253G2 1 firststreit-253g2_091217.htm CHANGE FROM OR ADDITION TO THE INFORMATION SET FORTH IN THE LAST OFFERING CIRCULAR.

 

 

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 13, 2017

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 253(g)(2)

File No. 024-10716

 

OFFERING CIRCULAR

 

 

 

1st stREIT Office Inc.

 

Sponsored by Tryperion Partners, LLC

 

Up to $50,000,000 in Shares of Common Stock

 

1st stREIT Office Inc. is a newly organized Maryland corporation formed to acquire and manage a portfolio of commercial real estate properties. We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to acquire a diversified portfolio of office properties with a focus on markets where we feel that the risk-return characteristics are favorable. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. Substantially all of our assets will be held by, and substantially all of our operations will be conducted through, our operating partnership, 1st stREIT Office Operating Partnership LP, a Delaware limited partnership (our “Operating Partnership”), either directly or through its subsidiaries, and we will be the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership. Additionally, we will contribute the net proceeds from this offering (including the private placements to our Sponsor) to our Operating Partnership in exchange for units of limited partnership interest in our Operating Partnership (“OP Units”). We intend to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning with our taxable year ending December 31, 2017.

 

We will be externally managed and advised by SW Manager, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (our “Manager”), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of and controlled by Tryperion Partners, LLC, a California limited liability company (our “Sponsor”). Our Sponsor is a private real estate investment firm that provides investment management services to a range of foundation and high net worth clients. Since 2013, our Sponsor has sponsored two value-add closed-end commercial real estate funds that successfully raised a total of over $100 million of equity capital. The principals of our Sponsor have collectively underwritten and/or managed the acquisition, ownership and disposition of over $1.7 billion of real estate equity investments valued in excess of $5.4 billion spanning all major asset classes.

 

On May 31, 2017 we acquired from affiliates of our Sponsor one office property and commenced operations. Laumeier I, II, and IV (“Laumeier”) is located in the Laumeier Office Park, a premier office location in St. Louis’s South County submarket. Laumeier comprises three of the four buildings in the Laumeier Office Park, and totals 290,925 rentable square feet. Tenants of Laumeier include Panera Bread Company (headquarters), New Balance (regional headquarters), AMN Healthcare and Regus.

 

We are offering a maximum of up to $50,000,000 in shares of our common stock on a “best efforts maximum” basis. Because this is a “best efforts maximum” offering, we are only required to use our best efforts to sell shares of our common stock. We are offering up to $50,000,000 in shares of common stock in our offering at $10.00 per share for the first 12 months of this offering. Thereafter, the per share purchase price will be adjusted every fiscal quarter and, as of January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st of each year, will equal the greater of (i) $10.00 per share or (ii) our net asset value, or NAV, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the end of the prior fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis (NAV per share). The minimum investment amount for initial purchases of shares of our common stock is 100 shares, or $1,000 based on the initial offering price per share. We may terminate this offering at any time.

 

Our Sponsor has committed to purchase 7,400 shares of our common stock from us at $10.00 per share in a private placement on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering, for net proceeds to us of $74,000. Our Sponsor previously acquired 100 shares of our common stock at a price equal to the initial public offering price in connection with our formation, for net proceeds to us of $1,000. Our common stock will not initially be listed for trading on a stock exchange or other trading market and we will have no obligation to list our common stock for trading at any time; however, we may apply to have our common stock approved for trading on the OTCQX marketplace or another secondary market upon the completion of this offering. We have adopted a stockholder redemption plan designed to provide our stockholders with limited liquidity on a quarterly basis for their investment in shares of our common stock. See “Stockholder Redemption Plan.”

 

 

 

 

We have engaged FundAmerica to provide certain technology, anti-money laundering (AML), and know your customer (KYC) services in connection with this offering. We have engaged Computershare to provide transfer agent services. Neither FundAmerica nor Computershare is participating as an underwriter of this offering and they will not solicit any investment in 1st stREIT Office Inc., recommend 1st stREIT Office Inc.’s securities or provide investment advice to any prospective investor, or distribute the Offering Circular or other offering materials to investors. All inquiries regarding this offering should be made directly to 1st stREIT Office Inc. See “Plan of Distribution—Administrative and Processing Agent” for more information.

 

Shares of our common stock will be subject to the ownership and transfer limitations in our charter which are intended to assist us in qualifying and maintaining our qualification as a REIT, including, subject to certain exceptions, a 9.8% ownership limit. See “Description of Capital Stock and Certain Provisions of Maryland Law, our Charter and Bylaws—Restrictions on Ownership of Shares.”

 

This offering is intended to qualify as a “Tier 2” offering pursuant to Regulation A promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. In preparing this offering circular, we have elected to comply with the applicable disclosure requirements of Form S-11 under the Securities Act.

 

Generally, no sale may be made to you in this offering if the aggregate purchase price you pay is more than 10% of the greater of your annual income or net worth. Different rules apply to accredited investors and non-natural persons. Before making any representation that your investment does not exceed applicable thresholds, we encourage you to review Rule 251(d)(2)(i)(C) of Regulation A. For general information on investing, we encourage you to refer to www.investor.gov.

 

Investing in shares of our common stock is speculative and involves substantial risks. You should purchase these securities only if you can afford a complete loss of your investment. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 18 to read about the more significant risks you should consider before buying shares of our common stock. These risks include the following:

 

We depend on our Manager to select our investments and conduct our operations. We will pay fees and expenses to our Manager and its affiliates that were not determined through the benefit of arm’s length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties. These fees increase your risk of loss.

 

We have limited operating history, and as of the date of this offering circular, our total assets consist of one office property totaling 290,925 rentable square feet located in the Laumeier Office Park in the South County submarket of St. Louis, Missouri. Our prior performance, and the prior performance of the funds and entities affiliated with our Sponsor may not predict our future results. Therefore, there is no assurance that we will achieve our investment objectives.

 

Although we have acquired one property and begun operations, we have not identified any other investments to acquire with the net proceeds of this offering. You will not be able to evaluate our future investments prior to purchasing shares.

 

Our Sponsor’s executive officers and key real estate professionals are also officers, directors, managers and/or key professionals of our Sponsor and its affiliates. As a result, they will face conflicts of interest, including time constraints, allocation of investment opportunities and significant conflicts created by our Manager’s compensation arrangements with us and other affiliates of our Sponsor.

 

Our Sponsor may sponsor other companies that compete with us, and our Sponsor does not have an exclusive management arrangement with us; however, our Sponsor has adopted a policy for allocating investments between different companies that it sponsors with similar investment strategies.

 

This offering is being made pursuant to recently adopted rules and regulations under Regulation A of the Securities Act. The legal and compliance requirements of these rules and regulations, including ongoing reporting requirements related thereto, are relatively untested.

 

If we raise substantially less than the maximum offering amount, we may not be able to acquire a diverse portfolio of investments and the value of your shares may vary more widely with the performance of specific assets.

 

If we internalize our management functions, your interest in us could be diluted and we could incur other significant costs associated with being self-managed.

 

We may change our investment guidelines without stockholder consent, which could result in investments that are different from those described in this offering circular.

 

While our goal is to pay dividends from our cash flow from operations, we may use other sources to fund dividends, including offering proceeds, borrowings and sales of assets. We have not established a limit on the amount of proceeds we may use to fund dividends. If we pay dividends from sources other than our cash flow from operations, we will have less funds available for investments and your overall return may be reduced. In any event, we intend to make quarterly dividends as required to comply with the REIT distribution requirements and avoid U.S. federal income and excise taxes on retained income.

 

 

 

 

Our Manager will calculate our NAV on a quarterly basis using valuation methodologies that involve subjective judgments and estimates. As a result, our NAV may not accurately reflect the actual prices at which our commercial real estate assets and investments, including related liabilities, could be liquidated on any given day.

 

No public market currently exists for our shares, and while we may attempt to effectuate a liquidity event within approximately ten years from the completion of this offering, we are not required to effectuate a liquidity event by any specific date. If you are able to sell your shares through our stockholder redemption plan, through secondary market sales or otherwise, you may have to sell them at a discount to their fair value.

 

If we fail to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and no relief provisions apply, we would be subject to entity-level federal income tax and, as a result, our cash available for distribution to our stockholders and the value of our shares could materially decrease.

 

Real estate investments are subject to general downturns in the industry as well as downturns in specific geographic areas. We cannot predict what the occupancy level will be in a particular building or that any tenant will remain solvent. We also cannot predict the future value of our properties. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee that you will receive cash dividends or appreciation of your investment.

 

 

 

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission does not pass upon the merits of or give its approval to any securities offered or the terms of the offering, nor does it pass upon the accuracy or completeness of any offering circular or other solicitation materials. These securities are offered pursuant to an exemption from registration with the Commission; however, the Commission has not made an independent determination that the securities offered are exempt from registration.

 

   Per Share   Total Maximum 
Public Offering Price(1)  $10.00   $50,000,000.00 
Selling Commissions(2)  $   $ 
Proceeds to Us from this Offering to the Public (Before Expenses)(3)  $10.00   $50,000,000.00 
Proceeds to Us from the Private Placements to our Sponsor  $10.00   $75,000.00 
Total Proceeds to Us (Before Expenses)(3)  $10.00   $50,075,000.00 

 

 

 

(1)The price per share shown was arbitrarily determined by our Manager and will apply until one (1) year from commencement of offering. Thereafter, our price per share will be adjusted every fiscal quarter and will equal the greater of (i) $10.00 per share or (ii) our net asset value, or NAV, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the end of the prior fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis (NAV per share).

 

(2)Investors will not pay upfront selling commissions in connection with the purchase of shares of our common stock. The shares of our common stock may be purchased directly from us through our website at www.streitwise.com. We may sell shares of our common stock through registered broker-dealers; however, any required commissions to the broker-dealers will be paid by our Sponsor and not by us or our stockholders and such commissions will not be reimbursable by us to our Sponsor. The Company and its officers, employees and associated persons intend to conduct the offering in accordance with Rule 3a4-1 and, therefore, none of them are required to register as a broker-dealer.

 

(3)We will pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering expenses in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering (and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings), which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000 in this offering. 1st stREIT Office Inc. and its stockholders, and not the OP Unitholders, will bear all such organization and offering expenses in connection with this offering and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings of our common stock, and the number of OP Units held by the limited partners will be adjusted upward to reflect the allocation of these expenses to 1st stREIT Office Inc. To the extent these organization and offering expenses exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, the Manager will bear such expenses through a reduction in future Management Fees payable by the Operating Partnership.  An affiliate of our Sponsor will be entitled to receive long-term incentive plan units, or LTIP units, in our Operating Partnership to the extent our organization and offering expenses are less than 3% of the gross proceeds we raise in the offering or less than 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings (in each case, excluding any proceeds attributable to shares sold to our Manager or its affiliates).  In such a case, LTIP Units will also be issued to the limited partners (other than us) so that the limited partners (other than us) will not be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the affiliate of our Sponsor. See “Estimated Use of Proceeds” and “Management Compensation—Organization and Offering Expenses” for more information.

 

The date of this offering circular is September 13, 2017

 

 

 

 

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THIS OFFERING CIRCULAR

 

Please carefully read the information in this offering circular and any accompanying offering circular supplements, which we refer to collectively as this offering circular. You should rely only on the information contained in this offering circular. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This offering circular may only be used where it is legal to sell these securities. You should not assume that the information contained in this offering circular is accurate as of any date later than the date hereof or such other dates as are stated herein or as of the respective dates of any documents or other information incorporated herein by reference.

 

This offering circular is part of an offering statement that we filed with the SEC. Periodically, as we make material investments, update our quarterly NAV per share amount, or have other material developments, we will provide an offering circular supplement that may add, update or change information contained in this offering circular. Any statement that we make in this offering circular will be modified or superseded by any inconsistent statement made by us in a subsequent offering circular supplement. The offering statement we filed with the SEC includes exhibits that provide more detailed descriptions of the matters discussed in this offering circular. You should read this offering circular and the related exhibits filed with the SEC and any offering circular supplement, together with additional information contained in our annual reports, semi-annual reports, current event reports and other reports and information statements that we will file periodically with the SEC.

 

The offering statement and all supplements and reports that we have filed or will file in the future can be read at the SEC website, www.sec.gov and on our website at www.streitwise.com.

 

Our board of directors and officers and those selling shares on our behalf in this offering will be permitted to make a determination that the purchasers of shares in this offering are “qualified purchasers” in reliance on the information and representations provided by the stockholder regarding the stockholder’s financial situation. Before making any representation that your investment does not exceed applicable thresholds, we encourage you to review Rule 251(d)(2)(i)(C) of Regulation A. For general information on investing, we encourage you to refer to www.investor.gov.

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THIS OFFERING CIRCULAR i
INVESTMENT CRITERIA iii
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THIS OFFERING 1
OFFERING SUMMARY 9
RISK FACTORS 18
STATEMENTS REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION 44
ESTIMATED USE OF PROCEEDS 46
BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES 48
OUR MANAGER AND THE MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT 52
MANAGEMENT 59
MANAGEMENT COMPENSATION 61
PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS 64
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 65
INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY 69
PLAN OF OPERATION 75
PRIOR PERFORMANCE SUMMARY 83
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK AND CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW, OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS 85
STOCKHOLDER REDEMPTION PLAN 92
DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF 1st stREIT OFFICE OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP 94
U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS 99
ERISA CONSIDERATIONS 118
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 121
HOW TO SUBSCRIBE 123
LEGAL MATTERS 124
EXPERTS 124
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 124
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF 1st stREIT Office Inc. F-1
APPENDIX A: PRIOR PERFORMANCE TABLES A-1
APPENDIX B: FORM OF SUBSCRIPTION AGREEMENT B-1

  

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INVESTMENT CRITERIA

 

The shares of our common stock are being offered and sold only to “qualified purchasers” (as defined in Regulation A under the Securities Act). As a Tier 2 offering pursuant to Regulation A under the Securities Act, this offering will be exempt from state law “Blue Sky” review, subject to meeting certain state filing requirements and complying with certain anti-fraud provisions, to the extent that the shares of our common stock offered hereby are offered and sold only to “qualified purchasers” or at a time when our common stock is listed on a national securities exchange. In order to be a “qualified purchaser,” a purchaser of shares must satisfy one of the following:

 

(1)Accredited Investors: You are an accredited investor. An “accredited investor” is:

 

(a)If a natural person, a person that has:

 

i.an individual net worth, or joint net worth with his or her spouse, that exceeds $1,000,000, excluding the value of the primary residence of such natural person (as described below); or

 

ii.individual income in excess of $200,000, or joint income with his or her spouse in excess of $300,000, in each of the two most recent years and has a reasonable expectation of reaching the same income level in the current year.

 

(b)If not a natural person, one of the following:

 

i.a corporation, an organization described in Code Section 501(c)(3), a Massachusetts or similar business trust, or a partnership, not formed for the specific purpose of acquiring shares, with total assets in excess of $5,000,000;

 

ii.a trust, with total assets in excess of $5,000,000, not formed for the specific purpose of acquiring the securities offered and whose purchase is directed by a person who has such knowledge and experience in financial and business matters that he or she is capable of evaluating the merits and risks of an investment in a share;

 

iii.a broker-dealer registered pursuant to Section 15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”);

 

iv.an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”);

 

v.a business development company (as defined in Section 2(a)(48) of the Investment Company Act);

 

vi.a Small Business Investment Company licensed by the United States Small Business Administration under Section 301(c) or (d) of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958;

 

vii.an employee benefit plan within the meaning of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), if the investment decision is made by a plan fiduciary (as defined in Section 3(21) of ERISA), which is either a bank, savings and loan association, insurance company, or registered investment adviser, or if the employee benefit plan has total assets in excess of $5,000,000, or, if a self-directed plan, with investment decisions made solely by persons who are accredited investors;

 

viii.a private business development company (as defined in Section 202(a)(22) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Advisers Act”));

 

ix.a bank as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act, or any savings and loan association or other institution as defined in Section 3(a)(5)(A) of the Securities Act whether acting in its individual or fiduciary capacity; or

 

x.an entity in which all of the equity owners are accredited investors.

 

(c)In addition, the SEC has issued certain no-action letters and interpretations in which it deemed certain trusts to be accredited investors, such as trusts where the trustee is a bank as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act and revocable grantor trusts established by individuals who meet the requirements of clause (1)(a)(i) or (1)(a)(ii) of this section. However, these no-action letters and interpretations are very fact specific and should not be relied upon without close consideration of your unique facts; or

 

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(2)Non-Accredited Investors: If you are not an accredited investor, your investment in shares of our common stock may not be more than 10% of the greater of:

 

(a)If you are a natural person:

 

i.your individual net worth, or joint net worth with your spouse, excluding the value of your primary residence (as described below); or

 

ii.your individual income, or joint income with your spouse, received in each of the two most recent years and you have a reasonable expectation that an investment in the shares will not exceed 10% of your individual or joint income in the current year.

 

(b)If you are not a natural person,

 

i.your revenue, as of your most recently completed fiscal year end; or

 

ii.your net assets, as of your most recently completed fiscal year end.

 

For purposes of this definition, “net worth” means the excess of total assets at fair market value over total liabilities, except that the value of the principal residence owned by a natural person will be excluded for purposes of determining such natural person’s net worth. In addition, for purposes of this definition, the related amount of indebtedness secured by the primary residence up to the primary residence’s fair market value may also be excluded, except in the event such indebtedness increased in the 60 days preceding the purchase of our common stock and was unrelated to the acquisition of the primary residence, then the amount of the increase must be included as a liability in the net worth calculation. Moreover, indebtedness secured by the primary residence in excess of the fair market value of such residence should be considered a liability and deducted from the natural person’s net worth.

 

We reserve the right to reject any investor’s subscription in whole or in part for any reason, including if we determine in our sole and absolute discretion that such investor is not a “qualified purchaser” for purposes of Regulation A.

 

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THIS OFFERING

 

The following questions and answers about this offering highlight material information regarding us and this offering that is not otherwise addressed in the “Offering Summary” section of this offering circular. You should read this entire offering circular, including the section entitled “Risk Factors,” before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

 

Q:What is 1st stREIT Office Inc.?

 

A:We were recently formed as a Maryland corporation to invest in and manage a portfolio of commercial real estate properties. We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to acquire a diversified portfolio of primarily office properties with a focus on markets where we feel that the risk-return characteristics are favorable. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. The use of the terms “1st stREIT Office”, the “company”, “we”, “us” or “our” in this offering circular refer to 1st stREIT Office Inc. and our subsidiaries, including our Operating Partnership, unless the context indicates otherwise.

 

Q:What is a real estate investment trust, or REIT?

 

A:In general, a REIT is an entity that:

 

combines the capital of many investors to acquire or provide financing for a diversified portfolio of real estate investments under professional management;

 

is able to qualify as a “real estate investment trust” for U.S. federal income tax purposes and is therefore generally not subject to federal corporate income taxes on its net income that is distributed, which substantially eliminates the “double taxation” treatment (i.e., taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from investments in a corporation; and

 

pays dividends to investors of at least 90% of its annual ordinary taxable income.

 

In this offering circular, we refer to an entity that qualifies to be taxed as a real estate investment trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a REIT. We intend to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ending December 31, 2017. 

 

Q:Who will choose which investments you make?

 

A:We will be externally managed by SW Manager, LLC, or our Manager, a wholly-owned subsidiary of our Sponsor. Pursuant to a support agreement between our Manager and our Sponsor, our Sponsor will provide our Manager with the personnel, services and resources necessary for our Manager to perform its obligations and responsibilities under the management agreement in exchange for certain fees payable by our Manager. Our Manager will make all of our investment decisions.

 

Q:Who is Tryperion Partners, LLC?

 

A:Tryperion Partners, LLC (our “Sponsor”) is our Sponsor and the parent company of our Manager. Our Sponsor is a private real estate investment firm that provides investment management services to a range of foundation and high net worth clients. Our Sponsor utilizes its extensive real estate expertise and industry relationships to create value through prudent acquisitions and active asset management.

 

Q:What experience does your Sponsor have?

 

A:Our Sponsor is experienced in managing complex real estate investments through multiple business cycles and through the life cycle of each investment, from acquisition and business plan execution, to realization. Our Manager, acting through the support agreement with our Sponsor and utilizing the personnel and resources of our Sponsor, will select our investments and manage our day-to-day operations. Our Sponsor’s valuable real estate and investment expertise includes the following:

 

Real Estate Investment Experience – To date, Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh, and Joseph Kessel, the principals of our Sponsor have collectively underwritten and/or managed the acquisition, ownership and disposition of over $1.7 billion of real estate equity investments valued in excess of $5.4 billion spanning all major asset classes. Since 2013, our Sponsor has sponsored two value-add closed-end funds that successfully raised a total of over $100 million of equity capital, of which, as of December 31, 2016, approximately 92% has been invested.

 

Proven Ability to Source Attractive Opportunities – Our Sponsor has sponsored two value-add closed-end funds targeting all commercial property types. Through these vehicles, as of December 31, 2016, our Sponsor has successfully acquired over $285 million of real estate in various U.S. markets and property types. See “Prior Performance Summary”.

 

Asset Management Experience – Our Sponsor has a strong track record of adding value to investments made, both in direct deals and in joint venture deals, through aggressive management and leasing, strategic capital improvements, and prudent financing programs. We believe that our Sponsor has the experience necessary to help guide investments through various market conditions.

 

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Q:Why should I invest in commercial real estate investments?

 

A:Our goal is to provide a professionally managed, diversified portfolio consisting primarily of high-quality office properties, and, to a limited extent, other real estate-related assets, to investors who may have had limited access to such investments in the past. We believe that allocating some portion of your investment portfolio to a direct investment in high-quality office assets may provide you with:

 

diversification of your portfolio, by investing in an asset class that historically has not been correlated with the stock market generally; and

 

the opportunity for current income and capital appreciation.

 

Q:Why should I invest specifically in a company that is focused on office investments requiring less than $20 million of equity?

 

A:We believe there is an abundance of investors targeting deals that require more than $20 million of equity, but there are far fewer investors targeting deals requiring less than $20 million of equity. This mismatch in the marketplace provides us the opportunity to acquire smaller deals - deals that fall below the radar of the large institutional real estate investors, but are too expensive for most high net worth investors to capitalize – at prices that we believe represent a discount to intrinsic value.

 

Q:What kind of offering is this?

 

A:We are offering, principally through our website, www.streitwise.com, a maximum of $50,000,000 in shares of our common stock to the public on a “best efforts maximum” basis at $10.00 per share initially. Our Sponsor has committed to purchase 7,400 shares of our common stock from us at $10.00 per share in a private placement on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering, for net proceeds to us of $74,000. Our Sponsor previously acquired 100 shares of our common stock at a price equal to the initial public offering price in connection with our formation, for net proceeds to us of $1,000.

 

This offering is being conducted as a continuous offering pursuant to Rule 251(d)(3) of Regulation A, meaning that while the offering of securities is continuous, active sales of securities may happen sporadically over the term of the offering. 

 

Q:How is an investment in shares of your common stock different from investing in shares of a listed REIT?

 

A:The fundamental difference between our common stock and the common stock of a listed REIT is the daily liquidity available with a listed REIT. Although we may eventually list our common stock on the OTCQX marketplace or another secondary market upon the completion of this offering, our common stock will not initially be listed for trading on a stock exchange or other trading market and we will have no obligation to list our common stock for trading at any time. Further, although we have adopted a limited stockholder redemption plan that generally allows investors to redeem shares on a quarterly basis, the stockholder redemption plan is subject to certain restrictions and limitations. For investors with a short-term investment horizon, a listed REIT will provide more liquidity and therefore may be a more suitable investment for you than an investment in shares of our common stock.

 

However, because of the daily liquidity and real-time stock price quotes, listed REITs are subject to daily stock price volatility as well as general stock market volatility. We believe that our common stock will be less volatile and less exposed to stock market fluctuations, while still providing investors the opportunity to invest in a pool of real estate assets.

 

Additionally, listed REITs are subject to more demanding public disclosure and corporate governance requirements than we will be subject to. While we are subject to the scaled reporting requirements of Regulation A, such periodic reports are substantially less than what would be required for a listed REIT. 

 

Q:How is an investment in shares of your common stock different from investing in shares of a traditional public non-traded REIT?

 

A:Traditional public non-traded REITs typically charge investors high upfront broker-dealer commissions and expenses. Investors in this offering will not be charged any broker-dealer commissions, saving investors approximately 70% to 80% in upfront expenses as compared to a traditional public non-traded REIT. We may sell shares of our common stock through registered broker-dealers; however, any required commissions to the broker-dealers will be paid by our Sponsor and not by us or our stockholders and such commissions will not be reimbursable by us to our Sponsor.

 

Q:How is an investment in your common stock different from investing in other online real estate investment opportunities?

 

A:We will be one of the few public non-traded REITs offered directly to investors over the internet, available to both accredited and non-accredited investors. Currently, most online investment platforms offer investment opportunities requiring a higher minimum investment through private placements to accredited investors only. Additionally, most online investment platforms offer investments in individual properties and/or debt investments. We intend to own a diversified portfolio of equity investments focused on a particular strategy, with certain tax advantages unique to REITs, that is available to both accredited and non-accredited investors at a low investment minimum.

 

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In addition, unlike other public non-traded REITs (both traditional and online) that initially are completely “blind pools”, we have identified one property that, prior to or upon commencement of this offering and the associated formation transactions, we intend to make a part of our portfolio so you can assess, before you invest, one asset in our portfolio. However, you will not be able to review, in advance, any other assets that may comprise our portfolio in the future. 

 

Q:What is the purchase price for shares of your common stock?

 

A:We set our initial offering price at $10.00 per share, which will be the purchase price of our shares until twelve months after commencement of the offering. Thereafter, the per share purchase price will be adjusted every fiscal quarter and, as of January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st of each year, will be equal to the greater of (i) $10.00 per share or (ii) our NAV divided by the number of shares outstanding as of the close of business on the last business day of the prior fiscal quarter. If a material event occurs in between quarterly updates of NAV that would cause our NAV per share to change by 5% or more from the last disclosed NAV, we will disclose the updated price and the reason for the change in an offering circular supplement as promptly as reasonably practicable, and will update the NAV information provided on our website. See “Plan of Operation—Quarterly NAV Per Share Adjustments” for more details.

 

Q:How will your NAV per share be calculated?

 

A:Our NAV per share will be calculated by our Manager at the end of each fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis, beginning twelve months after commencement of the offering using a process that reflects several components, including (1) estimated values of each of our commercial real estate assets and investments, including related liabilities, based upon (a) market capitalization rates, comparable sales information, interest rates, discount rates, net operating income, and (b) in certain instances individual appraisal reports of the underlying real estate provided by an independent valuation expert, (2) the price of liquid assets for which third party market quotes are available, (3) accruals of our periodic dividends and (4) estimated accruals of our operating revenues and expenses. In instances where we determine that an independent appraisal of the real estate asset is necessary, including, but not limited to, instances where our Manager is unsure of its ability on its own to accurately determine the estimated values of our commercial real estate assets and investments, or instances where third party market values for comparable properties are either nonexistent or extremely inconsistent, we may engage an appraiser that has expertise in appraising commercial real estate assets, to act as our independent valuation expert. The independent valuation expert will not be responsible for, or prepare, our NAV per share. However, we may hire a third party to calculate, or assist with calculating, the NAV per share. The use of different judgments or assumptions would likely result in different estimates of the value of our real estate assets. Moreover, although we evaluate and provide our NAV per share on a quarterly basis, our NAV per share may fluctuate in the interim, so that the NAV per share in effect for any fiscal quarter may not reflect the precise amount that might be paid for your shares in a market transaction. Further, our published NAV per share may not fully reflect certain material events to the extent that they are not known or their financial impact on our portfolio is not immediately quantifiable. Any resulting potential disparity in our NAV per share may be in favor of either stockholders who redeem their shares, or stockholders who buy new shares, or existing stockholders. Note, in addition, that the determination of our NAV is not based on, nor intended to comply with, fair value standards under GAAP and our NAV may not be indicative of the price that we would receive for our assets at current market conditions.

 

Q:How exact will the calculation of the quarterly NAV per share be?

 

A:Our goal is to provide a reasonable estimate of the market value of shares of our common stock as of the end of each fiscal quarter. Our assets will consist principally of commercial real estate equity investments. Our Manager’s valuation of our real estate assets is subject to a number of judgments and assumptions that may not prove to be accurate. The use of different judgments or assumptions would likely result in different estimates of the value of our real estate assets. Moreover, although we evaluate and provide our NAV per share on a quarterly basis, our NAV per share may fluctuate daily, so that the NAV per share in effect for any fiscal quarter may not reflect the precise amount that might be paid for your shares in a market transaction. Further, our published NAV per share may not fully reflect certain material events to the extent that they are not known or their financial impact on our portfolio is not immediately quantifiable. Any resulting potential disparity in our NAV per share may be in favor of either stockholders who redeem their shares, or stockholders who buy new shares, or existing stockholders. See “Plan of Operation —Valuation Policies.”

 

Q:Will I have the opportunity to redeem my shares of common stock?

 

A:Yes. Our stockholder redemption plan may provide an opportunity for our stockholders to have their shares of our common stock redeemed by us, subject to certain restrictions and limitations. Shares may not be redeemed under our stockholder redemption plan until the first anniversary of the date such shares were purchased.

 

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The purchase price for shares redeemed under our stockholder redemption plan will be as follows: 

 

Holding Period from Date of Purchase   Redemption Price
Less than 1 year   No redemption allowed
1 year until 2 years   90.0% of NAV
2 years until 3 years   92.5% of NAV
3 years until 4 years   95.0% of NAV
4 years until 5 years   97.5% of NAV
5 years of more   100% of NAV
In the event of a stockholder’s death or complete disability   100% of NAV

 

 

 

For purposes of the stockholder redemption plan, the per share redemption price will be calculated as a percentage of the NAV per share in effect at the time of the redemption. The redemption price per share for shares redeemed pursuant to the stockholder redemption plan will be further reduced by the aggregate amount of net proceeds per share, if any, distributed to our stockholders following the date that the NAV per share in effect at the time of the redemption was established but prior to the redemption date as a result of the sale of one or more of our assets that constitutes a return of capital distribution as a result of such sales.

 

In addition, the redemption price will be reduced by the aggregate sum of dividends, if any, declared on the shares subject to the redemption request with record dates during the period between the quarter-end redemption request date and the redemption date. Furthermore, a stockholder requesting redemption will be responsible for any third-party costs incurred by us in effecting such redemption, including but not limited to, bank transaction charges, custody fees, taxes, assessments and/or transfer agent charges. The redemption plan may be suspended at any time. See “Stockholder Redemption Plan” for more details.

 

Q:Will there be any limits on my ability to redeem my shares?

 

A:Yes. While we designed our redemption plan to allow stockholders to request redemptions on a quarterly basis of all or any portion of their shares (subject to the one year holding period and applicable redemption discount described above), we need to impose limitations on the total amount of net redemptions per quarter in order to maintain sufficient sources of liquidity to satisfy redemption requests without impacting our ability to invest in commercial real estate assets and maximize investor returns. We will limit the number of shares to be redeemed during any calendar year to 5.0% of the weighted average number of shares of our common stock outstanding during the prior calendar year and we will limit redemptions to 1.25% per quarter, with excess capacity carried over to later quarters in the calendar year. In the event that we do not have sufficient funds available to redeem all of the shares of our common stock for which redemption requests have been submitted in any quarter, such pending requests will be honored on a pro rata basis. For investors who hold shares of our common stock with more than one record date, redemption requests will be applied to such shares in the order in which they were purchased, on a first in first out basis. Further, our Manager may in its sole discretion, amend, suspend, or terminate the redemption plan at any time, including to protect our operations and our non-redeemed stockholders, to prevent an undue burden on our liquidity, to preserve our status as a REIT, following any material decrease in our NAV, or for any other reason. Our limits on ownership of our shares also may require us to decline redemption requests that would cause other stockholders to exceed such ownership limits. In addition, in order to comply with certain of the distribution requirements applicable to REITs we will decline to honor any redemption request that we believe is a “dividend equivalent” redemption as discussed in “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders—Redemptions of Common Stock. See “Stockholder Redemption Plan” for more details.

 

Q:Will I be charged upfront selling commissions?

 

A:No. Investors will not pay upfront selling commissions as part of the price per share of common stock purchased in this offering. Additionally, there is no dealer manager fee or other service-related fee in connection with the offering and sale of the shares of our common stock.

 

Q:Who will pay your organization and offering costs?

 

A:We will pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering expenses in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering (and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings), which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000 in this offering. 1st stREIT Office Inc. and its stockholders, and not the OP Unitholders, will bear all such organization and offering expenses in connection with this offering and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings of our common stock, and the number of OP Units held by the limited partners will be adjusted upward to reflect the allocation of these expenses to 1st stREIT Office Inc. To the extent these organization and offering expenses exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, the Manager will bear such expenses through a reduction in future Management Fees payable by the Operating Partnership.  An affiliate of our Sponsor will be entitled to receive long-term incentive plan units, or LTIP units, in our Operating Partnership to the extent our organization and offering expenses are less than 3% of the gross proceeds we raise in the offering or less than 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings (in each case, excluding any proceeds attributable to shares sold to our Manager or its affiliates).  In such a case, LTIP Units will also be issued to the limited partners (other than us) so that the limited partners (other than us) will not be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the affiliate of our Sponsor. See “Estimated Use of Proceeds” and “Management Compensation—Organization and Offering Expenses” for more information.

 

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Q:What fees and expenses will you pay to the Manager or its affiliates?

 

A:We will pay our Manager a quarterly asset management fee at an annualized rate of 2.00%, which, until one year after this offering commences, will be based on the sum of (i) our proceeds from this offering as of the end of each fiscal quarter, plus (ii) proceeds from the issuance of OP Units to the limited partners of the Operating Partnership (other than 1st stREIT Office Inc. and any of its wholly owned subsidiaries) as of the end of such fiscal quarter, plus (minus) (iii) any earnings (loss) through the end of such fiscal quarter, (minus) (iv) any distributions paid through the end of such fiscal quarter, and thereafter will be based on our NAV at the end of each fiscal quarter. Our Manager will not charge any other fees, such as acquisition fees, disposition fees, financing fees, etc.

 

In addition, we will reimburse our Manager for the organization and offering expenses that the Manager has paid or will pay on our behalf in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, though the Operating Partnership may pay such excess amounts provided the Manager bears these costs through a reduction in the Management Fee. We will also reimburse our Manager for out-of-pocket expenses in connection with the acquisition or disposition of our investments, whether successful or not. Additionally, we will reimburse our Manager for out-of-pocket expenses paid to third parties in connection with providing services to us. We will not be responsible to reimburse our Manager for our Manager’s overhead expenses, employee costs, utilities or technology costs. The expense reimbursements that we will pay to our Manager include expenses incurred by our Sponsor in the performance of services under the support agreement between our Manager and our Sponsor, including any increases in insurance attributable to the management or operation of our company. See “Our Manager and the Management Agreement—Support Agreement.”

 

The payment by us of fees and expenses will reduce the cash available for investment and distribution and will directly impact our quarterly NAV. See “Management Compensation” for more details regarding the fees that will be paid to our Manager and its affiliates.

 

Q:Will you use leverage?

 

A:Yes, we intend to use leverage. Our targeted portfolio-wide leverage, after we have acquired a substantial portfolio, is between 40-60% of the greater of cost (before deducting depreciation or other non-cash reserves) or fair market value of our assets. During the period when we are acquiring our initial portfolio, we may employ greater leverage on individual assets (which will also result in greater leverage of the interim portfolio) in order to quickly build a diversified portfolio of assets. Our Manager may from time to time modify our leverage policy in its discretion. Please see “Investment Objectives and Strategy” for more details.

 

Q:How often will I receive dividends?

 

A:We expect that we will declare and pay dividends on a quarterly basis, or more or less frequently as determined by us following advice from our Manager, in arrears. Any dividends we make will be following consultation with our Manager, and will be based on, among other factors, our present and reasonably projected future cash flow. We expect that we will set the rate of dividends at a level that will be reasonably consistent and sustainable over time.

 

The payment of dividends will be limited by the REIT distribution requirements, which generally require that we make aggregate annual dividends to our stockholders of at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gain. Moreover, even if we make the required minimum dividends under the REIT rules, we are subject to federal income and excise taxes on our undistributed taxable income and gains. As a result, we may make such additional dividends, beyond the minimum REIT distribution, to avoid such taxes. See “Description of Capital Stock and Certain Provisions of Maryland Law, Our Charter and Bylaws — Dividends” and “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

Any dividends that we make will directly impact our NAV, by reducing the amount of our assets. Over the course of your investment, your dividends plus the change in NAV per share (either positive or negative) will produce your total return.

  

Q:What will be the source of your dividends?

 

A:Our goal is to pay dividends from our cash flow from operations. However, to the extent necessary or advisable, we may use other sources to fund dividends, including the net proceeds of this offering, cash advances by our Manager, cash resulting from a waiver or accrual of fees or reimbursements due to our Manager, borrowings and the issuance of additional securities. Use of some or all of these sources may reduce the amount of capital we invest in assets and negatively impact the return on your investment and the value of your investment. We have not established a limit on the amount of proceeds we may use to fund dividends. We can provide no assurances that future cash flow will support payment of dividends or maintaining dividends at any particular level or at all.

 

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Q:Will the dividends I receive be taxable as ordinary income?

 

A:Unless your investment is held in a qualified tax-exempt account or we designate certain dividends as capital gain dividends, dividends that you receive generally will be taxed as ordinary income to the extent they are from current or accumulated earnings and profits. The portion of your distribution in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits is considered a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes and will reduce the tax basis of your common stock, rather than result in current tax, until your basis is reduced to zero. Return of capital dividends made to you in excess of your tax basis in shares of our common stock will be treated as sales proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Dividends we designate as capital gain dividends will generally be taxable at long-term capital gains rates for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, because each investor’s tax considerations are different, we recommend that you consult with your tax advisor. You also should review the section of this offering circular entitled “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” including for a discussion of the special rules applicable to dividends in redemption of shares and liquidating dividends.

 

Q:May I reinvest my cash dividends in additional shares?

 

A:Not currently. We may implement a dividend reinvestment plan at a later date, but currently have no such plan in place and no present intention to implement such a plan.

 

Q:Who might benefit from an investment in shares of your common stock?

 

A:An investment in shares of our common stock may be beneficial for you if you seek to diversify your personal portfolio with a commercial real estate investment vehicle focused primarily on office property equity investments and other select real estate-related assets, seek to receive current income, seek to preserve capital and are able to hold your investment for a time period consistent with our liquidity strategy. On the other hand, we caution persons who require immediate liquidity or guaranteed income, or who seek a short-term investment, that an investment in shares of our common stock will not meet those needs.

 

Q:Are there any risks involved in buying shares of your common stock?

 

A:Yes. Investing in shares of our common stock involves a high degree of risk. If we are unable to effectively manage the impact of these risks, we may not meet our investment objectives, and therefore, you should purchase shares of our common stock only if you can afford a complete loss of your investment. See “Risk Factors” for a description of the risks relating to this offering and an investment in shares of our common stock.

 

Q:How does a “best efforts maximum” offering work?

 

A:A “best efforts maximum” offering means that we are only required to use our best efforts to sell shares of our common stock to the public. Neither our Sponsor, our Manager nor any other party has a firm commitment or obligation to purchase any shares of our common stock (other than our Sponsor’s commitment to purchase an aggregate of 7,400 shares of our common stock from us at $10.00 per share in a private placement). Accordingly, we may sell less than the maximum amount of shares of common stock being offered hereby.

 

Q:Who can buy shares of your common stock?

 

A:Generally, you may purchase shares of our common stock if you are a “qualified purchaser” (as defined in Regulation A under the Securities Act). “Qualified purchasers” include:

 

“accredited investors” under Rule 501(a) of Regulation D; and

 

all other investors so long as their investment in shares of our common stock does not represent more than 10% of the greater of their annual income or net worth (for natural persons), or 10% of the greater of annual revenue or net assets at fiscal year-end (for non-natural persons).

 

Net worth in all cases should be calculated excluding the value of an investor’s home, home furnishings and automobiles. We reserve the right to reject any investor’s subscription in whole or in part for any reason, including if we determine in our sole and absolute discretion that such investor is not a “qualified purchaser” for purposes of Regulation A. Please refer to the section above entitled “Investment Criteria” for more information.

 

Q:How do I buy shares of your common stock?

 

A:You may purchase shares of our common stock on our website, www.streitwise.com. Through the website you will be asked to electronically fill out a subscription agreement like the one attached to this offering circular as Appendix B for a certain investment amount and pay for the shares at the time you subscribe. In the future, we may also offer shares of our common stock on other websites or through registered broker-dealers. The Company and its officers, employees and associated persons intend to conduct the offering in accordance with Rule 3a4-1 and, therefore, none of them are required to register as a broker-dealer. Please refer to the section below entitled “How to Subscribe” for more information.

 

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Q:Is there any minimum investment required?

 

A:Yes. You must initially purchase at least 100 shares of our common stock in this offering, or $1,000 based on the current per share price. There is no minimum investment requirement on additional purchases after you have purchased a minimum of 100 shares.

 

Q:May I make an investment through my IRA or other tax-deferred retirement account?

 

A:Generally, yes. You may make an investment through your IRA or other tax-deferred retirement account, subject to our discretion to decide to not accept IRA and other retirement account investments if we would be deemed to be a fiduciary to you with respect to your investment. In making these investment decisions, you should consider, at a minimum, (1) whether the investment is in accordance with the documents and instruments governing your IRA, plan or other retirement account, (2) whether the investment would constitute a prohibited transaction under applicable law, (3) whether the investment satisfies the fiduciary requirements associated with your IRA, plan or other retirement account, (4) whether the investment will generate unrelated business taxable income to your IRA, plan or other retirement account, and (5) whether there is sufficient liquidity for such investment under your IRA, plan or other retirement account. You should note that an investment in shares of our common stock will not, in itself, create a retirement plan and that, in order to create a retirement plan, you must comply with all applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). You should note that we are not undertaking to provide impartial advice or give you advice in a fiduciary capacity in connection with an investment by your IRA or retirement account, and that we have financial interests associated with your investment including fees we may receive as a result of your investment.
   
  Our charter provides that, in the event we determine in our discretion that there is a material likelihood that we would be a fiduciary under applicable law with respect to an investor that is subject to ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code (e.g., an IRA), we have the authority to redeem such investor’s interests at a price equal to the then current NAV per share.

 

Q:Is there any minimum initial offering amount required to be sold?

 

A:No. We will begin operations once our formation transactions have been consummated, which we expect will occur at or prior to the launch of this offering, no matter the amount of proceeds raised in this offering.

 

Q:What will you do with the proceeds from your offering?

 

A:We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering (after paying or reimbursing organization and offering expenses) to invest in and manage a diverse portfolio of office properties. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. We expect that any expenses or fees payable to our Manager for its services in connection with managing our daily affairs, including but not limited to, the selection and acquisition of our investments, will be paid from cash flow from operations. If such fees and expenses are not paid from cash flow (accrued or waived) they will reduce the cash available for investment and distribution and will directly impact our quarterly NAV. See “Management Compensation” for more details regarding the fees that will be paid to our Manager and its affiliates.

 

We may not be able to promptly invest the net proceeds of this offering in commercial real estate and other select real estate-related assets. In the interim, we may invest in short-term, highly liquid or other authorized investments. Such short-term investments will not earn as high of a return as we expect to earn on our real estate-related investments.

 

Q:How long will this offering last?

 

A:We currently expect that this offering will remain open for investors until we raise the maximum amount being offered, subject to applicable law, unless terminated by us at an earlier time. We reserve the right to terminate this offering for any reason at any time. See “Plan of Distribution—Length of Offering.”

 

Q:Will I be notified of how my investment is doing?

 

A:Yes, we will provide you with periodic updates on the performance of your investment in us, including:

 

an annual report;

 

a semi-annual report;

 

current event reports for specified material events within four business days of their occurrence;

 

supplements to the offering circular, if we have material information to disclose to you; and

 

other reports that we may file or furnish to the SEC from time to time.

 

We will provide this information to you by posting such information on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov,

  

Q:When will I get my detailed tax information?

 

A:Your Form 1099-DIV tax information, if required, will be provided by January 31 of the year following each taxable year.

 

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Q:Who can help answer my questions about the offering?

 

A:If you have more questions about the offering, or if you would like additional copies of this offering circular, you should contact us by email at equity@streitwise.com or by mail at:

 

1st stREIT Office Inc.
11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1690
Los Angeles, CA 90025

 

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OFFERING SUMMARY

 

This offering summary highlights material information regarding our business and this offering that is not otherwise addressed in the “Questions and Answers About this Offering” section of this offering circular. Because it is a summary, it may not contain all of the information that is important to you. To understand this offering fully, you should read the entire offering circular carefully, including the “Risk Factors” section before making a decision to invest in shares of our common stock.

 

1st stREIT Office Inc.

 

We were recently formed as a Maryland corporation to invest in and manage a portfolio of commercial real estate properties. We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to acquire a diversified portfolio of primarily office properties with a focus on markets where we feel that the risk-return characteristics are favorable. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. We plan to diversify our portfolio’s investment risk with the goal of attaining a portfolio of real estate assets that provides attractive cash yields to our stockholders with the potential for capital appreciation. Substantially all of our assets will be held by, and substantially all of our operations will be conducted through, our Operating Partnership, 1st stREIT Office Operating Partnership LP, a Delaware limited partnership, either directly or through its subsidiaries, and we will be the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership. We intend to operate in a manner that will allow us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Among other requirements, REITs are required to distribute to stockholders at least 90% of their annual REIT taxable income (computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gain).

 

Our corporate office is located at 11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1690, Los Angeles, CA 90025. Our telephone number is (310) 421-1030. Information regarding our company is also available on our web site at www.streitwise.com. Information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into and does not constitute a part of this offering circular or any other report or documents we file with or furnish to the SEC.

 

Our Initial Property

 

On May 31, 2017 we acquired a fee simple interest in the office park described below (Laumeier) from investment funds managed by our Sponsor (the “Sponsor Funds”). The following table provides information about Laumeier as of December 31, 2016: 

 

Property   Metropolitan Area  Year Built/Last
Major
Renovation(1)
  Interest
Acquired by
Us
   NRA (000s
SF)
   In-Place
Occupancy(2)
   Annualized
Base Rent(3)
   Largest Tenant by NRA
Laumeier   St. Louis, MO  1987-90/2015   100%   291    97.7%  $6,447,666   Panera Bread Company, Inc.
   
(1)We define “major renovation” as significant upgrades, alterations or additions to building common areas, interiors, exteriors and/or systems.

 

(2)Includes both in-place and committed tenants, which we define as our tenants in occupancy as well as tenants that have executed binding leases for space under construction but are not yet in occupancy, as of December 31, 2016.

 

(3)Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as cash rents before abatements) for the month ended December 31, 2016, by (ii) 12. If rent abatements that were applied in December 2016 are included, annualized rent would be $5,967,496 (a decrease of $1.69 per net rentable square foot). The contractual rent abatements currently in place at Laumeier will all expire on or before March 2017.

 

Laumeier I, II, and IV (“Laumeier”) is located in the Laumeier Office Park, class “A” office park in Sunset Hills, Missouri, part of St. Louis County’s South County submarket. Laumeier comprises three of the four buildings in the Laumeier Office Park, totaling 290,925 rentable square feet, and includes in a combination of surface and structured parking lots, approximately 1,055 owned parking stalls (3.6/1000 square feet), and access to approximately 768 overflow parking stalls (2.6/1000 square feet) in the adjacent shopping center. Laumeier is 40% leased to Panera Bread Company (NASDAQ: PNRA) for their corporate headquarters through 2024. Other tenants include New Balance, AMN Healthcare (NYSE: AHS), and Regus. As of December 31, 2016, Laumeier was 97.7% leased with 6.0 years of weighted average lease term remaining.

 

Since acquiring Laumeier, the Sponsor Funds have completed various renovations and improvements, including lobby renovations, bathroom renovations, elevator modernizations and preventative parking structure maintenance. We currently have no immediate plans with respect to major renovation or redevelopment at Laumeier.

 

We acquired Laumeier for approximately $44.4 million or $153/sf, which equates to an 8.9% cap rate on projected 2017 net operating income. We financed the acquisition with a $24.6 million senior loan for a 10 year term at a 4.40% fixed interest rate, representing approximately 55% loan-to-value. See “Business and Properties” and “Conflicts of Interest and Related Party Transactions – Formation Transactions.”

 

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Investment Objectives

 

Our investment objectives are:

 

to achieve attractive cash yields with the potential for capital appreciation;

 

to grow net cash from operations so more cash is available for dividends to investors;

 

to preserve and to protect your capital contribution.

 

We cannot assure you that we will attain these objectives or that the value of our assets will not decrease. Furthermore, within our investment objectives and policies, our Manager will have substantial discretion with respect to the selection of specific investments, the management of our portfolio and the purchase and sale of our assets. Our Manager’s investment committee will review our investment guidelines at least annually to determine whether our investment guidelines continue to be in the best interests of our stockholders.

 

Investment Strategy

 

We intend to use substantially all of the proceeds of this offering to acquire, manage, operate, selectively leverage and opportunistically sell office properties. We intend to acquire and operate real estate and real estate-related assets on an opportunistic basis. Our Sponsor’s management team has extensive experience investing in numerous types of properties, but our primary focus will be on office acquisitions. These properties will be located throughout the U.S. and will be primarily existing, income-producing properties with the potential for long term capital appreciation.

 

In executing on our business strategy, we believe that we will benefit from our Manager’s affiliation with our Sponsor given our Sponsor’s strong track record and extensive experience and capabilities as a fund manager. These competitive advantages include:

 

Our Sponsor’s experience and reputation as a leading real estate investment manager, which historically has given it access to a large investment pipeline similar to our targeted assets and the key market data we use to underwrite and portfolio manage assets;

 

Our Sponsor’s relationships with financial institutions and other lenders that originate and distribute commercial real estate debt and other real estate-related products and that finance the types of assets we intend to acquire;

 

Our Sponsor’s acquisition experience, which includes seeking, underwriting and evaluating real estate deals in every major asset class and various locations within the U.S., and in a variety of market conditions; and

 

Our Sponsor’s asset management experience, which includes actively monitoring each investment through critical property management, leasing, renovation and disposition activities.

 

Opportunity and Market Overview

 

Investing with us offers investors the opportunity to gain real estate exposure with lower fees and higher returns relative to other public non-traded REITs. Compared to other public non-traded REITs, we offer lower upfront fees and lower ongoing fees.

 

We believe the market for near term acquisition and long term hold of cash-flowing office properties – through direct equity investments and joint ventures – as well as other real estate-related assets is compelling on a risk-adjusted basis. Given the recent concentration of investment capital into increasingly larger investment vehicles, and the corresponding desire for increasingly bigger deal sizes, we feel well-positioned to benefit from investing in deals falling below the radar of these larger investors. Further, our focus on markets with favorable risk-return characteristics should provide the opportunity to take advantage of relatively inexpensive financing to achieve higher cash yields than would be achievable on deals of a similar profile in more efficiently-priced markets.

 

It is important to note that real estate markets are fickle, and subject to change over time. Although the current opportunity appears to be in smaller deals, conditions could change quickly which may contribute to a shift in our strategy in search of superior risk-adjusted returns.

 

Our Sponsor – Tryperion Partners

 

Tryperion Partners, LLC is our Sponsor and the parent company of our Manager. Our Sponsor is a private real estate investment firm that provides investment management services to a range of foundation and high net worth clients. Our Sponsor utilizes its extensive real estate expertise and industry relationships to create value through prudent acquisitions and aggressive asset management.

 

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Our Sponsor’s team is experienced in managing complex real estate investments through multiple business cycles and through the life cycle of each investment, from acquisition and business plan execution, to realization. Pursuant to a support agreement with our Sponsor, our Manager will utilize our Sponsor’s personnel and resources to select our investments and manage our day-to-day operations. Our Sponsor’s valuable real estate and investment expertise includes the following:

 

Real Estate Investment Experience – To date, Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh, and Joseph Kessel, the principals of our Sponsor have collectively underwritten and/or managed the acquisition, ownership and disposition of over $1.7 billion of real estate equity investments valued in excess of $5.4 billion spanning all major asset classes. Since 2013, our Sponsor has sponsored two value-add closed-end funds that successfully raised a total of over $100 million of equity capital.

 

Proven Ability to Source Attractive Opportunities – Our Sponsor has sponsored two value-add closed-end funds targeting all commercial property types. Through these vehicles, as of December 31, 2016, our Sponsor has successfully acquired over $285 million of real estate. See “Prior Performance Summary.”

 

Asset Management Experience – The principals of our Sponsor have a strong track record of adding value to investments made, both in direct deals and in joint venture deals, through aggressive management and leasing, strategic capital improvements, and prudent financing programs. Our Sponsor has the experience necessary to help guide investments through various market conditions.

 

Our Company and the Formation Transactions

 

We were incorporated in Maryland as a corporation on November 9, 2016. Our charter authorizes us to issue: (i) 900,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share and (ii) 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock. Under our charter, our board may increase the number of shares of common or preferred stock without stockholder consent. At this time, we have not issued any preferred stock. As of the date of this offering circular, we have issued 100 shares of common stock to our Sponsor.

 

Substantially all of our assets are and will continue to be held by, and substantially all of our operations will be conducted through, our Operating Partnership, either directly or through its subsidiaries, and we will be the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership. Additionally, we will contribute the net proceeds from this offering and the private placements to our Sponsor to our Operating Partnership in exchange for OP Units. Prior to the commencement of this offering, we engaged in a series of transactions through which we acquired our initial property from the Sponsor Funds in exchange for an aggregate of 2,070,000 OP Units issued to certain investors in the Sponsor Funds.

 

Private Placements to our Sponsor

 

Our Sponsor has committed to purchase 7,400 shares of our common stock from us at $10.00 per share in a private placement on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering, for net proceeds to us of $74,000. Our Sponsor previously acquired 100 shares of our common stock at a price equal to the initial public offering price in connection with our formation, for net proceeds to us of $1,000.

 

Our Management Agreement

 

We will be externally managed and advised by our Manager, an affiliate of our Sponsor. We expect to benefit from the personnel, relationships and experience of our Sponsor’s management team and other personnel of our Sponsor. Pursuant to the terms of a management agreement between our Manager, us and our Operating Partnership our Manager will provide us with our management team and appropriate support personnel. Pursuant to a support agreement between our Manager and our Sponsor, our Sponsor will provide our Manager with the personnel, services and resources necessary for our Manager to perform its obligations and responsibilities under the management agreement in exchange for certain fees payable by our Manager.

 

We have entered into the management agreement with our Operating Partnership and our Manager effective as of June 22, 2017. Pursuant to the management agreement, our Manager will implement our business strategy and perform certain services for us, subject to oversight by our board of directors. Our Manager will be responsible for, among other duties, (i) performing all of our day-to-day functions, (ii) determining our investment strategy and guidelines in conjunction with our board of directors, (iii) sourcing, analyzing and executing investments, asset sales and financing, (iv) performing portfolio management duties, and (v) performing financial and accounting functions.

 

The initial term of the management agreement will be for three years commencing on the effective date of the agreement, with automatic one-year renewal terms starting on completion of the initial three year term. For a detailed description of the management agreement’s termination provisions, see “Our Manager and the Management Agreement—Management Agreement.”

 

Our Board of Directors

 

We operate under the direction of our board of directors, the members of which are accountable to us and our stockholders as fiduciaries. Our board of directors has retained our Manager to direct the management of our business and affairs, manage our day-to-day affairs, and implement our investment strategy, subject to the board of directors’ supervision. The current board members are Eliot Bencuya (initial term expires September 13, 2018), Jeffrey Karsh (initial term expires September 13, 2019) and Joseph Kessel (initial term expires September 13, 2020). The current Chief Executive Officer is Jeffrey Karsh, the current Chief Investment Officer is Eliot Bencuya, and the current Chief Operating Officer is Joseph Kessel.

 

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Our board of directors will be classified into three classes. Eliot Bencuya is a Class I director, Jeffrey Karsh is a Class II director and Joseph Kessel is a Class III director. Each class of directors will be elected for successive terms ending at the annual meeting of the stockholders the third year after election and until his or her successor is elected and qualified. With respect to the election of directors, each candidate nominated for election to the board of directors must receive a plurality of the votes cast, in person or by proxy, in order to be elected.

 

All of our directors are also partners of our Sponsor and serve on the investment committees for each of the two closed-end funds sponsored by our Sponsor. As a result, we do not have any independent directors or management and conflicts of interest may arise. For more details, see “Conflicts of Interest and Related Party Transactions.”

 

Our Structure

 

The chart below shows the relationship among various Tryperion affiliates and our company as of the date of this offering circular.

 

(FLOW CHART)

 

* Pursuant to our management agreement, our Manager will receive an asset management fee and will be entitled to reimbursements of certain expenses. See “Management Compensation.”

 

** Pursuant to a support agreement with our Sponsor, our Manager will utilize our Sponsor’s personnel and resources to select our investments and manage our day-to-day operations.

 

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Management Compensation

 

Our Manager and its affiliates will receive fees and expense reimbursements for services relating to this offering and the investment and management of our assets. The items of compensation are summarized in the following table. Neither our Manager nor its affiliates will receive any selling commissions or dealer manager fees in connection with the offer and sale of shares of our common stock. See “Management Compensation” for a more detailed explanation of the fees and expenses payable to our Manager and its affiliates.

 

Form of Compensation   Determination of Amount   Estimated Amount
         
    Organization and Offering Stage    
         
Organization and Offering Expenses   We will be responsible to pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering costs in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000.   We will pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering expenses in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering (and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings), which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000 in this offering. 1st stREIT Office Inc. and its stockholders, and not the OP Unitholders, will bear all such organization and offering expenses in connection with this offering and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings of our common stock, and the number of OP Units held by the limited partners will be adjusted upward to reflect the allocation of these expenses to 1st stREIT Office Inc. To the extent these organization and offering expenses exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, the Manager will bear such expenses through a reduction in future Management Fees payable by the Operating Partnership.  An affiliate of our Sponsor will be entitled to receive long-term incentive plan units, or LTIP units, in our Operating Partnership to the extent our organization and offering expenses are less than 3% of the gross proceeds we raise in the offering or less than 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings (in each case, excluding any proceeds attributable to shares sold to our Manager or its affiliates).  In such a case, LTIP Units will also be issued to the limited partners (other than us) so that the limited partners (other than us) will not be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the affiliate of our Sponsor. See “Estimated Use of Proceeds” and “Management Compensation—Organization and Offering Expenses” for more information.
         
    Acquisition and Development Stage    
         
Reimbursement of Acquisition Expenses   We will reimburse our Manager for actual expenses incurred in connection with the selection or acquisition of an investment, whether or not we ultimately acquire the investment.   Actual amounts are dependent upon the results of our operations; we cannot determine these amounts at the present time.
         
Acquisition Fees   None.  
         
    Operational Stage    
         
Asset Management Fee   Quarterly asset management fee based on an annualized rate of 2.00%, which, until one year after this offering commences, will be based on the sum of (i) our proceeds from this offering as of the end of each fiscal quarter, plus (ii) proceeds from the issuance of OP Units to the limited partners of the Operating Partnership (other than 1st stREIT Office Inc. and any of its wholly owned subsidiaries) as of the end of such fiscal quarter, plus (minus) (iii) any earnings (loss) through the end of such fiscal quarter, (minus) (iv) any distributions paid through the end of such fiscal quarter, and thereafter will be based on our NAV at the end of each fiscal quarter   Actual amounts are dependent upon the offering proceeds we raise (and any leverage we employ) and the results of our operations; we cannot determine these amounts at the present time.

 

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Form of Compensation   Determination of Amount   Estimated Amount
         
    Our Manager in its sole discretion may defer or waive any fee payable to it under the management agreement. All or any portion of any deferred fees will be deferred without interest and paid when our Manager determines.    
         
Other Operating Expenses   We will reimburse our Manager for out-of-pocket expenses paid to third parties in connection with providing services to us. We will not be responsible to reimburse our Manager for our Manager’s overhead expenses, employee costs, utilities or technology costs.   Actual amounts are dependent upon the results of our operations; we cannot determine these amounts at the present time.
         
    The expense reimbursements that we will pay to our Manager also include expenses incurred by our Sponsor in the performance of services under the support agreement between our Manager and our Sponsor, including any increases in insurance attributable to the management or operation of our company.    
         
Servicing Fees   None.  
         
Special Servicing Fees   None.  
         
Financing Fees   None.  
         
    Liquidation/Listing Stage    
         
Disposition Fees   None.  

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

Investing in shares of our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the “Risk Factors” section of this offering circular, beginning on page 18, which contains a detailed discussion of the material risks that you should consider before you invest in shares of our common stock.

 

Conflicts of Interest

 

Our Manager and its affiliates will experience conflicts of interest in connection with the management of our business. Some of the material conflicts that our Manager and its affiliates may face include the following:

 

Our Sponsor’s real estate professionals acting on behalf of our Manager must determine which investment opportunities to recommend to us and other entities affiliated with our Sponsor. Our Sponsor has previously sponsored, as of the date of this offering circular, two “value-add” closed-end real estate funds that may have similar investment criteria to ours. As of December 31, 2016, the Sponsor Funds have invested 92% of their equity capital.

 

Our Sponsor’s real estate professionals acting on behalf of our Manager will have to allocate their time among us, our Sponsor’s business and other programs and activities in which they are involved.

 

The terms of our management agreement (including our Manager’s rights and obligations and the compensation payable to our Manager and its affiliates) were not negotiated through the benefit of arm’s length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

 

On May 31, 2017 we acquired our initial property (Laumeier) from Sponsor Funds managed by our Sponsor for approximately $44.4 million or $153/sf, which equates to an 8.9% cap rate on projected 2017 net operating income. We financed the acquisition with a $24.6 million senior loan for a 10 year term at a 4.40% fixed interest rate, representing approximately 55% loan-to-value. We did not conduct arm’s-length negotiations with the parties involved regarding the terms of the formation transactions. In the course of structuring the formation transactions, our Sponsor’s management team and certain investors in the Sponsor Funds had the ability to influence the terms of the formation transactions.

 

At some future date after we have acquired a substantial investment portfolio that our Manager determines would be most effectively managed by our own personnel, we may seek stockholder approval to internalize our management by acquiring assets and employing the key real estate professionals performing services to us on behalf of our Manager for consideration that would be negotiated at that time. The payment of such consideration could result in dilution of your interest in us and could reduce the net income per share and funds from operations per share attributable to your investment. Additionally, in an internalization transaction, our Sponsor’s real estate professionals that become our employees may receive more compensation than they previously received from our Sponsor or its affiliates. These possibilities may provide incentives to these individuals to pursue an internalization transaction, even if an alternative strategy might otherwise be in our stockholder’s best interests.

 

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Dividends

 

We expect that we will declare and pay dividends on a quarterly basis, or more or less frequently as advised by our Manager, in arrears, based on daily record dates. Any dividends we make will be following consultation with our Manager, and will be based on, among other factors, our present and reasonably projected future cash flow. We expect that we will set the rate of dividends at a level that will be reasonably consistent and sustainable over time. Neither we nor our Manager has pre-established a percentage range of return for dividends to stockholders. We have not established a minimum distribution level, and our charter does not require that we pay dividends to our stockholders.

 

Borrowing Policy

 

We intend to employ leverage in order to provide more funds available for investment. We believe that careful use of conservatively structured leverage will help us to achieve our diversification goals and potentially enhance the returns on our investments. Our targeted portfolio-wide leverage, after we have acquired a substantial portfolio, is between 40-60% of the greater of cost (before deducting depreciation or other non-cash reserves) or fair market value of our assets. During the period when we are acquiring our initial portfolio, we may employ greater leverage on individual assets (that will also result in greater leverage of the interim portfolio) in order to quickly build a diversified portfolio of assets. Our Manager may from time to time modify our leverage policy in its discretion. See “Investment Objectives and Strategy” for more details regarding our leverage policies.

 

Valuation Policies

 

Our NAV per share will be calculated by our Manager at the end of each fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis, beginning one year after commencement of the offering using a process that reflects several components, including (1) estimated values of each of our commercial real estate assets and investments, including related liabilities, based upon (a) market capitalization rates, comparable sales information, interest rates, discount rates, net operating income, and (b) in certain instances individual appraisal reports of the underlying real estate provided by an independent valuation expert, (2) the price of liquid assets for which third party market quotes are available, (3) accruals of our periodic dividends and (4) estimated accruals of our operating revenues and expenses. In instances where we determine that an independent appraisal of the real estate asset is necessary, including, but not limited to, instances where our Manager is unsure of its ability on its own to accurately determine the estimated values of our commercial real estate assets and investments, or instances where third party market values for comparable properties are either nonexistent or extremely inconsistent, we may engage an appraiser that has expertise in appraising commercial real estate assets, to act as our independent valuation expert. The independent valuation expert will not be responsible for, or prepare, our NAV per share. However, we may hire a third party to calculate, or assist with calculating, the NAV per share. The use of different judgments or assumptions would likely result in different estimates of the value of our real estate assets. Moreover, although we evaluate and provide our NAV per share on a quarterly basis, our NAV per share may fluctuate in the interim, so that the NAV per share in effect for any fiscal quarter may not reflect the precise amount that might be paid for your shares in a market transaction. Further, our published NAV per share may not fully reflect certain material events to the extent that they are not known or their financial impact on our portfolio is not immediately quantifiable. Any resulting potential disparity in our NAV per share may be in favor of either stockholders who redeem their shares, or stockholders who buy new shares, or existing stockholders. Note, in addition, that the determination of our NAV is not based on, nor intended to comply with, fair value standards under GAAP and our NAV may not be indicative of the price that we would receive for our assets at current market conditions.

 

Our goal is to provide a reasonable estimate of the NAV per share on a quarterly basis. However, the majority of our assets will consist of commercial office investments and, as with any commercial real estate valuation protocol, the conclusions we reach or, solely in the case that there is a conflict, the conclusion reached by our independent valuation expert, will be based on a number of judgments, assumptions and opinions about future events that may or may not prove to be correct. The use of different judgments, assumptions or opinions would likely result in different estimates of the value of our commercial real estate assets and investments. In addition, for any given quarter, our published NAV per share may not fully reflect certain material events, to the extent that the financial impact of such events on our portfolio is not immediately quantifiable. As a result, the quarterly calculation of our NAV per share may not reflect the precise amount that might be paid for your shares in a market transaction, and any potential disparity in our NAV per share may be in favor of either stockholders who redeem their shares, or stockholders who buy new shares, or existing stockholders. However, to the extent quantifiable, if a material event occurs in between quarterly updates of NAV that would cause our NAV per share to change by 5% or more from the last disclosed NAV, we will disclose the updated NAV per share and the reason for the change in an offering circular supplement as promptly as reasonably practicable.

 

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Quarterly NAV Per Share Adjustments

 

We set our initial offering price at $10.00 per share, which will be the purchase price of our shares until twelve months from the commencement of this offering. Thereafter, the per share purchase price will be adjusted every fiscal quarter and, as of January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st of each year, will be equal to the greater of (i) $10.00 per share or (ii) the sum of our NAV divided by the number of shares outstanding as of the close of business on the last business day of the prior fiscal quarter.

 

Beginning after one year from the commencement of this offering, we will file with the SEC on a quarterly basis an offering circular supplement disclosing the quarterly determination of our NAV per share that will be applicable for such fiscal quarter, which we refer to as the pricing supplement. Except as otherwise set forth in this offering circular, we will disclose, on a quarterly basis in an offering circular supplement filed with the SEC, the principal valuation components of our NAV. See “Plan of Operation—Quarterly NAV Per Share Adjustments” for more details.

 

Quarterly Redemption Plan

 

While you should view your investment as long-term, we have adopted a stockholder redemption plan which may provide an opportunity for our stockholders to have their shares of our common stock redeemed by us, subject to certain restrictions and limitations. Shares may not be redeemed under our stockholder redemption plan until the first anniversary of the date such shares were purchased.

 

The purchase price for shares redeemed under our stockholder redemption plan will be as follows: 

 

Holding Period from Date of Purchase   Redemption Price(1) (2)
Less than 1 year   No redemption allowed
1 year until 2 years   90.0% of NAV
2 years until 3 years   92.5% of NAV
3 years until 4 years   95.0% of NAV
4 years until 5 years   97.5% of NAV
5 years or more   100% of NAV
In the event of a stockholder’s death or complete disability   100% of NAV

 

 

(1)For purposes of the stockholder redemption plan, the per share redemption price will be calculated as a percentage of the NAV per share in effect at the time of the redemption. The redemption price per share for shares redeemed pursuant to the stockholder redemption plan will be further reduced by the aggregate amount of net proceeds per share, if any, distributed to our stockholders following the date that the NAV per share in effect at the time of the redemption was established but prior to the redemption date as a result of the sale of one or more of our assets that constitutes a return of capital distribution as a result of such sales. In addition, the redemption price will be reduced by the aggregate sum of dividends, if any, declared on the shares subject to the redemption request with record dates during the period between the quarter-end redemption request date and the redemption date. For more details on how our Manager will determine the net asset value, see “Plan of Operation—Valuation Policies” and “Plan of Operation—Quarterly NAV Share Price Adjustments.”

 

(2)A stockholder requesting redemption will be responsible for paying or reimbursing us for any third-party costs incurred by us as a result of the redemption request, including but not limited to, bank transaction charges, custody fees, taxes, assessments and/or transfer agent charges.

 

Redemption of shares of our common stock will be made quarterly upon written request to us at least 15 days prior to the end of the applicable quarter. We intend to provide notice of redemption by the last business day of each quarter, with an effective redemption date as of the last day of each quarter, and to endeavor to remit the redemption price within 14 days of the end of such quarter; although payment of the redemption price may be delayed until 21 days after the end of such quarter, due to exigent circumstances, including, without limitation, (1) our partner real estate operators or borrower(s) failing to provide adequate information regarding the assets within a time period that allows us to perform our NAV calculation, which in turn would prevent us from determining share redemption prices; (2) macro-economic crises or property-level events, such as damage to the property, that may affect our ability to make redemptions or determine NAV; and (3) our payment processing provider choosing to discontinue service or has technical outages that prevent us from processing share redemptions in a timely manner. Stockholders may withdraw their redemption request at any time up to three (3) business days prior to the redemption date. If we agree to honor a redemption request, the shares of our common stock to be redeemed will cease to accrue dividends or have voting rights as of the redemption date.

 

Because the Company’s NAV per share will be calculated at the end of each quarter, the redemption price may change between the date the Company receives the redemption request and the redemption date. As a result, the redemption price that a stockholder will receive may be different from the redemption price on the day the redemption request is made.

 

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We cannot guarantee that the funds set aside for the redemption plan will be sufficient to accommodate all requests made in any quarter. In the event that we do not have sufficient funds available to redeem all of the shares of our common stock for which redemption requests have been submitted in any quarter, we plan to redeem shares of our common stock on a pro rata basis on the redemption date.

 

We are not obligated to redeem shares of our common stock under the redemption plan. We will limit the number of shares to be redeemed during any calendar year to 5.0% of the weighted average number of shares of our common stock outstanding during the prior calendar year (or 1.25% per quarter, with excess capacity carried over to later quarters in the calendar year). In addition, our Manager may, in its sole discretion, amend, suspend, or terminate the redemption plan at any time, including to protect our operations and our non-redeemed stockholders, to prevent an undue burden on our liquidity, to preserve our status as a REIT, following any material decrease in our NAV, or for any other reason. Our limits on ownership of our shares also may require us to decline redemption requests that would cause other stockholders to exceed such ownership limits. In addition, in order to comply with certain of the distribution requirements applicable to REITs we will decline to honor any redemption request that we believe is a “dividend equivalent” redemption as discussed in “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders—Redemptions of Common Stock.” Therefore, you may not have the opportunity to make a redemption request prior to any potential termination of our redemption plan.

 

Please refer to the section entitled “Stockholder Redemption Plan” for more information.

 

Liquidity Event

 

Subject to then existing market conditions, we may consider alternatives to our liquidation as a means for providing liquidity to our stockholders within approximately ten years from the completion of this offering. While we may seek a liquidity transaction in this time frame, there can be no assurance that a suitable transaction will be available or that market conditions for a transaction will be favorable during that time frame. Our Manager has the discretion to consider a liquidity transaction at any time if it determines such event to be in our best interests. A liquidity transaction could consist of a sale or partial sale of our assets, a sale or merger of the company, a consolidation transaction with other companies managed by our Manager or its affiliates, a listing of our shares on a national securities exchange or a similar transaction. We do not have a stated term, as we believe setting a finite date for a possible but uncertain future liquidity transaction may result in actions that are not necessarily in the best interest or within the expectations of our stockholders.

 

Prior to our completion of a liquidity transaction, our stockholder redemption plan may provide an opportunity for you to have your shares of common stock redeemed, subject to certain restrictions and limitations. See “Stockholder Redemption Plan.”

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in shares of our common stock involves substantial risks. You should carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information contained in this offering circular before purchasing shares. The occurrence of any of the following risks might cause you to lose a significant part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties discussed below are not the only ones we face, but do represent those risks and uncertainties that we believe are most significant to our business, operating results, prospects and financial condition. Some statements in this offering circular, including statements in the following risk factors, constitute forward-looking statements. Please refer to the section entitled “Statements Regarding Forward-Looking Information.”

 

Risks Related to an Investment in our Company

 

We have little prior operating history, and the prior performance of our Sponsor or other real estate investment opportunities sponsored by our Sponsor may not predict our future results.

 

We are a recently formed company and have little operating history. As of the commencement of this offering, our total assets consist of one office property. You should not assume that our performance will be similar to the past performance of our Sponsor or other real estate investment opportunities sponsored by our Sponsor. Our lack of a substantial operating history significantly increases the risk and uncertainty you face in making an investment in our shares.

 

Because no public trading market for our shares currently exists, it will be difficult for you to sell your shares and, if you are able to sell your shares, you may have to sell them at a substantial discount to the offering price.

 

We are not required to effectuate a liquidity event by any specific date. In addition, our charter does not require us to list our shares for trading on a securities exchange by a specified date or at all. Although we may apply to have our shares of common stock approved for listing on the OTCQX marketplace or another secondary market upon the completion of this offering, there is currently no public market for our shares and there may never be. Any subsequent sale of shares of our common stock must comply with applicable state and federal securities laws. Our charter prohibits the ownership of more than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock, or 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock, unless exempted by our board of directors, which may inhibit large investors from desiring to purchase your shares. In addition our charter contains certain restrictions on the beneficial ownership of shares in order to avoid being deemed “plan assets” under Title I of ERISA. See “Description of Capital Stock and Certain Provisions of Maryland Law, our Charter and Bylaws—Restrictions on Ownership of Shares.” Moreover, our stockholder redemption plan includes numerous restrictions that limit your ability to sell your shares to us, and we may amend, suspend, or terminate our stockholder redemption plan. However, in the event that we amend, suspend or terminate our stockholder redemption plan, we will file an offering circular supplement and/or Form 1-U, as appropriate, to disclose such event. We describe the restrictions of our stockholder redemption plan in detail under “Stockholder Redemption Plan.” As a result of the foregoing, it will be difficult for you to sell your shares promptly or at all. If you are able to sell your shares, you may have to sell them at a discount to their offering price. It is also likely that your shares will not be accepted as the primary collateral for a loan. You should purchase our shares only as a long-term investment because of the illiquid nature of the shares.

 

If we are unable to find suitable investments, we may not be able to achieve our investment objectives or pay dividends.

 

Our ability to achieve our investment objectives and to pay dividends depends upon the performance of our Manager in the acquisition of our investments and the ability of our Manager to source investment opportunities for us. If we fail to raise sufficient proceeds from the sale of shares in this offering, we will be unable to make additional investments. At the same time, the more money we raise in this offering, the greater our challenge will be to invest all of the net offering proceeds in investments that meet our investment criteria. We cannot assure you that our Manager will be successful in obtaining suitable investments or that, if our Manager makes investments on our behalf, our objectives will be achieved. If we, through our Manager, are unable to find suitable investments promptly, we may hold the proceeds from this offering in an interest-bearing account or invest the proceeds in short-term assets in a manner that is consistent with our qualification as a REIT. If we would continue to be unsuccessful in locating suitable investments, we may ultimately decide to liquidate. In the event we are unable to timely locate suitable investments, we may be unable or limited in our ability to pay dividends and we may not be able to meet our investment objectives.

 

If we pay dividends from sources other than our cash flow from operations, we will have less funds available for investments and your overall return may be reduced.

 

Although our distribution policy is to use our cash flow from operations to pay dividends, our charter permits us to pay dividends from any source, including offering proceeds, borrowings and sales of assets. Until the proceeds from this offering are fully invested and from time to time during the operational stage, we may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund dividends. If we pay dividends from financings, the net proceeds from this or future offerings or other sources other than our cash flow from operations, we will have less funds available for investments in real estate properties and other real estate-related assets and the number of real estate properties that we invest in and the overall return to our stockholders may be reduced. If we fund dividends from borrowings, our interest expense and other financing costs, as well as the repayment of such borrowings, will reduce our earnings and cash flow from operations available for distribution in future periods, and accordingly your overall return may be reduced. If we fund dividends from the sale of assets, this will affect our ability to generate cash flows from operations in future periods.

 

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Disruptions in the financial markets or deteriorating economic conditions could adversely impact the commercial real estate market as well as the market for equity-related investments generally, which could hinder our ability to implement our business strategy and generate returns to you.

 

We intend to acquire a diversified portfolio of primarily office properties. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. Economic conditions greatly increase the risks of these investments (see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Real Estate and Our Investments”). The success of our business is significantly related to general economic conditions and, accordingly, our business could be harmed by an economic slowdown and downturn in real estate asset values, property sales and leasing activities. Periods of economic slowdown or recession, significantly rising interest rates, declining employment levels, decreasing demand for real estate, declining real estate values, or the public perception that any of these events may occur, can negatively impact the value of our holdings. These economic conditions could result in a general decline in acquisition, disposition and leasing activity, as well as a general decline in the value of real estate and in rents, which in turn would reduce revenue from investment management activities. In addition, these conditions could lead to a decline in property sales prices as well as a decline in funds invested in existing commercial real estate assets.

 

During an economic downturn, it may also take longer for us to dispose of real estate investments or the selling prices may be lower than originally anticipated. As a result, the carrying value of our real estate investments may become impaired and we could record losses as a result of such impairment or we could experience reduced profitability related to declines in real estate values. Further, as a result of our target leverage, our exposure to adverse general economic conditions is heightened. We are unable to predict the likely duration and severity of any disruption in financial markets and adverse economic conditions in the United States and other countries.

 

All of the conditions described above could adversely impact our business performance and profitability, which could result in our failure to pay dividends to our stockholders and could decrease the value of an investment in us. In addition, in an extreme deterioration of our business, we could have insufficient liquidity to meet our debt service obligations when they come due in future years. If we fail to meet our payment or obligations under any credit or other loan agreements, the lenders under any such agreements will be entitled to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure the debt owed.

 

We may suffer from delays in locating suitable investments, which could limit our ability to pay dividends and lower the overall return on your investment.

 

We rely upon our Sponsor’s real estate professionals, including Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and Joseph Kessel, to identify suitable investments. Our Sponsor and other affiliates of our Sponsor also rely on Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and Joseph Kessel for investment opportunities. To the extent that our Sponsor’s real estate and other professionals face competing demands upon their time in instances when we have capital ready for investment, we may face delays in execution.

 

Additionally, the current market for office properties that meet our investment objectives is highly competitive, as is the leasing market for such properties. The more shares we sell in this offering, the greater our challenge will be to invest all of the offering proceeds (after expenses) on attractive terms. Except for our one current asset and investments that may be described in supplements to this offering circular prior to the date you subscribe for shares of our common stock, you will have no opportunity to evaluate the terms of transactions or other economic or financial data concerning our investments. You must rely entirely on the oversight and management ability of our Manager and the performance of any property manager. We cannot be sure that our Manager will be successful in obtaining suitable investments on financially attractive terms.

 

We could also suffer from delays in locating suitable investments as a result of our reliance on our Manager at times when its officers, employees, or agents are simultaneously seeking to locate suitable investments for other programs sponsored by our Sponsor, some of which may have investment objectives and employ investment strategies that are similar to ours.

 

Although on May 31, 2017 we acquired one property, we have not identified any other investments to acquire with the net proceeds of this offering. You will not be able to evaluate our future investments prior to purchasing shares, which makes your investment more speculative.

 

Although on May 31, 2017 we acquired one property, we have not yet identified any additional investments that we may make, we are not able to provide you with any information to assist you in evaluating the merits of any specific future investments that we may make, except for investments that may be described in supplements to this offering circular. We will seek to invest substantially all of the offering proceeds available for investment, after the payment of fees and expenses, in commercial real estate equity investments. However, because you will be unable to evaluate the economic merit of assets before we invest in them, you will have to rely entirely on the ability of our Manager to select suitable and successful investment opportunities. These factors increase the risk that your investment may not generate returns comparable to our competitors.

 

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You may be more likely to sustain a loss on your investment because our Sponsor does not have as strong an economic incentive to avoid losses as do sponsors who have made significant equity investments in their companies.

 

Our Sponsor, Tryperion Partners, LLC, has committed to purchase 7,400 shares of our common stock from us at $10.00 per share in a private placement on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering, for net proceeds to us of $74,000. Our Sponsor previously acquired 100 shares of our common stock at a price equal to the initial public offering price in connection with our formation, for net proceeds to us of $1,000. Therefore, if we are successful in raising enough proceeds to be able to reimburse our Sponsor for our organization and offering expenses, our Sponsor will have little exposure to loss in the value of our shares. Without this exposure, our stockholders may be at a greater risk of loss because our Sponsor does not have as much to lose from a decrease in the value of our shares as do those sponsors who make more significant equity investments in their companies.

 

Because we are limited in the amount of funds we can raise, we will be limited in the number and type of investments we make and the value of your investment in us will fluctuate with the performance of the specific assets we acquire.

 

This offering is being made on a “best efforts maximum” basis and we may begin to invest net proceeds from this offering immediately after the commencement of this offering. Further, under Regulation A, we are only allowed to raise up to $50,000,000 in any 12 month period (although we may raise capital in other ways). We initially expect the size of the investments that we will make will require a minimum of $3.0 million of equity. As a result, the amount of proceeds we raise in this offering may be substantially less than the amount we would need to achieve a diversified portfolio of investments, even if we are successful in raising the maximum offering amount. If we are unable to raise substantial funds, we will make fewer investments resulting in less diversification in terms of the type, number and size of investments that we make. In that case, the likelihood that any single asset’s performance would adversely affect our profitability will increase. Your investment in shares of our common stock will be subject to greater risk to the extent that we lack a diversified portfolio of investments. Further, we will have certain fixed operating expenses, including certain expenses as a public reporting company, regardless of whether we are able to raise substantial funds in this offering. Our inability to raise substantial funds would increase our fixed operating expenses as a percentage of gross income, reducing our net income and limiting our ability to pay dividends.

 

Any adverse changes in our Sponsor’s financial health or our relationship with our Sponsor or its affiliates could hinder our operating performance and the return on your investment.

 

We have engaged our Manager to manage our operations and our portfolio of commercial real estate investments and other select real estate-related assets. Our Manager has no employees, and relies on a support agreement with our Sponsor to perform services on its behalf for us. Our ability to achieve our investment objectives and to pay dividends is dependent upon the performance of our Sponsor and its affiliates as well as our Sponsor’s real estate professionals in the identification and acquisition of investments, the management of our assets and operation of our day-to-day activities. Any adverse changes in our Sponsor’s financial condition or our relationship with our Sponsor could hinder our Manager’s ability to successfully manage our operations and our portfolio of investments.

 

Our ability to implement our investment strategy is dependent, in part, upon our ability to successfully conduct this offering directly through online distribution channels, which makes an investment in us more speculative.

 

We will primarily conduct this offering directly through online distribution channels. The success of this offering, and our ability to implement our business strategy, is dependent upon our ability to sell our shares to investors directly through online distribution channels and to execute on such sales. If we are not successful in selling our shares directly through online distribution channels, our ability to raise proceeds through this offering will be limited and we may not have adequate capital to implement our investment strategy. If we are unsuccessful in implementing our investment strategy, you could lose all or a part of your investment.

 

If we do not successfully implement a liquidity transaction, you may have to hold your investment for an indefinite period.

 

Although we may complete a transaction providing liquidity to stockholders within approximately ten years from the completion of this offering, we are not required to effectuate a liquidity event by any specific date. Market conditions and other factors could cause us to delay the listing of our common stock on a national securities exchange or delay the commencement of a liquidation or other type of liquidity transaction, such as a merger or sale of assets, beyond ten years from the termination of this offering. If our Manager does determine to pursue a liquidity transaction, we would be under no obligation to conclude the process within a set time. If we adopt a plan of liquidation, the timing of the sale of assets will depend on real estate and financial markets, economic conditions in areas in which properties are located, and federal income tax effects on stockholders, that may prevail in the future. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to liquidate all assets. After we adopt a plan of liquidation, we would likely remain in existence until all our investments are liquidated. If we do not pursue a liquidity transaction, or delay such a transaction due to market conditions, your shares may continue to be illiquid and you may, for an indefinite period of time, be unable to convert your investment to cash easily and could suffer losses on your investment.

 

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We may change our targeted investments and investment guidelines without stockholder consent.

 

Our Manager may change our targeted investments and investment guidelines at any time without the consent of our stockholders, which could result in our making investments that are different from, and possibly riskier than, the investments described in this offering circular. A change in our targeted investments or investment guidelines may increase our exposure to interest rate risk, default risk and real estate market fluctuations, all of which could adversely affect the value of shares of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends to you.

 

We have minimal operating capital, one asset and limited revenue from operations.

 

We have minimal operating capital and for the foreseeable future will be dependent upon our ability to finance our operations from the sale of equity or other financing alternatives. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully raise operating capital. The failure to successfully raise operating capital could result in our bankruptcy or other event which would have a material adverse effect on us and our stockholders. We have only one asset and no significant financial resources, so such adverse event could put your investment dollars at significant risk.

 

The market in which we participate is competitive and, if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be harmed.

 

We compete with many other entities engaged in real estate investment activities, including individuals, corporations, bank and insurance company investment accounts, other REITs, private real estate funds, online real estate investment platforms and other entities engaged in real estate investment activities. This market is competitive and rapidly changing. We expect competition to persist and intensify in the future.

 

Competition could result in reduced volumes or the failure of our Sponsor and the other entities it sponsors to achieve or maintain more widespread market acceptance, any of which could harm our business. In addition, in the future we may experience new competition from more established internet companies possessing large, existing customer bases, substantial financial resources and established distribution channels. If any of these companies or any major financial institution decided to enter the online investment business, acquire one of our existing competitors or form a strategic alliance with one of our competitors, our ability to compete effectively could be significantly compromised and our operating results could be harmed.

 

Most of our current or potential competitors have significantly more financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their platforms and distribution channels. Larger real estate programs may enjoy significant competitive advantages that result from, among other things, a lower cost of capital and enhanced operating efficiencies. In addition, the number of entities and the amount of funds competing for suitable properties may increase. Any such increase would result in increased demand for these assets and therefore increased prices paid for them. If we pay higher prices for properties and other investments, our profitability will be reduced and you may experience a lower return on your investment.

 

Our potential competitors may also have longer operating histories, more extensive customer bases, greater brand recognition and broader customer relationships than we have. These competitors may be better able to develop new products, to respond quickly to new technologies and to undertake more extensive marketing campaigns. The online real estate investing industry is driven by constant innovation. If we or our Sponsor are unable to compete with such companies and meet the need for innovation, the demand for our Sponsor’s investment products could stagnate or substantially decline.

 

If our Manager fails to retain its key personnel, we may not be able to achieve our anticipated level of growth and our business could suffer.

 

Our future depends, in part, on our Sponsor’s ability to attract and retain key personnel. Our future also depends on the continued contributions of the executive officers and other key personnel of our Manager, each of whom would be difficult to replace. In particular, each of Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and Joseph Kessel is critical to the management of our business and operations and the development of our strategic direction. The loss of the services of Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and/or Joseph Kessel or other executive officers or key personnel of our Manager and the process to replace any of our Sponsor’s key personnel would involve significant time and expense and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.

 

The management agreement with our Manager was not negotiated with an unaffiliated third party on an arm’s length basis and may not be as favorable to us as if it had been negotiated with an unaffiliated third party.

 

We have no employees and will rely heavily on our Manager to provide us with all necessary services. Certain of our executive officers also serve as officers of our Manager. Our management agreement with our Manager was negotiated between related parties and its terms, including fees payable, may not be as favorable to us as if it had been negotiated with an unaffiliated third party.

 

We will pay our Manager a management fee regardless of the performance of our portfolio. Our Manager’s entitlement to a management fee, which is not based upon performance metrics or goals, might reduce its incentive to devote its time and effort to seeking investments that provide attractive risk-adjusted returns for our portfolio. This in turn could hurt both our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders and the market price of our common stock.

 

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Terminating the management agreement for unsatisfactory performance of our Manager or electing not to renew the management agreement may be difficult.

 

Termination of the management agreement with our Manager without cause is difficult and costly. During the initial three-year term of the management agreement, we may not terminate the management agreement except for cause. Our board of directors will review our Manager’s performance and the management fee annually and, following the initial three-year term, the management agreement will be automatically renewed annually for an additional one-year term unless the agreement is terminated upon the affirmative vote of the board of directors based upon: (a) our Manager’s unsatisfactory performance that is materially detrimental to us; or (b) a determination that the management fee payable to our Manager is not fair, subject to our Manager’s right to prevent termination based on unfair fees by accepting a reduction of management fee agreed to by at least two-thirds of our board of directors. Our Manager will be provided 180 days’ prior notice of any such termination.

 

Our board of directors will approve very broad investment guidelines for our Manager and will not approve each investment and financing decision made by our Manager unless required by our investment guidelines.

 

Our Manager will be authorized to follow very broad investment guidelines. Our board of directors will periodically review our investment guidelines and our investment portfolio but will not, and will not be required to, review all of our proposed investments. In addition, in conducting periodic reviews, our board of directors may rely primarily on information provided to them by our Manager. Furthermore, our Manager may use complex strategies, and transactions entered into by our Manager may be costly, difficult or impossible to unwind by the time they are reviewed by our board of directors. Our Manager will have great latitude within the broad parameters of our investment guidelines in determining the types and amounts of target assets it may decide are attractive investments for us, which could result in investment returns that are substantially below expectations or that result in losses, which would materially and adversely affect our business operations and results. Further, decisions made and investments and financing arrangements entered into by our Manager may not fully reflect the best interests of our stockholders.

 

We will have no recourse to our Sponsor if it does not fulfill its obligations under the support agreement, and our recourse against our Manager if it does not fulfill its obligations under the management agreement will be limited to our termination of the management agreement.

 

Our Manager has no employees or separate facilities. As a result, our Manager has entered into a support agreement with our Sponsor pursuant to which our Sponsor will provide our Manager with the personnel, services and resources necessary for our Manager to perform its obligations and responsibilities under the management agreement in exchange for certain amounts payable by our Manager. Because we are not a party to the support agreement, we will not have any recourse to our Sponsor if it does not fulfill its obligations under the support agreement, or if our Sponsor and our Manager choose to amend or terminate the support agreement. Also, our Manager only has limited assets and our recourse against our Manager if it does not fulfill its obligations under the management agreement will likely be limited to our termination of the management agreement.

 

Our Manager’s liability is limited under the management agreement, and we have agreed to indemnify our Manager against certain liabilities. As a result, we could experience poor performance or losses for which our Manager would not be liable.

 

Pursuant to the management agreement, our Manager will not assume any responsibility other than to render the services called for thereunder and will not be responsible for any action of our board of directors in following or declining to follow its advice or recommendations. Under the terms of the management agreement, our Manager, its officers, members, managers, directors, personnel, any person controlling or controlled by our Manager and any person providing services to our Manager will not be liable to us, any subsidiary of ours, our stockholders or partners or any subsidiary’s stockholders or partners for acts or omissions performed in accordance with and pursuant to the management agreement, except by reason of acts constituting bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of their duties under the management agreement pursuant to a final unappealable judgment. In addition, we will agree to indemnify our Manager, its officers, stockholders, members, managers, directors, personnel, any person controlling or controlled by our Manager and any person providing services to our Manager with respect to all expenses, losses, damages, liabilities, demands, charges and claims arising from acts of our Manager that do not stem from a final unappealable judgment of bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of duties that are performed in good faith in accordance with and pursuant to the management agreement.

 

Our Manager and its affiliates have limited experience managing a portfolio of assets in the manner necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT or our exclusion or an exemption under the Investment Company Act.

 

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT and our exclusion or an exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act, the assets in our portfolio are subject to certain restrictions that limit our operations meaningfully. The REIT rules and regulations are highly technical and complex, and the failure to comply with the income, asset, organizational and ownership tests, dividend requirements and other limitations imposed by these rules and regulations could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT or could force us to pay unexpected taxes and penalties. Our Manager and its affiliates have limited experience managing a portfolio in the manner necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT and our exclusion or an exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act. The inexperience of our Manager and its affiliates described above may hinder its ability to achieve our objectives or result in loss of our qualification as a REIT or payment of taxes and penalties. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully operate as a REIT, comply with regulatory requirements applicable to REITs, maintain our exclusion or an exemption under the Investment Company Act, or execute our business strategies.

 

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Risks Related to Real Estate and Our Investments

 

Our commercial real estate and real estate-related assets will be subject to the risks typically associated with real estate.

 

Our commercial real estate and real estate-related assets will be subject to the risks typically associated with real estate. The value of real estate may be adversely affected by a number of risks, including:

 

natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods;

 

acts of war or terrorism, including the consequences of terrorist attacks, such as those that occurred on September 11, 2001 or those that have been carried out or inspired by ISIS and other radical terrorist groups;

 

adverse changes in national and local economic and real estate conditions;

 

an oversupply of (or a reduction in demand for) space in the areas where particular properties are located and the attractiveness of particular properties to prospective tenants;

 

changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance therewith and the potential for liability under applicable laws;

 

costs of remediation and liabilities associated with environmental, ADA and other physical conditions affecting properties; and

 

the potential for uninsured or underinsured property losses.

 

The value of each property is affected significantly by its ability to generate cash flow and net income, which in turn depends on the amount of rental or other income that can be generated net of expenses required to be incurred with respect to the property. Many expenditures associated with properties (such as operating expenses and capital expenditures) cannot be reduced when there is a reduction in income from the properties.

 

These factors may have a material adverse effect on the value that we can realize from our assets.

 

Our Manager’s due diligence may not reveal all factors or risks affecting a property.

 

There can be no assurance that our Manager’s due diligence processes will uncover all relevant facts that would be material to an investment decision. Before making an investment, our Manager will assess the strength of the underlying properties and any other factors that it believes are material to the performance of the investment. In making the assessment and otherwise conducting customary due diligence, our Manager will rely on the resources available to it and, in some cases, investigations by third parties.

 

The actual rents we receive for the properties in our portfolio may be less than estimated market rents, and we may experience a decline in realized rental rates from time to time, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.

 

As a result of potential factors, including competitive pricing pressure in our markets, a general economic downturn and the desirability of our properties compared to other properties in our markets, we may be unable to realize our estimated market rents across the properties in our portfolio. In addition, depending on market rental rates at any given time as compared to expiring leases in our portfolio, from time to time rental rates for expiring leases may be higher than starting rental rates for new leases. If we are unable to obtain sufficient rental rates across our portfolio, then our ability to generate cash flow growth will be negatively impacted.

 

Properties that have significant vacancies could be difficult to sell, which could diminish the return on these properties.

 

A property may incur vacancies either by the expiration of tenant leases or the continued default of tenants under their leases. If vacancies continue for a long period of time, we may suffer reduced revenues resulting in less cash available for distribution to our stockholders. In addition, the resale value of the property could be diminished because the market value of our properties will depend principally upon the value of the cash flow generated by the leases associated with that property. Such a reduction in the resale value of a property could also reduce the value of our stockholders’ investment.

 

Further, a decline in general economic conditions in the markets in which our investments are located or in the U.S. generally could lead to an increase in tenant defaults, lower rental rates and less demand for commercial real estate space in those markets. As a result of these trends, we may be more inclined to provide leasing incentives to our tenants in order to compete in a more competitive leasing environment. Such trends may result in reduced revenue and lower resale value of properties, which may reduce your return.

 

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We may enter into long-term leases with tenants in certain properties, which may not result in fair market rental rates over time.

 

We may enter into long-term leases with tenants of certain of our properties, or include renewal options that specify a maximum rate increase. These leases often provide for rent to increase over time; however, if we do not accurately judge the potential for increases in market rental rates, we may set the terms of these long-term leases at levels such that, even after contractual rent increases, the rent under our long-term leases is less than then-current market rates. Further, we may have no ability to terminate those leases or to adjust the rent to then-prevailing market rates. As a result, our cash available for distribution could be lower than if we did not enter into long-term leases.

 

Certain properties that we acquire may not have efficient alternative uses and we may have difficulty leasing them to new tenants and/or have to make significant capital expenditures to get them to do so.

 

Office properties can be difficult to lease to new tenants, should the current tenant terminate or choose not to renew its lease. These properties generally have received significant tenant-specific improvements and only very specific tenants may be able to use such improvements, making the properties very difficult to re-lease in their current condition. Additionally, an interested tenant may demand that, as a condition of executing a lease for the property, we finance and construct significant improvements so that the tenant could use the property. This expense may decrease cash available for distribution, as we likely would have to (i) pay for the improvements up-front or (ii) finance the improvements at potentially unattractive terms.

 

We depend on tenants for our revenue, and lease defaults or terminations could reduce our net income and limit our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

 

The success of our investments materially depends on the financial stability of our tenants. A default or termination by a tenant on its lease payments to us would cause us to lose the revenue associated with such lease and require us to find an alternative source of revenue to meet mortgage payments and prevent a foreclosure, if the property is subject to a mortgage. In the event of a tenant default or bankruptcy, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment and re-leasing our property. If a tenant defaults on or terminates a lease, we may be unable to lease the property for the rent previously received or sell the property without incurring a loss. These events could cause us to reduce the amount of dividends to you.

 

We expect to acquire primarily office properties with a focus on markets with favorable risk-return characteristics. If our investments in these geographic areas experience adverse economic conditions, our investments may lose value and we may experience losses.

 

We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to acquire a diversified portfolio of primarily office properties with a focus on markets where we feel that the risk-return characteristics are favorable. These investments will carry the risks associated with certain markets, including the St. Louis metropolitan area, where we end up acquiring properties. As a result, we may experience losses as a result of being overly concentrated in certain geographic areas. A worsening of economic conditions in St. Louis and other U.S. markets and, in particular, the markets where we end up acquiring properties, could have an adverse effect on our business and could impair the value of our collateral.

 

On May 31, 2017, we acquired one property located in St. Louis County, Missouri, and adverse economic or regulatory developments in this area could negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition and ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

 

On May 31, 2017 we acquired one property located in St. Louis County, Missouri. As a result, our business is dependent on the condition of the economy in this city, which may expose us to greater economic risks than if we owned a more geographically diverse portfolio. We are susceptible to adverse developments in the St. Louis economic and regulatory environments (such as business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocations of businesses, social unrest, increases in real estate and other taxes, costs of complying with governmental regulations or increased regulation). Such adverse developments could materially reduce the value of our real estate portfolio and our rental revenues, and thus adversely affect our ability to service current debt and to pay dividends to stockholders.

 

As of the date of this offering circular, a significant portion of our revenue is generated from one property.

 

As of the date of this offering circular, our one property, Laumeier, will account for approximately 100.0% of our total revenue. Our results of operations and cash available for distribution to our stockholders would be adversely affected if this property was materially damaged or destroyed. Additionally, our results of operations and cash available for distribution to our stockholders would be adversely affected if a significant number of our tenants at this property experienced a downturn in their business, which may weaken their financial condition and result in their failure to make timely rental payments, defaulting under their leases or filing for bankruptcy.

 

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As of the date of this offering circular, we depend on significant tenants in our office portfolio, which could cause an adverse effect on us, including our results of operations and cash flow, if any of our significant tenants were adversely affected by a material business downturn or were to become bankrupt or insolvent.

 

Our rental revenue depends on entering into leases with and collecting rents from tenants. As of the date of this offering circular, Panera, LLC, an affiliate of Panera Bread Company (NASDAQ: PNRA), leases 116,277 rentable square feet in Laumeier, our initial property, for their corporate headquarters through 2024, and New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. leases 41,576 rentable square feet in Laumeier through 2024. As of December 31, 2016, Panera Bread Company represents 43.1% of our total portfolio’s annualized rent and approximately 40.0% of the total rentable square feet in our portfolio, and New Balance represents 14.1% of our total portfolio’s annualized rent and approximately 14.3% of the total rentable square feet in our portfolio. General and regional economic conditions may adversely affect our major tenants and potential tenants in our markets. Our major tenants may experience a material business downturn, which could potentially result in a failure to make timely rental payments and/or a default under their leases. In many cases, through tenant improvement allowances and other concessions, we will have made substantial up front investments in the applicable leases that we may not be able to recover. In the event of a tenant default, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights and may also incur substantial costs to protect our investments.

 

The bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant or lease guarantor may adversely affect the income produced by our properties and may delay our efforts to collect past due balances under the relevant leases and could ultimately preclude collection of these sums altogether. If a lease is rejected by a tenant in bankruptcy, we would have only a general unsecured claim for damages that is limited in amount and which may only be paid to the extent that funds are available and in the same percentage as is paid to all other holders of unsecured claims.

 

If any of our significant tenants were to become bankrupt or insolvent, suffer a downturn in their business, default under their leases, fail to renew their leases or renew on terms less favorable to us than their current terms, our results of operations and cash flow could be adversely affected.

 

We may be adversely affected by trends in the office real estate industry.

 

Some businesses are rapidly evolving to make employee telecommuting, flexible work schedules, open workplaces and teleconferencing increasingly common. These practices enable businesses to reduce their space requirements. There is also an increasing trend among some businesses to utilize shared office spaces and co-working spaces. A continuation of the movement towards these practices could over time erode the overall demand for office space and, in turn, place downward pressure on occupancy, rental rates and property valuations.

 

Actions of any joint venture partners that we may have in the future could reduce the returns on joint venture investments and decrease our stockholders’ overall return.

 

We may enter into joint ventures to acquire properties and other assets. We may also purchase and develop properties in joint ventures or in partnerships, co-tenancies or other co-ownership arrangements. Such investments may involve risks not otherwise present with other methods of investment, including, for example, the following risks:

 

that our co-venturer, co-tenant or partner in an investment could become insolvent or bankrupt;

 

that such co-venturer, co-tenant or partner may at any time have economic or business interests or goals that are or that become inconsistent with our business interests or goals;

 

that such co-venturer, co-tenant or partner may be delegated certain “day-to-day” property operating procedures;

 

that such co-venturer, co-tenant or partner may be in a position to take action contrary to our instructions or requests or contrary to our policies or objectives; or

 

that disputes between us and our co-venturer, co-tenant or partner may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and directors from focusing their time and effort on our operations.

 

Any of the above might subject a property to liabilities in excess of those contemplated and thus reduce our returns on that investment and the value of your investment.

 

Costs imposed pursuant to governmental laws and regulations may reduce our net income and the cash available for dividends to our stockholders.

 

Real property and the operations conducted on real property are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to protection of the environment and human health. We could be subject to liability in the form of fines, penalties or damages for noncompliance with these laws and regulations. These laws and regulations generally govern wastewater discharges, air emissions, the operation and removal of underground and above-ground storage tanks, the use, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of solid and hazardous materials, the remediation of contamination associated with the release or disposal of solid and hazardous materials, the presence of toxic building materials and other health and safety-related concerns.

 

Some of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on the tenants, owners or operators of real property for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault, whether the contamination occurred prior to purchase, or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. Activities of our tenants, the condition of properties at the time we buy them, operations in the vicinity of our properties, such as the presence of underground storage tanks, or activities of unrelated third parties may affect our properties.

 

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The presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly manage, insure, bond over, or remediate these substances, may hinder our ability to sell, rent or pledge such property as collateral for future borrowings. Any material expenditures, fines, penalties or damages we must pay will reduce our ability to pay dividends and may reduce the value of your investment.

 

The costs of defending against claims of environmental liability, of complying with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property or of paying personal injury or other damage claims could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations, a current or previous real property owner or operator may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on, under or in such property. These costs could be substantial. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental laws also may impose liens on property or restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures or prevent us from entering into leases with prospective tenants that may be impacted by such laws. Environmental laws provide for sanctions for noncompliance and may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, by private parties. Certain environmental laws and common law principles could be used to impose liability for the release of and exposure to hazardous substances, including asbestos-containing materials and lead-based paint. Third parties may seek recovery from real property owners or operators for personal injury or property damage associated with exposure to released hazardous substances and governments may seek recovery for natural resource damage. The costs of defending against claims of environmental liability, of complying with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property, or of paying personal injury, property damage or natural resource damage claims could reduce the amounts available for distribution to you.

 

We expect that all of our properties will be subject to Phase I environmental assessments at the time they are acquired; however, such assessments may not provide complete environmental histories due, for example, to limited available information about prior operations at the properties or other gaps in information at the time we acquire the property. A Phase I environmental assessment is an initial environmental investigation to identify potential environmental liabilities associated with the current and past uses of a given property. If any of our properties were found to contain hazardous or toxic substances after our acquisition, the value of our investment could decrease below the amount paid for such investment.

 

Costs associated with complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act may decrease cash available for dividends.

 

Our properties may be subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, or the ADA. Under the ADA, all places of public accommodation are required to comply with federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The ADA has separate compliance requirements for “public accommodations” and “commercial facilities” that generally require that buildings and services be made accessible and available to people with disabilities. The ADA’s requirements could require removal of access barriers and could result in the imposition of injunctive relief, monetary penalties or, in some cases, an award of damages. Any funds used for ADA compliance will reduce our net income and the amount of cash available for dividends to you.

 

Uninsured losses relating to real property or excessively expensive premiums for insurance coverage could reduce our cash flows and the return on our stockholders’ investment.

 

There are types of losses, generally catastrophic in nature, such as losses due to wars, acts of terrorism, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, pollution or environmental matters, that are uninsurable or not economically insurable, or may be insured subject to limitations, such as large deductibles or co-payments. Insurance risks associated with potential acts of terrorism could sharply increase the premiums we pay for coverage against property and casualty claims. Additionally, mortgage lenders in some cases insist that commercial property owners purchase coverage against terrorism as a condition for providing mortgage loans. Such insurance policies may not be available at reasonable costs, if at all, which could inhibit our ability to finance or refinance our properties. In such instances, we may be required to provide other financial support, either through financial assurances or self-insurance, to cover potential losses. We may not have adequate coverage for such losses. If any of our properties incurs a casualty loss that is not fully insured, the value of our assets will be reduced by any such uninsured or under insured loss, which may reduce the value of your investment. In addition, other than any working capital reserve or other reserves we may establish, we have no source of funding to repair or reconstruct any uninsured or under insured property. Also, to the extent we must pay unexpectedly large amounts for insurance, we could suffer reduced earnings that would result in lower dividends to you.

 

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Hedging against interest rate exposure may adversely affect our earnings, limit our gains or result in losses, which could adversely affect cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

We may enter into interest rate swap agreements or pursue other interest rate hedging strategies. Our hedging activity will vary in scope based on the level of interest rates, the type and expected duration of portfolio investments held, and other changing market conditions. Interest rate hedging may fail to protect or could adversely affect us because, among other things:

 

interest rate hedging can be expensive, particularly during periods of rising and volatile interest rates;

 

available interest rate hedging may not correspond directly with the interest rate risk for which protection is sought;

 

the duration of the hedge may not match the duration of the related liability or asset;

 

our hedging opportunities may be limited by the treatment of income from hedging transactions under the rules determining REIT qualification;

 

the credit quality of the party owing money on the hedge may be downgraded to such an extent that it impairs our ability to sell or assign our side of the hedging transaction;

 

the party owing money in the hedging transaction may default on its obligation to pay; and

 

we may purchase a hedge that turns out not to be necessary, i.e., a hedge that is out of the money.

 

Any hedging activity we engage in may adversely affect our earnings, which could adversely affect cash available for distribution to our stockholders. Therefore, while we may enter into such transactions to seek to reduce interest rate risks, unanticipated changes in interest rates may result in poorer overall investment performance than if we had not engaged in any such hedging transactions. In addition, the degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in a hedging strategy and price movements in the portfolio positions being hedged or liabilities being hedged may vary materially. Moreover, for a variety of reasons, we may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Any such imperfect correlation may prevent us from achieving the intended hedge and expose us to risk of loss.

 

Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively.

 

The REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to hedge our assets and operations. Under these provisions, any income that we generate from transactions intended to hedge our interest rate, inflation and/or currency risks will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests if the instrument hedges (1) interest rate risk on liabilities incurred to carry or acquire real estate, (2) risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the REIT 75% or 95% gross income tests or (3) certain other offsetting positions, and such instrument is properly identified under applicable Treasury Regulations. Income from hedging transactions that do not meet these requirements will generally constitute nonqualifying income for purposes of both the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we may have to limit our use of hedging techniques that might otherwise be advantageous, which could result in greater risks associated with interest rate or other changes than we would otherwise incur.

 

Many of our investments are illiquid and we may not be able to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic and other conditions.

 

Many factors that are beyond our control affect the real estate market and could affect our ability to sell properties and other investments for the price, on the terms or within the time frame that we desire. These factors include general economic conditions, the availability of financing, interest rates and other factors, including supply and demand. Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, we have a limited ability to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic or other conditions. Further, before we can sell a property on the terms we want, it may be necessary to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements. However, we can give no assurance that we will have the funds available to correct such defects or to make such improvements. As a result, we expect many of our investments will be illiquid, and if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have previously recorded our investments and our ability to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic and other conditions may be relatively limited, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Declines in the market values of our investments may adversely affect periodic reported results of operations and credit availability, which may reduce earnings and, in turn, cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

Some of our assets will be classified for accounting purposes as “available-for-sale.” These investments are carried at estimated fair value and temporary changes in the market values of those assets will be directly charged or credited to stockholders’ equity without impacting net income on the income statement. Moreover, if we determine that a decline in the estimated fair value of an available-for-sale security falls below its amortized value and is not temporary, we will recognize a loss on that security on the income statement, which will reduce our earnings in the period recognized.

 

A decline in the market value of our assets may adversely affect us particularly in instances where we have borrowed money based on the market value of those assets. If the market value of those assets declines, the lender may require us to post additional collateral to support the loan. If we were unable to post the additional collateral, we may have to sell assets at a time when we might not otherwise choose to do so. A reduction in credit available may reduce our earnings and, in turn, cash available for distribution to stockholders.

 

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Further, credit facility providers may require us to maintain a certain amount of cash reserves or to set aside unlevered assets sufficient to maintain a specified liquidity position, which would allow us to satisfy our collateral obligations. As a result, we may not be able to leverage our assets as fully as we would choose, which could reduce our return on equity. In the event that we are unable to meet these contractual obligations, our financial condition could deteriorate rapidly.

 

Market values of our investments may decline for a number of reasons, such as changes in prevailing market capitalization rates, increases in market vacancy, or decreases in market rents.

 

Competition with third parties in acquiring properties and other investments may reduce our profitability and the return on your investment.

 

We have significant competition with respect to our acquisition of properties and other investments with many other companies, including other REITs, insurance companies, private investment funds, hedge funds, online investment platforms and other investors, many of which have greater resources than us. We may not be able to compete successfully for investments. In addition, the number of entities and the amount of funds competing for suitable investments may increase. If we acquire properties and other investments at higher prices than our competitors and/or by using less-than-ideal capital structures, our returns will be lower and the value of our assets may not increase or may decrease significantly below the amount we paid for such assets. If such events occur, you may experience a lower return on your investment.

 

If we sell a property by providing financing to the purchaser, we will bear the risk of default by the purchaser, which could delay or reduce the dividends available to our stockholders.

 

If we decide to sell any of our properties, we intend to use our best efforts to sell them for cash; however, in some instances, we may sell our properties by providing financing to purchasers. When we provide financing to a purchaser, we will bear the risk that the purchaser may default, which could reduce our cash dividends to stockholders. Even in the absence of a purchaser default, the distribution of the proceeds of the sale to our stockholders, or the reinvestment of the proceeds in other assets, will be delayed until the promissory note or other property we may accept upon a sale are actually paid, sold, refinanced or otherwise disposed.

 

Risks Related to this Offering and Our Corporate Structure

 

The ownership limits that apply to REITs, as prescribed by the Code and by our charter, limits the number of shares a person may own, which may inhibit market activity in shares of our common stock and restrict our business combination opportunities.

 

In order for us to qualify as a REIT, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) at any time during the last half of each taxable year after the first year for which we elect to qualify as a REIT. Additionally, at least 100 persons must beneficially own our stock during at least 335 days of a taxable year (other than the first taxable year for which we elect to be taxed as a REIT). Our charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes our directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. To help us comply with the REIT ownership requirements of the Code, our charter prohibits a person from directly, beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock, or 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock, unless exempted by our board of directors. These 9.8% ownership limitations will apply as of the first date of the second taxable year for which we elect to be treated as a REIT, which will be January 1, 2018 assuming we elect to be treated as a REIT for the taxable year ending December 31, 2017. However, our charter will also prohibit any actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our shares that causes us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including any ownership that would result in any of our income that would otherwise qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the REIT rules to fail to qualify as such) and such ownership limitation shall not be waived. In addition, our charter will prohibit a person from owning actually or constructively shares of our outstanding capital stock if such ownership would result in any of our income that would otherwise qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the REIT rules to fail to qualify as such. Accordingly, as a result of such limitation, even prior to January 1, 2018, any stockholder that is a tenant of Laumeier (or any other properties acquired by us) or that actually or constructively owns 10% or more of any tenant of Laumeier (or any other properties acquired by us) will be prohibited from owning actually or constructively owning 10.0% or more of the shares of our outstanding capital stock. Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, subject to such conditions as it may determine and the receipt of certain representations and undertakings, prospectively or retroactively, waive the 9.8% ownership limits or establish a different limit on ownership, or excepted holder limit, for a particular stockholder if the stockholder’s ownership in excess of the ownership limit would not result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT. These restrictions may have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

 

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Our charter permits our board of directors to issue stock with terms that may subordinate the rights of our common stockholders or discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that could result in a premium price to our stockholders.

 

Our board of directors may classify or reclassify any unissued common stock or preferred stock and establish the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other dividends, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption of any such stock. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of preferred stock with priority as to dividends and amounts payable upon liquidation over the rights of the holders of our common stock. Such preferred stock could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price to holders of our common stock. In connection with the foregoing, following completion of this offering, to the extent necessary to assist us in obtaining a sufficient number of stockholders to meet certain of the qualification requirements for taxation as a REIT under the Code, we may undertake to issue and sell up to approximately 125 shares of a new series of preferred stock in a private placement to up to approximately 125 investors who qualify as “accredited investors” (as that term is defined in Rule 501(a) of Regulation D under the Securities Act). The preferred stock is expected to be perpetual, pay an annual market dividend for securities of this type and be redeemable by us at a premium to the aggregate liquidation value. For example, if we issue 125 shares of preferred stock with a liquidation price of $1,000 per share and an annual dividend of 12.5%, we would raise additional capital of $125,000 and be required to be pay or set aside for payment, in the aggregate, approximately $15,625 annually, before any distributions on shares of our common stock could be made.

 

Rapid changes in the values of our assets may make it more difficult for us to maintain our qualification as a REIT or our exception from the definition of an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

 

If the market value or income potential of our qualifying real estate assets changes as compared to the market value or income potential of our non-qualifying assets, or if the market value or income potential of our assets that are considered “real estate-related assets” under the Investment Company Act or REIT qualification tests changes as compared to the market value or income potential of our assets that are not considered “real estate-related assets” under the Investment Company Act or REIT qualification tests, whether as a result of increased interest rates, prepayment rates or other factors, we may need to modify our investment portfolio in order to maintain our REIT qualification or exception from the definition of an investment company. If the decline in asset values or income occurs quickly, this may be especially difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish. This difficulty may be exacerbated by the illiquid nature of many of the assets that we may own. We may have to make investment decisions that we otherwise would not make absent REIT and Investment Company Act considerations.

 

Our stockholders will have limited voting rights and will not have control over changes in our policies and operations, which increases the uncertainty and risks our stockholders face.

 

Our Manager and/or our board of directors determines our major policies, including our policies regarding financing, growth, debt capitalization, REIT qualification and dividends. Our Manager and/or our board of directors may amend or revise these and other policies without a vote of the stockholders. Under Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter, our stockholders have a right to vote only on limited matters. Our Manager’s and/or our board of directors’ broad discretion in setting policies and our stockholders’ inability to exert control over those policies increases the uncertainty and risks our stockholders face.

 

Our stockholders may not be able to sell their shares under our stockholder redemption plan and, if our stockholders are able to sell their shares under the redemption plan, they may not be able to recover the amount of their investment in our shares.

 

Our stockholder redemption plan includes numerous restrictions that limit your ability to sell your shares. You must hold your shares for at least one year in order to participate in the stockholder redemption plan, except for redemptions sought upon a stockholder’s death or complete disability (as defined in the redemption plan). We limit the number of shares redeemed pursuant to the stockholder redemption plan in any calendar year to 5.0% of the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the prior calendar year (or 1.25% per quarter, with excess capacity carried over to later quarters in the calendar year). We will not redeem shares if our board of directors determines, in its sole discretion, that the redemption price determined in accordance with the terms of the stockholder redemption plan exceeds the then current fair market value of the shares to be redeemed. Further, we have no obligation to redeem shares if the redemption would violate the restrictions on dividends under Maryland law, which prohibits dividends that would cause a corporation to fail to meet statutory tests of solvency. These limits may prevent us from accommodating all redemption requests made in any year.

 

Under our stockholder redemption plan, shares may be repurchased at varying prices depending on (a) the number of years the shares have been held, (b) the estimated value per share and (c) whether the redemptions are sought upon a stockholder’s death or complete disability. Thus, if your shares are redeemed by us pursuant to our redemption plan, it is possible that you will receive less than the fair market value of the shares at the time of such redemption.

 

Our board of directors may amend, suspend or terminate our stockholder redemption plan at any time without prior notice, including to protect our operations and our non-redeemed stockholders, to prevent an undue burden on our liquidity, to preserve our status as a REIT, following any material decrease in our NAV, or for any other reason. Our limits on ownership of our shares also may require us to decline redemption requests that would cause other stockholders to exceed such ownership limits. In addition, in order to comply with certain of the distribution requirements applicable to REITs we will decline to honor any redemption request that we believe is a “dividend equivalent” redemption as discussed in “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders—Redemptions of Common Stock.” However, in the event that we amend, suspend or terminate our redemption plan, we will file an offering circular supplement and/or Form 1-U, as appropriate, to disclose such amendment. See “Stockholder Redemption Plan” for more information about the redemption plan. The restrictions of our stockholder redemption plan will severely limit your ability to sell your shares should you require liquidity and limit your ability to recover the value you invest in our common stock.

 

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The offering price of our shares was not established in reliance on a valuation of our assets and liabilities; the actual value of your investment may be substantially less than what you pay.

 

We established the offering price of our shares on an arbitrary basis. The selling price of our shares bears no relationship to our book or asset values or to any other established criteria for valuing shares. We plan to determine the net asset value of our common stock beginning twelve months from the commencement of this offering. Thereafter, the per share purchase price will be adjusted every fiscal quarter and, as of January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st of each year, will equal the greater of (i) $10.00 per share or (ii) our net asset value, or NAV, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the end of the prior fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis (NAV per share).

 

Our NAV per share will be calculated by our Manager at the end of each fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis, beginning twelve months after commencement of the offering using a process that reflects several components, including (1) estimated values of each of our commercial real estate assets and investments, including related liabilities, based upon (a) market capitalization rates, comparable sales information, interest rates, net operating income, and (b) in certain instances individual appraisal reports of the underlying real estate provided by an independent valuation expert, (2) the price of liquid assets for which third party market quotes are available, (3) accruals of our periodic dividends and (4) estimated accruals of our operating revenues and expenses. In instances where we determine that an independent appraisal of the real estate asset is necessary, including, but not limited to, instances where our Manager is unsure of its ability on its own to accurately determine the estimated values of our commercial real estate assets and investments, or instances where third party market values for comparable properties are either nonexistent or extremely inconsistent, we may engage an appraiser that has expertise in appraising commercial real estate assets, to act as our independent valuation expert. The independent valuation expert will not be responsible for, or prepare, our NAV per share. However, we may hire a third party to calculate, or assist with calculating, the NAV calculation. The use of different judgments or assumptions would likely result in different estimates of the value of our real estate assets. Moreover, although we evaluate and provide our NAV per share on a quarterly basis, our NAV per share may fluctuate daily, so that the NAV per share in effect for any fiscal quarter may not reflect the precise amount that might be paid for your shares in a market transaction. Further, our published NAV per share may not fully reflect certain material events to the extent that they are not known or their financial impact on our portfolio is not immediately quantifiable. Any resulting potential disparity in our NAV per share may be in favor of either stockholders who redeem their shares, or stockholders who buy new shares, or existing stockholders. Note, in addition, that the determination of our NAV is not based on, nor intended to comply with, fair value standards under GAAP and our NAV may not be indicative of the price that we would receive for our assets at current market conditions. See “Plan of Operation—Valuation Policies.”

 

Our stockholders’ interest in us will be diluted if we issue additional shares, which could reduce the overall value of their investment.

 

Potential investors in this offering will not have preemptive rights to any shares we issue in the future. Our charter authorizes us to issue 1,000,000,000 shares of capital stock, of which 900,000,000 shares are designated as common stock and 100,000,000 shares are designated as preferred stock. We are only issuing up to $50,000,000 in shares of common stock pursuant to this offering. Our board of directors may increase the number of authorized shares of capital stock without stockholder approval. After your purchase in this offering, our board of directors may elect to (i) sell additional shares in this or future offerings; (ii) issue equity interests in private offerings; or (iii) otherwise issue additional shares of our capital stock. To the extent we issue additional equity interests after your purchase in this offering your percentage ownership interest in us would be diluted. In addition, depending upon the terms and pricing of any additional offerings, the use of the proceeds and the value of our real estate investments, you may also experience dilution in the book value and fair value of your shares and in the earnings and dividends per share.

 

Although we will not currently be afforded the protection of the Maryland General Corporation Law relating to deterring or defending hostile takeovers, our board of directors could opt into these provisions of Maryland law in the future, which may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and may prevent our stockholders from receiving a premium price for their shares in connection with a business combination.

 

Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and certain interested stockholders or affiliates of interested stockholders are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. Also under Maryland law, control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquirer, an officer of the corporation, or an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation are excluded from the vote on whether to accord voting rights to the control shares. Should our board of directors opt into these provisions of Maryland law, it may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer. Similarly, provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the Maryland General Corporation Law could provide similar anti-takeover protection. For more information about the business combination, control share acquisition and Subtitle 8 provisions of Maryland law, see “Description of Capital Stock and Certain Provisions of Maryland Law, Our Charter and Bylaws —Business Combinations” and “Description of Capital Stock and Certain Provisions of Maryland Law, Our Charter and Bylaws —Control Share Acquisitions.”

 

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Our charter includes an anti-takeover provision that may discourage a stockholder from launching a tender offer for our shares.

 

Our charter provides that any tender offer made by a stockholder, including any “mini-tender” offer, must comply with most provisions of Regulation 14D of the Exchange Act. The offering stockholder must provide our company notice of such tender offer at least 10 business days before initiating the tender offer. If the offering stockholder does not comply with these requirements, our company will have the right to redeem that stockholder’s shares and any shares acquired in such tender offer. In addition, the noncomplying stockholder will be responsible for all of our company’s expenses in connection with that stockholder’s noncompliance. This provision of our charter may discourage a stockholder from initiating a tender offer for our shares and prevent you from receiving a premium price for your shares in such a transaction.

 

Breaches of our data security could materially harm us, including our business, financial performance and reputation.

 

We collect and retain certain personal information provided by our actual and prospective investors during the subscription process, as well as our tenants and employees. Security measures we have implemented to protect the confidentiality of this information and periodically review and improve our security measures may not prevent unauthorized access to this information. Any breach of our data security measures and loss of this information may result in legal liability and costs (including damages and penalties), as well as damage to our reputation, that could materially and adversely affect us, including our business and financial performance.

 

We do not own the Tryperion or stREITwise names, but were granted a license by our sponsor to use the Tryperion and stREITwise names. Use of the names by other parties or the termination of our license agreement may harm our business.

 

We have entered into a license agreement with our sponsor, pursuant to which our sponsor has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to use the names “Tryperion” and “stREITwise.” Under this agreement, we will have a right to use the “Tryperion” and “stREITwise” names as long as our Manager continues to manage us. We intend to use the “stREITwise” name as a reference to our brand and the “Tryperion” name as a reference to our Sponsor, whose track record we have provided in this offering circular. Our sponsor will retain the right to continue using the “Tryperion” and “stREITwise” names. Our sponsor is not precluded from licensing or transferring the ownership of the “Tryperion” and “stREITwise” names to third parties, some of whom may compete against us. Consequently, we will be unable to prevent any damage to the goodwill associated with our name that may occur as a result of the activities of our sponsor or others related to the use of our name. Furthermore, in the event the license agreement is terminated, we will be required to change our name and cease using the “Tryperion” and “stREITwise” names. Any of these events could disrupt our recognition in the market place, damage any goodwill we may have generated and otherwise harm our business.

 

Risks Related to Compliance and Regulation

 

We are offering shares of our common stock pursuant to recent amendments to Regulation A promulgated pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to Tier 2 issuers will make shares of our common stock less attractive to investors as compared to a traditional initial public offering.

 

As a Tier 2 issuer, we will be subject to scaled disclosure and reporting requirements, which may make shares of our common stock less attractive to investors as compared to a traditional initial public offering, which may make an investment in shares of our common stock less attractive to investors who are accustomed to enhanced disclosure and more frequent financial reporting. In addition, given the relative lack of regulatory precedence regarding the recent amendments to Regulation A, there is a significant amount of regulatory uncertainty in regards to how the SEC or the individual state securities regulators will regulate both the offer and sale of our securities, as well as any ongoing compliance that we may be subject to. If our scaled disclosure and reporting requirements, or regulatory uncertainty regarding Regulation A, reduces the attractiveness of shares of our common stock, we may be unable to raise the necessary funds necessary to commence operations, or to develop a diversified portfolio of real estate investments, which could severely affect the value of shares of our common stock.

 

Our use of Form 1-A and our reliance on Regulation A for this offering may make it more difficult to raise capital as and when we need it, as compared to if we were conducting a traditional initial public offering on Form S-11.

 

Because of the exemptions from various reporting requirements provided to us under Regulation A and because we are only permitted to raise up to $50,000,000 in any 12 month period under Regulation A (although we may raise capital in other ways), we may be less attractive to investors and it may be difficult for us to raise additional capital as and when we need it. Investors may be unable to compare our business with other companies in our industry if they believe that our financial accounting is not as transparent as other companies in our industry. If we are unable to raise additional capital as and when we need it, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

There may be deficiencies with our internal controls that require improvements, and if we are unable to adequately evaluate internal controls, we may be subject to sanctions.

 

As a Tier 2 issuer, we will not need to provide a report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, and we will be exempt from the auditor attestation requirements concerning any such report so long as we are a Tier 2 issuer. We are in the process of evaluating whether our internal control procedures are effective and therefore there is a greater likelihood of undiscovered errors in our internal controls or reported financial statements as compared to issuers that have conducted such evaluations.

 

Laws intended to prohibit money laundering may require our Sponsor to disclose investor information to regulatory authorities.

 

The Uniting and Strengthening America By Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 requires that financial institutions establish and maintain compliance programs to guard against money laundering activities, and requires the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury (“Treasury”) to prescribe regulations in connection with anti-money laundering policies of financial institutions. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”), an agency of the Treasury, has announced that it is likely that such regulations would subject certain pooled investment vehicles to enact anti-money laundering policies. It is possible that there could be promulgated legislation or regulations that would require our Sponsor or its service providers to share information with governmental authorities with respect to prospective investors in connection with the establishment of anti-money laundering procedures. Such legislation and/or regulations could require us to implement additional restrictions on the transfer of shares of our common stock to comply with such legislation and/or regulations. We reserve the right to request such information as is necessary to verify the identity of prospective stockholders and the source of the payment of subscription monies, or as is necessary to comply with any customer identification programs required by FinCEN and/or the SEC. In the event of delay or failure by a prospective stockholder to produce any information required for verification purposes, an application for, or transfer of, shares of our common stock may be refused. We will not have the ability to reject a transfer of shares of our common stock where all necessary information is provided and any other applicable transfer requirements, including those imposed under the transfer provisions of our charter, are satisfied.

 

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By purchasing shares in this offering, you are bound by the arbitration provisions contained in our subscription agreement which limits your ability to bring class action lawsuits or seek remedy on a class basis.

 

By purchasing shares in this offering, investors agree to be bound by the arbitration provisions contained in Section 12 of our subscription agreement. Such arbitration provision applies to claims that may be made regarding this offering and, among other things, limits the ability of investors to bring class action lawsuits or similarly seek remedy on a class basis.

 

Section 12 of the subscription agreement allows for either us or an investor to elect to enter into binding arbitration in the event of any claim in which we and the investor are adverse parties, including claims regarding this offering. While not mandatory, in the event that we elected to invoke the arbitration clause of Section 12, the rights of the adverse stockholder to seek redress in court would be severely limited.

 

Further, Section 12 of the subscription agreement restricts the ability of individual investors to bring class action lawsuits or to similarly seek remedy on a class basis, unless otherwise consented to by us. These restrictions on the ability to bring a class action lawsuit is likely to result in increased costs, both in terms of time and money, to individual investors who wish to pursue claims against us.

 

Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest 

 

We did not negotiate the value of our initial property at arm’s-length as part of the formation transactions, and the consideration that has been given by us in exchange for the initial property may exceed its fair market value.

 

On May 31, 2017 we acquired our initial property from an investment fund managed by our Sponsor. We did not negotiate the value of the initial property at arm’s-length as part of the formation transactions. In the course of structuring the formation transactions, our Sponsor’s senior management team had the ability to influence the terms of the formation transactions. In addition, affiliates of our Sponsor’s senior management team have substantial pre-existing ownership interests in the Sponsor Funds from which we acquired the initial property, and received substantial economic benefits as a result of the formation transactions. Our Sponsor tried but may not have succeeded in making the formation transactions occur at fair market value. As a result, the terms of the formation transactions may not have been as favorable to us as if they were negotiated at arm’s-length.

 

There are conflicts of interest between us, our Manager and its affiliates.

 

Our executive officers, Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and Joseph Kessel, are principals in both our Manager and our Sponsor, which provides asset management and other services to our Manager and us. Prevailing market rates are determined by our Manager based on industry standards and expectations of what our Manager would be able to negotiate with a third party on an arm’s length basis. All of the agreements and arrangements between such parties, including those relating to compensation, are not the result of arm’s length negotiations with an unaffiliated third party. Some of the conflicts inherent in our transactions with our Manager and its affiliates, and the limitations on such parties adopted to address these conflicts, are described below. We, our Manager and their affiliates will try to balance our interests with their own. However, to the extent that such parties take actions that are more favorable to other entities than us, these actions could have a negative impact on our financial performance and, consequently, on dividends to stockholders and the value of shares of our common stock. We have adopted a conflicts of interest policy and certain conflicts will be reviewed by the Independent Representative (defined below). See “Conflicts of Interest and Related Party Transactions—Certain Conflict Resolution Measures—Independent Representative” and “—Our Policies Relating to Conflicts of Interest”.

 

The interests of our Manager, the principals and its other affiliates may conflict with your interests.

 

The management agreement provides our Manager with broad powers and authority which may result in one or more conflicts of interest between your interests and those of our Manager, the principals and its other affiliates. This risk is increased by our Manager being controlled by Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and Joseph Kessel, the principals of our Sponsor, who sponsor and participate, or expect to sponsor and participate, directly or indirectly in other offerings by our Sponsor and its affiliates. Potential conflicts of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

the Manager, the principals and/or its other affiliates may continue to offer other real estate investment opportunities, including additional offerings similar to this offering, and may make investments in real estate assets for their own respective accounts, whether or not competitive with our business;

 

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the Manager, the principals and/or its other affiliates will not be required to disgorge any profits or fees or other compensation they may receive from any other business they own separately from us, and you will not be entitled to receive or share in any of the profits return fees or compensation from any other business owned and operated by the Manager, the principals and/or its other affiliates for their own benefit;

 

we may engage the Manager or affiliates of the Manager to perform services at prevailing market rates. Prevailing market rates are determined by the Manager based on industry standards and expectations of what the Manager would be able to negotiate with a third party on an arm’s length basis; and

 

the Manager, the principals and/or its other affiliates are not required to devote all of their time and efforts to our affairs.

 

Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future between the interests of our stockholders and the interests of holders of OP Units, which may impede business decisions that could benefit our stockholders.

 

Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future as a result of the relationships between us and our affiliates, on the one hand, and the Operating Partnership or any partner thereof, on the other. Our directors and our Manager have duties to our company under applicable Maryland law in connection with their management of our company. At the same time, we, as the general partner in our Operating Partnership, have fiduciary duties and obligations to the Operating Partnership and its limited partners under Delaware law and the partnership agreement of the Operating Partnership in connection with the management of the Operating Partnership. Our fiduciary duties and obligations as general partner to the Operating Partnership and its partners may come into conflict with the duties of our directors and our Manager to our company.

 

Upon commencement of this offering, as a result of the associated formation transactions, Bruce Karsh, the father of our CEO Jeffrey Karsh and an investor in the Sponsor Funds, will be the beneficial holder of 1,997,615 OP Units, representing a 96.15% beneficial interest in our company on a fully diluted basis. As such, Bruce Karsh may have the ability to influence certain business decisions that we or our Manager make in connection with the management and operations of our company.

 

As our Sponsor establishes additional REIT offerings closed-end funds and other investment vehicles in the future, there may be conflicts of interests among the various REIT offerings, closed-end funds and other investment vehicles, which may result in opportunities that would otherwise benefit us being allocated to the other offerings.

 

Our Sponsor has in the past established and sponsored closed-end private equity real estate funds, and in the future expects to establish and sponsor additional closed-end private equity real estate funds and additional REIT offerings, as well as other potential investment vehicles (including open-end funds and separate accounts). The existing closed-end private equity real estate funds do, and any future investment vehicles may, have investment criteria similar to ours. If a sale, financing, investment or other business opportunity would be suitable for more than one REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle, our Manager’s investment committee will allocate it according to the policies and procedures adopted by our Manager. Any allocation of this type may involve the consideration of a number of factors that our Manager’s investment committee may determine to be relevant. Except under any policies that may be adopted by our Manager or our Sponsor in the future, no REIT (including us), closed-end fund or other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor will have any duty, responsibility or obligation to refrain from:

 

engaging in the same or similar activities or lines of business as any other REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor;

 

doing business with any potential or actual tenant, investor, lender, purchaser, supplier, customer or competitor of any REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor;

 

engaging in, or refraining from, any other activities whatsoever relating to any of the potential or actual tenants, investors, lenders, purchasers, suppliers or customers of any REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor;

 

establishing material commercial relationships with another REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor; or

 

making operational and financial decisions that could be considered to be detrimental to another REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor.

 

In addition, any decisions by our Sponsor or Manager to renew, extend, modify or terminate an agreement or arrangement, or enter into similar agreements or arrangements in the future, may benefit one REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle more than another REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle or limit or impair the ability of any REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle to pursue business opportunities. In addition, third parties may require as a condition to their arrangements or agreements with or related to any one particular REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle that such arrangements or agreements include or not include another REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle, as the case may be. Any of these decisions may benefit one REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle more than another REIT, closed-end fund or other investment vehicle.

 

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Our Manager will face a conflict of interest because the management fee it will receive for services performed will be based on the Operating Partnership’s NAV, which our Manager is ultimately responsible for determining.

 

We will pay our Manager a quarterly asset management fee equal to an annualized rate of 2.00%, which, until one year after this offering commences, will be based on the sum of (i) our proceeds from this offering as of the end of each fiscal quarter, plus (ii) proceeds from the issuance of OP Units to the limited partners of the Operating Partnership (other than 1st stREIT Office Inc. and any of its wholly owned subsidiaries) as of the end of such fiscal quarter, plus (minus) (iii) any earnings (loss) through the end of such fiscal quarter, (minus) (iv) any distributions paid through the end of such fiscal quarter, and thereafter will be based on our NAV at the end of each fiscal quarter. We will pay our Manager this management fee regardless of the performance of our portfolio. Our Manager’s entitlement to a management fee, which is not based upon performance metrics or goals, might reduce its incentive to devote its time and effort to seeking investments that provide attractive risk-adjusted returns for our portfolio. This in turn could hurt both our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders and the market price of our common stock. Further, the management fee is calculated based on the Operating Partnership’s NAV, which the Manager is ultimately responsible for determining. The calculation of our NAV includes certain subjective judgments with respect to estimating, for example, the value of our portfolio and our accrued expenses, net portfolio income and liabilities, and therefore, our NAV may not correspond to realizable value upon a sale of those assets. Our Manager may benefit by us retaining ownership of our assets at times when our stockholders may be better served by the sale or disposition of our assets in order to avoid a reduction in our NAV. If our NAV is calculated in a way that is not reflective of our actual NAV, then the purchase price of shares of our common stock or the price paid for the repurchase of your shares of common stock on a given date may not accurately reflect the value of our portfolio, and your shares may be worth less than the purchase price or more than the repurchase price.

 

Risks Related to Sources of Financing and Hedging

 

We may incur significant debt, which may subject us to increased risk of loss and may reduce cash available for dividends to our stockholders.

 

Subject to market conditions and availability, we may incur significant debt through bank credit facilities (including term loans and revolving facilities), repurchase agreements, warehouse facilities and structured financing arrangements, public and private debt issuances and derivative instruments, in addition to transaction or asset specific funding arrangements. The percentage of leverage we employ will vary depending on our available capital, our ability to obtain and access financing arrangements with lenders, debt restrictions contained in those financing arrangements and the lenders’ and rating agencies’ estimate of the stability of our investment portfolio’s cash flow. Our targeted portfolio-wide leverage, after we have acquired a substantial portfolio, is between 40-60% of the greater of cost (before deducting depreciation or other non-cash reserves) or fair market value of our assets. During the period when we are acquiring our initial portfolio, we may employ greater leverage on individual assets (that will also result in greater leverage of the interim portfolio) in order to quickly build a diversified portfolio of assets. Our Manager may from time to time modify our leverage policy in its discretion. Incurring substantial debt could subject us to many risks that, if realized, would materially and adversely affect us, including the risk that:

 

our cash flow from operations may be insufficient to make required payments of principal of and interest on the debt or we may fail to comply with all of the other covenants contained in the debt, which is likely to result in (a) acceleration of such debt (and any other debt containing a cross-default or cross-acceleration provision) that we may be unable to repay from internal funds or to refinance on favorable terms, or at all, (b) our inability to borrow unused amounts under our financing arrangements, even if we are current in payments on borrowings under those arrangements or pay dividends of excess cash flow held in reserve by such financing sources, and/or (c) the loss of some or all of our assets to foreclosure or sale;

 

our debt may increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions with no assurance that investment yields will increase with higher financing costs;

 

we may be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing funds available for operations, future business opportunities, stockholder dividends or other purposes; and

 

we are not able to refinance debt that matures prior to the investment it was used to finance on favorable terms, or at all. There can be no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful.

 

Any lending facilities will likely impose restrictive covenants.

 

Any lending facilities which we enter would be expected to contain customary negative covenants and other financial and operating covenants that, among other things, may affect our ability to incur additional debt, make certain investments or acquisitions, reduce liquidity below certain levels, pay dividends to our stockholders, redeem debt or equity securities and impact our flexibility to determine our operating policies and investment strategies. For example, such loan documents may contain negative covenants that limit, among other things, our ability to repurchase our common stock, distribute more than a certain amount of our net income or funds from operations to our stockholders, employ leverage beyond certain amounts, sell assets, engage in mergers or consolidations, grant liens, and enter into transactions with affiliates (including amending the management agreement with our Manager in a material respect). If we fail to meet or satisfy any such covenants, we would likely be in default under these agreements, and the lenders could elect to declare outstanding amounts due and payable, terminate their commitments, require the posting of additional collateral and enforce their interests against existing collateral. We could also become subject to cross-default and acceleration rights and, with respect to collateralized debt, the posting of additional collateral and foreclosure rights upon default. Further, such restrictions could also make it difficult for us to satisfy the qualification requirements necessary to maintain our status as a REIT.

 

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Interest rate fluctuations could increase our financing costs and reduce our ability to generate income on our investments, each of which could lead to a significant decrease in our results of operations, cash flows and the market value of our investments.

 

Our primary interest rate exposures will relate to the yield on our investments and the financing cost of our debt, as well as our interest rate derivatives that we utilize for hedging purposes. Changes in interest rates will affect our net interest income, which is the difference between the income we earn on our investments and the interest expense we incur in financing these investments. Interest rate fluctuations resulting in our interest expense exceeding income would result in operating losses for us. Changes in the level of interest rates also may affect our ability to invest in investments, the value of our investments and our ability to realize gains from the disposition of assets.

 

To the extent that our financing costs will be determined by reference to floating rates, such as LIBOR or a Treasury index, plus a margin, the amount of such costs will depend on a variety of factors, including, without limitation, (a) for collateralized debt, the value and liquidity of the collateral, and for non-collateralized debt, our credit, (b) the level and movement of interest rates, and (c) general market conditions and liquidity. In a period of rising interest rates, our interest expense on floating rate debt would increase, while any income we earn may not compensate for such increase in interest expense.

 

Our operating results will depend, in part, on differences between the income earned on our investments, net of credit losses, and our financing costs. For any period during which our investments are not match-funded, the income earned on such investments may respond more slowly to interest rate fluctuations than the cost of our borrowings. Consequently, changes in interest rates, particularly short-term interest rates, may immediately and significantly decrease our results of operations and cash flows and the market value of our investments.

 

Any bank credit facilities and repurchase agreements that we may use in the future to finance our assets may require us to provide additional collateral or pay down debt.

 

We may utilize bank credit facilities or repurchase agreements (including term loans and revolving facilities) to finance our assets if they become available on acceptable terms. Such financing arrangements would involve the risk that the market value of the investments pledged by us to the provider of the bank credit facility or repurchase agreement counterparty may decline in value, in which case the lender may require us to provide additional collateral or to repay all or a portion of the funds advanced. We may not have the funds available to repay our debt at that time, which would likely result in defaults unless we are able to raise the funds from alternative sources, which we may not be able to achieve on favorable terms or at all. Posting additional collateral would reduce our liquidity and limit our ability to leverage our assets. If we cannot meet these requirements, the lender could accelerate our indebtedness, increase the interest rate on advanced funds and terminate our ability to borrow funds from it, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and ability to implement our investment strategy. In addition, if the lender files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, our loans may become subject to bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, thus depriving us, at least temporarily, of the benefit of these assets. Such an event could restrict our access to bank credit facilities and increase our cost of capital. The providers of bank credit facilities and repurchase agreement financing may also require us to maintain a certain amount of cash or set aside assets sufficient to maintain a specified liquidity position that would allow us to satisfy our collateral obligations. As a result, we may not be able to leverage our assets as fully as we would choose, which could reduce our return on assets. If we are unable to meet these collateral obligations, our financial condition and prospects could deteriorate rapidly.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain additional bank credit facilities or repurchase agreements on favorable terms, or at all.

 

If we enter into financing arrangements involving balloon payment obligations, it may adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

 

Some of our financing arrangements may require us to make a lump-sum or “balloon” payment at maturity. Our ability to make a balloon payment is uncertain and may depend upon our ability to obtain replacement financing or our ability to sell particular properties. At the time the balloon payment is due, we may or may not be able to refinance the balloon payment on terms as favorable as the original loan or sell the particular property at a price sufficient to make the balloon payment. Such a refinancing would be dependent upon interest rates and lenders’ policies at the time of refinancing, economic conditions in general and the value of the underlying properties in particular. The effect of a refinancing or sale could affect the rate of return to stockholders and the projected time of disposition of our assets.

 

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Our access to sources of financing may be limited and thus our ability to grow our business and to maximize our returns may be adversely affected.

 

Subject to market conditions and availability, we may incur significant debt through bank credit facilities (including term loans and revolving facilities), repurchase agreements, warehouse facilities and structured financing arrangements, public and private debt issuances and derivative instruments, in addition to transaction or asset specific funding arrangements. We may also issue additional debt or equity securities to fund our growth.

 

Our access to sources of financing will depend upon a number of factors, over which we have little or no control, including:

 

general economic or market conditions;

 

the market’s view of the quality of our assets;

 

the market’s perception of our growth potential; and

 

our current and potential future earnings and cash dividends.

 

We will need to periodically access the capital markets to raise cash to fund new investments. Unfavorable economic or capital market conditions may increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or could result in a decision by our potential lenders not to extend credit. An inability to successfully access the capital markets could limit our ability to grow our business and fully execute our business strategy and could decrease our earnings, if any. In addition, uncertainty in the capital and credit markets could adversely affect one or more private lenders and could cause one or more of our private lenders to be unwilling or unable to provide us with financing or to increase the costs of that financing. In addition, if regulatory capital requirements imposed on our private lenders change, they may be required to limit, or increase the cost of, financing they provide to us. In general, this could potentially increase our financing costs and reduce our liquidity or require us to sell assets at an inopportune time or price. No assurance can be given that we will be able to obtain any such financing on favorable terms or at all.

 

Hedging instruments often are not traded on regulated exchanges or guaranteed by an exchange or its clearing house, and involve risks and costs that could result in material losses.

 

The cost of using hedging instruments increases as the period covered by the instrument increases and during periods of rising and volatile interest rates, we may increase our hedging activity and thus increase our hedging costs during periods when interest rates are volatile or rising and hedging costs have increased. In addition, hedging instruments involve risk since they often are not traded on regulated exchanges or guaranteed by an exchange or its clearing house. Consequently, there are no requirements with respect to record keeping, financial responsibility or segregation of customer funds and positions. Furthermore, the enforceability of agreements underlying hedging transactions may depend on compliance with applicable statutory and commodity and other regulatory requirements and, depending on the identity of the counterparty, applicable international requirements. The business failure of a hedging counterparty with whom we enter into a hedging transaction will most likely result in its default. Default by a party with whom we enter into a hedging transaction may result in the loss of unrealized profits and force us to cover our commitments, if any, at the then current market price.

 

Although generally we will seek to reserve the right to terminate our hedging positions, it may not always be possible to dispose of or close out a hedging position without the consent of the hedging counterparty and we may not be able to enter into an offsetting contract in order to cover our risk. We cannot assure you that a liquid secondary market will exist for hedging instruments purchased or sold, and we may be required to maintain a position until exercise or expiration, which could result in significant losses.

 

Federal Income Tax Risks

 

Failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution and would adversely affect the timing, amount, and character of dividends to stockholders.

 

Our qualification as a REIT will depend upon our ability to meet requirements regarding our organization and ownership, dividends of our income, the nature and diversification of our income and assets, and other tests imposed by the Code. If we fail to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year after electing REIT status, we will be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at corporate rates. In addition, we would generally be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year of losing our REIT status. Losing our REIT status would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to stockholders because of the additional tax liability. In addition, dividends to stockholders would no longer qualify for the dividends-paid deduction and we would no longer be required to pay dividends. If this occurs, we might be required to borrow funds or liquidate some investments in order to pay the applicable taxes. For a discussion of the REIT qualification tests and other considerations relating to our election to be taxed as a REIT, see “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

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Even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we may be subject to other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flow and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

 

Even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we may be subject to some federal, state and local taxes on our income or property. For example:

 

In order to qualify as a REIT, we must distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income to our stockholders (which is determined without regard to the dividends-paid deduction or net capital gain). To the extent that we satisfy the distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will generally be subject to federal corporate income tax on the undistributed income.

 

We will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which dividends we pay in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income, and 100% of our undistributed income from prior years.

 

If we have net income from the sale of foreclosure property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property, we must pay a tax on that income at the highest corporate income tax rate.

 

If we sell an asset, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, our gain would be subject to the 100% “prohibited transaction” tax unless such sale were made by one of our TRSs or we qualified for a “safe harbor” under the Code.

 

We intend to pay dividends to our stockholders to comply with the REIT requirements of the Code.

 

REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan or our liquidity and may force us to borrow funds during unfavorable market conditions.

 

In order to maintain our REIT status and to meet the REIT distribution requirements, we may need to borrow funds on a short-term basis or sell assets, even if the then-prevailing market conditions are not favorable for these borrowings or sales. In addition, we may need to reserve cash (including proceeds from this offering) to satisfy our REIT distribution requirements, even though there are attractive investment opportunities that may be available. To qualify as a REIT, we generally must distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our net taxable income each year, excluding capital gains. In addition, we will be subject to corporate income tax to the extent we distribute less than 100% of our taxable income including any net capital gain. We intend to make distributions to our stockholders to comply with the requirements of the Code for REITs and to minimize or eliminate our corporate income tax obligation to the extent consistent with our business objectives. Our cash flows from operations may be insufficient to fund required distributions, for example as a result of differences in timing between the actual receipt of income and the recognition of income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the effect of non-deductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves or required debt service or amortization payments (including, for example, where a borrower defers the payment of interest in cash pursuant to a contractual right or otherwise). The insufficiency of our cash flows to cover our distribution requirements could have an adverse impact on our ability to raise short- and long-term debt or sell equity securities in order to fund distributions required to maintain our REIT status. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which distributions paid by us in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from prior years. To address and/or mitigate some of these issues, we may make taxable distributions that are in part paid in cash and in part paid in our common stock. In such cases our stockholders may have tax liabilities from such distributions in excess of the cash they receive. The treatment of such taxable share distributions is not clear, and it is possible the taxable share distribution will not count towards our distribution requirement, in which case adverse consequences could apply.

 

Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for the reduced tax rates on dividend income from regular corporations, which could adversely affect the value of our common stock.

 

The maximum regular U.S. federal income tax rate for certain qualified dividends payable to U.S. holders of U.S. corporate stock that are individuals, is currently 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, are generally not eligible for the reduced rates and therefore are subject to regular U.S. federal income tax rates on ordinary income of a noncorporate U.S. holder (currently at a maximum rate of 39.6%). Such dividends are also not eligible for the dividends received deduction generally available to corporations with respect to dividends from U.S. corporations. Although the reduced U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to dividend income from regular corporate dividends does not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends paid by REITs, the more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts and estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our common stock.

 

To maintain our REIT status, we may be forced to forego otherwise attractive opportunities, which may delay or hinder our ability to meet our investment objectives and reduce our stockholders’ overall return.

 

To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy certain tests on an ongoing basis concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, nature of our assets, and the amounts we distribute to our stockholders. We may be required to pay dividends to stockholders at times when it would be more advantageous to reinvest cash in our business or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. Compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits and the value of our stockholders’ investment.

 

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If we fail to invest a sufficient amount of the net proceeds from selling our common stock in real estate assets within one year from the receipt of the proceeds, we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

Temporary investment of the net proceeds from sales of our common stock in short-term securities and income from such investment generally will allow us to satisfy various REIT income and asset requirements, but only during the one-year period beginning on the date we receive the net proceeds. If we are unable to invest a sufficient amount of the net proceeds from sales of our common stock in qualifying real estate assets within such one-year period, we could fail to satisfy one or more of the gross income or asset tests and/or we could be limited to investing all or a portion of any remaining funds in cash or cash equivalents. If we fail to satisfy any such income or asset test, unless we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code, we could fail to qualify as a REIT. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

Our ability to provide certain services to our tenants may be limited by the REIT rules, or may have to be provided through a TRS.

 

As a REIT, we generally cannot hold interests in rental property where tenants receive services other than services that are customarily provided by landlords, nor can we derive income from a third party that provides such services. If services to tenants at properties in which we hold an interest are limited to customary services, those properties may be disadvantaged as compared to other properties that can be operated without the same restrictions. However, we can provide such non-customary services to tenants or share in the revenue from such services if we do so through a TRS, though income earned through the TRS will be subject to corporate income taxes.

 

If we form a taxable REIT subsidiary (TRS), our overall tax liability could increase.

 

Any TRS we form will be subject to U.S. federal, state and local income tax on its taxable income. Accordingly, although our ownership of any TRSs may allow us to participate in the operating income from certain activities that we could not participate in, that operating income will be fully subject to income tax. The after-tax net income of any TRS would be available for distribution to us, however any dividends received by us from our domestic TRSs will only be qualifying income for the 95% REIT income test, not the 75% REIT income test.

 

Although our use of TRSs may partially mitigate the impact of meeting certain requirements necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT, there are limits on our ability to own and engage in transactions with TRSs, and a failure to comply with such limits would jeopardize our REIT qualification and may result in the application of a 100% excise tax.

 

A REIT may own up to 100% of the stock or securities of one or more TRSs. A TRS may hold assets and earn income that would not be qualifying assets or income if held or earned directly by a REIT. Both the subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a TRS. Overall, no more than 25% (for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) or 20% (for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2018) of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. In addition, the rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. The rules also impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We may jointly elect with one or more subsidiaries for those subsidiaries to be treated as TRSs for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These TRSs will pay U.S. federal, state and local income tax on their taxable income, and their after-tax net income will be available for distribution to us but is not required to be distributed to us. We will monitor the value of our respective investments in any TRSs we may form for the purpose of ensuring compliance with TRS ownership limitations and intend to structure our transactions with any such TRSs on terms that we believe are arm’s-length to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with the TRS ownership limitation or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax.

 

You may be restricted from acquiring, transferring or redeeming certain amounts of our common stock.

 

 In order to maintain our REIT qualification, among other requirements, no more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Code to include certain kinds of entities, during the last half of any taxable year, other than the first year for which a REIT election is made. To assist us in qualifying as a REIT, our charter contains an aggregate share ownership limit and a common stock ownership limit. Generally, any of our shares owned by affiliated owners will be added together for purposes of the aggregate share ownership limit, and any common stock owned by affiliated owners will be added together for purposes of the common stock ownership limit. In addition, our charter prohibits a person from owning actually or constructively shares of our outstanding capital stock if such ownership would result in any of our income that would otherwise qualify as rents from real property for purposes of the REIT rules to fail to qualify as such.

 

If anyone attempts to transfer or own shares in a way that would violate the aggregate share ownership limit or the common stock ownership limit or results in ownership that would result in any of our income that would otherwise qualify as rents from real property for purposes of the REIT rules to fail to qualify as such, or would prevent us from continuing to qualify as a REIT), unless such ownership limits have been waived by our Manager, those shares instead will be deemed transferred to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary and will be either redeemed by us or sold to a person whose ownership of the shares will not violate the aggregate share ownership limit or the common stock ownership limit and will not prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. If this transfer to a trust fails to prevent such a violation or our disqualification as a REIT, then the initial intended transfer or ownership will be null and void from the outset. Anyone who acquires or owns shares in violation of the aggregate share ownership limit or the common stock ownership limit, unless such ownership limit or limits have been waived by our Manager, or the other restrictions on transfer or ownership in our charter, bears the risk of a financial loss when the shares are redeemed or sold, if the NAV of our shares falls between the date of purchase and the date of redemption or sale.

 

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Our limits on ownership of our shares also may require us to decline redemption requests that would cause other stockholders to exceed such ownership limits or to the extent we determine is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT. In addition, in order to comply with certain of the distribution requirements applicable to REITs we will decline to honor any redemption request that we believe is a “dividend equivalent” redemption as discussed in “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders—Redemptions of Common Stock.”

 

In addition, our charter provides that, prior to the first date on which any class or series of shares of our capital stock constitutes “publicly-offered securities” (as defined in the Plan Assets Regulation), “benefit plan investors” may not hold, in the aggregate, 25 percent or more of the value of any class or series of shares of our capital stock. If benefit plan investors exceed this 25% limit, we may redeem their interests at a price equal to the then current NAV per share or transfer their interests to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary. See “ERISA Considerations—The 25% Limit” for more information.

 

Furthermore, our charter provides that, in the event we determine in our discretion that there is a material likelihood that we would be a fiduciary under applicable law with respect to an investor that is subject to ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code (e.g., an IRA), we have the authority to redeem such investor’s interests at a price equal to the then current NAV per share.

 

The tax on prohibited transactions will limit our ability to engage in transactions that would be treated as sales for federal income tax purposes.

 

A REIT’s net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of assets, other than foreclosure property, deemed held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business (subject to a safe harbor under the Code for certain sales). It may be possible to reduce the impact of the prohibited transaction tax by conducting certain activities through TRSs. However, to the extent that we engage in such activities through TRSs, the income associated with such activities may be subject to full corporate income tax.

 

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes.

 

At any time, the federal income tax laws or regulations governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws or regulations may be amended. We cannot predict when or if any new federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and any such law, regulation or interpretation may take effect retroactively. Any such change could result in an increase in our, or our stockholders’, tax liability or require changes in the manner in which we operate in order to minimize increases in our tax liability. A shortfall in tax revenues for states and municipalities in which we operate may lead to an increase in the frequency and size of such changes. If such changes occur, we may be required to pay additional taxes on our assets or income or be subject to additional restrictions. These increased tax costs could, among other things, adversely affect our financial condition, the results of operations and the amount of cash available for the payment of dividends. We and our stockholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, federal income tax law, regulation, or administrative interpretation.

 

In addition, according to publicly released statements, a top legislative priority of the Trump administration and the next Congress may be significant reform of the Code, including significant changes to taxation of business entities and the deductibility of interest expense. There is a substantial lack of clarity around the likelihood, timing and details of any such tax reform and the impact of any potential tax reform on our business and on the price of our common stock. Stockholders are urged to consult with their own tax advisors with respect to the impact that legislation may have on their investment and the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on their investment in our shares.

 

Non-United States investors may be subject to FIRPTA on the sale of shares of our common stock if we are unable to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

 

Except with respect to a “qualified foreign pension plan” or a non-United States person that is a “qualified stockholder”, a non-United States person disposing of a United States real property interest, including shares of a United States corporation whose assets consist principally of United States real property interests, is generally subject to a tax under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Trust Act, or FIRPTA, on the gain recognized on the disposition of such interest. FIRPTA does not apply, however, to the disposition of shares in a REIT if the REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A REIT is a domestically controlled qualified investment entity if, at all times during a specified testing period (the continuous five year period ending on the date of disposition or, if shorter, the entire period of the REIT’s existence), less than 50% in value of its shares is held directly or indirectly by non-United States holders. We cannot assure you that we will qualify as a domestically controlled qualified investment entity. If we were to fail to so qualify, gain realized by a non-United States investor that is not a “qualified foreign pension plan” or a “qualified stockholder” on a sale of our common stock would be subject to FIRPTA unless our common stock was regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-United States investor did not at any time during a specified testing period directly or indirectly own more than 10% of the value of our outstanding common stock.

 

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Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively.

 

The REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to hedge our assets and operations. Under these provisions, any income that we generate from transactions intended to hedge our interest rate, inflation and/or currency risks will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests if the instrument hedges (i) interest rate risk on liabilities incurred to carry or acquire real estate, (ii) risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the REIT 75% or 95% gross income tests or (iii) certain other offsetting positions, and such instrument is properly identified under applicable Treasury Regulations. Income from hedging transactions that do not meet these requirements will generally constitute nonqualifying income for purposes of both the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we may have to limit our use of hedging techniques that might otherwise be advantageous, which could result in greater risks associated with interest rate or other changes than we would otherwise incur.

 

If we were considered to actually or constructively pay a “preferential dividend” to certain of our stockholders, our status as a REIT could be adversely affected.

 

In order to qualify as a REIT, we must distribute annually to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gain. In order for dividends to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirements for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the dividends must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is generally not a preferential dividend if the distribution is pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class, and in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in the REIT’s organizational documents. There is no de minimis exception with respect to preferential dividends. Therefore, if the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) were to take the position that we inadvertently paid a preferential dividend, we may be deemed either to (a) have distributed less than 100% of our REIT taxable income and be subject to tax on the undistributed portion, or (b) have distributed less than 90% of our REIT taxable income and our status as a REIT could be terminated for the year in which such determination is made if we were unable to cure such failure. It also is possible that under certain technical rules relating to the deduction for dividends paid, the IRS could take the position that redemptions taxed as dividends impair our ability to satisfy our distribution requirements under the Code. To avoid certain issues related to our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements (see “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations— Qualification as a REIT — Annual Distribution Requirements”), we have implemented procedures designed to track our stockholders’ percentage interests in our common stock and identify any such dividend equivalent redemptions, and we will decline to effect a redemption to the extent that we believe that it would constitute a dividend equivalent redemption. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in preventing all dividend equivalent redemptions. We can provide no assurance that we will not be treated as inadvertently paying preferential dividends.

 

Sales of our assets may constitute “prohibited transactions,” which are subject to a 100% tax.

 

Net income derived from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% tax. The term “prohibited transactions” generally includes a sale or other disposition of property (other than foreclosure property) that is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Whether property is held “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends on the specific facts and circumstances. The Code provides a safe harbor pursuant to which sales of properties held for at least two years (which period, for property being developed, does not begin to run until the property is placed in service) and meeting certain additional requirements will not be treated as prohibited transactions, but compliance with the safe harbor may not always be practical. We intend to continue to conduct our operations so that no asset that we own (or are treated as owning) will be treated as held as inventory or for sale to customers and that a sale of any such asset will not be treated as having been in the ordinary course of our business. However, we may have to sell assets from time to time to fund redemption requests, to satisfy our REIT distribution requirements, to satisfy other REIT requirements, or for other purposes. In addition, part of our investment strategy is to purchase assets that provide an opportunity for gain through capital appreciation, and we may sell such assets if beneficial opportunities arise. Therefore, no assurance can be given that any particular property in which we hold a direct or indirect interest will not be treated as property held for sale to customers, or that the safe-harbor provisions will apply. The potential application of the prohibited transactions tax could cause us to forego potential dispositions of other property or to forego other opportunities that might otherwise be attractive to us (such as developing property for sale), or to undertake such dispositions or other opportunities through a TRS, which would generally result in corporate income taxes being incurred.

 

The ability of the board of directors to revoke the REIT Election of the Company without the approval of the holders of our common stock may cause adverse consequences to holders of our common stock.

 

Our governing documents provide that the board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate the REIT election of the Company, without the approval of holders of our common stock, if the board determines that it is no longer in the best interest of the stockholders to continue to qualify as a REIT. If the Company ceases to qualify as a REIT, it would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on its net taxable income and it generally would no longer be required to distribute any of its net taxable income to its stockholders, which may have adverse consequences on its total return to holders of our common stock.

 

The failure of a mezzanine loan to qualify as a real estate asset could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.

 

We may make mezzanine loans. The IRS has provided a safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2003-65 for structuring mezzanine loans so that they will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from mezzanine loans will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test, as discussed below. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. We may make mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements of the safe harbor. In the event a mezzanine loan does not meet the safe harbor, the IRS could challenge such loan’s treatment as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests and, if such a challenge were sustained, we could fail to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Our qualification as a REIT and avoidance of 100% tax may depend on the characterization of any loans that we make as debt for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, the IRS or a court may treat a loan with sufficient equity characteristics as equity for tax purposes. We may obtain equity participation rights with respect to our loans, and we may make loans with relatively high loan-to-value ratios and/or high yields, which are among the features that can cause a loan to be treated as equity for federal income tax purposes. Although we intend to structure each of our loans so that the loan should be respected as debt for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it is possible that the IRS or a court could disagree and seek to re-characterized the loan as equity. Re-characterization of one of our loans to a non-corporate borrower as equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes generally would require us to include our share of the gross assets and gross income of the borrower in our REIT asset and income tests. Inclusion of such items could jeopardize our REIT status. Moreover, to the extent our borrowers hold their assets as dealer property or inventory, if we are treated as holding equity in a borrower for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our share of gains from sales by the borrower would be subject to the 100% tax on prohibited transactions (except to the extent earned through a TRS). To the extent one of our loans to a corporate borrower is recharacterized as equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it could cause us to fail one or more of the asset tests applicable to REITs.

 

The treatment of an investment in preferred equity could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.

 

We may make investments in preferred equity in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property. Although economically comparable to investments in mezzanine loans in many cases, investments in preferred equity will be treated differently for tax purposes. If the issuer of the preferred equity is taxed as a partnership or an entity disregarded as separate from its owners for U.S. federal income tax purposes (aside from a qualified REIT subsidiary), we will generally be treated as owing an interest in the underlying real estate and other assets of the partnership for tax purposes.  As a result, absent sufficient controls to ensure that the underlying real property is operated in compliance with the REIT rules, preferred equity investments may jeopardize our compliance with the REIT income and asset tests.  In addition, the treatment of interest-like preferred returns in a partnership or disregarded entity (other than a qualified REIT subsidiary) also is not clear under the REIT rules and could be treated as non-qualifying income.  More importantly, in many cases the status of debt-like preferred equity as debt or equity for tax purposes is unclear.  The IRS could challenge our treatment of such preferred equity investment for purposes of applying the REIT income and asset tests and, if such a challenge were sustained, we could fail to continue to qualify as  REIT. In addition to the risk of loss of REIT status due to nonqualifying income, if the underlying property is dealer property, our gains from the sale of the property would be subject to a 100% tax. In addition, if the issuer of the preferred equity is taxed as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such preferred equity generally will be a nonqualifying asset unless the issuer is a REIT, qualified REIT subsidiary or TRS.

 

A portion of our distributions may be treated as a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could reduce the basis of a stockholder’s investment in our common stock and may trigger taxable gain.

 

A portion of our distributions may be treated as a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a general matter, a portion of our distributions will be treated as a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes if the aggregate amount of our distributions for a year exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits for that year. To the extent that a distribution is treated as a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it will reduce a holder’s adjusted tax basis in the holder’s shares, and to the extent that it exceeds the holder’s adjusted tax basis will be treated as gain resulting from a sale or exchange of such shares. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

Your investment has various tax risks.

 

Although the provisions of the Code generally relevant to an investment in shares of our common stock are described in “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” we urge you to consult your tax advisor concerning the effects of United States federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax laws to you with regard to an investment in shares of our common stock

 

Retirement Plan Risks

 

If the fiduciary of an employee pension benefit plan subject to ERISA (such as profit sharing, Section 401(k) or pension plan) or any other retirement plan or account fails to meet the fiduciary and other standards under ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code as a result of an investment in our common stock, the fiduciary could be subject to penalties.

 

There are special considerations that apply to employee benefit plans subject to ERISA (such as profit sharing, Section 401(k) or pension plans) and other retirement plans or accounts subject to Section 4975 of the Code (such as an IRA) that are investing in our shares. Fiduciaries investing the assets of such a plan or account in our common stock should satisfy themselves that:

 

the investment is consistent with their fiduciary and other obligations under ERISA and the Code;

 

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the investment is made in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the plan or IRA, including the plan’s or account’s investment policy;

 

the investment satisfies the prudence and diversification requirements of Sections 404(a)(1)(B) and 404(a)(1)(C) of ERISA and other applicable provisions of ERISA and the Code;

 

the investment in our shares, for which no public market currently exists, is consistent with the liquidity needs of the plan or IRA;

 

the investment will not produce an unacceptable amount of “unrelated business taxable income” for the plan or IRA;

 

the fiduciary will be able to comply with the requirements under ERISA and the Code to value our common stock annually; and

 

the investment will not constitute a non-exempt prohibited transaction under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code.

 

Failure to satisfy the fiduciary standards of conduct and other applicable requirements of ERISA and the Code may result in the imposition of penalties and could subject the fiduciary to claims for damages or for equitable remedies. In addition, if an investment in our shares constitutes a non-exempt prohibited transaction under ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, the fiduciary or IRA owner who authorized or directed the investment may be subject to the imposition of excise taxes with respect to the amount invested. In the case of a prohibited transaction involving an IRA owner, the IRA may be disqualified and all of the assets of the IRA may be deemed distributed and subjected to tax. ERISA plan fiduciaries and IRA custodians should consult with counsel before making an investment in our common stock.

 

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We may become subject to Title I of ERISA, which may lead to the rescission of certain transactions, tax or fiduciary liability and our being held in violation of certain ERISA and Code requirements.

 

If for any reason our assets are deemed to be “plan assets” because we do not qualify as either a “real estate operating company” or a “venture capital operating company” and there is no other exemption available to prevent our assets from being deemed “plan assets,” certain transactions, including acquisitions, sales and exchanges of properties, might constitute non-exempt prohibited transactions under Section 406 of ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code and might have to be rescinded and may give rise to prohibited transaction excise taxes and fiduciary liability. In addition, if our assets are deemed to be “plan assets,” our management may be considered to be fiduciaries under ERISA. In this regard, while we intend to be structured to qualify as either a “real estate operating company” or a “venture capital operating company,” fiduciaries of employee benefit plans subject to Title I of ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code should make an independent determination whether such status can be achieved.

 

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STATEMENTS REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

 

We make statements in this offering circular that are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. The words “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “seek,” “may,” and similar expressions or statements regarding future periods are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to differ materially from any predictions of future results, performance or achievements that we express or imply in this offering circular or in the information incorporated by reference into this offering circular.

 

The forward-looking statements included in this offering circular are based upon our current expectations, plans, estimates, assumptions and beliefs that involve numerous risks and uncertainties. Assumptions relating to the foregoing involve judgments with respect to, among other things, future economic, competitive and market conditions and future business decisions, all of which are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many of which are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, our actual results and performance could differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. Factors which could have a material adverse effect on our operations and future prospects include, but are not limited to:

 

our ability to effectively deploy the proceeds raised in this offering;

 

changes in economic conditions generally and the real estate and securities markets specifically;

 

risks associated with geographic and asset class markets where we may have – or end up having – a high concentration of investments;

 

risks associated with ownership of real estate in general, and office properties in particular;

 

limited ability to dispose of assets because of the relative illiquidity of real estate investments;

 

intense competition in the real estate market that may limit our ability to attract or retain tenants or re-lease space;

 

defaults on or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

increased interest rates and operating costs;

 

our failure to obtain necessary outside financing;

 

decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;

 

difficulties in identifying properties, and consummating, real estate acquisitions, joint ventures and dispositions;

 

our failure to successfully operate acquired properties and operations;

 

exposure to liability relating to environmental and health and safety matters;

 

changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real estate property tax rates;

 

our failure to maintain our status as a REIT;

 

our failure to successfully implement a liquidity transaction, including listing our shares of common stock on a securities exchange;

 

loss of key personnel;

 

risks associated with breaches of our data security;

 

exposure to litigation or other claims;

 

risks associated with derivatives or hedging activity;

 

our level of debt and the terms and limitations imposed on us by our debt agreements;

 

the need to invest additional equity in connection with debt refinancings as a result of reduced asset values;

 

our ability to retain our executive officers and other key personnel of our Sponsor, and its affiliates;

 

expected rates of return provided to investors;

 

the ability of our Sponsor and its affiliates to source, acquire and manage our real estate assets, and the quality and performance of these assets;

 

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legislative or regulatory changes impacting our business or our assets (including changes to the laws governing the taxation of REITs and SEC guidance related to Regulation A or the JOBS Act);

 

changes in business conditions and the market value of our assets, including changes in interest rates, market rents, tenant defaults or bankruptcy, and generally the increased risk of loss if our investments fail to perform as expected;

 

our ability to implement effective conflicts of interest policies and procedures among the various real estate investment opportunities sponsored by our Sponsor;

 

our ability to access sources of liquidity when we have the need to fund redemptions of shares of our common stock in excess of the proceeds from the sales of shares of our common stock in our continuous offering and the consequential risk that we may not have the resources to satisfy redemption requests;

 

our compliance with applicable local, state and federal laws, including the Investment Advisers Act, the Investment Company Act and other laws; and

 

changes to generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP.

 

Any of the assumptions underlying forward-looking statements could be inaccurate. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements included in this offering circular. All forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this offering circular and the risk that actual results will differ materially from the expectations expressed in this offering circular will increase with the passage of time. Except as otherwise required by the federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements after the date of this offering circular, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or any other reason. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking statements included in this offering circular, including, without limitation, the risks described under “Risk Factors,” the inclusion of such forward-looking statements should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that the objectives and plans set forth in this offering circular will be achieved.

 

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ESTIMATED USE OF PROCEEDS

 

The table below sets forth our estimated use of proceeds from this offering and the private placements to our Sponsor described below, assuming we sell $50,000,000 in shares of our common stock in this offering, the maximum offering amount, in addition to the $75,000 received or to be received in private placements to our Sponsor. Shares of our common stock will be offered at $10.00 per share until twelve months after the commencement of this offering. Thereafter, the per share purchase price will be adjusted every fiscal quarter and, as of January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st of each year, will equal the greater of (i) $10.00 per share or (ii) our net asset value, or NAV, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the end of the prior fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis (NAV per share). In addition, our Sponsor has committed to purchase 7,400 shares of our common stock from us at $10.00 per share in a private placement on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering, for net proceeds to us of $74,000. Our Sponsor previously acquired 100 shares of our common stock at a price equal to the initial public offering price in connection with our formation, for net proceeds to us of $1,000.

 

We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to acquire and manage a diversified portfolio of commercial real estate properties, focusing in particular on office properties in markets with favorable risk-return characteristics. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. We expect that any expenses or fees payable to our Manager for its services in connection with managing our daily affairs, including but not limited to, the selection, acquisition and management of our investments, will be paid from cash flow from operations. If such fees and expenses are not paid from cash flow (accrued or waived) they will reduce the cash available for investment and distribution and will directly impact our quarterly NAV. As of March 31, 2017, the amount of expenses incurred by us in connection with this offering was $844,989.53. See “Management Compensation” for more details regarding the fees that will be paid to our Manager and its affiliates. Many of the amounts set forth in the table below represent our Manager’s best estimate since they cannot be precisely calculated at this time.

 

We may not be able to promptly invest the net proceeds of this offering in real estate and real estate related assets. In the interim, we may invest in short-term, highly liquid or other authorized investments, subject to the requirements for qualification as a REIT. Such short-term investments will not earn as high of a return as we expect to earn on our real estate-related investments.

 

   Maximum Offering 
   Amount 
Gross Offering Proceeds  $50,000,000.00 
Less:     
Organization and Offering Expenses(1)(2)  $1,500,000.00 
Net Proceeds from this Offering(3)  $48,500,000.00 
Net Proceeds from Private Placements  $75,000.00 
Estimated Amount Available for Investments  $48,575,000.00 

 

(1)We will pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering expenses in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering (and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings), which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000 in this offering. Because the organization and offering expenses will be paid or borne by the Operating Partnership, the Operating Partnership will specially allocate to us (and not the other limited partners) all items of loss or deduction attributable to such organizational and offering expenses.  As a result of these special allocations, upon the final closing of the offering (and at such other times that we determine it is appropriate to make such adjustments), we will adjust the number of OP Units held by the limited partners (other than us) so that such limited partners get the benefit of not bearing such organization and offering expenses (i.e., the percentage interest of the limited partners, other than us, will increase so that the amounts they have contributed per OP Unit are equivalent to the amounts contributed by us per OP Unit after taking into account the special allocations of organization and offering expenses). In addition, the limited partners (other than us) will be issued additional OP Units with an aggregate value equivalent to the amount of additional distributions that such limited partners would have received from the Operating Partnership had such limited partner held the number of OP Units following the adjustment described in the previous sentence at all times since the commencement of the offering.  To the extent these organization and offering expenses exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, the Manager will bear such expenses. However, rather than the Manager paying such excess expenses directly, we will pay or reimburse such amounts directly, in which case, the Manager will bear such amounts through a reduction in future Management Fees payable by the Operating Partnership. SW Office I LTIP, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and affiliate of our Sponsor (“LTIP Office I”) will be entitled to receive long-term incentive plan units, or LTIP units, in our Operating Partnership to the extent our organization and offering expenses are less than 3% of the gross proceeds we raise in the offering or less than 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings (in each case, excluding any proceeds attributable to shares sold to our Manager or its affiliates) (the “Offering Expense Savings”). The amount of LTIP Units LTIP Office I receives will be equal to the Offering Expense Savings divided by the greater of (i) $10.00 per unit or (ii) our net asset value, or NAV, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the end of the prior fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis (NAV per share). If any such LTIP Units are issued to LTIP Office I, the limited partners (other than us) shall be issued LTIP Units so that each such limited partner is holding a number of LTIP Units and OP Units sufficient to give such limited partner a percentage interest following the issuance of LTIPs to LTIP Office I that is the same as such limited partner’s percentage interest immediately prior to the issuance of LTIPs to LTIP Office I (i.e., we will be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the LTIP Office I, but the limited partners, other than us, will not be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the LTIP Office I).

 

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(2)Includes all expenses to be paid by us in connection with our formation and the qualification of the offering, and the marketing and distribution of shares of our common stock, including, without limitation, expenses for printing, engraving and amending offering statements or supplementing offering circulars, mailing and distributing costs, telephones, internet and other telecommunications costs, all advertising and marketing expenses, charges of experts and fees, expenses and taxes related to the filing, registration and qualification of the sale of shares under federal and state laws, including taxes and fees and accountants’ and attorneys’ fees. See “Plan of Distribution.”

 

(3)Investors will not pay upfront selling commissions in connection with the purchase of shares of our common stock. We may sell shares of our common stock through registered broker-dealers; however, any required commissions to the broker-dealers will be paid by our Sponsor and not by us or our stockholders and such commissions will not be reimbursable by us to our Sponsor. We will bear organization and offering costs in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, as described in footnote (1). See “Management Compensation” for a description of additional fees and expenses that we will pay our Manager, including the quarterly asset management fee.

 

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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES

 

Overview

 

1st stREIT Office Inc. is a newly organized Maryland corporation formed to acquire and manage a portfolio of commercial real estate properties. We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to acquire a diversified portfolio of office properties with a focus on markets where we feel that the risk-return characteristics are favorable. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. Substantially all of our assets will be held by, and substantially all of our operations will be conducted through, our operating partnership, 1st stREIT Office Operating Partnership LP, a Delaware limited partnership (our “Operating Partnership”), either directly or through its subsidiaries, and we will be the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership. Additionally, we will contribute the net proceeds from this offering (including the private placements to our Sponsor) to our Operating Partnership in exchange for units of limited partnership interest in our Operating Partnership (“OP Units”). We intend to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning with our taxable year ending December 31, 2017.

 

We will be externally managed and advised by SW Manager, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (our “Manager”), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of and controlled by Tryperion Partners, LLC, a California limited liability company (our “Sponsor”). Our Sponsor is a private real estate investment firm that provides investment management services to a range of foundation and high net worth clients. Since 2013, our Sponsor has sponsored two value-add closed-end commercial real estate funds that successfully raised a total of over $100 million of equity capital. Collectively, our Sponsor’s founders have overseen the acquisition, ownership and management of over $1.7 billion of real estate equity investments valued in excess of $5.4 billion spanning all major asset classes.

 

On May 31, 2017 we acquired a fee simple interest in the office park described below (Laumeier) from investment funds managed by our Sponsor (the “Sponsor Funds”). We acquired Laumeier for approximately $44.4 million or $153/sf, which equates to an 8.9% cap rate on projected 2017 net operating income. We financed the acquisition with a $24.6 million senior loan for a 10 year term at a 4.40% fixed interest rate, representing approximately 55% loan-to-value.

 

Our Properties

 

The following table provides information about our portfolio as of December 31, 2016:

 

Property   Metropolitan
Area
  Year
Built/Last
Major Renovation(1)
  Interest
Acquired
by Us
   NRA
(000s
SF)
   In-Place
Occupancy(2)
   Annualized
Base Rent(3)
   Largest Tenant
by NRA
Laumeier   St. Louis, MO  1987-90/2015   100%   291    97.7%  $6,447,666   Panera Bread Company, Inc.

 

 

(1) We define “major renovation” as significant upgrades, alterations or additions to building common areas, interiors, exteriors and/or systems.

 

(2) Includes both in-place and committed tenants, which we define as our tenants in occupancy as well as tenants that have executed binding leases for space under construction but are not yet in occupancy, as of December 31, 2016.

 

(3) Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as cash rents before abatements) for the month ended December 31, 2016, by (ii) 12. If rent abatements that were applied in December 2016 are included, annualized rent would be $5,967,496 (a decrease of $1.69 per net rentable square foot). The contractual rent abatements currently in place at Laumeier will all expire on or before March 2017.

 

Description of Our Initial Property

 

Laumeier Overview

 

Laumeier I, II, and IV (“Laumeier”) is located in the Laumeier Office Park, class “A” office park in Sunset Hills, Missouri, part of St. Louis County’s South County submarket. Laumeier comprises three of the four buildings in the Laumeier Office Park, totaling 290,925 rentable square feet, and includes in a combination of surface and structured parking lots, approximately 1,055 owned parking stalls (3.6/1000 square feet), and access to approximately 768 overflow parking stalls (2.6/1000 square feet) in the adjacent shopping center. Laumeier is 40% leased to Panera Bread Company (NASDAQ: PNRA) for their corporate headquarters through 2024. Other tenants include New Balance, AMN Healthcare (NYSE: AHS), and Regus. As of December 31, 2016, Laumeier was 97.7% leased with 6.0 years of weighted average lease term remaining.

 

Laumeier is managed by the St. Louis office of CB Richard Ellis (“CBRE”). CBRE is an established manager of real estate and was recently acknowledged as one of the Most Admired Companies in the real estate sector (for the fourth year in a row) by Fortune, and their St. Louis office manages approximately eight million square feet of office buildings throughout the St. Louis metropolitan area. CBRE is paid a property management fee equal to 1.75% of gross revenue which we believe to be less than the prevailing rate for property management services in the St. Louis Metropolitan area. Before Laumeier was acquired by the Sponsor Funds on November 18, 2013, the previous owner self-managed the property.

 

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Since acquiring Laumeier, the Sponsor Funds have completed various renovations and improvements, including lobby renovations, bathroom renovations, elevator modernizations and preventative parking structure maintenance. We currently have no immediate plans with respect to major renovation or redevelopment at Laumeier.

 

Laumeier Key Tenants

 

Laumeier is leased to 24 tenants, most of which we believe have attractive credit profiles. The key tenants at Laumeier are included in the table below. Panera, LLC owns and franchises bakery-cafes in the United States. New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. manufactures athletic shoes, apparel, and accessories for men, women, and children. The principal businesses of the remainder of the tenants of Laumeier include primarily insurance, technology, consulting, and healthcare-related office uses.

 

Tenant  Lease Expiration  Renewal
Options
  Total Leased
Square Feet
   Percentage of
Property
Square Feet
   Annualized
Base Rent (1)
   Annualized
Base Rent Per
Leased Square
Foot(2)
   Percentage of
Property
Annualized Base
Rent
 
Panera, LLC  April 30, 2024  10 years(3)   116,277    40.0%  $2,779,995   $23.91    43.1%
New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc.  February 4, 2024  10 years(3)   41,576    14.3%  $910,982   $21.91    14.1%

 

(1) Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as cash before abatements) for the month ended December 31, 2016, by (ii) 12.

 

(2) Annualized base rent per leased square foot expiring reflects annualized base rent (as defined above), divided by total leased square feet.

 

(3) Consists of two 5-year options.

 

Laumeier Lease Expirations

 

The following table sets forth the lease expirations for leases in place at Laumeier as of December 31, 2016, plus available space, for each of the calendar years ending December 31, 2017 through December 31, 2026. The information set forth in the table assumes that tenants exercise no renewal options and do not exercise early termination rights. Leases in place and committed have a weighted average lease term of 6.0 years.

 

Year of Lease Expiration   Number of
Leases
Expiring
   NRA of
Expiring
Leases
   Percentage of
Laumeier
NRA
   Annualized
Base
Rent(1)
   Percentage of
Laumeier
Annualized
Base Rent(1)
   Annualized
Base Rent per
Leased Square
Foot
Expiring(2)
 
Vacant         6.605    2.3%               
2017    4    13,033    4.5%  $293,270    4.5%  $22.50 
2018    4    11,297    3.9%  $216,181    3.4%  $19.14 
2019                               
2020    2    10,749    3.7%  $244,565    3.8%  $22.75 
2021    3    19,319    6.6%  $439,602    6.8%  $22.75 
2022    6    56,992    19.6%  $1,222,673    19.0%  $21.45 
2023                               
2024    3    170,599    58.6%  $3,977,762    61.7%  $23.32 
2025    2    2,331    0.8%  $53,613    0.8%  $23.00 
2026                               
Thereafter                               
Total / Weighted Average:    24    290,925    100.0%  $6,447,666    100.0%  $22.71 

 

 

(1) Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as cash before abatements) for the month ended December 31, 2016, by (ii) 12

 

(2) Annualized base rent per leased square foot expiring reflects annualized base rent (as defined above), divided by NRA of expiring leases in the period

 

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Laumeier Occupancy and Rent

 

The following table sets forth the in place occupancy, the monthly base rent and the annualized base rent as of the dates indicated below.

 

Date(1)   In-Place Occupancy     Annualized Base Rent(1)     Effective Annual Rental per Square Foot  
December 31, 2016     97.7 %   $ 6,447,666     $ 22.16  
December 31, 2015     90.3 %   $ 5,976,138     $ 20.54  
December 31, 2014     79.7 %   $ 4,960,228     $ 17.05  
December 31, 2013     78.1 %   $ 4,884,973     $ 16.79  

 

 

(1) Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as cash before abatements) for the month ended December 31, 2016, by (ii) 12.

 

Laumeier Tax Basis and Depreciation

 

The federal tax basis, the depreciation rate, method of depreciation and the life claimed for purposes of depreciation of Laumeier will be determined based upon the completion of a cost allocation study with respect to Laumeier.

 

Laumeier Real Property Taxes

 

The 2016 annual property taxes for Laumeier were $902,780 based on a tax rate of $10.24 per $100 of assessed value. Since the start of the 2017 taxable year there have been no renovations or redevelopment at Laumeier, and as of the date of this offering circular we have no immediate plans to undertake any renovations or redevelopment at the property.

 

Property Encumbrances

 

We intend to finance the acquisition with a $24.6 million senior loan for a 10 year term at a 4.40% fixed interest rate, representing approximately 55% loan-to-value.

 

Environmental Matters

 

To the best of our knowledge there are no current environmental matters in connection with Laumeier. We had a new Phase I completed as part of the process of obtaining a mortgage for Laumeier which revealed no environmental matters.

 

Regulation

 

General

 

Our initial property is subject to various covenants, laws, ordinances and regulations, including regulations relating to common areas and fire safety requirements. We believe that Laumeier has the necessary permits and approvals to operate its business.

 

Americans with Disabilities Act

 

Laumeier must comply with Title III of the ADA to the extent that it is a “public accommodation” as defined by the ADA. The ADA may require removal of structural barriers to access for persons with disabilities in certain public areas of Laumeier where such removal is readily achievable. Although we believe that our initial property is substantially in compliance, some of our properties may currently be in noncompliance with the ADA. Such noncompliance could result in the incurrence of additional costs to attain compliance, the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants. The obligation to make readily achievable accommodations is an ongoing one and we will continue to assess our properties and to make alterations as appropriate in this respect.

 

Insurance

 

Upon commencement of this offering, we will carry commercial insurance with the policy specifications and insured limits that management believes are appropriate and adequate for all our properties given the relative risk of loss, the cost of the coverage and industry practice. However, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to fully cover our losses. There are types of losses at the property level, generally catastrophic in nature, such as losses due to wars, acts of terrorism, earthquakes, floods, wind damage, hurricanes, pollution or environmental matters, which are uninsurable or not economically insurable, or may be insured subject to significant limitations, such as large deductibles or co-payments. If any of our properties incurs a casualty loss that is not fully insured, the value of our assets will be reduced by any such uninsured loss. In addition, our title insurance policies may not insure for the current aggregate market value of Laumeier, and we do not intend to increase our title insurance coverage as the market value of Laumeier increases.

 

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General Competitive Conditions

 

Laumeier competes with other class “A” office buildings in St. Louis County’s South County for office tenants. Although CBRE puts the direct vacancy rate for class “A” office buildings in the South County area at 7.9% as of December 31, 2016, Laumeier has been able to achieve 97.7% occupancy due to numerous factors, including: (i) its location near the intersection of two major highways (I-270 and I-44), (ii) its proximity to retail amenities, and (iii) its excellent physical condition. In addition to achieving “above-market” occupancy, Laumeier also commands a premium rent rate relative to the competitive set. Current asking rates are between $23.50-$24.00, compared with the $21.77 average rate for all class “A” South County office buildings as recorded by CBRE as of December 31, 2016. (Source: CBRE Market View, St. Louis 4Q 2016)

 

Employees

 

We do not currently have any employees and do not expect to have any employees in the foreseeable future. Upon commencement of this offering, the associated formation transactions and the intended acquisition of a fee simple interest in Laumeier, services necessary for our business will be provided by our Manager pursuant to the terms of the Management Agreement. Each of our executive officers is an employee or officer of our Manager. We expect all of the full-time employees of our Manager will spend substantial time on our matters during calendar year 2017. To the extent that we acquire more investments, we anticipate that the number of our Manager’s employees who devote time to our matters will increase.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

From time to time, we may be party to various lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party, as plaintiff or defendant, to any legal proceedings that we believe to be material or which, individually or in the aggregate, would be expected to have a material effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operation if determined adversely to us.

 

Our Company Information

 

Our corporate office is located at 11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1690, Los Angeles, CA 90025. Our telephone number is (310) 421-1030. Information regarding our company is also available on our web site at www.streitwise.com. Information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into and does not constitute a part of this offering circular or any other report or documents we file with or furnish to the SEC.

 

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OUR MANAGER AND THE MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT

 

General

 

We will be externally managed and advised by our Manager, an affiliate of our Sponsor. Each of our officers is an executive of our Sponsor. The executive offices of our Manager are located at 11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1690, Los Angeles, CA 90025, and the telephone number of our Manager’s executive offices is (310) 421-1030.

 

Officers of Our Manager

 

The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the executive officers of our Manager.

 

Officer   Age   Position Held with Our Manager
Jeffrey Karsh   29   Chief Executive Officer, Member of Investment Committee
Eliot Bencuya   36   Chief Investment Officer, Member of Investment Committee
Joseph Kessel   35   Chief Operating Officer, Member of Investment Committee

 

Manager Biographical Information

 

Set forth below is biographical information for the executive officers of our Manager.

 

Jeffrey Karsh. Mr. Karsh will serve as Chief Executive Officer of our Manager and has served as a partner of our Sponsor since co-founding it in April 2013. Mr. Karsh will also serve as a member of our Manager’s investment committee. Prior to forming our Sponsor, Mr. Karsh served on the acquisitions team at Canyon Capital Realty Advisors and the Canyon-Johnson Urban Funds, where he was responsible for underwriting, structuring and executing value-add and opportunistic transactions. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Karsh is a member of ULI, CREW LA, and the Real Estate & Construction division of the Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles.

 

Eliot Bencuya. Mr. Bencuya will serve as Chief Investment Officer of our Manager and has served as a partner of our Sponsor since co-founding it in April 2013. Mr. Bencuya will also serve as a member of our Manager’s investment committee. Mr. Bencuya has extensive experience identifying, underwriting, and executing real estate investments. Prior to forming our Sponsor, he was a Vice President of Acquisitions for Canyon Capital Realty Advisors and the Canyon-Johnson Urban Funds, where he was responsible for originating, underwriting, structuring and executing transactions in the Pacific Northwest, Northern California and Midwest regions. Mr. Bencuya also held positions at Sovereign Investment Company and the investment banking division of Merrill Lynch & Co. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and International Studies from Yale University, and a Masters of Business Administration degree from the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley. Mr. Bencuya is a member of ULI.

 

Joseph Kessel. Mr. Kessel will serve as Chief Operating Officer of our Manager and has served as a partner of our Sponsor since co-founding it in April 2013. Mr. Kessel will also serve as a member of our Manager’s investment committee. Mr. Kessel has experience in all facets of real estate investment, including acquisition, disposition, asset management, and portfolio management. Prior to forming our Sponsor, Mr. Kessel was a Vice President of Asset Management for Canyon Capital Realty Advisors and the Canyon-Johnson Urban Funds, where he managed a portfolio of value-add and opportunistic investments across all property types. Before joining Canyon, Mr. Kessel was an Associate at CenterSquare Investment Management (formerly Urdang) responsible for coordinating all underwriting, due diligence and documentation of core and value-add investments across all major property types. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree from The Wharton School (Magna Cum Laude, Real Estate) and a Bachelor of Arts degree from The College of Arts and Sciences (Magna Cum Laude, International Relations) at the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Kessel is a member of ULI.

 

Management Agreement

 

We and our operating partnership have entered into a management agreement with our Manager, effective as of June 22, 2017, pursuant to which it will provide for the day-to-day management of our operations. The management agreement will require our Manager to manage our business affairs in conformity with the investment guidelines and policies that are approved and monitored by our board of directors. Our Manager’s role as manager will be under the supervision and direction of our board of directors.

 

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Management Services

 

Subject to our investment strategies and policies and the supervision and direction of our board of directors, our Manager will be responsible for (a) the selection, purchase and sale of our real estate investments and assets, (b) our financing activities and (c) providing us with personnel, services and resources. Our Manager will be responsible for our day-to-day operations and will perform (or will cause to be performed) such services and activities relating to our assets and operations as may be appropriate, which may include, without limitation, the following:

 

Investment Advisory and Acquisition Services

 

approve and oversee our overall investment strategy, which will consist of elements such as investment selection criteria, diversification strategies and asset disposition strategies;

 

serve as our investment and financial manager with respect to sourcing, underwriting, acquiring, financing, originating, servicing, investing in and managing a diversified portfolio of commercial properties and other real estate-related assets;

 

adopt and periodically review our investment guidelines;

 

structure the terms and conditions of our acquisitions, sales and joint ventures;

 

enter into leases and service contracts for the properties and other investments;

 

approve and oversee our debt financing strategies;

 

approve joint ventures, limited partnerships and other such relationships with third parties;

 

approve any potential liquidity transaction;

 

obtain market research and economic and statistical data in connection with our investments and investment objectives and policies;

 

oversee and conduct the due diligence process related to prospective investments;

 

prepare reports regarding prospective investments which include recommendations and supporting documentation necessary for our Manager’s investment committee to evaluate the proposed investments; and

 

negotiate and execute approved investments and other transactions.

 

Offering Services

 

the development of this offering, including the determination of its specific terms;

 

preparation and approval of all marketing materials to be used by us relating to this offering;

 

the negotiation and coordination of the receipt, collection, processing and acceptance of subscription agreements, commissions, and other administrative support functions;

 

creation and implementation of various technology and electronic communications related to this offering; and

 

all other services related to this offering.

 

Asset Management Services

 

investigate, select, and, on our behalf, engage and conduct business with such persons as our Manager deems necessary to the proper performance of its obligations under our management agreement, including but not limited to consultants, accountants, lenders, technical managers, attorneys, corporate fiduciaries, escrow agents, depositaries, custodians, agents for collection, insurers, insurance agents, developers, property managers, leasing and investment sale brokers, construction companies and any and all persons acting in any other capacity deemed by our Manager necessary or desirable for the performance of any of the services under our management agreement;

 

monitor applicable markets and obtain reports (which may be prepared by our Manager or its affiliates) where appropriate, concerning the value of our investments;

 

monitor and evaluate the performance of our investments, provide management services to us and perform and supervise the various management and operational functions related to our investments;

 

formulate and oversee the implementation of strategies for the administration, promotion, management, operation, maintenance, improvement, financing and refinancing, marketing, leasing and disposition of investments on an overall portfolio basis; and

 

coordinate and manage relationships between us and any joint venture partners.

 

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Accounting and Other Administrative Services

 

manage and perform the various administrative functions necessary for our day-to-day operations;

 

provide or arrange for administrative services, legal services, office space, office furnishings, personnel and other overhead items necessary and incidental to our business and operations;

 

provide financial and operational planning services and portfolio management functions;

 

maintain or arrange for the maintenance of accounting data and any other information concerning our activities as will be required to prepare and to file all periodic financial reports and returns required to be filed with the SEC and any other regulatory agency, including annual financial statements;

 

maintain or arrange for the maintenance of all appropriate company books and records;

 

oversee tax and compliance services and risk management services and coordinate with appropriate third parties, including independent accountants and other consultants, on related tax matters;

 

supervise the performance of such ministerial and administrative functions as may be necessary in connection with our daily operations;

 

provide us with all necessary cash management services;

 

manage and coordinate with the transfer agent, if any, the process of making dividends and payments to stockholders;

 

evaluate and obtain adequate insurance coverage based upon risk management determinations;

 

provide timely updates related to the overall regulatory environment affecting us, as well as managing compliance with regulatory matters;

 

evaluate our corporate governance structure and appropriate policies and procedures related thereto; and

 

oversee all reporting, record keeping, internal controls and similar matters in a manner to allow us to comply with applicable law.

 

Stockholder Services

 

determine our distribution policy;

 

approve amounts available for redemptions of shares of our common stock; and

 

manage communications with our stockholders, including answering phone calls, preparing and sending written and electronic reports and other communications.

 

Financing Services

 

identify and evaluate potential financing and refinancing sources, engaging a third party broker if necessary;

 

negotiate terms of, arrange and execute financing agreements;

 

manage relationships between us and our lenders, if any; and

 

monitor and oversee the service of our debt facilities and other financings, if any.

 

Disposition Services

 

evaluate and approve potential asset dispositions, sales or liquidity transactions; and

 

structure and negotiate the terms and conditions of transactions pursuant to which our assets may be sold.

 

Pursuant to the terms of the management agreement, our Manager may retain, for and on our behalf, such additional services, including property management, leasing and construction services, as our Manager deems necessary or advisable in connection with our management and operations, which may include obtaining such services from our Manager or its affiliates, the costs of which will be in addition to the asset management fee; provided, that any such services may only be provided by our Manager or its affiliates to the extent such services are on arm’s-length terms and competitive market rates in relation to terms that are then customary for agreements regarding the provision of such services to companies that have assets similar in type, quality and value to our assets and our subsidiaries’ assets.

 

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Liability and Indemnification

 

Pursuant to the management agreement, our Manager will not assume any responsibility other than to render the services called for thereunder in good faith. It will not be responsible for any action of our board of directors in following or declining to follow its advice or recommendations, including as set forth in the investment guidelines. Our Manager will maintain a contractual as opposed to a fiduciary relationship with us. However, to the extent that employees of Sponsor also serve as our officers or directors, such officers and directors will owe us duties under Maryland law in their capacity as officers and directors, which may include the duty to exercise reasonable care in the performance of such officers’ or directors’ responsibilities, as well as the duties of loyalty, good faith and candid disclosure. Under the terms of the management agreement, our Manager and its affiliates, and any of their members, stockholders, managers, partners, personnel, officers, directors, employees, consultants and any person providing sub-advisory services to our Manager, will not be liable to us, our directors, stockholders, partners or members for any acts or omissions (including errors that may result from ordinary negligence, such as errors in the investment decision-making process or in the trade process) performed in accordance with and pursuant to the management agreement, except by reason of acts or omissions constituting bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of their duties under the management agreement, as determined by a final non-appealable order of a court of competent jurisdiction. We have agreed to indemnify our Manager, its affiliates and any of their officers, stockholders, members, partners, managers, directors, personnel, employees, consultants and any person providing sub-advisory services to our Manager with respect to all expenses, losses, damages, liabilities, demands, charges and claims arising from acts of our Manager not constituting bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of duties, arising from acts or omissions performed in good faith in accordance with and pursuant to the management agreement. Our Manager has agreed to indemnify us, our directors, officers, stockholders, partners or members and any persons controlling us with respect to all expenses, losses, damages, liabilities, demands, charges and claims arising from acts or omissions of our Manager constituting bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence or reckless disregard of its duties under the management agreement or any claims by our Sponsor’s employees relating to the terms and conditions of their employment by Sponsor. Notwithstanding the foregoing, our Sponsor may carry errors and omissions and other customary insurance coverage upon the completion of this offering.

 

Management Team

 

Pursuant to the terms of the management agreement, our Manager will be required to provide us with a portion of our management team, including a chief executive officer and chief investment officer and such other positions as requested by our board of directors, along with appropriate support personnel, to provide the management services to be provided by our Manager to us. None of the officers or employees of our Sponsor will be dedicated exclusively to us. Members of our management team will be required to devote such time as is necessary and appropriate commensurate with the level of our activity.

 

Our Manager will be required to refrain from any action that, in its sole judgment made in good faith, (a) is not in compliance with the investment guidelines, (b) would adversely and materially affect our qualification as a REIT under the Code or our status as an entity intended to be excluded or exempted from investment company status under the Investment Company Act, or (c) would violate any law, rule or regulation of any governmental body or agency having jurisdiction over us or that would otherwise not be permitted by our charter or bylaws. If our Manager is ordered to take any action by our board of directors, our Manager will promptly notify our board of directors if it is our Manager’s judgment that such action would adversely and materially affect such status or violate any such law, rule or regulation or our charter or bylaws. Our Manager, its affiliates and any of their members, stockholders, managers, partners, personnel, officers, directors, employees, consultants and any person providing sub-advisory services to our Manager will not be liable to us, our board of directors, our stockholders, partners or members, for any act or omission by our Manager or any of its affiliates, except as provided in the management agreement.

 

Term and Termination

 

The management agreement may be amended or modified by agreement between us and our Manager. The initial term of the management agreement expires on the third anniversary of the effective date of the agreement and will be automatically renewed for a one-year term each anniversary date thereafter unless previously terminated as described below. Our board of directors will review our Manager’s performance and the asset management fee annually and, following the initial term, the asset management agreement may be terminated annually upon the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of our directors, based upon (a) unsatisfactory performance that is materially detrimental to us taken as a whole, or (b) our determination that the asset management fee payable to our Manager is not fair, subject to our Manager’s right to prevent such termination due to unfair fees by accepting a reduction of the asset management fee agreed to by at least two-thirds of our directors. We must provide 180 days’ prior notice of any such termination. During the initial three-year term of the management agreement, we may not terminate the management agreement except for cause.

 

We may also terminate the management agreement at any time, including during the initial term, with 30 days’ prior written notice from our board of directors for cause, which is defined as:

 

our Manager’s continued breach of any material provision of the management agreement following a period of 30 days after written notice thereof (or 45 days after written notice of such breach if our Manager, under certain circumstances, has taken steps to cure such breach within 30 days of the written notice);

 

the commencement of any proceeding relating to the bankruptcy or insolvency of our Manager, including an order for relief in an involuntary bankruptcy case or our Manager authorizing or filing a voluntary bankruptcy petition;

 

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any change of control of our Manager which our Independent Representative determines is materially detrimental to us taken as a whole;

 

our Manager committing fraud against us, misappropriating or embezzling our funds, or acting, or failing to act, in a manner constituting bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence or reckless disregard in the performance of its duties under the management agreement; provided, however, that if any of these actions is caused by an employee, personnel and/or officer of our Manager or one of its affiliates and our Manager (or such affiliate) takes all necessary and appropriate action against such person and cures the damage caused by such actions within 30 days of our Manager’s actual knowledge of its commission or omission, the management agreement shall not be terminable; in addition, if our Manager (or such affiliate) diligently takes necessary and appropriate action to cure the damage caused by such actions in the first 30 days of our Manager’s actual knowledge of its commission or omission, our Manager (or such affiliate) will have a total of 180 days in which to cure such damage before the management agreement shall become terminable; or

 

the dissolution of our Manager.

 

Our Manager may assign the agreement in its entirety or delegate certain of its duties under the management agreement to any of its affiliates without the approval of our board of directors so long as our Manager remains liable for any such affiliate’s performance, and if such assignment or delegation does not require our approval under the Investment Advisers Act.

 

Our Manager may terminate the management agreement if we become required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, with such termination deemed to occur immediately before such event. Our Manager may decline to renew the management agreement by providing us with 180 days’ written notice prior to the expiration of the initial term or the then current automatic renewal term. In addition, if we default in the performance of any material term of the agreement and the default continues for a period of 30 days after written notice to us specifying such default and requesting the same be remedied in 30 days, our Manager may terminate the management agreement upon 60 days’ written notice.

 

We may not assign our rights or responsibilities under the management agreement without the prior written consent of our Manager, except in the case of assignment to another REIT or other organization which is our successor, in which case such successor organization will be bound under the management agreement and by the terms of such assignment in the same manner as we are bound under the management agreement.

 

Management Compensation and Expense Reimbursements

 

We do not expect to maintain an office or directly employ personnel. Instead, we rely on the facilities and resources of our Manager to manage our day-to-day operations.

 

Our Manager and its affiliates will receive fees and expense reimbursements for services relating to this offering and the investment and management of our assets, including a quarterly asset management fee. See “Management Compensation” for a detailed explanation of the fees and expenses payable to our Manager and its affiliates. Neither our Manager nor its affiliates will receive any selling commissions or dealer manager fees in connection with the offer and sale of shares of our common stock.

 

Allocation of Investment Opportunities

 

Our Sponsor has in the past established and sponsored closed-end private equity real estate funds, and in the future expects to establish and sponsor additional closed-end private equity real estate funds and additional REIT offerings, as well as other potential investment vehicles (including open-end funds and separate accounts). The existing closed-end private equity real estate funds do, and any future investment vehicles may, have investment criteria similar to ours. If a sale, financing, investment or other business opportunity would be suitable for more than investment vehicle, our Manager’s investment committee will allocate it according to the policies and procedures adopted by our Manager. Any allocation of this type may involve the consideration of a number of factors that our Sponsor’s real estate professionals may determine to be relevant, including:

 

the investment objectives and criteria of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles;

 

the cash requirements of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles ;

 

the effect of the investment on the diversification of the portfolios of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles by type of investment, and risk of investment;

 

the policy of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles relating to leverage;

 

the anticipated cash flow of the asset to be acquired;

 

the income tax effects of the purchase on our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles;

 

the size of the investment; and

 

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the amount of funds available to our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles.

 

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Support Agreement

 

Our Manager has entered into a support agreement with our Sponsor. Pursuant to this agreement, our Manager will be provided with access to, among other things, our Sponsor’s portfolio management, asset valuation, risk management and asset management services as well as administration services addressing legal, compliance, investor relations and information technologies necessary for the performance by our Manager of its duties in exchange for a fee representing our Manager’s allocable cost for these services. The fee paid by our Manager pursuant to the support agreement will not constitute a reimbursable expense under the management agreement. However, under the support agreement, our Sponsor will be entitled to receive reimbursement of expenses incurred on behalf of us or our Manager that we are required to pay to our Manager under the management agreement.

 

Initial Investment by our Sponsor

 

Our Sponsor has committed to invest $74,000 in us through the purchase of 7,400 shares of our common stock in a private placement on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering at the same $10.00 per share price as in this offering. Our Sponsor also previously acquired 100 shares of our common stock in connection with our formation in a private placement at the same $10.00 per share price as in this offering. As of the date of this offering circular, our Sponsor owns 100% of our issued and outstanding common stock. Although nothing prohibits our Sponsor or its affiliates from acquiring additional shares of our common stock, they currently do not have any options or warrants to acquire any shares other than certain LTIPs they may receive to the extent the organization and offering expenses of this offering are less than 3% of the gross proceeds raised in this offering. Because our Sponsor has taken the initiative in founding and organizing our company, it may therefore be considered a “promoter” of our company for the purposes of applicable securities laws.

 

Investment Committee of our Manager

 

The investment committee of our Manager is a standing committee, established to assist our Manager in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities by (1) considering and approving of each investment made by us, (2) establishing our investment guidelines and overseeing our investments, and the investment activity of other accounts and funds held for our benefit and (3) overseeing the investment activities of certain of our subsidiaries. The investment committee will consist of three members, each of whom will be appointed by our Manager, who will serve until such time as such investment committee member resigns or is replaced by our Manager, in its sole and absolute discretion. The initial investment committee will be comprised of Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh, and Joseph Kessel. In the event that two or more members of the investment committee are interested parties in a transaction, the Independent Representative (defined below) will be required to approve the transaction. See “Conflicts of Interest and Related Party Transactions—Certain Conflict Resolution Measures—Our Policies Relating to Conflicts of Interest”. The investment committee may request information from third parties in making its recommendations.

 

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MANAGEMENT

 

Board of Directors

 

We operate under the direction of our board of directors, the members of which are accountable to us and our stockholders as fiduciaries. Our board of directors has retained our Manager to direct the management of our business and affairs, manage our day-to-day affairs, and implement our investment strategy, subject to the board of directors’ supervision. The current board members are Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and Joseph Kessel. The current Chief Executive Officer is Jeffrey Karsh, the current Chief Investment Officer is Eliot Bencuya, and the current Chief Operating Officer is Joseph Kessel.

 

Our board of directors will be classified into three classes. Eliot Bencuya is a Class I director, Jeffrey Karsh is a Class II director and Joseph Kessel is a Class III director. The Class I directors will be elected for an initial term ending at the annual meeting of the stockholders the year after election and until his or her successor is elected and qualified. Subsequent Class I directors will be elected for successive terms ending at the annual meeting of the stockholders the third year after election and until his or her successor is elected and qualified. The Class II directors will be elected for an initial term ending at the annual meeting of the stockholders the second year after election and until his or her successor is elected and qualified. Subsequent Class II directors will be elected for successive terms ending at the annual meeting of the stockholders the third year after election and until his or her successor is elected and qualified. The Class III directors will be elected for an initial term ending at the annual meeting of the stockholders the third year after election and until his or her successor is elected and qualified. Subsequent Class III directors will be elected for successive terms ending at the annual meeting of the stockholders the third year after election and until his or her successor is elected and qualified. With respect to the election of directors, each candidate nominated for election to the board of directors must receive a plurality of the votes cast, in person or by proxy, in order to be elected.

 

All of our directors are also partners of our Sponsor and serve on the investment committees for each of the two closed-end funds sponsored by our Sponsor. As a result, we do not have any independent directors or management and conflicts of interest may arise. For more details, see “Conflicts of Interest and Related Party Transactions.”

 

Although the number of board members may be increased or decreased, a decrease may not have the effect of shortening the term of any incumbent director. Any director may resign at any time or may be removed for fraud, gross negligence or willful misconduct as determined by non-appealable decision of a court of competent jurisdiction, or by the stockholders upon the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast at a meeting called for the purpose of the proposed removal. The notice of the meeting will indicate that the purpose, or one of the purposes, of the meeting is to determine if the director will be removed.

 

Our charter and bylaws provide that any and all vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any individual elected to fill such vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the class in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies.

 

Our charter and bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the stockholders may be taken without a meeting with the unanimous consent, in writing or by electronic transmissions, of each stockholder entitled to vote on the matter.

 

Under Maryland law, our directors must perform their duties in good faith and in a manner each director believes to be in our best interests. Further, our directors must act with such care as a prudent person in a similar position would use under similar circumstances, including exercising reasonable inquiry when taking actions. However, our directors and executive officers are not required to devote all of their time to our business and must devote only such time to our affairs as their duties may require. We do not expect that our directors will be required to devote a substantial portion of their time to us in discharging their duties. All of our directors are also partners of our Sponsor and serve on the investment committees for each of the two closed-end funds sponsored by our Sponsor. As a result, we do not have any independent directors or management and conflicts of interest may arise. For more details, see “Conflicts of Interest and Related Party Transactions.”

 

Our general investment and borrowing policies are set forth in this offering circular. Our directors may establish further written policies on investments and borrowings and will monitor our administrative procedures, investment operations and performance to ensure that our executive officers and Manager follow these policies and that these policies continue to be in the best interests of our stockholders. Unless modified by our directors, we will follow the policies on investments and borrowings set forth in this offering circular.

 

Committees of the Board of Directors

 

Our board of directors may delegate many of its powers to one or more committees. As of the date of this offering circular, no board committees have been established.

 

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Executive Officers and Directors

 

We have provided below certain information about our directors and executive officers.

 

Name   Age   Position Held
Jeffrey Karsh   29   Director, Chief Executive Officer
Eliot Bencuya   36   Director, Chief Investment Officer
Joseph Kessel   35   Director, Chief Operating Officer

 

Currently, all of our directors are also officers of our Manager and serve as members on our Manager’s investment committee. The address of each director listed is 11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1690, Los Angeles, CA 90025. Biographical information for each of our directors may be found above in “Our Manager and the Management Agreement—Management Biographical Information.”

 

Compensation of Officers and Directors

 

Our board of directors has the authority to fix the compensation of all officers that it selects and may pay compensation to directors for services rendered to us in any other capacity. However, we currently do not intend to pay our board members or officers any compensation for serving as members of our board of directors and officers, respectively.

 

A member of our board of directors who is also an employee of our Manager or our Sponsor is referred to as an executive director. Executive directors will not receive compensation for serving on our board of directors. Our board of directors has the authority to fix the compensation of any non-executive directors that may serve on our board of directors in the future. Our board of directors may pay compensation to directors for services rendered to us in any other capacity. We will also reimburse each of our directors for their travel expenses incurred in connection with their attendance at full board of directors and committee meetings, if any, including meetings of our Manager’s investment committee. We have not made any payments to any of our directors to date.

 

Compensation of Executive Officers

 

We do not currently have any employees nor do we currently intend to hire any employees who will be compensated directly by us. Each of the executive officers of our Sponsor also serves as an executive officer of our Manager. Each of these individuals receives compensation for his or her services, including services performed for us on behalf of our Manager, from our Sponsor. As executive officers of our Manager, these individuals will serve to manage our day-to-day affairs, oversee the review, selection and recommendation of investment opportunities, service acquired investments and monitor the performance of these investments to ensure that they are consistent with our investment objectives. Although we will indirectly bear some of the costs of the compensation paid to these individuals, through fees we pay to our Manager, we do not intend to pay any compensation directly to these individuals.

 

Limited Liability and Indemnification of Directors, Officers, Employees and Other Agents

 

For information concerning limitations of liability and indemnification and advancement rights applicable to our directors and officers, see “Description of Capital Stock and Certain Provisions of Maryland Law, Our Charter and Bylaws—Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability.”

 

Grants of Incentive Awards to LTIP Office I

 

LTIP Office I, an affiliate of our Sponsor, will be entitled to receive long-term incentive plan units, or LTIP units, in our Operating Partnership to the extent our organization and offering expenses are less than 3% of the gross proceeds we raise in the offering or less than 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings (in each case, excluding any proceeds attributable to shares sold to our Manager or its affiliates).  In such a case, LTIP Units will also be issued to the limited partners (other than us) so that the limited partners (other than us) will not be diluted by the LTIPs issued to LTIP Office I. See “Estimated Use of Proceeds” and “Management Compensation—Organization and Offering Expenses” for more information.

 

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MANAGEMENT COMPENSATION

 

Our Manager and its affiliates will receive fees and expense reimbursements for services relating to this offering and the investment and management of our assets. The items of compensation are summarized in the following table. Neither our Manager nor its affiliates will receive any selling commissions or dealer manager fees in connection with the offer and sale of shares of our common stock.

 

Form of Compensation   Determination of Amount   Estimated Amount
         
Organization and Offering Stage
         
Organization and Offering Expenses   We will be responsible to pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering costs in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000.   We will pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering expenses in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering (and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings), which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000 in this offering. Because the organization and offering expenses will be paid or borne by the Operating Partnership, the Operating Partnership will specially allocate to us (and not the other limited partners) all items of loss or deduction attributable to such organizational and offering expenses.  As a result of these special allocations, upon the final closing of the offering (and at such other times that we determine it is appropriate to make such adjustments), we will adjust the number of OP Units held by the limited partners (other than us) so that such limited partners get the benefit of not bearing such organization and offering expenses (i.e., the percentage interest of the limited partners, other than us, will increase so that the amounts they have contributed per OP Unit are equivalent to the amounts contributed by us per OP Unit after taking into account the special allocations of organization and offering expenses). In addition, the limited partners (other than us) will be issued additional OP Units with an aggregate value equivalent to the amount of additional distributions that such limited partners would have received from the Operating Partnership had such limited partner held the number of OP Units following the adjustment described in the previous sentence at all times since the commencement of the offering.  To the extent these organization and offering expenses exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, the Manager will bear such expenses. However, rather than the Manager paying such excess expenses directly, we will pay or reimburse such amounts directly, in which case, the Manager will bear such amounts through a reduction in future Management Fees payable by the Operating Partnership, SW Office I LTIP, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and affiliate of our Sponsor (“LTIP Office I”) will be entitled to receive long-term incentive plan units, or LTIP units, in our Operating Partnership to the extent our organization and offering expenses are less than 3% of the gross proceeds we raise in the offering or less than 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings (in each case, excluding any proceeds attributable to shares sold to our Manager or its affiliates) (the “Offering Expense Savings”). The amount of LTIP Units LTIP Office I receives will be equal to the Offering Expense Savings divided by the greater of (i) $10.00 per unit or (ii) our net asset value, or NAV, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the end of the prior fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis (NAV per share). If any such LTIP Units are issued to LTIP Office I, the limited partners (other than us) shall be issued LTIP Units so that each such limited partner is holding a number of LTIP Units and OP Units sufficient to give such limited partner a percentage interest following the issuance of LTIPs to LTIP Office I that is the same as such limited partner’s percentage interest immediately prior to the issuance of LTIPs to LTIP Office I (i.e., we will be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the LTIP Office I, but the limited partners, other than us, will not be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the LTIP Office I).

 

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Form of Compensation   Determination of Amount   Estimated Amount
         
Acquisition and Development Stage
         
Acquisition Fees   None.  
         
Reimbursement of Acquisition Expenses   We will reimburse our Manager for actual expenses incurred in connection with the selection or acquisition of an investment, whether or not we ultimately acquire the investment.   Actual amounts are dependent upon the results of our operations; we cannot determine these amounts at the present time.
         
Operational Stage
         
Asset Management Fee  

Quarterly asset management fee equal to an annualized rate of 2.00%, which, until one year after this offering commences, will be based on the sum of (i) our proceeds from this offering as of the end of each fiscal quarter, plus (ii) proceeds from the issuance of OP Units to the limited partners of the Operating Partnership (other than 1st stREIT Office Inc. and any of its wholly owned subsidiaries) as of the end of such fiscal quarter, plus (minus) (iii) any earnings (loss) through the end of such fiscal quarter, (minus) (iv) any distributions paid through the end of such fiscal quarter, and thereafter will be based on our NAV at the end of each fiscal quarter.

  Actual amounts are dependent upon the offering proceeds we raise (and any leverage we employ) and the results of our operations; we cannot determine these amounts at the present time.

 

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Form of Compensation   Determination of Amount   Estimated Amount
         
    Our Manager in its sole discretion may defer or waive any fee payable to it under the management agreement. All or any portion of any deferred fees will be deferred without interest and paid when our Manager determines.    
         
Servicing Fees   None.    
         
Special Servicing Fees   None.    
         
Financing Fees   None.    
         
Other Operating Expenses  

We will reimburse our Manager for out-of-pocket expenses paid to third parties in connection with providing services to us. We will not be responsible to reimburse our Manager for our Manager’s overhead expenses, employee costs, utilities or technology costs.

 

The expense reimbursements that we will pay to our Manager also include expenses incurred by our Sponsor in the performance of services under the support agreement between our Manager and our Sponsor, including any increases in insurance attributable to the management or operation of our company.

 

  Actual amounts are dependent upon the results of our operations; we cannot determine these amounts at the present time.
         
Liquidation/Listing Stage
         
Disposition Fees   None.  

 

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PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS

 

The following table sets forth the beneficial ownership of shares of our common stock and shares of our common stock into which OP Units are exchangeable beginning one year following the commencement of this offering and the formation transactions for (i) each person who is expected to be the beneficial owner of 5% or more of our outstanding common stock or 5% or more of our outstanding common stock and OP Units immediately following the commencement of this offering, (ii) each director and executive officer of our Sponsor, and (iii) the directors and executive officers of our Sponsor as a group. To our knowledge, each person that beneficially owns shares of our common stock has sole voting and disposition power with regard to such shares.

 

Unless otherwise indicated below, each person or entity has an address in care of our principal executive offices at 11601 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 1690, Los Angeles, CA 90025.

 

    Common Stock   Common Stock and OP Units  
Name of Beneficial Owner(1)   Number of
Shares Beneficially Owned
  Percentage of
All Shares
  Number of
Shares and OP Units Beneficially Owned
  Percent of All Shares and
OP Units(4)
 
                           
5% Stockholders:                          
Sponsor (2)(3)     7,500     100 %   7,500          * %
Bruce Karsh         *     1,997,615     96.15 %
                           
Executive Officers and Directors:                          
Eliot Bencuya         *         *  
Jeffrey Karsh         *         *  
Joseph Kessel         *         *  
                           
All directors and executive officers of our Sponsor as a group (3 persons)         *         *  

 

 

*Represents less than 1.0%

 

(1)Under SEC rules, a person is deemed to be a “beneficial owner” of a security if that person, directly or indirectly, has or shares “voting power,” which includes the power to vote, or to direct the voting of, such security, and/or “investment power,” which includes the power to dispose, or to direct the disposition of, such security. A person also is deemed to be a beneficial owner of any securities which that person has a right to acquire within 60 days. Under these rules, more than one person may be deemed to be a beneficial owner of the same securities and a person may be deemed to be a beneficial owner of securities as to which he or she has no economic or pecuniary interest.

 

(2)As of the date of this offering circular, our Sponsor beneficially owns all of our issued and outstanding common stock.

 

(3)All voting and investment decisions with respect to shares of our common stock that are held by our Sponsor are controlled by the partners of our Sponsor. The partners are Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh and Joseph Kessel.

 

(4)As of the commencement of this offering, the total number of outstanding OP Units will equal 2,077,500 units.

 

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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

We are subject to various conflicts of interest arising out of our relationship with our Manager, our Sponsor and their affiliates. We discuss these conflicts below and conclude this section with a discussion of the corporate governance measures we have adopted to mitigate some of the risks posed by these conflicts.

 

Formation Transactions

 

On May 31, 2017, we acquired a fee simple interest in Laumeier from the Sponsor Funds pursuant to an acquisition agreement. In connection with this acquisition, certain investors of the Sponsor Funds contributed an aggregate of $20,700,000 of cash into the Operating Partnership in exchange for an aggregate of 2,070,000 OP Units. The cash invested into the Operating Partnership, along with proceeds from a new mortgage loan, were utilized as part of a series of transactions through which we acquired Laumeier. Following the acquisition, the limited partners in the Operating Partnership continue to be investors in either or both of the Sponsor Funds. Of this aggregate investment amount, entities controlled by Bruce Karsh, the father of our CEO Jeffrey Karsh and an investor in the Sponsor Funds, contributed $19,976,150 of cash into the Operating Partnership in exchange for 1,997,615 OP Units, representing, as of the commencement of this offering, a 96.16% beneficial interest in our company on a fully diluted basis.

 

We acquired Laumeier for approximately $44.4 million or $153/sf, which equates to an 8.9% cap rate on projected 2017 net operating income. We financed the acquisition with a $24.6 million senior loan for a 10 year term at a 4.40% fixed interest rate, representing approximately 55% loan-to-value.

 

We did not conduct arm’s-length negotiations with the parties involved regarding the terms of the formation transactions. In the course of structuring the formation transactions, our Sponsor’s management team had the ability to influence the terms of the formation transactions.

 

For more detailed information regarding the terms of the formation transactions, including the benefits to related parties, see “Business and Properties.”

 

Our Affiliates’ Interests in Other Tryperion Entities

 

General

 

The officers and directors of our Manager and the key real estate professionals of our Sponsor who perform services for us on behalf of our Manager are also officers, directors, managers, and/or key professionals of our Sponsor. These persons have legal obligations with respect to those entities that are similar to their obligations to us. In the future, these persons and other affiliates of our Sponsor may organize other real estate-related programs and acquire for their own account real estate-related investments that may be suitable for us. In addition, our Sponsor may grant equity interests in our Manager to certain management personnel performing services for our Manager.

 

Allocation of Investment Opportunities

 

We rely on our Sponsor’s executive officers and key real estate professionals who act on behalf of our Manager to identify suitable investments. Our Sponsor has in the past established and sponsored closed-end private equity real estate funds, and in the future expects to establish and sponsor additional closed-end private equity real estate funds and additional REIT offerings, as well as other potential investment vehicles (including open-end funds and separate accounts). The existing closed-end private equity real estate funds do, and any future investment vehicles may, have investment criteria similar to ours. If a sale, investment or other business opportunity would be suitable for more than one investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor, our Manager’s investment committee will allocate it according to the policies and procedures adopted by our Manager. Any allocation of this type may involve the consideration of a number of factors that our Manager’s investment committee may determine to be relevant. The factors that our Sponsor’s real estate professionals could consider when determining the particular investment vehicle for which an investment opportunity would be the most suitable include the following:

 

the investment objectives and criteria of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles;

 

the cash requirements of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles;

 

the effect of the investment on the diversification of the portfolios of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles by type of investment, and risk of investment;

 

the policy of our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles relating to leverage;

 

the anticipated cash flow of the asset to be acquired;

 

the income tax effects of the purchase on our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles ;

 

the size of the investment; and

 

the amount of funds available to our Sponsor’s various investment vehicles.

 

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If a subsequent event or development causes any investment, in the opinion of our Sponsor’s real estate professionals, to be more appropriate for another investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor, they may offer the investment to such investment vehicle.

 

Except under any policies that may be adopted by our Manager, which policies will be designed to minimize conflicts among the affiliates of our Sponsor, no investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor will have any duty, responsibility or obligation to refrain from:

 

engaging in the same or similar activities or lines of business as any other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor;

 

doing business with any potential or actual tenant, lender, purchaser, supplier, customer or competitor of any other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor;

 

engaging in, or refraining from, any other activities whatsoever relating to any of the potential or actual tenants, lenders, purchasers, suppliers or customers of any other investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor;

 

establishing material commercial relationships with another investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor; or

 

making operational and financial decisions that could be considered to be detrimental to another investment vehicle sponsored by our Sponsor.

 

In addition, any decisions by our Manager to renew, extend, modify or terminate an agreement or arrangement, or enter into similar agreements or arrangements in the future, may benefit one entity of our Sponsor more than another entity of our Sponsor or limit or impair the ability of any entity of our Sponsor to pursue business opportunities. In addition, third parties may require as a condition to their arrangements or agreements with or related to any one particular entity of our Sponsor that such arrangements or agreements include or not include another entity of our Sponsor, as the case may be. Any of these decisions may benefit one entity of our Sponsor more than another entity of our Sponsor.

 

Allocation of Our Affiliates’ Time

 

We rely on our Sponsor’s key real estate professionals who act on behalf of our Manager, including Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh, and Joseph Kessel, for the day-to-day operation of our business. Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh, and Joseph Kessel are also managing members of our Sponsor. As a result of their interests in other affiliates of our Sponsor, their obligations to other investors and the fact that they engage in and will continue to engage in other business activities on behalf of themselves and others, Eliot Bencuya, Jeffrey Karsh, and Joseph Kessel will face conflicts of interest in allocating their time among us, our Manager and other affiliates of our Sponsor and other business activities in which they are involved. However, we believe that our Manager and its affiliates have sufficient real estate professionals to fully discharge their responsibilities to the affiliates of our Sponsor for which they work.

 

Receipt of Fees and Other Compensation by our Manager and its Affiliates

 

Our Manager and its affiliates will receive an asset management fee from us, which fee has not been negotiated at arm’s length with an unaffiliated third party. This fee could influence our Manager’s advice to us as well as the judgment of affiliates of our Manager, some of whom also serve as our Manager’s officers and directors and the key real estate professionals of our Sponsor. Among other matters, these compensation arrangements could affect their judgment with respect to:

 

the continuation, renewal or enforcement of provisions in our management agreement involving our Manager and its affiliates, or the support agreement between our Manager and our Sponsor;

 

public offerings of equity by us, which will likely entitle our Manager to an increase in the asset management fee;

 

acquisitions of investments from other Sponsor entities, which might entitle affiliates of our Manager or Sponsor to profit participations or to fees in connection with services for the seller;

 

whether and when we seek to list shares of our common stock on a stock exchange or other trading market;

 

whether we seek stockholder approval to internalize our management, which may entail acquiring assets (such as office space, furnishings and technology costs) and the key real estate professionals of our Sponsor who are performing services for us on behalf of our Manager for consideration that would be negotiated at that time and may result in these real estate professionals receiving more compensation from us than they currently receive from our Sponsor;

 

whether and when we seek to sell the company or its assets; and

 

whether and when we merge or consolidate our assets with other companies, including companies affiliated with our Manager.

 

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Duties Owed by Some of Our Affiliates to Our Manager and our Manager’s Affiliates

 

Our Sponsor’s officers and directors and key real estate professionals performing services on behalf of our Manager are also officers, directors, managers and/or key professionals of:

 

Tryperion RE Fund I, L.P.; and

 

Tryperion RE Fund II, LP.

 

As a result, they owe duties to each of these entities, their stockholders, members and limited partners. These duties may from time to time conflict with the duties that they owe to us.

 

No Independent Underwriter

 

As we are conducting this offering without the aid of an independent underwriter, you will not have the benefit of an independent due diligence review and investigation of the type normally performed by an independent underwriter in connection with the offering of securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”

 

Certain Conflict Resolution Measures

 

Independent Representative

 

If our Sponsor, our Manager or their affiliates have a conflict of interest with us that is not otherwise covered by an existing policy we have adopted, our Manager will appoint an independent representative (the “Independent Representative”) to protect the interests of the stockholders and review and approve such transactions. Any compensation payable to the Independent Representative for serving in such capacity on our behalf will be payable by us. Principal transactions are defined as transactions between our Sponsor, our Manager or their affiliates, on the one hand, and us or one of our subsidiaries, on the other hand. Our Manager is only authorized to execute principal transactions with the prior approval of the Independent Representative and in accordance with applicable law. Such prior approval may include but not be limited to pricing methodology for the acquisition of assets and/or liabilities for which there are no readily observable market prices.

 

Our Policies Relating to Conflicts of Interest

 

In addition to our Manager’s investment allocation policies described above, we have adopted the following policies prohibiting us from entering into certain types of transactions with respect to future investments with our Manager, our Sponsor, their officers or any of their affiliates in order to further reduce the potential for conflicts inherent in transactions with affiliates. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the purchase of our initial property, Laumeier, from investment funds managed by our Sponsor, was not approved, nor reviewed, by an Independent Representative.

 

Pursuant to these conflicts of interest policies, we may not engage in the following types of transactions unless such transaction is approved by the Independent Representative:

 

sell or lease any investments to our Manager, our Sponsor, their officers or any of their affiliates; or

 

acquire or lease any investments from our Manager, our Sponsor, their officers or any of their affiliates.

 

We may, however, purchase an investment from an entity affiliated with our Sponsor in the event that such entity initially acquires an investment that is suitable for us at a time when we are unable to do so, with the intention of providing us the opportunity to acquire the investment at a later date when we are able to acquire the investment. Other than with respect to the acquisition of our initial property upon the commencement of this offering, we will not purchase investments from an entity affiliated with our Sponsor in these circumstances without a determination by the Independent Representative that such transaction is fair and reasonable to us and at a price to us that is not materially greater than the cost of the asset to the applicable entity affiliated with our Sponsor.

 

In addition, pursuant to these conflicts of interest policies, we will neither make any loans to our Manager, our Sponsor, their officers or any of their affiliates nor borrow money from our Manager, our Sponsor, their officers or any of their affiliates, except as otherwise provided in the offering circular or unless approved by the Independent Representative. These restrictions on loans will only apply to advances of cash that are commonly viewed as loans, as determined by the Manager. By way of example only, the prohibition on loans would not restrict advances of cash for legal expenses or other costs incurred as a result of any legal action for which indemnification is being sought nor would the prohibition limit our ability to advance reimbursable expenses incurred by our Manager, our Sponsor, their officers or any of their affiliates. Notwithstanding the above, from time to time we may borrow from our Sponsor at a rate that is the lesser of (a) market or (b) our Sponsor’s cost of capital.

 

These conflicts of interest policies may be amended at any time in our Manager’s discretion.

 

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Related Party Loans and Warehousing of Assets

 

If we have sufficient funds to acquire only a portion of a real estate investment then, in order to cover the shortfall, we may obtain a related party loan from our Sponsor or its affiliates. Each related party loan will be an unsecured obligation of ours, that is payable solely to the extent that such related party loan remains outstanding. As we sell additional shares of common stock in this offering, we will use the proceeds of such sales to pay down the principal and interest of the related party loan, reducing the payment obligation of the related party loan, and our obligation to the holder of the related party loan. We may also utilize related party loans, from time to time, as a form of leverage to acquire real estate assets. From time to time we may borrow from our Sponsor at a rate that is the lesser of (a) market or (b) our Sponsor’s cost of capital.

 

As an alternative means of acquiring investments for which we do not yet have sufficient funds, our Sponsor or its affiliates may close and fund a real estate investment prior to it being acquired by us. This ability to warehouse investments allows us the flexibility to deploy our offering proceeds as funds are raised. We may then acquire such investment at a price equal to the fair market value of such investment, provided that its fair market value is materially equal to its cost (i.e., the aggregate equity capital invested by our Sponsor or its affiliates in connection with the acquisition and during the warehousing of such investments, plus assumption of debt and any costs, such as accrued property management fees and transfer taxes, incurred during or as a result of the warehousing or, with respect to debt, the principal balance plus accrued interest net of any applicable servicing fees).

 

License Agreement

 

We have entered into a license agreement with our Sponsor, pursuant to which our Sponsor will grant us a non-exclusive, royalty free license to use the names “Tryperion” and “stREITwise”. Other than with respect to this license, we will have no legal right to use the “Tryperion” or “stREITwise” names. We intend to use the “stREITwise” name as a reference to our brand and the “Tryperion” name as a reference to our Sponsor, whose track record we have provided in this offering circular. In the event that our Manager ceases to manage us, we would be required to change our name to eliminate the use of “Tryperion” and “stREITwise”.

 

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INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY

 

Investment Objectives

 

Our investment objectives are:

 

to achieve attractive cash yields with the potential for capital appreciation;

 

to grow net cash from operations so more cash is available for dividends to investors;

 

to preserve and protect your capital contribution.

 

We cannot assure you that we will attain these objectives or that the value of our assets will not decrease. Furthermore, within our investment objectives and policies, our Manager will have substantial discretion with respect to the selection of specific investments and the purchase and sale of our assets. Our Manager’s investment committee will periodically review our investment guidelines to determine whether our investment guidelines continue to be in the best interests of our stockholders.

 

Investment Strategy

 

We intend to use substantially all of the proceeds of this offering to acquire, manage, operate, selectively leverage and opportunistically sell office properties. We intend to acquire and operate real estate and real estate-related assets on an opportunistic basis. Our Sponsor’s management team has extensive experience investing in numerous types of properties, but our primary focus will be on office acquisitions. These properties will be located throughout the U.S. and will be primarily existing, income-producing properties with the potential for long term capital appreciation.

 

In executing on our business strategy, we believe that we will benefit from our Manager’s affiliation with our Sponsor given our Sponsor’s strong track record and extensive experience and capabilities as a fund manager. These competitive advantages include:

 

Our Sponsor’s experience and reputation as a leading real estate investment manager, which historically has given it access to a large investment pipeline similar to our targeted assets and the key market data we use to underwrite and portfolio manage assets;

 

Our Sponsor’s relationships with financial institutions and other lenders that originate and distribute commercial real estate debt and other real estate-related products and that finance the types of assets we intend to acquire;

 

Our Sponsor’s acquisition experience, which includes seeking, underwriting and evaluating real estate deals in every major asset class and various locations within the U.S., and in a variety of market conditions; and

 

Our Sponsor’s asset management experience, which includes actively monitoring each investment through critical property management, leasing, renovation and disposition activities.

 

Investment Decisions and Asset Management

 

Within our investment policies and objectives, our Manager’s investment committee will have substantial discretion with respect to the selection of specific investments and the purchase and sale of our assets. We believe that successful real estate investment requires the implementation of strategies that permit favorable purchases and originations, effective asset management and timely disposition of those assets. As such, we have developed a disciplined investment approach that combines the experience of its team of real estate professionals with a structure that emphasizes thorough market research, stringent underwriting standards and an extensive down-side analysis of the risks of each investment. The approach also includes active and aggressive management of each asset acquired.

 

We believe that active management is critical to creating value. We will continually re-evaluate the exit strategy of each asset in response to the performance of the individual asset, market conditions and our overall portfolio objectives to determine the optimal time to sell or refinance the asset.

 

To execute our disciplined investment approach, a team of our real estate professionals take responsibility for the business plan of each investment. The following practices summarize our investment approach:

 

Market Research – The investment team completes exhaustive market diligence on demographics, employment drivers, competing properties, and capital market activity.

 

Physical Research – The investment team engages third party property condition, environmental, zoning and code compliance, and building systems assessments to identify prospective investment deferred maintenance items and to validate capital requirement assumptions.

 

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Underwriting Discipline – We follow a tightly controlled and managed process to examine all elements of a potential investment, including, with respect to real property, its location, income-producing capacity, prospects for appreciation, potential for principal loss, income tax considerations and liquidity. Only those assets meeting our investment criteria will be accepted for inclusion in our portfolio. In an effort to keep an asset in compliance with those standards, the underwriting team remains involved through the investment life cycle of the asset and consults with the other internal professionals responsible for the asset.

 

Asset Management – Prior to the purchase of an individual asset or portfolio, the Manager’s acquisition team works in tandem with the asset management team to develop an asset business strategy. This is a forecast of the action items to be taken and the capital needed to implement the contemplated business plan in an attempt to achieve the anticipated returns. We review asset business strategies regularly to anticipate changes or opportunities in the market during a given phase of a real estate cycle. We have designed this process to allow for realistic yet aggressive enhancement of value throughout the investment period.

 

Opportunity and Market Overview

 

Investing with us offers investors the opportunity to gain real estate exposure with lower fees and higher returns relative to other public non-traded REITs. Compared to other public non-traded REITs, we offer lower upfront fees and lower ongoing fees. According to an SEC Bulletin dated August 31, 2015, public non-traded REITs typically charge 10-15% in upfront costs. Our upfront costs are capped at 3%.

 

We believe the market for near term acquisition and long term hold of cash-flowing office properties – through direct equity investments and joint ventures – as well as other real estate-related assets is compelling on a risk-adjusted basis. Given the recent concentration of investment capital into increasingly larger investment vehicles, and the corresponding desire for increasingly bigger deal sizes, we feel well-positioned to benefit from investing in deals falling below the radar of these large institutional investors. Further, our focus on markets with favorable risk-return characteristics should provide the opportunity to take advantage of relatively inexpensive financing to achieve higher cash yields than would be achievable on deals of a similar profile in more efficiently-priced markets.

 

It is important to note that real estate markets are fickle, and subject to change over time. Although the current opportunity appears to be in smaller deals, conditions could change quickly which may contribute to a shift in our strategy in search of superior risk-adjusted returns.

 

Targeted Investments

 

Prior to acquiring an asset, our Manager’s investment committee will perform an individual analysis of the asset to determine whether it meets our investment guidelines. Our Manager’s investment committee will use the information derived from the analysis in determining whether the asset is an appropriate investment for us.

 

We intend to invest in office properties, but may invest in other real estate-related assets from time to time. These properties will be mostly existing properties. Generally, we will search for properties that offer steady cash-flow with the potential for capital appreciation in markets with sound economic fundamentals.

 

In the case of real estate-related investments, we may invest in (1) equity securities such as common stocks, preferred stocks and convertible preferred securities of public or private real estate companies such as other REITs and other real estate operating companies, (2) debt securities such as commercial mortgages, mortgage loan participations, commercial mortgage-backed securities and debt securities issued by other real estate companies, (3) mezzanine loans, bridge loans and certain non-U.S. dollar denominated securities and (4) commercial property types other than office properties.

 

We intend to hold our assets for a minimum of two years and potentially in excess of ten years from the completion of this offering, but may hold longer or sell sooner based on future market conditions or property performance. We believe that holding our assets for this period will enable us to capitalize on the potential for increased income and capital appreciation of such assets while also providing for a level of liquidity consistent with our investment strategy. Tax rules applicable to REITs may also influence our hold periods for each investment.

 

Investments in Real Property

 

In executing our investment strategy with respect to investments in real property, we will seek to invest in assets that we believe will provide strong cash flow characteristics and steady appreciation. To the extent feasible, we will seek to satisfy our investment objectives of achieving attractive cash yields with the potential for capital appreciation. In making investment decisions for us, our Manager’s investment committee will consider relevant real estate property and financial factors, including the location of the property, its income-producing capacity, the prospects for long-term appreciation and its liquidity and income and REIT tax considerations.

 

We are not limited in the number or size of properties we may acquire or the percentage of net proceeds of this offering that we may invest in a single property. The number and mix of properties we acquire will depend upon real estate and market conditions and other circumstances existing at the time we acquire our properties and the amount of proceeds we raise in this offering.

 

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Our investment in real estate generally will take the form of holding fee title or a long-term leasehold estate, and is expected to be most commonly owned directly through a special purpose entity. We may selectively acquire properties with joint venture partners. In addition, we may purchase properties and lease them back to the sellers of such properties. Although we will use our best efforts to structure any such sale-leaseback transaction such that the lease will be characterized as a “true lease” so that we will be treated as the owner of the property for federal income tax purposes, the IRS could challenge such characterization. In the event that any such sale-leaseback transaction is recharacterized as a financing transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes, deductions for depreciation and cost recovery relating to such property would be disallowed. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Requirements for Qualification—Gross-Income Tests—Sale-Leaseback Transactions.”

 

We intend to invest in markets with favorable risk-return characteristics. As a result, our actual investments may result in concentrations in a limited number of geographic regions. We will make our investments in or in respect of real estate assets located in the United States.

 

Our obligation to purchase any property generally will be conditioned upon the delivery and verification of certain documents:

 

environmental reports;

 

surveys;

 

evidence of marketable title subject to such liens and encumbrances as are acceptable to our Manager;

 

financial statements covering recent operations of properties having operating histories; and

 

title, property, liability, and other insurance policies.

 

We will not purchase any property unless and until we obtain what is generally referred to as a “Phase I” environmental site assessment and are generally satisfied with the environmental status of the property. A Phase I environmental site assessment consists primarily of a visual survey of the building and the property in an attempt to identify areas of potential environmental concerns, visually observing neighboring properties to assess surface conditions or activities that may have an adverse environmental impact on the property, surveying of the ownership history, and contacting local governmental agency personnel and performing a regulatory agency file search in an attempt to determine any known environmental concerns in the immediate vicinity of the property. A Phase I environmental site assessment does not generally include any sampling or testing of soil, groundwater or building materials from the property.

 

Generally, sellers engage and pay third party brokers or finders in connection with the sale of an asset. Although we do not expect to do so on a regular basis, we may from time to time compensate third party brokers or finders in connection with our acquisitions.

 

We may enter into arrangements with the seller of a property whereby the seller agrees that, if during a stated period the property does not generate a specified cash flow, the seller will pay in cash to us or credit us with a sum necessary to reach the specified cash flow level, subject in some cases to negotiated dollar limitations. In determining whether to purchase a particular property, we may, in accordance with customary practices, obtain an option on such property. The amount paid for an option, if any, is normally surrendered if the property is not purchased and is normally credited against the purchase price if the property is purchased. In purchasing properties, we will be subject to risks generally incident to the ownership of real estate.

 

Office Properties

 

We will seek to acquire office properties for rental operations. In each case, these office properties will meet our investment objectives and may include low-rise, mid-rise and high-rise office buildings and office parks in urban and suburban locations. Specifically, we will seek to acquire office properties that offer steady cash flow or the opportunity to achieve steady cash flow as well as the potential for long term capital appreciation. We may purchase any type of office property, including properties that require capital improvement or lease-up to enhance stockholder returns. Location, condition, design, construction quality and amenities are key characteristics for office properties. We will focus on markets with favorable risk-return characteristics.

 

The terms and conditions of any office lease that we enter into with our tenants may vary substantially; however, we expect that a majority of our leases will be standardized leases customarily used between landlords and tenants for the specific type and use of the property in the geographic area where the property is located.

 

Other Possible Investments

 

Although we expect that most of our investments will be office properties, we may make other investments, such as investments in commercial properties besides office. In fact, we may invest in whatever types of interests in real estate-related assets that we believe are in our best interests. Although we can purchase any type of interest in real estate-related assets, our conflicts of interest policy does limit certain types of investments involving our Manager, our Sponsor, their officers or any of their affiliates. See “Conflicts of Interest and Related Party Transactions—Certain Conflict Resolution Measures.”

 

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Lack of Allocation Requirements

 

Nothing in our charter, organizational documents or otherwise provides for restrictions or limitations on the percentage of our investments that must be (i) in a given geographic area, (ii) of a particular type of real estate, or (iii) acquired utilizing a particular method of financing. The board of directors may change our targeted investments and investment guidelines without specific restrictions or limitations related to geographic location, diversification, or otherwise. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to an Investment in our Company.” 

 

Investment Process

 

Our Manager has the authority to make all the decisions regarding our investments consistent with the investment guidelines and borrowing policies approved by our Manager’s investment committee and subject to the direction and oversight of our Manager’s investment committee. Our Manager’s investment committee must approve all investments. We will not, however, purchase or lease assets in which our Manager, any of our officers or any of their affiliates has an interest without a determination by the Independent Representative that such transaction is fair and reasonable to us and at a price to us that is not materially greater than the fair value that could be achieved through an arms-length sale, which fair value could be determined by an independent appraisal. In the event that two or more members of the investment committee are interested parties in a transaction, the Independent Representative will consider and vote upon the approval of the transaction. Our Manager’s investment committee will periodically review our investment guidelines and our investment portfolio. Changes to our investment guidelines must be approved by our Manager’s investment committee.

 

Our Manager will focus on the sourcing, acquisition and management of commercial real estate. In selecting investments for us, our Manager will utilize our Sponsor’s established investment and underwriting process, which focuses on ensuring that each prospective investment is being evaluated appropriately. The criteria that our Manager will consider when evaluating prospective investment opportunities include:

 

downside protection;

 

real estate market factors that may influence real estate valuations;

 

fundamental analysis of the real estate, including tenant rosters, lease terms, zoning, operating costs and the asset’s overall competitive position in its market;

 

real estate and leasing market conditions affecting the real estate;

 

the cash flow in place and projected to be in place over the expected hold period of the real estate;

 

the appropriateness of estimated costs and timing associated with capital improvements of the real estate;

 

review of third-party reports, including property condition, title, zoning and environmental reports;

 

physical inspections of the real estate and analysis of markets; and

 

the overall structure of the investment and rights in the transaction documentation.

 

If a potential investment meets our Manager’s underwriting criteria, our Manager will review the proposed transaction structure, including, with respect to joint ventures, distribution and waterfall criteria, governance and control rights, buy-sell provisions and recourse provisions. Our Manager will evaluate our position within the overall capital structure and our rights in relation to potential joint venture partners. Our Manager will analyze each potential investment’s risk-return profile and review financing sources, if applicable, to ensure that the investment fits within the parameters of financing facilities and to ensure performance of the real estate asset.

 

Borrowing Policy

 

We believe that our Sponsor’s ability to obtain both competitive financings and its relationships with top tier financial institutions should allow our Manager to successfully employ competitively-priced, moderate levels of borrowing in order to enhance our returns. Although our investment strategy is not contingent on financing our assets in the capital markets, our Sponsor’s past experience in procuring a range of debt facilities should provide our Manager with an advantage in potentially obtaining conservatively structured term financing for many of our investments, to the extent available, through capital markets and other financing transactions.

 

We intend to employ leverage in order to provide more funds available for investment. We believe that prudent use of leverage will help us to achieve our diversification goals and potentially enhance the returns on our investments. We expect that once we have fully invested the proceeds of this offering, our debt financing, on a portfolio-wide basis, will be between 40-60% of the greater of the cost (before deducting depreciation or other non-cash reserves) or fair market value of our assets, although it may exceed this level during our offering stage. Our Manager may from time to time modify our leverage policy in its discretion.

 

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Operating Policies

 

Interest Rate Risk Management / Hedging Activities. We may engage in hedging transactions to protect our investment portfolio and variable rate leverage from interest rate fluctuations and other changes in market conditions. These transactions may include interest rate swaps, the purchase or sale of interest rate collars, caps or floors, options, mortgage derivatives and other hedging instruments. These instruments may be used to hedge as much of the interest rate risk as we determine is in the best interest of our stockholders, given the cost of such hedges and the need to maintain our qualification as a REIT. We may from time to time enter into interest rate swap agreements to offset the potential adverse effects of rising interest rates under certain short-term repurchase agreements. We may elect to bear a level of interest rate risk that could otherwise be hedged when our Manager believes, based on all relevant facts, that bearing such risk is advisable or economically unavoidable.

 

Equity Capital Policies. Our charter authorizes us to issue 1,000,000,000 shares of capital stock, of which 900,000,000 shares are designated as common stock and 100,000,000 shares are designated as preferred stock. As of the date of this offering circular, we have issued 100 shares of common stock to our Sponsor. We will issue up to 5,000,000 shares of our common stock in this offering and an additional 7,400 shares of our common stock in a private placement to our Sponsor on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering, in each case, based on the price per share of $10.00. Our board of directors may increase the number of authorized shares of capital stock without stockholder approval. After your purchase in this offering, our board of directors may elect to (i) sell additional shares in this or future offerings; (ii) issue equity interests in private offerings; or (iii) otherwise issue additional shares of our capital stock. To the extent we issue additional equity interests after your purchase in this offering your percentage ownership interest in us would be diluted. In addition, depending upon the terms and pricing of any additional offerings, the use of the proceeds and the value of our real estate investments, you may also experience dilution in the book value and fair value of your shares and in the earnings and dividends per share.

 

Disposition Policies

 

As each of our investments reach what we believe to be its optimum value during the expected life of the Company, we will consider disposing of the investment and may do so for the purpose of either distributing the net sale proceeds to our stockholders or investing the proceeds in other assets that we believe may produce a higher overall future return to our stockholders. We anticipate that any such dispositions typically would occur during the period within approximately ten years from the termination of this offering (subject to pursuing alternative means of providing liquidity). However, we may sell any or all of our properties or other assets before or after this anticipated holding period if, in the judgment of our Manager’s investment committee, selling the asset is in our best interest. The determination of when a particular investment should be sold or otherwise disposed of will be made after consideration of relevant factors, including prevailing and projected economic conditions, whether the value of the property or other investment is anticipated to decline substantially, whether we could apply the proceeds from the sale of the asset to make other investments consistent with our investment objectives, whether disposition of the asset would allow us to increase cash flow, and whether the sale of the asset would constitute a prohibited transaction under the Code or would impact our status as a REIT. Our ability to dispose of property during the first few years following its acquisition is restricted to a substantial extent as a result of our REIT status. Under applicable provisions of the Code regarding prohibited transactions by REITs, a REIT that sells a property other than foreclosure property that is deemed to be inventory or property held primarily for sale in the ordinary course of business is deemed a “dealer” with respect to any such property and is subject to a 100% penalty tax on the net income from any such transaction unless the sale qualifies for a statutory safe harbor from application of the 100% tax. As a result, our Manager will attempt to structure any disposition of our properties with respect to which our Manager believes we could be viewed as a dealer in a manner to avoid this penalty tax through reliance on the safe harbor available under the Code or through the use of a TRS. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Our Company.” Alternatively, the risk of incurring the 100% tax may require the Manager to forgo an otherwise attractive sale opportunity.

 

When we determine to sell a particular property or other investment, we will seek to achieve a selling price that maximizes the capital appreciation for investors based on then-current market conditions. We cannot assure you that this objective will be realized. The selling price of a leased office property will be determined in large part by the amount of rent payable by the tenants. The terms of payment will be affected by custom in the area in which the property being sold is located and the then prevailing economic conditions.

 

Market conditions, our status as a REIT and other factors could cause us to delay the commencement of our liquidation or other liquidity event. Even after we decide to liquidate, we are under no obligation to conclude our liquidation within a set time because the timing of the sale of our assets will depend on real estate and financial markets, economic conditions of the areas in which the properties are located and federal income tax effects on stockholders that may prevail in the future, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to liquidate our assets. After commencing a liquidation, we would continue in existence until all properties are sold and our other assets are liquidated. In general, the federal income tax rules applicable to REITs will require us to complete our liquidation within 24 months following our adoption of a plan of liquidation. Compliance with this 24 month requirement could require us to sell assets at unattractive prices, distribute unsold assets to a “liquidating trust” with potentially unfavorable tax consequences for our stockholders, or terminate our status as a REIT.

 

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Liquidity Event

 

Subject to then existing market conditions, we may consider alternatives to our liquidation as a means for providing liquidity to our stockholders within approximately ten years from the completion of this offering. While we may seek a liquidity transaction in this time frame, there can be no assurance that a suitable transaction will be available or that market conditions for a transaction will be favorable during that time frame. Our Manager has the discretion to consider a liquidity transaction at any time if it determines such event to be in our best interests. A liquidity transaction could consist of a sale or partial sale of our assets, a sale or merger of the company, a consolidation transaction with other companies managed by our Manager or its affiliates, a listing of our shares on a national securities exchange or a similar transaction. We do not have a stated term, as we believe setting a finite date for a possible, but uncertain future liquidity transaction may result in actions that are not necessarily in the best interest or within the expectations of our stockholders.

 

Prior to our completion of a liquidity transaction, our stockholder redemption plan may provide an opportunity for you to have your shares of common stock redeemed, subject to certain restrictions and limitations. See “Stockholder Redemption Plan.”

 

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PLAN OF OPERATION

 

General

 

We were recently formed as a Maryland corporation to invest in and manage a portfolio of commercial real estate properties. We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to acquire a diversified portfolio of primarily office properties with a focus on markets where we feel that the risk-return characteristics are favorable. We may also invest, to a limited extent, in other real estate-related assets. We plan to diversify our portfolio by investment risk with the goal of attaining a portfolio of real estate assets that provide attractive cash yields to our stockholders with the potential for capital appreciation. In furtherance of this goal, on May 31, 2017 we acquired Laumeier from the Sponsor Funds for approximately $44.4 million in a cash transaction. Laumeier I, II, and IV (“Laumeier”) is located in the Laumeier Office Park, a premier office location in St. Louis’s South County submarket. Laumeier comprises three of the four buildings in the Laumeier Office Park, and totals 290,925 rentable square feet. Tenants of Laumeier include Panera Bread Company (headquarters), New Balance (regional headquarters), AMN Healthcare and Regus. To fund this acquisition, certain investors of the Sponsor Funds contributed an aggregate of $20,700,000 of cash into the Operating Partnership in exchange for an aggregate of 2,070,000 OP Units. The cash invested into the Operating Partnership, along with proceeds from a new mortgage loan, were utilized as part of a series of transactions through which we acquired Laumeier. Additionally, our Sponsor has committed to purchase 7,400 shares of our common stock from us at $10.00 per share in a private placement on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares of our common stock in this offering, for net proceeds to us of $74,000 (our Sponsor previously acquired 100 shares of our common stock at a price equal to the initial public offering price in connection with our formation, for net proceeds to us of $1,000). Proceeds from this offering will be used to invest in future property acquisitions.

 

SW Manager, LLC is our Manager. As our Manager, it will manage our day-to-day operations and our portfolio of investments. Our Manager also has the authority to make all of the decisions regarding our investments, subject to the direction and oversight of our Manager’s investment committee. Our Manager will also provide asset management, marketing, investor relations and other administrative services on our behalf.

 

We intend to make an election to be taxed as a REIT under the Code, commencing with our taxable year ending December 31, 2017. If we qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax to the extent we distribute dividends to our stockholders. We are structured as an UPREIT and will own substantially all of our assets and conduct substantially all of our business through our operating partnership, which was formed on February 22, 2017. We will serve as the sole general partner of our operating partnership and our percentage of ownership interest will increase or decrease in connection with the number of shares of our common stock that we sell. If we sell $50,000,000 of our common stock, we expect to own an approximately 69.0% interest in our operating partnership. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year after electing REIT status, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates and generally will not be permitted to qualify for treatment as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes for four years following the year in which our qualification is denied. Such an event could materially and adversely affect our net income and cash available for distribution. However, we believe that we will be organized and will operate in a manner that will enable us to qualify for treatment as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ending December 31, 2017, and we intend to continue to operate so as to remain qualified as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes thereafter.

 

Indebtedness

 

We intend to finance the acquisition of our initial property with a $24.6 million senior loan for a 10 year term at a 4.40% fixed interest rate, representing approximately 55% loan-to-value. We anticipate entering into a revolving credit facility with a to-be-determined lender to borrow a to-be-determined amount, subject to additional collateral availability and lender approval.

 

Revenue Base

 

On May 31, 2017 we acquired Laumeier, comprised of 290,925 square feet of rentable area. As of December 31, 2016, Laumeier was approximately 97.7% leased (after giving effect to committed leases, the terms of which have not yet commenced).

 

Office Leases. Historically, most leases for Laumeier were on a full-service gross basis, and we expect to continue to use such leases in the future. A full-service gross lease has a base year expense stop whereby we pay a stated amount of expenses as part of the rent payment while future increases (above the base year stop) in property operating expenses are billed to the tenant based on such tenant’s proportionate square footage in the property. The property operating expenses are reflected in operating expenses, but only the increased property operating expenses above the base year stop recovered from tenants are reflected as tenant recoveries in the statements of income.

 

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Competition

 

Our net income depends, in large part, on our ability to source, acquire and manage investments with attractive risk-adjusted yields. We compete with many other entities engaged in real estate investment activities, including individuals, corporations, insurance company investment accounts, other REITs, private real estate funds, and other entities engaged in real estate investment activities, many of which have greater financial resources and lower costs of capital available to them than we have. In addition, there are numerous REITs with asset acquisition objectives similar to ours, and others may be organized in the future, which may increase competition for the investments suitable for us. Competitive variables include market presence and visibility, amount of capital to be invested per investment and underwriting standards. To the extent that a competitor is willing to risk larger amounts of capital in a particular transaction or to employ more liberal underwriting standards when evaluating potential investments than we are, our investment volume and profit margins for our investment portfolio could be impacted. Our competitors may also be willing to accept lower returns on their investments and may succeed in buying the assets that we have targeted for acquisition. Although we believe that we are well positioned to compete effectively in each facet of our business, there is enormous competition in our market sector and there can be no assurance that we will compete effectively or that we will not encounter increased competition in the future that could limit our ability to conduct our business effectively.

 

Results of Operations

 

We were formed on November 9, 2016 and, on May 31, 2017 we acquired from affiliates of our Sponsor one office property and commenced operations. Our management is not aware of any material trends or uncertainties, other than national economic conditions affecting real estate generally that may reasonably be expected to have a material impact, favorable or unfavorable, on revenues or income from the acquisition, management and operation of real estate and real estate related investments.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

We are dependent upon the net proceeds from this offering to conduct our proposed operations. We will obtain the capital required to purchase new investments and conduct our operations from the proceeds of this offering and any future offerings we may conduct, from secured or unsecured financings from banks and other lenders and from any undistributed funds from our operations. On May 31, 2017 we acquired from affiliates of our Sponsor one office property, and as of the commencement of this offering, our total assets consist of our interests in Laumeier, approximately $1,000 in cash from our initial capitalization by our Sponsor, plus a commitment from our Sponsor to purchase an additional $74,000 of shares of our common stock on a date no later than the date on which we begin to offer and sell shares in this offering. For information regarding the anticipated use of proceeds from this offering, see “Estimated Use of Proceeds.”

 

Further, we will have certain fixed operating expenses, including certain expenses as a publicly offered REIT, regardless of whether we are able to raise substantial funds in this offering. Our inability to raise substantial funds would increase our fixed operating expenses as a percentage of gross income, reducing our net income and limiting our ability to pay dividends.

 

We financed the acquisition of our initial property with a $24.6 million senior loan for a 10 year term at a 4.40% fixed interest rate, representing approximately 55% loan-to-value. Our targeted portfolio-wide leverage as we continue to acquire a diversified portfolio of investments is between 40-60% of the greater of the cost (before deducting depreciation or other non-cash reserves) or fair market value of our assets. During the period when we are acquiring our initial portfolio, we may employ greater leverage on individual assets (that will also result in greater leverage of the interim portfolio) in order to quickly build a diversified portfolio of assets. Our Manager may from time to time modify our leverage policy in its discretion in light of then-current economic conditions, relative costs of debt and equity capital, market values of our assets, general conditions in the market for debt and equity securities, growth and acquisition opportunities or other factors.

 

In addition to making investments in accordance with our investment objectives, we expect to use our capital resources to make certain payments to our Manager. During our organization and offering stage, these payments will include payments for reimbursement of certain organization and offering expenses. During our acquisition and development stage, we expect to make payments to our Manager in connection with the management of our assets and costs incurred by our Manager in providing services to us. In addition, we will be required to pay certain fees and expenses to our third party administrative and processing agent for administrative and processing services in connection with this offering, as discussed under “Plan of Distribution—Administrative and Processing Agent.” For a discussion of the compensation to be paid to our Manager, see “Management Compensation”.

 

We intend to elect to be taxed as a REIT and to operate as a REIT commencing with our taxable year ending December 31 of the year in which we commence this offering. To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we will be required to make aggregate annual dividends to our stockholders of at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gain), and to avoid federal income and excise taxes on retained taxable income and gains we must distribute 100% of such income and gains annually. Our board of directors may authorize dividends in excess of those required for us to maintain REIT status and/or avoid such taxes on retained taxable income and gains depending on our financial condition and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. Provided we have sufficient available cash flow, we intend to authorize and declare dividends based on daily record dates and pay dividends on a quarterly or other periodic basis. We have not established a minimum distribution level.

 

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Valuation Policies

 

Our NAV per share will be calculated by our Manager at the end of each fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis, beginning twelve months after commencement of the offering using a process that reflects several components, including (1) estimated values of each of our commercial real estate assets and investments, including related liabilities, based upon (a) market capitalization rates, comparable sales information, interest rates, discount rates, net operating income, and (b) in certain instances individual appraisal reports of the underlying real estate provided by an independent valuation expert, (2) the price of liquid assets for which third party market quotes are available, (3) accruals of our periodic dividends and (4) estimated accruals of our operating revenues and expenses.

 

Specifically, our Manager will calculate NAV primarily utilizing a discounted cash flow methodology, and will then compare that NAV estimate to a valuation utilizing a comparable sales methodology, to ensure no material variances exist. Both the discounted cash flow methodology and the comparable sales methodology are summarized below.

 

Discounted Cash Flow Methodology – Our Manager estimates NAV of the Company’s ownership interest in an investment based on a forecasted cash flow stream to the Company (including a contemplated disposition) discounted to a present/fair value at a risk adjusted rate. Yield rates, disposition capitalization rates, and growth assumptions are derived from market transactions as well as other financial and industry data. The discount rate utilized to establish fair value is intended to reflect the leveraged return required of a third party investor acquiring the Company’s ownership interest at the date of the valuation. The discount rate is also intended to reflect key risk factors associated with real estate properties under development, redevelopment, repositioning, or stabilization, including entitlement risk, construction risk, leasing/sales risk, operation expense risk, credit risk, capital market risk, pricing risk, event risk and valuation risk. Additionally, the fair value is intended to include the timely recognition of estimated entrepreneurial profit after such consideration.

 

Comparable Sales Methodology – Our Manager also estimates NAV of the Company’s ownership interest in an investment based on completed sales and/or quoted prices in active marketing of comparable assets. Comparable sales are identified by reviewing recent sales of similar vintage in a defined geographic region that are comparable in quality of improvements and tenancy. From the real estate property fair value, our Manager estimates the NAV of the Company’s ownership interest by reducing the real estate property value by (i) any ownership liabilities (i.e. senior loans, secured and unsecured creditors, etc.) and (ii) the ownership interest and/or profit participation of any other members in the applicable venture.

 

We expect that the NAV calculations described above will primarily be undertaken by our Sponsor’s internal accountants who will perform work on behalf of our Manager pursuant to the support agreement between our Manager and our Sponsor. Members of our Sponsor’s real estate team have previously worked as real estate fund managers, real estate property managers, financial analysts, accountants and real estate market research consultants. Prior to being employed by our Sponsor, these team members accumulated direct management experience with real estate development, fund management, leasing, construction and financing in excess of $25 billion of real estate, not including their experience with our Sponsor.

 

In instances where we determine that an independent appraisal of the real estate asset is necessary, including, but not limited to, instances where our Manager is unsure of its ability on its own to accurately determine the estimated values of our commercial real estate assets and investments, or instances where third party market values for comparable properties are either nonexistent or extremely inconsistent, we may engage an appraiser that has expertise in appraising commercial real estate assets, to act as our independent valuation expert. The independent valuation expert will not be responsible for, or prepare, our NAV per share. However, we may hire a third party to calculate, or assist with calculating, the NAV per share.

 

The use of different judgments or assumptions would likely result in different estimates of the value of our real estate assets. Moreover, although we evaluate and provide our NAV per share on a quarterly basis, our NAV per share may fluctuate in the interim, so that the NAV per share in effect for any fiscal quarter may not reflect the precise amount that might be paid for your shares in a market transaction. Further, our published NAV per share may not fully reflect certain material events to the extent that they are not known or their financial impact on our portfolio is not immediately quantifiable. Any resulting potential disparity in our NAV per share may be in favor of either stockholders who redeem their shares, or stockholders who buy new shares, or existing stockholders.

 

Our goal is to provide a reasonable estimate of the NAV per share on a quarterly basis. However, the majority of our assets will consist of commercial office investments and, as with any commercial real estate valuation protocol, the conclusions reached by our Manager will be based on a number of judgments, assumptions and opinions about future events that may or may not prove to be correct. The use of different judgments, assumptions or opinions would likely result in different estimates of the value of our commercial real estate assets and investments. In addition, for any given quarter, our published NAV per share may not fully reflect certain material events, to the extent that the financial impact of such events on our portfolio is not immediately quantifiable. As a result, the quarterly calculation of our NAV per share may not reflect the precise amount that might be paid for your shares in a market transaction, and any potential disparity in our NAV per share may be in favor of either stockholders who redeem their shares, or stockholders who buy new shares, or existing stockholders. However, to the extent quantifiable, if a material event occurs in between quarterly updates of NAV that would cause our NAV per share to change by 5% or more from the last disclosed NAV, we will disclose the updated NAV per share and the reason for the change in an offering circular supplement as promptly as reasonably practicable. Note, in addition, that the determination of our NAV is not based on, nor intended to comply with, fair value standards under GAAP and our NAV may not be indicative of the price that we would receive for our assets at current market conditions.

 

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Quarterly NAV Per Share Adjustments

 

We set our initial offering price at $10.00 per share, which will be the purchase price of our shares until twelve months from the commencement of this offering. Thereafter, the per share purchase price will be adjusted every fiscal quarter and, as of January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st of each year, will be equal to the greater of (i) $10.00 per share or (ii) the sum of our NAV divided by the number of shares outstanding as of the close of business on the last business day of the prior fiscal quarter.

 

Beginning after one year from the commencement of this offering, we will file with the SEC on a quarterly basis an offering circular supplement disclosing the quarterly determination of our NAV per share that will be applicable for such fiscal quarter, which we refer to as the pricing supplement. Except as otherwise set forth in this offering circular, we will disclose, on a quarterly basis in an offering circular supplement filed with the SEC, the principal valuation components of our NAV. See “Plan of Operation—Quarterly NAV Per Share Adjustments” for more details.

 

Dividend Reinvestment Plan

 

In the future, we will consider adopting a dividend reinvestment plan that will permit stockholders who elect to participate in the plan to have their cash dividends reinvested in additional shares of our common stock. If we move forward with the plan, and we declare a cash dividend or other distribution, then our stockholders who have elected to participate in our dividend reinvestment plan will have their cash distribution reinvested in additional shares of common stock at a price equal to the then prevailing market price, without payment of brokerage commissions or service charges, rather than receiving the cash distribution. Stockholders who do not participate in the plan will continue to receive cash dividends as declared.

 

Contractual Obligations and Other Long-Term Liabilities

 

As of December 31, 2016, we did not have any contractual obligations or other long-term liabilities.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

As of December 31, 2016, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.

 

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Inflation

 

Substantially all of our office leases provide for separate real estate tax and operating expense escalations. In addition, substantially all of the leases provide for fixed rent increases. We believe that inflationary increases may be at least partially offset by the contractual rent increases and expense escalations described above.

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Below is a discussion of the accounting policies that management believes will be critical once we commence operations. We consider these policies critical because we believe that understanding these policies is critical to understanding and evaluating our reported financial results. Additionally, these policies may involve significant management judgments and assumptions, or require estimates about matters that are inherently uncertain. These judgments will affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and our disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. With different estimates or assumptions, materially different amounts could be reported in our financial statements. Additionally, other companies may utilize different estimates that may impact the comparability of our results of operations to those of companies in similar businesses.

 

Real Estate Investments

 

We will record acquired real estate at cost and make assessments as to the useful lives of depreciable assets. We will have to make subjective assessments as to the useful lives of our depreciable assets. We will consider the period of future benefit of an asset to determine its appropriate useful life. We anticipate the estimated useful lives of our assets by class to be as follows:

 

Buildings 25-40 years
Building improvements 10-25 years
Tenant improvements Shorter of lease term or expected useful life
Lease intangibles Remaining term of related lease

 

Impairment of Long Lived Assets

 

For operations related to properties that have been sold or properties that are intended to be sold, we will present them as discontinued operations in the statement of operations for all periods presented, and properties intended to be sold to be designated as “held for sale” on the balance sheet. Management will deem the intent to sell to exist and utilize the “held for sale” designation when a non-refundable deposit or option payment has been made by a prospective buyer.

 

When circumstances indicate the carrying value of a property may not be recoverable, we will review the asset for impairment. This review is based on an estimate of the future undiscounted cash flows, excluding interest charges, expected to result from the property’s use and eventual disposition.

 

These estimates consider factors such as expected future operating income, market and other applicable trends and residual value, as well as the effects of leasing demand, competition and other factors.

 

If impairment exists, due to the inability to recover the carrying value of a property, an impairment loss will be recorded to the extent that the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the property for properties to be held and used. For properties held for sale, the impairment loss is the adjustment to fair value less estimated cost to dispose of the asset. These assessments have a direct impact on net income because recording an impairment loss results in an immediate negative adjustment to net income.

 

Allocation of Purchase Price of Acquired Assets

 

Upon the acquisition of real properties, it is our policy to allocate the purchase price of properties to acquired tangible assets, consisting of land, building, fixtures and improvements, and identified intangible lease assets and liabilities, consisting of the value of above-market and below-market leases, as applicable, other value of in-place leases and value of tenant relationships, based in each case on their fair values.

 

We will record above-market and below-market in-place lease values for acquired properties based on the present value (using an interest rate that reflects the risks associated with the leases acquired) of the difference between (i) the contractual amounts to be paid pursuant to the in-place leases and (ii) management’s estimate of fair market lease rates for the corresponding in-place leases, measured over a period equal to the remaining non-cancelable term of the lease. We will amortize any capitalized above-market or below-market lease values as an increase or reduction to rental income over the remaining non-cancelable terms of the respective leases, which we expect will range from one month to ten years.

 

We will measure the aggregate value of other intangible assets acquired based on the difference between (i) the property valued with existing in-place leases adjusted to market rental rates and (ii) the property valued as if vacant. Management’s estimates of value are expected to be made using methods similar to those used by independent appraisers (e.g., discounted cash flow analysis). Factors to be considered by management in its analysis include an estimate of carrying costs during hypothetical expected lease-up periods considering current market conditions and costs to execute similar leases.

 

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We will also consider information obtained about each property as a result of its pre-acquisition due diligence, marketing and leasing activities in estimating the fair value of the tangible and intangible assets acquired. In estimating carrying costs, management will also include real estate taxes, insurance and other operating expenses and estimates of lost rentals at market rates during the expected lease-up periods. Management will also estimate costs to execute similar leases including leasing commissions and legal and other related expenses to the extent that such costs have not already been incurred in connection with a new lease origination as part of the transaction.

 

The total amount of other intangible assets acquired will be further allocated to in-place lease values and customer relationship intangible values based on management’s evaluation of the specific characteristics of each tenant’s lease and our overall relationship with that respective tenant. Characteristics to be considered by management in allocating these values include the nature and extent of our existing business relationships with the tenant, growth prospects for developing new business with the tenant, the tenant’s credit quality and expectations of lease renewals (including those existing under the terms of the lease agreement), among other factors.

 

We will amortize the value of in-place leases to expense over the initial term of the respective leases. The value of customer relationship intangibles will be amortized to expense over the initial term and any renewal periods in the respective leases, but in no event will the amortization periods for the intangible assets exceed the remaining depreciable life of the building. Should a tenant terminate its lease, the unamortized portion of the in-place lease value and customer relationship intangibles would be charged to expense in that period.

 

The determination of the fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired requires the use of significant assumptions with regard to current market rental rates, discount rates and other variables. The use of inappropriate estimates would result in an incorrect assessment of the fair value of these assets and liabilities, which could impact the amount of our reported net income. These estimates are subject to change until all information is finalized, which is generally within one year of the acquisition date.

 

Valuation of Financial Instruments

 

Proper valuation of financial instruments is a critical component of our financial statement preparation. ASC 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the quality of inputs used to measure fair value and enhances disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between marketplace participants at the measurement date (i.e., the exit price).

 

We will categorize our financial instruments, based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique, into a three level fair value hierarchy. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). If the inputs used to measure the financial instruments fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the categorization is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument.

 

Financial assets and liabilities recorded on the condensed consolidated balance sheets will be categorized based on the inputs to the valuation techniques as follows:

 

Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in an active market (examples include active exchange-traded equity securities, listed derivatives, most U.S. Government and agency securities, and certain other sovereign government obligations).

 

Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on the following:

 

quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets (for example, restricted stock);

 

quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in non-active markets (examples include corporate and municipal bonds, which trade infrequently);

 

pricing models whose inputs are observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability (examples include most over-the-counter derivatives, including interest rate and currency swaps); and

 

pricing models whose inputs are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data through correlation or other means for substantially the full term of the asset or liability (for example, certain mortgage loans).

 

Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement. These inputs reflect management’s own assumptions about the assumptions a market participant would use in pricing the asset or liability (examples include private equity investments, commercial mortgage backed securities, and long-dated or complex derivatives including certain foreign exchange options and long dated options on gas and power).

 

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The fair values of our financial instruments will be based on observable market prices when available. Such prices will be based on the last sales price on the date of determination, or, if no sales occurred on such day, at the “bid” price at the close of business on such day and if sold short at the “asked” price at the close of business on such day. Interest rate swap contracts will be valued based on market rates or prices obtained from recognized financial data service providers. Generally these prices will be provided by a recognized financial data service provider.

 

Fair Value Option

 

ASC 825 “Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” (“ASC 825”) provides a fair value option election that allows companies to irrevocably elect fair value as the initial and subsequent measurement attribute for certain financial assets and liabilities. Changes in fair value for assets and liabilities for which the election is made will be recognized in earnings as they occur. ASC 825 permits the fair value option election on an instrument by instrument basis at initial recognition. We will determine the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities for which the ASC 825 election is made pursuant to the guidance in ASC 820.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Real Estate

 

We recognize minimum rent, including rental abatements, lease incentives and contractual fixed increases attributable to operating leases, on a straight-line basis over the term of the related leases when collectability is reasonably assured and record amounts expected to be received in later years as deferred rent receivable. If the lease provides for tenant improvements, we determine whether the tenant improvements, for accounting purposes, are owned by the tenant or by us. When we are the owner of the tenant improvements, the tenant is not considered to have taken physical possession or have control of the physical use of the leased asset until the tenant improvements are substantially completed. When the tenant is the owner of the tenant improvements, any tenant improvement allowance (including amounts that a tenant can take in the form of cash or a credit against its rent) that is funded is treated as a lease incentive and amortized as a reduction of revenue over the lease term. Tenant improvement ownership is determined based on various factors including, but not limited to:

 

whether the lease stipulates how a tenant improvement allowance may be spent;

 

whether the amount of a tenant improvement allowance is in excess of market rates;

 

whether the tenant or landlord retains legal title to the improvements at the end of the lease term;

 

whether the tenant improvements are unique to the tenant or general-purpose in nature; and

 

whether the tenant improvements are expected to have any residual value at the end of the lease.

 

We record property operating expense reimbursements due from tenants for common area maintenance, real estate taxes, and other recoverable costs in the period the related expenses are incurred.

 

We make estimates of the collectability of our tenant receivables related to base rents, including deferred rent receivable, expense reimbursements and other revenue or income. We specifically analyze accounts receivable, deferred rent receivable, historical bad debts, customer creditworthiness, current economic trends and changes in customer payment terms when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts. In addition, with respect to tenants in bankruptcy, we will make estimates of the expected recovery of pre-petition and post-petition claims in assessing the estimated collectability of the related receivable. In some cases, the ultimate resolution of these claims can exceed one year. When a tenant is in bankruptcy, we will record a bad debt reserve for the tenant’s receivable balance and generally will not recognize subsequent rental revenue until cash is received or until the tenant is no longer in bankruptcy and has the ability to make rental payments.

 

Real Estate Loans Receivable

 

We will recognize interest income from our real estate debt investments on an accrual basis over the life of the investment using the effective interest method. We will recognize fees, discounts, premiums, anticipated exit fees and direct cost over the term of the loan as an adjustment to the yield. We will recognize fees on commitments that expire unused at expiration.

 

Related Party Loans and Warehousing of Assets

 

If we have sufficient funds to acquire only a portion of a real estate investment then, in order to cover the shortfall, we may obtain a related party loan from our Sponsor or its affiliates. Each related party loan will be an unsecured obligation of ours, that is payable solely to the extent that such related party loan remains outstanding. As we sell additional shares of common stock in this offering, we will use the proceeds of such sales to pay down the principal and interest of the related party loan, reducing the payment obligation of the related party loan, and our obligation to the holder of the related party loan. We may also utilize related party loans, from time to time, as a form of leverage to acquire real estate assets. From time to time we may borrow from our Sponsor at a rate that is the lesser of (a) market or (b) our Sponsor’s cost of capital.

 

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As an alternative means of acquiring investments for which we do not yet have sufficient funds, our Sponsor or its affiliates may close and fund a real estate investment prior to it being acquired by us. This ability to warehouse investments allows us the flexibility to deploy our offering proceeds as funds are raised. We may then acquire such investment at a price equal to the fair market value of such investment, provided that its fair market value is materially equal to its cost (i.e., the aggregate equity capital invested by our Sponsor or its affiliates in connection with the acquisition and during the warehousing of such investments, plus assumption of debt and any costs, such as accrued property management fees and transfer taxes, incurred during or as a result of the warehousing or, with respect to debt, the principal balance plus accrued interest net of any applicable servicing fees).

 

New Accounting Pronouncements

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which creates a new Topic Accounting Standards Codification (Topic 606). The standard is principle-based and provides a five-step model to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This standard is effective for interim or annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and allows for either full retrospective or modified retrospective adoption. Early adoption of this standard is not allowed. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of Topic 606 will have on our financial statements.

 

In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-01, “Income Statement—Extraordinary and Unusual Items.” ASU 2015-01 eliminates the concept of extraordinary items. However, the presentation and disclosure requirements for items that are either unusual or in nature or infrequent in occurrence remain and will be expanded to include items that are both unusual in nature and infrequent in occurrence. ASU 2015-01 is effective for periods beginning after December 15, 2015.

 

In February 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2015-02, Consolidation (Topic 810)—Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis, which amends the criteria for determining which entities are considered variable interest entities (“VIE”), amends the criteria for determining if a service provider possesses a variable interest in a VIE and ends the deferral granted to investment companies for application of the VIE consolidation model. ASU 2015-02 is effective for annual periods, and interim periods therein, beginning after December 15, 2015.

 

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-3, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, which changes the presentation of debt issuance costs in financial statements. ASU 2015-3 requires an entity to present such costs in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the related debt liability rather than as an asset. Amortization of the costs will continue to be reported as interest expense. ASU 2015-3 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. The new guidance will be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented.

 

In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-16, Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments. The update requires that acquiring entities in a business combination recognize adjustments to provisional amounts identified in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined, including the cumulative effect of the change in provisional amount, as if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. Adjustments related to previous reporting periods must be disclosed by income statement line item, either on the face of the income statement or in the notes, in the period for which the adjustment was identified. ASU 2015-16 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. The update amends the existing accounting standards for lease accounting, including requiring lessees to recognize most leases on their balance sheets and making targeted changes to lessor accounting. The standard requires a modified retrospective transition approach for all leases existing at, or entered into after, the date of initial application, with an option to use certain transition relief. ASU 2016-02 will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted.

 

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805), which is intended to clarify the definition of a business and address concerns that the definition of a business had previously been too broad. The pronouncement provides a screen to determine if a set of assets and activities in not a business. The screen requires that when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired or disposed of is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. This standard is effective for interim or annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and allows for either full retrospective or modified retrospective adoption. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this pronouncement will have on our financial statements

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

Our future income, cash flows and fair values relating to financial instruments are dependent upon prevailing market interest rates. Market risk refers to the risk of loss from adverse changes in market prices and interest rates. We may use derivative financial instruments to manage or hedge interest rate risks related to borrowing.

 

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PRIOR PERFORMANCE SUMMARY

 

The information presented in this section represents the historical operating results for our Sponsor and the experience of real estate programs sponsored by our Sponsor, which we refer to as the “Programs.” Investors in our common stock should not assume that they will experience returns, if any, comparable to those experienced by investors in our Sponsor’s affiliated Programs. Investors who purchase shares of our common stock will not thereby acquire any ownership interest in any of the entities to which the following information relates.

 

The returns to our stockholders will depend in part on the mix of assets in which we invest. As our portfolio may not mirror the portfolios of our Sponsor’s affiliated Programs in any respect, the returns to our stockholders may vary from those generated by our Sponsor’s affiliated Programs. The Programs were conducted through privately-held entities that were not subject to the fees and expenses associated with this offering or many of the laws and regulations to which we will be subject. In addition, our Sponsor is a self-managed, privately-held company with an indefinite duration. As a result, you should not assume the past performance of our Sponsor or the Programs described below will be indicative of our future performance.

 

Overview of Our Sponsor

 

Our Sponsor is a privately-held company that operates as a real estate investment firm. Our Sponsor was formed April 2, 2013 to engage in the business of investing in and managing commercial real estate investments on behalf of both individual and institutional clients. As of March 31, 2017, our Sponsor manages approximately $101.0 million of equity capital in two separate closed-end fund vehicles.

 

Our Sponsor’s prior Programs include Tryperion RE Fund I, L.P. (“TREF I”) and Tryperion RE Fund II, LP (“TREF II”). TREF I and TREF II were created to take advantage of “sub-institutional” investments – deals that have been passed over by larger institutional investors due to their small size. In these Programs, our Sponsor brought a sophisticated investment approach to an inefficient set of smaller investment opportunities. The Programs have invested in fee interests in real property both directly and with joint-venture partners.

 

The profitability and performance of our Sponsor’s business is a function of its (i) assets under management, and (ii) overall returns realized on invested capital. The credit quality of our Sponsor’s investments, the diversification of its portfolio and the underwriting and portfolio management capabilities of our Sponsor’s management team, who also serves as our Manager’s management team, are additional key factors in the performance of our Sponsor’s business.

 

Our Sponsor’s Prior Investment Programs

 

Overview

 

As of March 31, 2017, our Sponsor has sponsored two closed-end fund vehicles totaling $101.0 million of equity capital, and has made 16 investments consisting of 32 individual properties with an aggregate acquisition cost of $284.3 million. The investments were geographically diversified across multiple geographic regions and included the following property types: office, retail, industrial, multifamily, hotel and land. All investments were fee interests in properties owned directly or with joint venture partners with 60.4% portfolio-wide leverage utilization. As a result of the depth and thoroughness of its underwriting process, the extensive investing and asset management experience of its management team and its strong record in managing a diverse portfolio of assets, we believe our Sponsor has earned a reputation as a leading real estate investor and manager, which has allowed it to access substantial funding in the Programs.

 

TREF I

 

TREF I closed May 1, 2013 with $50.0 million of commitments with the goal of seeking “value-add” returns in inefficiently-priced US markets, both on a direct basis and with joint-venture operating partners. The TREF I investment period expired December 31, 2015 and is no longer actively seeking investment opportunities. As of March 31, 2017, TREF I had made 8 investments in 18 individual properties with a total acquisition cost of $144.5 million in the following property types: office, multifamily, retail, hotel, and land. The properties are geographically diversified across many states and markets.

 

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(FLOW CHART)

 

TREF II

 

TREF II closed October 17, 2014 with $51.0 million of commitments with the goal of seeking “value-add” returns in inefficiently-priced US markets, both on a direct basis and with joint-venture operating partners. The TREF II investment period is anticipated to expire at the earlier of (i) October 17, 2017, and (ii) the time when our Sponsor ends the TREF II investment period. As of March 31, 2017, TREF II had made 8 investments in 22 individual properties with a total acquisition cost of $139.8 million in the following property types: office, industrial, retail, hotel, and land. The properties are geographically diversified across many states and markets.

 

(FLOW CHART)

 

Factors Differentiating Us from Prior Investment Programs

 

The risk profile and return objective of each Program differs from ours. The Programs sought “value-add” returns in deals requiring a value-add component, while we seek “core-plus” returns in deals that are generally stabilized in nature. In addition, we will seek to utilize lower leverage than our Sponsor used in the Programs.

 

Additional Information

 

Please see the tables under “Prior Performance Tables” in Appendix A to this offering circular for more information regarding our sponsor’s prior performance.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK AND CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW, OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

 

The following description of our capital stock, certain provisions of Maryland law and certain provisions of our charter and bylaws, which will be in effect upon commencement of this offering, are summaries and are qualified by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the offering statement of which this offering circular is a part. See “Additional Information.” References in this section to “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to 1st stREIT Office Inc.

 

General

 

We were incorporated in Maryland as a corporation on November 9, 2016. Our charter authorizes us to issue: (i) 900,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share and (ii) 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock. We may increase the number of shares of common or preferred stock without stockholder consent. At this time, we have not issued any preferred stock. As of the date of this offering circular, we have issued 100 shares of common stock to our Sponsor.

 

We intend to have a December 31st fiscal year end. In addition, we intend to qualify as a REIT and to be taxed as a REIT under the Code beginning with the year ending December 31, 2017; however, the board of directors may extend such date until the taxable year ending December 31, 2018.

 

Common Stock In General

 

Holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive such dividends as declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds, subject to any preferential rights of any preferred stock that we issue in the future. In any liquidation, each outstanding share of common stock entitles its holder to share (based on the percentage of shares held) in the assets that remain after we pay our liabilities and any preferential dividends owed to preferred stockholders. Holders of shares of our common stock will not have preemptive rights, which means that you will not have an automatic option to purchase any new shares that we issue, nor will holders of our shares of common stock have any preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption, or appraisal rights. Our common stock will be non-assessable by us upon our receipt of the consideration for which our board of directors authorized its issuance.

 

Our board of directors has authorized the issuance of shares of our common stock without certificates. We will not issue shares in certificated form. Information regarding restrictions on the transferability of our shares that, under Maryland law, would otherwise have been required to appear on our stock certificates will instead be furnished to stockholders upon request and without charge.

 

Through our transfer agent, Computershare, we maintain a stock ledger that contains the name and address of each stockholder and the number of shares that the stockholder holds. With respect to uncertificated stock, we will continue to treat the stockholder registered on our stock ledger as the owner of the shares until the new owner delivers a properly executed form to us, which form we will provide to any registered holder upon request.

 

Voting Common Stock

 

Subject to the restrictions in our charter on transfer and ownership of shares and except as may otherwise be specified in the charter, the holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a stockholder vote, including election of our directors. Therefore, the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock can elect the entire board of directors. Except as set forth in our charter, including any articles supplementary with respect to any series of preferred stock we may issue in the future, the holders of our common stock will possess exclusive voting power. Our charter does not provide for cumulative voting in the election of its directors.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to designate and issue one or more classes or series of preferred stock without approval of our common stockholders. Our board of directors may determine the relative rights, preferences and privileges of each class or series of preferred stock so issued, which may be more beneficial than the rights, preferences, and privileges attributable to our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control. Our board of directors has no present plans to issue preferred stock but may do so at any time in the future without stockholder approval.

 

Preferred Stock to Meet 100 Investor REIT Requirement.

 

Following completion of this offering, to the extent necessary to assist us in obtaining a sufficient number of stockholders to meet certain of the qualification requirements for taxation as a REIT under the Code, we may undertake to issue and sell up to approximately 125 shares of a new series of preferred stock in a private placement to up to approximately 125 investors who qualify as “accredited investors” (as that term is defined in Rule 501(a) of Regulation D under the Securities Act). The preferred stock is expected to be perpetual, pay an annual market dividend for securities of this type and be redeemable by us at a premium to the aggregate liquidation value. For example, if we issue 125 shares of preferred stock with a liquidation price of $1,000 per share and an annual dividend of 12.5%, we would raise additional capital of $125,000 and be required to be pay or set aside for payment, in the aggregate, approximately $15,625 annually, before any dividends on shares of our common stock could be made.

 

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Meetings and Special Voting Requirements

 

An annual meeting of our stockholders will be held each year, on a date and at the time and place set by the board of directors.

 

Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our chairman of the board of directors, chief executive officer, president or the board of directors. In addition, a special meeting of the stockholders must be called to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting and the satisfaction by such stockholders of certain procedural requirements set forth in the Bylaws.

 

The presence in person or by proxy of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at any stockholder meeting constitutes a quorum. The affirmative vote of a plurality of all votes cast is sufficient to elect a director. Unless otherwise provided by the Maryland General Corporation Law or our charter, the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes cast is sufficient to approve any other matter which properly comes before the meeting.

 

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business, unless declared advisable by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Except for amendments of our charter relating to the restrictions on transfer and ownership of shares and the vote required to amend certain provisions of the charter and except for those amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under Maryland law or by specific provision in the charter, any amendment to our charter will be valid only if it is declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of holders of shares entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

 

Restrictions on Ownership of Shares

 

Ownership Limit

 

To maintain our REIT qualification, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (including certain entities treated as individuals under the Code) during the last half of each taxable year. In addition, at least 100 persons who are independent of us and each other must beneficially own our outstanding shares for at least 335 days per 12-month taxable year or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Each of the requirements specified in the two preceding sentences will not apply to any period prior to the second year for which we elect to be taxable as a REIT. We may prohibit certain acquisitions and transfers of shares so as to ensure our continued qualification as a REIT under the Code. However, we cannot assure you that this prohibition will be effective.

 

To help ensure that we meet these tests, our charter prohibits any person or group of persons from acquiring, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of more than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock, or 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock unless exempted by our board of directors. Our board of directors may waive 9.8% ownership limitations with respect to a particular person if the board of directors receives evidence that ownership in excess of the limit will not jeopardize our REIT status. For purposes of this provision, we treat corporations, partnerships and other entities as single persons. These 9.8% ownership limitations will apply as of the first date of the second taxable year for which we elect to be treated as a REIT, which will be January 1, 2018 assuming we elect to be treated as a REIT for the taxable year ending December 31, 2017. However, our charter will also prohibit any actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our shares that causes us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including any ownership that would result in any of our income that would otherwise qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the REIT rules to fail to qualify as such) and such ownership limitation shall not be waived. In addition, our charter prohibits a person from owning actually or constructively shares of our outstanding capital stock if such ownership would result in any of our income that would otherwise qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the REIT rules to fail to qualify as such. Accordingly, as a result of such limitation, even prior to January 1, 2018, any stockholder that is a tenant of Laumeier (or any other properties acquired by us) or that actually or constructively owns 10% or more of any tenant of Laumeier (or any other properties acquired by us) will be prohibited from owning actually or constructively owning 10.0% or more of the shares of our outstanding capital stock.

 

Any attempted transfer of our shares that, if effective, would result in a violation of our ownership limit or would otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including by virtue of us being “closely held” or through our receipt of related party tenant income) will be null and void and will cause the number of shares causing the violation to be automatically transferred to a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries. Any attempted transfer of our shares that, if effective, would result in our shares being owned by fewer than 100 persons will be null and void. The prohibited transferee will not acquire any rights in the shares. The automatic transfer will be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the attempted transfer. We will designate a trustee of the trust that will not be affiliated with us or the prohibited transferee. We will also name one or more charitable organizations as a beneficiary of the share trust.

 

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Shares held in trust will remain issued and outstanding shares and will be entitled to the same rights and privileges as all other shares of the same class or series. The prohibited transferee will not benefit economically from any of the shares held in trust, will not have any rights to dividends or dividends, and will not have the right to vote or any other rights attributable to the shares held in the trust. The trustee will receive all dividends and dividends on the shares held in trust and will hold such dividends or dividends in trust for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. The trustee may vote any shares held in trust.

 

Within 20 days of receiving notice from us that any of our shares have been transferred to the trust for the charitable beneficiary, the trustee will sell those shares to a person designated by the trustee whose ownership of the shares will not violate the above restrictions. Upon the sale, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited transferee and to the charitable beneficiary as follows. The prohibited transferee will receive the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited transferee for the shares or, if the prohibited transferee did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other similar transaction), the market price (as defined in our charter) of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the trust and (ii) the price received by the trustee from the sale or other disposition of the shares. Any net sale proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited transferee will be paid immediately to the charitable beneficiary. If, prior to our discovery that shares have been transferred to the trust, the shares are sold by the prohibited transferee, then (i) the shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and (ii) to the extent that the prohibited transferee received an amount for the shares that exceeds the amount he was entitled to receive, the excess will be paid to the trustee upon demand.

 

In addition, shares held in the trust for the charitable beneficiary will be deemed to have been offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer to the trust (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of the devise or gift) and (ii) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accept the offer. We will have the right to accept the offer until the trustee has sold the shares. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited transferee.

 

Any person who acquires or attempts to acquire shares in violation of the foregoing restrictions or who would have owned the shares that were transferred to any such trust must give us immediate written notice of such event, and any person who proposes or attempts to acquire or receive shares in violation of the foregoing restrictions must give us at least 15 days’ written notice prior to such transaction. In both cases, such persons will provide to us such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such transfer on our status as a REIT.

 

The foregoing restrictions will continue to apply until our board of directors determines it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT. The 9.8% ownership limitations described above do not apply to any underwriter in an offering of our shares or to a person or persons exempted from the ownership limit by our board of directors based upon appropriate assurances that our qualification as a REIT would not be jeopardized.

 

Within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, every owner of 5% or more of our outstanding capital stock will be asked to deliver to us a statement setting forth the number of shares owned directly or indirectly by such person and a description of how such person holds the shares. Each such owner will also provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of his or her beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with our ownership limit.

 

In addition, our charter provides that, prior to the first date on which any class or series of shares of our capital stock constitutes “publicly-offered securities” (as defined in the Plan Assets Regulation), “benefit plan investors” may not hold, in the aggregate, 25 percent or more of the value of any class or series of shares of our capital stock. If benefit plan investors exceed this 25% limit, we may redeem their interests at a price equal to the then current NAV per share or transfer their interests to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary. See “ERISA Considerations—The 25% Limit” for more information.

 

Furthermore, our charter provides that, in the event we determine in our discretion that there is a material likelihood that we would be a fiduciary under applicable law with respect to an investor that is subject to ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code (e.g., an IRA), we have the authority to redeem such investor’s interests at a price equal to the then current NAV per share.

 

These restrictions could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or change in control of us that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

 

Investment Criteria, Minimum Investment and Transfer Restrictions

 

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 18(b)(4)(D)(ii) of the Securities Act and Rule 251(d)(2)(i)(C) of Regulation A, purchasers of our common stock must be “qualified purchasers,” which means that they are required to satisfy certain investment criteria regarding their net worth or income. Purchasers must either (i) be an accredited investor or (ii) if you are not an accredited investor, the investment in the shares is not more than 10% of the greater of: (a) if you are a natural person: (1) your individual net worth, or joint net worth with your spouse, excluding the value of your primary residence; or (2) your individual income, or joint income with your spouse, received in each of the two most recent years and you have a reasonable expectation that an investment in the shares will not exceed 10% of your individual or joint income in the current year or (b) if you are not a natural person, (1) your revenue, as of your most recently completed fiscal year end; or (2) your net assets, as of your most recently completed fiscal year end. See “Investment Criteria” on page iii of this offering circular for more information.

 

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No stockholder shall, without the prior written approval of the board of directors, transfer any shares of Capital Stock if, in the opinion of counsel, such transfer would result in our being required to become a reporting company under the Exchange Act. Any such transfer shall be void ab initio and the intended transferee shall acquire no rights in such shares of Capital Stock. This restriction shall not apply at any time (i) that we have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act or are filing reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) under the Exchange Act or (ii) after the board of directors adopts a resolution to such effect.

 

All subsequent sales must comply with applicable state and federal securities laws.

 

The minimum investment required in this offering is 100 shares of common stock, or $1,000 based on the initial offering price of $10.00 per share. Pursuant to a board policy, you may not transfer your shares of common stock in a manner that causes you or your transferee to own fewer than the number of shares of common stock required to meet the minimum purchase requirements, except for the following transfers without consideration: transfers by gift; transfers by inheritance; intrafamily transfers; family dissolutions; transfers to affiliates; and transfers by operation of law. These minimum investment requirements are applicable unless and until our shares of common stock are listed on a national securities exchange, and these requirements may make it more difficult for you to sell your shares of common stock. We cannot assure you that our shares of common stock will ever be listed on a national securities exchange.

 

Dividends

 

We expect that we will declare and pay dividends on a quarterly basis, or more or less frequently as advised by our Manager, in arrears, based on daily record dates. Any dividends we make will be following consultation with our Manager, and will be based on, among other factors, our present and reasonably projected future cash flow. We will set the rate of dividends at a level that will be reasonably consistent and sustainable over time. We have not established a minimum distribution level, and our charter does not require that we pay dividends to our stockholders.

 

Generally, our policy will be to pay dividends from cash flow from operations. During our offering stage, when we may raise capital in this offering more quickly than we acquire income-producing assets, and for some period after our offering stage, we may not be able to pay dividends solely from our cash flow from operations. Further, because we may receive property income or other revenue at various times during our fiscal year and because we may need cash flow from operations during a particular period to fund capital expenditures and other expenses, we expect that at least during the early stages of our development and from time to time during our operational stage, we will declare dividends in anticipation of cash flow that we expect to receive during a later period and we will pay these dividends in advance of our actual receipt of these funds. In these instances, we expect to look to third party borrowings or lines of credit to fund our dividends. We may also fund such dividends from the sale of assets or other investments. Our charter permits us to pay dividends from any source, including offering proceeds or borrowings (which may constitute a return of capital), and our charter does not limit the amount of funds we may use from any source to pay such dividends. If we pay dividends from sources other than our cash flow from operations, we will have less funds available for investment in properties and other assets.

 

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must make aggregate annual dividends to our stockholders of at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (which is computed without regard to the dividends-paid deduction or net capital gain and which does not necessarily equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP). If we meet the REIT qualification requirements, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the income that we distribute to our stockholders each year. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations – Requirements for Qualification – Annual Distribution Requirements.” Our board of directors may authorize dividends in excess of those required for us to maintain REIT status depending on our financial condition and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.

 

Dividends that you receive, and which are not designated by us as capital gain dividends, will generally be taxed as ordinary income to the extent they are from current or accumulated earnings and profits. To the extent any portion of your distribution is not from current or accumulated earnings and profits, it will not be subject to tax immediately; it will be considered a return of capital for tax purposes and will reduce the tax basis of your investment (and potentially result in taxable gain upon your sale of the stock). Dividends that constitute a return of capital, in effect, defer a portion of your tax until your investment is sold or we are liquidated, at which time you will be taxed at capital gains rates. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Stockholders – Taxation of Taxable Domestic Stockholders – Dividends” for an additional discussion of these rules. However, because each investor’s tax considerations are different, we suggest that you consult with your tax advisor.

 

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Business Combinations

 

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and any interested stockholder, or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder, are prohibited for five years following the most recent date on which the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:

 

any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock after the date on which the corporation had 100 or more beneficial owners of its stock; or

 

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question and after the date on which the corporation had 100 or more beneficial owners of its stock, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

 

After such five-year period, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

 

These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the Maryland General Corporation Law) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. In addition, a person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. The board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.

 

These provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting any business combinations between us and any other person or entity from the business combination provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any person as described above. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interest of our stockholders without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute.

 

None of these provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law will apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by the board of directors of the corporation prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. We have opted out of these provisions by resolution of our board of directors. However, our board of directors may, by resolution, opt in to the business combination statute in the future.

 

Control Share Acquisitions

 

The Maryland General Corporation Law provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to any control shares except to the extent approved at a special meeting of stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock of a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (a) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition; (b) an officer of the corporation; or (c) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

a majority or more of all voting power.

 

Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

 

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the Maryland General Corporation Law), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares acquired or to be acquired in the control share acquisition. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

 

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If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights, unless these specific appraisal rights are eliminated under the charter or bylaws.

 

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to: (a) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or (b) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

 

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our stock. There can be no assurance that this provision will not be amended or eliminated by the board at any time in the future.

 

Exclusive Forum

 

Our bylaws contain a provision designating the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland (or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division) as the sole and exclusive forum for derivative claims brought on our behalf, claims against any of our directors, officers or other employees alleging a breach of duty owed to us or our stockholders, claims against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law or our charter or bylaws, claims against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine, and any other claims brought by or on behalf of any stockholder of record or any beneficial owner of our common stock (either on his, her or its own behalf or on behalf of any series or class of shares of our stock or any group of our stockholders) against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees, unless we consent to an alternative forum. However, it is possible that a court could find our forum selection provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable.

 

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

 

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from:

 

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or

 

active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action.

 

Our charter contains such a provision that eliminates directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. These limitations of liability do not apply to liabilities arising under the federal securities laws and do not generally affect the availability of equitable remedies such as injunctive relief or rescission.

 

Our charter also authorizes our company, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to obligate our company to indemnify any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at the request of our company, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding.

 

Our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at the request of our company, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our charter and bylaws also permit our company to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served a predecessor of our company in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

 

Maryland law requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Maryland law permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

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the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

 

However, under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, Maryland law permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

a written undertaking by him or her on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

 

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, executive officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

We are not selling the shares through commissioned sales agents or underwriters. We will use our existing website, www.streitwise.com, to provide notification of the offering. This Offering Circular will be furnished to prospective investors at www.streitwise.com via download 24 hours per day, 7 days per week on our website. Our website and FundAmerica’s technology platform will be the exclusive means by which prospective investors may subscribe in this offering.

 

Payments for subscriptions must be transmitted directly by wire or electronic funds transfer via ACH to the specified bank account maintained by FundAmerica pursuant to the instructions in the subscription agreement.

 

To ensure that any account changes or updates are made promptly and accurately, all changes and updates should be directed to the transfer agent, including any change to a stockholder’s address, ownership type, or distribution mailing address, as well as stockholder repurchase requests under our share repurchase program.

 

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STOCKHOLDER REDEMPTION PLAN

 

Quarterly Redemption Plan

 

While you should view your investment as long-term, we have adopted a stockholder redemption plan which may provide an opportunity for our stockholders to have their shares of our common stock redeemed by us, subject to certain restrictions and limitations. Shares may not be redeemed under our stockholder redemption plan until the first anniversary of the date such shares were purchased.

 

The purchase price for shares redeemed under our stockholder redemption plan will be as follows:

 

Holding Period from Date of Purchase   Redemption Price(1) (2)
Less than 1 year   No redemption allowed
1 year until 2 years   90.0% of NAV
2 years until 3 years   92.5% of NAV
3 years until 4 years   95.0% of NAV
4 years until 5 years   97.5% of NAV
5 years or more   100% of NAV
In the event of a stockholder’s death or complete disability   100% of NAV

 

 

(1)For purposes of the stockholder redemption plan, the per share redemption price will be calculated as a percentage of the NAV per share in effect at the time of the redemption. The redemption price per share for shares redeemed pursuant to the stockholder redemption plan will be further reduced by the aggregate amount of net proceeds per share, if any, distributed to our stockholders following the date that the NAV per share in effect at the time of the redemption was established but prior to the redemption date as a result of the sale of one or more of our assets that constitutes a return of capital distribution as a result of such sales. In addition, the redemption price will be reduced by the aggregate sum of dividends, if any, declared on the shares subject to the redemption request with record dates during the period between the quarter-end redemption request date and the redemption date. For more details on how our Manager will determine the net asset value, see “Plan of Operation—Valuation Policies” and “Plan of Operation—Quarterly NAV Share Price Adjustments.”

 

(2)A stockholder requesting redemption will be responsible for paying or reimbursing us for any third-party costs incurred by us as a result of the redemption request, including but not limited to, bank transaction charges, custody fees, taxes, assessments and/or transfer agent charges.

 

Redemption of shares of our common stock will be made quarterly upon written request to us at least 15 days prior to the end of the applicable quarter. We intend to provide notice of redemption by the last business day of each quarter, with an effective redemption date as of the last day of each quarter, and to endeavor to remit the redemption price within 14 days of the end of such quarter; although payment of the redemption price may be delayed until 21 days after the end of such quarter, due to exigent circumstances, including, without limitation, (1) our partner real estate operators or borrower(s) fail to provide adequate information regarding the assets within a time period that allows us to perform our NAV calculation, which in turn would prevent us from determining share redemption prices; (2) macro-economic crises or property-level events, such as damage to the property, that may affect our ability to make redemptions or determine NAV; and (3) our payment processing provider chooses to discontinue service or has technical outages that prevent us from processing share redemptions in a timely manner. Stockholders may withdraw their redemption request at any time up to three (3) business days prior to the redemption date. If we agree to honor a redemption request, the shares of our common stock to be redeemed will cease to accrue dividends or have voting rights as of the redemption date.

 

Because the Company’s NAV per share will be calculated at the end of each quarter, the redemption price may change between the date the Company receives the redemption request and the redemption date. As a result, the redemption price that a stockholder will receive may be different from the redemption price on the day the redemption request is made.

 

Upon the redemption of any shares of our common stock, the redemption price will be reduced by the aggregate sum of dividends, if any, declared on the shares subject to the redemption request with record dates during the period between the quarter-end redemption request date and the date of redemption. If a redemption date with respect to shares of our common stock comes after the record date for the payment of a distribution to be paid on those shares but before the payment or distribution, the registered holders of those shares at the close of business on such record date will be entitled to receive the distribution on the payment date, notwithstanding the redemption of those shares or our default in payment of the distribution.

 

We cannot guarantee that the funds set aside for the redemption plan will be sufficient to accommodate all requests made in any quarter. In the event that we do not have sufficient funds available to redeem all of the shares of our common stock for which redemption requests have been submitted in any quarter, we plan to redeem shares of our common stock on a pro rata basis on the redemption date. In addition, if we redeem less than all of the shares subject to a redemption request in any quarter, with respect to any unredeemed shares, you can: (i) withdraw your request for redemption; or (ii) ask that we honor your request in a future quarter, if any, when such redemptions can be made pursuant to the limitations of the redemption plan when sufficient funds are available. Such pending requests will be honored on a pro rata basis along with any new requests received in that future quarter. For investors who hold shares of our common stock with more than one record date, redemption requests will be applied to such shares in the order in which they were purchased, on a first in first out basis.

 

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We are not obligated to redeem shares of our common stock under the redemption plan. We will limit the number of shares to be redeemed during any calendar year to 5.0% of the weighted average number of shares of our common stock outstanding during the prior calendar year (or 1.25% per quarter, with excess capacity carried over to later quarters in the calendar year). In addition, our Manager may, in its sole discretion, amend, suspend, or terminate the redemption plan at any time, including to protect our operations and our non-redeemed stockholders, to prevent an undue burden on our liquidity, to preserve our status as a REIT, following any material decrease in our NAV, or for any other reason. Our limits on ownership of our shares also may require us to decline redemption requests that would cause other stockholders to exceed such ownership limits. In addition, in order to comply with certain of the distribution requirements applicable to REITs we will decline to honor any redemption request that we believe is a “dividend equivalent” redemption as discussed in “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders—Redemptions of Common Stock.” The Manager may also, in its sole discretion, decline any particular redemption request if it believes such action is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT. Therefore, you may not have the opportunity to make a redemption request prior to any potential termination of our redemption plan.

 

We will treat a repurchase request that would cause a stockholder to own less than 100 shares of our common stock as a request to repurchase all of his or her shares of common stock, and we will vary from pro rata treatment of repurchases as necessary to avoid having stockholders holding fewer than 100 shares of our common stock or in other special situations determined by our board of directors.

 

In several respects we would treat repurchases sought upon a stockholder’s death or complete disability differently from other repurchases:

 

there is no one-year holding requirement; and

 

the purchase price for the redeemed shares will be equal to 100% of NAV per share (as described above).

 

Our Manager, in its sole discretion, will determine in good faith whether a stockholder becomes completely disabled based on the definition of “disabled” under the federal Social Security Act. The federal Social Security Act generally defines disabled or disability as the inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity because of a medically determinable physical or mental impairment(s) that either (i) can be expected to result in death or (ii) has lasted or that we can expect to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months. Our Manager may rely on a determination made by the Social Security Administration’s office in the stockholder’s state in making its determination that the stockholder’s medical condition is considered a disability under the Social Security Act.

 

Repurchase upon complete disability will only be available to stockholders who become completely disabled after the purchase of their shares. If the shares are purchased by joint owners, the repurchase upon complete disability or death will be available when either joint owner first becomes completely disabled or dies.

 

A stockholder requesting redemption will be responsible for paying or reimbursing us for any third-party costs incurred as a result of the redemption request, including but not limited to, bank transaction charges, custody fees, taxes, assessments and/or transfer agent charges.

 

In addition, our Manager may, in its sole discretion, amend, suspend, or terminate the redemption plan at any time, including to protect our operations and our remaining stockholders, to prevent an undue burden on our liquidity, to preserve our status as a REIT, following any material decrease in our NAV, or for any other reason. The Manager may also, in its sole discretion, decline any particular redemption request if it believes such action is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT (for example, if a redemption request would cause a non-redeeming stockholder to violate certain ownership limits applicable to REITs or if a redemption constitutes a “dividend equivalent redemption” that could give rise to a preferential dividend issue, to the extent applicable). Therefore, you may not have the opportunity to make a redemption request prior to any potential termination of our redemption plan.

 

We have the right to monitor the trading patterns of stockholders or their financial advisors and we reserve the right to reject any purchase or redemption transaction at any time based on what we deem to be a pattern of excessive, abusive or short-term trading. We expect that there will be no regular secondary trading market for the shares of our common stock in the near term. However, in the event a secondary market for our shares develops, we will terminate our redemption plan.

 

For more information about our stockholder redemption plan or to submit a redemption request, please contact us by email at equity@streitwise.com

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF
1st stREIT OFFICE OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP

 

The following summary of the terms of the Second Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of our Operating Partnership does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Second Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of 1st stREIT Office Operating Partnership LP, a copy of which is an exhibit to the offering statement of which this offering circular is a part. See “Additional Information.” References in this section to “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to 1st stREIT Office Inc.

 

Management

 

We are the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership, which is organized as a Delaware limited partnership. We expect to conduct substantially all of our operations and make substantially all of our investments through our Operating Partnership. Pursuant to the partnership agreement, we have full, exclusive and complete responsibility and discretion in the management and control of our Operating Partnership, including the ability to cause our Operating Partnership to enter into certain major transactions including acquisitions, dispositions and refinancings, pay dividends to partners, and to cause changes in our Operating Partnership’s business activities. The partnership agreement will require that our Operating Partnership be operated in a manner that permits us to qualify as a REIT.

 

Transferability of General Partner Interests; Extraordinary Transactions

 

We may voluntarily withdraw from our Operating Partnership or transfer or assign our interest in our Operating Partnership or engage in any merger, consolidation or other combination, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets without obtaining the consent of limited partners if either:

 

following such transaction, the equity holders of the surviving entity are substantially identical to our existing stockholders;

 

as a result of such a transaction, all limited partners (other than our company), will receive for each common unit an amount of cash, securities and other property equal in value to the greatest amount of cash, securities and other property paid in the transaction to a holder of shares of our common stock, provided that if, in connection with the transaction, a purchase, tender or exchange offer shall have been made to and accepted by the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, each holder of OP Units (other than those held by our company or its subsidiaries) shall be given the option to exchange its OP Units for the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property that a limited partner would have received had it (A) exercised its redemption right (described below) and (B) sold, tendered or exchanged pursuant to the offer the shares of our common stock received upon exercise of the redemption right immediately prior to the expiration of the offer;

 

if immediately after such a transaction (i) substantially all of the assets of the successor or surviving entity, other than OP Units held by us, are owned, directly or indirectly, by our Operating Partnership, provided that if, in connection with the transaction, a purchase, tender or exchange offer shall have been made to and accepted by the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, each holder of OP Units (other than those held by our company or its subsidiaries) shall be given the option to exchange its OP Units for the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property that a limited partner would have received had it (A) exercised its redemption right (described below) and (B) sold, tendered or exchanged pursuant to the offer the shares of our common stock received upon exercise of the redemption right immediately prior to the expiration of the offer; or

 

the transaction is to a wholly-owned subsidiary.

 

Following such transfers the General Partner may withdraw as the general partner.

 

Limited partners generally have no voting or consent rights, except as set forth above and for certain amendments to the partnership agreement. Amendments to reflect the issuance of additional partnership interests or to set forth or modify the designations, rights, powers, duties and preferences of holders of any additional partnership interests in the partnership may be made by the general partner without the consent of the limited partners. In addition, amendments that would not adversely affect the rights of the limited partners in any material respect and certain other specified types of amendments may be made by the general partner without the consent of the limited partners. Otherwise, amendments to the partnership agreement that would adversely affect the rights of the limited partners in any material respect must be approved by limited partners holding a majority of the OP Units (including the OP Units held by our company and our affiliates) and, if such amendments would modify certain provisions of the partnership agreement relating to dividends, allocations, and redemptions, among others, the consent of a majority in interest of the OP Units held by limited partners (other than our company and our affiliates) is required if such an amendment would disproportionately affect such limited partners. In addition, any amendment to the partnership agreement that would convert a limited partner interest into a general partner interest (except for our acquiring such interest) or modify the limited liability of a limited partner would require the consent of each limited partner adversely affected or otherwise will be effective against only those limited partners who provide consent.

 

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Capital Contributions

 

We will contribute, directly, to our Operating Partnership substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering and the private placements to our Sponsor and substantially all assets directly acquired by us in connection with the formation transactions as our initial capital contribution in exchange for OP Units. The partnership agreement provides that if our Operating Partnership requires additional funds at any time in excess of funds available to our Operating Partnership from borrowing or capital contributions, we may borrow such funds from a financial institution or other lender and lend such funds to our Operating Partnership on the same terms and conditions as are applicable to our borrowing of such funds. Under the partnership agreement, if we issue any additional equity securities, we are obligated to contribute the proceeds from such issuance as additional capital to our Operating Partnership and we will receive additional OP Units with economic interests substantially similar to those of the securities we issued. In addition, if we contribute additional capital to our Operating Partnership, we generally will revalue the property of our Operating Partnership to its fair market value (as determined by us) and the capital accounts of the partners will be adjusted to reflect the manner in which the unrealized gain or loss inherent in such property (that has not been reflected in the capital accounts previously) would be allocated among the partners under the terms of the partnership agreement if there were a taxable disposition of such property for its fair market value (as determined by us) on the date of the revaluation. Our operating partnership may issue preferred partnership interests, in connection with acquisitions of property, our issuance of preferred shares or otherwise, which could have priority over common partnership interests with respect to dividends from our Operating Partnership, including the partnership interests we own.

 

Redemption Rights

 

Pursuant to the partnership agreement, any future limited partners, other than our company or our subsidiaries (except to the extent described below), will receive redemption rights, which, beginning one year after issuance, will enable them to cause our Operating Partnership to redeem the OP Units held by such limited partners in exchange for cash or, at our option, shares of our common stock on a one-for-one basis. The cash redemption amount per common unit would be calculated as a percentage of the NAV per share in effect at the time of the redemption, determined in the same manner as payments under our stockholder redemption plan for shares of our common stock. The number of shares of our common stock issuable upon redemption of OP Units held by limited partners may be adjusted upon the occurrence of certain events such as stock dividends, stock subdivisions or combinations. We expect to fund cash redemptions, if any, out of available cash or borrowings. To the extent we assume the redemption request by issuing shares of our common stock to a redeeming limited partner, the redeeming limited partner could then redeem those shares for cash pursuant to our stockholder redemption plan. The partnership agreement provides that, until such time as our common stock is listed for trading on a stock exchange, a limited partner may make its redemption request contingent on such limited partner’s OP Units either (i) being redeemed by the Operating Partnership for cash or (ii) being acquired by us in exchange for shares of our common stock and then those shares being redeemed pursuant to our stockholder redemption plan. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a limited partner will not be entitled to exercise its redemption rights if the delivery of common stock to the redeeming limited partner could cause:

 

the redeeming partner or any other person to violate any of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter;

 

a termination of our Operating Partnership for U.S. federal or state income tax purposes (except as a result of the redemption of all units other than those owned by us);

 

our Operating Partnership to cease to be classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes (except as a result of the redemption of all units other than those owned by us);

 

our Operating Partnership to become, with respect to any employee benefit plan subject to Title I of ERISA, a “party-in-interest”(as defined in Section 3(14) of ERISA) or a “disqualified person” (as defined in Section 4975(e) of the Code);

 

any portion of the assets of our Operating Partnership to constitute assets of any employee benefit plan pursuant to Department of Labor Regulations Section 2510.2-101;

 

our Operating Partnership to become a “publicly traded partnership,” as such term is defined in Section 7704(b) of the Code, that is taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

our Operating Partnership to be regulated under the Investment Company Act, the Investment Advisers Act, or ERISA; or

 

an adverse effect on our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT or, except with our consent, cause any taxes to become payable by us under Section 857 or Section 4981 of the Code.

 

We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, waive any of these restrictions.

 

In addition to the foregoing, (i) to the extent we redeem common stock of the REIT, the Operating Partnership may redeem common units held by the REIT in order to give effect to such redemption of common stock and (ii) the Operating Partnership may make certain other anti-dilutive adjustments to the REIT’s ownership of common units in order to effect the varying economic arrangements between the REIT on the one hand and the other investors in the Operating Partnership on the other hand (i.e., the disproportionate bearing of certain fees and expenses).

 

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Reimbursement of Expenses

 

In addition to the administrative and operating costs and expenses incurred by our Operating Partnership, our Operating Partnership generally will pay all of our administrative costs and expenses, including:

 

all expenses relating to our formation and continuity of existence and operation;

 

all expenses relating to our organizational costs and the costs of this offering in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, though the Operating Partnership may pay such excess amounts provided the Manager bears these costs through a reduction in the Management Fee;

 

all expenses relating to registrations and repurchases of securities;

 

all expenses associated with the preparation and filing of any of our periodic or other reports and communications under U.S. federal, state or local laws or regulations;

 

all expenses associated with our compliance with laws, rules and regulations promulgated by any regulatory body;

 

all expenses for compensation of our directors, director nominees, officers and employees; and

 

all of our other operating or administrative costs incurred in the ordinary course of business on behalf of our Operating Partnership.

 

Fiduciary Responsibilities

 

Our directors and officers have duties under applicable Maryland law to manage our company in a manner consistent with the best interests of our stockholders. At the same time, we, as the general partner of our Operating Partnership, will have fiduciary duties under applicable Delaware law to manage our Operating Partnership in a manner beneficial to our Operating Partnership and its partners. Our duties to our Operating Partnership and its limited partners, therefore, may come into conflict with the duties of our directors and officers to our stockholders. The limited partners of our Operating Partnership expressly will acknowledge that, as the general partner of our Operating Partnership, we are acting for the benefit of our Operating Partnership, the limited partners and our stockholders collectively. When deciding whether to cause our Operating Partnership to take or decline to take any actions, we, as the general partner, will be under no obligation to give priority to the separate interest of (i) the limited partners in our Operating Partnership (including, without limitation, tax considerations of our limited partners except as provided in a separate written agreement) or (ii) our stockholders.

 

Dividends

 

The partnership agreement will provide that, subject to the terms of any preferred partnership interests, our Operating Partnership will make non-liquidating dividends at such time and in such amounts as determined by us in our sole discretion, to us and the limited partners in accordance with their respective percentage interests in our Operating Partnership.

 

Upon liquidation of our Operating Partnership, after payment of, or adequate provision for, debts and obligations of the partnership, including any partner loans and subject to the terms of any preferred partnership interests, any remaining assets of the partnership will be distributed to us and the limited partners with positive capital accounts in accordance with their respective positive capital account balances.

 

Allocations

 

Profits and losses of the partnership (including depreciation and amortization deductions) for each taxable year generally will be allocated to us and the other limited partners in accordance with the respective percentage interests in the partnership, subject to certain allocations to be made with respect to LTIP Units as described below or the terms of any preferred partnership interests or to effect the varying economic arrangements between the REIT on the one hand and the other investors in the Operating Partnership on the other hand (i.e., the disproportionate bearing of certain fees and expenses). All of the foregoing allocations are subject to compliance with the provisions of Sections 704(b) and 704(c) of the Code and Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder. To the extent Treasury Regulations promulgated pursuant to Section 704(c) of the Code permit, we, as the general partner, shall have the authority to elect the method to be used by our Operating Partnership for allocating taxable items with respect to any contributed property acquired in connection with this offering or thereafter for which fair market value differs from the adjusted tax basis at the time of contribution, or with respect to properties that are revalued and carried for purposes of maintaining capital accounts at a value different from adjusted tax basis at the time of revaluation, and such election shall be binding on all partners.

 

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Special Allocations and Adjustments

 

Pursuant to the management agreement, we will pay or reimburse our Manager for organization and offering expenses in an amount not to exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering (and up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings), which, if we raise the maximum offering amount, will equal up to $1,500,000 in this offering. Because the organization and offering expenses will be paid or borne by the Operating Partnership, the partnership agreement provides that the Operating Partnership will specially allocate to us (and not the other limited partners) all items of loss or deduction attributable to such organizational and offering expenses.  As a result of these special allocations, upon the final closing of the offering (and at such other times that we determine it is appropriate to make such adjustments), we will adjust the number of OP Units held by the limited partners (other than us) so that such limited partners get the benefit of not bearing such organization and offering expenses (i.e., the percentage interest of the limited partners, other than us, will increase so that the amounts they have contributed per OP Unit are equivalent to the amounts contributed by us per OP Unit after taking into account the special allocations of organization and offering expenses). In addition, the limited partners (other than us) will be issued additional OP Units with an aggregate value equivalent to the amount of additional distributions that such limited partners would have received from the Operating Partnership had such limited partner held the number of OP Units following the adjustment described in the previous sentence at all times since the commencement of the offering.  To the extent these organization and offering expenses exceed 3% of the gross proceeds that we raise in this offering, the Manager will bear such expenses. However, rather than the Manager paying such excess expenses directly, we will pay or reimburse such amounts directly, in which case, the Manager will bear such amounts through a reduction in future Management Fees payable by the Operating Partnership. SW Office I LTIP, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and affiliate of our Sponsor (“LTIP Office I”), will be entitled to receive long-term incentive plan units, or LTIP units, in our Operating Partnership to the extent our organization and offering expenses are less than 3% of the gross proceeds we raise in the offering or less than 3% of the gross proceeds of any future offerings (in each case, excluding any proceeds attributable to shares sold to our Manager or its affiliates) (the “Offering Expense Savings”). The amount of LTIP Units LTIP Office I receives will be equal to the Offering Expense Savings divided by the greater of (i) $10.00 per unit or (ii) our net asset value, or NAV, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the end of the prior fiscal quarter on a fully diluted basis (NAV per share). If any such LTIP Units are issued to LTIP Office I, the limited partners (other than us) shall be issued LTIP Units so that each such limited partner is holding a number of LTIP Units and OP Units sufficient to give such limited partner a percentage interest following the issuance of LTIPs to LTIP Office I that is the same as such limited partner’s percentage interest immediately prior to the issuance of LTIPs to LTIP Office I (i.e., we will be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the LTIP Office I, but the limited partners, other than us, will not be diluted by the LTIPs issued to the LTIP Office I).

 

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LTIP Units

 

We may cause our Operating Partnership to issue LTIP Units, which are intended to qualify as “profits interests” in our Operating Partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to persons providing services to our Operating Partnership. LTIP Units may be issued subject to vesting requirements, which, if they are not met, may result in the automatic forfeiture of any LTIP Units issued. Generally, LTIP Units will be entitled to the same non-liquidating distributions and allocations of profits and losses as the OP Units on a per unit basis.

 

As with OP Units, liquidating distributions with respect to LTIP Units are made in accordance with the positive capital account balances of the holders of these LTIP Units to the extent associated with these LTIP Units. However, unlike OP Units, upon issuance, LTIP Units generally will have a capital account equal to zero. Upon the sale of all or substantially all of the assets of our Operating Partnership or a book-up event for tax purposes in which the book values of our Operating Partnership’s assets are adjusted, holders of LTIP Units will be entitled to priority allocations of book gain that may be allocated by our Operating Partnership to increase the value of their capital accounts associated with their LTIP Units until these capital accounts are equal, on a per unit basis, to the capital accounts associated with the OP Units. However, if, following the issuance of an LTIP Unit, the assets of the operating partnership are booked down in connection with a book-up event prior to a time at which the LTIP Unit has been specially allocated book gain in an amount necessary to bring its associated capital account balance to the same level as the capital account balance of an OP Unit, book-up gains with respect to subsequent book-up events will not be specially allocated on a priority basis to the LTIP Unit until the cumulative book-up gains of the operating partnership exceed cumulative book losses of the operating partnership during the period from the issuance of such LTIP Unit through the date of such allocation. The amount of these priority allocations will determine the liquidation value of the LTIP Units. In addition, once the capital account associated with a vested LTIP Unit has increased to an amount equal, on a per unit basis, to the capital accounts associated with the OP Units, that LTIP Unit generally may be converted into an OP Unit. The book gain that may be allocated to increase the capital accounts associated with LTIP Units is comprised in part of unrealized gain, if any, inherent in the property of our Operating Partnership on an aggregate basis at the time of a book-up event. Book-up events are events that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, require a partnership to revalue its property and allocate any unrealized gain or loss since the last book-up event to its partners. Book-up events generally include, among other things, the issuance or redemption by a partnership of more than a de minimis partnership interest.

 

LTIP Units are not entitled to the redemption right described above, but any OP Units into which LTIP Units are converted are entitled to this redemption right. LTIP Units, generally, vote with the OP Units and do not have any separate voting rights except in connection with actions that would materially and adversely affect the rights of the LTIP Units.

 

Term

 

Our operating partnership will continue indefinitely, or until sooner dissolved upon:

 

our bankruptcy, dissolution or withdrawal (unless the limited partners elect to continue the partnership);

 

the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of our Operating Partnership;

 

an election by us in our capacity as the general partner; or

 

entry of a decree of judicial dissolution.

 

Tax Matters

 

Our partnership agreement will provide that we, as the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership, will be the tax matters partner or partnership representative of our Operating Partnership and will have authority to handle tax audits and to make tax elections under the Code on behalf of our Operating Partnership.

 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

The following is a summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a REIT and relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our shares of common stock. Because this is a summary that is intended to address only certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership and disposition of our common stock generally applicable to holders, it may not contain all the information that may be important to you. As you review this discussion, you should keep in mind that:

 

the tax consequences to you may vary depending on your particular tax situation;

 

special rules that are not discussed below may apply to you if, for example, you are a broker-dealer, a trust, an estate, a regulated investment company, a REIT, a financial institution, an insurance company, a person who holds 10% or more (by vote or value) of our stock, a person holding their interest through a partnership or similar pass-through entity, a person subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code, a person holding our common stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “short sale,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment, a person who marks-to market our common stock or preferred stock, a U.S. expatriate, a U.S. stockholder (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar or are otherwise subject to special tax treatment under the Code;

 

this summary does not address state, local or non-U.S. tax considerations;

 

this summary does not address other federal tax considerations aside from U.S. federal income taxes, such as alternative minimum taxes or estate taxes;

 

this summary assumes that stockholders hold our common stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code;

 

this summary does not address U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to tax-exempt organizations and non-U.S. persons, except to the limited extent described below; and

 

this discussion is not intended to be, and should not be construed as, tax advice.

 

You are urged both to review the following discussion and to consult with your own tax advisor to determine the effect of ownership and disposition of our common stock on your particular tax situation, including any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences.

 

For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “us” or “our” and any similar terms, refer solely to 1st stREIT Office Inc. and not our Operating Partnership or any other subsidiary.

 

The information in this section is based on the current Code, current, temporary and proposed Treasury Regulations, the legislative history of the Code, current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS including its practices and policies as endorsed in private letter rulings, which are not binding on the IRS except in the case of the taxpayer to whom a private letter ruling is addressed, and existing court decisions. Future legislation, regulations, administrative interpretations and court decisions could change current law or adversely affect existing interpretations of current law, possibly with retroactive effect. Any change could apply retroactively. We have not obtained any rulings from the IRS concerning the tax treatment of the matters discussed below. Thus, it is possible that the IRS could challenge the statements in this discussion that do not bind the IRS or the courts, and that a court could agree with the IRS. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. This summary is also based upon the assumption that we will operate 1st stREIT Office Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliated entities in accordance with their applicable organizational documents.

 

The federal income tax treatment of holders of our common stock depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of United States federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. In addition, the tax consequences to any particular stockholder of holding our common stock will depend on the stockholder’s particular tax circumstances. You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the federal, state, local, and foreign income and other tax consequences to you in light of your particular investment or tax circumstances of acquiring, holding, exchanging, or otherwise disposing of our common stock.

 

Taxation of 1st stREIT Office Inc.

 

We intend to elect to be taxed as a REIT beginning with the taxable year ending December 31, 2017, which may be extended by our board of directors until the taxable year ending December 31, 2018. A REIT generally is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on the income that it distributes to stockholders if it meets the applicable REIT distribution requirements and other requirements for qualification.

 

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We believe that our ownership, form of organization and our operations through the date hereof and our proposed ownership, organization and method of operations thereafter have enabled and will enable us to qualify as a REIT beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2017. Our qualification and taxation as a REIT will depend on our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels, diversity of share ownership, and various other qualification tests imposed under the Code discussed below. In addition, our ability to qualify as a REIT depends in part upon the operating results, organizational structure and entity classification for U.S. federal income tax purposes of certain entities in which we invest. Our ability to qualify as a REIT for a particular year also requires that we satisfy certain asset and gross income tests during such year, some of which depend upon the fair market values of assets in which we directly or indirectly own an interest. Such values may not be susceptible to a precise determination. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any taxable year will satisfy such requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.

 

Taxation of REITs in General

 

As indicated above, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Code. The material qualification requirements are summarized below under “—Requirements for Qualification—General.” While we intend to operate so that we qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification, or that we will be able to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Failure to Qualify.”

 

So long as we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay and therefore will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our net income that we distribute currently to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates “double taxation” (that is, taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from an investment in a corporation.

 

However, even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we will be subject to federal income tax as follows:

 

We will be taxed at regular corporate rates on any undistributed “REIT taxable income.” REIT taxable income is the taxable income of the REIT subject to specified adjustments, including a deduction for dividends paid. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

 

Under some circumstances, we may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” on our items of tax preference, including any deductions of net operating losses.

 

If we have net income from “prohibited transactions” we will be subject to a 100% tax on this income. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business other than foreclosure property. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Prohibited Transactions.”

 

If we elect to treat property that we acquire with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid the 100% tax on gain from resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction), but the income from the sale or operation of the property will be subject to tax at the highest corporate rate. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Prohibited Transactions” and “—Requirements for Qualification—Foreclosure Property.”

 

If we fail to satisfy either the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a tax equal to the gross income attributable to the greater of either (1) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test for the taxable year or (2) the amount by which we fail the 95% gross income test for the taxable year, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Income Tests.”

 

If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT asset tests, as described below, other than a failure by a de minimis amount of the 5% or 10% assets tests, and we qualify for and satisfy certain cure provisions, then we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the product of (x) the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests and (y) the highest U.S. federal income tax rate then applicable to corporations. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Asset Tests.”

 

If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a gross income or asset test requirement) and that violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification, but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Failure to Qualify.”

 

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT because we fail to distribute by the end of the relevant year any earnings and profits we inherit from a taxable C corporation during the year (e.g., by tax-free merger or tax-free liquidation), and the failure is not due to fraud with intent to evade tax, we generally may retain our REIT status by paying a special distribution, but we will be required to pay an interest charge on 50% of the amount of undistributed non-REIT earnings and profits. See “—Requirements for Qualification—General.”

 

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We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification—General.”

 

We will be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of amounts actually distributed and amounts retained for which federal income tax was paid, if we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year, 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year; and any undistributed taxable income from prior taxable years. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Annual Distribution Requirement.”

 

We will be subject to a 100% penalty tax on some payments we receive or on certain other amounts (or on certain expenses deducted by our TRS) if arrangements among us, our tenants and/or our TRS are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Effect of Subsidiary Entities.”

 

We may be subject to tax on gain recognized in a taxable disposition of assets acquired by way of a tax-free merger or other tax-free reorganization with a non-REIT corporation or a tax-free liquidation of a non-REIT corporation into us. Specifically, to the extent we acquire any asset from a C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction and we subsequently recognize gain on a disposition of such asset during a five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then, to the extent of any “built-in gain,” such gain will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the highest regular corporate tax rate, which is currently 35%. Built-in gain means the excess of (i) the fair market value of the asset as of the beginning of the applicable recognition period over (ii) our adjusted basis in such asset as of the beginning of such recognition period. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Tax on Built-in Gains of Former C Corporation Assets.”

 

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would: (1) include its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, (2) be deemed to have paid its proportionate share of the tax that we paid on such gain and (3) be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, with an adjustment made to increase the stockholders’ basis in our stock. See “—Taxation of Stockholders—Taxation of Taxable Domestic Stockholders—Dividends.”

 

We may have subsidiaries or own interests in other lower-tier entities that are C corporations that will elect, jointly with us, to be treated as our TRSs, the earnings of which would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax. See “—Requirements for Qualification—Effect of Subsidiary Entities.”

 

No assurance can be given that the amount of any such U.S. federal income taxes will not be substantial. In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state, local and foreign income, franchise, property and other taxes on assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

 

Requirements for Qualification—General

 

We intend to elect to be taxed as a REIT under the Code effective with our taxable year ended December 31, 2017. In order to have so qualified, we must have met and continue to meet the requirements discussed below, relating to our organization, ownership, sources of income, nature of assets and dividends of income to stockholders, beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2017, unless otherwise noted.

 

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust, or association:

 

(1)        that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

(2)        the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

(3)        that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for its election to be subject to tax as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

(4)        that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to applicable provisions of the Code;

 

(5)        the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons for at least 335 days of each taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months;

 

(6)        during the last half of each taxable year not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares of which is owned directly or indirectly by five or fewer “individuals,” as defined in the Code to include specified entities;

 

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(7)        that makes an election to be taxable as a REIT, or has made this election for a previous taxable year, which has not been revoked or terminated, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status;

 

(8)        that uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the Code and regulations promulgated thereunder;

 

(9)        that