”, “worms”, and similar malicious programs. If the use of the Internet is reduced as a result of these or other issues, then demand for Kaleyra’s products could decline, which could impair Kaleyra’s business and reduce its financial results.

Certain of Kaleyra’s products are subject to telecommunications-related regulations, and future legislative or regulatory actions could harm Kaleyra’s business.

As Kaleyra continues to expand internationally, Kaleyra has become subject to telecommunications laws and regulations in the foreign countries where Kaleyra offers its products. For example, in Italy, Kaleyra holds a license to be a fixed line operator and is subject to the Electronic Communications Code, or the ECC, which has been enacted with Legislative Decree no. 259/2003, as amended, which transposed a package of European Directives adopted in 2002 and amended in 2009; the National Numbering Plan, issued with AGCom’s resolution no. 8/15/CIR as amended, which governs the usage of national numbers for the provision of electronic communications services as a whole; resolutions on the use of alphanumeric indications for the identification of the calling subject in SMS (so-called Alias), that are periodically issued by AGCom, starting from AGCom’s resolution no. 42/13/CIR; and GDPR.

Kaleyra’s international operations are subject to country-specific governmental regulation and related actions that have increased and may continue to increase Kaleyra’s costs or impact its products and Platform or prevent Kaleyra from offering or providing Kaleyra’s products in certain countries. Certain of Kaleyra’s products may be used by customers located in countries where voice and other forms of IP communications may be illegal or require special licensing or in countries on a U.S. embargo list. Even where Kaleyra’s products are reportedly illegal or become illegal or where users are located in an embargoed country, users in those countries may be able to continue to use Kaleyra’s products in those countries notwithstanding the illegality or embargo. Kaleyra may be subject to penalties or governmental action if consumers continue to use its products in countries where it is illegal to do so, and any such penalties or governmental action may be costly and may harm Kaleyra’s business and damage its brand and reputation. Kaleyra may be required to incur additional expenses to meet applicable international regulatory requirements or be required to discontinue those services if required by law or if Kaleyra cannot or will not meet those requirements. Any of the foregoing could harm Kaleyra’s business.

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If Kaleyra is unable to effectively process local number and toll-free number portability provisioning in a timely manner or to obtain or retain direct inward dialing numbers and local or toll-free numbers, Kaleyra’s business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s future success depends in part on its ability to procure large quantities of local and toll-free direct inward dialing numbers (“DIDs”), in the U.S. and foreign countries at a reasonable cost and without restrictions. Kaleyra’s ability to procure, distribute and retain DIDs depends on factors outside of Kaleyra’s control, such as applicable local jurisdiction specific regulations, the practices of network service providers that provide DIDs, such as offering DIDs with conditional minimum volume call level requirements, the cost of these DIDs and the level of overall competitive demand for new DIDs.

In addition, in order to procure, distribute and retain telephone numbers from the EU or certain other regions, Kaleyra may be required to register with the local telecommunications regulatory authorities, some of which have been increasingly monitoring and regulating the categories of phone numbers that are eligible for provisioning to Kaleyra’s customers. Kaleyra has registered and is in the process of registering in various countries in which Kaleyra does business, but in some countries, the regulatory regime around provisioning of phone numbers is unclear, subject to change over time, and sometimes may conflict from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Furthermore, these regulations and governments’ approaches to their enforcement, as well as Kaleyra’s products and services, are still evolving and Kaleyra may be unable to maintain compliance with applicable regulations, or enforce compliance by Kaleyra’s customers, on a timely basis or without significant cost. Also, compliance with these types of regulation may require changes in products or business practices that result in reduced revenue. If Kaleyra or its customers use phone numbers in these countries in a manner that violates applicable rules and regulations, Kaleyra may also be subject to significant penalties or governmental action, including government-initiated audits and, in extreme cases, may be precluded from doing business in that particular country. In the event of such non-compliance, Kaleyra may be forced to reclaim phone numbers from Kaleyra’s customers, which could result in loss of customers, breach of contract claims, loss of revenue, reputational harm, and erosion of customer trust, all of which could harm Kaleyra’s business and reputation.

Due to their limited availability, there are certain popular area code prefixes that Kaleyra generally cannot obtain. Kaleyra’s inability to acquire or retain DIDs for its operations would make Kaleyra’s voice and messaging products less attractive to potential customers in the affected local geographic areas. In addition, future growth in Kaleyra’s customer base, together with growth in the customer bases of other providers of cloud communications, has increased, which increases Kaleyra’s dependence on needing sufficiently large quantities of DIDs. It may become increasingly difficult to source larger quantities of DIDs as Kaleyra’s scale and its need to pay higher costs for DIDs, and DIDs may become subject to more stringent regulation or conditions of usage such as the registration and on-going compliance requirements discussed above could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra customers’ and other users’ violation of Kaleyra’s policies or other misuse of Kaleyra’s Platform to transmit unauthorized, offensive or illegal messages, spam, phishing scams, and website links to harmful applications or for other fraudulent or illegal activity could damage Kaleyra’s reputation, and Kaleyra may face a risk of litigation and liability for unauthorized, inaccurate, or fraudulent information distributed via Kaleyra’s Platform.

The actual or perceived improper sending of text messages may subject Kaleyra to potential risks, including liabilities or claims relating to consumer protection laws. For example, the TCPA restricts telemarketing and the use of automatic text messages without proper consent. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to the delivery of text messages are continuously evolving and developing. If Kaleyra does not comply with these laws or regulations or if Kaleyra becomes liable under these laws or regulations due to the failure of Kaleyra’s customers to comply with these laws by obtaining proper consent, Kaleyra could face direct liability.

Moreover, despite Kaleyra’s ongoing and substantial efforts to limit such use, certain customers may use Kaleyra’s Platform to transmit unauthorized, offensive or illegal messages, spam, phishing scams, and website links to harmful applications, reproduce and distribute copyrighted material or the trademarks of others without permission, and report inaccurate or fraudulent data or information. These issues also arise with respect to a portion of those users who use Kaleyra’s Platform on a free trial basis. These actions are in violation of Kaleyra’s policies. However, Kaleyra’s efforts to defeat spamming attacks and other fraudulent activity will not prevent all such attacks and activity, such use of Kaleyra’s Platform could damage Kaleyra’s reputation and it could face claims for damages, copyright or trademark infringement, defamation, negligence, or fraud. Moreover, Kaleyra customers’ and other users’ promotion of their products and services through Kaleyra’s Platform might not comply with federal, state, and foreign laws. Kaleyra relies on contractual representations made to Kaleyra by its customers that their use of Kaleyra’s Platform will comply with Kaleyra’s policies and applicable law, including, without limitation, Kaleyra’s message communication policy. Although Kaleyra will retain the right to verify that customers and other

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users are abiding by certain contractual terms, Kaleyra’s Authorized Use Policy and Kaleyra’s message communication policy and, in certain circumstances, to review their distribution lists, Kaleyra’s customers and other users are ultimately responsible for compliance with Kaleyra’s policies, and it does not systematically audit Kaleyra’s customers or other users to confirm compliance with Kaleyra’s policies. Kaleyra cannot predict whether Kaleyra’s role in facilitating its customers’ or other users’ activities would expose Kaleyra to liability under applicable law. Even if claims asserted against Kaleyra do not result in liability, Kaleyra may incur substantial costs in investigating and defending such claims. If Kaleyra is found liable for its customers’ or other users’ activities, Kaleyra could be required to pay fines or penalties, redesign business methods or otherwise expend resources to remedy any damages caused by such actions and to avoid future liability.

Kaleyra may be subject to governmental export controls and economic sanctions regulations that could impair Kaleyra’s ability to compete in international markets due to licensing requirements and could subject Kaleyra to liability if Kaleyra is not in compliance with applicable laws.

Certain of Kaleyra’s products and services may be subject to export control and economic sanctions regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of Kaleyra’s products and the provision of Kaleyra’s services must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. Although Kaleyra takes precautions to prevent its products from being provided in violation of such laws, Kaleyra is aware of previous exports of certain of Kaleyra’s products to a small number of persons and organizations that are the subject of U.S. sanctions or located in countries or regions subject to U.S. sanctions. If Kaleyra fails to comply with these laws and regulations, Kaleyra and certain of its employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including: the possible loss of export privileges; fines, which may be imposed on Kaleyra and responsible employees or managers; and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers. Obtaining the necessary authorizations, including any required license, for a particular deployment may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. In addition, changes in Kaleyra’s products or services, or changes in applicable export or economic sanctions regulations may create delays in the introduction and deployment of Kaleyra’s products and services in international markets, or, in some cases, prevent the export of Kaleyra’s products or provision of Kaleyra’s services to certain countries or end users. Any change in export or economic sanctions regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could also result in decreased use of Kaleyra’s products and services, or in its decreased ability to export Kaleyra’s products or provide Kaleyra’s services to existing or prospective customers with international operations. Any decreased use of Kaleyra’s products and services or limitation on Kaleyra’s ability to export its products and provide its services could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Further, Kaleyra incorporates encryption technology into certain of its products. Various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permitting and licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit Kaleyra’s customers’ ability to import its products into those countries. Encryption products and the underlying technology may also be subject to export control restrictions. Governmental regulation of encryption technology and regulation of exports of encryption products, or Kaleyra’s failure to obtain required approval for Kaleyra’s products, when applicable, could harm Kaleyra’s international sales and adversely affect Kaleyra’s revenue. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the export of Kaleyra’s products and provision of Kaleyra’s services, including with respect to new releases of Kaleyra’s products and services, may create delays in the introduction of Kaleyra’s products and services in international markets, prevent Kaleyra’s customers with international operations from deploying its products and using Kaleyra’s services throughout their globally-distributed systems or, in some cases, prevent the export of Kaleyra’s products or provision of Kaleyra’s services to some countries altogether.

Kaleyra faces a risk of litigation resulting from customer misuse of Kaleyra’s services and software to make or send unauthorized calls and/or text messages in violation of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act.

Calls and/or text messages originated by Kaleyra’s customers may subject Kaleyra to potential risks. For example, the TCPA restricts telemarketing and the use of technologies that enable automatic calling and/or text messages without proper consent. This may result in civil claims against Kaleyra and requests for information through third-party subpoenas or regulatory investigations. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to the making and/or delivery of calls and/or text messages are continuously evolving and developing. If Kaleyra does not comply with these laws or regulations or if Kaleyra becomes liable under these laws or regulations due to the failure of Kaleyra’s customers to comply with these laws by obtaining proper consent, Kaleyra could become subject to lawsuits, fines, civil penalties, potentially significant statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity, loss of user confidence in Kaleyra services, loss of users and other adverse consequences, which could harm Kaleyra’s business.

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The effects of increased regulation of IP-based service providers are unknown.

While the FCC has to date generally subjected IP-based service providers to less stringent regulatory oversight than traditional common carriers, the FCC has imposed certain regulatory obligations on providers of voice-over-internet protocol (“VoIP”) services, including the obligations to contribute to the Universal Service Fund, to provide 911 services and/or to comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. Some states have imposed taxes, fees and/or surcharges on VoIP telephony services. The imposition of additional regulations could have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra’s business.

If Kaleyra experiences excessive credit card or fraudulent activity, Kaleyra could incur substantial costs.

Kaleyra’s customers may choose to authorize Kaleyra to bill their credit card accounts directly for service fees that Kaleyra charges. If people pay for Kaleyra’s services with stolen credit cards, Kaleyra could incur substantial third-party vendor costs for which Kaleyra may not be reimbursed. Further, Kaleyra’s customers provide it with credit card billing information online, and Kaleyra does not review the physical credit cards used in these transactions, which increases Kaleyra’s risk of exposure to fraudulent activity. Kaleyra also incur charges, which Kaleyra refers to as chargebacks, from the credit card companies from claims that the customer did not authorize the credit card transaction to purchase Kaleyra’s services. If the number of unauthorized credit card transactions becomes excessive, Kaleyra could be assessed substantial fines for excess chargebacks, and Kaleyra could lose the right to accept credit cards for payment.

Kaleyra’s products may also be subject to fraudulent usage, including but not limited to revenue share fraud, domestic traffic pumping, subscription fraud, premium text message scams and other fraudulent schemes. Although Kaleyra’s customers are required to set passwords or personal identification numbers to protect their accounts, third parties have in the past been, and may in the future be, able to access and use their accounts through fraudulent means. Furthermore, spammers attempt to use Kaleyra’s products to send targeted and untargeted spam messages. Kaleyra cannot be certain that its efforts to defeat spamming attacks will be successful in eliminating all spam messages from being sent using Kaleyra’s Platform. In addition, a cybersecurity breach of Kaleyra’s customers’ systems could result in exposure of their authentication credentials, unauthorized access to their accounts or fraudulent calls on their accounts, any of which could harm Kaleyra’s reputation with its customers and result in the incurrence of substantial costs for Kaleyra.

Unfavorable conditions in Kaleyra’s industry or the global economy or reductions in spending on information technology and communications could lower Kaleyra’s revenue and harm its business.

Kaleyra’s results of operations may vary based on the impact of changes in Kaleyra’s industry or the global economy on Kaleyra’s customers. Kaleyra’s results of operations depend in part on demand for information technology and cloud communications. In addition, Kaleyra’s revenue is dependent on the usage of Kaleyra’s products, which in turn is influenced by the scale of business that Kaleyra’s customers are conducting. To the extent that weak economic conditions result in a reduced volume of business for, and communications by, Kaleyra’s customers and prospective customers, demand for, and use of, Kaleyra’s products may decline. Furthermore, weak economic conditions may make it more difficult to collect on outstanding trade receivables. Kaleyra has generated a portion of its revenue from small and medium-sized businesses, and Kaleyra expects this to continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Small and medium-sized business may be affected by economic downturns to a greater extent than enterprises, and typically have more limited financial resources, including capital borrowing capacity, than enterprises. If Kaleyra’s customers reduce their use of Kaleyra’s products, or prospective customers delay adoption or elect not to adopt Kaleyra products, as a result of a weak economy, this could lower Kaleyra’s revenue and harm its business.

Kaleyra may require additional capital to support Kaleyra’s business, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

Kaleyra intends to continue to make investments to support Kaleyra’s business and may require additional funds. In particular, Kaleyra may seek additional funds to develop new products and enhance Kaleyra’s Platform and existing products, expand Kaleyra’s operations, including Kaleyra’s sales and marketing organizations and Kaleyra’s presence outside of the U.S., improve Kaleyra’s infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets. In addition, Kaleyra may use a portion of its cash to satisfy tax withholding and remittance obligations related to outstanding restricted stock units. Accordingly, Kaleyra may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If Kaleyra raises additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, Kaleyra’s stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any

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new equity securities Kaleyra issues could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of Kaleyra’s common stock. Any debt financing that Kaleyra may secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to Kaleyra’s capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for Kaleyra to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. Kaleyra may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to Kaleyra, if at all. If Kaleyra is unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to Kaleyra when Kaleyra requires it, Kaleyra’s ability to continue to support its business growth, scale its infrastructure, develop product enhancements and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired and could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra’s business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods and other natural catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems such as power disruptions, computer viruses, data security breaches or terrorism.

A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire or flood, occurring at Kaleyra’s headquarters, at one of Kaleyra’s other facilities or where a business partner is located could adversely affect Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Further, if a natural disaster or man-made problem were to affect Kaleyra’s service providers, this could adversely affect the ability of Kaleyra’s customers to use its products and Platform. In addition, natural disasters and acts of terrorism could cause disruptions in Kaleyra’s or its customers’ businesses, national economies or the world economy as a whole. Kaleyra also rely on its network and third-party infrastructure and enterprise applications and internal technology systems for Kaleyra’s engineering, sales and marketing, and operations activities. Although Kaleyra maintains incident management and disaster response plans, in the event of a major disruption caused by a natural disaster or man-made problem, Kaleyra may be unable to continue its operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in Kaleyra’s development activities, lengthy interruptions in service, breaches of data security and the loss of critical data.

In addition, computer malware, viruses and computer hacking, fraudulent use attempts and phishing attacks have become more prevalent in Kaleyra’s industry, have occurred on Kaleyra’s Platform in the past and may occur on Kaleyra Platform in the future. Though it is difficult to determine what, if any, harm may directly result from any specific interruption or attack, any failure to maintain performance, reliability, security, integrity and availability of Kaleyra’s products and technical infrastructure to the satisfaction of Kaleyra’s users may harm Kaleyra’s reputation and Kaleyra’s ability to retain existing users and attract new users.

Kaleyra is unable to predict the extent to which the global COVID-19 pandemic may adversely impact our business operations, financial performance, results of operations and stock price.

The coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to control its spread have significantly curtailed the movement of people, goods and services worldwide, including in most or all of the regions in which we sell our products and services and conduct our business operations. We also have our headquarters in Milan, Italy, which has been severely affected by COVID-19 and the resulting government lockdowns to attempt to contain the coronavirus.  The magnitude and duration of the resulting decline in business activity cannot currently be estimated with any degree of certainty and threatens to (1) negatively impact the demand for our products and services, especially in those locations subject to “shelter in place” restrictions or similar government orders, (2) restrict our sales operations and marketing efforts, and (3) disrupt other important business activities in our various locations, some of which are also in areas affected by COVID-19. For example, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, certain industry events that we sponsor or at which we present and certain customer events have been canceled, postponed or moved to virtual-only experiences; we are encouraging all of our employees to work remotely; and we may deem it advisable to similarly alter, postpone or cancel entirely additional customer, employee or industry events in the future. Additionally, we may see our services carrying less revenue-generating traffic in areas subject to “shelter in place” restrictions or related government orders as the population of those areas refrain from traveling and normal commerce activities. Accordingly, we expect the COVID-19 pandemic to potentially have a negative impact on our sales and our results of operations in those areas adversely affected by COVID-19, the size and duration of which we are currently unable to predict. Additionally, concerns over the economic impact of COVID-19 have caused extreme volatility in financial and other capital markets which has and may continue to adversely impact our stock price and our ability to access capital.

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If Kaleyra’s goodwill or intangible assets become impaired, Kaleyra may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.

Kaleyra reviews its intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at least annually. As of December 31, 2019, Kaleyra carried a net $26.3 million of goodwill and intangible assets. An adverse change in market conditions, particularly if such change has the effect of changing one of Kaleyra’s critical assumptions or estimates, could result in a change to the estimation of fair value that could result in an impairment charge to Kaleyra’s goodwill or intangible assets. Any such charges may adversely affect Kaleyra’s results of operations.

Kaleyra has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. If Kaleyra’s remediation of these material weaknesses is not effective or if Kaleyra experiences additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fails to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting in the future, Kaleyra may not be able to produce timely and accurate consolidated financial statements and comply with applicable regulations, which may adversely affect investor confidence and the value of our common stock.

Prior to the Business Combination, Kaleyra S.p.A. had been a private company with limited accounting personnel to adequately execute its accounting process and other supervisory resources with which to address its internal control over financial reporting. In connection with the audit of the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, Kaleyra identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

The identified material weaknesses included the following:

 

Lack of review and approval process over journal entries; and

 

Lack of timeliness, quality and existence of account reconciliations and review controls.

Kaleyra cannot assure that the measures it has taken to date, and are continuing to implement, will be sufficient to remediate the material weaknesses it has identified or avoid potential future material weaknesses. If the steps Kaleyra takes do not correct the material weaknesses in a timely manner, Kaleyra will be unable to conclude that its internal control over financial reporting are effective. Accordingly, there could continue to be a reasonable possibility that material misstatement of Kaleyra’s consolidated financial statements would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

If Kaleyra fails to remediate its existing material weaknesses or identifies new material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting, if Kaleyra is unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, if Kaleyra is unable to conclude that its internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if its independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting when it is no longer an emerging growth company, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of its consolidated financial reports and the market price of Kaleyra’s common stock could be negatively affected. As a result of such failures, Kaleyra could also become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which its securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, and become subject to litigation from investors and stockholders, which could harm its reputation and financial condition or divert financial and management resources from Kaleyra’s regular business activities.

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Changes in the international and U.S. taxation business activities or the adoption of other tax reform policies could materially impact Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

Changes to tax laws in jurisdictions where Kaleyra currently does business may be enacted in the future and could impact the tax treatment of Kaleyra’s earnings. Due to the expansion of Kaleyra’s business activities into new geographic regions, any changes in the taxation of such activities may increase Kaleyra’s worldwide effective tax rate. An increase in overall tax rate could reduce Kaleyra’s cash flow and lower Kaleyra’s overall profitability.

Kaleyra’s global operations and structure subject Kaleyra to potentially adverse tax consequences.

Kaleyra generally conducts Kaleyra global operations through subsidiaries and report Kaleyra’s taxable income in various jurisdictions worldwide based upon Kaleyra’s business operations in those jurisdictions. In particular, Kaleyra’s intercompany relationships are subject to complex transfer pricing regulations administered by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. Also, Kaleyra’s tax expense could be affected depending on the applicability of withholding and other taxes (including withholding and indirect taxes on software licenses and related intercompany transactions) under the tax laws of certain jurisdictions in which Kaleyra has business operations. The relevant revenue and taxing authorities may disagree with positions Kaleyra has taken generally, or Kaleyra’s determinations as to the value of assets sold or acquired or income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a disagreement were to occur, and Kaleyra’s position were not sustained, Kaleyra could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of Kaleyra’s operations.

Certain government agencies in jurisdictions where Kaleyra and its affiliates do business have had an extended focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational companies. In addition, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development is conducting a project focused on base erosion and profit shifting in international structures, which seeks to establish certain international standards for taxing the worldwide income of multinational companies. As a result of these developments, the tax laws of certain countries in which Kaleyra and its affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could increase Kaleyra‘s liabilities for taxes, interest and penalties, and therefore could harm Kaleyra’s business, cash flows, results of operations and financial position.

Kaleyra must continue to develop effective business support systems to implement customer orders and to provide and bill for services.

Kaleyra depends on its ability to continue to develop effective business support systems. This complicated undertaking requires significant resources and expertise and support from third-party vendors. Following the development of the business support systems, the data migration must be completed for the full benefit of the systems to be realized. Business support systems are needed for:

 

quoting, accepting and inputting customer orders for services;

 

provisioning, installing and delivering services;

 

providing customers with direct access to the information systems included in Kaleyra’s Platform so that they can manage the services they purchase from Kaleyra, generally through web-based customer portals; and

 

billing for services.

Because Kaleyra’s business provides for continued rapid growth in the number of customers that Kaleyra serves, the volume of services offered, as well as the integration of any acquired companies’ business support systems, if any, Kaleyra must continue to develop its business support systems on a schedule sufficient to meet proposed milestone dates. If Kaleyra fails to develop effective business support systems or complete the data migration into these systems, it could materially adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to implement its business plans, realize anticipated benefits from Kaleyra’s acquisitions, if any, and meet Kaleyra’s financial goals and objectives.

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If Kaleyra is not able to maintain and enhance Kaleyra’s brand and increase market awareness of Kaleyra and its services, then Kaleyra’s business could be harmed.

Kaleyra believes that maintaining and enhancing Kaleyra’s brand identity and increasing market awareness of Kaleyra and its services are critical to achieving widespread acceptance of Kaleyra and its Platform, as well as to strengthen Kaleyra’s relationships with its existing customers and to Kaleyra’s ability to attract new customers. The successful promotion of Kaleyra’s brand will depend largely on Kaleyra’s continued marketing efforts, Kaleyra’s ability to continue to offer high quality services and Kaleyra’s ability to successfully differentiate Kaleyra’s services from competing products and services. Kaleyra’s brand promotion activities may not be successful or yield increased revenue. In addition, independent industry analysts often provide reviews of Kaleyra’s services and competing products and services, which may significantly influence the perception of Kaleyra’s services in the marketplace. If these reviews are negative or not as strong as reviews of Kaleyra’s competitors’ services, then Kaleyra’s brand may be harmed.

From time to time, Kaleyra’s customers have complained about Kaleyra’s services, such as complaints about Kaleyra’s pricing and customer support. If Kaleyra does not handle customer complaints effectively, then Kaleyra’s brand and reputation may suffer, Kaleyra’s customers may lose confidence in Kaleyra and they may reduce or cease their use of Kaleyra’s services. In addition, many of Kaleyra’s customers post and discuss on social media about products and services, including Kaleyra’s products and its Platform. Kaleyra’s success depends, in part, on Kaleyra’s ability to generate positive customer feedback and minimize negative feedback on social media channels where existing and potential customers seek and share information. If actions Kaleyra takes or changes it makes to its services or Platform upset these customers, then their online commentary could negatively affect Kaleyra’s brand and reputation. Complaints or negative publicity about Kaleyra, its services or Platform could harm Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain customers.

The promotion of Kaleyra’s brand also requires Kaleyra to make substantial expenditures, and Kaleyra anticipates that these expenditures will increase as Kaleyra’s market becomes more competitive and as Kaleyra expands into new markets. To the extent that these activities increase revenue, this revenue still may not be enough to offset the increased expenses Kaleyra incurs. If Kaleyra does not successfully maintain and enhance its brand, then Kaleyra’s business may not grow, Kaleyra may see its pricing power reduced relative to competitors and Kaleyra may lose customers, all of which could lower Kaleyra’s revenue and harm its business.

Any failure to deliver and maintain high-quality customer support may adversely affect Kaleyra’s relationships with its customers and prospective customers and could adversely affect Kaleyra’s reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.

Many of Kaleyra’s customers depend on Kaleyra’s customer support team to assist them in deploying or using Kaleyra’s services effectively, to help them resolve post-deployment issues quickly and to provide ongoing support. If Kaleyra does not devote sufficient resources or are otherwise unsuccessful in assisting Kaleyra’s customers effectively, it could adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to retain existing customers and could prevent prospective customers from adopting Kaleyra’s services. Kaleyra may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in demand for customer support. Kaleyra also may be unable to modify the nature, scope and delivery of its customer support to compete with changes in the support services provided by Kaleyra’s competitors. Increased demand for customer support, without corresponding revenue, could increase Kaleyra’s costs and harm its business and operations. Kaleyra’s sales are highly dependent on Kaleyra’s business reputation and on positive recommendations from existing customers. Any failure to deliver and maintain high-quality customer support, or a market perception that Kaleyra does not maintain high-quality customer support, could harm Kaleyra’s reputation and business.

Indemnity provisions in various agreements potentially expose Kaleyra to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.

Kaleyra’s agreements with customers and other third parties typically include indemnification or other provisions under which Kaleyra agrees to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, damages caused by Kaleyra to property or persons or other liabilities relating to or arising from Kaleyra’s services or Platform or other acts or omissions. The term of these contractual provisions often survives termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. Large indemnity payments or damage claims from a contractual breach could harm Kaleyra’s business. Although Kaleyra normally contractually limit its liability with respect to such obligations, Kaleyra may still incur substantial liability related to them. Any dispute with a customer with respect to such obligations could harm Kaleyra’s relationship with that customer and other current and prospective customers and reduce demand for its services.

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Kaleyra is subject to litigation in the ordinary course of business, and uninsured judgments or a rise in insurance premiums may adversely affect Kaleyra’s results of operations.

In the ordinary course of business, Kaleyra is subject to various claims and litigation. Any such claims, regardless of merit, could be time-consuming and expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention and resources. In accordance with customary practice, Kaleyra maintains insurance against some, but not all, of these potential claims. Kaleyra may elect not to obtain insurance if Kaleyra believes that the cost of available insurance is excessive relative to the risks presented. The levels of insurance Kaleyra maintains may not be adequate to fully cover any and all losses or liabilities. Further, Kaleyra may not be able to maintain insurance at commercially acceptable premium levels or at all. If any significant judgment, claim (or a series of claims) or other event is not fully insured or indemnified against, it could have a material adverse impact on Kaleyra’s business, financial condition and results of operations. There can be no assurance as to the actual amount of these liabilities or the timing thereof. Kaleyra cannot be certain that the outcome of current or future litigation will not harm its business and results of operations.

Kaleyra may be liable for the information that content owners or distributors distribute over Kaleyra’s network.

The law relating to the liability of private network operators for information carried on or disseminated through their networks remains unsettled. While Kaleyra disclaims any liability for third-party content in Kaleyra’s services agreements, Kaleyra may become subject to legal claims relating to the content disseminated on Kaleyra’s network, even though such content is owned or distributed by Kaleyra customers or a customer of Kaleyra customers. For example, lawsuits may be brought against Kaleyra claiming that material distributed using Kaleyra’s network was inaccurate, offensive or violated the law or the rights of others. Claims could also involve matters such as defamation, invasion of privacy and copyright infringement. In addition, the law remains unclear over whether content may be distributed from one jurisdiction, where the content is legal, into another jurisdiction, where it is not. Companies operating private networks have been sued in the past, sometimes successfully, based on the nature of material distributed, even if the content is not owned by the network operator and the network operator has no knowledge of the content or its legality. It is not practical for Kaleyra to monitor all of the content distributed using Kaleyra’s network. Kaleyra may need to take costly measures to reduce Kaleyra’s exposure to these risks or to defend ourselves against such claims, which could increase Kaleyra’s costs and harm its results of operations.

Defects or errors in Kaleyra’s services could diminish demand for Kaleyra’s services, harm Kaleyra’s business and subject Kaleyra to liability.

Kaleyra’s customers use its services for important aspects of their businesses, and any errors, defects or disruptions to Kaleyra’s services and any other performance problems with Kaleyra’s services could damage its customers’ businesses and, in turn, hurt Kaleyra’s brand and reputation. Kaleyra provides regular updates to Kaleyra’s services, which have in the past contained, and may in the future contain, undetected errors, failures, vulnerabilities and bugs when first introduced or released. Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in Kaleyra’s services could result in negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of Kaleyra’s Platform, loss of competitive position, lower customer retention or claims by customers for losses sustained by them. In such an event, Kaleyra may be required, or may choose, for customer relations or other reasons, to expend additional resources in order to help correct the problem. In addition, Kaleyra may not carry insurance sufficient to compensate Kaleyra for any losses that may result from claims arising from defects or disruptions in Kaleyra’s services. As a result, Kaleyra’s brand and reputation could be harmed.

If Kaleyra does not file and maintain a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants, holders will only be able to exercise such warrants on a “cashless basis.”

If Kaleyra does not maintain a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants at the time that holders wish to exercise such warrants, they will only be able to exercise them on a “cashless basis” provided that an exemption from registration is available. As a result, the number of shares of common stock that holders will receive upon exercise of the warrants will be fewer than it would have been had such holder exercised its warrant for cash. Further, if an exemption from registration is not available, holders would not be able to exercise on a cashless basis and would only be able to exercise their warrants for cash if a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants is available. Under the terms of the warrant agreement, Kaleyra has agreed to use its best efforts to meet these conditions and to maintain a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants until the expiration of the warrants. However, Kaleyra cannot assure you that it will be able to do so. If Kaleyra is unable to do so, the potential “upside” of the holder’s investment in Kaleyra may be reduced or the warrants may expire worthless.

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There is no guarantee that the warrants will ever be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of warrants may be amended.

The exercise price for the warrants is $11.50 per share of common stock. There is no guarantee that the public warrants will ever be in the money prior to their expiration, and as such, the warrants may expire worthless.

In addition, the warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement with Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding public warrants to make any other change. Accordingly, Kaleyra may amend the terms of the warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment. Although Kaleyra’s ability to amend the terms of the warrants with the consent of at least 65% of the then outstanding public warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the warrants, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares and their respective affiliates and associates have of common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant.

Kaleyra has no obligation to net cash settle the warrants.

In no event does Kaleyra have any obligation to net cash settle the warrants. Furthermore, there are no contractual penalties for failure to deliver securities to the holders of the warrants upon exercise of the warrants. Accordingly, the warrants may expire worthless.

Stockholders of Kaleyra may not be able to enforce judgments entered by United States courts against certain of its officers and directors.

Kaleyra is incorporated in the State of Delaware. However, some of our directors and executive officers reside outside of the U.S. As a result, stockholders of Kaleyra may not be able to effect service of process upon those persons within the U.S. or enforce against those persons judgments obtained in U.S. courts.

A market for Kaleyra’s securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of its securities.

The price of Kaleyra’s securities may fluctuate significantly due to the market’s reaction to Kaleyra and general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for Kaleyra’s securities may never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. In addition, the price of Kaleyra’s securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, Kaleyra’s general business condition and the release of its financial reports. Additionally, if Kaleyra’s securities become delisted from the NYSE American for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of Kaleyra’s securities may be more limited than if its securities were quoted or listed on the NYSE American or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.

There can be no assurance that Kaleyra will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of the NYSE American.

Kaleyra’s common stock and warrants are currently listed on the NYSE American. If the NYSE American delists its securities from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, Kaleyra and its stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:

 

a limited availability of market quotations for Kaleyra’s securities;

 

a determination that the common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in its common stock to adhere to more stringent rules, possibly resulting in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for the common stock;

 

a limited amount of analyst coverage; and

 

a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

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If Kaleyra fails to introduce or acquire new products or services that achieve broad market acceptance on a timely basis, or if its products or services are not adopted as expected, the combined company will not be able to compete effectively.

Kaleyra operates in a highly competitive, quickly changing environment, and Kaleyra’s future success depends on its ability to develop or acquire, and introduce new products and services that achieve broad market acceptance. Kaleyra’s ability to successfully introduce and market new products is unproven. Because Kaleyra will have a limited operating history and the market for its products, including newly acquired or developed products, is rapidly evolving, it is difficult to predict the combined company’s operating results, particularly with respect to any new products that it may introduce. Kaleyra’s future success will depend in large part upon its ability to identify demand trends in the market in which it will operate and quickly develop or acquire, and design, manufacture and sell, products and services that satisfy these demands in a cost-effective manner.

In order to differentiate Kaleyra’s products and services from competitors’ products, Kaleyra will need to increase focus and capital investment in research and development, including software development. If any products currently sold by, and services offered by, Kaleyra do not continue, or if Kaleyra’s new products or services fail to achieve widespread market acceptance, or if we are unsuccessful in capitalizing on opportunities in the market in which Kaleyra operates, our future growth may be slowed and its business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Successfully predicting demand trends is difficult, and it is very difficult to predict the effect that introducing a new product or service will have on existing product or service sales. It is possible that Kaleyra may not be successful with its new products and services, and as a result Kaleyra’s future growth may be slowed and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Also, Kaleyra may not be able to respond effectively to new product or service announcements by competitors by quickly introducing competitive products and services.

In addition, Kaleyra may acquire companies and technologies in the future. In these circumstances, Kaleyra may not be able to successfully manage integration of the new product and service lines with our existing suite of products and services. If Kaleyra is unable to effectively and successfully further develop these new product and service lines, we may not be able to increase or maintain sales (as compared to sales of Kaleyra on a standalone basis), and our gross margin (as compared to sales of Kaleyra on a standalone basis) may be adversely affected.

Furthermore, the success of Kaleyra’s new products will depend on several factors, including, but not limited to, market demand costs, timely completion and introduction of these products, prompt resolution of any defects or bugs in these products, our ability to support these products, differentiation of new products from those of the our competitors, market acceptance of these products, delays and quality issues in releasing new products and services. The occurrence of one or more of the foregoing factors may result in lower quarterly revenue than expected, and Kaleyra may in the future experience product or service introductions that fall short of its projected rates of market adoption.

If Kaleyra’s products fail to achieve and sustain sufficient market acceptance, the combined Company’s revenue will be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s success will depend on its ability to develop and market products that are recognized and accepted as reliable, enabling and cost-effective. Some potential customers of Kaleyra may already use products similar to what we currently offer and similar to what we may offer in the future and may be reluctant to replace those products with what Kaleyra currently offers or which we may offer in the future. Market acceptance of Kaleyra’s products and technology will depend on many factors, including our ability to convince potential customers that our products and technology are an attractive alternative to existing products and technology. Prior to adopting Kaleyra’s products and technology, some potential customers may need to devote time and effort to testing and validating our systems. Any failure of Kaleyra’s systems to meet these customer benchmarks could result in potential customers choosing to retain their existing systems or to purchase systems other than ours.

If Kaleyra’s performance does not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of its securities may decline.

If Kaleyra’s performance does not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of its securities may decline. In addition, fluctuations in the price of Kaleyra’s securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. The trading price of Kaleyra’s securities could be volatile and subject to wide

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fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond Kaleyra’s control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in Kaleyra’s securities and these  securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of Kaleyra’s securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of Kaleyra’s securities may include:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in Kaleyra’s quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to Kaleyra;

 

changes in the market’s expectations about Kaleyra’s operating results;

 

success of competitors;

 

Kaleyra’s operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

 

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning Kaleyra or the market in general;

 

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to Kaleyra’s;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to market new and enhanced services and products on a timely basis;

 

changes in laws and regulations affecting Kaleyra’s business;

 

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving Kaleyra;

 

changes in Kaleyra’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

 

the volume of shares of Kaleyra’s securities available for public sale;

 

any major change in the Board of Directors (the “Board”) or management;

 

sales of substantial amounts of common stock by Kaleyra’s directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and

 

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of Kaleyra’s securities irrespective of its operating performance. The stock market in general and the NYSE American have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of Kaleyra’s securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to Kaleyra could depress its stock price regardless of its business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. A decline in the market price of Kaleyra’s securities also could adversely affect its ability to issue additional securities and its ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about Kaleyra, its business, or its market, or if they change their recommendations regarding its securities adversely, the price and trading volume of its securities could decline.

The trading market for Kaleyra’s securities will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about Kaleyra, its business, its market, or its competitors. If any of the analysts who currently or in the future may cover Kaleyra, change their recommendation regarding its stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about Kaleyra’s competitors, the price of its securities would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover Kaleyra were to cease coverage of Kaleyra or fail to regularly publish reports on it, Kaleyra could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause its stock price or trading volume to decline.

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We may be required to purchase up to 4,454,586 shares of common stock pursuant to forward share purchase agreements, thereby reducing cash available to us for other purposes.

Kaleyra prior to the consummation of the Business Combination entered into Forward Share Purchase Agreements with each of Greenhaven Road Capital Fund 1, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (“Greenhaven Fund 1”), and Greenhaven Road Capital Fund 2, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (“Greenhaven Fund 2” and together with Greenhaven Fund 1, “Greenhaven”); Kepos Alpha Fund L.P., a Cayman Islands limited partnership (“KAF”); Glazer Capital, LLC (“Glazer”); and Yakira Capital Management, Inc. (“Yakira”); and an agreement (the “Confirmation”) with Nomura Global Financial Products, Inc. (“NGFP”) for an OTC Equity Prepaid Forward Transaction (the “Forward Transaction”). The Forward Share Purchase Agreements with Greenhaven and KAF, each of which have been amended, pertain to shares issued to each of them upon the conversion of the rights each of them held prior to the closing of the Business Combination and provides that Kaleyra may be obligated to purchase the shares if either of Greenhaven or KAF exercise an option to sell such shares to us. If either Greenhaven or KAF exercise their respective options, we will have to expend funds to purchase those shares, which will reduce the cash available to us for other purposes. Greenhaven has already exercised such option with respect to 235,169 such shares, and currently holds 700,000 shares, which Greenhaven has the right to put to Kaleyra at $11.70 per Share on August 30, 2020. KAF has already exercised this option with regard to 50,000 shares and currently holds 139,813 shares, and has the right to put these shares to Kaleyra on May 7, 2020 at a purchase price of: (i) $10.92 per share for the first 46,137 shares sold to Kaleyra; and (ii) $10.82 per share for the next 93,676 shares sold to Kaleyra (collectively, the “KAF Share Purchase Price”). In the event the closing occurs after May 7, 2020, the KAF Share Purchase Price shall increase for the 93,676 shares sold to Kaleyra by 1% per full month until the closing date. KAF may elect, in its sole and absolute discretion, to extend the date on which it exercises its put right to a date that is provided upon 10 calendar days’ written notice.

The Forward Share Purchase Agreement with Yakira, as amended, similarly pertains to shares issued to Yakira upon the conversion of the rights it held prior to the closing of the Business Combination and provides that Kaleyra may be obligated to purchase the shares if Yakira exercises an option to sell such shares to us. If Yakira exercises its respective option, we will have to expend funds to purchase those shares, which will reduce the cash available to us for other purposes. The price at which Kaleyra would have to purchase such shares will be $10.93 per share. In addition, the Forward Share Purchase Agreement with Yakira also provides that Yakira may elect to sell and transfer to us, and we will purchase shares of common stock of Kaleyra held by Yakira at the closing of the Business Combination. If Yakira still owns such shares as of the four month anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination, Yakira may sell such shares between the four month anniversary and six month anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination to us for a per share price (the “Yakira Shares Purchase Price”) equal to (a) $10.5019, plus (b) $0.03 per share for each month (prorated for a partial month) following the closing of the Business Combination that Yakira has held such shares. Kaleyra has placed into an escrow account the cash to fund the Yakira Shares Purchase Price, and as a result, such cash is not available to us for other purposes unless Yakira does not exercise its option.

The Forward Share Purchase Agreement with Glazer similarly provides that Glazer may elect to sell and transfer to us, and we will purchase shares of common stock of Kaleyra held by Glazer at the closing of the Business Combination. If Glazer still owns such shares as of the sixth month anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination, Glazer may sell such shares to us for a per share price (the “Glazer Shares Purchase Price”) equal to $10.6819. Kaleyra has entered into a letter of credit and reimbursement agreement (the “Letter of Credit and Reimbursement Agreement”) with EagleBank (“EagleBank”) pursuant to which EagleBank issued a standby letter of credit in the stated amount of $9,314,403.16 (the “Letter of Credit”) for the benefit of Glazer. The Letter of Credit expires on June 15, 2020. The Letter of Credit may be drawn down by Glazer upon its sale of shares of common stock of Glazer pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in the Forward Share Purchase Agreement with Glazer. The Letter of Credit is secured by cash in the amount of $9,314,403.16, which is held in a deposit account at EagleBank, and as a result, such cash is not available to us for other purposes unless Glazer does not exercise its option. The cash held in the deposit account had previously been held in an escrow account that was established to fund the Glazer Shares Purchase Price.

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Kaleyra has also entered into the Confirmation with NGFP. The Confirmation confirms the terms and conditions of the Forward Transaction entered into between Kaleyra and NGFP. Pursuant to the terms of the Confirmation, NGFP agreed to waive any redemption right that would require the redemption of shares that it held at the closing of the Business Combination in exchange for a pro rata amount of the funds held in the trust account. Rather, NGFP, at its sole discretion, may either sell such shares in one or more transactions, publicly or privately, at a market price of at least $10.50 per share, or hold such shares for a period of time following the consummation of the Business Combination, at which time we will be required to purchase from NGFP, and NGFP will be required to sell to the us, any such shares not otherwise previously sold by NGFP. The Forward Transaction with NGFP is for 1,623,000 shares of common stock that NGFP held at the closing of the Business Combination. The Confirmation provides that Kaleyra transfer from the trust account an amount of cash equal to (a) the aggregate number of shares held by NGFP multiplied by (b) the per share redemption amount for our shares of common stock, which was $10.5019. As a result, these amounts transferred to NGFP will not be available to us unless and until NGFP sell such shares in the market. Furthermore, if NGFP sells shares to us, NGFP will keep that portion of the cash transferred to it following the closing of the Business Combination attributable to such shares sold to us, plus an accrual amount equal to the per share redemption amount multiplied by 2.75% per annum if the shares are sold to us at the end of one year following the Business Combination, or 3.50% per annum if the shares are sold to us at the end of two years following the Business Combination. If NGFP sells shares to us, we will have to expand funds to purchase shares from NGFP, which will reduce the cash available to us for other purposes.

The future sales of shares by existing stockholders and future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of Kaleyra’s common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of Kaleyra’s common stock in the public market could occur at any time. If Kaleyra’s stockholders sell, or the market perceives that Kaleyra’s stockholders intend to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.

In connection with their initial purchase of the Company’s securities, the Company’s initial stockholders were granted registration rights pursuant to the terms of a registration rights agreement. In connection with the Business Combination, the Company agreed to amend and restate this registration rights agreement with the Registration Rights Agreement. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, after the date of closing of the Business Combination, the sellers’ representative under the Stock Purchase Agreement for the Business Combination, Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) or the holders of at least a majority-in-interest of the then-outstanding shares issued to or issuable to the Company’s initial stockholders, and the shares issued in the Business Combination (collectively, the “Registrable Securities”) will be entitled to make up to three demands (not counting any demand by Cowen to register our securities) that we register the Registrable Securities. Such registration rights are subject to certain requirements and limitations as set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement. In addition, and subject to certain requirements and limitations as set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement, the holders of the Registrable Securities have certain “piggy-back” registration rights with respect to registration statements filed subsequent to our consummation of the Business Combination. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Cowen, and two of the Company’s initial stockholders may not exercise their demand and “piggyback” registration rights after five and seven years, respectively, after December 7, 2017 and may not exercise their demand rights on more than one occasion. Kaleyra will bear the expenses incurred in connection with the filing of any such registration statements, provided, that we are not required to pay for any registration if the request for such registration is subsequently withdrawn at the request of the holders of a majority of the Registrable Securities to be registered in such registration.

Warrants are exercisable for Kaleyra’s common stock, and upon any exercise would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to Kaleyra’s stockholders.

Kaleyra has issued warrants to purchase a total of 11,154,938 shares of common stock. Each whole warrant is exercisable to purchase one share of common stock at $11.50 per share. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional shares of common stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the then existing holders of the common stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of the common stock.

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Kaleyra may redeem the unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making their warrants worthless.

Kaleyra has the ability to redeem outstanding warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of the common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date Kaleyra sends the notice of redemption to the warrant holders. If and when the warrants become redeemable by the Kaleyra, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force you (i) to exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) to sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your warrants. None of the private placement warrants will be redeemable by Kaleyra so long as they are held by their initial purchasers or their permitted transferees.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in the second amended and restated certificate of incorporation as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

The second amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. Kaleyra is also subject to anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for Kaleyra’s securities.

Changes in laws or regulations, or a failure to comply with any laws and regulations, may adversely affect the Kaleyra’s business, investments and results of operations.

Kaleyra is subject to laws, regulations and rules enacted by national, regional and local governments. In particular, Kaleyra is required to comply with certain SEC, NYSE American and other legal or regulatory requirements, including the NYSE American upon the transfer of its listing. Compliance with, and monitoring of, applicable laws, regulations and rules may be difficult, time consuming and costly. Those laws, regulations and rules and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra’s business, investments and results of operations. In addition, a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and rules, as interpreted and applied, could have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra’s business and results of operations.

Kaleyra’s structure may be inefficient from the point of view of taxes.

Kaleyra S.p.A. is a controlled foreign corporation of Kaleyra for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This means that a substantial part of the net income, if any, of Kaleyra S.p.A. and its non‑U.S. subsidiaries will be taxable to Kaleyra without regard to whether a dividend is paid to Kaleyra, subject to available foreign tax credits and a special deduction. Moreover, because Kaleyra S.p.A. has a U.S. subsidiary, the resulting structure (sometimes referred to as a “sandwich structure”) would be subject to multiple levels of tax. Generally speaking, it is difficult to simplify a sandwich structure without incurring taxes in one or more jurisdictions.

The post-combination Company may be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the applicable rules of the NYSE American and, as a result, may qualify for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. If Kaleyra relies on these exemptions, its stockholders will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.

Upon the closing of the Business Combination, the sellers of Kaleyra S.p.A. controlled a majority of the voting power of the post-combination Company’s outstanding common stock, and Kaleyra may then be a “controlled company” within the meaning of applicable rules of the NYSE American upon the closing of the Business Combination. Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements:

 

that a majority of the Board consists of independent directors;

 

for an annual performance evaluation of the nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees;

41


 

 

that the controlled company has a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

that the controlled company has a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibility.

If available, Kaleyra may use these exemptions now or in the future. As a result, Kaleyra’s stockholders may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NYSE American corporate governance requirements.

Any of the foregoing could have an adverse impact on our operations following the Business Combination.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Kaleyra leases 14 properties, with its headquarters in Milan, Italy. Kaleyra maintains a global footprint with additional leased facilities located in Vienna, Virginia; New York, New York; Palo Alto, California, Bengaluru, India; Chennai, India; Cochin, India; Delhi, India; Hyderabad, India; Kolkata, India; Mumbai, India; Singapore; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Manno, Switzerland. Kaleyra believes that its current facilities are adequate to meet its ongoing needs and that, if it requires adjusted or additional space, it will be able to obtain additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms, or further consolidate facilities. Going forward, Kaleyra will continue to assess its facilities requirements and make appropriate adjustments as needed and dictated by the business.

Kaleyra’s operations 31 data centers, including cloud platforms operated by Amazon Web Services, and Kaleyra maintains private clouds on behalf of its customers. The Kaleyra private cloud devices are custom-built hardware running the Kaleyra platform and, thus, can be deployed virtually anywhere. Kaleyra currently runs these private cloud devices out of its headquarters in Milan, Italy.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

From time to time Kaleyra may be involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of its operations in the normal course of business. Kaleyra is not currently involved in any material legal proceedings as a defendant.

On October 17, 2018, Kaleyra filed a claim against Vodafone Italia S.p.A. (“Vodafone”) before the Court of Milan seeking compensation in the amount of 6.1 million euro for all the damages suffered as a consequence of the illicit and anticompetitive conduct of Vodafone, as previously determined by the Italian Antitrust Authority (namely, Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato or AGCM) in their decisions issued on December 13, 2017; Vodafone has appealed that sanctioning resolution before the Italian Regional Administrative Court.

The deadline for filing a counterclaim by Vodafone has passed and according to Italian Law, Vodafone is no longer entitled to file a counterclaim against Kaleyra in these proceedings.

The case has now been submitted to a panel of judges for review to determine if the claim can proceed in the Court of Milan or a suspension must be declared until the administrative proceeding is decided.

The claim is under review and both Kaleyra and Vodafone have filed their final pleadings on October 1, 2019 and October 21, 2019. There is no certainty that the claim will be approved to proceed in the Court of Milan, rather than suspended, and the outcome of such action cannot be determined at this time. Therefore no recognition of these actions has been made in the consolidated financial statements.

On April 16, 2019, Kaleyra filed a claim against Telecom Italia S.p.A and Telecom Italia Sparkle S.p.A. before the Court of Milan seeking compensation in the amount of 8.3 million euro for damages suffered after the illicit conduct of both counterparts, determined by the Italian Antitrust Authority in the decision issued on December 13, 2017.

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At the first hearing before the Court of Milan held for the appearance of the parties on December 11, 2019, the judge reserved the decision on the possible suspension of the civil case in consideration of the appeal brought by Telecom Italia S.p.A and Telecom Italia Sparkle S.p.A. against the Italian Antitrust Authority’s decision of December 13, 2017 before the Administrative Court of Latium (namely, Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale del Lazio), which is currently pending.

By order issued on December 14, 2019, the judge released his reserve and referred the issue concerning the relation between the assessment of the pending administrative case and the one to be carried out in the civil case to a panel composed of three judges.

The case was therefore adjourned for a hearing on April 29, 2020 where the parties will have to file their final pleadings.

There is no certainty that the claim will be approved to proceed in the Court of Milan, rather than suspended, and the outcome of such civil action cannot be determined at this time. Therefore no recognition of these actions has been made in the consolidated financial statements.

In addition to the above, Kaleyra has appealed the resolutions issued by the Italian Communications Authority (namely, Autorità per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni or AGCom) concerning the request for the annual contribution to AGCom for years 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019.

The first instance proceeding against AGCom’s resolutions for the 2016 contribution was successful for Kaleyra and the Regional Administrative Court annulled the resolutions Kaleyra had appealed (judgement no. 2161/2019). However, AGCom filed its second instance appeal before the Council of State seeking the overruling of the Court’s decision. The hearing on AGCom’s appeal will take place in the last quarter of 2020.

All the other proceedings are currently pending before the Regional Administrative Court and no hearing has been scheduled yet.

The abovementioned proceedings concerning the contribution/fee to be paid to AGCom may all be suspended until the request for a preliminary ruling from the Council of State regarding an interpretation of the relevant EU law (case C-399/19) will be defined by the European Court of Justice.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

None.

 

43


 

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

(a) Market Information

Kaleyra’s common stock and warrants began trading on the NYSE American under the symbols “KLR” and “KLR WS”, on November 26, 2019 and December 2, 2019, respectively, subject to ongoing review of Kaleyra’s satisfaction of all listing criteria post-Business Combination.

(b) Holders

As of December 31, 2019, there were thirty-six holders of record of our common stock and five holders of record of our warrants.  

(c) Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on our shares of common stock to date and do not intend to pay cash dividends. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition subsequent to completion of a business combination. The payment of any dividends subsequent to a business combination will be within the discretion of our then Board . It is the present intention of our Board to retain all earnings, if any, for use in our business operations and, accordingly, our Board does not anticipate declaring any dividends in the foreseeable future.

(d) Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table reflects information for our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan as of December 31, 2019.

 

 

 

(a)

 

 

(b)

 

 

(c)

 

Plan Category

 

Number of

securities to be

issued upon

exercise

of outstanding

options and

Restricted Stock

Units

 

 

Weighted-

average

exercise price of

outstanding

options,

warrants,

and rights

 

 

Number of

securities

remaining

available

for future

issuance

under equity

compensation

plan (excluding

securities

reflected in

column(a))

 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders*

 

 

3,336,095

 

 

$

0.00

 

 

 

678,964

 

 

*

The terms of our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan provide for an annual increase in the number of shares of our common stock authorized under the plan, effective as of the first day of each subsequent fiscal year, pursuant to the terms and conditions underlined in the plan. On January 1, 2020, the number of additional shares available for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan was automatically increased by 998,855 shares.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following selected financial data are qualified in their entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information contained in the consolidated financial statements, the notes thereto and the information set forth in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

 

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Revenue

 

$

129,558

 

 

$

77,845

 

Cost of revenue

 

 

103,205

 

 

 

62,425

 

Gross profit

 

 

26,353

 

 

 

15,420

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

5,310

 

 

 

3,368

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

6,031

 

 

 

6,313

 

General and administrative

 

 

17,431

 

 

 

11,359

 

Loss on equity investments

 

 

 

 

 

(95

)

Total operating expenses

 

 

28,772

 

 

 

20,945

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(2,419

)

 

 

(5,525

)

Other income, net

 

 

136

 

 

 

297

 

Financial expense, net

 

 

(439

)

 

 

(416

)

Foreign currency loss

 

 

(517

)

 

 

(32

)

Loss before income tax expense

 

 

(3,239

)

 

 

(5,676

)

Income tax expense

 

 

2,273

 

 

 

1,424

 

Net loss

 

$

(5,512

)

 

$

(7,100

)

Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests

 

 

 

 

 

(2

)

Net loss attributable to the owners of the parent

 

 

(5,512

)

 

 

(7,098

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(5,512

)

 

$

(7,100

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.48

)

 

$

(0.72

)

Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

 

11,603,381

 

 

 

9,828,411

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

16,103

 

 

$

8,207

 

Restricted cash

 

 

20,894

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

 

117,404

 

 

 

77,133

 

Debt for forward share purchase agreements

 

 

34,059

 

 

 

 

Bank and other borrowings, current and noncurrent portion

 

 

27,377

 

 

 

13,811

 

Notes payable, current and noncurrent portion

 

 

18,630

 

 

 

 

Total liabilities

 

 

156,178

 

 

 

72,207

 

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

(38,774

)

 

 

4,926

 

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following management’s discussion and analysis in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements of Kaleyra as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for the years there ended and the related notes. The discussion below includes forward-looking statements about Kaleyra’s business, operations and industry that are based on current expectations that are subject to uncertainties and unknown or changed circumstances. Kaleyra’s actual results may differ materially from these expectations as a result of many factors, including those risks and uncertainties described in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements.”

OVERVIEW

On November 25, 2019, the Company (f/k/a GigCapital, Inc.) completed the acquisition of Kaleyra S.p.A., pursuant to the terms of a Stock Purchase Agreement (the “Business Combination”). In connection with the Closing, the Company changed its name from GigCapital, Inc. to Kaleyra, Inc. GigCapital Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on October 9, 2017 for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. Kaleyra S.p.A. is a cloud communications software provider delivering secure Application Protocol Interfaces (“APIs”) and connectivity solutions in the API/Communication Platform as a Service or CPaaS market, headquartered in Milan, Italy and with operations in Italy, India, Dubai and the United States.

Kaleyra S.p.A. is a result of the expansion of the former Ubiquity, which was founded in Milan, Italy in 1999.

After securing a leading market position in mobile messaging in the Italian financial services industry, Kaleyra S.p.A. sought to expand its products and geographic offerings. Ubiquity acquired Solutions Infini in Bangalore, India beginning in 2017 and Buc Mobile in Vienna, Virginia in 2018. It was rebranded Kaleyra S.p.A. in February 2018.

Kaleyra provides its customers and business partners with a trusted cloud communications platform (the “Platform”) that seamlessly integrates software services and applications for business-to-consumer communications between Kaleyra’s customers and their end-user customers and partners on a global basis. These communications are increasingly managed through mobile network operators as the gateway to reach end-user consumers’ mobile devices. Kaleyra’s Platform enables these communications by integrating mobile alert notifications and interactive capabilities to reach and engage end user customers. It does so, coupled with a “software as a service” (SaaS) business model, creating what is generally referred to as a “cloud communications platform as a service”, or simply CPaaS. Kaleyra’s solutions include identity authentication, mobile and voice notifications on transactions, and banking services authorizations, most notably via different integrated mobile channels through its Platform.

Kaleyra’s vision is to be the CPaaS provider which best aligns with its customers’ communication requirements, or most trusted provider, in the world. This requires a combination of security, compliance and integration capabilities that protects the integrity and privacy of Kaleyra’s customers’ and business partners’ transactions and includes other key features such as ease of provisioning, reliable network connectivity, high availability for scaling, redundancy, embedded regulatory compliance, configurable monitoring and reporting. Kaleyra believes the percentage of CPaaS customers that will require security, compliance and integration will represent an increasingly larger portion of the market, particularly with the expected exponential growth of transactional-by-nature cloud communications applications, better enabling Kaleyra to set itself apart from its competition.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, Kaleyra processed nearly 27 billion billable messages and 3 billion voice calls. Kaleyra organizes its efforts in four principal offices in New York, New York, Vienna, Virginia, Milan, Italy and Bangalore, India with an employee base of almost 270 employees.

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Kaleyra has more than 3,000 customers and business partners worldwide across industry verticals such as financial services, ecommerce and transportation, with no single customer representing more than 15% of revenues. In 2019 and 2018, Kaleyra had one customer, Telecom Italia S.p.A. which accounted for more than 10% of Kaleyra’s revenues. In 2017, there were four customers — Telecom Italia S.p.A., FastWeb S.p.A., Vodafone Italian S.p.A. and Wind Technologies S.p.A. that accounted for more than 10% on an individual basis of Kaleyra’s revenues. Kaleyra has multiple, large European commercial banks as business partners, with one of these partners, Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A., accounting for more than 10% of Kaleyra’s business volume in 2019 and 2018.

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, 86% of revenues came from customers which have been on the Platform for at least one year. Although Kaleyra continues to expand by introducing new customers to the Platform, the breadth and stability of its existing customers provide it with a solid base of revenue upon which it can continue to innovate and make investment to strengthen its product portfolio, expand its global presence, and in particular into the North America and Asia-Pacific markets with the acquired Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile businesses, recruit world-class talent and target accretive acquisitions to capitalize on its growing market penetration opportunities and value creation.

Kaleyra’s underlying technology used in the Platform is the same across all of its communication services which can generally be described as “omni-channel mobile first interactive notifications via a public or private cloud implementation.” These services include programmable voice/Interactive Voice Response (IVR) configurations, inbound/outbound short message service capabilities, hosted telephone numbers, and other types of IP communications services such as e-mail and WhatsApp®.

Kaleyra’s customers are enterprises which use digital, mobile communications in the conduct of their business. Kaleyra’s Platform enables these communications by integrating mobile alert notifications and interactive capabilities to reach and engage end user customers. Kaleyra enables its customers and business partners to connect enterprise software and applications to mobile network operators by providing a single simple interface by which Kaleyra can undertake as necessary to make upgrades in its service offerings to account for new end-user consumer behavior changes and progress (such as adding WhatsApp integration).

Kaleyra services a broad base of customers throughout the world operating in diverse businesses and regions. Kaleyra’s business is generated by providing data to the telecommunications provider and transmitting message data from its customers or business partners. Kaleyra has a concentration of business within the financial services industry that serves their major European banking end-user customers. With each relationship Kaleyra is the link between the financial institutions and their unique, end-user customers. In linking these two parties, Kaleyra’s Platform leverages the telecommunications provider to transmit critical message data to these end-user customers.

For the years 2019 and 2018, all of Kaleyra’s revenue was derived from its messaging products in the CPaaS market. The acquisitions of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile, completed in June and July 2018, respectively, significantly affected comparability of Kaleyra’s results of operations and metrics in both periods. Please see the section below titled “Factors Affecting Comparability of Results” for further information regarding these acquisitions.

Kaleyra’s revenue is primarily driven by the number of messages delivered to its customers and business partners. Kaleyra’s fees vary depending on the contract. In 2019, the number of messages delivered to customers increased by 17%, compared to the prior year. Such increase was mainly driven by the consolidation of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile but also by new services delivered to existing customers and business partners as well as to a volume delivered to a new customer.

Kaleyra’s business partners in Italy mainly consist of banks and other credit card issuers that connect to their customers (end-user customers) sending highly secured and reliable messages through Kaleyra’s platform.

Volume increase has been driven by the increased number of digital payments transactions made by the end-user customers (such as credit card transactions and other digital payments) and by the increasing penetration rate of digital payments in the underlying payments markets. Kaleyra is exposed to fluctuations of the currencies in which its transactions are denominated. Specifically, a material portion of Kaleyra’s revenues and purchases are denominated in Euro and Indian Rupees.

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FACTORS AFFECTING COMPARABILITY OF RESULTS

The Business Combination

The Business Combination is accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”). Under this method of accounting, Kaleyra, Inc. will be treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the business combination is treated as the equivalent of Kaleyra S.p.A. issuing stock for the net assets of Kaleyra, Inc., accompanied by a recapitalization.

The net assets of Kaleyra, Inc. are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Reported amounts from operations included herein prior to the Business Combination are those of Kaleyra S.p.A. The shares and earnings per share available to holders of Kaleyra’s common stock, prior to the Business Combination, have been retrospectively adjusted reflecting the exchange ratio established in the Business Combination.

As consideration for the Business Combination, on November 25, 2019 (the “Business Combination Date”), Kaleyra issued, in the aggregate, 10,687,106 shares of common stock to the Sellers.

In addition, as consideration for the Business Combination, on November 25, 2019 Kaleyra issued unsecured convertible promissory notes to each of Esse Effe S.p.A (“Esse Effe”) and Maya Investments Limited (“Maya”) in the amount of $6.0 million and $1.5 million, respectively, and also issued other unsecured promissory notes to each of Esse Effe and Maya in the identical respective amounts. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below.

In connection with the Business Combination, Kaleyra incurred direct and incremental costs of approximately $7.7 million, consisting of legal and professional fees, which are included in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statement of operations in 2019.

Acquisition of Solutions Infini

In June 2018, Kaleyra S.p.A. completed the business combination of Solutions Infini, a technology developer and platform provider for bulk messaging services, headquartered in Bangalore, India (the “Solutions Infini Acquisition”). Before control was achieved in June 2018, the investment in Solutions Infini was accounted for as a joint venture. The acquisition of Solutions Infini added significant value to Kaleyra from a technology, talent and product perspective.

The base purchase price payable as consideration for all of the shares of Solutions Infini was equal to INR 1.0 billion, subject to variations if Solutions Infini reached targeted levels of EBITDA and net Financial Position for the years ended March 31, 2018 and a target level of EBITDA for the year ended March 31, 2019. According to the purchase agreement, Kaleyra was entitled to acquire all the shares of Solutions Infini in different stages and with multiples payments. In particular, based on the terms of the purchase agreement, in 2017 Kaleyra, Inc. paid $8.1 million, in July 2018 paid $6.6 million and in July 2019 paid $5.1 million (including $770,000 originally due in July 2020).

In 2018, costs incurred related to this acquisition of $216,000 were reported as an element of expense in general and administrative expenses.

Acquisition of Buc Mobile

On July 31, 2018, Kaleyra S.p.A. acquired 100% of the outstanding shares of Buc Mobile, a company headquartered in Vienna, Virginia in the United States and incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, operating in the Application to Person (A2P) transactional and promotional messaging business (the “Buc Mobile Acquisition”). The acquisition of Buc Mobile provided an opportunity for Kaleyra S.p.A. to acquire a technology platform designed for high-volume transactions and an experienced U.S. based management team.

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The purchase price for the Buc Mobile Acquisition was an aggregate sum of $6.3 million payable as consideration for all of the shares of Buc Mobile to be paid in cash in three different installments, specifically: $2.3 million was paid on July 31, 2018, $2.0 million was paid on July 31, 2019, and $2.0 million, originally due in July 2020, was paid in advance on July 31, 2019. In addition, Kaleyra, Inc. agreed to issue 3,543 new shares of common stock to the former stockholders of Buc Mobile which were provided to them as additional consideration for the transaction at the date of the business combination. Additionally, as established by the Buc Mobile purchase agreement, a price adjustment of $159,000 determined on the basis of Buc Mobile’s net working capital measured at closing was paid in December 2018.

In 2018, costs related to this acquisition of $870,000 were reported as an element of expense in general and administrative expenses.

Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”)

In December 2019, RSUs were granted to certain employees, directors and advisory board members of Kaleyra for a total of 3,336,095 RSUs shares with an aggregate grant date fair value of $27.5 million, based on a per share grant date fair value of $8.25. In particular:

 

The Board of Directors adopted a form of Restricted Stock Unit award Agreement and agreed to grant to certain employees of Kaleyra or its subsidiaries (i) 931,243 restricted stock units that would vest in one year from the grant date, (ii) 124,723 restricted stock units that would vest upon the final determination, if any, that the Business Combination’s definition of 2019 targeted adjusted EBITDA is achieved, and (iii) 124,718 restricted stock units that would vest upon the final determination, if any, that the Business Combination’s definition of 2020 targeted adjusted EBITDA is achieved.

 

The Board of Directors of Kaleyra agreed to grant to certain employees, directors and advisory board members of Kaleyra a total of 2,020,411 RSUs. These RSUs have no performance conditions and vest as follows: (i) 25% of the shares vests February 1, 2021 and (ii) the remaining 75% vests in equal quarterly installments over a three-year period starting from February 1, 2021.

 

The Board of Directors of Kaleyra and certain advisory board members were granted a total of 135,000 RSUs. These RSUs have no performance conditions and vest 40% on February 1, 2020 with the remaining RSUs vesting ratably over the subsequent three quarters.

RSUs compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $996,000 of which $299,000 is recorded in research and development, $115,000 in sales and marketing, and $582,000 in general and administrative.

As of December 31, 2019, there was $26.5 million of unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested RSUs.

Stock-Based Compensation

In January 2018, Kaleyra S.p.A. adopted a stock-based compensation plan with an original vesting period of three years. In November 2018, the Kaleyra S.p.A. Board of Directors resolved to amend the original terms of this plan, substantially accelerating the vesting of the awarded stock options and granting to the plan’s beneficiaries the right to exercise all of the stock options awarded and not previously exercised, either vested or unvested, regardless of the fulfilment of any performance conditions, provided, in any case, that the beneficiary was employed by Kaleyra or any of its subsidiaries as of the exercise date. As of December 31, 2018, all of the stock options awarded were exercised. The entire stock-based compensation expense associated with this plan amounting to $7.4 million was recognized in the year ended December 31, 2018. The incremental portion of such compensation cost expense resulting from the plan’s modification and subsequent termination was equal to $5.7 million. In November 2019, Kaleyra adopted its 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (the “EIP”). The EIP provides for the award of stock-based compensation, as noted in the Restricted Stock Units section above.

49


 

Key Business Metrics

Revenue

Kaleyra’s revenue is generated primarily from usage-based fees earned from the sale of communication services offered through software solutions to large enterprises, as well as small and medium-sized customers. Revenue can be billed in advance or in arrears depending on the terms of the agreement; for the majority of customers, revenue is invoiced on a monthly basis in arrears.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit

Cost of revenue consists primarily of costs of communications services purchased from network service providers. Cost of revenue also includes the cost of Kaleyra’s cloud infrastructure and technology platform, amortization of capitalized internal-use software development costs related to the platform applications and amortization of developed technology acquired in the business combinations.

Gross profit is equal to the revenue less cost of revenue associated with delivering the communication services to Kaleyra’s customers.

Operating Expenses

Kaleyra’s operating expenses include research and development expense, sales and marketing expense, general and administrative expense, transactions costs and depreciation and amortization, excluding the depreciation and amortization expense related to the technology platform.

Research and Development Expense

Research and development expense consists primarily of personnel costs, the costs of the technology platform used for staging and development, outsourced engineering services, amortization of capitalized internal-use software development costs (other than those related to the technology platform) and an allocation of general overhead expenses. Kaleyra capitalizes the portion of its software development costs that meet the criteria for capitalization.

Sales and Marketing Expense

Sales and marketing expense is comprised of compensation, variable incentive compensation, benefits related to Kaleyra’s sales personnel, along with travel expenses, other employee related costs including stock- based compensation, and expenses related to advertising, marketing programs and events.

General and Administrative Expense

General and administrative expense is comprised of compensation and benefits of administrative personnel, including variable incentive pay and stock-based compensation, and other administrative costs such as facilities expenses, professional fees, and travel expenses.

50


 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 is as follows ($ in thousands):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

Revenue

 

$

129,558

 

 

$

77,845

 

 

$

51,713

 

 

 

66

%

Cost of revenue (1)

 

 

103,205

 

 

 

62,425

 

 

 

40,780

 

 

 

65

%

Gross profit

 

 

26,353

 

 

 

15,420

 

 

 

10,933

 

 

 

71

%

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development (2)

 

 

5,310

 

 

 

3,368

 

 

 

1,942

 

 

 

58

%

Sales and marketing (1)(2)

 

 

6,031

 

 

 

6,313

 

 

 

(282

)

 

 

(4

%)

General and administrative (2)

 

 

17,431

 

 

 

11,359

 

 

 

6,072

 

 

 

53

%

Loss on equity investments (3)

 

 

 

 

 

(95

)

 

 

95

 

 

NM

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

28,772

 

 

 

20,945

 

 

 

7,827

 

 

 

37

%

Loss from operations

 

 

(2,419

)

 

 

(5,525

)

 

 

(3,106

)

 

 

(56

%)

Other income, net

 

 

136

 

 

 

297

 

 

 

(161

)

 

 

(54

%)

Financial expense, net

 

 

(439

)

 

 

(416

)

 

 

(23

)

 

 

(6

%)

Foreign currency loss

 

 

(517

)

 

 

(32

)

 

 

(485

)

 

NM

 

Loss before income tax expense

 

 

(3,239

)

 

 

(5,676

)

 

 

(2,437

)

 

 

(43

%)

Income tax expense

 

 

2,273

 

 

 

1,424

 

 

 

849

 

 

 

60

%

Net loss

 

$

(5,512

)

 

$

(7,100

)

 

$

(1,588

)

 

 

(22

%)

 

NM = Not meaningful

 

 

(1)

For the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the expense includes amortization of acquired intangibles as noted in the table below. For the year ended December 31, 2018, amortization of acquired intangibles is from June 2018 and July 2018 subsequent to the business combinations of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile, respectively (in thousands).

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Cost of revenue

 

$

653

 

 

$

305

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

1,098

 

 

 

546

 

Total

 

$

1,751

 

 

$

851

 

 

 

(2)

Operating expenses include stock-based payments. The expense for 2019 related to RSUs and the expense for 2018 related to stock options are as follows (in thousands).

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Research and development

 

$

299

 

 

$

717

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

115

 

 

 

2,333

 

General and administrative

 

 

582

 

 

 

4,309

 

Total

 

$

996

 

 

$

7,359

 

 

 

(3)

For the year ended December 31, 2018, the loss relates to the joint venture in Solutions Infini. In June 2018, following a change in the governance, Kaleyra S.p.A. achieved control over Solutions Infini and began fully consolidating Solutions Infini’s results of operations.

 

Revenue

In 2019, revenue increased by $51.7 million, or 66%, compared to 2018. This increase was primarily attributable to the consolidations of Solutions Infini occurring in June 2018 and Buc Mobile occurring in July 2018. The increase was also due to an increase in message activity volume, partially offset by a change in the business mix with a shift towards services with lower prices.

51


 

Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit

In 2019, cost of revenue increased by $40.8 million, or 65%, compared to 2018. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily attributable to the effects of the consolidation of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile and to the increase in message activity volume mentioned above. In 2019, gross profit increased by 71% compared to 2018 mainly as a result of the introduction of new voice products with higher profitability.

Operating Expenses

In 2019, research and development expenses increased by $1.9 million, or 58%, compared to 2018. The increase was primarily attributable to the effects of the consolidation of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile. The increase was also due to an increase in payroll expense related to an increase in headcount in 2019. Research and development expenses included $299,000 and $717,000 for the stock-based compensation in 2019 and 2018, respectively. Excluding such costs, research and development expenses would have increased by $2.4 million or 89%.

In 2019, sales and marketing expenses decreased by $282,000 or 4% compared to 2018. Sales and marketing expenses included $115,000 and $2.3 million for the share-based compensation in 2019 and 2018, respectively. Excluding such costs, sales and marketing expenses expense would have increased by $1.9 million or 49%. Such increase was primarily attributable to the effects of the consolidation of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile.

In 2019, general and administrative expenses increased by $6.1 million, or 53% compared to 2018. General and administrative expenses included: (i) $582,000 and $4.3 million for the stock-based compensation in 2019 and 2018, respectively and (ii) $7.7 million of business transaction expenses in 2019 and $1.1 million of transaction costs in 2018. Excluding such costs general and administrative expenses would have increased by $3.2 million or 53% primarily as a result of the effects of the consolidation of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile and, from November 25, 2019, the consolidation of Kaleyra Inc.

Other Income, Net

In 2019, other income, net decreased by $161,000 or 54%, compared to 2018. Such decrease is mainly attributable to the fact that in 2018 this item included certain government incentives received by Kaleyra in connection with research and development activities which were not received in 2019.

Financial Expense, Net

In 2019, financial expense, net increased by $23,000 or 6%, compared to 2018. Such increase is attributable to an increase in financial expenses in 2019 compared to 2018, partially offset by an increase in financial income. Financial expenses increased by $525,000 or 90% in 2019 compared to 2018, mainly due to Kaleyra’s higher average borrowings and higher interest expense accrued on the preference share obligations, compared to prior year. Financial income increased by $502,000 in 2019 compared to 2018, primarily due to higher gains on derivatives and higher income on marketable securities recorded in 2019.

Foreign Currency Loss

In 2019, foreign currency loss increased by $485,000, compared to 2018. Such change was mainly attributable to the effects of the fluctuation of the Indian Rupee and Euro against the U.S. dollar.

Income Tax Expense

In 2019, income tax expense increased by $849,000, or 60%, compared to 2018. As a percentage of loss before income taxes in 2019, income tax expense increased by 45 percentage points, principally due to higher costs not deductible for tax purposes in 2018 due mainly to stock-based compensation expense being not deductible under Italian Tax Regulation.

52


 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

As of December 31, 2019, Kaleyra had $16.1 million of cash, $5.1 million of short-term marketable securities and $20.9 million of restricted cash ($8.2 million, $3.2 million and zero as of December 31, 2018, respectively). Of the $21.2 million in cash and short-term marketable securities, $14.4 million was held in Italy and $6.5 million was held in India. Restricted cash is held in the Unites States and consists of cash deposited into savings or escrow accounts with two financial institutions as collateral for Kaleyra’s respective obligations under each of the Forward Share Purchase Agreements with Glazer Capital and Yakira Capital Management, Inc.

Management currently plans to retain the cash in the jurisdictions where these funds are currently held. Kaleyra believes its cash, cash flows from operations and availability of borrowings will be sufficient to support its planned operations for at least the next 12 months.

Kaleyra finances its operations through a combination of cash generated from operations and from borrowings under Kaleyra bank facilities primarily with banks located in Italy. Kaleyra’s long-term cash needs primarily include meeting debt service requirements, working capital requirements and capital expenditures.

Kaleyra may also pursue strategic acquisition opportunities that may impact its future cash requirements. There are a number of factors that may negatively impact its available sources of funds in the future including the ability to generate cash from operations, obtain additional financing or refinance existing short-term debt obligations, including those related to acquisitions completed in prior periods and including the obligation related to the forward share purchase agreements in case the third-parties involved exercise their put options. The amount of cash generated from operations is dependent upon factors such as the successful execution of Kaleyra’s business strategies and worldwide economic conditions. The amount of debt available under future financings is dependent on Kaleyra’s ability to maintain adequate cash flow for debt service and sufficient collateral, and general financial conditions in Kaleyra’s market.

Kaleyra may opportunistically raise debt capital, subject to market and other conditions, to refinance its existing capital structure at a lower cost of capital and extend the maturity period of certain debt. Additionally, Kaleyra may also raise debt capital for strategic opportunities which may include acquisitions of additional companies, and general corporate purposes. If additional financing is required from outside sources, Kaleyra may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to it or at all. If Kaleyra is unable to raise additional capital when desired, Kaleyra’s business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Kaleyra has a number of long-standing business and banking relationships with major Italian commercial banks where it maintains both cash accounts and a credit relationship. Historically, Kaleyra has used cash generated from operations to fund its growth and investment opportunities. As Kaleyra’s management made the decision to expand its operations outside of Italy and acquired additional companies, it took on certain additional financing in order to fund cash payments due on the acquisitions. As of December 31, 2019, Kaleyra’s total bank and other borrowings, including amounts drawn under the revolving credit line facilities was $27.4 million, ($13.8 million as of December 31, 2018).

Kaleyra has credit line facilities of $5.6 million as of December 31, 2019, of which $3.7 million has been used. As of December 31, 2018, Kaleyra had credit line facilities of $4.6 million, of which $1.6 million had been used. Amounts drawn under the credit line facilities are collateralized by specific customer trade receivables and funds available under the line are limited based on eligible receivables.

Notes Payable to the Sellers

As mentioned above, at the Closing of the Business Combination, Kaleyra issued unsecured convertible promissory notes to each of Esse Effe and Maya in the amount of $6.0 million and $1.5 million, respectively, and also issued other unsecured promissory notes to each of Esse Effe and Maya in the identical respective amounts (the “Notes payable to the Sellers”). Interest on the Notes Payable to the Sellers will accrue at a fixed interest rate equal to the one-year U.S. dollar LIBOR interest rate published in The Wall Street Journal on the date of the Business Combination, plus a margin of one percent (1%) per annum.

53


 

Notes Payable to the Founders

Prior to the closing of the Business Combination, the Company had issued to several of its stockholders or their affiliates (collectively, the “Founders”) various promissory notes that were due to be paid in full upon the closing of the Business Combination (such notes referred to collectively as either the “Extension Notes” or the “Working Capital Notes”). In conjunction with the completion of the Business Combination, the Company and each of GigAcquisitions, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and an affiliate of the Sponsor, GigFounders, LLC, agreed  to amend and restate the Extension Notes and Working Capital Notes held by them to provide that in lieu of repaying such promissory notes in full upon the closing of the Business Combination, the outstanding principal balance of such amended and restated notes (the “Amended Extension Notes” and the “Amended Working Capital Notes”), plus all accrued and unpaid interest (as described below) and fees due under the Amended Extension Notes and Amended Working Capital Notes, shall, upon the receipt by the Company, whether in a debt or equity financing event by the Company (which may include the receipt of cash from third parties with which the Company has subsequent to year end entered into forward share purchase agreements), of cash proceeds in an amount not less than $11.5 million (the “Financing Proceeds”), be due and payable no later than ten business days after the Company receives the Financing Proceeds. Interest on the Amended Extension Notes and Amended Working Capital Notes will accrue at a fixed interest rate equal to the one-year U.S. dollar LIBOR interest rate published in The Wall Street Journal on the closing of the Business Combination, which is one and ninety-one hundredths percent (1.91%), plus a margin of one percent (1%) per annum. All interest shall be computed on the basis of a 365-day year and the actual number of days elapsed. None of the Amended Extension Notes or Amended Working Capital Notes will be convertible into securities of the Company. Subsequently, all of the holders of Extension Notes and Working Capital Notes similarly agreed to amend and restate these notes to exchange them into Amended Extension Notes and Amended Working Capital Notes, although one holder did so after December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2019, the outstanding amount of the notes payable for these notes amounted to $3.6 million of which $1.9 million is due to related parties.

Forward Share Purchase Agreements obligations

In 2019, Kaleyra entered into certain Forward Share Purchase Agreements or similar arrangements with third parties including: Greenhaven Road Capital Fund 1, LP, Greenhaven Road Capital Fund 2, LP (together, “Greenhaven”); Yakira Capital Management, Inc. (“Yakira”), Kepos Alpha Fund L.P, (“KAF”), Glazer Capital, LLC (“Glazer”) and Nomura Global Financial Products, Inc. (“NGFP”). In connection with such Forward Share Purchase Agreements or similar arrangements, Kaleyra assumed the obligations to repurchase its own shares at a fixed price subject to certain condition described in the agreements. See Note 10 of the consolidated financial statements for a description of the Forward Share Purchase Agreements.  As of December 31, 2019, Kaleyra’s debt for Forward Share Purchase Agreements amounted to $34.1 million. As mentioned above, as of December 31, 2019 the Company had restricted cash as collateral for its obligations under the Forward Share Purchase Agreements with Glazer Capital and Yakira of $20.9 million. Kaleyra had also prepaid $17.0 million for its potential forward repurchase of shares from NGFP, but would owe, in the event of a forward repurchase, an amount equal to (x) $10.5019, (y) the applicable Accrual Percentage (as defined below), and (z) the number of shares being repurchased from NGFP. The “Accrual Percentage” is the product of (a) with respect to any settlement occurring on or before November 25, 2020, 2.75% per annum, and with respect to any settlement occurring after that date but no later than November 25, 2021, 3.50% per annum, and (b) the number of actual days divided by the number of days in a year beginning on the date of the closing of the Business Combination and ending on the applicable day of the settlement.

On December 13, 2019, Kaleyra entered into amendments to the Greenhaven Forward Share Purchase Agreement, the KAF Forward Share Purchase Agreement and the Glazer Forward Share Purchase Agreement to provide that Greenhaven, KAF and Glazer may sell their respective shares in the open market, at their sole discretion, as long as the sales price is above $8.50 per share and sales are made in blocks of at least 25,000 shares (which block amount was later removed by agreement with Kaleyra), and that Kaleyra would pay them the difference between the sales price and amounts specified in the amendments. Subsequent to December 31, 2019, Kaleyra had entered into a further amendment to the Greenhaven Forward Share Purchase Agreement (the “Greenhaven Amendment”). The Greenhaven Amendment provides that Greenhaven has the right to put its 700,000 shares that it currently owns to Kaleyra on August 30, 2020 at $11.70 per share (and to also put additional shares to Kaleyra on February 21, 2020, which put occurred). Greenhaven may continue to sell its shares in the open market, at its sole discretion, as long as the sales price is above $8.50 per share. On August 30, 2020, Kaleyra shall also pay Greenhaven an amount equal to (1) the number of shares sold by Greenhaven in the open market between February 21, 2020 and August 30, 2020 multiplied by (2) the amount by which $11.70 exceeds the sale price per Share. In

54


 

addition, Kaleyra on February 21, 2020, paid Greenhaven $2.6 million for the shares previously owned by Greenhaven

Subsequent to December 31, 2019, Kaleyra also entered into amendments to the KAF Forward Share Purchase Agreement (the “KAF Amendments”). The KAF Amendments provide that KAF has the right to put its 139,813 shares that it currently owns to Kaleyra on May 7, 2020 at a purchase price of: (i) $10.92 per share for the first 46,137 shares sold to Kaleyra; and (ii) $10.82 per share for the next 93,676 shares sold to Kaleyra (collectively, the “KAF Share Purchase Price”). In the event the closing occurs after May 7, 2020, the KAF Share Purchase Price shall increase for the 93,676 shares sold to Kaleyra by 1% per full month until the closing date. KAF may elect, in its sole and absolute discretion, to extend the date on which it exercises its put right to a date that is provided upon 10 calendar days’ written notice. The KAF Amendments further provide that KAF may sell its shares in the open market, at its sole discretion, as long as the sales price is above $7.00 per share. In the event that KAF sells any shares at a sale price of less than $10.92 per share for the first 46,137 Shares and $10.82 per share for the next 93,676 Shares, Kaleyra shall pay KAF an amount equal to (A) the number of shares sold multiplied by (B) the amount by which $10.92 or $10.82, as applicable, exceeds the sale price per share. Should Kaleyra fail to make this payment, Kaleyra shall, without prejudice or limitation to any other remedies available to KAF in law or equity, pay a penalty on such amount due at the rate of 18% per annum from the due date until the date of payment in full.

Also subsequent to December 31, 2019, Kaleyra, with regard to 43,930 shares held by Yakira, entered into an amendment to the Yakira Forward Share Purchase Agreement (the “Yakira Amendment”). The Forward Share Purchase Agreement with Yakira, as amended by the Yakira Amendment, provides that Kaleyra may be obligated to purchase some or all of the 43,930 shares if Yakira exercises an option to sell such shares to Kaleyra at a purchase price of $10.93 per share (which is an increase from $10.50 per share) as soon as practicable on or after the six month anniversary of the Business Combination Date.

 

 

55


 

Long-term financial obligations

Long-term financial obligations, excluding Forward Share Purchase Agreements and similar arrangement obligations, the Notes Payable to the Sellers, the Notes Payable to the Founders, and credit line facilities, consisted of the following ($ in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest Nominal Rate

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

Maturity

 

Interest Contractual Rate

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

UniCredit S.p.A. (Line A Tranche (1)

 

$

3,609

 

 

$

5,038

 

 

January 2023

 

Euribor 3 months + 3.10%

 

 

 

2.80

%

 

 

2.80

%

UniCredit S.p.A. (Line A Tranche (2)

 

 

167

 

 

 

228

 

 

May 2023

 

Euribor 3 months + 3.10%

 

 

 

2.80

%

 

 

2.80

%

UniCredit S.p.A. (Line B)

 

 

3,229

 

 

 

3,770

 

 

November 2023

 

Euribor 3 months + 2.90%

 

 

 

2.60

%

 

 

2.60

%

UniCredit S.p.A. (Line C)

 

 

2,787

 

 

 

 

 

February 2023

 

Euribor 3 months + 3.90%

 

 

 

3.53

%

 

 

 

Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A. (Line 1)

 

 

988

 

 

 

1,572

 

 

October 2021

 

Euribor 3 months + 1.80%

 

 

 

1.88

%

 

 

1.51

%

Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A. (Line 2)

 

 

4,183

 

 

 

 

 

October 2023

 

Euribor 3 months + 2.60%

 

 

 

2.60

%

 

 

 

UBI Banca S.p.A. (Line 1)

 

 

332

 

 

 

625

 

 

February 2021

 

 

1.25

%

 

 

1.25

%

 

 

1.25

%

UBI Banca S.p.A. (Line 2)

 

 

1,499

 

 

 

 

 

April 2021

 

Euribor 3 months +1.95%

 

 

 

1.55

%

 

 

 

Monte dei Paschi di Siena S.p.A.

 

 

521

 

 

 

 

 

April 2022

 

 

0.95

%

 

 

0.95

%

 

 

 

Banco Popolare di Milano S.p.A. (Line 1)

 

 

1,336

 

 

 

 

 

June 2023

 

Euribor 3 months + 2.00%

 

 

 

2.00

%

 

 

 

Banco Popolare di Milano S.p.A. (Line 2)

 

 

3,893

 

 

 

 

 

September 2022

 

Euribor 3 months + 2.00%

 

 

 

2.00

%

 

 

 

Simest 1

 

 

280

 

 

 

382

 

 

December 2022

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

0.50

%

Simest 2

 

 

279

 

 

 

379

 

 

December 2022

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

0.50

%

Simest 3

 

 

512

 

 

 

 

 

December 2022

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

 

Finlombarda S.p.A.

 

 

83

 

 

 

169

 

 

December 2020

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

0.50

%

 

 

0.50

%

Total bank and other borrowings

 

 

23,698

 

 

 

12,163

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Less: current portion

 

 

7,564

 

 

 

3,038

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total long-term portion

 

$

16,134

 

 

$