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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
___________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
_______________________________________________ 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to
Commission file number 001-38730
LINDE PLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ireland
98-1448883
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
10 Riverview Drive,Forge
Danbury, Connecticut
43 Church Street West
United States 06810
Woking, Surrey GU21 6HT
United Kingdom
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(203) 837 - 2000
+44 14 83 242200
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:Trading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered:
Ordinary shares (€0.001 nominal value per share)LINNASDAQ
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
___________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.       Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.      Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.                                     Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).                                             Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," " smaller reporting company, " and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer          Accelerated filer      Non- accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company   Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.                     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.                                      Yes      No  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.                             

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).             
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).             Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2023, was approximately $186 billion (based on the closing sale price of the stock on that date as reported on the New York Stock Exchange). NYSE was the exchange on which Linde’s stock was listed before it delisted from the NYSE and became listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market as of November 7, 2023.
At January 31, 2024, 481,576,472 ordinary shares of 0.001 nominal value per share of the Registrant were outstanding.
Documents incorporated by reference:
Portions of the Proxy Statement of Linde plc for its 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the company’s fiscal year, are incorporated in Part III of this report.


Table of Contents
LINDE PLC
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
Part I
Item 1:
Item 1A:
Item 1B:
Item 1C:
Item 2:
Item 3:
Item 4:
Part II
Item 5:
Item 6:
Item 7:
Item 7A:
Item 8:
Item 9:
Item 9A:
Item 9B:
Item 9C:
Part III
Item 10:
Item 11:
Item 12:
Item 13:
Item 14:
Part IV
Item 15:
Item 16:
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This document contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are identified by terms and phrases such as: anticipate, believe, intend, estimate, expect, continue, should, could, may, plan, project, predict, will, potential, forecast, and similar expressions. They are based on management’s reasonable expectations and assumptions as of the date the statements are made but involve risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties include, without limitation: the performance of stock markets generally; developments in worldwide and national economies and other international events and circumstances, including trade conflicts and tariffs; changes in foreign currencies and in interest rates; the cost and availability of electric power, natural gas and other raw materials; the ability to achieve price increases to offset cost increases; catastrophic events including natural disasters, epidemics, pandemics such as COVID-19, and acts of war and terrorism; the ability to attract, hire, and retain qualified personnel; the impact of changes in financial accounting standards; the impact of changes in pension plan liabilities; the impact of tax, environmental, healthcare and other legislation and government regulation in jurisdictions in which the company operates; the cost and outcomes of investigations, litigation and regulatory proceedings; the impact of potential unusual or non-recurring items; continued timely development and market acceptance of new products and applications; the impact of competitive products and pricing; future financial and operating performance of major customers and industries served; the impact of information technology system failures, network disruptions and breaches in data security; and the effectiveness and speed of integrating new acquisitions into the business. These risks and uncertainties may cause future results or circumstances to differ materially from adjusted projections, estimates or other forward-looking statements.

Linde plc assumes no obligation to update or provide revisions to any forward-looking statement in response to changing circumstances. The above listed risks and uncertainties are further described in Item 1A (Risk Factors) in this report, which should be reviewed carefully. Please consider Linde plc’s forward-looking statements in light of those risks.

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Linde plc and Subsidiaries
PART I
ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
General
Linde plc is a public limited company formed under the laws of Ireland with its principal offices in the United Kingdom and United States. Linde is the largest industrial gas company worldwide and is a major technological innovator in the industrial gases industry. Its primary products in its industrial gases business are atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and rare gases) and process gases (carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, electronic gases, specialty gases, and acetylene etc). The company also designs and builds equipment that produces industrial gases and offers customers a wide range of gas production and processing services such as olefin plants, natural gas plants, air separation plants, hydrogen and synthesis gas plants and other types of plants.
Linde serves a diverse group of industries including healthcare, chemicals and energy, manufacturing, metals and mining, food and beverage, and electronics.
Linde’s sales were $32,854 million, $33,364 million, and $30,793 million for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Refer to Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis, for a discussion of consolidated sales and Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information related to Linde’s reportable segments.
Industrial Gases Products and Manufacturing Processes
Atmospheric gases are the highest volume products produced by Linde. Using air as its raw material, Linde produces oxygen, nitrogen and argon through several air separation processes of which cryogenic air separation is the most prevalent. Rare gases, such as krypton, neon and xenon, are also produced through cryogenic air separation. As a pioneer in the industrial gases industry, Linde is a leader in developing a wide range of proprietary and patented applications and supply systems technology. Linde also led the development and commercialization of non-cryogenic air separation technologies for the production of industrial gases. These technologies open important new markets and optimize production capacity for the company by lowering the cost of supplying industrial gases. These technologies include proprietary vacuum pressure swing adsorption (“VPSA”) and membrane separation to produce gaseous oxygen and nitrogen, respectively.
Process gases, including carbon dioxide, hydrogen, helium, specialty gases and acetylene are produced by methods other than air separation.
Hydrogen is produced from a range of feedstocks using an array of different technologies. Despite hydrogen being an invisible molecule, colors are often used to designate and differentiate between the production processes used to produce the molecule. The majority of hydrogen currently produced by Linde is what is termed gray hydrogen and is derived from natural gas or methane, using steam methane reformation technology. Linde has multiple technologies to produce blue and green hydrogen, which are both considered types of clean energy. Blue hydrogen is produced by capturing the carbon emissions from the hydrogen plant and either utilizing them in a way that stops them from being emitted or sequestering them in the subsurface for the long term. Green hydrogen is produced by electrolysis using renewable energy or from the steam methane reforming of biomethane. Low carbon intensity, high-purity hydrogen is also produced by purifying and recovering by-product hydrogen sources from the chemical and petrochemical industries.

Carbon monoxide can be produced by either steam methane reforming or auto-thermal reforming of natural gas or other feed streams such as naphtha. Most carbon dioxide is purchased from by-product sources, including chemical plants, refineries and industrial processes or is recovered from carbon dioxide wells. Carbon dioxide is processed in Linde’s plants to produce commercial and food-grade carbon dioxide. Helium is sourced from certain helium-rich natural gas streams in the United States, with additional supplies being acquired from outside the United States. Acetylene is primarily sourced as a chemical by-product, but may also be produced from calcium carbide and water.

Industrial Gases Distribution
There are three basic distribution methods for industrial gases: (i) on-site or tonnage; (ii) merchant or bulk liquid; and (iii) packaged or cylinder gases. These distribution methods are often integrated, with products from all three supply modes coming from the same plant. The method of supply is generally determined by the lowest cost means of meeting the customer’s needs, depending upon factors such as volume requirements, purity, pattern of usage, and the form in which the product is used (as a gas or as a cryogenic liquid).
On-site. Customers that require the largest volumes of product (typically oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen) and that have a relatively constant demand pattern are supplied by cryogenic and process gas on-site plants. Linde constructs plants on or
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adjacent to these customers’ sites and supplies the product directly to customers by pipeline. On-site product supply contracts generally are total requirement contracts with terms typically ranging from 10-20 years and containing minimum purchase requirements and price escalation provisions. Many of the cryogenic on-site plants also produce liquid products for the merchant market. Therefore, plants are typically not dedicated to a single customer. Advanced air separation processes allow on-site delivery to customers with smaller volume requirements.
Merchant. The merchant business is generally associated with distributable liquid oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and helium. The deliveries generally are made from Linde’s plants by tanker trucks to storage containers at the customer's site which are usually owned and maintained by Linde and leased to the customer. Due to distribution cost, merchant oxygen and nitrogen generally have a relatively small distribution radius from the plants at which they are produced. Merchant argon, hydrogen and helium can be shipped much longer distances. The customer agreements used in the merchant business are usually three to seven-year requirement contracts.
Packaged Gases. Customers requiring small volumes are supplied products in metal containers called cylinders, under medium to high pressure. Packaged gases include atmospheric gases, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, helium, acetylene and related products. Linde also produces and distributes in cylinders a wide range of specialty gases and mixtures. Cylinders may be delivered to the customer’s site or picked up by the customer at a packaging facility or retail store. Packaged gases are generally sold under one to three-year supply contracts and through purchase orders.
Engineering
Linde’s Engineering business has a global presence, with its focus on market segments such as air separation, hydrogen, synthesis, olefin and natural gas plants. The company utilizes its extensive process engineering know-how in the planning, design and construction of highly efficient plants for the production and processing of gases. With its state-of-the-art sustainable technologies Engineering also helps customers avoid, capture and utilize CO2 emissions. Its technology portfolio covers the entire value chain for production, liquefaction, storage, distribution and application of hydrogen which supports the transition to clean energy. Its digital services and solutions increase plant efficiency and performance.

Linde's plants are used in a wide variety of fields: in the petrochemical and chemical industries, in refineries and fertilizer plants, to recover air gases, to produce synthesis gases, to treat natural gas and to produce noble gases. The Engineering business either supplies plant components directly to the customer or to the industrial gas business of Linde which operates the plants under a long-term gases supply contract.

Inventories – Linde carries inventories of merchant and cylinder gases and hardgoods to supply products to its customers on a reasonable delivery schedule. On-site plants and pipeline complexes have limited inventory. Inventory obsolescence is not material to Linde’s business.

Customers – Linde is not dependent upon a single customer or a few customers.

International – Linde is a global enterprise with approximately 68% of its 2023 sales outside of the United States. The company also has majority or wholly owned subsidiaries that operate in approximately 45 European, Middle Eastern and African countries (including Germany, the United Kingdom (U.K.), France, Sweden, and the Republic of South Africa); approximately 20 Asian and South Pacific countries (including China, Australia, India, South Korea and Thailand); and approximately 20 countries in North and South America (including Canada, Mexico and Brazil).
The company also has equity method investments operating in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.
Linde’s non-U.S. business is subject to risks customarily encountered in non-U.S. operations, including fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, import and export controls, and other economic, political and regulatory policies of local governments. Also, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 7A. “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”
Seasonality – Linde’s business is generally not subject to seasonal fluctuations to any significant extent.
Research and Development – Linde’s research and development is directed toward development of gas processing, separation and liquefaction technologies, and clean energy technologies; improving distribution of industrial gases and the development of new markets and applications for these gases. This results in the development of new advanced air separation, hydrogen, synthesis gas, natural gas, adsorption and chemical process technologies; novel clean energy and carbon management solutions; as well as the frequent introduction of new industrial gas applications. Research and development is primarily conducted in Pullach, Germany, Tonawanda, New York, Burr Ridge, Illinois and Shanghai, China.
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Patents and Trademarks – Linde owns or licenses a large number of patents that relate to a wide variety of products and processes. Linde’s patents expire at various times over the next 20 years. While these patents and licenses are considered important to its individual businesses, Linde does not consider its business as a whole to be materially dependent upon any one particular patent, or patent license, or family of patents. Linde also owns a large number of trademarks, of which the "Linde" trademark is the most significant.
Raw Materials and Energy Costs – Energy is the single largest cost item in the production and distribution of industrial gases. Most of Linde’s energy requirements are in the form of electricity, natural gas and diesel fuel for distribution. The company mitigates electricity, natural gas, and hydrocarbon price fluctuations contractually through pricing formulas, surcharges, cost pass–through and tolling arrangements.
The supply of energy has not typically been a significant issue in the geographic areas where the company conducts business. However, energy availability and price is unpredictable and may pose future risks.
For carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen and specialty gases, raw materials are largely purchased from outside sources. Linde has contracts or commitments for, or readily available sources of, most of these raw materials; however, their long-term availability and prices are subject to market conditions.
Competition – Linde participates in highly competitive markets in industrial gases and engineering, which are characterized by a mixture of local, regional and global players, all of which exert competitive pressure on the parties. In locations where Linde has pipeline networks, which enable the company to provide reliable and economic supply of products to larger customers, Linde derives a competitive advantage.
Competitors in the industrial gases industry include global and regional companies such as L’Air Liquide S.A., Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Messer Group GmbH, Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation (through Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation) as well as an extensive number of small to medium size independent industrial gas companies which compete locally as producers or distributors. In addition, a significant portion of the international gases market relates to customer-owned plants.

Employees – The company sources talent from an ever-changing and competitive environment. The ability to source and retain qualified and committed employees is a prerequisite for the company’s success, and represents a general risk for Linde.

The Board of Directors ("Board") has established a strategic business objective to maintain world-class standards in talent management. Executive variable compensation is assessed annually based on performance in financial measures as well as in several strategic non-financial areas, including talent management. The Human Capital Committee assists the Board in its oversight of Linde’s compensation policies and programs, particularly in regard to reviewing executive compensation for Linde’s executive officers. The Human Capital Committee also annually reviews the company’s management development and succession programs, diversity policies and objectives, and the associated programs to achieve those objectives. The global head of Human Resources reports to the Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"). A global leader of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion reports to the head of Human Resources.
Linde has aligned diversity and inclusion with its business strategies and implemented diversity action planning into business process and performance management. Diversity, equity and inclusion are line management responsibilities and Linde seeks competitive advantage through proactive management of its talent pipeline and recruiting processes. Linde provides equal employment opportunity, and recruits, hires, promotes and compensates people based solely on their performance and ability.
Employees receive a competitive salary and variable compensation components based on performance and job level. Linde has collective bargaining agreements with unions at numerous locations throughout the world. Additional benefits are offered such as occupational pensions and contributions towards health insurance or medical screening, reflecting regional conditions and local competition. Senior managers participate directly in the company’s growth in value through the Long Term Incentive Plan of Linde plc. In addition, annually managers have the ability to grant leadership awards under the Long Term Incentive Plan to certain eligible employees. From time to time, Linde may introduce special compensation schemes to recognize or reward specific individuals such as the one implemented in 2020 for global front-line employees. Linde also invests in professional development of its employees through formal and on-the-job training.

As of December 31, 2023, Linde had 66,323 employees worldwide comprised of approximately 28 percent women and 72 percent men. The total professional workforce is comprised of approximately 29 percent women and 71 percent men.

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Environment – Information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the section captioned “Management’s Discussion and Analysis – Environmental Matters” in Item 7 of this 10-K.
Available Information – The company makes its periodic and current reports available, free of charge, on or through its website, www.linde.com, as soon as practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Investors may also access from the company website other investor information such as press releases and presentations. Information on the company’s website is not incorporated by reference herein. In addition, the public may read and copy any materials filed with the SEC free of charge at the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.
Executive Officers – The following Executive Officers have been elected by the Board of Directors and serve at the pleasure of the Board. It is expected that the Board will elect officers annually following each annual meeting of shareholders.

Sanjiv Lamba, 59, was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Linde effective March 1, 2022. Prior to being appointed CEO, he was Chief Operating Officer starting in January 2021 and after serving as Executive Vice President, APAC, beginning in October 2018. Previously, Mr. Lamba was appointed a Member of the Executive Board of Linde AG in 2011, responsible for the Asia, Pacific segment of the Gases Division, for Global Gases Businesses Helium & Rare Gases, Electronics as well as Asia Joint Venture Management. Mr. Lamba started his career 1989 with BOC India in Finance where he progressed to become Director of Finance before being appointed as Managing Director for BOC’s India’s business in 2001. Throughout his years with BOC/Linde, he worked in various roles across a number of different geographies including Germany, the U.K., Singapore and India.

Guillermo Bichara, 49, is Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer. He previously served as Praxair’s Vice President and General Counsel. Mr. Bichara joined the company in 2006, first as Director of Legal Affairs at Praxair Mexico before being promoted to Vice President and General Counsel of Praxair Asia. He subsequently had responsibility for Europe, Mexico and corporate transactions before being promoted to Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary. Mr. Bichara previously held roles at Cemex and various global law firms.

Sean Durbin, 53, became Executive Vice President, North America effective September 1, 2023. Previously, he served as Executive Vice President, EMEA from April 2021 to September 2023 and Senior Vice President, Global Functions from July 2020. Durbin joined Praxair, Inc. in 1993 and served in various roles across operations, engineering, project management, business development and sales. In recent years, he has held leadership positions including Business President, Region Europe South from 2019 to 2020, and President, Praxair Canada Inc. from 2013 to 2019.

Kelcey E. Hoyt, 54, became the Chief Accounting Officer of Linde in October 2018. Prior to this, she served as Vice President and Controller of Praxair, Inc. beginning in August 2016. Prior to becoming Controller, she served as Praxair’s Director of Investor Relations since 2010. She joined Praxair in 2002 and served as Director of Corporate Accounting and SEC Reporting through 2008, and later served as Controller for various divisions within Praxair’s North American Industrial Gas business. Previously, she was in audit at KPMG, LLP.

Juergen Nowicki, 60, was appointed Executive Vice President and CEO, Linde Engineering in April 2020. Prior to this, he was Senior Vice President, Commercial, Linde Engineering. Mr. Nowicki joined Linde in 1991 as an Internal Auditor and held various positions in Finance and Controlling. In 2002, he was appointed CFO Linde Gas North America, USA, and was named Head of Finance and Control for The Linde Group in 2006. Nowicki assumed the role of Managing Director, Linde Engineering in 2011.

John Panikar, 56, was appointed Executive Vice President, APAC of Linde effective in January 2021. Previously, he served as President UK & Africa of Linde since October 2018. From 2014 to 2018, Mr. Panikar was President of Praxair Asia. He began his career with Praxair in 1991 as an Applications Engineer. Over the years, Mr. Panikar held increasingly responsible positions including Manager of Site Services and Equipment, Business Development Director for Praxair Asia, Managing Director of Praxair India, VP, South Region, North American Industrial Gases and President, Praxair Distribution, Inc.

Oliver Pfann, 55, was appointed Senior Vice President, EMEA effective September 1, 2023. Since 1995, Oliver Pfann has served in a range of roles at Linde. He began his career in Product Development and then as Sales Manager in Romania. He transitioned to Global Key Accounts and was named General Manager of Linde Italy in 2004. Since 2007, Pfann led a
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regional cluster in Eastern Europe with an increasing number of countries. In 2017, he was promoted to lead the Region UK, Ireland and Africa before assuming his assignment as Business President for Region Europe East in 2019.

David P. Strauss, 65, has been Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since 2022. From 2018 to 2021, he was Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer. Mr. Strauss joined Linde in 1990 as an Applications Engineer before being promoted to lead the electronics materials business. From 2000 to 2013, he served as the General Manager for Linde Advanced Material Technologies Inc. (formerly “Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc.”). In 2013, he became Vice President of Safety, Health and Environment before being named Chief Human Resources Officer of Praxair, Inc., a position he held from 2016 until 2018.

Matthew J. White, 51, became Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Linde in October 2018. He previously served as the Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Praxair, Inc. since January 1, 2014. Prior to this, Mr. White was President of Praxair Canada from 2011 to 2013. He joined Praxair in 2004 as finance director for the company’s largest business unit, North American Industrial Gases. In 2008, he became Vice President and Controller of Praxair, Inc., then was named Vice President and Treasurer in 2010. Before joining Praxair, White was Vice President, Finance, at Fisher Scientific and before that he held various financial positions, including group controller, at GenTek, a manufacturing and performance chemicals company.

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ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS

Due to the size and geographic reach of the company’s operations, a wide range of factors, many of which are outside of the company’s control, could materially affect the company’s future operations and financial performance. Management believes the following risks may significantly impact the company:
Weakening economic conditions in markets in which Linde does business may adversely impact its financial results and/or cash flows.
Linde serves a diverse group of industries across more than 80 countries, which generally leads to financial stability through various business cycles. However, a broad decline in general economic or business conditions in the industries served by its customers could adversely affect the demand for Linde’s products and impair the ability of its customers to satisfy their obligations to Linde, resulting in uncollected receivables and/or unanticipated contract terminations or project delays. For example, global political and economic uncertainty could reduce investment activities of Linde’s customers, which could adversely affect Linde’s business.

In addition, many of Linde’s customers are in businesses that are cyclical in nature, such as the chemicals, metals and energy industries. Downturns in these industries may adversely impact Linde during these cycles. Additionally, such conditions could impact the utilization of Linde’s manufacturing capacity which may require it to recognize impairment losses on tangible assets such as property, plant and equipment, as well as intangible assets such as goodwill, customer relationships or intellectual property.

Increases in the cost of energy and raw materials and/or disruption in the supply of these materials could result in lost sales or reduced profitability.
Energy is the single largest cost item in the production and distribution of industrial gases. Most of Linde’s energy requirements are in the form of electricity, natural gas and diesel fuel for distribution. Linde attempts to minimize the financial impact of variability in these costs through the management of customer contracts and reducing demand through operational productivity and energy efficiency. Large customer contracts typically have escalation and pass-through clauses to recover energy and feedstock costs. Such attempts may not successfully mitigate cost variability, which could negatively impact Linde’s financial condition or results of operations. The supply of energy has not been a significant issue in the geographic areas where Linde conducts business. However, regional energy conditions are unpredictable and may pose future risk.
For carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen and specialty gases, raw materials are largely purchased from outside sources. Where feasible, Linde sources several of these raw materials, including carbon dioxide, hydrogen and calcium carbide, as chemical or industrial byproducts. In addition, Linde has contracts or commitments for, or readily available sources of, most of these raw materials; however, their long-term availability and prices are subject to market conditions. A disruption in supply of such raw materials could impact Linde’s ability to meet contractual supply commitments.
Linde’s international operations are subject to the risks of doing business abroad and international events and circumstances may adversely impact its business, financial condition or results of operations.
Linde has substantial international operations which are subject to risks including devaluations in currency exchange rates, transportation delays and interruptions, political and economic instability and disruptions, restrictions on the transfer of funds, trade conflicts and the imposition of duties and tariffs, import and export controls, changes in governmental policies, labor unrest, possible nationalization and/or expropriation of assets, changes in U.S. and non-U.S. tax policies and compliance with governmental regulations. These events could have an adverse effect on the international operations of Linde in the future by reducing the demand for its products, decreasing the prices at which it can sell its products, reducing the revenue from international operations or otherwise having an adverse effect on its business.
Currency exchange rate fluctuations and other related risks may adversely affect Linde's results.
Because a significant portion of Linde's revenue is denominated in currencies other than its reporting currency, the U.S. dollar, changes in exchange rates will produce fluctuations in revenue, costs and earnings and may also affect the book value of assets and liabilities and related equity. Although the company from time to time utilizes foreign exchange
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forward contracts to hedge these exposures, its efforts to minimize currency exposure through such hedging transactions may not be successful depending on market and business conditions. As a result, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could adversely affect Linde’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Macroeconomic factors may impact Linde’s ability to obtain financing or increase the cost of obtaining financing which may adversely impact Linde’s financial results and/or cash flows.
Volatility and disruption in the U.S., European and global credit and equity markets, from time to time, could make it more difficult for Linde to obtain financing for its operations and/or could increase the cost of obtaining financing. In addition, Linde’s borrowing costs can be affected by short- and long-term debt ratings assigned by independent rating agencies which are based, in significant part, on its performance as measured by certain criteria such as interest coverage and leverage ratios. A decrease in these debt ratings could increase the cost of borrowing or make it more difficult to obtain financing.
An impairment of goodwill or intangible assets could negatively impact the company's financial results.
As of December 31, 2023, the net carrying value of goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets was $27 billion and $2 billion, respectively, primarily as a result of the business combination and the related acquisition method of accounting applied to Linde AG. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, the company periodically assesses these assets to determine if they are impaired. Significant negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to business, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in use of the assets, divestitures and sustained market capitalization declines may result in recognition of impairments to goodwill or other indefinite-lived assets. Any charges relating to such impairments could have a material adverse impact on Linde's results of operations in the periods recognized.
Catastrophic events could disrupt the operations of Linde and/or its customers and suppliers and may have a significant adverse impact on the results of operations.
The occurrence of catastrophic events or natural disasters such as extreme weather, including hurricanes and floods; health epidemics; pandemics, such as COVID-19; and acts of war or terrorism, could disrupt or delay Linde’s ability to produce and distribute its products to customers and could potentially expose Linde to third-party liability claims. In addition, such events could impact Linde’s customers and suppliers resulting in temporary or long-term outages and/or the limitation of supply of energy and other raw materials used in normal business operations. Linde evaluates the direct and indirect business risks, consults with vendors, insurance providers and industry experts, makes investments in suitably resilient design and technology, and conducts regular reviews of the business risks with management. Despite these steps, however, these situations are outside Linde’s control and may have a significant adverse impact on its financial results.
The inability to attract and retain qualified personnel may adversely impact Linde’s business.
If Linde fails to attract, hire and retain qualified personnel, it may not be able to develop, market or sell its products or successfully manage its business. Linde is dependent upon a highly skilled, experienced and efficient workforce to be successful. Much of Linde’s competitive advantage is based on the expertise and experience of key personnel regarding marketing, technology, manufacturing and distribution infrastructure, systems and products. The inability to attract and hire qualified individuals or the loss of key employees in very skilled areas could have a negative effect on Linde’s financial results.
If Linde fails to keep pace with technological advances in the industry or if new technology initiatives do not become commercially accepted, customers may not continue to buy Linde’s products and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Linde’s research and development is directed toward developing new and improved methods for the production and distribution of industrial gases, the design and construction of plants and toward developing new markets and applications for the use of industrial and process gases. This results in the introduction of new applications and the development of new advanced process technologies. As a result of these efforts, Linde develops new and proprietary technologies and employs necessary measures to protect such technologies within the global geographies in which Linde operates. These technologies help Linde to create a competitive advantage and to provide a platform to grow its business. If Linde’s research and
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development activities do not keep pace with competitors or if Linde does not create new technologies that benefit customers, future results of operations could be adversely affected.
Risks related to pension benefit plans may adversely impact Linde’s results of operations and cash flows.
Pension benefits represent significant financial obligations that will be ultimately settled in the future with employees who meet eligibility requirements. Because of the uncertainties involved in estimating the timing and amount of future payments and asset returns, significant estimates are required to calculate pension expense and liabilities related to Linde’s plans. Linde utilizes the services of independent actuaries, whose models are used to facilitate these calculations. Several key assumptions are used in the actuarial models to calculate pension expense and liability amounts recorded in the consolidated financial statements. In particular, significant changes in actual investment returns on pension assets, discount rates, or legislative or regulatory changes could impact future results of operations and required pension contributions.
Operational risks may adversely impact Linde’s business or results of operations.
Linde’s operating results are dependent on the continued operation of its production facilities and its ability to meet customer contract requirements and other needs. Insufficient or excess capacity threatens Linde’s ability to generate competitive profit margins and may expose Linde to liabilities related to contract commitments. Operating results are also dependent on Linde’s ability to complete new construction projects on time, on budget and in accordance with performance requirements. Failure to do so may expose Linde’s business to loss of revenue, potential litigation and loss of business reputation.
Also inherent in the management of Linde’s production facilities and delivery systems, including storage, vehicle transportation and pipelines, are operational risks that require continuous training, oversight and control. Material operating failures at production, storage facilities or pipelines, including fire, toxic release and explosions, or the occurrence of vehicle transportation accidents could result in loss of life, damage to the environment, loss of production and/or extensive property damage, all of which may negatively impact Linde’s financial results.
Linde may be subject to information technology system failures, network disruptions and breaches in data security.
Linde relies on information technology systems and networks for business and operational activities, and also stores and processes sensitive business and proprietary information in these systems and networks. These systems are susceptible to outages due to fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failures, viruses, break-ins and similar events, or breaches of security.
Linde has taken steps to address these risks and concerns by implementing advanced security technologies, internal controls, network and data center resiliency and recovery processes. Despite these steps, however, our information technology systems have in the past been and in the future will likely be subject to increasingly sophisticated cyber attacks. Operational failures and breaches of security from such attempts could lead to the loss or disclosure of confidential information or personal data belonging to Linde or our employees and customers or suppliers. These failures and breaches could result in business interruption or malfunction and lead to legal or regulatory actions that could result in a material adverse impact on Linde’s operations, reputation and financial results. To date, such attempts have not had any significant impact on Linde's operations or financial results.
The inability to effectively integrate acquisitions or collaborate with joint venture partners could adversely impact Linde’s financial position and results of operations.
Linde has evaluated and expects to continue to evaluate, a wide array of potential strategic acquisitions and joint ventures. Many of these transactions, if consummated, could be material to its financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the process of integrating an acquired company, business or group of assets may create unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. Although historically Linde has been successful with its acquisition strategy and execution, the areas where Linde may face risks include:
the need to implement or remediate controls, procedures and policies appropriate for a larger public company at companies that prior to the acquisition lacked these controls, procedures and policies;
diversion of management time and focus from operating existing business to acquisition integration challenges;
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cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired company into the existing organization;
the need to integrate each company’s accounting, management information, human resources and other administrative systems to permit effective management;
difficulty with the assimilation of acquired operations and products;
failure to achieve targeted synergies and cost reductions; and
inability to retain key employees and business relationships of acquired companies.

Foreign acquisitions and joint ventures involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned herein, including those related to integration of operations across different cultures and languages, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.

Also, the anticipated benefit of potential future acquisitions may not materialize. Future acquisitions or dispositions could result in the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses, or impairments of goodwill, any of which could adversely impact Linde’s financial results.
Linde is subject to a variety of international laws and government regulations and changes in, or failure to comply with, these laws or regulations could have an adverse impact on the company’s business, financial position and results of operations.
Linde is subject to regulations in the following areas, among others:
environmental protection, including climate change and energy efficiency laws and policies;
U.S. and non-U.S. tax laws and currency controls;
safety;
securities laws applicable in the United States, the European Union, and other jurisdictions;
trade and import/export restrictions, as well as economic sanctions laws;
antitrust matters;
data protection;
global anti-bribery laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; and
healthcare regulations.

Changes in these or other regulatory areas may impact Linde’s profitability and may give rise to new or increased compliance risks: it may become more complex and costly to ensure compliance, and the level of sanctions in the event of non-compliance may rise. Noncompliance with such laws and regulations could result in penalties or sanctions, cancellation of marketing rights or restrictions on participation in, or even exclusion from, public tender proceedings, all of which could have a material adverse impact on Linde’s financial results and/or reputation.

Such changes may also restrict Linde’s ability to compete effectively in the marketplace. Changes to regulations in the areas of environmental protection and climate change, for example, may impact customer and competitor behavior driving structural changes in key end markets. While Linde will work to mitigate these risks through the pursuit of strategic alliances and investment in applications technologies to capture new growth areas, given the uncertainty about the type and scope of new regulations, it is difficult to predict how such changes and their impact on market behavior will ultimately impact Linde’s business. However, such changes could have a material adverse impact on Linde's results of operations.

Doing business globally requires Linde to comply with anti-corruption, trade, compliance and economic sanctions and similar laws, and to implement policies and procedures designed to ensure that its employees and other intermediaries comply with the applicable restrictions. These restrictions include prohibitions on the sale or supply of certain products, services and any other economic resources to embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, persons and entities. Compliance with these restrictions requires, among other things, screening of business partners. Despite its commitment to legal compliance and corporate ethics, the company cannot ensure that its policies and procedures will always protect it from intentional, reckless or negligent acts committed by employees or agents under the applicable laws. If Linde fails to comply with laws governing the conduct of international operations, Linde may be subject to criminal and civil penalties and other remedial measures, which could materially adversely affect its reputation, business and results of operations.
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The outcome of litigation or governmental investigations may adversely impact the company’s business or results of operations.
Linde’s subsidiaries are party to various lawsuits and governmental investigations arising in the ordinary course of business. Adverse outcomes in some or all of the claims pending may result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief that could adversely affect Linde’s ability to conduct business. Linde and its subsidiaries may in the future become subject to further claims and litigation, which is impossible to predict. The litigation and other claims Linde faces are subject to inherent uncertainties. Legal or regulatory judgments or agreed settlements might give rise to expenses which are not covered, or are not fully covered, by insurance benefits and may also lead to negative publicity and reputational damage. An unfavorable outcome or determination could cause a material adverse impact on the company’s results of operations.
Potential product defects or inadequate customer care may adversely impact Linde’s business or results of operations.
Risks associated with products and services may result in potential liability claims, the loss of customers or damage to Linde’s reputation. Principal possible causes of risks associated with products and services are product defects or an inadequate level of customer care when Linde is providing services.
Linde is exposed to legal risks relating to product liability in the countries where it operates, including countries such as the United States, where legal risks (in particular through class actions) have historically been more significant than in other countries. The outcome of any pending or future products and services proceedings or investigations cannot be predicted and legal or regulatory judgments or agreed settlements may give rise to significant losses, costs and expenses.
The manufacturing and sale of products as well as the construction and sale of plants by Linde may give rise to risks associated with the production, filling, storage, handling and transport of raw materials, goods or waste. Industrial gases are potentially hazardous substances and medical gases and the related healthcare services must comply with the relevant specifications in order to not adversely affect the health of patients treated with them.
Linde’s products and services, if defective or not handled or performed appropriately, may lead to personal injuries, business interruptions, environmental damages or other significant damages, which may result, among other consequences, in liability, losses, monetary penalties or compensation payments, environmental clean-up costs or other costs and expenses, exclusion from certain market sectors deemed important for future development of the business and loss of reputation. All these consequences could have a material adverse effect on Linde’s business and results of operations.
U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against Linde.
Linde is organized under the laws of Ireland and substantial portions of its assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, certain directors and officers of Linde and its subsidiaries reside outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon Linde or such persons, or to enforce outside the United States judgments obtained against such persons in U.S. courts in any action, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. In addition, it may be difficult for investors to enforce, in original actions brought in courts in jurisdictions located outside the United States, rights predicated upon the U.S. federal securities laws.
A judgment for the payment of money rendered by a court in the United States based on civil liability would not be automatically enforceable in Ireland. There is no treaty between Ireland and the United States providing for the reciprocal enforcement of foreign judgments. The following requirements must be met before the foreign judgment will be deemed to be enforceable in Ireland (i) the judgment must be for a definite sum, (ii) the judgment must be final and conclusive; and (iii) the judgment must be provided by a court of competent jurisdiction.
An Irish court will also exercise its right to refuse judgment if the foreign judgment (i) was obtained by fraud; (ii) violated Irish public policy; (iii) is in breach of natural justice; or (iv) if the judgment is irreconcilable with an earlier foreign judgment.
In addition, there is doubt as to whether an Irish court would accept jurisdiction and impose civil liability on Linde or such persons in an original action predicated solely upon the U.S. federal securities laws brought in a court of competent jurisdiction in Ireland against Linde or such member, officer or expert, respectively.
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Changes in tax laws or policy could adversely impact the company’s financial position or results of operations.
Linde and its subsidiaries are subject to the tax rules and regulations in the U.S., Germany, Ireland, the U.K. and other countries in which they operate. Those tax rules and regulations are subject to change on a prospective or retroactive basis. Under current economic and political conditions tax rates and policies in any jurisdiction, including the U.S., the U.K. and the EU, are subject to significant changes which could result in a significant change to Linde's current and deferred income tax. In particular, since Linde is currently treated as U.K. tax resident, any potential changes in the tax rules applying to U.K. tax-resident companies would directly affect Linde.
This includes the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development's (“OECD”) framework for a 15% global minimum tax rate (“Pillar Two”). The U.K. and a majority of EU member states implemented Pillar Two effective January 1, 2024. The OECD continues to issue additional guidance as countries adopt legislation. Linde continues to monitor and evaluate enacted and pending legislation in the jurisdictions in which it operates, as such changes could result in an increase in our effective tax rate.
A change in Linde’s tax residency could have a negative effect on the company’s future profitability and may trigger taxes on dividends or exit charges. If Linde ceases to be resident in the U.K. and becomes resident in another jurisdiction, it may be subject to U.K. exit charges, and/or could become liable for additional tax charges in the other jurisdiction. If Linde were to be treated as resident in more than one jurisdiction, it could be subject to duplicative taxation. Furthermore, although Linde is incorporated in Ireland and is not expected to be treated as a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it is possible that the IRS could challenge this result or that changes in U.S. federal income tax law could alter this result.  If the IRS successfully asserted such a position or the law were to change, significant adverse tax consequences may result for Linde, the company and Linde’s shareholders.  
Changes in tax laws may result in higher tax expense and tax payments. In addition, changes in tax legislation and uncertainty about the tax environment in some regions may restrict Linde's opportunity to enforce its respective rights under the law. Linde also operates in countries with complex tax regulations which could be interpreted in different ways. Linde and its subsidiaries are subject to audits by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions or other review actions by the relevant financial or tax authorities. The ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in Linde’s or its subsidiaries’ financial statements and may materially affect their respective financial results for the period when such determination is made.


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ITEM 1B.     UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.

ITEM 1C.    CYBERSECURITY

Risk Management & Strategy

Cybersecurity is identified as a top enterprise risk given the company's reliance on information technology systems and networks for business and operational activities. Linde has taken steps to address these risks and concerns by implementing cybersecurity and risk management processes that include advanced security technologies, internal controls, network and data center resiliency and disaster recovery processes.

Linde is implementing a series of security enhancements based on the Zero Trust principle. Linde maintains a Standard Operating Procedure for Global Security Incident Response that defines how Linde responds to cyber incidents, including escalation, reporting and remediation procedures. Dedicated cybersecurity teams conduct surveillance for potential threats and implement both procedural and technological controls to protect data and to maintain safe, uninterrupted operations. The company engages third parties in connection with these efforts to provide independent analysis and advice on cybersecurity risks, incidents and other cyber security related matters. In addition, to help our people recognize information and cybersecurity concerns and respond accordingly, Linde conducts mandatory trainings and cybersecurity awareness programs for employees.

Third party software providers that facilitate Linde’s business activities are also sources of cybersecurity risk for the company. Linde performs risk assessment procedures including evaluation of the overall health of the control environment for certain third-party providers.

Despite these steps, however, our information technology systems have in the past been and in the future will likely be subject to increasingly sophisticated cyber attacks. Operational failures and breaches of security from such attempts could lead to the loss or disclosure of confidential information or personal data belonging to Linde or our employees and customers or suppliers. These failures and breaches could result in business interruption or malfunction and lead to legal or regulatory actions that could result in a material adverse impact on Linde’s operations, reputation and financial results. To date, such attempts have not had any significant impact on Linde's operations or financial results.

Governance

Information and cybersecurity risk management fall under the oversight of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee receives an annual review, followed by quarterly updates, of the Company’s cybersecurity systems, enhancements, strategies and risk management efforts, and the Chair of the Audit Committee will be promptly notified of any material cybersecurity breach incident. In addition, the full Board reviews cybersecurity as part of its regular risk reviews. Linde has appointed a Global Chief Information Officer (CIO) reporting to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO). A Chief Information Security Officer reports to the CIO and is supported by a global IT security team.

ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
Linde's principal executive offices are located in leased office space in Woking, United Kingdom and owned office space in Danbury, Connecticut. Linde also owns principal administrative office space in Tonawanda, New York, United States and Pullach, Germany.
Due to the nature of Linde’s industrial gas products, it is generally uneconomical to transport most products distances greater than a few hundred miles from the production facility. As a result, Linde operates a significant number of production facilities spread globally throughout a number of geographic regions.
The following is a description of production facilities for Linde by segment. No significant portion of these assets was leased at December 31, 2023. Generally, these facilities are utilized and are sufficient to meet the company's manufacturing needs.
Americas
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The Americas segment operates production facilities primarily in the U.S., Canada, Mexico and Brazil, approximately 350 of which are mainly cryogenic air separation plants, hydrogen plants and carbon dioxide plants. There are five major pipeline complexes in North America located in northern Indiana, Houston, along the Gulf Coast of Texas, Detroit and Louisiana. Also located throughout the Americas are noncryogenic air separation plants, packaged gas facilities and other smaller plant facilities.
EMEA
The EMEA segment has production facilities primarily in Germany, the U.K., Eastern Europe, France, Sweden and the Republic of South Africa which include approximately 275 cryogenic air separation plants and carbon dioxide plants. Also located throughout Europe are noncryogenic air separation plants, pipelines, hydrogen, packaged gas facilities and other smaller plant facilities.

APAC
The APAC segment has production facilities located primarily in China, Australia, India, South Korea and Thailand, approximately 230 of which are cryogenic air separation plants and carbon dioxide plants. Also located throughout Asia are noncryogenic air separation plants, pipelines, hydrogen, packaged gas and other production facilities.
Engineering
The Engineering business designs and constructs turnkey process plants for third-party customers as well as for the gases businesses in many locations worldwide, such as air separation, hydrogen, synthesis, olefin and natural gas plants. Plant components are produced in owned factories in Tacherting, Germany; Hesingue, France; New York and Oklahoma, United States; and Dalian, China.


ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the section captioned “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 17. Commitments and Contingencies” in Item 8 of this 10-K.

ITEM 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5.     MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Linde plc shares trade on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) under the ticker symbol “LIN”. At December 31, 2023 there were 6,596 shareholders of record. From January 1, 2023 through November 6, 2023, Linde’s shares were traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), but effective November 7, 2023, Linde delisted its shares from the NYSE and began listing and trading its shares on the Nasdaq.

Purchases of Equity Securities – Certain information regarding purchases made by or on behalf of the company or any affiliated purchaser (as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) of its ordinary shares during the three months ended December 31, 2023 is provided below:
Period
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
(Thousands)
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
Total Number of
Shares  Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced
Programs (1)
(Thousands)
Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares that
May Yet be Purchased
Under the Programs (2)
(Millions)
October 2023852 $373.13 852 $17,051 
November 2023657 $400.45 657 $16,788 
December 20231,042 $405.41 1,042 $16,366 
Fourth Quarter 20232,551 $393.35 2,551 $16,366 

(1)On February 28, 2022 the company's board of directors approved the repurchase of $10.0 billion of its ordinary shares ("2022 program") which could take place from time to time on the open market (and could include the use of 10b5-1 trading plans), subject to market and business conditions. The 2022 program has a maximum repurchase amount of 15% of outstanding shares, beginning on March 1, 2022 and expires on July 31, 2024.
    On October 23, 2023, the company's board of directors approved the repurchase of $15.0 billion of its ordinary shares ("2023 program") which could take place from time to time on the open market (and could include the use of 10b5-1 trading plans), subject to market and business conditions. The 2023 program began on October 23, 2023 and will terminate on the earlier of the date as the maximum authority under the 2023 program is reached or the board terminates the 2023 program.
(2)    As of December 31, 2023, the company repurchased $8.6 billion of its ordinary shares pursuant to the 2022 program. As of December 31, 2023, $1.4 billion and $15 billion of share repurchases remain authorized under the 2022 and 2023 programs, respectively.
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Peer Performance Table – The graph below compares the most recent five-year cumulative returns of Linde's ordinary shares with those of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index ("SPX") and the S5 Materials Index ("S5MATR") which covers 28 companies, including Linde. The figures assume an initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2018 and that all dividends have been reinvested. 2163
201820192020202120222023
LIN$100$139$175$234$223$285
SPX$100$131$156$200$164$207
S5MATR$100$125$150$191$168$189


ITEM 6.     RESERVED

Not applicable.
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ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of the company’s financial condition and results of operations should be read together with its consolidated financial statements and notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. 
Page
Business Overview
Executive Summary – Financial Results & Outlook
Consolidated Results and Other Information
Segment Discussion
Liquidity, Capital Resources and Other Financial Data
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Critical Accounting Estimates
New Accounting Standards
Fair Value Measurements
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Supplemental Guarantee Information
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BUSINESS OVERVIEW
The company's primary products in its industrial gases business are atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, rare gases) and process gases (carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, electronic gases, specialty gases, acetylene). The company also designs, engineers, and builds equipment that produces industrial gases and offers its customers a wide range of gas production and processing services such as olefin plants, natural gas plants, air separation plants, hydrogen and synthesis gas plants and other types of plants.

Linde’s industrial gas operations are managed on a geographical basis and in 2023 90% of sales were generated by Linde's three geographic segments (Americas, EMEA and APAC) and the remaining 10% are related largely to the Engineering segment, and to a lesser extent Other (see Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements for operating segment details).

Linde serves a diverse group of industries including healthcare, chemicals and energy, manufacturing, metals and mining, food and beverage, and electronics. The diversity of end-markets supports financial stability for Linde in varied business cycles.
Linde's industrial gas business generates most of its revenues and earnings in the following geographies where the company has its strongest market positions and where distribution and production operations allow the company to deliver the highest level of service to its customers at the lowest cost. 
North and South America ("Americas")Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”)Asia and Pacific
(“APAC”)
United StatesGermanyChina
BrazilUnited KingdomAustralia
MexicoEastern EuropeSouth Korea
CanadaIndia
The company manufactures and distributes its industrial gas products through networks of thousands of production plants, pipeline complexes, distribution centers and delivery vehicles. Major pipeline complexes are primarily located in the United States and China. These networks are a competitive advantage, providing the foundation of reliable product supply to the company’s customer base. The majority of Linde’s business is conducted through long-term contracts which provide stability in cash flow and the ability to pass through changes in energy and feedstock costs to customers. The company has growth opportunities in all major geographies and in diverse end-markets such as healthcare, chemicals and energy, manufacturing, metals and mining, food and beverage, and electronics.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – FINANCIAL RESULTS & OUTLOOK
2023 Year in review
Sales of $32,854 million were 2% below 2022 sales of $33,364 million. Cost pass-through, representing the contractual billing of energy cost variances primarily to onsite customers, decreased sales by 3% with minimal impact on operating profit. Engineering decreased sales by 2%. Volumes decreased sales by 1%. Currency translation decreased sales by 1%, largely in APAC. Divestitures, net of acquisitions, decreased sales by 1% primarily due to the divestment of the GIST business, partially offset by the nexAir, LLC acquisition. The aforementioned drivers were partially offset by 6% higher price attainment across all geographic segments.
Reported operating profit of $8,024 million was 49% above 2022. Adjusted operating profit of $9,070 million was 15% above 2022. The increase in the reported operating profit was primarily driven by the Russia-Ukraine conflict and other charges recorded in 2022 and included higher pricing, savings from productivity initiatives, and lower depreciation and amortization driven by merger related intangible assets. These increases more than offset the adverse impacts of cost inflation and lower volumes in the year. The adjusted operating profit increase was primarily due to higher pricing and productivity initiatives, which more than offset the effects of cost inflation and lower volumes during the year.*
Net income - Linde plc of $6,199 million and diluted earnings per share of $12.59 increased from $4,147 million and $8.23, respectively in 2022. Adjusted net income - Linde plc of $6,989 million and adjusted diluted earnings per share of $14.20 were 13% and 16%, respectively above 2022 adjusted amounts.*
Cash flow from operations of $9,305 million was $441 million above 2022. The increase was driven by higher net income partially offset by higher net working capital requirements, including lower inflows from contract liabilities from engineering customer advanced payments. Capital expenditures were $3,787 million; dividends paid were $2,482 million; net purchases of ordinary shares of $3,925 million; and debt borrowings, net were $1,060 million.

*A reconciliation of the adjusted amounts can be found in the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section in this MD&A.

2024 Outlook

Linde provides quarterly updates on operating results, material trends that may affect financial performance, and financial guidance via earnings releases and investor teleconferences. These materials are available on the company’s website, www.linde.com, but are not incorporated herein.

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CONSOLIDATED RESULTS AND OTHER INFORMATION
The discussion that follows includes a comparison of our results of operations and liquidity and capital resources for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. For the discussion comparing the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, refer to Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
The following table provides summary information for 2023 and 2022. The reported amounts are GAAP amounts from the Consolidated Statements of Income. The adjusted amounts are intended to supplement investors' understanding of the company's financial information and are not a substitute for GAAP measures.
(Millions of dollars, except per share data)
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Variance
Reported Amounts
Sales$32,854 $33,364 (2)%
Cost of sales, exclusive of depreciation and amortization$17,492 $19,450 (10)%
As a percent of sales53.2 %58.3 %
Selling, general and administrative$3,295 $3,107 %
As a percent of sales10.0 %9.3 %
Depreciation and amortization$3,816 $4,204 (9)%
Other charges (a)$40 $1,029 — 
Operating Profit$8,024 $5,369 49 %
Operating margin24.4 %16.1 %
Interest expense – net$200 $63 217 %
Net pension and OPEB cost (benefit), excluding service cost$(164)$(237)(31)%
Effective tax rate22.7 %25.9 %
Income from equity investments$167 $172 (3)%
Noncontrolling interests $(142)$(134)%
Net Income - Linde plc$6,199 $4,147 49 %
Diluted earnings per share$12.59 $8.23 53 %
Diluted shares outstanding492,290 504,038 (2)%
Number of employees66,323 65,010 %
Adjusted Amounts (b)
Operating profit$9,070 $7,904 15 %
Operating margin27.6 %23.7 %
Net Income - Linde plc$6,989 $6,195 13 %
Diluted earnings per share$14.20 $12.29 16 %
Other Financial Data (b)
EBITDA$12,007 $9,745 23 %
As percent of sales36.5 %29.2 %
Adjusted EBITDA$12,133 $10,873 12 %
As percent of sales36.9 %32.6 %
________________________
(a)See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.
(b)Adjusted amounts and Other Financial Data are non-GAAP performance measures. A reconciliation of reported amounts to adjusted amounts can be found in the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section of this MD&A.





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Results of Operations
The following table provides a summary of changes in consolidated sales:
2023 vs. 2022
 % Change
Factors Contributing to Changes - Sales
Volume(1)%
Price/Mix%
Cost pass-through(3)%
Currency(1)%
Acquisitions/divestitures(1)%
Engineering(2)%
(2)%
2023 Compared With 2022

Sales
Linde sales decreased $510 million, or 2%, for the 2023 year versus 2022. Higher pricing across all geographic segments contributed 6% to sales. Cost pass-through, representing the contractual billing of energy cost variances primarily to onsite customers, decreased sales by 3%, with minimal impact on operating profit. Volumes decreased sales by 1% primarily driven by the electronics and metals and mining end markets. The impact of divestitures, net of acquisitions decreased sales by 1%. Currency translation decreased sales by 1%, largely in APAC, driven by the weakening of the Chinese yuan and Australian dollar against the U.S. dollar, partially offset by EMEA, driven by the strengthening of the Euro and British pound.
Cost of sales, exclusive of depreciation and amortization    
Cost of sales, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, decreased $1,958 million, or 10%, for the year primarily due to lower cost pass-through and volumes, the net impact of acquisitions and divestitures and productivity gains which more than offset cost inflation. Cost of sales, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, was 53.2% and 58.3% of sales, respectively, in 2023 compared to 2022. The decrease as a percentage of sales was primarily due to higher pricing and lower cost pass-through.

Selling, general and administrative expenses
Selling, general and administrative expense ("SG&A") increased $188 million, from $3,107 in 2022 to $3,295 million in 2023. SG&A was 10.0% of sales in 2023 versus 9.3% in 2022. Currency impacts decreased SG&A by approximately $3 million in 2023. Excluding currency impacts, underlying SG&A increased primarily due to higher costs including the acquisition of nexAir.
Depreciation and amortization
Reported depreciation and amortization expense decreased $388 million, or 9% versus 2022. The decrease is primarily due to lower depreciation and amortization of assets acquired in the merger.
On an adjusted basis, depreciation and amortization expense increased $102 million, or 4%, versus 2022. Currency impacts decreased depreciation and amortization by $29 million in 2023. Excluding currency, underlying depreciation and amortization increased due to the net impact of acquisitions and new project start ups.
Other charges
Other charges were $40 million and $1,029 million for 2023 and 2022, respectively. In 2023, the costs primarily related to severance in the Engineering segment and expenses incurred due to the intercompany reorganization. The charge for 2022 relates primarily to the deconsolidation and impairment of Russian subsidiaries resulting from the ongoing war in Ukraine and related sanctions recorded as of June 30, 2022.
On an adjusted basis, these charges have been excluded in both periods.
Operating profit
Reported operating profit increased $2,655 million in 2023, or 49%. On an adjusted basis, operating profit increased $1,166 million, or 15%, for 2023 versus 2022.
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On a reported basis, the increase was primarily driven by Russia-Ukraine conflict and other charges recorded in 2022 and included higher pricing, savings from productivity initiatives, and lower depreciation and amortization driven by merger related intangible assets. These increases more than offset the adverse impacts of inflation and currency in the year as well as other charges of $40 million.
On an adjusted basis, which excludes the impacts of purchase accounting as well as other charges, operating profit increased $1,166 million, or 15%. Operating profit growth was driven by higher pricing, and productivity initiatives, partially offset by cost inflation and lower volumes. A discussion of operating profit by segment is included in the segment discussion that follows.
Interest expense - net
Reported interest expense – net in 2023 increased $137 million, or 217%, versus 2022. On an adjusted basis interest expense increased $118 million, or 120% in 2023 as compared to 2022. The increase was driven primarily by higher interest rates on debt and included approximately $28 million of devaluation impacts from hyperinflationary countries.
Net pension and OPEB cost (benefit), excluding service cost
Reported net pension and OPEB cost (benefit), excluding service cost were benefits of $164 million and $237 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease in benefit primarily relates to higher interest cost reflective of the higher discount rate environment year-over-year (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements).

Effective tax rate
The reported effective tax rate ("ETR") for 2023 was 22.7% versus 25.9% in 2022. The decrease in the rate is primarily related to a net decrease in the company's uncertain tax positions and the absence of the net unfavorable tax expense resulting from the Russia impairment and deconsolidation in 2022 (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements).
On an adjusted basis, the ETR for 2023 was 23.6% versus 24.2% in 2022. The decrease includes higher tax benefits from share based compensation.
Income from equity investments
Reported income from equity investments for 2023 was $167 million as compared to $172 million in 2022. On an adjusted basis, income from equity investments for 2023 was $239 million versus $247 million in 2022.
On an adjusted basis, the year-over-year decrease in income from equity investments was primarily driven by the overall performance of investments in APAC.
Noncontrolling interests
At December 31, 2023, noncontrolling interests from continuing operations consisted primarily of noncontrolling shareholders’ investments in APAC (primarily in China).
Reported noncontrolling interests from continuing operations increased $8 million, from $134 million in 2022 to $142 million in 2023.
Adjusted noncontrolling interests from continuing operations decreased $2 million in 2023 as compared to 2022.
Net Income - Linde plc
Reported net income - Linde plc increased $2,052 million, or 49%. On an adjusted basis, which excludes the impacts of purchase accounting and other charges, net income - Linde plc increased $794 million, or 13%, in 2023 versus 2022. On both a reported and adjusted basis, the increase was driven by higher operating profit.
Diluted earnings per share
Reported diluted earnings per share increased $4.36, or 53%, in 2023 as compared to 2022. On an adjusted basis, diluted EPS of $14.20 in 2023 increased 16% versus 2022. The increase on both a reported and adjusted basis is primarily due to higher net income - Linde plc and lower diluted shares outstanding.
Employees
The number of employees at December 31, 2023 was 66,323, an increase of 2%, or 1,313 employees from 2022, driven primarily by the acquisition of nexAir.



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Other Financial Data
EBITDA increased to $12,007 million in 2023 from $9,745 million in 2022. Adjusted EBITDA increased to $12,133 million for 2023 as compared to $10,873 million in 2022. The increase in both periods was driven by higher net income - Linde plc versus prior year.
See the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section for definitions and reconciliations of these non-GAAP measures to reported GAAP amounts.
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Other comprehensive income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2023 was a loss of $35 million resulted primarily from losses related to the change in funded status of retirement plans of $380 million and derivative losses of $55 million largely offset by currency translation adjustments of $400 million. The translation adjustments reflect the impact of translating local currency foreign subsidiary financial statements to U.S. dollars, and are largely driven by the movement of the U.S. dollar against major currencies including the Euro, British pound and the Chinese yuan. See the "Currency" section of the MD&A for exchange rates used for translation purposes and Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements for a summary of the currency translation adjustment component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) by segment.
Related Party Transactions
The company’s related parties are primarily unconsolidated equity affiliates. The company did not engage in any material transactions involving related parties that included terms or other aspects that differ from those which would be negotiated with independent parties.
Environmental Matters
Linde’s principal operations relate to the production and distribution of atmospheric and other industrial gases, many of which are used to help customers reduce their emissions. Worldwide costs relating to environmental protection may continue to grow due to increasingly stringent laws and regulations. In addition, Linde may face physical risks from climate change and extreme weather.

Climate Change

Linde operates in jurisdictions that have, or are developing, laws and/or regulations to reduce or mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and therefore faces a highly uncertain regulatory environment in this area. For example, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") has promulgated rules requiring reporting of GHG emissions to which Linde, its suppliers and customers are subject to. EPA has also promulgated regulations to restrict GHG emissions, including final rules regulating GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles and certain large manufacturing facilities, including some of Linde’s suppliers and customers. In addition to these developments in the United States, several other countries worldwide have implemented carbon taxation or trading systems which impact the company and its customers, including regulations in China, Singapore and the European Union. Among other impacts, such regulations are expected to raise the cost of energy, which is a significant cost for Linde. Nevertheless, Linde's long-term customer contracts routinely provide rights to recover increased electricity, natural gas, and other costs that are incurred by the company as a result of climate change regulation.

Linde anticipates continued growth in hydrogen sales due to increased focus on decarbonization projects. Traditionally, hydrogen production plants and a large number of other manufacturing and electricity-generating plants have been identified as sources of carbon dioxide emissions and these plants are subject to cap-and-trade regulations in jurisdictions including California and the European Union. Linde believes it will be able to mitigate the costs of these regulations through the terms of its product supply contracts. However, legislation that limits GHG emissions may impact growth by increasing capital, compliance, operating and maintenance costs and/or decreasing demand.

To manage business risks from current and potential GHG emission regulation as well as physical consequences of climate change, Linde actively monitors current developments, evaluates the direct and indirect business risks, and takes appropriate actions. Among others, actions include: increasing relevant resources and training; maintaining contingency plans; obtaining advice and counsel from expert vendors, insurance providers and industry experts; incorporating GHG provisions in commercial agreements; and conducting regular reviews of the business risks with management. Although there are considerable uncertainties, Linde believes that the business risk from potential regulations can be effectively managed through its commercial contracts. Additionally, Linde’s plant design, operations, and risk management teams are
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engaged to manage and mitigate losses from physical climate change, and the company does not anticipate any material effects regarding its plant operations or business arising from potential physical risks of climate change.

Linde continuously seeks opportunities to optimize energy use and GHG emissions through research and development in customer applications and rigorous operational energy efficiency, sourcing low-carbon source energy, and purchasing hydrogen as a chemical byproduct where feasible. Linde tracks GHG emission performance versus targets and reports regularly to business management and annually to Linde's Board of Directors. The Sustainability Committee is responsible for oversight of the Company's programs, policies and strategies related to environmental matters, including climate change, greenhouse gas reduction goals and decarbonization solutions, such as clean energy and carbon management.

At the same time, external factors may provide Linde with future business opportunities. Examples include current legislation, such as the Inflation Reduction Act in the U.S., which provides for investments in production of clean hydrogen and decarbonization technologies. Other factors include governmental regulation of GHG and other emissions; uncertain costs of energy and certain natural resources; the development of renewable energy alternatives; and new technologies that help extract natural gas, improve air quality, increase energy efficiency and mitigate the impacts of climate change. Linde continues to develop new applications that can help customers lower emissions by reducing energy consumption and increasing product throughput. Stricter regulation of water quality in emerging economies such as China provide a growing market for a number of gases, e.g., oxygen for wastewater treatment. Increased concern about drought in areas such as California and Australia may create additional markets for carbon dioxide for desalination. Renewable fuel standards in the European Union and U.S. can create a market for second-generation biofuels which use industrial gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

Costs Relating to the Protection of the Environment

Environmental protection costs in 2023 were not significant. Linde anticipates that future annual environmental protection expenditures will be similar to 2023, subject to any significant changes in existing laws and regulations. Based on historical results and current estimates, management does not believe that environmental expenditures will have a material adverse effect on the consolidated financial position, the consolidated results of operations or cash flows in any given year.

Legal Proceedings
See Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements for information concerning legal proceedings.
Retirement Benefits
Pensions
The net periodic benefit cost (benefit) for the U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans was a benefit of $80 million, $110 million and $35 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The funded status (pension benefit obligation ("PBO") less the fair value of plan assets) for the U.S. plans was a deficit of $137 million and $238 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The funded status for non-U.S. plans was a deficit of $207 million and surplus of $208 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The U.S. plan derived a benefit from the actual return on plan assets. Non-U.S. plans also experienced an increase in plan assets, offset by unfavorability generated from a higher PBO due to a decrease in discount rates.
Global pension contributions were $46 million in 2023, $51 million in 2022, and $42 million in 2021. At a minimum, Linde contributes to its pension plans to comply with local regulatory requirements (e.g., ERISA in the U.S.). Discretionary contributions in excess of the local minimum requirements are made based on many factors, including long-term projections of the plans' funded status, the economic environment, potential risk of overfunding, pension insurance costs and alternative uses of cash. Changes to these factors can impact the timing of discretionary contributions from year to year. Estimated required contributions for 2024 are currently expected to be in the range of $35 million to $45 million.
Linde assumes expected returns on plan assets for 2024 of 7.00% and 5.83% for the U.S. and non-U.S. plans, respectively, which are consistent with the long-term expected returns on its investment portfolios.
Excluding the impact of any settlements, 2024 consolidated pension expense is expected to be a benefit of approximately $115 million. The benefit derived from the expected return on assets assumption for Linde's most significant plans is anticipated to more than offset the expense from service and interest cost accruals and the higher amortization of deferred losses.
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Refer to the Critical Accounting Estimates section and Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for a more detailed discussion of the company’s retirement benefits, including a description of the various retirement plans and the assumptions used in the calculation of net periodic benefit cost (benefit) and funded status.
Insurance
Linde purchases insurance to limit a variety of property and casualty risks, including those related to property, business interruption, third-party liability and workers’ compensation. Currently, the company self retains up to $10 million per occurrence for vehicle liability in the United States, $5 million per occurrence for workers' compensation and general liability. In addition, the company self retains risk up to €5 to €7.5 million at its various properties worldwide for property damage resulting from fire, flood and other perils affecting its properties along with a separate €5 to €7.5 million deductible on business interruption resulting from a major peril loss. To mitigate its aggregate loss potential above these retentions, the company purchases catastrophic insurance coverage from highly rated insurance companies. The company does not currently operate or participate in any captive insurance companies or other non-traditional risk transfer alternatives.

At December 31, 2023 and 2022, the company had recorded a total of $75 million and $71 million, respectively, representing an estimate of the retained liability for the ultimate cost of claims incurred and unpaid as of the balance sheet dates. The estimated liability is established using statistical analysis and is based upon historical experience, actuarial assumptions and professional judgment. These estimates are subject to the effects of trends in loss severity and frequency and are subject to a significant degree of inherent variability. If actual claims differ from the company’s estimates, they will be adjusted at that time and financial results could be impacted.
Linde recognizes estimated insurance proceeds relating to damages at the time of loss only to the extent of incurred losses. Any insurance recoveries for business interruption and for property damages in excess of the net book value of the property are recognized only when realized or pending payments confirmed by its insurance companies.
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SEGMENT DISCUSSION
Linde’s operations consist of two major product lines: industrial gases and engineering. As further described in the following paragraph, Linde’s industrial gases operations are managed on a geographic basis, which represents three of the company's reportable segments - Americas, EMEA (Europe/Middle East/Africa), and APAC (Asia/South Pacific); a fourth reportable segment, which represents the company's Engineering business, designs and manufactures equipment for air separation and other industrial gas applications specifically for end customers and is managed on a worldwide basis operating in all geographic segments. Other consists of corporate costs and a few smaller businesses which individually do not meet the quantitative thresholds for separate presentation.
The industrial gases product line centers on the manufacturing and distribution of atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, rare gases) and process gases (carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, electronic gases, specialty gases, acetylene). Many of these products are co-products of the same manufacturing process. Linde manufactures and distributes nearly all of its products and manages its customer relationships on a regional basis. Linde’s industrial gases are distributed to various end-markets within a regional segment through one of three basic distribution methods: on-site or tonnage; merchant or bulk; and packaged or cylinder gases. The distribution methods are generally integrated in order to best meet the customer’s needs and very few of its products can be economically transported outside of a region. Therefore, the distribution economics are specific to the various geographies in which the company operates and are consistent with how management assesses performance.
The company’s measure of profit/loss for segment reporting purposes is segment operating profit. Segment operating profit is defined as operating profit excluding purchase accounting impacts of the Linde AG merger, intercompany royalties, and items not indicative of ongoing business trends. This is the manner in which the company’s Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") assesses performance and allocates resources.

The table below presents sales and operating profit information about reportable segments and Other for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
(Millions of dollars)
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Variance
Sales
Americas$14,304 $13,874 %
EMEA8,542 8,443 %
APAC6,559 6,480 %
Engineering2,160 2,762 (22)%
Other1,289 1,805 (29)%
Total sales$32,854 $33,364 (2)%
Operating Profit
Americas$4,244 $3,732 14 %
EMEA2,486 2,013 23 %
APAC1,806 1,670 %
Engineering491 555 (12)%
Other43 (66)165 %
Segment operating profit9,070 7,904 15 %
Reconciliation to reported operating profit :
Other charges (Note 3)
(40)(1,029)
Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG(1,006)(1,506)
Total operating profit$8,024 $5,369 




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Americas
(Dollar amounts in millions)Variance
Year Ended December 31,
202320222023 vs. 2022
Sales$14,304 $13,874 %
Operating profit$4,244 $3,732 14 %
As a percent of sales29.7 %26.9 %
2023 vs. 2022
 % Change
Factors Contributing to Changes - Sales
Volume— %
Price/Mix%
Cost pass-through(6)%
Currency— %
Acquisitions/Divestitures%
%
The Americas segment includes Linde’s industrial gases operations in approximately 20 countries including the United States, Canada, Mexico and Brazil.
Sales
Sales for the Americas segment increased $430 million, or 3%, in 2023 versus 2022. Higher pricing contributed 6% to sales. The impact of net acquisitions increased sales by 3% primarily due to the acquisition of nexAir, LLC (See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements). Cost past-through decreased sales by 6% with minimal impact on operating profit. Volumes and currency translation remained flat.
Operating Profit
Operating profit in the Americas segment increased $512 million, or 14%, in 2023 versus 2022 driven primarily by higher pricing, acquisitions and continued productivity initiatives which more than offset cost inflation the year.

EMEA 
(Dollar amounts in millions) Variance
Year Ended December 31,202320222023 vs. 2022
Sales$8,542 $8,443 %
Operating profit$2,486 $2,013 23 %
As a percent of sales29.1 %23.8 %
2023 vs. 2022
 % Change
Factors Contributing to Changes - Sales
Volume(4)%
Price/Mix%
Cost pass-through(3)%
Currency%
Acquisitions/Divestitures(2)%
%
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The EMEA segment includes Linde's industrial gases operations in approximately 45 European, Middle Eastern and African countries including Germany, the U.K., France, Sweden and the Republic of South Africa.
Sales
EMEA segment sales increased by $99 million, or 1%, in 2023 versus 2022. Higher price attainment increased sales by 9%. Volumes decreased sales by 4% led by the chemicals and energy end market. Cost pass-through decreased sales by 3% with minimal impact on operating profit. Currency translation increased sales by 1% due largely to the strengthening of the Euro and British pound against the U.S. Dollar. The impact of net divestitures decreased sales by 2% primarily due to the deconsolidation of the Russian subsidiaries in June 2022.
Operating Profit
Operating Profit for the EMEA segment increased $473 million, or 23%, in 2023 versus 2022. The increase was driven primarily by higher pricing and continued productivity initiatives, partially offset by cost inflation, lower volumes and divestitures.
APAC
(Dollar amounts in millions) Variance
Year Ended December 31,202320222023 vs. 2022
Sales$6,559 $6,480 %
Operating profit$1,806 $1,670 %
As a percent of sales27.5 %25.8 %
2023 vs. 2022
 % Change
Factors Contributing to Changes - Sales
Volume/Equipment%
Price/Mix%
Cost pass-through(1)%
Currency(4)%
Acquisitions/Divestitures— %
%
The APAC segment includes Linde's industrial gases operations in approximately 20 Asian and South Pacific countries and regions including China, Australia, India and South Korea.
Sales
Sales for the APAC segment increased $79 million, or 1%, in 2023 versus 2022. Volume increased 2% including project start-ups in the electronics and chemicals and energy end markets. Higher price increased sales by 4%. Cost pass-through decreased sales by 1% with minimal impact on operating profit. Currency translation decreased sales by 4% driven primarily by the weakening of the Australian dollar, Indian rupee and Chinese Yuan against the U.S. Dollar.
Operating Profit
Operating profit in the APAC segment increased $136 million, or 8%, in 2023 versus 2022. The increase was primarily driven by higher pricing and continued productivity initiatives which more than offset the impact of currency and cost inflation.

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Engineering
(Dollar amounts in millions) Variance
Year Ended December 31,202320222023 vs. 2022
Sales$2,160 $2,762 (22)%
Operating profit$491 $555 (12)%
As a percent of sales22.7 %20.1 %
2023 vs. 2022
 % Change
Factors Contributing to Changes - Sales
Currency%
Other(23)%
(22)%
Sales
Engineering segment sales decreased $602 million, or 22%, in 2023 versus 2022 . The decrease was driven by project timing.

Projects for Russia that were sanctioned, and therefore terminated or suspended, have been lawfully wound down and represented approximately $238 million and $894 million of the Engineering segment sales during 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Operating profit

Engineering segment operating profit decreased $64 million, or 12%, in 2023 versus 2022. The decline from lower sales was partially offset by higher margin on wind down of terminated or suspended projects sanctioned in Russia.


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Other
(Dollar amounts in millions) Variance
Year Ended December 31,202320222023 vs. 2022
Sales$1,289 $1,805 (29)%
Operating profit$43 $(66)165 %
As a percent of sales3.3 %(3.7)%
2023 vs. 2022
 % Change
Factors Contributing to Changes - Sales
Volume/Price%
Currency— %
Acquisitions/Divestitures(31)%
(29)%
Other consists of corporate costs and a few smaller businesses including: Linde Advanced Materials Technology and global helium wholesale; which individually do not meet the quantitative thresholds for separate presentation.

Sales

Sales for Other decreased $516 million, or 29%, in 2023 versus 2022. Divestitures decreased sales by 31% primarily due to sale of GIST business in third quarter of 2022. Volume/Price increased sales by 2% driven primarily by price in the coatings and global helium businesses, partially offset by lower coatings volumes.

Operating profit

Operating profit in Other increased $109 million, or 165%, in 2023 versus 2022 driven primarily by higher pricing in global helium and coatings and lower corporate costs which more than offset the impact of divestitures and lower volumes.

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Currency
The results of Linde’s non-U.S. operations are translated to the company’s reporting currency, the U.S. dollar, from the functional currencies used in the countries in which the company operates. For most foreign operations, Linde uses the local currency as its functional currency. There is inherent variability and unpredictability in the relationship of these functional currencies to the U.S. dollar and such currency movements may materially impact Linde’s results of operations in any given period.
To help understand the reported results, the following is a summary of the significant currencies underlying Linde’s consolidated results and the exchange rates used to translate the financial statements (rates of exchange expressed in units of local currency per U.S. dollar): 
  
Percent of 2023Statements of IncomeBalance Sheets
  
ConsolidatedAverage Year Ended December 31,December 31,
CurrencySales2023202220232022
Euro19 %0.92 0.95 0.92 0.93 
Chinese yuan%7.08 6.72 7.10 6.90 
British pound%0.80 0.81 0.79 0.83 
Australian dollar%1.50 1.44 1.47 1.47 
Brazilian real%4.99 5.16 4.86 5.28 
Korean won%1,306 1,286 1,288 1,266 
Canadian dollar%1.35 1.36 1.32 1.36 
Mexican peso%17.71 20.10 16.97 19.50 
Indian rupee%84.51 78.49 83.21 82.73 
Republic of South African rand%18.43 16.30 18.36 17.04 
Swedish krona%10.60 10.08 10.07 10.43 
Thailand bhat%34.78 34.96 34.14 34.61 
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LIQUIDITY, CAPITAL RESOURCES AND OTHER FINANCIAL DATA 
(Millions of dollars)
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Net Cash Provided by (Used for)
Operating Activities
Income from continuing operations (including noncontrolling interests)$6,341 $4,281 
Non-cash charges (credits):
    Add: Other charges, net of payments (a)(118)902 
    Add: Depreciation and amortization3,816 4,204 
    Add (Less): Deferred income taxes(84)(383)
    Add (Less): Non-cash charges and other 184 58 
        Income from continuing operations adjusted for non-cash charges and other10,139 9,062 
Less: Pension contributions(46)(51)
Add (Less): Working capital(483)(310)
Add (Less): Other(305)163 
Net cash provided by (used for) operating activities$9,305 $8,864 
Investing Activities
Capital expenditures$(3,787)$(3,173)
Acquisitions, net of cash acquired(953)(110)
Divestitures and asset sales, net of cash divested70 195 
Net cash provided by (used for) investing activities$(4,670)$(3,088)
Financing Activities
Debt increases (decreases) – net$1,060 $4,475 
Issuances (purchases) of ordinary shares – net(3,925)(5,132)
Cash dividends – Linde plc shareholders(2,482)(2,344)
Noncontrolling interest transactions and other(53)(88)
Net cash provided by (used for) financing activities$(5,400)$(3,089)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash$(7)$(74)
Cash and cash equivalents, end-of-period$4,664 $5,436 
____________________
(a)See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.
Cash decreased $772 million in 2023 versus 2022. The primary sources of cash in 2023 were cash flows from operations of $9,305 million and debt borrowings, net of $1,060 million. The primary uses of cash included capital expenditures of $3,787 million, net purchases of ordinary shares of $3,925 million, cash dividends to shareholders of $2,482 million.
2023 compared with 2022
Cash Flows From Operations 
Cash flows from operations was $9,305 million, an increase of $441 million from 2022. The increase was driven primarily by higher net income adjusted for non-cash charges, partially offset by higher working capital requirements, including lower inflows from contract liabilities from engineering customer advanced payments and higher cash tax payments. Other charges were $40 million and $1,029 million, for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. 2022 charges related primarily to the deconsolidation and impairment of Russian subsidiaries resulting from the ongoing war in Ukraine and related sanctions. Related Other charges cash outflows were $158 million and $127 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
As of December 31, 2023, Linde has approximately $418 million recorded in contract liabilities within the consolidated balance sheet related to suspended engineering projects in Russia.

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Investing
Net cash used for investing activities was $4,670 million in 2023 compared to $3,088 million in 2022 due to higher acquisitions, net of cash acquired and higher capital expenditures.
Capital expenditures in 2023 were $3,787 million, an increase of $614 million from 2022. Capital expenditures during 2023 related primarily to investments in new plant and production equipment for operating and growth requirements. Approximately 63% of the capital expenditures were in the Americas segment with 21% in the APAC segment and the rest primarily in the EMEA segment.
At December 31, 2023 , Linde's sale of gas backlog of large projects under construction was approximately $4.9 billion. This represents the total estimated capital cost of large plants under construction.
Acquisitions, net of cash acquired for 2023 were $953 million, an increase of $843 million from 2022, and related primarily to the acquisition of nexAir in the Americas (see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements). Acquisitions, net of cash acquired for the year ended December 31, 2022 were $110 million related primarily to the Americas and EMEA segments.
Divestitures and asset sales, net of cash divested in 2023 were $70 million as compared to $195 million in 2022. Divestiture proceeds in 2022 include cash received from the sale of the company's GIST business of $184 million, net of cash divested of $75 million, for net proceeds of $109 million (see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements).
Financing
Linde’s financing strategy is to secure long-term committed funding by issuing public notes and debentures and commercial paper backed by a long-term bank credit agreement. Linde’s international operations are funded through a combination of local borrowing and intercompany funding to minimize the total cost of funds and to manage and centralize currency exchange exposures. As deemed necessary, Linde manages its exposure to interest-rate changes through the use of financial derivatives (see Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk).
Cash used for financing activities was $5,400 million in 2023 compared to $3,089 million in 2022. Cash provided by debt was $1,060 million in 2023 versus $4,475 million in 2022, driven primarily by lower inflows from commercial paper borrowings and lower net debt issuances in 2023. In February 2023, Linde repaid $500 million of 2.70% notes that became due. In April 2023, Linde repaid €650 million of 2.00% notes and £300 million of 5.875% notes that became due. In June 2023, Linde issued €500 million of 3.625% notes due in 2025, €750 million of 3.375% notes due in 2029 and €650 million of 3.625% notes due in 2034.
In February 2024, Linde issued €700 million of 3.00% notes due in 2028, €850 million of 3.20% notes due in 2031 and €700 million of 3.40% notes due in 2036.
Net purchases of ordinary shares were $3,925 million in 2023 versus $5,132 million in 2022. On October 23, 2023, the company's board of directors approved a new share repurchase program for up to $15 billion of Linde's ordinary shares. For additional information related to share repurchase programs, see Part II Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Cash dividends increased to $2,482 million in 2023 versus $2,344 million in 2022 driven primarily by a 9% increase in dividends per share to $5.10 per share from $4.68 per share, partially offset by lower shares outstanding. Cash used for Noncontrolling interest transactions and other was $53 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 versus cash used of $88 million for the respective 2022 period.
Linde’s total net debt outstanding at December 31, 2023 was $14,709 million, $2,231 million higher than $12,478 million at December 31, 2022. The December 31, 2023 net debt balance includes $18,907 million in public securities, and $466 million representing primarily worldwide bank borrowings, net of $4,664 million of cash. Linde’s global effective borrowing rate was approximately 2.6% for 2023.
The company believes that it has sufficient operating flexibility, cash reserves, and funding sources to maintain adequate amounts of liquidity to meet its business needs around the world. At December 31, 2023, Linde's credit ratings as reported by Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s were A-1 and P-1 for short-term debt, respectively, and A and A2 for long-term debt, respectively. The company maintains a $5 billion and a $1.5 billion unsecured and undrawn revolving credit agreements with no associated financial covenants. No borrowings were outstanding under the credit agreements as of December 31, 2023. The company does not anticipate any limitations on its ability to access the debt capital markets and/or other external funding sources and remains committed to its strong ratings from Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s.
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Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements includes information with respect to the company’s debt activity, current debt position, debt covenants and the available credit facilities; and Note 12 includes information relating to derivative financial instruments. Linde's credit facilities are with major financial institutions and are non-cancelable until maturity. Therefore, the company believes the risk of the financial institutions being unable to make required loans under the credit facilities, if requested, to be low. Linde’s major bank credit and long-term debt agreements contain standard covenants. The company was in compliance with these covenants at December 31, 2023 and expects to remain in compliance for the foreseeable future.

OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
As discussed in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements, at December 31, 2023, Linde had undrawn outstanding letters of credit, bank guarantees and surety bonds entered into in connection with normal business operations and they are not reasonably likely to have a material impact on Linde’s consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The policies discussed below are considered by management to be critical to understanding Linde’s financial statements and accompanying notes prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). Their application places significant importance on management’s judgment as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Linde’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be materially affected if actual results differ from estimates made. These policies are determined by management and have been reviewed by Linde’s Audit Committee.
Revenue Recognition
Long-Term Construction Contracts    
The company designs and manufactures equipment for air separation and other varied gas production and processing plants manufactured specifically for end customers. Revenues for sale of equipment contracts are generally recognized over time as Linde has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date and performance does not create an asset with alternative use. For contracts recognized over time, revenue is recognized primarily using a cost incurred input method. Costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at completion are used to measure progress toward satisfying performance obligations. The result is applied to total expected revenue and results in financial statement recognition of revenue in addition to costs incurred to date. Any expected loss on a contract is recognized as an expense immediately. Contract modifications are typically accounted for as part of the existing contract and are recognized as a cumulative adjustment for the inception-to-date effect of such change. We assess performance as progress towards completion is achieved on specific projects, earnings will be impacted by changes to our forecast of revenues and costs on these projects.
The cost incurred input method places considerable importance on accurate estimates of the extent of progress towards completion and may involve estimates on the scope of deliveries and services required to fulfill the contractually defined obligations. The key source of estimation uncertainty is the total estimated costs at completion including material, labor and overhead costs and the resultant state of completion of the contracts. There are inherent uncertainties associated with the estimation process, including technical complexity, duration of construction cycle, potential cost inflation (whether equipment or manpower), and scope considerations all of which may affect the total estimation process. Changes in these estimates may lead to a significant impact on future financial statements.
Pension Benefits
Pension benefits represent financial obligations that will be ultimately settled in the future with employees who meet eligibility requirements. Because of the uncertainties involved in estimating the timing and amount of future payments, significant estimates are required to calculate pension expense and liabilities related to the company’s plans. The company utilizes the services of independent actuaries, whose models are used to facilitate these calculations.
Several key assumptions are used in actuarial models to calculate pension expense and liability amounts recorded in the financial statements. Management believes the three most significant variables in the models are the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, the discount rate, and the expected rate of compensation increase. The actuarial models also use assumptions for various other factors, including long-term inflation rates, employee turnover, retirement age, and mortality. Linde management believes the assumptions used in the actuarial calculations are reasonable, reflect the company’s experience and expectations for the future and are within accepted practices in each of the respective
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geographic locations in which it operates. Actual results in any given year will often differ from actuarial assumptions because of economic and other factors. The sensitivities to each of the key assumptions presented below exclude the impact of special items that occurred during the year.
The weighted-average expected long-term rates of return on pension plan assets were 7.00% for U.S. plans and 5.64% for non-U.S. plans at December 31, 2023 (7.00% and 5.60%, respectively at December 31, 2022). The expected long-term rate of return on the U.S. and Non-U.S. plan assets is estimated based on the plans' investment strategy and asset allocation, historical capital market performance and, to a lesser extent, historical plan performance. A 0.50% change in these expected long-term rates of return, with all other assumptions held constant, would change Linde’s pension expense by approximately $44 million.
The company has consistently used a market-related value of assets rather than the fair value at the measurement date to determine annual pension expense. The market-related value recognizes investment gains or losses over a five-year period. As a result, changes in the fair value of assets from year to year are not immediately reflected in the company’s annual pension expense. Instead, annual pension expense in future periods will be impacted as deferred investment gains or losses are recognized in the market-related value of assets over the five-year period. The consolidated market-related value of assets was $9,180 million, or $952 million higher than the fair value of assets of $8,228 million at December 31, 2023. These net deferred investment lo of $952 million will be recognized in the calculation of the market-related value of assets ratably over the next four years and will impact future pension expense. Future actual investment gains or losses will impact the market-related value of assets and, therefore, will impact future annual pension expense in a similar manner.
Discount rates are used to calculate the present value of plan liabilities and pension costs and are determined annually by management. The company measures the service and interest cost components of pension and OPEB expense for significant U.S. and non-U.S. plans using the spot rate approach. U.S. plans that do not use the spot rate approach continue to determine discount rates by using a cash flow matching model provided by the company's independent actuaries. The model includes a portfolio of corporate bonds graded AA or better by at least half of the ratings agencies and matches the U.S. plans' projected cash flows to the calculated spot rates. Discount rates for the remaining Non-U.S. plans are based on market yields for high-quality fixed income investments representing the approximate duration of the pension liabilities on the measurement date. Refer to Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for a summary of the discount rates used to calculate plan liabilities and benefit costs, and to the Retirement Benefits section of the Consolidated Results and Other Information section of this MD&A for a further discussion of 2023 benefit costs. A 0.50% reduction in discount rates, with all other variables held constant, would increase Linde’s pension expense by approximately $4 million whereas a 0.50% increase in discount rates would result in a decrease of $3 million. A 0.50% reduction in discount rates would increase the PBO by approximately $521 million whereas a 0.50% increase in discount rates would have a favorable impact to the PBO of approximately $477 million.
The weighted-average expected rate of compensation increase was 3.50% for U.S. plans and 2.58% for non-U.S. plans at December 31, 2023 (3.25% and 2.59%, respectively, at December 31, 2022). The estimated annual compensation increase is determined by management every year and is based on historical trends and market indices. A 0.50% change in the expected rate of compensation increase, with all other variables held constant, would change Linde’s pension expense by approximately $5 million and would impact the PBO by approximately $50 million.
Asset Impairments
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangibles Assets
At December 31, 2023, the company had goodwill of $26,751 million and $1,745 million of other indefinite-lived intangible assets. Goodwill represents the aggregate of the excess consideration paid for acquired businesses over the fair value of the net assets acquired. Indefinite-lived other intangibles relate to the Linde name.
The company performs a goodwill impairment test annually as of October 1 or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that an impairment loss may have been incurred. The impairment test performed during the fourth quarter of 2023 indicated no impairment. At December 31, 2023, Linde’s enterprise value was approximately $213 billion (outstanding shares multiplied by the year-end stock price plus net debt, and without any control premium) while its total capital was approximately $56 billion.
The impairment test allows an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than carrying value. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than carrying value then the company will estimate and compare the fair value of its reporting units to their carrying value, including goodwill. Reporting units are determined based on one level below the operating segment level.
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Management believes that the quantitative and qualitative factors used to perform its annual goodwill impairment assessment are appropriate and reasonable. Although the 2023 assessment indicated that it is more likely than not that the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying value, changes in circumstances or conditions affecting this analysis could have a significant impact on the fair value determination, which could then result in a material impairment charge to the company's results of operations.
Other indefinite-lived intangible assets are evaluated for impairment on an annual basis or more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that an impairment loss may have been incurred, and no impairments were indicated.
See Notes 9 and 10 to the consolidated financial statements.
Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment and finite-lived other intangible assets, are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an individual asset or asset group may not be recoverable. For purposes of this test, asset groups are determined based upon the lowest level for which there are independent and identifiable cash flows. Based upon Linde's business model an asset group may be a single plant and related assets used to support on-site, merchant and packaged gas customers. Alternatively, the asset group may be a collection of distribution related assets (cylinders, distribution centers, and stores) or be a pipeline complex which includes multiple interdependent plants and related assets connected by pipelines within a geographic area used to support the same distribution methods. As a result of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, Linde deconsolidated its Russian gas and engineering business entities as of June 30, 2022. See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.

Income Taxes
At December 31, 2023, Linde had deferred tax assets of $1,292 million (net of valuation allowances of $176 million), and deferred tax liabilities of $6,815 million. At December 31, 2023, uncertain tax positions totaled $304 million (see Note 1 and Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements). Income tax expense was $1,814 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, or about 22.7% of pre-tax income (see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information related to taxes).
In the preparation of consolidated financial statements, Linde estimates income taxes based on diverse legislative and regulatory structures that exist in various jurisdictions where the company conducts business. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities represent tax benefits or obligations that arise from temporary differences due to differing treatment of certain items for accounting and income tax purposes. Linde evaluates deferred tax assets each period to ensure that estimated future taxable income will be sufficient in character (e.g. capital gain versus ordinary income treatment), amount and timing to result in their recovery. A valuation allowance is established when management determines that it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized to reduce the assets to their realizable value. Considerable judgments are required in establishing deferred tax valuation allowances and in assessing exposures related to tax matters. As events and circumstances change, related reserves and valuation allowances are adjusted to income at that time. Linde’s tax returns are subject to audit and local taxing authorities could challenge the company’s tax positions. The company’s practice is to review tax filing positions by jurisdiction and to record provisions for uncertain income tax positions, including interest and penalties when applicable. Linde believes it records and/or discloses such potential tax liabilities as appropriate and has reasonably estimated its income tax liabilities and recoverable tax assets. If new information becomes available, adjustments are charged or credited against income at that time. Management does not anticipate that such adjustments would have a material adverse effect on the company’s consolidated financial position or liquidity; however, it is possible that the final outcomes could have a material impact on the company’s reported results of operations.
Contingencies
The company accrues liabilities for non-income tax contingencies when management believes that a loss is probable and the amounts can be reasonably estimated, while contingent gains are recognized only when realized or realizable. If new information becomes available or losses are sustained in excess of recorded amounts, adjustments are charged against income at that time. Management does not anticipate that in the aggregate such losses would have a material adverse effect on the company’s consolidated financial position or liquidity; however, it is possible that the final outcomes could have a material impact on the company’s reported results of operations.
Linde is subject to various claims, legal proceedings and government investigations that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of business. These actions are based upon alleged environmental, tax, antitrust and personal injury claims, among others (see Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements). Such contingencies are significant and the accounting requires considerable management judgments in analyzing each matter to assess the likely outcome and the need for
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establishing appropriate liabilities and providing adequate disclosures. Linde believes it records and/or discloses such contingencies as appropriate and has reasonably estimated its liabilities.

NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for information concerning new accounting standards and the impact of the implementation of these standards on the company’s financial statements.

FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
Linde does not expect changes in the aggregate fair value of its financial assets and liabilities to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements. See Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements.

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NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
The following non-GAAP measures are intended to supplement investors’ understanding of the company’s financial information by providing measures which investors, financial analysts and management use to help evaluate the company’s financial leverage and operating performance. Special items which the company does not believe to be indicative of on-going business performance are excluded from these calculations so that investors can better evaluate and analyze historical and future business trends on a consistent basis. Definitions of these non-GAAP measures may not be comparable to similar definitions used by other companies and are not a substitute for similar GAAP measures.

The non-GAAP measures in the following reconciliations are presented in this MD&A.

Adjusted Amounts

(Dollar amounts in millions, except per share data)
Year Ended December 31,20232022
Adjusted Operating Profit and Operating Margin
Reported operating profit$8,024 $5,369 
Add: Other charges (a)40 1,029 
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)1,006 1,506 
Total adjustments1,046 2,535 
Adjusted operating profit$9,070 $7,904 
Reported percentage change49 %
Adjusted percentage change15 %
Reported sales$32,854 $33,364 
Reported operating margin24.4 %16.1 %
Adjusted operating margin27.6 %23.7 %
Adjusted Depreciation and amortization
Reported depreciation and amortization$3,816 $4,204 
Less: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)(991)(1,481)
Adjusted depreciation and amortization$2,825 $2,723 
Adjusted Other Income (Expense) - net
Reported Other Income (Expense) - net$(41)$(62)
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)(15)(25)
Adjusted Other Income (Expense) - net$(26)$(37)
Adjusted Net Pension and OPEB Cost (Benefit), Excluding Service Cost
Reported net pension and OPEB cost (benefit), excluding service cost$(164)$(237)
Add: Pension settlement charges(16)(6)
Adjusted Net Pension and OPEB cost (benefit), excluding service costs$(180)$(243)
Adjusted Interest Expense - Net
Reported interest expense - net$200 $63 
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)16 35 
Adjusted interest expense - net$216 $98 
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Adjusted Income Taxes (a)
Reported income taxes$1,814$1,434
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)232374
Add: Pension settlement charges31
Add: Other charges (a)81136
Total adjustments 316511
Adjusted income taxes $2,130$1,945
Adjusted Effective Tax Rate (a)
Reported income before income taxes and equity investments$7,988$5,543
Add: Pension settlement charge166
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)9901,471
Add: Other charges (a)401,029
Total adjustments 1,0462,506
Adjusted income before income taxes and equity investments$9,034$8,049
Reported Income taxes $1,814$1,434
Reported effective tax rate22.7%25.9%
Adjusted income taxes $2,130$1,945
Adjusted effective tax rate23.6%24.2%
Income from Equity Investments
Reported income from equity investments$167$172
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)7275
Total adjustments7275
Adjusted income from equity investments $239$247
Adjusted Noncontrolling Interests
Reported noncontrolling interests$(142)$(134)
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)(12)(22)
Adjusted noncontrolling interests$(154)$(156)
Adjusted Net Income - Linde plc (b)
Reported net income$6,199 $4,147 
Add: Pension settlement charge13 
Add: Other charges (a)(41)893 
Add: Purchase accounting impacts - Linde AG (c)818