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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2019
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 001-38342
INDUSTRIAL LOGISTICS PROPERTIES TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Maryland
82-2809631
(State of Organization)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
 
Two Newton Place, 255 Washington Street, Suite 300, Newton, Massachusetts 02458-1634
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: 617-219-1460
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title Of Each Class
Trading Symbol
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest
ILPT
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No 
The aggregate market value of the voting common shares of beneficial interest, $.01 par value, or common shares, of the registrant held by non-affiliates was $1.3 billion based on the $20.82 closing price per common share on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC on June 28, 2019. For purposes of this calculation, an aggregate of 844,704 common shares held directly by, or by affiliates of, the trustees and the executive officers of the registrant have been included in the number of common shares held by affiliates.
Number of the registrant’s common shares outstanding as of February 19, 2020: 65,180,208.
References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the Company, ILPT, we, us or our mean Industrial Logistics Properties Trust and its consolidated subsidiaries unless otherwise expressly stated or the context indicates otherwise.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain information required by Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.





Warning Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other securities laws. Also, whenever we use words such as “believe”, “expect”, “anticipate”, “intend”, “plan”, “estimate”, “will”, “may” and negatives or derivatives of these or similar expressions, we are making forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based upon our present intent, beliefs or expectations, but forward-looking statements are not guaranteed to occur and may not occur. Forward-looking statements in this report relate to various aspects of our business, including:
The likelihood that our tenants will pay rent or be negatively affected by cyclical economic conditions,
The likelihood that our tenants will renew or extend their leases or that we will be able to obtain replacement tenants,
Our acquisitions of properties,
Our ability to compete for acquisitions and tenancies effectively,
The likelihood that our rents will increase when we renew or extend our leases, when we enter new leases, or when our rents reset at our properties in Hawaii,
Our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders and to sustain the amount of such distributions,
The future availability of borrowings under our revolving credit facility,
Our policies and plans regarding investments, financings and dispositions,
Our ability to raise debt or equity capital,
Our ability to pay interest on and principal of our debt,
Our ability to appropriately balance our use of debt and equity capital,
Our ability to enter into real estate joint ventures or to attract co-venturers and our ability to manage successfully and benefit from any real estate joint ventures we may enter into,
Changes in the security of cash flows from our properties,
Our tenants' ability and willingness to pay their rent obligations to us,
Our ability to successfully and profitably complete expansion and renovation projects at our properties and to realize our expected returns on those projects,
Our expectation that we benefit from our relationships with The RMR Group Inc., or RMR Inc.,
Our qualification for taxation as a real estate investment trust, or REIT,
Changes in federal or state tax laws,
The credit qualities of our tenants,
Changes in environmental laws or in their interpretations or enforcement as a result of climate change or otherwise, or our incurring environmental remediation costs or other liabilities,
Our sales of properties, and
Other matters.

(i)


Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by our forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. Risks, uncertainties and other factors that could have a material adverse effect on our forward-looking statements and upon our business, results of operations, financial condition, funds from operations, or FFO, normalized funds from operations, or Normalized FFO, net operating income, or NOI, cash flows, liquidity and prospects include, but are not limited to:
The impact of conditions in the economy and the capital markets on us and our tenants,
Competition within the real estate industry, particularly for industrial and logistics properties in those markets in which our properties are located,
Compliance with, and changes to, federal, state and local laws and regulations, accounting rules, tax laws and similar matters,
Limitations imposed on our business and our ability to satisfy complex rules in order for us to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes,
Actual and potential conflicts of interest with our related parties, including our managing trustees, The RMR Group LLC, or RMR LLC, RMR Inc. and others affiliated with them, and
Acts of terrorism, outbreaks of so called pandemics or other manmade or natural disasters beyond our control.
For example:
Our ability to make future distributions to our shareholders and to make payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness depends upon a number of factors, including our future earnings, the capital costs we incur to lease our properties and our working capital requirements. We may be unable to pay our debt obligations or to increase or maintain our current rate of distributions on our common shares and future distributions may be reduced or eliminated,
Our leasing activity and our recent acquisitions may fail to achieve the expected increases in future cash flows and enhancements in our ability to increase our distributions to shareholders in the future. Even if we realize increased cash flows and enhancements in our ability to increase our distributions to shareholders, we may elect to utilize that cash for purpose other than increasing our distributions to shareholders. Our distributions are set from time to time by our Board of Trustees. FFO and Normalized FFO are among the factors considered by our Board of Trustees when determining the amount of distributions to our shareholders. Other factors include, but are not limited to, requirements to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT, limitations in our credit agreement, the availability to us of debt and equity capital, our distribution rate as a percentage of the trading price of our common shares, or dividend yield, and our dividend yield compared to the dividend yields of other industrial REITs, our expectation of our future capital requirements and operating performance and our expected needs for and availability of cash to pay our obligations. Accordingly, for these and other reasons, we may not increase our distributions in the future and our distributions to shareholders may be decreased,
Our ability to grow our business and increase our distributions depends in large part upon our ability to buy properties and lease them for rents, less their property operating costs, that exceed our capital costs. We may be unable to identify properties that we want to acquire, and we may fail to reach agreement with the sellers and complete the purchases of any properties we do want to acquire. In addition, any properties we may acquire may not provide us with rents less property operating costs that exceed our capital costs or achieve our expected returns,
Contingencies in our acquisition and sale agreements may not be satisfied and any expected acquisitions and sales may not occur, may be delayed or the terms of such transactions may change, 
Rents that we can charge at our properties may decline upon rent resets, lease renewals or lease expirations because of changing market conditions or otherwise,
Leasing for some of our properties depends on a single tenant and we may be adversely affected by the bankruptcy, insolvency, a downturn of business or a lease termination of a single tenant at these properties,
Certain of our Hawaii Properties are lands leased for rents that periodically reset based on then current fair market values. Rental income from our properties in Hawaii have generally increased during our and our predecessors’

(ii)


ownership as the leases for those properties have been reset, extended or renewed. Although we expect that rents for our Hawaii Properties will increase in the future, we cannot be sure they will increase. Future rents from these properties could decrease or not increase to the extent they have in the past or by the amount we expect,
Our possible development or redevelopment of certain of our properties may not be realized or be successful,
It is difficult to accurately estimate leasing related obligations and costs of development and tenant improvement costs. Our leasing related obligations, development projects and tenant improvements may cost more and may take longer to complete than we currently expect and we may incur increasing amounts for these and similar purposes in the future,
Economic conditions in areas where our properties are located may decline in the future. Such circumstances or other conditions may reduce demand for leasing industrial space. If the demand for leasing industrial space is reduced, we may be unable to renew leases with our tenants as leases expire or enter new leases at rental rates as high as expiring rents and our financial results may decline,
E-commerce retail sales may not continue to grow and increase the demand for industrial and logistics real estate as we expect,
Increasing development of industrial and logistics properties may reduce the demand for, and rents from, our properties,
We may not achieve or sustain our targeted capitalization rates for properties we acquire and we may incur losses with respect to those acquisitions,
Our belief that there is a likelihood that tenants may renew or extend our leases prior to their expirations whenever they have made significant investments in the leased properties, or because those properties may be of strategic importance to them, may not be realized,
Some of our tenants may not renew expiring leases, and we may be unable to obtain new tenants to maintain or increase the historical occupancy rates of, or rents from, our properties,
The competitive advantages we believe we have may not in fact exist or provide us with the advantages we expect. We may fail to maintain any of these advantages or our competition may obtain or increase their competitive advantages relative to us,
We intend to conduct our business activities in a manner that will afford us reasonable access to capital for investment and financing activities. However, we may not succeed in this regard and we may not have reasonable access to capital,
Continued availability of borrowings under our revolving credit facility is subject to our satisfying certain financial covenants and other credit facility conditions that we may be unable to satisfy,
Actual costs under our revolving credit facility will be higher than LIBOR plus a premium because of fees and expenses associated with such debt,
We may be unable to repay our debt obligations when they become due,
The maximum borrowing availability under our revolving credit facility may be increased to up to $1.5 billion in certain circumstances. However, increasing the maximum borrowing availability under our revolving credit facility is subject to our obtaining additional commitments from lenders, which may not occur,
We have the option to extend the maturity date of our revolving credit facility upon payment of a fee and meeting other conditions. However, the applicable conditions may not be met,
The premiums used to determine the interest rate payable on our revolving credit facility and the unused fee payable on our revolving credit facility are based on our leverage. Changes in our leverage may cause the interest and fees we pay to increase,
We may not reduce our level of indebtedness or maintain any reduction we may effect and increased leverage may restrict our ability to acquire properties and pursue business opportunities,

(iii)


We may spend more for capital expenditures than we currently expect or than we have in the past,
In February 2020, we entered into agreements related to a joint venture with an Asian institutional investor for up to 12 of our properties in mainland United States. The investor will contribute approximately $108.3 million for a 39% equity interest in the joint venture, with the investor initially contributing $82.0 million and the balance to be contributed when the twelfth property is added. However, the addition of the twelfth property may not occur or may be delayed,
We expect to use the net proceeds from the joint venture transaction to reduce outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit facility, which may imply that our leverage will be reduced. However, our revolving credit facility permits us to borrow, repay and reborrow amounts and we may seek to obtain additional debt financing in the future. As a result, our leverage may not be reduced as expected or we may not maintain the reduced leverage achieved as a result of joint venture,
Our existing joint venture and any other joint ventures that we may enter may not be successful,
Our Board of Trustees considers, among other factors, our distribution rate compared to the trading price of our common shares and to the dividend yields of other industrial REITs when setting our distributions to shareholders. This may imply that we will maintain or seek to maintain a specific dividend yield on our common shares. However, the dividend yield is only one of many factors our Board of Trustees considers in its discretion when setting our distributions to shareholders. Further, various market and other factors impact trading prices for our and our competitors’ securities and the corresponding yields on those securities. As a result, the trading prices on our common shares and the yields on our common shares are subject to change and may fluctuate significantly. We do not intend to maintain or to seek to maintain any specific yield on our common shares,
The business and property management agreements between us and RMR LLC have continuing 20 year terms. However, those agreements permit early termination in certain circumstances. Accordingly, we cannot be sure that these agreements will remain in effect for continuing 20 year terms, and
We believe that our relationships with our related parties, including RMR LLC, RMR Inc. and others affiliated with them may benefit us and provide us with competitive advantages in operating and growing our business. However, the advantages we believe we may realize from these relationships may not materialize.
Currently unexpected results could occur due to many different circumstances, some of which are beyond our control, such as acts of terrorism, natural disasters, changes in our tenants’ financial conditions, the market demand for leased space or changes in capital markets or the economy generally.
The information contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including under the caption “Risk Factors”, or incorporated herein or therein, identifies other important factors that could cause differences from our forward-looking statements. Our filings with the SEC are available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
You should not place undue reliance upon our forward-looking statements.
Except as required by law, we do not intend to update or change any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Statement Concerning Limited Liability

The Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust establishing Industrial Logistics Properties Trust, dated January 11, 2018, as filed with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland, provides that no trustee, officer, shareholder, employee or agent of Industrial Logistics Properties Trust shall be held to any personal liability, jointly or severally, for any obligation of, or claim against, Industrial Logistics Properties Trust. All persons dealing with Industrial Logistics Properties Trust in any way shall look only to the assets of Industrial Logistics Properties Trust for the payment of any sum or the performance of any obligation.

(iv)


INDUSTRIAL LOGISTICS PROPERTIES TRUST
2019 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
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PART 1
Item 1. Business
Our Company
We are a real estate investment trust, or REIT, that was organized under Maryland law in 2017. We own and lease industrial and logistics properties throughout the United States. We have qualified for taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2018.
As of December 31, 2019, we owned 300 properties that were approximately 99.3% leased to 270 tenants with a weighted average (by annualized rental revenues) remaining lease term of approximately 9.6 years. These properties consisted of 226 buildings, leasable land parcels and easements with a total of approximately 16.8 million rentable square feet (all square footage amounts included within this Annual Report on Form 10-K are unaudited) that were primarily industrial lands located on the island of Oahu, HI, or our Hawaii Properties, and 74 buildings with a total of approximately 26.1 million rentable square feet that were industrial and logistics properties located in 29 other states, or our Mainland Properties.
As of December 31, 2019, our Hawaii Properties represented 40.9% of our annualized rental revenues and our Mainland Properties represented 59.1% of our annualized rental revenues. We define the term annualized rental revenues as used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as the annualized contractual rents as of December 31, 2019, including straight line rent adjustments and excluding lease value amortization, adjusted for tenant concessions including free rent and amounts reimbursed to tenants, plus estimated recurring expense reimbursements from tenants.
Our principal executive offices are located at Two Newton Place, 255 Washington Street, Suite 300, Newton, Massachusetts 02458-1634, and our telephone number is (617) 219-1460.
Our Business and Growth Strategies
We own and lease industrial and logistics properties located throughout the United States. We believe our current properties provide a stable base of increasing income. We intend to expand our business by acquiring additional industrial and logistics properties in the United States that may benefit from the growth of e-commerce.
Internal Growth through Rent Resets and Leasing Activity, Fixed Increases in Our Leases and Selective Development. Certain of the leases for our Hawaii Properties provide for rents to be reset to fair market value periodically during the lease terms. Since our predecessors began acquiring our Hawaii Properties in December 2003, our Hawaii Properties have remained over 98% leased, and periodic rent resets, together with lease extensions and new leasing activity following lease expirations, at our Hawaii Properties have resulted in significant rent increases. Because of the limited availability of land suitable for industrial uses that might compete with our Hawaii Properties, we believe that our Hawaii Properties offer the potential for rent growth as a result of periodic rent resets, lease extensions and new leasing. In addition to the internal rent growth which may result from our rent resets and lease expirations at our Hawaii Properties, a majority of the leases at our Mainland Properties and certain leases at our Hawaii Properties include periodic set dollar amount or percentage increases that raise the cash rent payable to us.
Since the leases at certain of our Hawaii Properties were originally entered, in some cases, as long as 40 or 50 years ago, the characteristics of the neighborhoods in the vicinity of some of those properties have changed. In such circumstances, we and our predecessors have sometimes engaged in redevelopment activities to change the character of certain properties in order to increase rents. Because our Hawaii Properties are currently experiencing strong demand for their current uses, we do not currently expect redevelopment efforts in Hawaii to become a major activity of ours in the near term; however, we may undertake such activities on a selective basis. Also, we and our predecessors have sometimes built expansions for tenants at our Mainland Properties in return for lease extensions and rent increases, and we expect to continue such activities.
External Growth through Acquisitions. Our external growth strategy is to acquire additional industrial and logistics properties that we believe will produce NOI in excess of our cost of capital used to purchase the properties. We intend to grow our business by investing primarily in industrial and logistics properties that serve the growing needs of e-commerce. We believe that e-commerce sales will continue to grow, in both dollar value and as a percentage of total retail sales, and that this will create strong demand for industrial and logistics properties and rental growth for the next several years. We are focused on acquiring industrial and logistics properties that are of strategic importance to our tenants’ businesses, such as build to suit properties, strategic distribution hubs or other properties in which tenants have invested a significant amount of capital. We target occupied properties, where tenants are financially responsible for all, or substantially all, property operating expenses, including increases with respect thereto. Because there are a limited number of industrial and logistics properties in Hawaii, we expect that most of our acquisitions will be in other states.

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Our Leases
The following is an overview of the general lease terms for our properties. The terms of a particular lease may vary from those described below.
Mainland Properties’ Leases. In general, our Mainland Properties are subject to leases pursuant to which the tenants pay fixed annual rents on a monthly, quarterly or semi-annual basis, and also pay or reimburse us for all, or substantially all, property level operating and maintenance expenses, such as real estate taxes, insurance, utilities and repairs, including increases with respect thereto. Many of our Mainland Properties’ leases require us to maintain the roof, exterior walls, foundation and other structural elements of the buildings at our expense; however, because we believe our Mainland Properties have been well maintained, we do not believe these expenses will be material to us during the remaining lease terms.
Our Mainland Properties are fully leased, but we expect to have opportunities to raise rents or redevelop these properties when these leases start to expire beginning in 2020. Also, some of the tenant renewal options at our Mainland Properties provide for rents to be reset to fair market values, and we may be able to raise rents if and as these options are exercised. We regularly confer with tenants at our Mainland Properties to determine if they are interested in our expanding or otherwise improving their leased properties in return for increased rents and extended terms. For example, in 2018 we negotiated a build to suit expansion of 194,000 square feet for an existing tenant at our Ankeny, IA property that resulted in a lease extension of approximately seven years after completion of the expansion and a rent increase of 2% annually for the extended term.
Hawaii Properties’ Leases. In general, our Hawaii Properties are subject to leases pursuant to which the tenants pay fixed annual rent on a monthly, quarterly or semi-annual basis, and also pay or reimburse us for all, or substantially all, property level operating and maintenance expenses, such as real estate taxes, insurance, utilities and repairs, including increases with respect thereto. Certain of our Hawaii Properties are leased for fixed annual rents that periodically reset based on fair market values and others are subject to leases with fixed increases. In some cases, the resets are based on fair market value rent and in other cases a percentage of the fair market value of the leased land. Fair market value rent reset rates are generally determined through negotiations between us and individual tenants; however, when no agreement is achieved, our Hawaii Properties’ leases require an appraisal process. In the appraisal process for land leases that are periodically reset based on fair market value rents, the appraisers are required to determine the fair and reasonable rent, exclusive of improvements. In the appraisal process for land leases that are periodically reset based on a percentage of the fair market value of the land, the appraisers are required to determine the fair market value of the land, usually exclusive of improvements, with such fair market value being based on the highest and best use of such land and as though unencumbered by the lease, and then the appraisers apply a rent return rate to the land value which may be set in the lease or determined by the appraisers based on market conditions.
Our Investment Policies
Our target investments include all industrial and logistics buildings in top tier markets. Outside of top tier markets, our focus is on newer buildings, high credit quality tenants and longer lease terms. We target estimated capitalization rates of 5% - 7% for new investments. If and as market conditions change, our target investments and target estimated capitalization rates may change.
In evaluating potential property acquisitions, we consider various factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
the location of the property;
the historic and projected rents received and to be received from the property;
our cost of capital compared to projected returns we may realize by owning the property;
the experience and credit quality of the property’s tenants;
the industries in which the tenants operate;
the remaining term of the leases at the property and other lease terms;
the type of property (e.g., distribution facility, light industrial, etc.);
the tax and regulatory circumstances of the market area in which the property is located;
the occupancy and demand for similar properties in the same or nearby locations;

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the construction quality, physical condition and design of the property;
the expected capital expenditures that may be needed at the property;
the price at which the property may be acquired as compared to the estimated replacement cost of the property;
the price at which the property may be acquired as compared to the prices of comparable properties as evidenced by recent market sales;
the strategic fit of the property with the rest of our portfolio; and
the existence of alternative sources, uses or needs for our capital.
Also, we may invest in or enter into real estate joint ventures if we conclude that by doing so we may benefit from the participation of co-venturers or that our opportunity to participate in the investment is contingent on the use of a joint venture structure or to take advantage of property valuation differences among private and public sources of equity capital. For example, in February 2020, we entered agreements related to a joint venture with an Asian institutional investor for up to 12 of our Mainland Properties. Further, we may acquire interests in joint ventures as part of an acquisition of properties or entities.
We have no limitations on the amount or percentage of our total assets that may be invested in any one property and no limits on the concentration of investments in any one location.
Our Board of Trustees may change our acquisition and investment policies at any time without a vote of, or advance notice to, our shareholders. We may in the future adopt policies with respect to investments in real estate mortgages or securities of other entities engaged in real estate activities. We may in the future consider the possibility of entering into mergers, strategic combinations or additional joint ventures with other companies.
Our Disposition Policies
We generally consider ourselves to be a long term owner of our properties. We have no current plans to sell any of our properties, but we may decide to sell some of our properties or a stake in some of our properties in the future. We expect our decision to sell properties or a stake in some of our properties will be based upon the following considerations, among others, which may be relevant to a particular property at a particular time:
whether the property is leased and, if so, the remaining lease term and likelihood of lease renewal;
whether the property’s tenants are current on their lease obligations;
our evaluation of the property’s tenants’ abilities to pay their contractual rents;
our ability to identify new tenants if the property has or is likely to develop vacancies;
our evaluation of future rents which may be achieved from the property;
the potential costs associated with finding replacement tenants, including tenant improvements, leasing commissions and concessions, the cost to operate the property while vacant, and required building improvement capital, if any, all as compared to our projected returns from future rents;
the estimated proceeds we may receive by selling the property;
the strategic fit of the property with the rest of our portfolio;
our intended use of the proceeds we may realize from the sale of a property;
the existence of alternative sources, uses or needs for capital; and
the tax implications to us and our shareholders of any proposed disposition.
Our Board of Trustees may change our disposition policies at any time without a vote of, or notice to, our shareholders.

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Our Financing Policies
To qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the IRC, we generally are required to distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, subject to specified adjustments and excluding any net capital gain. We expect to repay our debts, invest in our properties or fund acquisitions, developments or redevelopments by borrowing under our revolving credit facility, issuing equity or debt securities or using retained cash from operations that may exceed distributions paid. We also expect that our operating and investment activities will be financed by rents from tenants at our properties in excess of planned distributions to our shareholders and by borrowings under our revolving credit facility. As the maximum borrowing under, or the maturity of, our revolving credit facility approaches, we expect to renew that facility or refinance that indebtedness with equity issuances or new debt. We will decide when and whether to issue equity or new debt depending primarily upon our success in operating our business and upon market conditions. Because our ability to raise capital will depend, in large part, upon market conditions, we cannot be sure that we will be able to raise sufficient capital to repay our debts or to fund our growth strategies.
We currently have a $750.0 million unsecured revolving credit facility that we use for working capital and general business purposes, including for acquisition funding on an interim basis until we are able to refinance acquisitions with equity or debt. In addition, in January 2019, we obtained a $650.0 million mortgage loan secured by 186 properties containing 9.6 million rentable square feet located on the island of Oahu, HI. In October 2019, we obtained a $350.0 million mortgage loan secured by 11 of our Mainland Properties containing an aggregate of approximately 8.2 million rentable square feet located in eight states. In April 2019, we assumed a $57.0 million secured mortgage note in connection with one of our acquisitions. For more information regarding our financing sources and activities, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Our Investment and Financing Liquidity and Resources” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We do not have policies limiting the amount of debt we may incur or the number or amount of mortgages that may be placed on our properties. Our Board of Trustees may change our financing policies at any time without a vote of, or notice to, our shareholders.
Structure and Formation of Our Company
On January 17, 2018, we completed an initial public offering and listing on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, or Nasdaq, of 20,000,000 of our common shares, or our IPO. At that time, we owned 266 properties, or our Initial Properties, with a total of approximately 28.5 million rentable square feet (all square footage amounts included within this Annual Report on Form 10-K are unaudited). Our Initial Properties were contributed to us on September 29, 2017 by Select Income REIT, or SIR, a former publicly traded REIT that merged with a wholly owned subsidiary of Office Properties Income Trust (formerly known as Government Properties Income Trust), or OPI, on December 31, 2018. In connection with our formation and the contribution of our Initial Properties, we (i) issued to SIR 45,000,000 of our common shares, (ii) issued to SIR a $750.0 million non-interest bearing demand note, or the SIR Note, and (iii) assumed three mortgage notes totaling $63.1 million, excluding premiums, that were secured by three of our Initial Properties. In December 2017, we obtained a $750.0 million secured revolving credit facility, and we used the proceeds of an initial borrowing under this credit facility to pay the SIR Note in full. Also in December 2017, SIR prepaid on our behalf two of the mortgage notes totaling approximately $14.3 million that had encumbered two of our Initial Properties. Upon the closing of our IPO, our secured revolving credit facility was converted into a four year unsecured revolving credit facility and we used substantially all of the net proceeds from our IPO to reduce amounts outstanding under our revolving credit facility. We also reimbursed SIR for costs that SIR incurred in connection with our formation and the preparation for our IPO. On December 27, 2018, SIR distributed all 45,000,000 of our common shares that SIR owned to SIR's shareholders of record as of the close of business on December 20, 2018.
Environmental Matters
Ownership of real estate is subject to risks associated with environmental matters. When we acquire properties we perform environmental site assessments and where there are concerns we do additional monitoring and periodic assessments. Some of our properties are used or have been used for industrial purposes such that there may be forms of contamination present. We require our tenants to maintain compliance with environmental laws and we also monitor any known conditions and in some cases have set up reserves for potential environmental liabilities. Although we do not believe that there are environmental conditions at any of our properties that will materially and adversely affect us, we cannot be sure that such conditions or costs we may be required to incur in the future to address environmental contamination will not materially and adversely affect us.

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Competition
Investing in and operating real estate is a very competitive business. We compete against publicly traded and private REITs, numerous financial institutions, individuals and public and private companies. Some of our competitors may have greater financial and other resources than us. We believe the experience and abilities of our management and our manager, the quality of our properties, the diversity and credit qualities of our tenants, and the structure of our leases may afford us some competitive advantages and allow us to operate our business successfully despite the competitive nature of our business. For more information, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We face significant competition” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our Manager
RMR Inc. is a holding company and substantially all of its business is conducted by its majority owned subsidiary, RMR LLC. Our Chair of our Board of Trustees and one of our Managing Trustees, Adam D. Portnoy, as the sole trustee of ABP Trust, is the controlling shareholder of RMR Inc. and is a managing director and the president and chief executive officer of RMR Inc. and an officer and employee of RMR LLC. John G. Murray, our other Managing Trustee and our President and Chief Executive Officer, also serves as an officer and employee of RMR LLC. Our day to day operations are conducted by RMR LLC. RMR LLC originates and presents investment and divestment opportunities to our Board of Trustees and provides management and administrative services to us. RMR LLC has a principal place of business at Two Newton Place, 255 Washington Street, Suite 300, Newton, Massachusetts 02458-1634, and its telephone number is (617) 796-8390. RMR LLC or its subsidiaries also act as the manager to Service Properties Trust (formerly known as Hospitality Properties Trust), or SVC, OPI, Diversified Healthcare Trust (formerly known as Senior Housing Properties Trust), or DHC, and Tremont Mortgage Trust, or TRMT, and provides management and other services to other private and public companies, including Five Star Senior Living Inc., or Five Star, TravelCenters of America Inc., or TA, and Sonesta International Hotels Corporation, or Sonesta. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the executive officers of RMR LLC are: Adam Portnoy, President and Chief Executive Officer; David M. Blackman, Executive Vice President; Jennifer B. Clark, Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary; Matthew P. Jordan, Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer; John Murray, Executive Vice President; and Jonathan M. Pertchik, Executive Vice President. Our Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, Richard W. Siedel, Jr., is a Senior Vice President of RMR LLC. Messrs. Murray and Siedel and other officers of RMR LLC also serve as officers of other companies to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide management services.
Employees
We have no employees. Services which would otherwise be provided to us by employees are provided by RMR LLC and by our Managing Trustees and officers. As of December 31, 2019, RMR LLC had more than 600 full time employees in its headquarters and regional offices located throughout the United States.
Insurance
The leases for our properties generally provide that our tenants are responsible for the costs of insurance for the properties we lease to them and the operations conducted on them, including for casualty, liability, fire, extended coverage and rental or business interruption losses. Under the leases for our Hawaii Properties, our tenants generally are responsible for maintaining insurance; and, under the leases for our Mainland Properties, our tenants generally are either required to reimburse us for the costs of maintaining the insurance coverage or to purchase such insurance directly and list us as an insured party. We previously participated with other companies to which RMR LLC provides management services in a combined property insurance program through Affiliates Insurance Company, or AIC. The policies under that program expired on June 30, 2019 and we and the other companies to which RMR LLC provides management services elected not to renew the AIC property insurance program; we instead have purchased standalone property insurance coverage with unrelated third party insurance providers. For more information, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Related Person Transactions" and Note 10 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Other Matters
Legislative and regulatory developments may occur at the federal, state and local levels that have direct or indirect impact on the ownership, leasing and operation of our properties. We may need to make expenditures due to changes in federal, state or local laws and regulations, or the application of these laws and regulations to our properties, including the Americans with Disabilities Act, fire and safety regulations, building codes, land use regulations or environmental regulations for containment, abatement or removal of hazardous substances. Under some of our leases, some of these costs are required to be paid or reimbursed to us by our tenants.

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Internet Website
Our internet website address is www.ilptreit.com. Copies of our governance guidelines, our code of business conduct and ethics, or our Code of Conduct, and the charters of our audit, compensation and nominating and governance committees are posted on our website and also may be obtained free of charge by writing to our Secretary, Industrial Logistics Properties Trust, Two Newton Place, 255 Washington Street, Suite 300, Newton, Massachusetts, 02458-1634. We also have a policy outlining procedures for handling concerns or complaints about accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters and a governance hotline accessible on our website that shareholders can use to report concerns or complaints about accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters or violations or possible violations of our Code of Conduct. We make available, free of charge, through the “Investors” section of our website, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after these forms are filed with, or furnished to the SEC. Any material we file with or furnish to the SEC is also maintained on the SEC website, www.sec.gov. Securityholders may send communications to our Board of Trustees or individual Trustees by writing to the party for whom the communication is intended at c/o Secretary, Industrial Logistics Properties Trust, Two Newton Place, 255 Washington Street, Suite 300, Newton, Massachusetts 02458-1634 or by email at secretary@ilptreit.com. Our website address is included several times in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as a textual reference only. The information on or accessible through our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or other documents we file with, or furnish to, the SEC. We intend to use our website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Those disclosures will be included on our website in the “Investors” section. Accordingly, investors should monitor our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts.
Segment Information
As of December 31, 2019, we had one operating segment: ownership and leasing of properties that include industrial and logistics buildings and leased industrial lands. For more information, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
MATERIAL UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following summary of material United States federal income tax considerations is based on existing law, and is limited to investors who own our shares as investment assets rather than as inventory or as property used in a trade or business. The summary does not discuss all of the particular tax considerations that might be relevant to you if you are subject to special rules under federal income tax law, for example if you are:
a bank, insurance company or other financial institution;
a regulated investment company or REIT;
a subchapter S corporation;
a broker, dealer or trader in securities or foreign currencies;
a person who marks-to-market our shares for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
a U.S. shareholder (as defined below) that has a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar;
a person who acquires or owns our shares in connection with employment or other performance of services;
a person subject to alternative minimum tax;
a person who acquires or owns our shares as part of a straddle, hedging transaction, constructive sale transaction, constructive ownership transaction or conversion transaction, or as part of a “synthetic security” or other integrated financial transaction;
a person who owns 10% or more (by vote or value, directly or constructively under the IRC) of any class of our shares;
a U.S. expatriate;

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a non-U.S. shareholder (as defined below) whose investment in our shares is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States;
a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during an applicable taxable year;
a “qualified shareholder” (as defined in Section 897(k)(3)(A) of the IRC);
a “qualified foreign pension fund” (as defined in Section 897(l)(2) of the IRC) or any entity wholly owned by one or more qualified foreign pension funds;
a person subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of their use of applicable financial statements (within the meaning of Section 451(b)(3) of the IRC); or
except as specifically described in the following summary, a trust, estate, tax-exempt entity or foreign person.
The sections of the IRC that govern the federal income tax qualification and treatment of a REIT and its shareholders are complex. This presentation is a summary of applicable IRC provisions, related rules and regulations, and administrative and judicial interpretations, all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect. Future legislative, judicial or administrative actions or decisions could also affect the accuracy of statements made in this summary. We have not received a ruling from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, with respect to any matter described in this summary, and we cannot be sure that the IRS or a court will agree with all of the statements made in this summary. The IRS could, for example, take a different position from that described in this summary with respect to our acquisitions, operations, valuations, restructurings or other matters, which, if a court agreed, could result in significant tax liabilities for applicable parties. In addition, this summary is not exhaustive of all possible tax considerations, and does not discuss any estate, gift, state, local or foreign tax considerations. For all these reasons, we urge you and any holder of or prospective acquiror of our shares to consult with a tax advisor about the federal income tax and other tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our shares. Our intentions and beliefs described in this summary are based upon our understanding of applicable laws and regulations that are in effect as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If new laws or regulations are enacted which impact us directly or indirectly, we may change our intentions or beliefs.
Your federal income tax consequences generally will differ depending on whether or not you are a “U.S. shareholder.” For purposes of this summary, a “U.S. shareholder” is a beneficial owner of our shares that is:
an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, including an alien individual who is a lawful permanent resident of the United States or meets the substantial presence residency test under the federal income tax laws;
an entity treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes that is created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;
an estate the income of which is subject to federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
a trust if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust, or, to the extent provided in Treasury regulations, a trust in existence on August 20, 1996 that has elected to be treated as a domestic trust;
whose status as a U.S. shareholder is not overridden by an applicable tax treaty. Conversely, a “non-U.S. shareholder” is a beneficial owner of our shares that is not an entity (or other arrangement) treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and is not a U.S. shareholder.
If any entity (or other arrangement) treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes holds our shares, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership generally will depend upon the tax status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Any entity (or other arrangement) treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes that is a holder of our shares and the partners in such a partnership (as determined for federal income tax purposes) are urged to consult their own tax advisors about the federal income tax consequences and other tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our shares.

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Taxation as a REIT
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the IRC, commencing with our 2018 taxable year. Our REIT election, assuming continuing compliance with the then applicable qualification tests, has continued and will continue in effect for subsequent taxable years. Although we cannot be sure, we believe that from and after our 2018 taxable year we have been organized and have operated, and will continue to be organized and to operate, in a manner that qualified us and will continue to qualify us to be taxed as a REIT under the IRC.
As a REIT, we generally are not subject to federal income tax on our net income distributed as dividends to our shareholders. Distributions to our shareholders generally are included in our shareholders’ income as dividends to the extent of our available current or accumulated earnings and profits. Our dividends are not generally entitled to the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income, but a portion of our dividends may be treated as capital gain dividends or as qualified dividend income, all as explained below. In addition, for taxable years beginning before 2026 and pursuant to the deduction-without-outlay mechanism of Section 199A of the IRC, our noncorporate U.S. shareholders are generally eligible for lower effective tax rates on our dividends that are not treated as capital gain dividends or as qualified dividend income. No portion of any of our dividends is eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. Distributions in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits generally are treated for federal income tax purposes as returns of capital to the extent of a recipient shareholder’s basis in our shares, and will reduce this basis. Our current or accumulated earnings and profits are generally allocated first to distributions made on our preferred shares, of which there are none outstanding at this time, and thereafter to distributions made on our common shares. For all these purposes, our distributions include cash distributions, any in kind distributions of property that we might make, and deemed or constructive distributions resulting from capital market activities (such as some redemptions), as described below.
Our counsel, Sullivan & Worcester LLP, is of the opinion that we have been organized and have qualified for taxation as a REIT under the IRC for our 2018 and 2019 taxable years, and that our current and anticipated investments and plan of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the IRC. Our counsel’s opinions are conditioned upon the assumption that our leases, our declaration of trust, and all other legal documents to which we have been or are a party have been and will be complied with by all parties to those documents, upon the accuracy and completeness of the factual matters described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and upon representations made by us to our counsel as to certain factual matters relating to our organization and operations and our expected manner of operation. If this assumption or a description or representation is inaccurate or incomplete, our counsel’s opinions may be adversely affected and may not be relied upon. The opinions of our counsel are based upon the law as it exists today, but the law may change in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations, and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances, neither Sullivan & Worcester LLP nor we can be sure that we will qualify as or be taxed as a REIT for any particular year. Any opinion of Sullivan & Worcester LLP as to our qualification or taxation as a REIT will be expressed as of the date issued. Our counsel will have no obligation to advise us or our shareholders of any subsequent change in the matters stated, represented or assumed, or of any subsequent change in the applicable law. Also, the opinions of our counsel are not binding on either the IRS or a court, and either could take a position different from that expressed by our counsel.
Our continued qualification and taxation as a REIT will depend upon our compliance with various qualification tests imposed under the IRC and summarized below. While we believe that we have satisfied and will satisfy these tests, our counsel does not review compliance with these tests on a continuing basis. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any year, we will be subject to federal income taxation as if we were a corporation taxed under subchapter C of the IRC, or a C corporation, and our shareholders will be taxed like shareholders of regular C corporations, meaning that federal income tax generally will be applied at both the corporate and shareholder levels. In this event, we could be subject to significant tax liabilities, and the amount of cash available for distribution to our shareholders could be reduced or eliminated.
If we continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT and meet the tests described below, we generally will not pay federal income tax on amounts we distribute to our shareholders. However, even if we continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may still be subject to federal tax in the following circumstances, as described below:
We will be taxed at regular corporate income tax rates on any undistributed “real estate investment trust taxable income,” determined by including our undistributed ordinary income and net capital gains, if any.
If we have net income from the disposition of “foreclosure property,” as described in Section 856(e) of the IRC, that is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business or other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be subject to tax on this income at the highest regular corporate income tax rate.

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If we have net income from “prohibited transactions”—that is, dispositions at a gain of inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business other than dispositions of foreclosure property and other than dispositions excepted by statutory safe harbors—we will be subject to tax on this income at a 100% rate.
If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, but nonetheless maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT because of specified cure provisions, we will be subject to tax at a 100% rate on the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, with adjustments, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability for the taxable year.
If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT asset tests described below (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests) due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, but nonetheless maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT because of specified cure provisions, we will be subject to a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest regular corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail the test.
If we fail to satisfy any provision of the IRC that would result in our failure to qualify for taxation as a REIT (other than violations of the REIT gross income tests or violations of the REIT asset tests described below) due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our qualification for taxation as a REIT but will be subject to a penalty of $50,000 for each failure.
If we fail to distribute for any calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our REIT ordinary income for that year, 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for that year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amounts actually distributed.
If we acquire a REIT asset where our adjusted tax basis in the asset is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the asset in the hands of a C corporation, under specified circumstances we may be subject to federal income taxation on all or part of the built-in gain (calculated as of the date the property ceased being owned by the C corporation) on such asset. We generally do not expect to sell assets if doing so would result in the imposition of a material built-in gains tax liability; but if and when we do sell assets that may have associated built-in gains tax exposure, then we expect to make appropriate provision for the associated tax liabilities on our financial statements.
If we acquire a corporation in a transaction where we succeed to its tax attributes, to preserve our qualification for taxation as a REIT we must generally distribute all of the C corporation earnings and profits inherited in that acquisition, if any, no later than the end of our taxable year in which the acquisition occurs. However, if we fail to do so, relief provisions would allow us to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT provided we distribute any subsequently discovered C corporation earnings and profits and pay an interest charge in respect of the period of delayed distribution.
Our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in Section 856(l) of the IRC, or TRSs, generally will be required to pay federal corporate income tax on their earnings, and a 100% tax may be imposed on any transaction between us and one of our TRSs that does not reflect arm’s length terms.
If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any year, then we will be subject to federal income tax in the same manner as a regular C corporation. Further, as a regular C corporation, distributions to our shareholders will not be deductible by us, nor will distributions be required under the IRC. Also, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, all distributions to our shareholders will generally be taxable as ordinary dividends potentially eligible for the preferential tax rates discussed below under the heading “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Shareholders” and, subject to limitations in the IRC, will be potentially eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. Finally, we will generally be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the taxable year in which the termination of our REIT status is effective. Our failure to qualify for taxation as a REIT for even one year could result in us reducing or eliminating distributions to our shareholders, or in us incurring substantial indebtedness or liquidating substantial investments in order to pay the resulting corporate-level income taxes. Relief provisions under the IRC may allow us to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT even if we fail to comply with various REIT requirements, all as discussed in more detail below. However, it is impossible to state whether in any particular circumstance we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions.

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REIT Qualification Requirements
General Requirements. Section 856(a) of the IRC defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
(1)
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;
(3)
that would be taxable, but for Sections 856 through 859 of the IRC, as a domestic C corporation;
(4)
that is not a financial institution or an insurance company subject to special provisions of the IRC;
(5)
the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;
(6)
that is not “closely held,” meaning that during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares are owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the IRC to include specified tax-exempt entities);
(7)
that does not have (and has not succeeded to) the post-December 7, 2015 tax-free spin-off history proscribed by Section 856(c)(8) of the IRC; and
(8)
that meets other tests regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions, all as described below.
Section 856(b) of the IRC provides that conditions (1) through (4) must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Although we cannot be sure, we believe that we have met conditions (1) through (8) during each of the requisite periods ending on or before the close of our most recently completed taxable year, and that we will continue to meet these conditions in our current and future taxable years.
To help comply with condition (6), our declaration of trust restricts transfers of our shares that would otherwise result in concentrated ownership positions. These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will in all cases be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in condition (6). If we comply with applicable Treasury regulations to ascertain the ownership of our outstanding shares and do not know, or by exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, that we failed condition (6), then we will be treated as having met condition (6). Accordingly, we have complied and will continue to comply with these regulations, including by requesting annually from holders of significant percentages of our shares information regarding the ownership of our shares. Under our declaration of trust, our shareholders are required to respond to these requests for information. A shareholder that fails or refuses to comply with the request is required by Treasury regulations to submit a statement with its federal income tax return disclosing its actual ownership of our shares and other information.
For purposes of condition (6), an “individual” generally includes a natural person, a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but does not include a qualified pension plan or profit-sharing trust. As a result, REIT shares owned by an entity that is not an “individual” are considered to be owned by the direct and indirect owners of the entity that are individuals (as so defined), rather than to be owned by the entity itself. Similarly, REIT shares held by a qualified pension plan or profit-sharing trust are treated as held directly by the individual beneficiaries in proportion to their actuarial interests in such plan or trust. Consequently, five or fewer such trusts could own more than 50% of the interests in an entity without jeopardizing that entity’s qualification for taxation as a REIT.
The IRC provides that we will not automatically fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT if we do not meet conditions (1) through (7), provided we can establish that such failure was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. Each such excused failure will result in the imposition of a $50,000 penalty instead of REIT disqualification. This relief provision may apply to a failure of the applicable conditions even if the failure first occurred in a year prior to the taxable year in which the failure was discovered.

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Our Wholly Owned Subsidiaries and Our Investments Through Partnerships. Except in respect of a TRS as discussed below, Section 856(i) of the IRC provides that any corporation, 100% of whose stock is held by a REIT and its disregarded subsidiaries, is a qualified REIT subsidiary and shall not be treated as a separate corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as the REIT’s. We believe that each of our direct and indirect wholly owned subsidiaries, other than the TRSs discussed below (and entities owned in whole or in part by the TRSs), will be either a qualified REIT subsidiary within the meaning of Section 856(i)(2) of the IRC or a noncorporate entity that for federal income tax purposes is not treated as separate from its owner under Treasury regulations issued under Section 7701 of the IRC, each such entity referred to as a QRS. Thus, in applying all of the REIT qualification requirements described in this summary, all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of our QRSs are treated as ours, and our investment in the stock and other securities of such QRSs will be disregarded.
We have invested and may in the future invest in real estate through one or more entities that are treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership, Treasury regulations under the IRC provide that, for purposes of the REIT qualification requirements regarding income and assets described below, the REIT is generally deemed to own its proportionate share, based on respective capital interests, of the income and assets of the partnership (except that for purposes of the 10% value test, described below, the REIT’s proportionate share of the partnership’s assets is based on its proportionate interest in the equity and specified debt securities issued by the partnership). In addition, for these purposes, the character of the assets and items of gross income of the partnership generally remains the same in the hands of the REIT. In contrast, for purposes of the distribution requirements discussed below, we must take into account as a partner our share of the partnership’s income as determined under the general federal income tax rules governing partners and partnerships under Subchapter K of the IRC.
Subsidiary REITs. We indirectly own real estate through a subsidiary that we believe has qualified and will remain qualified for taxation as a REIT under the IRC, and we may in the future invest in real estate through one or more other subsidiary entities that are intended to qualify for taxation as REITs. When a subsidiary qualifies for taxation as a REIT separate and apart from its REIT parent, the subsidiary’s shares are qualifying real estate assets for purposes of the REIT parent’s 75% asset test described below. However, failure of the subsidiary to separately satisfy the various REIT qualification requirements described in this summary or that are otherwise applicable (and failure to qualify for the applicable relief provisions) would generally result in (a) the subsidiary being subject to regular U.S. corporate income tax, as described above, and (b) the REIT parent’s ownership in the subsidiary (i) ceasing to be qualifying real estate assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, (ii) becoming subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test and the 10% value test generally applicable to a REIT’s ownership in corporations other than REITs and TRSs, and (iii) thereby jeopardizing the REIT parent’s own REIT qualification and taxation on account of the subsidiary’s failure cascading up to the REIT parent, all as described below under the heading “—Asset Tests”.
We intend to join with our subsidiary REIT in filing a protective TRS election, effective for the first quarter of 2020, and to reaffirm this protective election with this subsidiary every January thereafter, and we may continue to do so unless and until our ownership of this subsidiary falls below 10%. Pursuant to this protective TRS election, we believe that if our subsidiary is not a REIT for some reason, then it would instead be considered one of our TRSs, and as such its value would fit within our REIT gross asset tests described below. We expect to make similar protective TRS elections with respect to any other subsidiary REIT that we form or acquire. We do not expect protective TRS elections to impact our compliance with the 75% and 95% gross income tests described below, because we do not expect our gains and dividends from a subsidiary REIT’s shares to jeopardize compliance with these tests even if for some reason the subsidiary is not a REIT.
Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. As a REIT, we are permitted to own any or all of the securities of a TRS, provided that no more than 20% of the total value of our assets, at the close of each quarter, is comprised of our investments in the stock or other securities of our TRSs. Very generally, a TRS is a subsidiary corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock and that has made a joint election with its affiliated REIT to be treated as a TRS. Our ownership of stock and other securities in our TRSs is exempt from the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test and the 10% value test discussed below.
In addition, any corporation (other than a REIT) in which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the outstanding securities is automatically a TRS. Subject to the discussion below, we believe that we and each of our TRSs have complied with, and will continue to comply with, the requirements for TRS status at all times during which we intend for the subsidiary’s TRS election to be in effect, and we believe that the same will be true for any TRS that we later form or acquire.

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As discussed below, TRSs can perform services for our tenants without disqualifying the rents we receive from those tenants under the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below. Moreover, because our TRSs are taxed as C corporations that are separate from us, their assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit generally are not imputed to us for purposes of the REIT qualification requirements described in this summary. Therefore, our TRSs may generally conduct activities that would be treated as prohibited transactions or would give rise to nonqualified income if conducted by us directly. As regular C corporations, TRSs may generally utilize net operating losses and other tax attribute carryforwards to reduce or otherwise eliminate federal income tax liability in a given taxable year. Net operating losses and other carryforwards are subject to limitations, however, including limitations imposed under Section 382 of the IRC following an “ownership change” (as defined in applicable Treasury regulations) and a limitation providing that carryforwards of net operating losses generally cannot offset more than 80% of the current year’s taxable income. Moreover, net operating losses may not be carried back, but may be carried forward indefinitely. As a result, we cannot be sure that our TRSs will be able to utilize, in full or in part, any net operating losses or other carryforwards that they may generate in the future.
Restrictions and sanctions are imposed on TRSs and their affiliated REITs to ensure that the TRSs will be subject to an appropriate level of federal income taxation. For example, if a TRS pays interest, rent or other amounts to its affiliated REIT in an amount that exceeds what an unrelated third party would have paid in an arm’s length transaction, then the REIT generally will be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of the excessive portion of the payment. Further, if in comparison to an arm’s length transaction, a third-party tenant has overpaid rent to the REIT in exchange for underpaying the TRS for services rendered, and if the REIT has not adequately compensated the TRS for services provided to or on behalf of the third-party tenant, then the REIT may be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of the undercompensation to the TRS. A safe harbor exception to this excise tax applies if the TRS has been compensated at a rate at least equal to 150% of its direct cost in furnishing or rendering the service. Finally, the 100% excise tax also applies to the underpricing of services provided by a TRS to its affiliated REIT in contexts where the services are unrelated to services for REIT tenants. We cannot be sure that arrangements involving our TRSs will not result in the imposition of one or more of these restrictions or sanctions, but we do not believe that we or our TRSs are or will be subject to these impositions.
Income Tests. We must satisfy two gross income tests annually to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year must be derived from investments relating to real property, including “rents from real property” within the meaning of Section 856(d) of the IRC, interest and gain from mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, income and gain from foreclosure property, gain from the sale or other disposition of real property (including specified ancillary personal property treated as real property under the IRC), or dividends on and gain from the sale or disposition of shares in other REITs (but excluding in all cases any gains subject to the 100% tax on prohibited transactions). When we receive new capital in exchange for our shares or in a public offering of our five-year or longer debt instruments, income attributable to the temporary investment of this new capital in stock or a debt instrument, if received or accrued within one year of our receipt of the new capital, is generally also qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. Second, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of income that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, other types of interest and dividends, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or any combination of these. Gross income from our sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, income and gain from specified “hedging transactions” that are clearly and timely identified as such, and income from the repurchase or discharge of indebtedness is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both gross income tests. In addition, specified foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests.
In order to qualify as “rents from real property” within the meaning of Section 856(d) of the IRC, several requirements must be met:
The amount of rent received generally must not be based on the income or profits of any person, but may be based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.
Rents generally do not qualify if the REIT owns 10% or more by vote or value of stock of the tenant (or 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of the tenant, if the tenant is not a corporation), whether directly or after application of attribution rules. We generally do not intend to lease property to any party if rents from that property would not qualify as “rents from real property,” but application of the 10% ownership rule is dependent upon complex attribution rules and circumstances that may be beyond our control. Our declaration of trust generally disallows transfers or purported acquisitions, directly or by attribution, of our shares to the extent necessary to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT under the IRC. Nevertheless, we cannot be sure that these restrictions will be effective to prevent our qualification for taxation as a REIT from being jeopardized under the 10% affiliated tenant rule. Furthermore, we cannot be sure that we will be able to monitor and enforce

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these restrictions, nor will our shareholders necessarily be aware of ownership of our shares attributed to them under the IRC’s attribution rules.
There is a limited exception to the above prohibition on earning “rents from real property” from a 10% affiliated tenant where the tenant is a TRS. If at least 90% of the leased space of a property is leased to tenants other than TRSs and 10% affiliated tenants, and if the TRS’s rent to the REIT for space at that property is substantially comparable to the rents paid by nonaffiliated tenants for comparable space at the property, then otherwise qualifying rents paid by the TRS to the REIT will not be disqualified on account of the rule prohibiting 10% affiliated tenants.
In order for rents to qualify, a REIT generally must not manage the property or furnish or render services to the tenants of the property, except through an independent contractor from whom it derives no income or through one of its TRSs. There is an exception to this rule permitting a REIT to perform customary management and tenant services of the sort that a tax-exempt organization could perform without being considered in receipt of “unrelated business taxable income” as defined in Section 512(b)(3) of the IRC, or UBTI. In addition, a de minimis amount of noncustomary services provided to tenants will not disqualify income as “rents from real property” as long as the value of the impermissible tenant services does not exceed 1% of the gross income from the property.
If rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is 15% or less of the total rent received under the lease, then the rent attributable to personal property will qualify as “rents from real property”; if this 15% threshold is exceeded, then the rent attributable to personal property will not so qualify. The portion of rental income treated as attributable to personal property is determined according to the ratio of the fair market value of the personal property to the total fair market value of the real and personal property that is rented.
In addition, “rents from real property” includes both charges we receive for services customarily rendered in connection with the rental of comparable real property in the same geographic area, even if the charges are separately stated, as well as charges we receive for services provided by our TRSs when the charges are not separately stated. Whether separately stated charges received by a REIT for services that are not geographically customary and provided by a TRS are included in “rents from real property” has not been addressed clearly by the IRS in published authorities; however, our counsel, Sullivan & Worcester LLP, is of the opinion that, although the matter is not free from doubt, “rents from real property” also includes charges we receive for services provided by our TRSs when the charges are separately stated, even if the services are not geographically customary. Accordingly, we expect that any revenues from TRS-provided services, whether the charges are separately stated or not, will qualify as “rents from real property” because the services will satisfy the geographically customary standard, because the services will be provided by a TRS, or for both reasons.
We believe that all or substantially all of our rents and related service charges have qualified and will continue to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of Section 856 of the IRC.
Absent the “foreclosure property” rules of Section 856(e) of the IRC, a REIT’s receipt of active, nonrental gross income from a property would not qualify under the 75% and 95% gross income tests. But as foreclosure property, the active, nonrental gross income from the property would so qualify. Foreclosure property is generally any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:
that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or when default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;
for which any related loan acquired by the REIT was acquired at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and
for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.
Any gain that a REIT recognizes on the sale of foreclosure property held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, plus any income it receives from foreclosure property that would not otherwise qualify under the 75% gross income test in the absence of foreclosure property treatment, reduced by expenses directly connected with the production of those items of income, would be subject to income tax at the highest regular corporate income tax rate under the foreclosure property income tax rules of Section 857(b)(4) of the IRC. Thus, if a REIT should lease foreclosure property in exchange for rent that qualifies as “rents from real property” as described above, then that rental income is not subject to the foreclosure property income tax.

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Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is obtained from the IRS. However, this grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:
on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test (disregarding income from foreclosure property), or any nonqualified income under the 75% gross income test is received or accrued by the REIT, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day;
on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement where more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent and other than specifically exempted forms of maintenance or deferred maintenance; or
which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or a TRS.
Other than sales of foreclosure property, any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business, together known as dealer gains, may be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a penalty tax at a 100% rate. The 100% tax does not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the TRS at regular corporate income tax rates; we may therefore utilize our TRSs in transactions in which we might otherwise recognize dealer gains. Whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding each particular transaction. Sections 857(b)(6)(C) and (E) of the IRC provide safe harbors pursuant to which limited sales of real property held for at least two years and meeting specified additional requirements will not be treated as prohibited transactions. However, compliance with the safe harbors is not always achievable in practice. We intend to structure our activities to avoid transactions that are prohibited transactions, or otherwise conduct such activities through TRSs; but, we cannot be sure whether or not the IRS might successfully assert that one or more of our dispositions is subject to the 100% penalty tax. Gains subject to the 100% penalty tax are excluded from the 75% and 95% gross income tests, whereas real property gains that are not dealer gains or that are exempted from the 100% penalty tax on account of the safe harbors are considered qualifying gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests.
We believe that any gain from dispositions of assets that we might make in the future, including through any partnerships, will generally qualify as income that satisfies the 75% and 95% gross income tests, and will not be dealer gains or subject to the 100% penalty tax. This is because our general intent has been and is to: (a) own our assets for investment with a view to long-term income production and capital appreciation; (b) engage in the business of developing, owning, leasing and managing our existing properties and acquiring, developing, owning, leasing and managing new properties; and (c) make occasional dispositions of our assets consistent with our long-term investment objectives.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test in any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify for taxation as a REIT for that year if we satisfy the following requirements: (a) our failure to meet the test is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect; and (b) after we identify the failure, we file a schedule describing each item of our gross income included in the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test for that taxable year. Even if this relief provision does apply, a 100% tax is imposed upon the greater of the amount by which we failed the 75% gross income test or the amount by which we failed the 95% gross income test, with adjustments, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability for the taxable year. This relief provision may apply to a failure of the applicable income tests even if the failure first occurred in a year prior to the taxable year in which the failure was discovered.
Based on the discussion above, we believe that we have satisfied, and will continue to satisfy, the 75% and 95% gross income tests outlined above on a continuing basis beginning with our first taxable year as a REIT.
Asset Tests. At the close of each calendar quarter of each taxable year, we must also satisfy the following asset percentage tests in order to qualify for taxation as a REIT for federal income tax purposes:
At least 75% of the value of our total assets must consist of “real estate assets,” defined as real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on interests in real property), ancillary personal property to the extent that rents attributable to such personal property are treated as rents from real property in accordance with the rules described above, cash and cash items, shares in other REITs, debt instruments issued by “publicly offered REITs” as defined in Section 562(c)(2) of the IRC, government securities

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and temporary investments of new capital (that is, any stock or debt instrument that we hold that is attributable to any amount received by us (a) in exchange for our stock or (b) in a public offering of our five-year or longer debt instruments, but in each case only for the one-year period commencing with our receipt of the new capital).
Not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities other than those securities that count favorably toward the preceding 75% asset test.
Of the investments included in the preceding 25% asset class, the value of any one non-REIT issuer’s securities that we own may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets. In addition, we may not own more than 10% of the vote or value of any one non-REIT issuer’s outstanding securities, unless the securities are “straight debt” securities or otherwise excepted as discussed below. Our stock and other securities in a TRS are exempted from these 5% and 10% asset tests.
Not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by stock or other securities of our TRSs.
Not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by “nonqualified publicly offered REIT debt instruments” as defined in Section 856(c)(5)(L)(ii) of the IRC.
Our counsel, Sullivan & Worcester LLP, is of the opinion that, although the matter is not free from doubt, our investments in the equity or debt of a TRS of ours, to the extent that and during the period in which they qualify as temporary investments of new capital, will be treated as real estate assets, and not as securities, for purposes of the above REIT asset tests.
The above REIT asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of each taxable year as a REIT. After a REIT meets the asset tests at the close of any quarter, it will not lose its qualification for taxation as a REIT in any subsequent quarter solely because of fluctuations in the values of its assets. This grandfathering rule may be of limited benefit to a REIT such as us that makes periodic acquisitions of both qualifying and nonqualifying REIT assets. When a failure to satisfy the above asset tests results from an acquisition of securities or other property during a quarter, the failure can be cured by disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets within thirty days after the close of that quarter.
In addition, if we fail the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test at the close of any quarter and we do not cure such failure within thirty days after the close of that quarter, that failure will nevertheless be excused if (a) the failure is de minimis and (b) within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify the failure, we either dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise satisfy the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test and the 10% value test. For purposes of this relief provision, the failure will be de minimis if the value of the assets causing the failure does not exceed $10,000,000. If our failure is not de minimis, or if any of the other REIT asset tests have been violated, we may nevertheless qualify for taxation as a REIT if (a) we provide the IRS with a description of each asset causing the failure, (b) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (c) we pay a tax equal to the greater of (1) $50,000 or (2) the highest regular corporate income tax rate imposed on the net income generated by the assets causing the failure during the period of the failure, and (d) within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify the failure, we either dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise satisfy all of the REIT asset tests. These relief provisions may apply to a failure of the applicable asset tests even if the failure first occurred in a year prior to the taxable year in which the failure was discovered.
The IRC also provides an excepted securities safe harbor to the 10% value test that includes among other items (a) “straight debt” securities, (b) specified rental agreements in which payment is to be made in subsequent years, (c) any obligation to pay “rents from real property,” (d) securities issued by governmental entities that are not dependent in whole or in part on the profits of or payments from a nongovernmental entity, and (e) any security issued by another REIT. In addition, any debt instrument issued by an entity classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, and not otherwise excepted from the definition of a security for purposes of the above safe harbor, will not be treated as a security for purposes of the 10% value test if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income, excluding income from prohibited transactions, is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test.
We have maintained and will continue to maintain records of the value of our assets to document our compliance with the above asset tests and intend to take actions as may be required to cure any failure to satisfy the tests within thirty days after the close of any quarter or within the six month periods described above.
Based on the discussion above, we believe that we have satisfied, and will continue to satisfy, the REIT asset tests outlined above on a continuing basis beginning with our first taxable year as a REIT.
Annual Distribution Requirements. In order to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the IRC, we are required to make annual distributions other than capital gain dividends to our shareholders in an amount at least equal to the excess of:    

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(1)
the sum of 90% of our “real estate investment trust taxable income” and 90% of our net income after tax, if any, from property received in foreclosure, over
(2)
the amount by which our noncash income (e.g., imputed rental income or income from transactions inadvertently failing to qualify as like-kind exchanges) exceeds 5% of our “real estate investment trust taxable income.”
For these purposes, our “real estate investment trust taxable income” is as defined under Section 857 of the IRC and is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain and will generally be reduced by specified corporate-level income taxes that we pay (e.g., taxes on built-in gains or foreclosure property income).
The IRC generally limits the deductibility of net interest expense paid or accrued on debt properly allocable to a trade or business to 30% of “adjusted taxable income,” subject to specified exceptions. Any deduction in excess of the limitation is carried forward and may be used in a subsequent year, subject to that year’s 30% limitation. Provided a taxpayer makes an election (which is irrevocable), the 30% limitation does not apply to a trade or business involving real property development, redevelopment, construction, reconstruction, acquisition, conversion, rental, operation, management, leasing, or brokerage, within the meaning of Section 469(c)(7)(C) of the IRC. While legislative history and proposed Treasury regulations indicate that a real property trade or business includes a trade or business conducted by a corporation or a REIT, we have not yet made an election to be treated as a real property trade or business.
Distributions must be paid in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if declared before we timely file our federal income tax return for the earlier taxable year and if paid on or before the first regular distribution payment after that declaration. If a dividend is declared in October, November or December to shareholders of record during one of those months and is paid during the following January, then for federal income tax purposes such dividend will be treated as having been both paid and received on December 31 of the prior taxable year to the extent of any undistributed earnings and profits.
The 90% distribution requirements may be waived by the IRS if a REIT establishes that it failed to meet them by reason of distributions previously made to meet the requirements of the 4% excise tax discussed below. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain and all of our “real estate investment trust taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to federal income tax at regular corporate income tax rates on undistributed amounts. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax to the extent we fail within a calendar year to make required distributions to our shareholders of 85% of our ordinary income and 95% of our capital gain net income plus the excess, if any, of the “grossed up required distribution” for the preceding calendar year over the amount treated as distributed for that preceding calendar year. For this purpose, the term “grossed up required distribution” for any calendar year is the sum of our taxable income for the calendar year without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and all amounts from earlier years that are not treated as having been distributed under the provision. We will be treated as having sufficient earnings and profits to treat as a dividend any distribution by us up to the amount required to be distributed in order to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax.
If we do not have enough cash or other liquid assets to meet the 90% distribution requirements, or if we so choose, we may find it necessary or desirable to arrange for new debt or equity financing to provide funds for required distributions in order to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT. We cannot be sure that financing would be available for these purposes on favorable terms, or at all.
We may be able to rectify a failure to pay sufficient dividends for any year by paying “deficiency dividends” to shareholders in a later year. These deficiency dividends may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year, but an interest charge would be imposed upon us for the delay in distribution. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements and our dividends paid deduction, it will be treated as an additional distribution to the shareholders receiving it in the year such dividend is paid.
In addition to the other distribution requirements above, to preserve our qualification for taxation as a REIT we are required to timely distribute all C corporation earnings and profits that we inherit from acquired corporations, as described below.

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Acquisitions of C Corporations
We may in the future engage in transactions where we acquire all of the outstanding stock of a C corporation. Upon these acquisitions, except to the extent we make an applicable TRS election, each of our acquired entities and their various wholly-owned corporate and noncorporate subsidiaries will become our QRSs. Thus, after such acquisitions, all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the acquired and then disregarded entities will be treated as ours for purposes of the various REIT qualification tests described above. In addition, we generally will be treated as the successor to the acquired (and then disregarded) entities’ federal income tax attributes, such as those entities’ (a) adjusted tax bases in their assets and their depreciation schedules; and (b) earnings and profits for federal income tax purposes, if any. The carryover of these attributes creates REIT implications such as built-in gains tax exposure and additional distribution requirements, as described below. However, when we make an election under Section 338(g) of the IRC with respect to corporations that we acquire, we generally will not be subject to such attribute carryovers in respect of attributes existing prior to such election.
Built-in Gains from C Corporations. Notwithstanding our qualification and taxation as a REIT, under specified circumstances we may be subject to corporate income taxation if we acquire a REIT asset where our adjusted tax basis in the asset is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the asset as owned by a C corporation. For instance, we may be subject to federal income taxation on all or part of the built-in gain that was present on the last date an asset was owned by a C corporation, if we succeed to a carryover tax basis in that asset directly or indirectly from such C corporation and if we sell the asset during the five year period beginning on the day the asset ceased being owned by such C corporation. To the extent of our income and gains in a taxable year that are subject to the built-in gains tax, net of any taxes paid on such income and gains with respect to that taxable year, our taxable dividends paid in the following year will be potentially eligible for taxation to noncorporate U.S. shareholders at the preferential tax rates for “qualified dividends” as described below under the heading “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Shareholders”. We generally do not expect to sell assets if doing so would result in the imposition of a material built-in gains tax liability; but if and when we do sell assets that may have associated built-in gains tax exposure, then we expect to make appropriate provision for the associated tax liabilities on our financial statements.
Earnings and Profits. Following a corporate acquisition, we must generally distribute all of the C corporation earnings and profits inherited in that transaction, if any, no later than the end of our taxable year in which the transaction occurs, in order to preserve our qualification for taxation as a REIT. However, if we fail to do so, relief provisions would allow us to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT provided we distribute any subsequently discovered C corporation earnings and profits and pay an interest charge in respect of the period of delayed distribution. C corporation earnings and profits that we inherit are, in general, specially allocated under a priority rule to the earliest possible distributions following the event causing the inheritance, and only then is the balance of our earnings and profits for the taxable year allocated among our distributions to the extent not already treated as a distribution of C corporation earnings and profits under the priority rule. The distribution of these C corporation earnings and profits is potentially eligible for taxation to noncorporate U.S. shareholders at the preferential tax rates for “qualified dividends” as described below under the heading “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Shareholders”.
Depreciation and Federal Income Tax Treatment of Leases
Our initial tax bases in our assets will generally be our acquisition cost. We will generally depreciate our depreciable real property on a straight-line basis over forty years and our personal property over the applicable shorter periods. These depreciation schedules, and our initial tax bases, may vary for properties that we acquire through tax-free or carryover basis acquisitions (for example, our initial properties contributed to us by SIR as discussed below), or that are the subject of cost segregation analyses.

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The initial tax bases and depreciation schedules for the assets we held immediately after we separated from SIR depends upon whether the deemed exchange that resulted for federal income tax purposes from that separation, or the Deemed Exchange, was an exchange governed by Sections 351(a), 351(b) and 357(a) of the IRC. Our counsel, Sullivan & Worcester LLP, is of the opinion that the Deemed Exchange should be treated as an exchange governed by Sections 351(a) and 357(a) of the IRC, except for a modest amount of gain recognized by SIR under Section 351(b) of the IRC in respect of our obligation to reimburse SIR for certain offering costs, and we agreed with SIR to perform all of our tax reporting accordingly. This opinion is conditioned upon the assumption that the transaction agreement between us and SIR that governed our relationship with SIR, or the Transaction Agreement, has been and will be complied with by all parties thereto, upon the accuracy and completeness of the factual matters described in our Registration Statement on Form S-11 filed with the SEC on November 21, 2017, as amended through the date hereof (File No. 333-221708), and upon representations made by us and SIR as to specified factual matters. Therefore, we carried over SIR’s tax basis and depreciation schedule in each of the assets that we received from SIR, as adjusted by the gain SIR recognized under Section 351(b) of the IRC in the Deemed Exchange. This conclusion regarding the applicability of Sections 351(a), 351(b) and 357(a) of the IRC is dependent upon favorable determinations with regard to each of the following three issues: (a) Section 351(e) of the IRC did not apply to the Deemed Exchange, or else it would have disqualified the Deemed Exchange from Section 351(a) and 351(b) treatment altogether; (b) Section 357(a) of the IRC rather than Section 357(b) of the IRC applied to the Deemed Exchange, or else the liabilities assumed by us from SIR in the Deemed Exchange would have been taxable consideration (up to the amount of actual realized gains) to SIR; and (c) a judicial recharacterization rule, developed in Waterman Steamship v. Commissioner, 430 F.2d 1185 (5th Cir. 1970), and subsequent tax cases, did not apply to recharacterize our pre-transaction distributions paid to SIR as a taxable sale by SIR for cash. We cannot be sure that the IRS or a court would reach the same conclusion.
If, contrary to our belief and the opinion of our counsel, the Deemed Exchange was taxable to SIR because Sections 351(a), 351(b) or 357(a) of the IRC did not apply, then we would be treated as though we acquired our initial assets from SIR in a mostly or fully taxable acquisition, thereby acquiring aggregate tax bases in our assets at such deemed acquisition cost, which would be greater than the amount that would have otherwise carried over from SIR but also very possibly depreciable over longer depreciable lives. In that event, our aggregate depreciation deductions beginning with our first taxable year and for many taxable years thereafter may be lower than we have reported and are anticipating from a carryover transaction. If the IRS were to successfully challenge our reported depreciation methods and the associated tax reporting, then, including for purposes of qualifying for taxation as a REIT, we could be required to amend our tax reporting, including tax information reporting sent to our shareholders, or could be required to pay deficiency dividends, including the associated interest charge, as discussed above.
We are entitled to depreciation deductions from our facilities only if we are treated for federal income tax purposes as the owner of the facilities. This means that the leases of our facilities must be classified for U.S. federal income tax purposes as true leases, rather than as sales or financing arrangements, and we believe this to be the case.
Distributions to our Shareholders
As described above, we expect to make distributions to our shareholders from time to time. These distributions may include cash distributions, in kind distributions of property, and deemed or constructive distributions resulting from capital market activities. The U.S. federal income tax treatment of our distributions will vary based on the status of the recipient shareholder as more fully described below under the headings “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Shareholders,” “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt U.S. Shareholders,” and “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders.”
Section 302 of the IRC treats a redemption of our shares for cash only as a distribution under Section 301 of the IRC, and hence taxable as a dividend to the extent of our available current or accumulated earnings and profits, unless the redemption satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the IRC enabling the redemption to be treated as a sale or exchange of the shares. The redemption for cash only will be treated as a sale or exchange if it (a) is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the surrendering shareholder’s ownership in us, (b) results in a “complete termination” of the surrendering shareholder’s entire share interest in us, or (c) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the surrendering shareholder, all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the IRC. In determining whether any of these tests have been met, a shareholder must generally take into account shares considered to be owned by such shareholder by reason of constructive ownership rules set forth in the IRC, as well as shares actually owned by such shareholder. In addition, if a redemption is treated as a distribution under the preceding tests, then a shareholder’s tax basis in the redeemed shares generally will be transferred to the shareholder’s remaining shares in us, if any, and if such shareholder owns no other shares in us, such basis generally may be transferred to a related person or may be lost entirely. Because the determination as to whether a shareholder will satisfy any of the tests of Section 302(b) of the IRC depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that our shares are redeemed, we urge you to consult your own tax advisor to determine the particular tax treatment of any redemption.

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Taxation of Taxable U.S. Shareholders
For noncorporate U.S. shareholders, to the extent that their total adjusted income does not exceed applicable thresholds, the maximum federal income tax rate for long-term capital gains and most corporate dividends is generally 15%. For those noncorporate U.S. shareholders whose total adjusted income exceeds the applicable thresholds, the maximum federal income tax rate for long-term capital gains and most corporate dividends is generally 20%. However, because we are not generally subject to federal income tax on the portion of our “real estate investment trust taxable income” distributed to our shareholders, dividends on our shares generally are not eligible for these preferential tax rates, except that any distribution of C corporation earnings and profits and taxed built-in gain items will potentially be eligible for these preferential tax rates. As a result, our ordinary dividends generally are taxed at the higher federal income tax rates applicable to ordinary income (subject to the lower effective tax rates applicable to qualified REIT dividends via the deduction-without-outlay mechanism of Section 199A of the IRC, which is generally available to our noncorporate U.S. shareholders for taxable years before 2026). To summarize, the preferential federal income tax rates for long-term capital gains and for qualified dividends generally apply to:
(1)
long-term capital gains, if any, recognized on the disposition of our shares;
(2)
our distributions designated as long-term capital gain dividends (except to the extent attributable to real estate depreciation recapture, in which case the distributions are subject to a maximum 25% federal income tax rate);
(3)
our dividends attributable to dividend income, if any, received by us from C corporations such as TRSs;
(4)
our dividends attributable to earnings and profits that we inherit from C corporations; and
(5)
our dividends to the extent attributable to income upon which we have paid federal corporate income tax (such as taxes on foreclosure property income or on built-in gains), net of the corporate income taxes thereon.
As long as we qualify for taxation as a REIT, a distribution to our U.S. shareholders that we do not designate as a capital gain dividend generally will be treated as an ordinary income dividend to the extent of our available current or accumulated earnings and profits (subject to the lower effective tax rates applicable to qualified REIT dividends via the deduction-without-outlay mechanism of Section 199A of the IRC, which is available to our noncorporate U.S. shareholders for taxable years before 2026). Distributions made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that we properly designate as capital gain dividends generally will be taxed as long-term capital gains, as discussed below, to the extent they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year. However, corporate shareholders may be required to treat up to 20% of any capital gain dividend as ordinary income under Section 291 of the IRC.
In addition, we may elect to retain net capital gain income and treat it as constructively distributed. In that case:    
(1)
we will be taxed at regular corporate capital gains tax rates on retained amounts;
(2)
each of our U.S. shareholders will be taxed on its designated proportionate share of our retained net capital gains as though that amount were distributed and designated as a capital gain dividend;
(3)
each of our U.S. shareholders will receive a credit or refund for its designated proportionate share of the tax that we pay;
(4)
each of our U.S. shareholders will increase its adjusted basis in our shares by the excess of the amount of its proportionate share of these retained net capital gains over the U.S. shareholder’s proportionate share of the tax that we pay; and
(5)
both we and our corporate shareholders will make commensurate adjustments in our respective earnings and profits for federal income tax purposes.
If we elect to retain our net capital gains in this fashion, we will notify our U.S. shareholders of the relevant tax information within sixty days after the close of the affected taxable year.

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If for any taxable year we designate capital gain dividends for our shareholders, then a portion of the capital gain dividends we designate will be allocated to the holders of a particular class of shares on a percentage basis equal to the ratio of the amount of the total dividends paid or made available for the year to the holders of that class of shares to the total dividends paid or made available for the year to holders of all outstanding classes of our shares. We will similarly designate the portion of any dividend that is to be taxed to noncorporate U.S. shareholders at preferential maximum rates (including any qualified dividend income and any capital gains attributable to real estate depreciation recapture that are subject to a maximum 25% federal income tax rate) so that the designations will be proportionate among all outstanding classes of our shares.
Distributions in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. shareholder to the extent that they do not exceed the shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in our shares, but will reduce the shareholder’s basis in such shares. To the extent that these excess distributions exceed a U.S. shareholder’s adjusted basis in such shares, they will be included in income as capital gain, with long-term gain generally taxed to noncorporate U.S. shareholders at preferential maximum rates. No U.S. shareholder may include on its federal income tax return any of our net operating losses or any of our capital losses. In addition, no portion of any of our dividends is eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders.
If a dividend is declared in October, November or December to shareholders of record during one of those months and is paid during the following January, then for federal income tax purposes the dividend will be treated as having been both paid and received on December 31 of the prior taxable year.
A U.S. shareholder will generally recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the shareholder’s adjusted basis in our shares that are sold or exchanged. This gain or loss will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the shareholder’s holding period in our shares exceeds one year. In addition, any loss upon a sale or exchange of our shares held for six months or less will generally be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any long-term capital gain dividends we paid on such shares during the holding period.
U.S. shareholders who are individuals, estates or trusts are generally required to pay a 3.8% Medicare tax on their net investment income (including dividends on our shares (without regard to any deduction allowed by Section 199A of the IRC) and gains from the sale or other disposition of our shares), or in the case of estates and trusts on their net investment income that is not distributed, in each case to the extent that their total adjusted income exceeds applicable thresholds. U.S. shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the 3.8% Medicare tax.
If a U.S. shareholder recognizes a loss upon a disposition of our shares in an amount that exceeds a prescribed threshold, it is possible that the provisions of Treasury regulations involving “reportable transactions” could apply, with a resulting requirement to separately disclose the loss-generating transaction to the IRS. These Treasury regulations are written quite broadly, and apply to many routine and simple transactions. A reportable transaction currently includes, among other things, a sale or exchange of our shares resulting in a tax loss in excess of (a) $10 million in any single year or $20 million in a prescribed combination of taxable years in the case of our shares held by a C corporation or by a partnership with only C corporation partners or (b) $2 million in any single year or $4 million in a prescribed combination of taxable years in the case of our shares held by any other partnership or an S corporation, trust or individual, including losses that flow through pass through entities to individuals. A taxpayer discloses a reportable transaction by filing IRS Form 8886 with its federal income tax return and, in the first year of filing, a copy of Form 8886 must be sent to the IRS’s Office of Tax Shelter Analysis. The annual maximum penalty for failing to disclose a reportable transaction is generally $10,000 in the case of a natural person and $50,000 in any other case.
Noncorporate U.S. shareholders who borrow funds to finance their acquisition of our shares could be limited in the amount of deductions allowed for the interest paid on the indebtedness incurred. Under Section 163(d) of the IRC, interest paid or accrued on indebtedness incurred or continued to purchase or carry property held for investment is generally deductible only to the extent of the investor’s net investment income. A U.S. shareholder’s net investment income will include ordinary income dividend distributions received from us and, only if an appropriate election is made by the shareholder, capital gain dividend distributions and qualified dividends received from us; however, distributions treated as a nontaxable return of the shareholder’s basis will not enter into the computation of net investment income.
Taxation of Tax-Exempt U.S. Shareholders
The rules governing the federal income taxation of tax-exempt entities are complex, and the following discussion is intended only as a summary of material considerations of an investment in our shares relevant to such investors. If you are a tax-exempt shareholder, we urge you to consult your own tax advisor to determine the impact of federal, state, local and foreign tax laws, including any tax return filing and other reporting requirements, with respect to your acquisition of or investment in our shares.

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Our distributions made to shareholders that are tax-exempt pension plans, individual retirement accounts or other qualifying tax-exempt entities should not constitute UBTI, provided that the shareholder has not financed its acquisition of our shares with “acquisition indebtedness” within the meaning of the IRC, that the shares are not otherwise used in an unrelated trade or business of the tax-exempt entity, and that, consistent with our present intent, we do not hold a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit or otherwise hold mortgage assets or conduct mortgage securitization activities that generate “excess inclusion” income.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders
The rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of non-U.S. shareholders are complex, and the following discussion is intended only as a summary of material considerations of an investment in our shares relevant to such investors. If you are a non-U.S. shareholder, we urge you to consult your own tax advisor to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax laws, including any tax return filing and other reporting requirements, with respect to your acquisition of or investment in our shares.
We expect that a non-U.S. shareholder’s receipt of (a) distributions from us, and (b) proceeds from the sale of our shares, will not be treated as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business and a non-U.S. shareholder will therefore not be subject to the often higher federal tax and withholding rates, branch profits taxes and increased reporting and filing requirements that apply to income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. This expectation and a number of the determinations below are predicated on our shares being listed on a U.S. national securities exchange, such as Nasdaq. Each class of our shares has been listed on a U.S. national securities exchange; however, we cannot be sure that our shares will continue to be so listed in future taxable years or that any class of our shares that we may issue in the future will be so listed.
Distributions. A distribution by us to a non-U.S. shareholder that is not designated as a capital gain dividend will be treated as an ordinary income dividend to the extent that it is made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. A distribution of this type will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax and withholding at the rate of 30%, or at a lower rate if the non-U.S. shareholder has in the manner prescribed by the IRS demonstrated to the applicable withholding agent its entitlement to benefits under a tax treaty. Because we cannot determine our current and accumulated earnings and profits until the end of the taxable year, withholding at the statutory rate of 30% or applicable lower treaty rate will generally be imposed on the gross amount of any distribution to a non-U.S. shareholder that we make and do not designate as a capital gain dividend. Notwithstanding this potential withholding on distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, these excess portions of distributions are a nontaxable return of capital to the extent that they do not exceed the non-U.S. shareholder’s adjusted basis in our shares, and the nontaxable return of capital will reduce the adjusted basis in these shares. To the extent that distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits exceed the non-U.S. shareholder’s adjusted basis in our shares, the distributions will give rise to U.S. federal income tax liability only in the unlikely event that the non-U.S. shareholder would otherwise be subject to tax on any gain from the sale or exchange of these shares, as discussed below under the heading “—Dispositions of Our Shares.” A non-U.S. shareholder may seek a refund from the IRS of amounts withheld on distributions to it in excess of such shareholder’s allocable share of our current and accumulated earnings and profits.
For so long as a class of our shares is listed on a U.S. national securities exchange, capital gain dividends that we declare and pay to a non-U.S. shareholder on those shares, as well as dividends to a non-U.S. shareholder on those shares attributable to our sale or exchange of “United States real property interests” within the meaning of Section 897 of the IRC, or USRPIs, will not be subject to withholding as though those amounts were effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, and non-U.S. shareholders will not be required to file U.S. federal income tax returns or pay branch profits tax in respect of these dividends. Instead, these dividends will generally be treated as ordinary dividends and subject to withholding in the manner described above.
Tax treaties may reduce the withholding obligations on our distributions. Under some treaties, however, rates below 30% that are applicable to ordinary income dividends from U.S. corporations may not apply to ordinary income dividends from a REIT or may apply only if the REIT meets specified additional conditions. A non-U.S. shareholder must generally use an applicable IRS Form W-8, or substantially similar form, to claim tax treaty benefits. If the amount of tax withheld with respect to a distribution to a non-U.S. shareholder exceeds the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability with respect to the distribution, the non-U.S. shareholder may file for a refund of the excess from the IRS. Treasury regulations also provide special rules to determine whether, for purposes of determining the applicability of a tax treaty, our distributions to a non-U.S. shareholder that is an entity should be treated as paid to the entity or to those owning an interest in that entity, and whether the entity or its owners are entitled to benefits under the tax treaty.

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If, contrary to our expectation, a class of our shares was not listed on a U.S. national securities exchange and we made a distribution on those shares that was attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI, then a non-U.S. shareholder holding those shares would be taxed as if the distribution was gain effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States conducted by the non-U.S. shareholder. In addition, the applicable withholding agent would be required to withhold from a distribution to such a non-U.S. shareholder, and remit to the IRS, up to 21% of the maximum amount of any distribution that was or could have been designated as a capital gain dividend. The non-U.S. shareholder also would generally be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. shareholder with respect to the distribution (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of a nonresident alien individual), would be subject to fulsome U.S. federal income tax return reporting requirements, and, in the case of a corporate non-U.S. shareholder, may owe the up to 30% branch profits tax under Section 884 of the IRC (or lower applicable tax treaty rate) in respect of these amounts.
Dispositions of Our Shares. If as expected our shares are not USRPIs, then a non-U.S. shareholder’s gain on the sale of these shares generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation or withholding. We expect that our shares will not be USRPIs because one or both of the following exemptions will be available at all times.
First, for so long as a class of our shares is listed on a U.S. national securities exchange, a non-U.S. shareholder’s gain on the sale of those shares will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation as a sale of a USRPI. Second, our shares will not constitute USRPIs if we are a “domestically controlled” REIT. We will be a “domestically controlled” REIT if less than 50% of the value of our shares (including any future class of shares that we may issue) is held, directly or indirectly, by non-U.S. shareholders at all times during the preceding five years, after applying specified presumptions regarding the ownership of our shares as described in Section 897(h)(4)(E) of the IRC. For these purposes, we believe that the statutory ownership presumptions apply to validate our status as a “domestically controlled” REIT. Accordingly, we believe that we are and will remain a “domestically controlled” REIT.
If, contrary to our expectation, a gain on the sale of our shares is subject to U.S. federal income taxation (for example, because neither of the above exemptions were then available, i.e., that class of our shares were not then listed on a U.S. national securities exchange and we were not a “domestically controlled” REIT), then (a) a non-U.S. shareholder would generally be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. shareholder with respect to its gain (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals), (b) the non-U.S. shareholder would also be subject to fulsome U.S. federal income tax return reporting requirements, and (c) a purchaser of that class of our shares from the non-U.S. shareholder may be required to withhold 15% of the purchase price paid to the non-U.S. shareholder and to remit the withheld amount to the IRS.
Information Reporting, Backup Withholding, and Foreign Account Withholding
Information reporting, backup withholding, and foreign account withholding may apply to distributions or proceeds paid to our shareholders under the circumstances discussed below. If a shareholder is subject to backup or other U.S. federal income tax withholding, then the applicable withholding agent will be required to withhold the appropriate amount with respect to a deemed or constructive distribution or a distribution in kind even though there is insufficient cash from which to satisfy the withholding obligation. To satisfy this withholding obligation, the applicable withholding agent may collect the amount of U.S. federal income tax required to be withheld by reducing to cash for remittance to the IRS a sufficient portion of the property that the shareholder would otherwise receive or own, and the shareholder may bear brokerage or other costs for this withholding procedure.
Amounts withheld under backup withholding are generally not an additional tax and may be refunded by the IRS or credited against the shareholder’s federal income tax liability, provided that such shareholder timely files for a refund or credit with the IRS. A U.S. shareholder may be subject to backup withholding when it receives distributions on our shares or proceeds upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of our shares, unless the U.S. shareholder properly executes, or has previously properly executed, under penalties of perjury an IRS Form W-9 or substantially similar form that:
provides the U.S. shareholder’s correct taxpayer identification number;
certifies that the U.S. shareholder is exempt from backup withholding because (a) it comes within an enumerated exempt category, (b) it has not been notified by the IRS that it is subject to backup withholding, or (c) it has been notified by the IRS that it is no longer subject to backup withholding; and    
certifies that it is a U.S. citizen or other U.S. person.

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If the U.S. shareholder has not provided and does not provide its correct taxpayer identification number and appropriate certifications on an IRS Form W-9 or substantially similar form, it may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS, and the applicable withholding agent may have to withhold a portion of any distributions or proceeds paid to such U.S. shareholder. Unless the U.S. shareholder has established on a properly executed IRS Form W-9 or substantially similar form that it comes within an enumerated exempt category, distributions or proceeds on our shares paid to it during the calendar year, and the amount of tax withheld, if any, will be reported to it and to the IRS.
Distributions on our shares to a non-U.S. shareholder during each calendar year and the amount of tax withheld, if any, will generally be reported to the non-U.S. shareholder and to the IRS. This information reporting requirement applies regardless of whether the non-U.S. shareholder is subject to withholding on distributions on our shares or whether the withholding was reduced or eliminated by an applicable tax treaty. Also, distributions paid to a non-U.S. shareholder on our shares will generally be subject to backup withholding, unless the non-U.S. shareholder properly certifies to the applicable withholding agent its non-U.S. shareholder status on an applicable IRS Form W-8 or substantially similar form. Information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to proceeds a non-U.S. shareholder receives upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of our shares, if the non-U.S. shareholder properly certifies to the applicable withholding agent its non-U.S. shareholder status on an applicable IRS Form W-8 or substantially similar form. Even without having executed an applicable IRS Form W-8 or substantially similar form, however, in some cases information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to proceeds that a non-U.S. shareholder receives upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of our shares if the non-U.S. shareholder receives those proceeds through a broker’s foreign office.
Non-U.S. financial institutions and other non-U.S. entities are subject to diligence and reporting requirements for purposes of identifying accounts and investments held directly or indirectly by U.S. persons. The failure to comply with these additional information reporting, certification and other requirements could result in a 30% U.S. withholding tax on applicable payments to non-U.S. persons, notwithstanding any otherwise applicable provisions of an income tax treaty. In particular, a payee that is a foreign financial institution that is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements described above must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the IRC and administrative guidance thereunder), annually report information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on applicable payments to noncompliant foreign financial institutions and account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States with respect to these requirements may be subject to different rules. The foregoing withholding regime generally applies to payments of dividends on our shares. In general, to avoid withholding, any non-U.S. intermediary through which a shareholder owns our shares must establish its compliance with the foregoing regime, and a non-U.S. shareholder must provide specified documentation (usually an applicable IRS Form W-8) containing information about its identity, its status, and if required, its direct and indirect U.S. owners. Non-U.S. shareholders and shareholders who hold our shares through a non-U.S. intermediary are encouraged to consult their own tax advisors regarding foreign account tax compliance.
Other Tax Considerations
Our tax treatment and that of our shareholders may be modified by legislative, judicial or administrative actions at any time, which actions may have retroactive effect. The rules dealing with federal income taxation are constantly under review by the U.S. Congress, the IRS and the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and statutory changes, new regulations, revisions to existing regulations and revised interpretations of established concepts are issued frequently. Likewise, the rules regarding taxes other than U.S. federal income taxes may also be modified. No prediction can be made as to the likelihood of passage of new tax legislation or other provisions, or the direct or indirect effect on us and our shareholders. Revisions to tax laws and interpretations of these laws could adversely affect our ability to qualify and be taxed as a REIT, as well as the tax or other consequences of an investment in our shares. We and our shareholders may also be subject to taxation by state, local or other jurisdictions, including those in which we or our shareholders transact business or reside. These tax consequences may not be comparable to the U.S. federal income tax consequences discussed above.

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ERISA PLANS, KEOGH PLANS AND INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS
General Fiduciary Obligations
The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, or ERISA, the IRC and similar provisions to those described below under applicable foreign or state law, individually and collectively, impose certain duties on persons who are fiduciaries of any employee benefit plan subject to Title I of ERISA, or an ERISA Plan, or an individual retirement account or annuity, or an IRA, a Roth IRA, a tax-favored account (such as an Archer MSA, Coverdell education savings account or health savings account), a Keogh plan or other qualified retirement plan not subject to Title I of ERISA, each a Non-ERISA Plan. Under ERISA and the IRC, any person who exercises any discretionary authority or control over the administration of, or the management or disposition of the assets of, an ERISA Plan or Non-ERISA Plan, or who renders investment advice for a fee or other compensation to an ERISA Plan or Non-ERISA Plan, is generally considered to be a fiduciary of the ERISA Plan or Non-ERISA Plan.
Fiduciaries of an ERISA Plan must consider whether:
their investment in our shares or other securities satisfies the diversification requirements of ERISA;
the investment is prudent in light of possible limitations on the marketability of our shares;
they have authority to acquire our shares or other securities under the applicable governing instrument and Title I of ERISA; and
the investment is otherwise consistent with their fiduciary responsibilities.
Fiduciaries of an ERISA Plan may incur personal liability for any loss suffered by the ERISA Plan on account of a violation of their fiduciary responsibilities. In addition, these fiduciaries may be subject to a civil penalty of up to 20% of any amount recovered by the ERISA Plan on account of a violation. Fiduciaries of any Non-ERISA Plan should consider that the Non-ERISA Plan may only make investments that are authorized by the appropriate governing instrument and applicable law.
Fiduciaries considering an investment in our securities should consult their own legal advisors if they have any concern as to whether the investment is consistent with the foregoing criteria or is otherwise appropriate. The sale of our securities to an ERISA Plan or Non-ERISA Plan is in no respect a representation by us or any underwriter of the securities that the investment meets all relevant legal requirements with respect to investments by the arrangements generally or any particular arrangement, or that the investment is appropriate for arrangements generally or any particular arrangement.
Prohibited Transactions
Fiduciaries of ERISA Plans and persons making the investment decision for Non-ERISA Plans should consider the application of the prohibited transaction provisions of ERISA and the IRC in making their investment decision. Sales and other transactions between an ERISA Plan or a Non-ERISA Plan and disqualified persons or parties in interest, as applicable, are prohibited transactions and result in adverse consequences absent an exemption. The particular facts concerning the sponsorship, operations and other investments of an ERISA Plan or Non-ERISA Plan may cause a wide range of persons to be treated as disqualified persons or parties in interest with respect to it. A non-exempt prohibited transaction, in addition to imposing potential personal liability upon ERISA Plan fiduciaries, may also result in the imposition of an excise tax under the IRC or a penalty under ERISA upon the disqualified person or party in interest. If the disqualified person who engages in the transaction is the individual on behalf of whom an IRA, Roth IRA or other tax-favored account is maintained (or his beneficiary), the IRA, Roth IRA or other tax-favored account may lose its tax-exempt status and its assets may be deemed to have been distributed to the individual in a taxable distribution on account of the non-exempt prohibited transaction, but no excise tax will be imposed. Fiduciaries considering an investment in our securities should consult their own legal advisors as to whether the ownership of our securities involves a non-exempt prohibited transaction.
“Plan Assets” Considerations
The U.S. Department of Labor has issued a regulation defining “plan assets.” The regulation, as subsequently modified by ERISA, generally provides that when an ERISA Plan or a Non-ERISA Plan otherwise subject to Title I of ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the IRC acquires an interest in an entity that is neither a “publicly offered security” nor a security issued by an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, the assets of the ERISA Plan or Non-ERISA Plan include both the equity interest and an undivided interest in each of the underlying assets of the entity, unless it is established either that the entity is an operating company or that equity participation in the entity by benefit plan investors is not significant. We are not an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

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Each class of our equity (that is, our common shares and any other class of equity that we may issue) must be analyzed separately to ascertain whether it is a publicly offered security. The regulation defines a publicly offered security as a security that is “widely held,” “freely transferable” and either part of a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act, or sold under an effective registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, provided the securities are registered under the Exchange Act within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year of the issuer during which the offering occurred. Each class of our outstanding shares has been registered under the Exchange Act within the necessary time frame to satisfy the foregoing condition.
The regulation provides that a security is “widely held” only if it is part of a class of securities that is owned by 100 or more investors independent of the issuer and of one another. However, a security will not fail to be “widely held” because the number of independent investors falls below 100 subsequent to the initial public offering as a result of events beyond the issuer’s control. Although we cannot be sure, we believe our common shares have been and will remain widely held, and we expect the same to be true of any future class of equity that we may issue.
The regulation provides that whether a security is “freely transferable” is a factual question to be determined on the basis of all relevant facts and circumstances. The regulation further provides that, where a security is part of an offering in which the minimum investment is $10,000 or less, some restrictions on transfer ordinarily will not, alone or in combination, affect a finding that these securities are freely transferable. The restrictions on transfer enumerated in the regulation as not affecting that finding include:    
any restriction on or prohibition against any transfer or assignment that would result in a termination or reclassification for federal or state tax purposes, or would otherwise violate any state or federal law or court order;
any requirement that advance notice of a transfer or assignment be given to the issuer and any requirement that either the transferor or transferee, or both, execute documentation setting forth representations as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer that are among those enumerated in the regulation as not affecting free transferability, including those described in the preceding clause of this sentence;
any administrative procedure that establishes an effective date, or an event prior to which a transfer or assignment will not be effective; and
any limitation or restriction on transfer or assignment that is not imposed by the issuer or a person acting on behalf of the issuer.
We believe that the restrictions imposed under our declaration of trust on the transfer of shares do not result in the failure of our shares to be “freely transferable.” Furthermore, we believe that there exist no other facts or circumstances limiting the transferability of our shares that are not included among those enumerated as not affecting their free transferability under the regulation, and we do not expect or intend to impose in the future, or to permit any person to impose on our behalf, any limitations or restrictions on transfer that would not be among the enumerated permissible limitations or restrictions.
Assuming that each class of our shares will be “widely held” and that no other facts and circumstances exist that restrict transferability of these shares, our counsel, Sullivan & Worcester LLP, is of the opinion that our shares will not fail to be “freely transferable” for purposes of the regulation due to the restrictions on transfer of our shares in our declaration of trust and that under the regulation each class of our currently outstanding shares is publicly offered and our assets will not be deemed to be “plan assets” of any ERISA Plan or Non-ERISA Plan that acquires our shares in a public offering. This opinion is conditioned upon certain assumptions and representations, as discussed above under the heading “Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation as a REIT.”
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. Investors and prospective investors should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face but are risks we believe may be material at this time. Additional risks that we do not yet know of, or that we currently think are immaterial, also may impair our business operations or financial results. If any of the events or circumstances described below occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or ability to make distributions to our shareholders and the value of our securities could be adversely affected. Investors and prospective investors should consider the following risks, the information contained under the heading “Warning Concerning Forward Looking Statements” and the risks described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K before deciding whether to invest in our securities.

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Risks Related to Our Business
Our investments are and will be concentrated in industrial and logistics properties.
Our properties are substantially all industrial and logistics properties and we intend to acquire similar additional properties. The market demand to lease industrial and logistics properties generally reflects conditions in the U.S. economy. If the general economy slows, the demand to lease industrial and logistics properties may be reduced and the value of our common shares may decline. Because we expect to continue to be concentrated in industrial and logistics properties, the adverse impact of cyclical economic conditions affecting industrial and logistics properties may have a greater impact on the value of our common shares than if we were invested in several different types of properties, including residential, office or other properties, in addition to industrial and logistics properties.
The development of new industrial and logistics properties may exceed any increase in demand for such properties.
The current strong demand for industrial and logistics properties is encouraging new development of such properties. If the development of new industrial and logistics properties exceeds the increase in demand for such properties, our existing properties may be unable to successfully compete for tenants with newer developed buildings, our income may decline and the value of our common shares may decline.
We may be unable to lease our properties when our leases expire.
Although we typically will seek to renew our leases with current tenants when they expire, we cannot be sure that we will be successful in doing so. If our tenants do not renew their leases, we may be unable to obtain new tenants to maintain or increase the historical occupancy rates of, or rents from, our properties.
We may experience declining rents or incur significant costs to renew our leases with current tenants or lease our properties to new tenants.
When we renew our leases with current tenants or lease to new tenants, we may experience rent decreases, and we may have to spend substantial amounts for leasing commissions, tenant improvements or other tenant inducements. Moreover, many of our Mainland Properties have been specially designed for the particular businesses of our tenants; if the current leases for such properties are terminated or are not renewed, we may be required to renovate such properties at substantial costs, decrease the rents we charge or provide other concessions in order to lease such properties to new tenants. When rents are reset under the leases at our Hawaii Properties, the rents may decline.
A significant number of our properties are located on the island of Oahu, HI, and we are exposed to risks as a result of this geographic concentration.
A significant number of our properties are located on the island of Oahu, HI. This geographic concentration creates risks. For example, Oahu’s remote location on a volcanic island makes our properties there vulnerable to certain risks from natural disasters, such as tsunamis, hurricanes, flooding, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, which could cause damage to our properties, affect our Hawaii tenants’ abilities to pay rent to us and cause the value of our properties and our securities to decline.
The majority of our properties are leased to single tenants which may subject us to greater risks of loss than if each of our properties had multiple tenants.
The majority of our rental revenues from our properties as of December 31, 2019 were from properties leased to single tenants. The value of single tenant properties is materially dependent on the performance of those tenants under their respective leases. Many of our single tenant leases require that certain property level operating expenses and capital expenditures, such as real estate taxes, insurance, utilities, maintenance and repairs, including increases with respect thereto, be paid, or reimbursed to us, by our tenants. Accordingly, in addition to our not receiving rental income, a tenant default on such leases could make us responsible for paying these expenses. Because most of our properties are leased to single tenants, the adverse impact of individual tenant defaults or non-renewals is likely to be greater than would be the case if our properties were leased to multiple tenants.

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Our business depends upon our tenants satisfying their lease obligations to us, which depends, to a large degree, on our tenants abilities to successfully operate their businesses.
The value of our business and the value of our common shares are dependent, in part, on our tenants’ abilities to meet their lease obligations to us. The financial capacities of our tenants may be adversely affected by factors over which we have no control. In particular, a subsidiary of Amazon.com, Inc. contributes approximately 14.2% of our annualized rental revenues, under six separate leases, which are guaranteed by Amazon.com, Inc., as of December 31, 2019. The inability of our tenants and any applicable parent guarantor to satisfy their lease obligations to us, whether due to a downturn in their business or otherwise, could materially and adversely affect us.
Bankruptcy law may adversely impact us.
The occurrence of a tenant bankruptcy could reduce the rent we receive from such tenant’s lease. If a tenant becomes bankrupt, federal law may prohibit us from evicting such tenant based solely upon its bankruptcy. In addition, a bankrupt tenant may be authorized to reject and terminate its lease with us. Any claims against a bankrupt tenant for unpaid future rent would be subject to statutory limitations that may be substantially less than the contractually specified rent we are owed under the lease, and any claim we have for unpaid past rent, may not be paid in full.
Many of our tenants do not have credit ratings.
The majority of our tenants are not rated by any nationally recognized credit rating organization. It is more difficult to assess the ability of a tenant that is not rated to meet its obligations than that of a rated tenant. Moreover, tenants may be rated when we enter leases with them but their ratings may be later lowered or terminated during the term of the leases. Because we have many unrated tenants, we may experience a higher percentage of tenant defaults than landlords who have a higher percentage of highly rated tenants.
When we reset rents, renew or extend leases or lease to new tenants at our Hawaii Properties, our rents may decrease, and our ability to increase rents may be limited in the future by government action.
Some of our Hawaii Properties require the rents to be reset periodically based on fair market values, which could result in rental increases or decreases. Our ability to increase rents when rent resets occur will depend upon then prevailing market conditions, which are beyond our control. While rent resets involving our Hawaii Properties have, in the aggregate, resulted in rent increases during the period of our and our predecessors’ ownership, in some instances rent resets have resulted in rent decreases. Accordingly, the historical increases achieved from rent resets involving our Hawaii Properties may not be repeated in the future.
In the past, the Hawaii state legislature has enacted legislation that would have limited rent increases at certain of our Hawaii Properties. The U.S. District Court in Hawaii later held that this legislation violated the U.S. Constitution and therefore was unenforceable. However, the Hawaii state legislature may in the future adopt laws to limit rent increases at our Hawaii Properties, and we may not be successful in any challenge we make to that legislation. Moreover, even if we were successful in challenging such laws, the cost of doing so may be significant.
REIT distribution requirements and limitations on our ability to access reasonably priced capital may adversely impact our ability to carry out our business plan.
To maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT under the IRC, we are required to satisfy distribution requirements imposed by the IRC. See "Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—REIT Qualification Requirements—Annual Distribution Requirements." Accordingly, we may not be able to retain sufficient cash to fund our operations, repay our debts, invest in our properties or fund our acquisitions or development or redevelopment efforts. Our business strategies therefore depend, in part, upon our ability to raise additional capital at reasonable costs. The volatility in the availability of capital to businesses on a global basis in most debt and equity markets generally may limit our ability to raise reasonably priced capital. We may also be unable to raise reasonably priced capital because of reasons related to our business, market perceptions of our prospects, the terms of our indebtedness, the extent of our leverage or for reasons beyond our control, such as market conditions. Because the earnings we are permitted to retain are limited by the rules governing REIT qualification and taxation, if we are unable to raise reasonably priced capital, we may not be able to carry out our business plan.

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We may be unable to grow our business by acquisitions of additional properties.
Our business plans involve the acquisition of additional properties. Our ability to make profitable acquisitions is subject to risks, including, but not limited to, risks associated with:
competition from other investors, including publicly traded and private REITs, numerous financial institutions, individuals, foreign investors and other public and private companies;
our long term cost of capital;
contingencies in our acquisition agreements; and
the availability and terms of financing.
We might encounter unanticipated difficulties and expenditures relating to our acquired properties. For example:
we do not believe that it is possible to understand fully a property before it is owned and operated for a reasonable period of time, and, notwithstanding pre-acquisition due diligence, we could acquire a property that contains undisclosed defects in design or construction;
the market in which an acquired property is located may experience unexpected changes that adversely affect the property’s value;
the occupancy of and rents from properties that we acquire may decline during our ownership;
property operating costs for our acquired properties may be higher than anticipated, which may result in tenants that pay or reimburse us for those costs terminating their leases or our acquired properties not yielding expected returns;
we may acquire properties subject to unknown liabilities and without any recourse, or with limited recourse, such as liability for the cleanup of undisclosed environmental contamination or for claims by tenants, vendors or other persons related to actions taken by former owners of the properties; and
acquired properties might require significant management attention that would otherwise be devoted to our other business activities.
For these reasons, among others, we might not realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions, and our business plan to acquire additional properties may not succeed or may cause us to experience losses.
Future leases may require us to pay property operating costs.
While our properties are generally leased to tenants that are financially responsible to pay or reimburse us for all, or substantially all, increases in property level operating and maintenance expenses, many industrial and logistics properties do not utilize this lease structure. In the future, we may enter into new leases or acquire properties subject to leases that make us responsible for property level operating costs; and we may be adversely affected if such costs increase.
We face significant competition.
We face significant competition for acquisition opportunities from other investors, including publicly traded and private REITs, numerous financial institutions, individuals, foreign investors and other public and private companies. Some of our competitors may have greater financial and other resources than us. Because of competition for acquisitions, we may be unable to acquire desirable properties or we may pay higher prices for, and realize lower net cash flows than we hope to achieve from, acquisitions.
We also face competition for tenants at our properties. Some competing properties may be newer, better located or more attractive to tenants. Competing properties may have lower rates of occupancy than our properties, which may result in competing owners offering available space at lower rents than we offer at our properties. Development activities may increase the supply of properties of the type we own in the leasing markets in which we own properties and increase the competition we face. Competition may make it difficult for us to attract and retain tenants and may reduce the rents we are able to charge.

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Changes in market interest rates, including changes that may result from the expected phase out of LIBOR, may adversely affect us.
Since the most recent U.S. recession, the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve System, or the U.S. Federal Reserve, has taken actions which have resulted in low interest rates prevailing in the marketplace for a historically long period of time. The U.S. Federal Reserve steadily increased the targeted federal funds rate over the last several years, but recently took action to decrease the federal funds rate and may continue to make adjustments in the near future. In addition, as noted in Part II, Item 7A of this Annual Report, LIBOR is expected to be phased out in 2021. The interest rate under our revolving credit facility is based on LIBOR and future debt we may incur may also be based on LIBOR. We currently expect that the determination of interest under our revolving credit facility would be based on the alternative rates provided under the agreement governing our revolving credit facility, or our credit agreement, or would be revised to provide for an interest rate that approximates the existing interest rate as calculated in accordance with LIBOR. Despite our current expectations, we cannot be sure that, if LIBOR is phased out or transitioned, the changes to the determination of interest under our credit agreement would approximate the current calculation in accordance with LIBOR. An alternative interest rate index that may replace LIBOR may result in our paying increased interest. Interest rate increases may materially and negatively affect us in several ways, including:
Investors may consider whether to buy or sell our common shares based upon the distribution rate on our common shares relative to the then prevailing market interest rates. If market interest rates go up, investors may expect a higher distribution rate than we are able to pay, which may increase our cost of capital, or they may sell our common shares and seek alternative investments that offer higher distribution rates. Sales of our common shares may cause a decline in the value of our common shares.
Amounts outstanding under our revolving credit facility require interest to be paid at floating interest rates. When interest rates increase, our interest costs will increase, which could adversely affect our cash flows, our ability to pay principal and interest on our debt, our cost of refinancing our fixed rate debts when they become due and our ability to make or sustain distributions to our shareholders. Additionally, if we choose to hedge our interest rate risk, we cannot be sure that the hedge will be effective or that our hedging counterparty will meet its obligations to us.
Property values are often determined, in part, based upon a capitalization of rental income formula. When market interest rates increase, property investors often demand higher capitalization rates and that causes property values to decline. Increases in interest rates could lower the value of our properties and cause the value of our securities to decline.
Low market interest rates, particularly if they remain over a sustained period, may increase our use of debt capital to fund property acquisitions, lower capitalization rates for property purchases and increased competition for property purchases, which may reduce our ability to acquire new properties.
Ownership of real estate is subject to environmental risks and liabilities.
Ownership of real estate is subject to risks associated with environmental hazards. Under various laws, owners as well as tenants of real estate may be required to investigate and clean up or remove hazardous substances present at or migrating from properties they own, lease or operate and may be held liable for property damage or personal injuries that result from hazardous substances. These laws also expose us to the possibility that we may become liable to government agencies or third parties for costs and damages they incur in connection with hazardous substances. The costs and damages that may arise from environmental hazards may be substantial and are difficult to assess and estimate for numerous reasons, including uncertainty about the extent of contamination, alternative treatment methods that may be applied, the location of the property which subjects it to differing local laws and regulations and their interpretations, as well as the time it may take to remediate contamination. In addition, these laws also impose various requirements regarding the operation and maintenance of properties and recordkeeping and reporting requirements relating to environmental matters that require us or the tenants of our properties to incur costs to comply with. We may incur substantial liabilities and costs for environmental matters.

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We may incur environmental liabilities at our leased properties and our tenants may not indemnify us for those costs.
Our leases generally require our tenants to operate in compliance with applicable law and to indemnify us against any environmental liabilities arising from their activities on our properties. However, applicable law may make us subject to strict liability by virtue of our ownership interests. Also, our tenants may be unwilling or have insufficient financial resources to satisfy their indemnification obligations under our leases. Furthermore, such liabilities or obligations may affect the ability of some tenants to pay their rents to us. Further, in the Transaction Agreement, we have agreed to indemnify OPI (as successor by merger to SIR) for any liabilities it incurs with respect to any preexisting environmental conditions at the properties SIR contributed to us in connection with our IPO.
As of December 31, 2019, we had reserved approximately $6.9 million for potential environmental liabilities arising at our properties.
Ownership of real estate is subject to risks from adverse weather and climate events.
Severe weather may have an adverse effect on certain properties we own. Rising sea levels could cause flooding at some of our properties, including some of our Hawaii Properties, which may have an adverse effect on individual properties we own. When major weather or climate-related events, such as hurricanes, floods and wildfires, occur at or near our properties, our tenants may need to suspend operations of the impacted property until the event has ended and the property is then ready for operation. We or the tenants of our properties may incur significant costs and losses as a result of these activities, both in terms of operating, preparing and repairing our properties in anticipation of, during and after a severe weather or climate-related event and in terms of potential lost business due to the interruption in operating our properties. Our insurance and our tenants’ insurance may not adequately compensate us or them for these costs and losses.
Also, concerns about climate change have resulted in various treaties, laws and regulations that are intended to limit carbon emissions and address other environmental concerns. These and other laws may cause energy or other costs at our properties to increase. Laws enacted to mitigate climate change may make some of our properties obsolete or cause us to make material investments in our properties, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition or the financial condition of our tenants and their ability to pay rent to us and cause the value of our securities to decline. In addition, concerns about climate change and increasing storm intensities may increase the cost of insurance for our properties or potentially render it unavailable to obtain.
Real estate ownership creates risks and liabilities.
In addition to the risks discussed above, our business is subject to other risks associated with real estate ownership, including:
the illiquid nature of real estate markets, which limits our ability to sell our assets rapidly to respond to changing market conditions;
the subjectivity of real estate valuations and changes in such valuations over time;
current and future adverse national real estate trends, including increasing vacancy rates, declining rental rates and general deterioration of market conditions;
costs that may be incurred relating to property maintenance and repair, and the need to make expenditures due to changes in government regulations; and
liabilities and litigations arising from injuries on our properties or otherwise incidental to the ownership of our properties.

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Insurance may not adequately cover our losses, and the costs of obtaining such insurance may continue to increase.
The tenants at our properties are generally responsible for the costs of insurance, including for casualty, liability, fire, extended coverage and rental or business interruption loss insurance. In the future, we may acquire properties for which we are responsible for the costs of insurance. Recently, the costs of insurance have increased significantly, and these increased costs have had an adverse effect on us and our tenants. Increased insurance costs may adversely affect our tenants' ability to pay us rent or result in downward pressure on rents we can charge under new or renewed leases. Losses of a catastrophic nature, such as those caused by hurricanes, flooding, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, among other things, or losses from terrorism, may be covered by insurance policies with limitations such as large deductibles or co-payments that we or a responsible tenant may not be able to pay. Insurance proceeds may not be adequate to restore an affected property to its condition prior to a loss or to compensate us for our losses, including the loss of future revenues from an affected property. Similarly, our other insurance, including our general liability insurance, may not provide adequate insurance to cover our losses. In addition, we do not have any insurance to limit losses that we may incur as a result of known or unknown environmental conditions. Further, we cannot be sure that certain types of risks that are currently insurable will continue to be insurable on an economically feasible basis, and we may discontinue, or agree to our tenants discontinuing, certain insurance coverage on some or all of our properties in the future if we determine that the cost of premiums for any of these policies exceeds the value of the coverage. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs and if we are not able to recover amounts from our applicable tenants for those losses, we may have to incur uninsured costs to mitigate such losses or lose all or a portion of the capital invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. We might also remain obligated for any financial obligations related to the property, even if the property is irreparably damaged. In addition, future changes in the insurance industry's risk assessment approach and pricing structure could further increase the cost of insuring our properties or decrease the scope of insurance coverage, either of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.
We have debt and we may incur additional debt.
As of December 31, 2019, our consolidated indebtedness was $1.4 billion and our ratio of consolidated debt to total gross assets (total assets plus accumulated depreciation) was 54.4%, and we had $440.0 million available for borrowing under our $750.0 million revolving credit facility. Our credit agreement includes a feature under which the maximum borrowing availability may be increased to up to $1.5 billion in certain circumstances.
We are subject to numerous risks associated with our debt, including the risk that our cash flows could be insufficient to meet required payments on our debt. There are no limits in our organizational documents on the amount of debt we may incur, and we may incur substantial debt. Our debt obligations could have important consequences to our securityholders. Our incurrence of debt may increase our vulnerability to adverse economic, market and industry conditions, limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business, and place us at a disadvantage in relation to competitors that have lower debt levels. Our incurring debt could also increase the costs to us of incurring additional debt, increase our exposure to floating interest rates or expose us to potential events of default (if not cured or waived) under covenants contained in debt instruments that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. Excessive debt could reduce the available cash flow to fund, or limit our ability to obtain financing for, working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, construction projects, refinancing, lease obligations or other purposes and hinder our ability to obtain investment grade ratings from nationally recognized credit rating agencies if we seek to obtain a rating or to make or sustain distributions to our shareholders.
If we default under any of our debt obligations, we may be in default under the agreements governing other debt obligations of ours which have cross default provisions, including our credit agreement. In such case, our lenders may demand immediate payment of any outstanding indebtedness and we could be forced to liquidate our assets for less than the values we would receive in a more orderly process.
We may fail to comply with the terms of our credit agreement, which could adversely affect our business and may prevent our making distributions to our shareholders.
Our credit agreement includes various conditions, covenants and events of default. We may not be able to satisfy all of these conditions or may default on some of these covenants for various reasons, including for reasons beyond our control. For example, our credit agreement requires us to maintain certain debt service ratios. Our ability to comply with such covenants will depend upon the net rental income we receive from our properties. If the occupancy at our properties declines or if our rents decline, we may be unable to borrow under our revolving credit facility. Complying with these covenants may limit our ability to take actions that may be beneficial to us and our securityholders.

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If we are unable to borrow under our revolving credit facility, we may be unable to meet our obligations or grow our business by acquiring additional properties. If we default under our revolving credit facility, our lenders may demand immediate payment and may elect not to fund future borrowings. During the continuance of any event of default under our credit agreement, we may be limited or in some cases prohibited from making distributions to our shareholders. Any default under our credit agreement that results in acceleration of our obligations to repay outstanding indebtedness or in our no longer being permitted to borrow under our revolving credit facility would likely have serious adverse consequences to us and would likely cause the value of our securities to decline.
In the future, we may obtain additional debt financing, and the covenants and conditions which apply to any such additional debt may be more restrictive than the covenants and conditions that are contained in our credit agreement.
Covenants in our secured debt agreements may restrict our operating activities and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our secured debt agreements contain financial and/or operating covenants, including, among other things, certain coverage ratios, as well as limitations on the ability to incur secured and unsecured debt. These covenants may limit our operational flexibility and acquisition and disposition activities. Moreover, if any of the covenants in these secured debt agreements are breached and not cured within the applicable cure period, we could be required to repay the debt immediately, even in the absence of a payment default. As a result, covenants which limit our operational flexibility or a default under applicable debt covenants could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our use of joint ventures may limit our flexibility with jointly owned investments.

As of February 2020, we are party to a joint venture, and we may in the future acquire, develop or recapitalize properties in joint ventures with other persons or entities. Our participation in these joint ventures is subject to risks, including the following:
we may share approval rights over major decisions affecting the ownership or operation of the joint venture and any property owned by the joint venture;
we may be required to contribute additional capital if our partners fail to fund their share of any required capital contributions;
our joint venture partners may have economic or other business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our business interests or goals and that could affect our ability to lease or relet the property, operate the property or maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT;
our joint venture partners may be subject to different laws or regulations than us, or may be structured differently than us for tax purposes, which could create conflicts of interest and/or affect our ability to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT;
our ability to sell our interest in the joint venture or the joint venture's ability to sell properties owned by the joint venture on advantageous terms when we so desire may be limited or restricted under the terms of the applicable joint venture agreements; and
disagreements with our joint venture partners could result in litigation or arbitration that could be expensive and distracting to management and could delay important decisions.
Any of the foregoing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Real estate construction and redevelopment creates risks.
We may develop new properties or redevelop some of our existing properties as the existing leases expire, as our tenants’ needs change or to pursue any other opportunities that we believe are desirable. The development and redevelopment of new and existing buildings involves significant risks in addition to those involved in the ownership and operation of leased properties, including the risks that construction may not be completed on schedule or within budget, resulting in increased construction costs and delays in leasing such properties and generating cash flows. Development activities are also subject to risks relating to the inability to obtain, or delays in obtaining, all necessary zoning, land use, building, occupancy, and other required government permits and authorizations. Once completed, any new properties may perform below anticipated financial results. The occurrence of one or more of these circumstances in connection with our development or redevelopment activities could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and the value of our securities.

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We may incur significant costs complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act and similar laws.
Under the Americans with Disabilities Act and certain similar state statutes, many commercial properties must meet specified requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. In addition, our properties are subject to various laws and regulations relating to fire, safety and other regulations. The tenants of our properties are generally responsible for compliance with these requirements pursuant to our lease agreements. In addition, although our tenants may be responsible for complying with these requirements for our properties, we could be held liable as the owner of the properties for our tenants’ failure to comply. We may be required to make substantial capital expenditures at our properties to comply with these laws. In addition, non-compliance could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages and costs to private litigants. Further, we may not be able to recoup these amounts from our tenants if they are unable or unwilling to pay.
Our business could be adversely impacted if there are deficiencies in our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal control over financial reporting.
The design and effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent all errors, misstatements or misrepresentations. While management will continue to review the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting, we cannot guarantee that our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting will be effective in accomplishing all control objectives all of the time. Deficiencies, including any material weaknesses, in our disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting could result in misstatements of our results of operations or our financial statements or could otherwise materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
RMR LLC relies on information technology and systems in its operations, and any material failure, inadequacy, interruption or security failure of that technology or those systems could materially and adversely affect us.
RMR LLC relies on information technology and systems, including the Internet and cloud-based infrastructures, commercially available software and its internally developed applications, to process, transmit, store and safeguard information and to manage or support a variety of its business processes (including managing our building systems), including financial transactions and maintenance of records, which may include personal identifying information of employees and tenants and lease data. If RMR LLC experiences material security or other failures, inadequacies or interruptions of its information technology, it could incur material costs and losses and our operations could be disrupted as a result. Further, third party vendors could experience similar events with respect to their information technology and systems that impact the products and services they provide to RMR LLC or us. RMR LLC relies on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring, as well as its internally developed applications and internal procedures and personnel, to provide security for processing, transmitting, storing and safeguarding confidential tenant, customer and vendor information, such as personally identifiable information related to its employees and others and information regarding its and our financial accounts. RMR LLC takes various actions, and incurs significant costs, to maintain and protect the operation and security of its information technology and systems, including the data maintained in those systems. However, it is possible that these measures will not prevent the systems’ improper functioning or a compromise in security, such as in the event of a cyberattack or the improper disclosure of personally identifiable information.
Security breaches, computer viruses, attacks by hackers, online fraud schemes and similar breaches can create significant system disruptions, shutdowns, fraudulent transfer of assets or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. The cybersecurity risks to RMR LLC, us and third party vendors are heightened by, among other things, the evolving nature of the threats faced, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography and new and increasingly sophisticated methods used to perpetrate illegal or fraudulent activities against RMR LLC, including cyberattacks, email or wire fraud and other attacks exploiting security vulnerabilities in RMR LLC’s or other third parties’ information technology networks and systems or operations. Any failure to maintain the security, proper function and availability of RMR LLC’s information technology and systems, or certain third party vendors’ failure to similarly protect their information technology and systems that are relevant to RMR LLC’s or our operations, or to safeguard RMR LLC’s or our business processes, assets and information could result in financial losses, interrupt RMR LLC’s operations, damage RMR LLC’s reputation, cause RMR LLC to be in default of material contracts and subject RMR LLC to liability claims or regulatory penalties, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and the value of our securities.

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Risks Related to Our Relationships with RMR Inc. and RMR LLC
We are dependent upon RMR LLC to manage our business and implement our growth strategy.
We have no employees. Personnel and services that we require are provided to us by RMR LLC pursuant to our management agreements with RMR LLC. Our ability to achieve our business objectives depends on RMR LLC and its ability to effectively manage our properties, to appropriately identify and complete our acquisitions and dispositions and to execute our growth strategy. Accordingly, our business is dependent upon RMR LLC’s business contacts, its ability to successfully hire, train, supervise and manage its personnel and its ability to maintain its operating systems. If we lose the services provided by RMR LLC or its key personnel, our business and growth prospects may decline. We may be unable to duplicate the quality and depth of management available to us by becoming internally managed or by hiring another manager. In the event RMR LLC is unwilling or unable to continue to provide management services to us, our cost of obtaining substitute services may be greater than the fees we pay RMR LLC under our management agreements, and as a result our expenses may increase.
RMR LLC has broad discretion in operating our day to day business.
Our manager, RMR LLC, is authorized to follow broad operating and investment guidelines and, therefore, has discretion in identifying the properties that will be appropriate investments for us, as well as our individual operating and investment decisions. Our Board of Trustees periodically reviews our operating and investment guidelines and our operating activities and investments but it does not review or approve each decision made by RMR LLC on our behalf. In addition, in conducting periodic reviews, our Board of Trustees relies primarily on information provided to it by RMR LLC. RMR LLC may exercise its discretion in a manner that results in investment returns that are substantially below expectations or that results in losses.
Our management structure and agreements and relationships with RMR LLC and RMR LLC’s and its controlling shareholder’s relationships with others may create conflicts of interest, or the perception of such conflicts, and may restrict our investment activities.
RMR LLC is a subsidiary of RMR Inc. The Chair of our Board of Trustees and one of our Managing Trustees, Adam Portnoy, as the sole trustee of ABP Trust, is the controlling shareholder of RMR Inc. and is a managing director and the president and chief executive officer of RMR Inc. and an officer and employee of RMR LLC. RMR LLC or its subsidiary also acts as the manager for four other Nasdaq listed REITs: OPI, which primarily owns office properties leased to single tenants and high credit quality tenants, including government tenants; DHC, which primarily owns medical office, life science, senior living and other healthcare properties; SVC, which owns a diverse portfolio of hotels and net lease service and necessity-based retail properties; and TRMT, which primarily originates and invests in first mortgage loans secured by middle market and transitional commercial real estate. RMR LLC also provides services to other publicly and privately owned companies, including: Five Star, which operates senior living communities; TA, which operates and franchises travel centers, truck repair facilities and restaurants; and Sonesta, which operates, manages and franchises hotels, resorts and cruise boats. A subsidiary of RMR LLC is an investment adviser to the RMR Real Estate Income Fund, or RIF, a closed end investment company listed on the NYSE American, which invests in securities of real estate companies that are not managed by RMR LLC.
John Murray, our other Managing Trustee and our President and Chief Executive Officer, Richard Siedel, Jr., our Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, and Yael Duffy, our Vice President, are also officers and employees of RMR LLC. Mr. Murray is also a managing trustee, the president and chief executive officer of SVC and Mr. Siedel is also the chief financial officer and treasurer of DHC. Messrs. Murray and Siedel and Ms. Duffy have duties to RMR LLC, Mr. Murray has duties to SVC and Mr. Siedel has duties to DHC, as well as to us, and we do not have their undivided attention. They and other RMR LLC personnel may have conflicts in allocating their time and resources between us and RMR LLC and other companies to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide services. Some of our Independent Trustees also serve as independent directors or independent trustees of other public companies to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide management services.

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In addition, we may in the future enter into additional transactions with RMR LLC, its affiliates or entities managed by it or its subsidiaries. In addition to his investments in RMR Inc. and RMR LLC, Adam Portnoy holds equity investments in other companies to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide management services and some of these companies have significant cross ownership interests, including, for example: as of December 31, 2019, Adam Portnoy beneficially owned, in aggregate, 1.2% of our outstanding common shares, 35.3% of Five Star’s outstanding common stock (6.3% as of January 1, 2020) (including through ABP Trust), 1.5% of OPI’s outstanding common shares, 1.1% of DHC's outstanding common shares, 2.3% of RIF’s outstanding common shares, 1.1% of SVC’s outstanding common shares, 4.0% of TA’s outstanding common shares (including through RMR LLC) and 19.5% of TRMT’s outstanding common shares (including through Tremont Realty Advisors LLC). Our executive officers may also own equity investments in other companies to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide management services. These multiple responsibilities, relationships and cross ownerships could give rise to conflicts of interest or the perception of such conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving us, RMR Inc., RMR LLC, our Managing Trustees, the other companies to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide management services and their related parties. Conflicts of interest or the perception of conflicts of interest could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business and the market price of our common shares and other securities and we may be subject to increased risk of litigation as a result.
In our management agreements with RMR LLC, we acknowledge that RMR LLC may engage in other activities or businesses and act as the manager to any other person or entity (including other REITs) even though such person or entity has investment policies and objectives similar to our policies and objectives and we are not entitled to preferential treatment in receiving information, recommendations and other services from RMR LLC. Accordingly, we may lose investment opportunities to, and may compete for tenants with, other businesses managed by RMR LLC or its subsidiaries. We cannot be sure that our Code of Conduct or our governance guidelines, or other procedural protections we adopt will be sufficient to enable us to identify, adequately address or mitigate actual or alleged conflicts of interest or ensure that our transactions with related persons are made on terms that are at least as favorable to us as those that would have been obtained with an unrelated person.
Our management agreements were not negotiated on an arm’s length basis and their fee and expense structure may not create proper incentives for RMR LLC, which may increase the risk of an investment in our common shares.
As a result of our relationships with RMR LLC and its current and former controlling shareholder(s), our management agreements were not negotiated on an arm’s length basis between unrelated parties, and therefore, while such agreements were negotiated with the use of a special committee and disinterested Trustees, the terms, including the fees payable to RMR LLC, may not be as favorable to us as they would have been if they were negotiated on an arm’s length basis between unrelated parties. Our property management fees are calculated based on rents we receive and construction supervision fees for construction at our properties overseen and managed by RMR LLC, and our base business management fee is calculated based upon the lower of the historical costs of our real estate investments and our market capitalization. We pay RMR LLC substantial base management fees regardless of our financial results. These fee arrangements could incentivize RMR LLC to pursue acquisitions, capital transactions, tenancies and construction projects or to avoid disposing of our assets in order to increase or maintain its management fees and might reduce RMR LLC’s incentive to devote its time and effort to seeking investments that provide attractive returns for us. If we do not effectively manage our investment, disposition and capital transactions and leasing, construction and other property management activities, we may pay increased management fees without proportional benefits to us. In addition, we are obligated under our management agreements to reimburse RMR LLC for employment and related expenses of RMR LLC’s employees assigned to work exclusively or partly at our properties, our share of the wages, benefits and other related costs of RMR LLC’s centralized accounting personnel and our share of RMR LLC’s costs for providing our internal audit function. We are also required to pay for third party costs incurred with respect to us. Our obligation to reimburse RMR LLC for certain of its costs and to pay third party costs may reduce RMR LLC’s incentive to efficiently manage those costs, which may increase our costs.

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The termination of our management agreements may require us to pay a substantial termination fee, including in the case of a termination for unsatisfactory performance, which may limit our ability to end our relationship with RMR LLC.
The terms of our management agreements with RMR LLC automatically extend on December 31st of each year so that such terms thereafter end on the 20th anniversary of the date of the extension. We have the right to terminate these agreements: (1) at any time on 60 days’ written notice for convenience, (2) immediately upon written notice for cause, as defined in the agreements, (3) on written notice given within 60 days after the end of any applicable calendar year for a performance reason, as defined in the agreements, and (4) by written notice during the 12 months following a manager change of control, as defined in the agreements. However, if we terminate a management agreement for convenience, or if RMR LLC terminates a management agreement with us for good reason, as defined in such agreement, we are obligated to pay RMR LLC a termination fee in an amount equal to the sum of the present values of the monthly future fees, as defined in the applicable agreement, payable to RMR LLC for the term that was remaining before such termination, which, depending on the time of termination, would be between 19 and 20 years. Additionally, if we terminate a management agreement for a performance reason, as defined in the agreement, we are obligated to pay RMR LLC the termination fee calculated as described above, but assuming a remaining term of 10 years. These provisions substantially increase the cost to us of terminating the management agreements without cause, which may limit our ability to end our relationship with RMR LLC as our manager. The payment of the termination fee could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, including our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.
Our management arrangements with RMR LLC may discourage a change of control of us.
Our management agreements with RMR LLC have continuing 20 year terms that renew annually. As noted in the preceding risk factor, if we terminate either of these management agreements other than for cause or upon a change of control of our manager, we are obligated to pay RMR LLC a substantial termination fee. For these reasons, our management agreements with RMR LLC may discourage a change of control of us, including a change of control which might result in payment of a premium for our common shares.
We are party to transactions with related parties that may increase the risk of allegations of conflicts of interest, and such allegations may impair our ability to realize the benefits we expect from these transactions.
We are party to transactions with related parties, including with entities controlled by Adam Portnoy or to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide management services. Our agreements with related parties or in respect of transactions among related parties may not be on terms as favorable to us as they would have been if they had been negotiated among unrelated parties. We are subject to the risk that our shareholders or the shareholders of RMR Inc. or other related parties may challenge any such related party transactions and the agreements entered into as part of them. If such a challenge were to be successful, we might not realize the benefits expected from the transactions being challenged. Moreover, any such challenge could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and growth and could adversely affect our ability to realize the benefits expected from the transactions, whether or not the allegations have merit or are substantiated.
We may be at an increased risk for dissident shareholder activities due to perceived conflicts of interest arising from our management structure and relationships.
Companies with business dealings with related persons and entities may more often be the target of dissident shareholder trustee nominations, dissident shareholder proposals and shareholder litigation alleging conflicts of interest in their business dealings. Our relationships with RMR Inc., RMR LLC, the other companies to which RMR LLC or its subsidiaries provide management services, Adam Portnoy and other related persons of RMR LLC may precipitate such activities. Certain proxy advisory firms which have significant influence over the voting by shareholders of public companies have in the past recommended, and in the future may recommend, that shareholders withhold votes for the election of our incumbent Trustees, vote against the election of our incumbent Trustees or other management proposals or vote for shareholder proposals that we oppose. These recommendations by proxy advisory firms have affected the outcomes of past Board of Trustees elections, and similar recommendations in the future would likely affect the outcome of future Board of Trustees elections, which may increase shareholder activism and litigation. These activities, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs, and diversion of our management’s attention and could have a material adverse impact on our reputation and business.

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Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
Ownership limitations and certain provisions in our declaration of trust, bylaws and agreements, as well as certain provisions of Maryland law, may deter, delay or prevent a change in our control or unsolicited acquisition proposals.
Our declaration of trust prohibits any shareholder but not RMR LLC and its affiliates (as defined under Maryland law) and certain persons who have been exempted by our Board of Trustees from owning, directly and by attribution, more than 9.8% of the number or value of shares (whichever is more restrictive) of any class or series of our outstanding shares of beneficial interest, including our common shares. This provision of our declaration of trust is intended to, among other purposes, assist with our REIT compliance under the IRC and otherwise promote our orderly governance. However, this provision may also inhibit acquisitions of a significant stake in us and may deter, delay or prevent a change in control of us or unsolicited acquisition proposals that a shareholder may consider favorable. Additionally, provisions contained in our declaration of trust and bylaws or under Maryland law may have a similar impact, including, for example, provisions relating to:
the division of our Trustees into three classes, with the term of one class expiring each year, which could delay a change of control of us;
limitations on shareholder voting rights with respect to certain actions that are not approved by our Board of Trustees;
the authority of our Board of Trustees, and not our shareholders, to adopt, amend or repeal our bylaws and to fill vacancies on our Board of Trustees;
shareholder voting standards which require a supermajority for approval of certain actions;
the fact that only our Board of Trustees, or, if there are no Trustees, our officers, may call shareholder meetings and that shareholders are not entitled to act without a meeting;
required qualifications for an individual to serve as a Trustee and a requirement that certain of our Trustees be “Managing Trustees” and other Trustees be “Independent Trustees,” as defined in our governing documents;
limitations on the ability of our shareholders to propose nominees for election as Trustees and propose other business to be considered at a meeting of our shareholders;
limitations on the ability of our shareholders to remove our Trustees;
the authority of our Board of Trustees to create and issue new classes or series of shares (including shares with voting rights and other rights and privileges that may deter a change in control) and issue additional common shares;
restrictions on business combinations between us and an interested shareholder that have not first been approved by our Board of Trustees (including a majority of Trustees not related to the interested shareholder); and
the authority of our Board of Trustees, without shareholder approval, to implement certain takeover defenses.
Our rights and the rights of our shareholders to take action against our Trustees and officers are limited.
Our declaration of trust limits the liability of our Trustees and officers to us and our shareholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law. Under current Maryland law, our Trustees and officers will not have any liability to us and our shareholders for money damages other than liability resulting from:
actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or
active and deliberate dishonesty by the Trustee or officer that was established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action adjudicated.

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Our declaration of trust and indemnification agreements require us to indemnify to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, any present or former Trustee or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to a proceeding by reason of his or her service in these and certain other capacities. In addition, we may be obligated to pay or reimburse the expenses incurred by our present and former Trustees and officers without requiring a preliminary determination of their ultimate entitlement to indemnification. As a result, we and our shareholders may have more limited rights against our present and former Trustees and officers than might otherwise exist absent the provisions in our declaration of trust and indemnification agreements or that might exist with other companies, which could limit our shareholders' recourse in the event of actions not in their best interest.
Disputes with RMR LLC and OPI (as successor by merger to SIR) may be referred to mandatory arbitration proceedings, which follow different procedures than in-court litigation and may be more restrictive to those asserting claims than in-court litigation.
Our agreements with RMR LLC and OPI (as successor by merger to SIR) provide that any dispute arising thereunder will be referred to mandatory, binding and final arbitration proceedings if we, or any other party to such dispute unilaterally so demands. As a result, we and our shareholders would not be able to pursue litigation in state or federal court against RMR LLC or OPI if we or any other parties against whom the claim is made unilaterally demands the matter be resolved by arbitration. In addition, the ability to collect attorneys’ fees or other damages may be limited in the arbitration proceedings, which may discourage attorneys from agreeing to represent parties wishing to bring such litigation.
Our bylaws designate the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland as the sole and exclusive forum for certain actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our shareholders, which could limit our shareholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our Trustees, officers, manager, agents or employees.
Our bylaws currently provide that, unless the dispute has been referred to binding arbitration, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim for breach of a duty owed by any Trustee, officer, manager, agent or employee of ours to us or our shareholders; (3) any action asserting a claim against us or any Trustee, officer, manager, agent or employee of ours arising pursuant to Maryland law, our declaration of trust or bylaws brought by or on behalf of a shareholder, either on his, her or its own behalf, on our behalf or on behalf of any series or class of our shareholders or shareholders against us or any Trustee, officer, manager, agent or employee of ours, including any claims relating to the meaning, interpretation, effect, validity, performance or enforcement of our declaration of trust or bylaws; or (4) any action asserting a claim against us or any Trustee, officer, manager, agent or employee of ours that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The exclusive forum provision of our bylaws does not apply to any action for which the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland does not have jurisdiction. The exclusive forum provision of our bylaws does not establish exclusive jurisdiction in the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland for claims that arise under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal securities laws if there is exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction in the federal courts. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in our shares of beneficial interest shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to these provisions of our bylaws, as they may be amended from time to time. The exclusive forum provision of our bylaws may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the shareholder believes is favorable for disputes with us or our Trustees, officers, manager, agents or employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our Trustees, officers, manager, agents or employees.
We may change our operational, financing and investment policies without shareholder approval and we may become more highly leveraged, which may increase our risk of default under our debt obligations.
Our Board of Trustees determines our operational, financing and investment policies and may amend or revise our policies, including our policies with respect to our intention to remain qualified for taxation as a REIT, acquisitions, dispositions, growth, operations, indebtedness, capitalization and distributions, or approve transactions that deviate from these policies, without a vote of, or notice to, our shareholders. Policy changes could adversely affect the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders. Further, our organizational documents do not limit the amount or percentage of indebtedness, funded or otherwise, that we may incur. Our Board of Trustees may alter or eliminate our current policy on borrowing at any time without shareholder approval. If this policy changes, we could become more highly leveraged, which could result in an increase in our debt service costs. Higher leverage also increases the risk of default on our obligations. In addition, a change in our investment policies, including the manner in which we allocate our resources across our portfolio or the types of assets in which we seek to invest, may increase our exposure to interest rate risk, real estate market fluctuations and liquidity risk.

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Risks Related to Our Taxation

Our failure to remain qualified for taxation as a REIT under the IRC could have significant adverse consequences.
As a REIT, we generally do not pay federal or most state income taxes as long as we distribute all of our REIT taxable income and meet other qualifications set forth in the IRC. However, actual qualification for taxation as a REIT under the IRC depends on our satisfying complex statutory requirements, for which there are only limited judicial and administrative interpretations. We believe that we have been organized and have operated, and will continue to be organized and to operate, in a manner that qualified and will continue to qualify us to be taxed as a REIT under the IRC. However, we cannot be sure that the IRS, upon review or audit, will agree with this conclusion. Furthermore, we cannot be sure that the federal government, or any state or other taxation authority, will continue to afford favorable income tax treatment to REITs and their shareholders.
Maintaining our qualification for taxation as a REIT under the IRC will require us to continue to satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the nature of our assets, the sources of our income and the amounts we distribute to our shareholders. In order to meet these requirements, it may be necessary for us to sell or forgo attractive investments.
If we cease to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the IRC, then our ability to raise capital might be adversely affected, we will be in breach under our credit agreement, we may be subject to material amounts of federal and state income taxes, our cash available for distribution to our shareholders could be reduced, and the market price of our common shares could decline. In addition, if we lose or revoke our qualification for taxation as a REIT under the IRC for a taxable year, we will generally be prevented from requalifying for taxation as a REIT for the next four taxable years.
Distributions to shareholders generally will not qualify for reduced tax rates applicable to “qualified dividends.”
Dividends payable by U.S. corporations to noncorporate shareholders, such as individuals, trusts and estates, are generally eligible for reduced federal income tax rates applicable to “qualified dividends.” Distributions paid by REITs generally are not treated as “qualified dividends” under the IRC and the reduced rates applicable to such dividends do not generally apply. However, for tax years beginning before 2026, REIT dividends paid to noncorporate shareholders are generally taxed at an effective tax rate lower than applicable ordinary income tax rates due to the availability of a deduction under the IRC for specified forms of income from passthrough entities. More favorable rates will nevertheless continue to apply to regular corporate “qualified” dividends, which may cause some investors to perceive that an investment in a REIT is less attractive than an investment in a non-REIT entity that pays dividends, thereby reducing the demand and market price of our common shares.
REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect us and our shareholders.
We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, subject to specified adjustments and excluding any net capital gain, in order to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT under the IRC. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement, federal corporate income tax will not apply to the earnings that we distribute, but if we distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, then we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on our undistributed taxable income. We intend to make distributions to our shareholders to comply with the REIT requirements of the IRC. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we pay out to our shareholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under federal tax laws.
From time to time, we may generate taxable income greater than our income for financial reporting purposes prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, or differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash may occur. If we do not have other funds available in these situations, among other things, we may borrow funds on unfavorable terms, sell investments at disadvantageous prices or distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions in order to make distributions sufficient to enable us to pay out enough of our taxable income to satisfy the REIT distribution requirement and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax in a particular year. These alternatives could increase our costs or reduce our shareholders’ equity. Thus, compliance with the REIT distribution requirements may hinder our ability to grow, which could cause the market price of our common shares to decline.

39


Even if we remain qualified for taxation as a REIT under the IRC, we may face other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flow.
Even if we remain qualified for taxation as a REIT under the IRC, we may be subject to federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, excise taxes, state or local income, property and transfer taxes, and other taxes. Also, our income tax expense could increase if jurisdictions in which we hold property modified their income tax treatment of REITs, such as by limiting or eliminating favorable income tax deductions (including the dividends paid deduction). In fact, in 2019 the Hawaii state legislature passed a bill that would have eliminated the dividends paid deduction afforded to REITs under Hawaii tax laws and otherwise required REITs to either file a composite tax return or pay withholding tax attributable to distributions to non-Hawaii resident shareholders. While this bill was ultimately vetoed by the governor of Hawaii, similar legislation has been reintroduced in this year’s legislative session.
In addition, in order to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the IRC, prevent the recognition of particular types of non-cash income, or avert the imposition of a 100% tax that applies to specified gains derived by a REIT from dealer property or inventory, we may hold or dispose of some of our assets and conduct some of our operations through our TRSs or other subsidiary corporations that will be subject to corporate level income tax at regular rates. In addition, while we intend that our transactions with our TRSs will be conducted on arm’s length bases, we may be subject to a 100% excise tax on a transaction that the IRS or a court determines was not conducted at arm’s length. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
Legislative or other actions affecting REITs could materially and adversely affect us and our shareholders.
The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state, and local taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS, the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and other taxation authorities. Changes to the tax laws, with or without retroactive application, could materially and adversely affect us and our shareholders. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect us or our shareholders. New legislation, Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could significantly and negatively affect our ability to remain qualified for taxation as a REIT or the tax consequences of such qualification to us and our shareholders.
Risks Related to Our Securities

Our distributions to our shareholders may decline.
We intend to continue to make regular quarterly distributions to our shareholders. However:
our ability to make or sustain the rate of distributions will be adversely affected if any of the risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K occur;
our making of distributions is subject to compliance with restrictions contained in our credit agreement and may be subject to restrictions in future debt obligations we may incur; and
the timing and amount of any distributions will be determined at the discretion of our Board of Trustees and will depend on various factors that our Board of Trustees deems relevant, including our financial condition, our results of operations, our liquidity, our capital requirements, our FFO, our Normalized FFO, restrictive covenants in our financial or other contractual arrangements, general economic conditions in the United States, including Hawaii, our dividend yield, the dividend yields of other industrial REITs, requirements under the IRC to qualify for taxation as a REIT and restrictions under the laws of Maryland.
For these reasons, among others, our distribution rate may decline or we may cease making distributions to our shareholders.
Changes in market conditions could adversely affect the value of our securities.
As with other publicly traded equity securities and REIT securities, the value of our common shares and other securities depends on various market conditions that are subject to change from time to time, including:
the extent of investor interest in our securities;
the general reputation of REITs and externally managed companies and the attractiveness of our equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate based companies or by other issuers less sensitive to rises in interest rates;

40


our underlying asset value;
investor confidence in the stock and bond markets, generally;
market interest rates;
national economic conditions;
changes in tax laws; and
general market conditions.
We believe that one of the factors that investors consider important in deciding whether to buy or sell equity securities of a REIT is the distribution rate, considered as a percentage of the price of the equity securities, relative to market interest rates. Interest rates have been at historically low levels for an extended period of time. There is a general market perception that REIT shares outperform in low interest rate environments and underperform in rising interest rate environments when compared to the broader market. The U.S. Federal Reserve steadily increased the targeted federal funds rate over the last several years, but recently took action to decrease the federal funds rate and may continue to make adjustments in the near future. If the U.S. Federal Reserve increases interest rates or if there is a market expectation of such increases, prospective purchasers of REIT equity securities may want to achieve a higher distribution rate. Thus, higher market interest rates, or the expectation of higher interest rates, could cause the value of our securities to decline.
Further issuances of equity securities may be dilutive to current shareholders.
The interests of our existing shareholders could be diluted if we issue additional equity securities to finance future acquisitions, to repay indebtedness or for other reasons. Our ability to execute our business strategy depends on our access to an appropriate blend of debt financing, which may include secured and unsecured debt, and equity financing, which may include common and preferred shares.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

41


Item 2. Properties
As of December 31, 2019, we owned 300 properties located in 30 states containing approximately 42.9 million rentable square feet, including 226 buildings, leasable land parcels and easements located on the island of Oahu, HI containing approximately 16.8 million rentable square feet and 74 properties located in 29 other states throughout the continental United States containing approximately 26.1 million rentable square feet. Most of our Hawaii Properties are lands leased to industrial and commercial tenants, many of which own buildings and operate their businesses on our lands.
The following table provides certain information about our properties as of December 31, 2019 (dollars in thousands):
 
 
 
 
Undepreciated
 
Depreciated
 
Annualized
 
 
Number of
 
Carrying
 
Carrying
 
Rental
State
 
Properties
 
Value (1)
 
Value (1)
 
Revenues
    AR
 
1
 
$
4,385

 
$
3,957

 
$
469

    CO
 
5
 
41,231

 
37,936

 
3,894

    CT
 
2
 
16,074

 
13,591

 
1,847

    FL
 
3
 
153,344

 
149,067

 
11,069

    HI
 
226
 
633,190

 
613,368

 
100,571

    IA
 
4
 
58,413

 
49,720

 
5,789

    ID
 
1
 
5,023

 
4,495

 
400

    IL
 
2
 
4,584

 
4,177

 
649

    IN
 
9
 
279,574

 
273,320

 
24,030

    KY
 
2
 
48,426

 
47,284

 
3,675

    LA
 
2
 
15,818

 
14,168

 
1,269

    MD
 
2
 
103,647

 
94,137

 
8,000

    MI
 
1
 
43,229

 
38,238

 
2,184

    MN
 
2
 
26,990

 
26,030

 
2,738

    MO
 
4
 
86,492

 
84,646

 
5,921

    NC
 
1
 
2,014

 
1,828

 
228

    ND
 
1
 
3,923

 
3,527

 
351

    NE
 
1
 
10,718

 
9,671

 
1,197

    NH
 
1
 
49,206

 
48,305

 
4,913

    NJ
 
2
 
72,208

 
64,402

 
5,858

    NV
 
2
 
36,495

 
33,989

 
2,788

    NY
 
2
 
21,085

 
19,523

 
2,801

    OH
 
11
 
222,711

 
208,205

 
21,870

    OK
 
1
 
7,400

 
6,863

 
788

    PA
 
1
 
18,872

 
18,385

 
1,257

    SC
 
4
 
121,129

 
109,147

 
9,599

    SD
 
1
 
17,402

 
17,094

 
1,519

    TN
 
2
 
75,798

 
67,563

 
6,401

    UT
 
1
 
8,433

 
7,583

 
1,099

    VA

3

148,150


134,277


12,432

Total
 
300
 
$
2,335,964

 
$
2,204,496

 
$
245,606

(1)Excludes the value of real estate intangibles.

At December 31, 2019, 199 of our properties (including 186 properties on the island of Oahu, HI) with an aggregate undepreciated carrying value of $1.2 billion were encumbered by mortgages totaling $1.1 billion.
See Note 4 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information regarding our mortgage notes.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may become involved in litigation matters incidental to the ordinary course of our business. Although we are unable to predict with certainty the eventual outcome of any litigation, we are currently not a party to any litigation which we expect to have a material adverse effect on our business.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common shares are traded on Nasdaq (symbol: ILPT).
As of February 11, 2020, there were 2,069 shareholders of record of our common shares, although there is a larger number of beneficial owners.
Issuer purchases of equity securities. The following table provides information about our purchases of our equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2019:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Maximum
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Number of
 
Approximate Dollar
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares Purchased
 
Value of Shares that
 
 
Number of
 
Average
 
as Part of Publicly
 
May Yet Be Purchased
 
 
Shares
 
Price Paid
 
Announced Plans
 
Under the Plans or
Calendar Month
 
Purchased (1)
 
per Share
 
or Programs
 
Programs
December 2019
 
125

 
$
21.09

 

 
$

Total
 
125

 
$
21.09

 

 
$

(1) These common share withholdings and purchases were made to satisfy tax withholding and payment obligations of a former employee of RMR LLC in connection with the vesting of awards of our common shares. We withheld and purchased these shares at their fair market value based upon the trading price of our common shares at the close of trading on Nasdaq on the purchase date.

42


Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following table sets forth selected financial data for the periods and dates indicated. This data should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The operating information for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the balance sheet information as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for the period of time for which we have been a separate public company and from certain financial information of SIR for periods prior to our becoming a separate public company. The operating information for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 and the balance sheet information as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 have been derived from the financial statements of SIR, as such information was allocated to us in connection with the preparation of our financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected financial data below does not necessarily reflect what our results of operations and financial position would have been if we had operated as a stand alone company during all periods presented, and should not be relied upon as an indicator of our future performance. Amounts are in thousands, except for per share data.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Operating information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rental income
 
$
229,234

 
$
162,530

 
$
156,506

 
$
153,310

 
$
147,891

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EXPENSES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real estate taxes
 
30,367

 
19,342

 
17,868

 
17,204

 
16,316

Other operating expenses
 
17,643

 
13,005

 
10,913

 
10,593

 
8,478

Depreciation and amortization
 
61,927

 
28,575

 
27,315

 
27,074

 
25,285

Acquisition and transaction related costs
 

 

 
1,025

 
35

 
15,291

General and administrative
 
17,189

 
11,307

 
16,799

 
9,200

 
8,745

Total expenses
 
127,126

 
72,229

 
73,920

 
64,106

 
74,115

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
 
743

 
200

 

 

 

Interest expense
 
(50,848
)
 
(16,081
)
 
(2,439
)
 
(2,262
)
 
(2,092
)
Income before income tax expense and equity in earnings of an investee
 
52,003

 
74,420

 
80,147

 
86,942

 
71,684

Income tax expense
 
(171
)
 
(32
)
 
(44
)
 
(44
)
 
(44
)
Equity in earnings of an investee
 
666

 

 

 

 

Net income
 
$
52,498

 
$
74,388

 
$
80,103

 
$
86,898

 
$
71,640

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding—basic
 
65,049

 
64,139

 
45,000

 
45,000

 
45,000

Weighted average common shares outstanding—diluted
 
65,055

 
64,140

 
45,000

 
45,000

 
45,000

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income per common share—basic and diluted
 
$0.81
 
$1.16
 
$1.78
 
$1.93
 
$1.59
 
 
As of December 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Balance sheet information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total real estate investments (before depreciation) (1)
 
$
2,335,964

 
$
1,462,396

 
$
1,343,602

 
$
1,336,728

 
$
1,335,363

Total assets
 
$
2,454,901

 
$
1,534,611

 
$
1,411,683

 
$
1,422,335

 
$
1,443,217

Total indebtedness, net
 
$
1,406,608

 
$
462,195

 
$
799,427

 
$
64,269

 
$
64,577

Total shareholders' equity
 
$
995,690

 
$
1,028,273

 
$
562,208

 
$
1,313,185

 
$
1,334,170


(1)
Excludes the value of real estate intangibles.

43



Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following information should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
OVERVIEW
We are a REIT organized under Maryland law. As of December 31, 2019, we owned 300 properties with approximately 42.9 million rentable square feet, including 226 buildings, leasable land parcels and easements with approximately 16.8 million rentable square feet located on the island of Oahu, HI, and 74 properties with approximately 26.1 million rentable square feet located in 29 other states. As of December 31, 2019, our properties were approximately 99.3% leased (based on rentable square feet) to 270 different tenants with a weighted average remaining lease term (based on annualized rental revenues) of approximately 9.6 years.
Property Operations
As of both December 31, 2019 and 2018, 99.3% of our rentable square feet was leased. Occupancy data for our properties as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 is as follows (square feet in thousands):
 
 
All Properties
 
Comparable Properties (1)
 
 
As of December 31,
 
As of December 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Total properties
 
300

 
270

 
266

 
266

Total rentable square feet (2)
 
42,939

 
29,535

 
28,666

 
28,550

Percent leased (3)
 
99.3
%
 
99.3
%
 
98.9
%
 
99.2
%
(1)
Consists of properties we owned (including for the period SIR owned our properties prior to our IPO) continuously since January 1, 2018.
(2)
Subject to modest adjustments when space is remeasured or reconfigured for new tenants and when land leases are converted to building leases.
(3)
Percent leased includes (a) space being fitted out for occupancy pursuant to existing leases as of December 31, 2019, if any, and (b) space which is leased but is not occupied or is being offered for sublease by tenants, if any.
The average effective rental rates per square foot, as defined below, for our properties for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are as follows:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
Average effective rental rates per square foot leased (1)
 

 
 
All properties
 
$
5.83

 
$
5.68

Comparable properties (2)
 
$
5.83

 
$
5.67

(1)
Average effective rental rates per square foot leased represents total rental income during the period specified divided by the average rentable square feet leased during the period specified.
(2)
Comparable properties for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 consist of 266 buildings, leasable land parcels and easements that we owned (including for the period that SIR owned our properties prior to our IPO) continuously since January 1, 2018.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we entered lease renewals and new leases for approximately 2.0 million square feet, including a 194,000 square foot expansion at an existing property, at weighted average (by square feet) rental rates that were approximately 17.1% higher than prior rates for the same land area or building area (with leasing rate increases for vacant space based upon the most recent rental rate for the same space). The weighted average (by square feet) lease term for leases that were in effect for the same land area or building area during the prior lease term, was 9.4 years. Commitments for tenant improvements, leasing costs and concessions for leases entered during the year ended December 31, 2019 totaled $2.6 million, or $0.13 per square foot per year of the new weighted average lease term. Also, during the year ended December 31, 2019, we completed rent resets for approximately 588,000 square feet of land at our Hawaii Properties at rental rates that were approximately 30.7% higher than the prior rental rates.

44


As shown in the table below, approximately 0.5% of our total rented square feet and approximately 0.7% of our total annualized rental revenues as of December 31, 2019 are included in leases scheduled to expire by December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2019, our lease expirations by year are as follows (dollars and square feet in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% of
 
Cumulative
 
 
 
 
 
 
% of Total
 
Cumulative %
 

 
Annualized
 
% of
 
 
 
 
Rented
 
Rented
 
of Total Rented
 
Annualized