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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_______________________________________________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to_________
Commission File Number: 001-38095
_______________________________________________________________________
Ingersoll Rand Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
_______________________________________________________________________
Delaware46-2393770
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
800-A Beaty Street
DavidsonNorth Carolina 28036
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (704655-4000
_______________________________________________________________________
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 Par Value per shareIRNew York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes   No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 401(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2020 was approximately $10.5 billion based on the closing price of such common equity on the New York Stock Exchange on such date.
The registrant had outstanding 418,764,695 shares of Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, as of February 19, 2021.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the registrant’s 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this report.


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PART I
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”) may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. All statements, other than statements of historical facts included in this Form 10-K, including statements concerning our plans, objectives, goals, beliefs, business strategies, future events, business conditions, results of operations, financial position, business outlook, business trends and other information, may be forward-looking statements. Words such as “estimates,” “expects,” “contemplates,” “will,” “anticipates,” “projects,” “plans,” “intends,” “believes,” “forecasts,” “may,” “should,” and variations of such words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based upon our current expectations, beliefs, estimates and projections, and various assumptions, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Our expectations, beliefs, estimates and projections are expressed in good faith and we believe there is a reasonable basis for them. However, there can be no assurance that management’s expectations, beliefs, estimates, and projections will result or be achieved and actual results may vary materially from what is expressed in or indicated by the forward-looking statements.
There are a number of risks, uncertainties, and other important factors, many of which are beyond our control, that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K. Such risks, uncertainties and other important factors include, among others, the risks, uncertainties and factors set forth under “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for more information.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Ingersoll Rand Inc. is a diversified, global provider of mission-critical flow creation products and industrial solutions. The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Ingersoll Rand Inc. and its majority-owned subsidiaries (collectively referred to herein as “Ingersoll Rand,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or “ourselves”).
Merger of Gardner Denver and Ingersoll Rand Industrial
On February 29, 2020, Ingersoll Rand Inc. (formerly known as Gardner Denver Holdings, Inc.) completed the acquisition of and merger with the Industrial business of Ingersoll-Rand plc (“Ingersoll Rand Industrial”) and changed its name from Gardner Denver Holdings, Inc. to Ingersoll Rand Inc.
See Note 3 “Business Combinations” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to the Ingersoll Rand Industrial transaction.
Our Company
We are a global market leader with a broad range of innovative and mission-critical air, fluid, energy, specialty vehicle and medical technologies, providing services and solutions to increase industrial productivity and efficiency. We manufacture one of the broadest and most complete ranges of compressor, pump, vacuum and blower products in our markets, which, when combined with our global geographic footprint and application expertise, allows us to provide differentiated product and service offerings to our customers. Our products are sold under more than 40 market-leading brands, including Ingersoll Rand and Gardner Denver, which we believe are globally recognized in their respective end-markets and known for product quality, reliability, efficiency and superior customer service. We are driven by an entrepreneurial spirit and ownership mindset, dedicated to helping make life better for our employees, customers and communities.
These attributes, along with over 160 years of engineering heritage, generate strong brand loyalty for our products and foster long-standing customer relationships, resulting in leading market positions within each of our operating segments. We have sales in more than 175 countries and our diverse customer base utilizes our products across a wide array of end-markets, including industrial manufacturing, energy (with particular exposure to the North American upstream land-based market), transportation, medical and laboratory sciences, food and beverage packaging and chemical processing.
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Our products and services are critical to the processes and systems in which they are utilized, which are often complex and function in harsh conditions where the cost of failure or downtime is high. However, our products typically represent only a small portion of the costs of the overall systems or functions that they support. As a result, our customers place a high value on our application expertise, product reliability and the responsiveness of our service. To support our customers and market presence, we maintain significant global scale with 65 key manufacturing facilities, approximately 50 complementary service and repair centers across six continents and approximately 15,900 employees worldwide as of December 31, 2020.
The process-critical nature of our product applications, coupled with the standard wear and tear replacement cycles associated with the usage of our products, generates opportunities to support customers with our broad portfolio of aftermarket parts, consumables and services. Customers place a high value on minimizing any time their operations are offline. As a result, the availability of replacement parts, consumables and our repair and support services are key components of our value proposition. Our large installed base of products provides a recurring revenue stream through our aftermarket parts, consumables and services offerings. As a result, our aftermarket revenue is significant, representing 36.1% of total Company revenue and approximately 42.8% of our combined Industrial Technologies and Services and High Pressure Solutions segments’ revenue in 2020.
Our Segments
In conjunction with the acquisition of and merger with Ingersoll Rand Industrial in the first quarter of 2020, we reorganized into the following four segments.
Industrial Technologies and Services
We design, manufacture, market and service a broad range of air and gas compression, vacuum and blower products, fluid transfer equipment, loading systems, power tools and lifting equipment, including associated aftermarket parts, consumables and services. We primarily sell under the Ingersoll Rand, Gardner Denver, CompAir, Elmo Rietschle, Robuschi, Nash and Emco Wheaton brands. Our customers deploy our products across a wide array of technologies and applications for use in diverse end-markets. Compressors are used to increase the pressure of air or gas, vacuum products are used to remove air or gas in order to reduce the pressure below atmospheric levels, and blower products are used to produce a high volume of air or gas at low pressure. Almost every manufacturing and industrial facility, and many service and process industry applications, use air compression, vacuum and blower products in a variety of process-critical applications such as the operation of pneumatic tools, pumps and motion control components, air and gas separation, vacuum packaging of food products and aeration of waste water, among others. Our liquid ring vacuum pumps and compressors are used in many power generation, mining, oil and gas refining and processing, chemical processing and general industrial applications including flare gas and vapor recovery, geothermal gas removal, vacuum de-aeration, water extraction in mining and paper and chlorine compression in petrochemical operations. Our engineered loading systems and fluid transfer equipment ensure the safe handling and transfer of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, chemicals, and bulk materials. Our power tools and lifting equipment portfolio includes electric and cordless fastening systems, pneumatic bolting tools, drilling and material removal tools, hoists, winches and ergonomic handling devices. Typical applications for these products include the precision fastening of bolted joints in the production, assembly and servicing of industrial machinery, on-highway and off-highway vehicles, aircraft, electronics and other equipment.
Our compression products cover the full range of technologies, including rotary screw, reciprocating piston, scroll, rotary vane and centrifugal compressors. Our vacuum products and blowers also cover the full technology spectrum; vacuum technologies include side channel, liquid ring, claw vacuum, screw, turbo and rotary vane vacuum pumps among others, while blower technologies include rotary lobe blowers, screw, claw and vane, side channel and radial blowers. Our liquid ring vacuum pumps and compressors are highly-engineered products specifically designed for continuous duty in harsh environments to serve a wide range of applications, including oil and gas refining and processing, mining, chemical processing and industrial applications. In addition to our vacuum and blower technology, our engineered fluid loading and transfer equipment and systems ensure the safe and efficient transportation and transfer of petroleum products as well as certain other liquid commodity products in a wide range of industries.
We complement these products with a broad portfolio of service options tailored to customer needs and a complete range of aftermarket parts, air treatment equipment, controls and other accessories delivered through our global network of manufacturing and service locations and distributor partners. The breadth and depth of our product offering creates incremental business opportunities by allowing us to cross-sell our full product portfolio and uniquely address customers’ needs in one complete solution.
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We sell our products through an integrated network of direct sales representatives and independent distributors, which is strategically tailored to meet the dynamics of each target geography or end-market. Our large installed base also provides for a significant stream of recurring aftermarket revenue. For example, the useful life of a compressor is, on average, between 10 and 12 years. However, a customer typically services the compressor at regular intervals, starting within the first two years of purchase and continuing throughout the life of the product. The cumulative aftermarket revenue generated by a compressor over the product’s life cycle will typically exceed its original sale price.
Precision and Science Technologies
We design, manufacture and market a broad range of specialized positive displacement pumps, fluid management equipment, liquid and precision syringe pumps and compressors, and aftermarket parts for medical, laboratory, industrial manufacturing, water and wastewater, chemical processing, energy, food and beverage, agriculture and other markets. The Company’s products are used for a diverse set of applications including precision dosing of chemicals and supplements, blood dialysis, oxygen therapy, food processing, fluid transfer and dispensing, spray finishing and coating, mixing, high-pressure air and gas management and others. The Company sells primarily through a broad global network of specialized and national distributors and original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) who integrate the Company’s products into their devices and systems.
Specialty Vehicle Technologies
We design, manufacture and market golf, utility and consumer low-speed vehicles for commercial utility and personal transportation under the Club Car ® brand. Product offerings include new and used electric, gas and diesel-powered vehicles, accessories and aftermarket parts. Service offerings include repair and maintenance, short-term rentals and digital connectivity services that enable fleet management, entertainment and provide enhanced end-user experience.
Sales of golf car fleets and turf utility vehicles are primarily derived from golf courses owners and operators around the world. Utility, all-wheel drive, and multi passenger transport vehicles are used in commercial and maintenance applications at resorts and hospitality sites, government agencies and municipalities, manufacturing and construction firms, sports and other areas, colleges and universities and other commercial establishments. Our consumer vehicles are generally sold to individuals and families for personal transportation in residential communities, camp grounds and vacation locations. All of our low speed vehicles are highly featured, and highly customized for their application and are available in multiple colors, fabrics, power trains and accessories. The majority of sales are derived through a global network of independent distributors and dealers. We also sell our products directly to certain customers within the golf industry, through company-owned sales resources.
The Specialty Vehicle Technologies segment is entirely composed of businesses acquired as part of the Ingersoll Rand Industrial transaction. It had no operations prior to February 29, 2020 and is not included in our results of operations for prior periods.
High Pressure Solutions
We design, manufacture, market and service a diverse range of positive displacement pumps, integrated systems and associated aftermarket parts, consumables and services. The highly-engineered products offered by our High Pressure Solutions segment serve customers in the upstream energy market, as well as petrochemical processing, transportation and general industrial sectors. We are one of the largest suppliers of equipment and associated aftermarket parts, consumables and services for the upstream energy applications that we serve.
Our positive displacement pumps are fit-for-purpose to meet the demands and challenges of modern unconventional drilling and hydraulic fracturing activity. Our offering includes mission-critical oil and gas drilling pumps, frac pumps and well servicing pumps, in addition to sales of associated consumables used in the operation of our pumps. The products we sell into upstream energy applications are highly aftermarket-intensive, and we support these products in the field with one of the industry’s most comprehensive service networks, which encompasses locations across all major basins and shale plays in the North American land market. This service network is critical to serving our customers and, by supporting them in the field, to generating demand for new original equipment sales and aftermarket parts, consumables, service and repair sales which in aggregate are often multiples of the value of the original equipment.
Our customers provide drilling, completions and well services to oil and gas operators, particularly in the major basins and shale plays in the North American land market. We are one of the leading suppliers in these upstream energy applications and have long-standing customer relationships.
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Recent Developments
On February 14, 2021, the Company entered into an agreement to sell its High Pressure Solutions (“HPS”) business to private equity firm American Industrial Partners (“AIP”). Under the agreement, the Company will receive cash consideration of $300 million at close for its majority interest and retain a 45% ownership interest in the HPS business. This transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2021, subject to regulatory approvals and customary closing conditions.
See Note 25 “Subsequent Events” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to this transaction.
Our Industries and Products
Industrial Technologies and Services
Our Industrial Technologies and Services segment designs, manufactures, markets and services a broad range of air compression, vacuum and blower products across a wide array of technologies. Compression, vacuum and blower products are used in a wide spectrum of applications in nearly all manufacturing and industrial facilities and many service and process industries in a variety of end-markets, including infrastructure, construction, transportation, food and beverage packaging and chemical processing.
Compression Products
Sales to industrial end-markets include industrial air compression products, as well as associated aftermarket parts, consumables and services. Industrial air compressors compress air to create pressure to power machinery, industrial tools, material handling systems and automated equipment. Compressed air is also used in applications as diversified as snow making and fish farming, on high-speed trains and in hospitals. Compressors can be either stationary or portable, depending on the requirements of the application or customer.
We focus on five basic types of air compression technologies: rotary screw, reciprocating piston, scroll, rotary vane and centrifugal compressors. Rotary screw compressors are a newer technology than reciprocating compressors and exhibit better suitability for continuous processes due to a more compact size, less maintenance and better noise profile. We believe our reciprocating piston compressors provide one of the broadest ranges of pressures in the market and are supported by increasing demand across wide-ranging attractive end-markets. Scroll compressors are most commonly seen where less oil-free air is needed, and is most commonly used in medical and food applications where the need for pure, clean and precise air is of great importance. Rotary vane compressors feature high efficiency, compact compression technology and can be found throughout all sectors of industry, including automotive, food and beverage, energy and manufacturing with specialized solutions within transit, gas and snow making. Centrifugal compressors are most effective when in applications that demand larger quantities of oil-free air and are utilized across a wide range of industries.
Vacuum Products
Industrial vacuum products are integral to manufacturing processes in applications for packaging, pneumatic conveying, drying, holding / lifting, distillation, evacuation, forming / pressing, removal and coating. Within each of these processes are a multitude of sub-applications. As an example of one such end-process, within packaging, a vacuum will be used on blister packaging, foil handling, labeling, carton erection, stacking and palletizing (placing, stacking or transporting goods on pallets), as well as central vacuum supply for entire packaging departments.
We focus on five basic types of vacuum technologies: side channel, liquid ring, claw vacuum, screw and rotary vane vacuum pumps. Side channel vacuum pumps are used for conveying gases and gas-air mixtures in a variety of applications, including laser printers, packaging, soil treatment, textiles and food and beverage products. Liquid ring vacuum pumps are used for extreme conditions, which prevail in humid and wet processes across ceramics, environmental, medical and plastics applications. Claw vacuum pumps efficiently and economically generate contact-free vacuum for chemical, environmental and packaging applications. Screw vacuum pumps are a dry running technology used to reduce the carbon footprint and life cycle costs in drying and packaging applications. Rotary vane vacuum pumps are used for vacuum and combined pressure and vacuum applications in the environmental, woodworking, packaging and food and beverage end-markets.
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Blower Products
Blower products are used for conveying high volumes of air and gas at various flow rates and at low pressures, and are utilized in a broad range of industrial and environmental applications, including waste water aeration, biogas upgrading and conveying, pneumatic transport and dehydrating applications for food and beverage, cement, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and mobile industrial applications. In many cases, blowers are a core component for the operation of the entire end-users’ systems. Management believes that we hold a leading position in our addressable portion of the global blower products market.
We focus on several key technologies within blower products: rotary lobe, screw, claw and vane, turbo, side channel and radial blowers. Rotary lobe blowers, screw blowers and claw and vane blowers are positive displacement technologies that have the ability to consistently move the same volume of gas or air and vary the volume flow according to the speed of the machine itself enabling it to adapt the flow condition in a flexible manner despite pressure in the system. Turbo blowers and side channel and radial blowers are dynamic technologies that have the ability to accelerate gas or air through an impeller and transform their kinetic energy at the discharge with some limitation on flexibility.
Fluid Transfer Equipment Products
Fluid transfer equipment products includes fluid loading systems, tank truck and fleet fueling products and couplers. Fluid loading systems are used in the transfer and loading of hydrocarbons and certain other liquid commodity products in marine and land applications. Tank truck and fleet fueling products allow for safe transfer of liquid products without spillage or contamination while safeguarding the operator and the environment. Operators use Dry-Break® technology couplers and adapters to provide a secure connection for the transfer of liquid products without spillage or contamination while safeguarding the operator and the environment.
Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps and Compressors
Liquid ring vacuum pumps and compressors are designed for continuous duty in harsh environments, including vapor and flare gas recovery equipment (which recovers and compresses certain polluting gases to transmit them for further processing), primarily in downstream applications. The liquid ring technology utilizes a service liquid, typically water, oil or fuel, to evacuate or compress gas by forming a rotating ring of liquid that follows the contour of the body of the pump or compressor and acts like a piston to deliver an uninterrupted flow of gas without pulsation.
Precision and Science Technologies
The Precision and Science Technologies segment designs, manufactures and markets a broad range of flow control products for the water and wastewater, food & beverage, chemical processing, precision irrigation, energy, medical equipment, laboratory vacuum and automated liquid handling end-markets. Key technologies include positive displacement pumps, gas, liquid and precision syringe pumps, automated liquid handling systems and hydrogen refueling stations.
Our gas pumps are used for a wide range of applications, such as aspirators, blood analyzers, blood pressure monitors, compression therapy, dental carts, dialysis machines, gas monitors and ventilators. Gas pumps transfer and compress gases and generate vacuum to enable precise flow conditions. Our liquid pump products are primarily used to meter and transfer both neutral and chemically aggressive fluids and our automated liquid handling products, which includes syringe pumps, systems and accessories that are integrated into large-scale, automated liquid handling systems, are primarily used for clinical, pharmaceutical and environmental analyses.
Our products are also used for water treatment in municipal, industrial and commercial applications; for pressuring and dispensing in the H2 mobility segment of the hydrogen economy; and for precision irrigation.
Customers in the durable medical pump end-market and the automated liquid handling end-market develop and manufacture equipment used in a highly regulated environment requiring highly specialized technologies. As a result, relationships with customers are built based on a supplier’s long-term reputation, expertise and deep involvement throughout a product’s evolution, from concept to long-term commercialization. Customers value suppliers who can provide global research and development, regulatory and manufacturing support, as well as a sales footprint and expertise to foster close relationships with key decision-makers at their company. Combined with the long product life cycle in the regulated medical device space, these factors create a strong, recurring base of business. As a leading pump manufacturer in these markets, we have established a history of innovation that enables us to work closely with our customers to create highly customized flow control solutions for their unique applications. These products are mission-critical in the ultimate device in which they are deployed and remain a
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key component over the entire lifecycle of the end products. The regulated market structure and nature of long-tenured customer relationships enable pump manufacturers to have a highly visible, recurring revenue stream from key customers.
Specialty Vehicle Technologies
The Company designs, manufactures and markets Club Car ® golf, utility and consumer low-speed vehicles. The Company has a long-standing track record as a leading premium manufacturer with strong brand recognition. Its customers include golf course operators, resorts and hospitality sites, government agencies and municipalities, manufacturing and construction firms, sports and other arenas, colleges and universities and other commercial establishments, as well as individual consumers. The Company sells its products primarily through independent distributors in over eighty countries worldwide and also sells its products directly to consumers.
High Pressure Solutions
Through the manufacture and aftermarket service of pumps and associated aftermarket parts and consumables used in drilling, hydraulic fracturing and well servicing applications, our High Pressure Solutions segment is well-positioned to capitalize on an upstream recovery, particularly in the North American land-based market, where our customers include market-leading hydraulic fracturing (also known as pressure pumping) and contract drilling service companies, as well as certain other types of well service companies. Sales to upstream energy end-markets consist of positive displacement pumps and associated aftermarket parts, most notably fluid ends, as well as consumables and services.
Positive displacement pumps in the upstream energy end-market primarily move fluid to assist in drilling, hydraulic fracturing and well servicing applications. The majority of positive displacement pumps we sell are frac pumps, which experience significant service intensity during use in the field and, as such, typically have useful life spans of approximately four to six years before needing to be replaced. During that useful life, such pumps will need to receive intermittent repairs as well as major overhauls. In addition, we also sell positive displacement pumps that are used in drilling and well servicing applications.
Fluid ends are a key component of positive displacement pumps that generate the pumping action, along with other parts, such as plungers, and consumables, such as valves, seats and packing, which pressurizes the fluid, in the case of drilling or well servicing applications, or fluid and proppant mixture, in the case of hydraulic fracturing, and propels such fluid or mixture out of the pump and into a series of flow lines that distribute the fluid or mixture into the well. Fluid ends are incorporated in original equipment pumps, and due to the highly corrosive nature of the fluids and the abrasive nature of the proppants used in hydraulic fracturing operations, need to be frequently replaced.
The level of profitability at which new wells can be drilled is a primary driver of drilling and completions activities, including hydraulic fracturing. Thus, demand for our High Pressure Solutions products is driven by the prices of crude oil and natural gas, and the intensity and activity levels of drilling and hydraulic fracturing.
Competition
Industrial Technologies and Services
The industrial end-markets we serve are competitive, with an increasing focus on product quality, performance, energy efficiency, customer service and local presence. Although there are several large manufacturers of compression, vacuum and blower products, the marketplace for these products remains highly fragmented due to the wide variety of product technologies, applications and selling channels. Our principal competitors in sales of compression, vacuum and blower products include Atlas Copco AB, Colfax Corp., Flowserve Corporation, IDEX Corporation and Kaeser Compressors, Inc. Our principal competitors in sales of fluid transfer equipment include Dover Corporation, SVT GmbH and TechnipFMC plc. Our principal competitors in the sale of liquid ring pumps and compressors are Flowserve Corporation and Busch-Holding GmbH.
Precision and Science Technologies
Competition in the market served by our Precision and Science Technologies segment is primarily based on product quality and performance, as most products must be qualified by the customer for a particular use. Further, there is an increasing demand for more efficient healthcare solutions, which is driving the adoption of premium and high performance systems. Our primary competitors include IDEX Corporation, Dover Corporation, Graco, SPX Flow, Watson-Marlow, Inc., KNF Neuberger, Inc. and Thermo Fisher Scientific, as well as other regional and local manufacturers.
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Specialty Vehicle Technologies
Competition in the markets served by our Specialty Vehicles Technologies segment is primarily based on product quality, performance and reliability, and strength of distribution network. Principal competitors in the golf and utility markets include E-Z-Go and Yamaha Golf Car Company. Competitors in utility markets also include Toro, John Deere and Polaris. Competition in the market for neighborhood electric vehicles (“NEVs”) and other small electric vehicles used for recreational and commercial purposes is more disaggregated and evolving regularly due to changes in technology and consumer preferences.
High Pressure Solutions
The competitive landscape is specific to the end-markets served. Our principal competitor for drilling pumps is National Oilwell Varco Inc., and for frac pumps is The Weir Group. Additionally, we compete with certain smaller, regional manufacturers of pumps and aftermarket parts, although these are not direct competitors for most of our products.
Customers and Customer Service
We consider superior customer service to be one of our primary pillars of future success and view it as being built upon a foundation of critical application expertise, an industry leading range of compressor, pump, vacuum and blower products, a global manufacturing and sales presence and a long-standing reputation for quality and reliability. Intense customer focus is at the center of our vision of becoming the industry’s first choice for innovative and application-critical flow control and compression equipment, services and solutions. We strive to collaborate with our customers and become an essential part of their engineering process by drawing on our deep industry and application engineering experience to develop best-in-class products that are critical to the processes and systems in which they operate.
We have established strong and long-standing customer relationships with numerous industry leaders. We sell our products directly to end-use customers and to certain OEMs, and indirectly through independent distributors and sales representatives.
We use a direct sales force to serve end-use customers and OEMs because these customers typically require higher levels of technical assistance, more coordinated shipment scheduling and more complex product service than customers that purchase through distributors. We have distribution centers and warehouses that stock parts, accessories and certain products to provide adequate and timely availability.
In addition to our direct sales force, we are also committed to developing and supporting our global network of over 1,000 distributors and representatives who provide a competitive advantage in the markets and industries we serve. These distributors maintain an inventory of complete units and parts and provide aftermarket services to end-users. While most distributors provide a broad range of products from different suppliers, we view our distributors as exclusive at the product category level (e.g. compressor, vacuum and blower). For example, a distributor may exclusively carry our compressor technologies, and also source additional components of the broader industrial system in which those products operate from other suppliers. Our service personnel and product engineers provide the distributors’ service representatives with technical assistance and field training, particularly with respect to installation and repair of equipment. We also provide our distributors with sales and product literature, advertising and sales promotions, order-entry and tracking systems and an annual restocking program. Furthermore, we participate in major trade shows and directly market our offerings to generate sales leads and support the distributors’ sales personnel.
Our customer base is diverse, and we did not have any customers that individually provided more than 1% of 2020 consolidated revenues.
Patents, Tradenames, and Other Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, tradenames, copyrights, trade secrets and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property. While in the aggregate our more than 2,400 patents and our tradenames are of considerable importance to the manufacture and marketing of many of our products, we believe that the success of our business depends more on the technical competence, creativity and marketing abilities of our employees than on any individual patent or tradename, and therefore we do not consider any single patent or tradename, group of patents or tradenames, copyright or trade secret to be material to our business as a whole, except for the Ingersoll Rand and Gardner Denver tradenames. We have registered our tradenames in the countries we deem necessary or in our best interest. We also rely upon trade secret protection for our confidential and proprietary information and techniques, and we routinely enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees as well as our suppliers and other third parties receiving such information.
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Pursuant to tradename license agreements, Cooper Industries has exclusive rights to use the Gardner Denver tradename for certain power tools and their components, meaning that we are prevented from using our mark in connection with those products.
Raw Materials and Suppliers
We purchase a wide variety of raw materials to manufacture our products. Our most significant commodity exposures are to cast iron, aluminum and steel. Additionally, we purchase a large number of motors and, therefore, are also exposed to changes in the price of copper, which is a primary component of motors. Most of our raw materials are generally available from a number of suppliers. We have a limited number of long-term contracts with some suppliers of key components, but we believe that our sources of raw materials and components are reliable and adequate for our needs. We use single sources of supply for certain castings, motors and other select engineered components. A disruption in deliveries from a given supplier could therefore have an adverse effect on our ability to meet commitments to our customers. Nevertheless, we believe that we have appropriately balanced this risk against the cost of maintaining a greater number of suppliers. Moreover, we have sought, and will continue to seek, cost reductions in purchases of materials and supplies by consolidating purchases and pursuing alternate sources of supply.
Human Capital Management
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 15,900 employees of which approximately 5,900 are located in the United States. Of those employees located outside of the United States, a significant portion are represented by works councils and labor unions; of those employees located in the United States, approximately 200 are represented by labor unions. We believe that our current relations with employees are satisfactory.
We evaluate several metrics to ensure the ongoing effectiveness of our human capital management practices, including voluntary turnover and engagement. In 2020, our voluntary turnover for hourly employees was 7.8% and 6.7% for our salaried employees.
We are now introducing a new performance management and development process, which places a heavy emphasis on manager engagement and employee ownership. We highlight employee development and engagement as a standard part of our employee experience.
Health & Safety
Our Environmental, Health, and Safety culture is focused on ensuring the health of our employees by eliminating risks of serious injuries, illness and fatalities through the application of rigorous standards, controls, inspections and audits to help ensure that our operations and premises comply with national and local regulations.
In response to COVID-19 we implemented various measures to protect the health and safety of our employees and customers including work-from-home requirements (where practical), social distancing, contact tracing, enhanced hygiene education and deep-cleaning protocols at all of our facilities as well as travel restrictions, among other measures, complying with applicable governmental regulations and guidance.
Competitive Pay, Benefits and Equity
We think and act like owners. We are driven by an entrepreneurial spirit and an ownership mindset, inspiring us to care deeply about our neighbors and shared planet. In support of this, on September 21, 2020, Ingersoll Rand announced an approximately $150 million equity grant to nearly 16,000 employees worldwide.
Diversity, Equity & Inclusion
As a newly merged company, Ingersoll Rand re-established its commitment to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DE&I”) in 2020. We focused our efforts in a number of areas, beginning with our vision:
Ingersoll Rand’s Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Commitment for our Employees, Partners and Communities:
We will be a DE&I leader within our industry that mirrors the communities and customers we serve. We will leverage diversity, equity and inclusion to exceed our business goals, attract and retain the best talent, and address today’s global challenges.
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Connecting to our value of fostering inspired teams, we cultivate diversity, promote equity and pursue a more inclusive culture that strengthens the sense of belonging for all. We expect individuals to uphold these aspirations with humility, integrity and respect.
This year, we engaged Management Leadership for Tomorrow (“MLT”) to help solidify our strategy and identify clear initiatives to increase representation of underrepresented populations, create greater growth and advancement for all, and accelerate a culture of inclusion.
In terms of diverse representation, we have two focus areas: 1) underrepresented populations in the United States and 2) women globally. Our current employee base consists of 25% underrepresented populations in the U.S. with a 2025 target to increase to 30%. Globally, women represent 22% of our population with a goal of reaching 27% by 2025.
Ingersoll Rand recently launched three initial Employee Inclusion Groups to build stronger global connections, advocate for positive change and foster an inclusive culture in the organization. An executive leader sponsors each group and provides guidance to establish goals in support of our company strategies, culture and values to their global members.
Black Employee Network Inclusion Group
Veterans Inclusion Group
Women Inclusion Group
In addition, we are setting the groundwork for inclusion by training our employees on unconscious bias and how to recognize bias in the workplace and in ourselves. In 2020, we also introduced a powerful initiative called “Lean into Change” where employees from across the company participated in culturally sensitive conversations with trust and transparency. Profiles in Diversity Journal recognized this initiative by awarding us a Top 10 Innovations in Diversity Award.
Talent Development and Employee Engagement
We are committed to continuously improving the development and engagement of all employees in the company. Our last Connections/Engagement survey in September 2020 included a 95% participation rate, resulting in a 76% engagement level, one point above the manufacturing norm as collected by GLINT, our engagement survey partner. Our efforts on employee development for 2020 focused on building a strong foundation in the company. We conducted “Purpose and Values” interactive sessions for all our employees. This effort was also recognized from the Profiles of Diversity Journal with an Award of Excellence for bringing to life our Purpose and Values. We followed these sessions with training about our specific value of, “We think and act like owners.” In the latter training, we taught our employees how they can impact our net working capital metric locally to drive greater cash conversion in the business.
As a result of all of our Human Capital Management activities, we reflect our value of “We foster inspired teams.” We nurture and celebrate a culture that embraces diverse points of views, backgrounds and experiences. We are committed to equity in how people are treated and the opportunities available to them because we know that a workplace that cultivates a sense of inclusion, belonging and respect will develop the most talented and capable employees.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to numerous federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to the storage, handling, emission and disposal of materials and discharge of materials into the environment. We believe our existing environmental control procedures are adequate and we have no current plans for substantial capital expenditures in this area. We have an environmental policy that confirms our commitment to a clean environment and compliance with environmental laws. We have an active environmental management program aimed at complying with existing environmental regulations and reducing the generation of pollutants in the manufacturing processes. We are also subject to laws concerning the cleanup of hazardous substances and wastes, such as the U.S. federal “Superfund” and similar state laws that impose liability for cleanup of certain waste sites and for related natural resource damages. We have been identified as a potentially responsible party with respect to several sites designated for cleanup under the “Superfund” or similar state laws. See “Item 3. Legal Proceedings.”
Where You Can Find More Information
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our SEC filings are available to the public over the internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
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Our SEC filings are also available free of charge on our website at http://www.irco.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC.
We maintain an internet site at http://www.irco.com. From time to time, we may use our website as a distribution channel of material company information. Financial and other important information regarding us is routinely accessible through and posted on our website at www.investors.irco.com. In addition, you may automatically receive email alerts and other information about us when you enroll your email address by visiting the Email Alerts section at www.investors.irco.com. Our website and the information contained on or connected to that site are not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The following risk factors as well as the other information included in this Form 10-K, including “Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto should be carefully considered. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. The selected risks described below, however, are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or those we currently view to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Business
We may not realize all of the expected benefits of the acquisition of and merger with Ingersoll Rand Industrial.
The anticipated benefits of the Ingersoll Rand Industrial acquisition may not be realized fully or at all and may take longer to realize than expected. The integration process will be complex, costly and time-consuming, which could adversely affect our businesses, financial results and financial condition. Even if we are able to integrate Ingersoll Rand Industrial successfully, the merger may not result in the realization of the full benefits of anticipated cost synergies, innovation, operational efficiencies and incremental revenue growth opportunities that we expect to realize or these benefits may not be achieved within a reasonable period of time. Moreover, the combined company may be unable to implement its business strategy or retain and hire key personnel. See also “Risks Related to Our Business—Acquisitions and integrating such acquisitions create certain risks and may affect our operating results.”
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected our business and results of operations, and could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition in the future.
COVID-19 is a rapidly developing situation around the globe that has negatively impacted and could continue to negatively impact the global economy. Our operating results will be subject to fluctuations based on general economic conditions, and the extent to which COVID-19 may ultimately impact our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease and the duration of the outbreak and business closures or business disruptions for our Company, our suppliers and our customers.
The scale and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic may heighten the potential adverse effects on our business, operating results, cash flows and/or financial condition, described in the other risk factors contained in this report. For example, we have exposure to the risks associated with instability in the global economy and financial markets, which may negatively impact our revenues, liquidity, suppliers and customers. Our financial performance depends, in large part, on conditions in the markets we serve and on the general condition of the global economy, which impacts these markets. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a decrease in demand for our products and services, and a sustained weakness in demand for our products and services resulting from a contraction or uncertainty in the global economy due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely impact its revenues and profitability. A portion of our revenues and operating results depend on the level of activity in the energy industry. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant volatility in oil and gas prices and has negatively impacted energy sector activity, and this in turn has reduced the demand for our products used in this sector and if such decreased activity continues, could reduce future demand as well. In addition, the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the financial condition of our customers has and could in the future make them unable to pay for a product or service when payments become due, or they may decide not to pay us, either as a matter of corporate decision-making or in response to changes in local laws and regulations. Although historically not material, we cannot be certain that, in the future, expenses or losses for uncollectible amounts will not have a material adverse effect on our revenues, earnings and cash flows. Further, we sell a significant portion of our products through independent distributors and sales representatives. The loss of, or disruption in, our distribution network in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic could have a negative impact on our
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abilities to ship products, meet customer demand and otherwise operate our business. Finally, our ability to make scheduled payments on, or refinance, our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which may continue to be negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. If the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic persist or worsen, we may be unable to maintain a level of cash flow from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt we will be in default and the lenders under our revolving credit facility could terminate their commitments to loan money, and our secured lenders (including the lenders under our senior secured credit facilities) could foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. In addition to the foregoing, the COVID-19 pandemic could also exacerbate or trigger other risks discussed herein, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience different and additional risks not discussed herein such as decreased worker productivity as a result of remote working arrangements, increased medical, emergency or other leave. An extended period of remote working by our employees could strain our technology resources and introduce operational risks, including heightened cybersecurity risk. Remote working environments may be less secure and more susceptible to hacking attacks, including phishing and social engineering attempts that seek to exploit the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, we are experiencing increased costs and expenses, including as a result of (i) conducting daily “fitness-for-duty” assessments for all employees, including temperature and symptoms checks and providing personal protective equipment; (ii) the expansion of benefits to our employees, including the provision of additional paid time off for employees who have contracted COVID-19 or are required to be quarantined; and (iii) implementing increased health and safety protocols at all our facilities, including increased cleaning/sanitization of workspaces, restricting visitor access, mandating social distancing guidelines and increasing the availability of sanitization products. U.S and international government responses to the COVID-19 outbreak have included “shelter in place”, “stay at home” and similar types of orders. These orders typically exempt certain individuals and businesses needed to maintain continuity of operations of critical infrastructure sectors or that are deemed “essential” or contain similar exceptions and exemptions. Although we believe we are currently considered an “essential” business in our operating markets, if any of the applicable exceptions or exemptions are curtailed or revoked in the future, that would adversely impact our business, operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, to the extent these exceptions or exemptions do not extend to our key suppliers and customers, this would also adversely impact our business, operating results and financial condition.
We have exposure to the risks associated with instability in the global economy and financial markets, which may negatively impact our revenues, liquidity, suppliers and customers.
Our financial performance depends, in large part, on conditions in the markets we serve and on the general condition of the global economy, which impacts these markets. Any sustained weakness in demand for our products and services resulting from a contraction or uncertainty in the global economy, including due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely impact our revenues and profitability.
In addition, we believe that many of our suppliers and customers access global credit markets to provide liquidity, and in some cases, utilize external financing to purchase products or finance operations. If our customers are unable to access credit markets or lack liquidity, it may impact customer demand for our products and services.
Furthermore, our products are sold in many industries, some of which are cyclical and may experience periodic contractions. Cyclical weakness in the industries that we serve could adversely affect demand for our products and affect our profitability and financial performance.
More than half of our sales and operations are in non-U.S. jurisdictions and we are subject to the economic, political, regulatory and other risks of international operations.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 54% of our revenues were from customers in countries outside of the United States. We have manufacturing facilities in Germany, the United Kingdom, China, Finland, Italy, India and other countries. We intend to continue to expand our international operations to the extent that suitable opportunities become available. Non-U.S. operations and United States export sales could be adversely affected as a result of: political or economic instability in certain countries; differences in foreign laws, including increased difficulties in protecting intellectual property and uncertainty in enforcement of contract rights; credit risks; currency fluctuations, in particular, changes in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar, Euro, British Pound and the Chinese Renminbi; exchange controls; changes in and uncertainties with respect to tariffs and import/export trade restrictions (including changes in United States trade policy toward other countries, such as the imposition of tariffs and the resulting consequences), as well as other changes in political policy in the United States, China, the U.K. and certain European countries (including the impacts of the U.K.’s national referendum
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resulting in the U.K.’s withdrawal from the European Union); royalty and tax increases; nationalization of private enterprises; civil unrest and protests, strikes, acts of terrorism, war or other armed conflict; shipping products during times of crisis or war; and other factors inherent in foreign operations.
In addition, our expansion into new countries may require significant resources and the efforts and attention of our management and other personnel, which will divert resources from our existing business operations. As we expand our business globally, our success will depend, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these risks associated with our international operations.
Shareholder and customer emphasis on environmental, social, and governance responsibility may impose additional costs on us or expose us to new risks.
Our shareholders, customers and employees continue to expect a more proactive response to environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) matters. We may incur increased costs and may be exposed to new risks responding to these higher expectations. The Company recently emphasized its commitment to making a positive impact on our shared planet with the announcement of environmental goals with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy, water usage and landfill waste. We may face reputational challenges in the event that we are unable to achieve these goals or our ESG standards do not meet those set by certain constituencies. These reputational challenges could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our revenues and operating results, especially in the High Pressure Solutions segment, depend on the level of activity in the energy industry, which is significantly affected by volatile oil and gas prices.
Demand for certain products of our High Pressure Solutions segment, particularly in the upstream energy market, depends on the level of activity in oil and gas exploration, development and production, and is primarily tied to the number of working and available drilling rigs, number of wells those rigs drill annually, the amount of hydraulic fracturing horsepower required on average to fracture each well and, ultimately, oil and natural gas prices overall. The energy market is volatile as the worldwide demand for oil and natural gas fluctuates.
Generally, when worldwide demand or our customers’ expectations of future prices for these commodities are depressed, the demand for our products used in drilling and recovery applications is reduced. Other factors, including availability of quality drilling prospects, exploration success, relative production costs and political and regulatory environments are also expected to affect the demand for our products. Worldwide military, political and economic events have in the past contributed to oil and gas price volatility and are likely to do so in the future. A change in economic conditions also puts pressure on our receivables and collections.
Accordingly, our operating results for any particular period are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for any future period as the markets for our products have historically experienced volatility. In particular, orders in the High Pressure Solutions segment have historically corresponded to demand for oil and gas and petrochemical products and have been influenced by prices and inventory levels for oil and natural gas, rig count, number of wells those rigs drill annually, the amount of hydraulic fracturing horsepower required on average to fracture each well and other economic factors which we cannot reasonably predict. The High Pressure Solutions segment generated approximately 4% of our consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Our results of operations are subject to exchange rate and other currency risks. A significant movement in exchange rates could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.
We conduct our business in many different currencies. A significant portion of our revenue, approximately 49% for the year ended December 31, 2020, is denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Accordingly, currency exchange rates, and in particular unfavorable movement in the exchange rates between U.S. dollars and Euros, British Pounds and Chinese Renminbi, affect our operating results. The effects of exchange rate fluctuations on our future operating results are unpredictable because of the number of currencies in which we do business and the potential volatility of exchange rates. We are also subject to the risks of currency controls and devaluations. Although historically not significant, if currency controls were enacted in countries where the Company generates significant cash balances, these controls may limit our ability to convert currencies into U.S. dollars or other currencies, as needed, or to pay dividends or make other payments from funds held by subsidiaries in the countries imposing such controls, which could adversely affect our liquidity. Currency devaluations could also negatively affect our operating margins and cash flows.
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Potential governmental regulations restricting the use, and increased public attention to and litigation regarding the impacts, of hydraulic fracturing or other processes on which it relies could reduce demand for our products.
Oil and natural gas extracted from unconventional sources, such as shale, tight sands and coal bed methane, frequently requires hydraulic fracturing. Recent initiatives to study, regulate or otherwise restrict hydraulic fracturing and processes on which it relies, such as water disposal, as well as litigation over hydraulic fracturing impacts, could adversely affect some of our customers and their demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
For example, although hydraulic fracturing currently is generally exempt from regulation under the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act’s (“SDWA”) Underground Injection Control program and is typically regulated by state oil and natural gas commissions or similar agencies, several federal agencies have asserted regulatory authority over certain aspects of the process. These include, among others, a number of regulations issued and other steps taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) over the last five years, including its New Source Performance Standards issued in 2012, its June 2016 rules establishing new emissions standards for methane and additional standards for volatile organic compounds from certain new, modified and reconstructed equipment and processes in the oil and natural gas source category and its June 2016 rule prohibiting the discharge of wastewater from onshore unconventional oil and natural gas extraction facilities to publicly owned wastewater treatment plants; and the federal Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) rule in March 2015 that established new or more stringent standards relating to hydraulic fracturing on federal and American Indian lands (which was the subject of litigation and which the BLM rescinded in December 2017). While the EPA in the Trump administration and the Trump administration more generally have indicated their interest in scaling back or rescinding regulations that inhibit the development of the U.S. oil and gas industry and have taken steps to do so, it is difficult to predict the extent to which such policies will be implemented or the outcome of litigation challenging such implementation, such as the suit the State of California’s attorney general filed in January 2018 challenging the BLM’s rescission of its March 2015 rule referred to above; in July 2018, the federal district judge in the Northern District of California, where the suit was filed, denied motions by the BLM and several petroleum industry groups to transfer the challenge to Wyoming.
Moreover, some states and local governments have adopted, and other governmental entities are considering adopting, regulations that could impose more stringent requirements on hydraulic fracturing operations. For example, Texas, Colorado and North Dakota among others have adopted regulations that impose new or more stringent permitting, disclosure, disposal and well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing operations. States could also elect to prohibit high volume hydraulic fracturing altogether, following the approach taken by the State of New York in 2015. Local land use restrictions, such as city ordinances, may restrict drilling in general and hydraulic fracturing in particular. Some state and federal regulatory agencies have also recently focused on a connection between the operation of injection wells used for oil and natural gas waste disposal and seismic activity. Similar concerns have been raised that hydraulic fracturing may also contribute to seismic activity. In March 2016, the United States Geological Survey identified six states with the most significant hazards from induced seismicity, including Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico and Arkansas. In light of these concerns, some state regulatory agencies have modified their regulations or issued orders to address induced seismicity. For example, in December 2016, the Oklahoma Corporation Commission’s Oil and Gas Conservation Division (the “OCC Division”) and the Oklahoma Geologic Survey released well completion seismicity guidance, which requires operators to take certain prescriptive actions, including mitigation, following anomalous seismic activity within 1.25 miles of hydraulic fracturing operations. In February 2017, the OCC Division issued an order limiting future increases in the volume of oil and natural gas wastewater injected into the ground in an effort to reduce earthquakes in the state, and it announced further requirements (involving seismic monitoring) in February 2018. Ongoing lawsuits have also alleged that disposal well operations have caused damage to neighboring properties or otherwise violated state and federal rules regulating waste disposal. Increased regulation and attention given to induced seismicity could lead to greater opposition to, and litigation concerning, oil and natural gas activities utilizing hydraulic fracturing or injection wells for waste disposal. The adoption of more stringent regulations regarding hydraulic fracturing and the outcome of litigation over hydraulic fracturing could adversely affect some of our customers and their demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We face competition in the markets we serve, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results.
We actively compete with many companies producing similar products. Depending on the particular product and application, we experience competition based on a number of factors, including price, quality, performance and availability. We compete against many companies, including divisions of larger companies with greater financial resources than we possess. As a result, these competitors may be both domestically and internationally better able to withstand a change in conditions within the markets in which we compete and throughout the global economy as a whole.
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In addition, our ability to compete effectively depends on how successfully we anticipate and respond to various competitive factors, including new competitors entering our markets, new products and services that may be introduced by competitors, changes in customer preferences, pricing pressures and new government regulations. If we are unable to anticipate our competitors’ development of new products and services, identify customer needs and preferences on a timely basis, or successfully introduce new products and services or modify existing products and service offerings in response to such competitive factors, we could lose customers to competitors. If we cannot compete successfully, our sales and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.
Large or rapid increases in the cost of raw materials and component parts, substantial decreases in their availability or our dependence on particular suppliers of raw materials and component parts could materially and adversely affect our operating results.
Our primary raw materials, directly and indirectly, are cast iron, aluminum and steel. We also purchase a large number of motors and, therefore, also have exposure to changes in the price of copper, which is a primary component of motors. We have long-term contracts with only a few suppliers of key components. Consequently, we are vulnerable to fluctuations in prices and availability of such raw materials. Factors such as supply and demand, freight costs and transportation availability, inventory levels of brokers and dealers, the level of imports and general economic conditions may affect the price and availability of raw materials. In addition, we use single sources of supply for certain iron castings, motors and other select engineered components that are critical in the manufacturing of our products. From time to time in recent years, we have experienced disruptions to our supply deliveries for raw materials and component parts and may experience further supply disruptions. Any such disruption could have a material adverse effect on our ability to timely meet our commitments to customers and, therefore, our operating results.
Our operating results could be adversely affected by a loss or reduction of business with key customers or consolidation or the vertical integration of our customer base.
We derive revenue from certain key customers, in particular with respect to our oilfield service products and services. The loss or reduction of significant contracts with any of these key customers could result in a material decrease of our future profitability and cash flows. In addition, the consolidation or vertical integration of key customers may result in the loss of certain customer contracts or impact demand or competition for our products. Any changes in such customers’ purchasing practices, or decline in such customers’ financial condition, may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Some of our customers are significantly larger than we are, have greater financial and other resources and also have the ability to purchase products from our competitors. As a result of their size and position in the marketplace, some of our customers have significant purchasing leverage and could cause us to materially reduce the price of our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability. In addition, in the petroleum product market, lost sales may be difficult to replace due to the relative concentration of the customer base. We are unable to predict what effect consolidation in our customers’ industries may have on prices, capital spending by customers, selling strategies, competitive position, our ability to retain customers or our ability to negotiate favorable agreements with customers.
Credit and counterparty risks could harm our business.
The financial condition of our customers could affect our ability to market our products or collect receivables. In addition, financial difficulties faced by our customers as a result of an adverse economic event or other market factors may lead to cancellation or delay of orders. Our customers may suffer financial difficulties that make them unable to pay for a product or solution when payments become due, or they may decide not to pay us, either as a matter of corporate decision-making or in response to changes in local laws and regulations. Although historically not material, we cannot be certain that, in the future, expenses or losses for uncollectible amounts will not have a material adverse effect on our revenues, earnings and cash flows.
Acquisitions and integrating such acquisitions create certain risks and may affect our operating results.
We have acquired businesses in the past and may continue to acquire businesses or assets in the future. The acquisition and integration of businesses or assets involves a number of risks. The core risks are valuation (negotiating a fair price for the business), integration (managing the process of integrating the acquired company’s people, products, technology and other assets to extract the value and synergies projected to be realized in connection with the acquisition), regulation (obtaining necessary regulatory or other government approvals that may be necessary to complete acquisitions) and diligence (identifying undisclosed or unknown liabilities or restrictions that will be assumed in the acquisition).
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In addition, acquisitions outside of the United States often involve additional or increased risks including, for example:
managing geographically separated organizations, systems and facilities;
integrating personnel with diverse business backgrounds and organizational cultures;
complying with non-U.S. regulatory requirements;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
enforcement of intellectual property rights in some non-U.S. countries;
difficulty entering new non-U.S. markets due to, among other things, consumer acceptance and business knowledge of these new markets; and
general economic and political conditions.
The process of integrating operations could cause an interruption of, or loss of momentum in, the activities of one or more of our combined businesses and the possible loss of key personnel. The diversion of management’s attention and any delays or difficulties encountered in connection with acquisitions and the integration of an acquired company’s operations could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects.
Dispositions create certain risks and may affect our operating results.
Dispositions involve a number of risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges, including diversion of management attention from running our core businesses, increased expense associated with the dispositions, potential disputes with the customers or suppliers of the disposed businesses, potential disputes with the acquirers of the disposed businesses and a potential dilutive effect on our earnings per share.
If dispositions are not completed in a timely manner, there may be a negative effect on our cash flows and/or our ability to execute our strategy. In addition, we may not realize some or all of the anticipated benefits of our dispositions.
As mentioned above, the Company has entered into an agreement to sell its HPS business to AIP. Under the agreement, the Company will receive cash consideration of $300 million at close for its majority interest and retain a 45% ownership interest in the HPS business. This transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2021, subject to regulatory approvals and customary closing conditions. See Note 25 “Subsequent Events” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to this transaction.
The loss of, or disruption in, our distribution network could have a negative impact on our abilities to ship products, meet customer demand and otherwise operate our business.
We sell a significant portion of our products through independent distributors and sales representatives. We rely in large part on the orderly operation of this distribution network, which depends on adherence to shipping schedules and effective management. We conduct all of our shipping through independent third parties. Although we believe that our receiving, shipping and distribution process is efficient and well-positioned to support our operations and strategic plans, we cannot provide assurance that we have anticipated all issues or that events beyond our control, such as natural disasters or other catastrophic events, labor disagreements, acquisition of distributors by a competitor, consolidation within our distributor network or shipping problems, will not disrupt our distribution network. If complications arise within a segment of our distribution network, the remaining network may not be able to support the resulting additional distribution demands. Any of these disruptions or complications could negatively impact our revenues and costs.
Our ongoing and expected restructuring plans and other cost savings initiatives may not be as effective as we anticipate, and we may fail to realize the cost savings and increased efficiencies that we expect to result from these actions. Our operating results could be negatively affected by our inability to effectively implement such restructuring plans and other cost savings initiatives.
We continually seek ways to simplify or improve processes, eliminate excess capacity and reduce costs in all areas of our operations, which from time to time includes restructuring activities. We have implemented significant restructuring activities across our global manufacturing, sales and distribution footprint, which include workforce reductions and facility consolidations. We incurred restructuring charges of $92.9 million and $17.1 million in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Costs of future initiatives may be material and the savings associated with them are subject to a variety of risks, including our inability to effectively eliminate duplicative back office overhead and overlapping sales personnel, rationalize manufacturing capacity, synchronize information technology systems, consolidate warehousing and distribution facilities and shift production to more economical facilities. As a result, the contemplated costs to effect these initiatives may materially exceed estimates. The initiatives we are contemplating may require consultation with various employees, labor
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representatives or regulators, and such consultations may influence the timing, costs and extent of expected savings and may result in the loss of skilled employees in connection with the initiatives.
Although we have considered the impact of local regulations, negotiations with employee representatives and the related costs associated with our restructuring activities, factors beyond the control of management may affect the timing of these projects and therefore affect when savings will be achieved under the plans. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully implement these cost savings initiatives in the time frames contemplated (or at all) or that we will realize the projected benefits of these and other restructuring and cost savings initiatives. If we are unable to implement our cost savings initiatives, our business may be adversely affected. Moreover, our continued implementation of cost savings initiatives may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, as we consolidate facilities and relocate manufacturing processes to lower-cost regions, our success will depend on our ability to continue to meet customer demand and maintain a high level of quality throughout the transition. Failure to adequately meet customer demand or maintain a high level or quality could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our success depends on our executive management and other key personnel and our ability to attract and retain top talent throughout the Company.
Our future success depends to a significant degree on the skills, experience and efforts of our executive management and other key personnel and their ability to provide us with uninterrupted leadership and direction. The failure to retain our executive officers and other key personnel or a failure to provide adequate succession plans could have an adverse impact. Our future success also depends on our ability to attract, retain and develop qualified personnel at all levels of the organization. The availability of highly qualified talent is limited in a number of the jurisdictions in which we operate, and the competition for talent is robust. A failure to attract, retain and develop new qualified personnel throughout the organization could have an adverse effect on our operations and implementation of our strategic plan.
If we are unable to develop new products and technologies, our competitive position may be impaired, which could materially and adversely affect our sales and market share.
The markets in which we operate are characterized by changing technologies and introductions of new products and services. Our ability to develop new products based on technological innovation, including those that drive sustainability, energy reduction and the reduction and/or recycling of water in our customers’ processes, can affect our competitive position and often requires the investment of significant resources. Difficulties or delays in research, development or production of new products and technologies, or failure to gain market acceptance of new products and technologies, may significantly reduce future revenues and materially and adversely affect our competitive position. We may not have sufficient resources to continue to make the investment required to maintain or increase our market share or that our investments will be successful. If we do not compete successfully, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Cost overruns, delays, penalties or liquidated damages could negatively impact our results, particularly with respect to fixed-price contracts for custom engineered products.
A portion of our revenues and earnings is generated through fixed-price contracts for custom engineered products. Certain of these contracts provide for penalties or liquidated damages for failure to timely perform our obligations under the contract, or require that we, at our expense, correct and remedy to the satisfaction of the other party certain defects. Because substantially all of our custom engineered product contracts are at a fixed price, we face the risk that cost overruns, delays, penalties or liquidated damages may exceed, erode or eliminate our expected profit margin, or cause us to record a loss on our projects.
The risk of non-compliance with U.S. and foreign laws and regulations applicable to our international operations could have a significant impact on our results of operations, financial condition or strategic objectives.
Our global operations subject us to regulation by U.S. federal and state laws and multiple foreign laws, regulations and policies, which could result in conflicting legal requirements. These laws and regulations are complex, change frequently, have become more stringent over time and increase our cost of doing business. These laws and regulations include import and export control, environmental, health and safety regulations, data privacy requirements, international labor laws and work councils and anti-corruption and bribery laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, the U.N. Convention Against Bribery and local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to government officials.
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We are subject to the risk that we, our employees, our affiliated entities, contractors, agents or their respective officers, directors, employees and agents may take actions determined to be in violation of any of these laws, for which we might be held responsible, particularly as we expand our operations geographically through organic growth and acquisitions. An actual or alleged violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil or criminal penalties, debarment from government contracts, curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, competitive or reputational harm, litigation or regulatory action and other consequences that might adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition or strategic objectives.
Changes in tax or other laws, regulations, or adverse determinations by taxing or other governmental authorities could increase our effective tax rate and cash taxes paid or otherwise affect our financial condition or operating results.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”). The Tax Act makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code that affected 2017 and 2018, including, but not limited to (1) requiring a one-time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries that is payable over eight years and (2) bonus depreciation that will allow for full expensing of qualified property. The Tax Act also established new tax laws that significantly affected recent and future tax years.
While we monitor proposals and other developments that would materially impact our tax burden and/or effective tax rate and investigate our options, we could still be subject to increased taxation on a going forward basis no matter what action we undertake if certain legislative proposals or regulatory changes are enacted, certain tax treaties are amended and/or our interpretation of applicable tax or other laws is challenged and determined to be incorrect. The inability to realize any anticipated tax benefits related to our operations and corporate structure could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. See Note 1 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 15 “Income Taxes” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for additional information related to our accounting for income tax matters.
The inability to realize any anticipated tax benefits related to our operations and corporate structure could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Further, the specific future impacts of the Tax Act on holders of our common shares are uncertain and could in certain instances be adverse. We urge our stockholders to consult with their legal and tax advisors with respect to any such legislation and the potential tax consequences of investing in our common stock.
A significant portion of our assets consists of goodwill and other intangible assets, the value of which may be reduced if we determine that those assets are impaired.
We applied the acquisition method of accounting and established a new basis of accounting in 2013 as part of the KKR Transaction. We also recognized substantial goodwill and other intangible assets through the acquisition of and merger with Ingersoll Rand Industrial. As of December 31, 2020, the net carrying value of goodwill and other intangible assets, net represented $11.0 billion, or 69%, of our total assets. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are evaluated for impairment annually, or more frequently if circumstances indicate impairment may have occurred. Impairments, if any, could have a material adverse effect to our consolidated financial position or results of operations. In 2020, we recognized an impairment charge related to other intangible assets of $19.9 million within the Industrial Technologies and Services segment. See Note 8 “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for additional information related to impairment testing for goodwill and other intangible assets and the associated charges taken.
Our business could suffer if we experience employee work stoppages, union and work council campaigns or other labor difficulties.
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 15,900 employees of which approximately 5,900 were located in the United States. Of those employees located outside of the United States, a significant portion are represented by works councils and labor unions, and of those employees located in the United States, approximately 200 are represented by labor unions. Although we believe that our relations with employees are satisfactory and have not experienced any material work stoppages, work stoppages have occurred, and may in the future occur, and we may not be successful in negotiating new collective bargaining agreements. In addition, negotiations with our union employees may (1) result in significant increases in our cost of labor, (2) divert management’s attention away from operating our business or (3) break down and result in the disruption of our operations. The occurrence of any of the preceding conditions could impair our ability to manufacture our products and result in increased costs and/or decreased operating results.
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We are a defendant in certain asbestos and silica-related personal injury lawsuits, which could adversely affect our financial condition.
We have been named as a defendant in many asbestos and silica-related personal injury lawsuits. The plaintiffs in these suits allege exposure to asbestos or silica from multiple sources, and typically we are one of approximately 25 or more named defendants. We believe that, given our financial reserves and anticipated insurance recoveries, the pending and potential future lawsuits are not likely to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity. However, future developments, including, without limitation, potential insolvencies of insurance companies or other defendants, an adverse determination in the Adams County Case (discussed below), or other inability to collect from our historical insurers or indemnitors, could cause a different outcome. In addition, even if any damages payable by us in any individual lawsuit are not material, the aggregate damages and related defense costs could be material and could materially adversely affect our financial condition if we were to receive an adverse judgment in a number of these lawsuits. Accordingly, the resolution of pending or future lawsuits may have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity. See Note 20 “Contingencies” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
A natural disaster, catastrophe, pandemic or other event could adversely affect our operations.
Some of our operations involve risks of, among other things, property damage, which could curtail our operations. For example, if one or more of our manufacturing facilities are damaged by severe weather or any other disaster, accident, catastrophe or event, our operations could be significantly interrupted impacting our ability to produce products and sell products to customers. These interruptions might involve significant damage to, among other things, property, and repairs might take from a week or less for a minor incident to many months for a major interruption. In addition, disruptions in our supply chain due to natural disasters, catastrophes, pandemic or other events could reduce our ability to produce products and satisfy customer demand. Similar interruptions could result from damage to production or other facilities that provide supplies or other raw materials to our plants. Interruptions to our operations and supply chain could also result from pandemic which could adversely impact our workforce or that of our suppliers, causing disruption to the manufacturing process or our supply chain, and last a week or months depending on the severity of the disruption.
Information systems failure may disrupt our business and result in financial loss and liability to our customers.
Our business is highly dependent on financial, accounting and other data-processing systems and other communications and information systems, including our enterprise resource planning tools. We process a large number of transactions on a daily basis and rely upon the proper functioning of computer systems. If any of these systems fail, whether caused by fire, other natural disaster, power or telecommunications failure, acts of cyber terrorism or war or otherwise, or they do not function correctly, we could suffer financial loss, business disruption, liability to our customers, regulatory intervention or damage to our reputation. If our systems are unable to accommodate an increasing volume of transactions, our ability to grow could be limited. Although we have backup systems, procedures and capabilities in place, they may also fail or be inadequate. Further, to the extent that we may have customer information in our databases, any unauthorized disclosure of, or access to, such information could result in claims under data protection laws and regulations. If any of these risks materialize, our reputation and our ability to conduct our business may be materially adversely affected.
The nature of our products creates the possibility of significant product liability and warranty claims, which could harm our business.
Customers use some of our products in potentially hazardous applications that can cause injury or loss of life and damage to property, equipment or the environment. In addition, our products are integral to the production process for some end-users and any failure of our products could result in a suspension of operations. Although we maintain quality controls and procedures, we cannot be certain that our products will be completely free from defects. We maintain amounts and types of insurance coverage that we believe are currently adequate and consistent with normal industry practice for a company of our relative size, and we limit our liability by contract wherever possible. However, we cannot guarantee that insurance will be available or adequate to cover all liabilities incurred. We also may not be able to maintain insurance in the future at levels we believe are necessary and at rates we consider reasonable. We may be named as a defendant in product liability or other lawsuits asserting potentially large claims if an accident occurs at a location where our equipment and services have been or are being used.
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Environmental compliance costs and liabilities could adversely affect our financial condition.
Our operations and properties are subject to increasingly stringent domestic and foreign laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, including laws and regulations governing air emissions, water discharges, waste management and workplace safety. Under such laws and regulations, we can be subject to substantial fines and sanctions for violations and be required to install costly pollution control equipment or put into effect operational changes to limit pollution emissions or decrease the likelihood of accidental hazardous substance releases.
We use and generate hazardous substances and waste in our manufacturing operations. In addition, many of our current and former properties are, or have been, used for industrial purposes. We have been identified as a potentially responsible party with respect to several sites designated for cleanup under U.S. federal “Superfund” or similar state laws that may impose joint and several liability for cleanup of certain waste sites and for related natural resource damages. An accrued liability on our balance sheet reflects costs that are probable and estimable for our projected financial obligations relating to these matters. If we have underestimated our remaining financial obligations, we may face greater exposure that could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, operating costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations. In addition, new laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or the imposition of new cleanup requirements could require us to incur costs or become the basis for new or increased liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Third parties may infringe upon our intellectual property or may claim we have infringed their intellectual property, and we may expend significant resources enforcing or defending our rights or suffer competitive injury.
Our success depends in part on the creation, maintenance and protection of our proprietary technology and intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patents, tradenames, trade secrets, copyrights, confidentiality provisions, contractual restrictions and licensing arrangements to establish and protect our proprietary rights. Our nondisclosure agreements and confidentiality agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our proprietary information, technologies and processes, and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of breach of such agreements or unauthorized disclosure of such information, and if a competitor lawfully obtains or independently develops our trade secrets, we would have no right to prevent such competitor from using such technology or information to compete with us, either of which could harm our competitive position. Our applications for patent and tradename protection may not be granted, or the claims or scope of such issued patents or registered tradenames may not be sufficiently broad to protect our products. In addition, effective patent, copyright, tradename and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited for some of our tradenames and patents in some foreign countries. We may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and police our intellectual property rights, and we cannot guarantee that such efforts will be successful in preventing infringement or misappropriation. If we fail to successfully enforce these intellectual property rights, our competitive position could suffer, which could harm our operating results.
Although we make a significant effort to avoid infringing known proprietary rights of third parties, the steps we take to prevent misappropriation, infringement or other violation of the intellectual property of others may not be successful and from time to time we may receive notice that a third party believes that our products may be infringing certain patents, tradenames or other proprietary rights of such third party. Responding to and defending such claims, regardless of their merit, can be costly and time-consuming, can divert management’s attention and other resources, and we may not prevail. Depending on the resolution of such claims, we may be barred from using a specific technology or other rights, may be required to redesign or re-engineer a product which may require significant resources, may be required to enter into licensing arrangements from the third party claiming infringement (which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all), or may become liable for significant damages.
If any of the foregoing occurs, our ability to compete could be affected or our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
We face risks associated with our pension and other postretirement benefit obligations.
We have both funded and unfunded pension and other postretirement benefit plans worldwide. As of December 31, 2020, our projected benefit obligations under our pension and other postretirement benefit plans exceeded the fair value of plan assets by an aggregate of approximately $287.0 million (“unfunded status”). Estimates for the amount and timing of the future funding
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obligations of these benefit plans are based on various assumptions. These assumptions include discount rates, rates of compensation increases, expected long-term rates of return on plan assets and expected healthcare cost trend rates. If our assumptions prove incorrect, our funding obligations may increase, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We have invested the plan assets of our funded benefit plans in various equity and debt securities. A deterioration in the value of plan assets could cause the unfunded status of these benefit plans to increase, thereby increasing our obligation to make additional contributions to these plans. An obligation to make contributions to our benefit plans could reduce the cash available for working capital and other corporate uses, and may have an adverse impact on our operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our substantial indebtedness could have important adverse consequences and adversely affect our financial condition.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. As of December 31, 2020, we had total indebtedness of $3,899.5 million, and we had availability under the Revolving Credit Facility of $998.1 million. Our high level of debt could have important consequences, including: making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt; limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or other general corporate requirements; requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions and other general corporate purposes; increasing our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions; exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, are at variable rates of interest; limiting our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the industries in which we compete; placing us at a disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors; increasing our cost of borrowing; and hampering our ability to execute on our growth strategy. For a complete description of the Company’s credit facilities and definitions of capitalized terms used in this section, see Note 10 “Debt” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on, or refinance, our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic, industry and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control (as well as and including those factors discussed under “Risks Related to Our Business” above). We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flow from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to implement any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default and the lenders under the Revolving Credit Facility could terminate their commitments to loan money, and our secured lenders (including the lenders under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities) could foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Despite our level of indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries may still be able to incur substantially more debt, including off-balance sheet financing, contractual obligations and general and commercial liabilities. This could further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur significant additional indebtedness in the future, including off-balance sheet financings, contractual obligations and general and commercial liabilities. Although the credit agreement governing the Senior Secured Credit Facilities contains restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and the additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. In addition, we can increase the borrowing availability under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities by up to $1,600.0
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million in the form of additional commitments under the Revolving Credit Facility and/or incremental term loans plus an additional amount so long as we do not exceed a specified senior secured leverage ratio. We also can incur additional secured indebtedness under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities if certain specified conditions are met under the credit agreement governing the Senior Secured Credit Facilities. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could intensify. For a complete description of the Company’s credit facilities and definitions of capitalized terms used in this section, see Note 10 “Debt” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
The terms of the credit agreement governing the Senior Secured Credit Facilities may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes or to take certain actions.
The credit agreement governing the Senior Secured Credit Facilities contains a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our best interest, including restrictions on our ability to: incur additional indebtedness and guarantee indebtedness; pay dividends, make other distributions in respect of, or repurchase or redeem capital stock; prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt; make loans, investments and other restricted payments; sell or otherwise dispose of assets; incur liens; enter into transactions with affiliates; enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets; make needed capital expenditures; make strategic acquisitions, investments or enter into joint ventures; plan for or react to market conditions or otherwise execute our business strategies; and engage in business activities, including future opportunities, that may be in our interest.
A breach of the covenants under the credit agreement governing the Senior Secured Credit Facilities could result in an event of default under the applicable indebtedness. Such a default may allow the creditors to accelerate the related debt principal and/or related interest payments and may result in the acceleration of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In addition, an event of default under the credit agreement governing our Senior Secured Credit Facilities would permit the lenders under our Revolving Credit Facility to terminate all commitments to extend further credit under that facility. Furthermore, if we were unable to repay the amounts due and payable under our Senior Secured Credit Facilities, those lenders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. In the event our lenders or noteholders accelerate the repayment of our borrowings and/or interest, we and our subsidiaries may not have sufficient assets to repay that indebtedness.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under our Senior Secured Credit Facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed will remain the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease.
We utilize derivative financial instruments to reduce our exposure to market risks from changes in interest rates on our variable rate indebtedness and we will be exposed to risks related to counterparty credit worthiness or non-performance of these instruments.
We may enter into pay-fixed interest rate swap instruments from time to time to limit our exposure to changes in variable interest rates. Such instruments will result in economic losses should interest rates not rise above the pay-fixed interest rate in the derivative contracts. We will be exposed to credit-related losses which could impact the results of operations in the event of fluctuations in the fair value of the interest rate swaps due to a change in the credit worthiness or non-performance by the counterparties to the interest rate swaps. See Note 18 “Hedging Activities, Derivative Instruments and Credit Risk” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
If the financial institutions that are part of the syndicate of our Revolving Credit Facility fail to extend credit under our facility or reduce the borrowing base under our Revolving Credit Facility, our liquidity and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We have access to capital through our Revolving Credit Facility, which is part of our Senior Secured Credit Facilities. Each financial institution which is part of the syndicate for our Revolving Credit Facility is responsible on a several, but not joint, basis for providing a portion of the loans to be made under our facility. If any participant or group of participants with a significant portion of the commitments in our Revolving Credit Facility fails to satisfy its or their respective obligations to
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extend credit under the facility and we are unable to find a replacement for such participant or participants on a timely basis (if at all), our liquidity may be adversely affected.
The Company may face risk associated with the discontinuation of and transition from currently used financial reference rates.
LIBOR and certain other floating rate benchmark indices to which our floating rate debt is tied, including, without limitation, the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (collectively, “IBORs”) are the subject of recent national, international and regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. In a speech on July 27, 2017, Andrew Bailey, the Chief Executive of the Financial Conduct Authority of the U.K., or the FCA, announced the FCA’s intention to cease sustaining LIBOR after 2021. The FCA has statutory powers to require panel banks to contribute to LIBOR where necessary. The FCA has decided not to ask, or to require, that panel banks continue to submit contributions to LIBOR beyond the end of 2021. The FCA has indicated that it expects that the current panel banks will voluntarily sustain LIBOR until the end of 2021. On November 30, 2020, the FCA announced that subject to confirmation following its consultation with the administrator of LIBOR, it would cease publication of the one-week and two-month USD LIBOR immediately after December 31, 2021 and cease publication of the remaining tenors immediately after June 30, 2023. Additionally, the U.S. Federal Reserve Board has advised banks to stop entering into new USD LIBOR based contracts. Other jurisdictions have also indicated they will implement reforms or phase-outs, which are currently scheduled to take effect at the end of calendar year 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities, as its preferred alternative rate for LIBOR. At this time, it is not possible to predict how markets will respond to SOFR or other alternative reference rates as the transition away from the IBOR benchmarks is anticipated in coming years.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $3.9 billion of floated rate debt with maximum maturities extending past 2021 tied to IBOR benchmarks. There is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of any IBOR benchmark or of any particular replacement rate. In addition, any IBOR benchmark may perform differently during any phase-out period than in the past. As such, the potential effect of any such event on our cost of capital cannot yet be determined and any changes to benchmark interest rates could increase our financing costs, which could impact our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, we may need to renegotiate certain of our debt agreements that extend past 2021 with lenders, which could require us to incur significant expense and may subject us to disputes or litigation over the appropriateness or comparability to the relevant IBOR benchmark of the replacement reference rates. We are assessing the impact of a potential transition from IBOR; however, we cannot reasonably estimate the impact of the transition at this time.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters is a leased facility located at 800-A Beaty Street, Davidson, North Carolina 28036. The number of significant properties used by each of our segments is summarized by segment, type and geographic location in the tables below.
Type of Significant Property
ManufacturingWarehouse
Other(3)
Total
Industrial Technologies and Services
Americas16 34 54 
EMEA(1)
23 20 45 
APAC(2)
— 13 
Industrial Technologies and Services Total45 6 61 112 
Precision and Science Technologies
Americas— — 
EMEA(1)
— 
APAC(2)
— — 
Precision and Science Technologies Total15  1 16 
Specialty Vehicle Technologies
Americas
EMEA(1)
— — — — 
APAC(2)
— — 
Specialty Vehicle Technologies Total2 3 2 7 
High Pressure Solutions
Americas11 
EMEA(1)
— — — — 
APAC(2)
— — — — 
High Pressure Solutions Total3 2 6 11 
Total (All Segments)
Americas26 42 77 
EMEA(1)
29 21 52 
APAC(2)
10 — 17 
Company Total65 11 70 146 
(1)Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”)
(2)Asia Pacific (“APAC”)
(3)Other facilities includes service centers and sales offices
Of the 146 significant properties included in the above table, 90 of the properties are leased and 56 of the properties are owned. We believe that our properties, taken as a whole, are in good operating condition and are suitable for our business operations.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are a party to various legal proceedings, lawsuits and administrative actions, which are of an ordinary or routine nature for a company of our size and sector. We believe that such proceedings, lawsuits and administrative actions will not materially adversely affect our operations, financial condition, liquidity or competitive position. For a detailed discussion of certain of these proceedings, lawsuits and administrative actions, see Note 20, “Contingencies” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this form 10-K.
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ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, trades on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “IR.” As of January 31, 2021, there were 2,708 holders of record of our common stock. This stockholder figure does not include a substantially greater number of holders whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.
Dividend Policy
We did not declare or pay dividends to the holders of our common stock in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions contained in current or future financing instruments and other factors that our board of directors deem relevant.
Company Purchases
The following table contains detail related to the repurchase of our common stock based on the date of trade during the quarter ended December 31, 2020.
2020 Fourth Quarter Months
Total Number of Shares Purchased(1)
Average Price Paid Per Share(2)
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1, 2020 - October 31, 2020
— $— — $— 
November 1, 2020 - November 30, 2020
— $— — $— 
December 1, 2020 - December 31, 2020
16,315 $45.56 — $— 
(1)All of the shares purchased during the quarter ended December 31, 2020 were in connection with net exercises of stock options.
(2)The average price paid per share includes brokerage commissions.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Set forth below is our selected consolidated financial data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. The selected consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The selected consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes to our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Form 10-K.
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The selected historical consolidated financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
(in millions, except per share amounts)For the Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
Consolidated Statements of Operations:
Revenues$4,910.2 $2,451.9 $2,689.8 $2,375.4 $1,939.4 
Cost of sales3,296.8 1,540.2 1,677.3 1,477.5 1,222.7 
Gross profit1,613.4 911.7 1,012.5 897.9 716.7 
Selling and administrative expenses894.8 436.4 434.6 446.2 415.1 
Amortization of intangible assets395.8 124.3 125.8 118.9 124.2 
Impairment of goodwill— — — — — 
Impairment of other intangible assets19.9 — — 1.6 25.3 
Other operating expense, net217.2 75.7 9.1 222.1 48.6 
Operating income (loss)85.7 275.3 443.0 109.1 103.5 
Interest expense111.1 88.9 99.6 140.7 170.3 
Loss on extinguishment of debt2.0 0.2 1.1 84.5 — 
Other income, net(8.0)(4.7)(7.2)(3.4)(3.6)
Income (loss) before income taxes(19.4)190.9 349.5 (112.7)(63.2)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes13.0 31.8 80.1 (131.2)(31.9)
Net income (loss)(32.4)159.1 269.4 18.5 (31.3)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
0.9 — — 0.1 5.3 
Net income (loss) attributable to Ingersoll Rand Inc.$(33.3)$159.1 $269.4 $18.4 $(36.6)
Earnings (loss) per share, basic$(0.09)$0.78 $1.34 $0.1 $(0.25)
Earnings (loss) per share, diluted$(0.09)$0.76 $1.29 $0.1 $(0.25)
Weighted average shares, basic382.8 203.5 201.6 182.2 149.2 
Weighted average shares, diluted382.8 208.9 209.1 188.4 149.2 
Statement of Cash Flow Data:
Cash flows - operating activities$914.3 $343.3 $444.5 $200.5 $165.6 
Cash flows - investing activities(37.9)(54.3)(235.0)(60.8)(82.1)
Cash flows - financing activities328.7 (11.5)(373.0)(17.4)(43.0)
Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
Cash and cash equivalents$1,750.9 $505.5 $221.2 $393.3 $255.8 
Total assets16,058.6 4,628.4 4,487.1 4,621.2 4,316.0 
Total liabilities6,869.1 2,758.5 2,811.1 3,144.4 4,044.2 
Total stockholders’ equity9,189.5 1,869.9 1,676.0 1,476.8 271.8 
Other Financial Data (unaudited):
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
$1,017.6 $561.7 $683.4 $561.5 $400.7 
Adjusted net income(1)
599.0 329.3 396.3 249.3 133.6 
Capital expenditures48.7 43.2 52.2 56.8 74.4 
Free cash flow(1)
865.6 300.1 392.3 143.7 91.2 
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(1)We report our financial results in accordance with GAAP. To supplement this information, we also use the following measures in this Form 10-K: “Adjusted EBITDA,” “Adjusted Net Income” and “Free Cash Flow.” Management believes that Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income are helpful supplemental measures to assist us and investors in evaluating our operating results as they exclude certain items whose fluctuation from period to period do not necessarily correspond to changes in the operations of our business. Adjusted EBITDA represents net income (loss) before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, as further adjusted to exclude certain non-cash, non-recurring and other adjustment items. We believe that the adjustments applied in presenting Adjusted EBITDA are appropriate to provide additional information to investors about certain material non-cash items and about non-recurring items that we do not expect to continue at the same level in the future. Adjusted Net Income is defined as net income (loss) including interest, depreciation and amortization of non-acquisition related intangible assets and excluding other items used to calculate Adjusted EBITDA and further adjusted for the tax effect of these exclusions.
We use Free Cash Flow to review the liquidity of our operations. We measure Free Cash Flow as cash flows from operating activities less capital expenditures. We believe Free Cash Flow is a useful supplemental financial measure for us and investors in assessing our ability to pursue business opportunities and investments and to service our debt. Free Cash Flow is not a measure of our liquidity under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities.
As a result, we and our board of directors regularly use these measures as tools in evaluating our operating and financial performance and in establishing discretionary annual compensation. Such measures are provided in addition to, and should not be considered to be a substitute for, or superior to, the comparable measure under GAAP. In addition, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow are frequently used by investors, analysts and other interested parties in the evaluation of issuers, many of which also present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow when reporting their results in an effort to facilitate an understanding of their operating and financial results and liquidity.
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow should not be considered as alternatives to net income (loss) or other performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, or as alternatives to cash flow from operating activities as a measure of our liquidity. Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow have limitations as analytical tools, and you should not consider such measures either in isolation or as substitutes for analyzing our results as reported under GAAP.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion contains management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations and should be read together with “Item 6. Selected Financial Data” and our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in any forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those set forth under the “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Executive Overview
Our Company
Ingersoll Rand is a global market leader with a broad range of innovative and mission-critical air, fluid, energy, specialty vehicle and medical technologies, providing services and solutions to increase industrial productivity and efficiency. We manufacture one of the broadest and most complete ranges of compressor, pump, vacuum and blower products in our markets, which, when combined with our global geographic footprint and application expertise, allows us to provide differentiated product and service offerings to our customers. Our products are sold under a collection of premier, market-leading brands, including Ingersoll Rand, Gardner Denver, Club Car, CompAir, Nash, Elmo Rietschle, Robuschi, Thomas, Milton Roy, ARO, Emco Wheaton and Runtech Systems, which we believe are globally recognized in their respective end-markets and known for product quality, reliability, efficiency and superior customer service.
These attributes, along with over 160 years of engineering heritage, generate strong brand loyalty for our products and foster long-standing customer relationships, which we believe have resulted in leading market positions within each of our operating segments. We have sales in more than 175 countries and our diverse customer base utilizes our products across a wide array of end-markets that have favorable near- and long-term growth prospects, including industrial manufacturing, energy (with particular exposure to the North American upstream land-based market), transportation, medical and laboratory sciences, food and beverage packaging and chemical processing.
Our products and services are critical to the processes and systems in which they are utilized, which are often complex and function in harsh conditions where the cost of failure or downtime is high. However, our products and services typically represent only a small portion of the costs of the overall systems or functions that they support. As a result, our customers place a high value on our application expertise, product reliability and the responsiveness of our service. To support our customers and
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market presence, we maintain significant global scale with 65 key manufacturing facilities, approximately 50 complementary service and repair centers across six continents and approximately 15,900 employees worldwide as of December 31, 2020.
The process-critical nature of our product applications, coupled with the standard wear and tear replacement cycles associated with the usage of our products, generates opportunities to support customers with our broad portfolio of aftermarket parts, consumables and services. Customers place a high value on minimizing any time their operations are offline. As a result, the availability of replacement parts, consumables and our repair and support services are key components of our value proposition. Our large installed base of products provides a recurring revenue stream through our aftermarket parts, consumables and services offerings. As a result, our aftermarket revenue is significant, representing 36.1% of total Company revenue and approximately 42.8% of our combined Industrial Technologies and Services and High Pressure Solutions segments’ revenue in 2020.
Components of Our Revenue and Expenses
Revenues
We generate revenue from sales of original equipment and associated aftermarket parts, consumables and services. We sell our products and deliver services directly to end-users and through independent distribution channels, depending on the product line and geography. Revenue derived from short duration contracts is recognized at a single point in time when control is transferred to the customer, generally at shipment or when delivery has occurred or as services are performed. Certain contracts are highly-engineered and unique to customer specifications. Depending on the contractual terms, revenue is recognized either over the duration of the contract or at contract completion when control is transferred to the customer.
Expenses
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales includes purchased materials, labor and overhead related to manufactured products and aftermarket parts sold during a period. Depreciation of manufacturing equipment and facilities is included in cost of sales. Purchased materials represent the majority of costs of sales, with steel, aluminum, copper and partially finished castings representing our most significant materials inputs. Stock-based compensation expense for employees associated with the manufacture of products or delivery of services to customers is included in cost of sales. We have instituted a global sourcing strategy to take advantage of coordinated purchasing opportunities of key materials across our manufacturing plant locations.
Cost of sales for services includes direct labor, parts and other overhead costs including depreciation of equipment and facilities, to deliver repair, maintenance and other field services to our customers.
Selling and Administrative Expenses
Selling and administrative expenses consist of (i) salaries and other employee-related expenses for our selling and administrative functions and other activities not associated with the manufacture of products or delivery of services to customers; (ii) facility operating expenses for selling and administrative activities, including office rent, maintenance, depreciation and insurance; (iii) marketing and direct costs of selling products and services to customers including internal and external sales commissions; (iv) research and development expenditures; (v) professional and consultant fees; (vi) employee related stock-based compensation for our selling and administrative functions and (vii) other miscellaneous expenses. Certain corporate expenses, including those related to our shared service centers in the United States and Europe that directly benefit our businesses are allocated to our business segments. Certain corporate administrative expenses, including corporate executive compensation, treasury, certain information technology, internal audit and tax compliance, are not allocated to the business segments.
Amortization of Intangible Assets
Amortization of intangible assets represents the amortization of finite lived intangible assets recognized through accounting for acquisitions — including customer relationships, tradenames, and developed technology — as well as internal-use software.
Impairment of Other Intangible Assets
Impairment of other intangible assets represents the recognition of non-cash charges to reduce the carrying value of intangible assets other than goodwill to their fair value.
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Other Operating Expense, Net
Other operating expense, net includes foreign currency gains and losses, restructuring charges, acquisition and integration costs, certain litigation and contract settlement losses, environmental remediation and other miscellaneous operating expenses.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
The provision or benefit for income taxes includes U.S. federal, state and local income taxes and all non-U.S. income taxes. We are subject to income tax in approximately 46 jurisdictions outside of the United States. Because we conduct operations on a global basis, our effective tax rate depends, and will continue to depend, on the geographic distribution of our pre-tax earnings among several different taxing jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate can also vary based on changes in the tax rates of the different jurisdictions, the availability of tax credits and non-deductible items.
Items Affecting our Reported Results
General Economic Conditions and Capital Spending in the Industries We Serve
Our financial results closely follow changes in the industries and end-markets we serve. Demand for most of our products depends on the level of new capital investment and planned and unplanned maintenance expenditures by our customers. The level of capital expenditures depends, in turn, on the general economic conditions as well as access to capital at reasonable cost. In particular, demand for our industrial products in our Industrial Technologies and Services and Precision and Science Technologies segment generally correlate with the rate of total industrial capacity utilization and the rate of change of industrial production. Capacity utilization rates above 80% have historically indicated a strong demand environment for industrial equipment. Demand for certain businesses in our Precision and Science Technologies segment are driven by favorable trends in healthcare spend due to an aging population requiring medical care and increased investment in health solutions and safety infrastructures in emerging economies. In our High Pressure Solutions segment, demand for our products that is influenced heavily by energy prices and the expectation as to future trends in those prices. Energy prices have historically been cyclical in nature and are affected by a wide range of factors. In addition to energy prices, demand for our upstream energy products are positively impacted by increasing global land rig count, drilled but uncompleted wells, the level of hydraulic fracturing intensity and activity measured by horsepower utilization and lateral lengths as well as drilling and completion capital expenditures. Over longer time periods, we believe that demand for all of our products also tends to follow economic growth patterns indicated by the rates of change in the GDP around the world, as augmented by secular trends in each segment. Our ability to grow and our financial performance will also be affected by our ability to address a variety of challenges and opportunities that are a consequence of our global operations, including efficiently utilizing our global sales, manufacturing and distribution capabilities and engineering innovative new product applications for end-users in a variety of geographic markets.
Foreign Currency Fluctuations
A significant portion of our revenues, approximately 49% for the year ended December 31, 2020, was recognized by subsidiaries with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar. A significant portion of our costs are also denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Changes in foreign exchange rates can therefore impact our results of operations and are quantified when significant to our discussion.
Factors Affecting the Comparability of our Results of Operations
As a result of a number of factors, our historical results of operations are not comparable from period to period and may not be comparable to our financial results of operations in future periods. Key factors affecting the comparability of our results of operations are summarized below.
Acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial
On February 29, 2020, we completed the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial. We reorganized our reportable segments in connection with this transaction and formed four new reportable segments.
Industrial Technologies and Services – Ingersoll Rand Industrial’s Compression Technologies and Services (“CTS”) and Power Tools and Lift (“PTL”) businesses joined the legacy Gardner Denver Industrial segment (excluding the Specialty Pump businesses) and the midstream and downstream portions of the Gardner Denver Energy segment to form the new “Industrial Technologies and Services” segment.
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Precision and Science Technologies – Ingersoll Rand Industrial’s Precision Flow Systems (“PFS”) and ARO businesses joined the legacy Gardner Denver Medical segment and Specialty Pump businesses from the legacy Gardner Denver Industrial segment to form the new “Precision and Science Technologies” segment.
Specialty Vehicle Technologies – Ingersoll Rand Industrial’s Club Car golf, utility and consumer low-speed vehicles business formed the new “Specialty Vehicle Technologies” segment.
High Pressure Solutions – The upstream energy portion of the legacy Gardner Denver Energy segment was disaggregated to form the new “High Pressure Solutions” segment.
Ingersoll Rand Industrial is included in our results of operations beginning on the acquisition date (close of business February 29, 2020). Comparability between the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 will be affected by ten months of activity from Ingersoll Rand Industrial. Subsequent to the date of acquisition, in the year ended December 31, 2020, the Ingersoll Rand Industrial acquisition contributed $1,787.4 million, $406.1 million, and $741.4 million of revenue to the Industrial Technologies and Services, Precision and Science Technologies and Specialty Vehicle Technologies segments, respectively.
See Note 3 “Business Combinations” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for further discussion of the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial.
Other acquisitions
Part of our strategy for growth is to acquire complementary flow control and compression equipment businesses, which provide access to new technologies or geographies or improve our aftermarket offerings. In addition to the Ingersoll Rand Industrial transaction discussed above, we have acquired several other businesses during the three year period ending December 31, 2020. While these acquisitions are not individually significant or significant in the aggregate, may be relevant when comparing our results from period to period.
See Note 3 “Business Combinations” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for further discussion of these acquisitions.
Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19)
We continue to assess and actively manage the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on our global operations and also the operations of our suppliers and customers. Overall demand for our products has decreased as a result of the pandemic, which impacted our operating results for the year ended December 31, 2020. We are adhering to all state and country mandates and guidelines wherever we operate. Although certain of our facilities were closed for a period of time during the COVID-19 pandemic, currently all our major manufacturing locations are operational, in accordance with country mandates and guidelines. We are taking certain actions to reduce costs and preserve cash given the rapidly changing environment. The length of time the pandemic will impact our operations, and the operations of our customers and suppliers remains uncertain. See “The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected our business and results of operations, and could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition in the future” in Part II Item 1A. “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Variability within Upstream Energy Markets
We sell products and services to customers in upstream energy markets, primarily in the United States. Within our High Pressure Solutions segment, we manufacture pumps and associated aftermarket products and services used in drilling, hydraulic fracturing and well service applications.
Demand for upstream energy products has historically corresponded to the supply and demand dynamics related to oil and natural gas products, and has been influenced by oil and natural gas prices, the level and intensity of hydraulic fracturing activity rig count, drilling activity and other economic factors. These factors have caused the level of demand for certain of our High Pressure Solutions products to change at times (both positively and negatively) and we expect these trends to continue in the future.
Restructuring and Other Business Transformation Initiatives
We continue to implement business transformation initiatives. A key element of those business transformation initiatives was restructuring programs within our Industrial Technologies and Services, Precision and Science Technologies, Specialty Vehicle
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Technologies and High Pressure Solutions segments as well as at the Corporate level. Restructuring charges, program related facility reorganization, relocation and other costs, and related capital expenditures were impacted most significantly.
Subsequent to the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial, the Company announced a restructuring program (“2020 Plan”) to create efficiencies and synergies, reduce the number of facilities and optimize operating margin within the merged Company. For the year ended December 31, 2020, $92.9 million was charged to expense related to this restructuring program.
We announced a restructuring program in the third quarter of 2018 that primarily involves workforce reductions and facility consolidations. For the year ended December 31, 2019, $17.1 million was charged to expense related to this restructuring program.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
For the year ended December 31, 2020, we incurred stock-based compensation expense of approximately $51.3 million which was decreased by $0.5 million due to costs associated with employer taxes. The increase from 2019 was primarily due to increased awards as a result of the Ingersoll Rand Industrial acquisition as well as the $150 million equity grant to nearly 16,000 employees worldwide announced in the third quarter of 2020. See Note 17 “Stock-Based Compensation” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for further discussion around our stock-based compensation expense.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, we incurred stock-based compensation expense of approximately $19.2 million which was increased by $1.5 million due to costs associated with employer taxes.
Outlook
Industrial Technologies and Services
The mission-critical nature of our Industrial Technologies and Services segment products across manufacturing processes drives a demand environment and outlook that are correlated with global and regional industrial production, capacity utilization and long-term GDP growth. Due to the uncertainty of current economic conditions associated with COVID-19, and its impact on end markets, our near-term visibility is limited. In the fourth quarter of 2020, we had $996.8 million of orders in our Industrial Technologies and Services segment, an increase of 154.8% over the fourth quarter of 2019. Approximately $601.9 million of these orders relate to the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial.
Precision and Science Technologies Segment
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Precision and Science Technologies segment has seen increased demand for our vacuum pump and compressor solutions used in respirator and ventilator applications. Demand of other products and services have been curtailed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and near-term visibility is limited. In the fourth quarter of 2020 we booked $220.3 million of orders in our Precision and Science Technologies segment, an increase of 202.6% over the fourth quarter of 2019. Approximately $127.4 million of these orders relate to the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial.
Specialty Vehicle Technologies Segment
During 2020, the Specialty Vehicle Technologies segment is seeing consistent demand in golf end markets along with record demand for consumer vehicle and aftermarket parts offerings. This has helped to offset demand pressure in the commercial end markets as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact the hospitality and resort industries. In the fourth quarter of 2020, we had $274.2 million of orders in our Specialty Vehicle Technologies segment.
High Pressure Solutions Segment
The demand and outlook for the majority of our High Pressure Solutions products and services are influenced heavily by the supply and demand dynamics related to oil and natural gas products, and have been influenced by oil and natural gas prices, the level and intensity of hydraulic fracturing activity, global land rig count, the number of drilled but uncompleted wells and other economic factors. The COVID-19 pandemic and related economic repercussions have negatively impacted the global demand for oil and natural gas. The ultimate duration of these conditions is unknown. In the fourth quarter of 2020, we booked $38.8 million of orders in our High Pressure Solutions segment, a decrease of 50.9% over the fourth quarter of 2019.
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How We Assess the Performance of Our Business
We manage operations through the four business segments described above. In addition to our consolidated GAAP financial measures, we review various non-GAAP financial measures, including Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow.
We believe Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income are helpful supplemental measures to assist us and investors in evaluating our operating results as they exclude certain items whose fluctuation from period to period do not necessarily correspond to changes in the operations of our business. Adjusted EBITDA represents net income (loss) before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization and certain non-cash, non-recurring and other adjustment items. We believe that the adjustments applied in presenting Adjusted EBITDA are appropriate to provide additional information to investors about certain material non-cash items and about non-recurring items that we do not expect to continue at the same level in the future. Adjusted Net Income is defined as net income (loss) including interest, depreciation and amortization of non-acquisition related intangible assets and excluding other items used to calculate Adjusted EBITDA and further adjusted for the tax effect of these exclusions.
We use Free Cash Flow to review the liquidity of our operations. We measure Free Cash Flow as cash flows from operating activities less capital expenditures. We believe Free Cash Flow is a useful supplemental financial measure for us and investors in assessing our ability to pursue business opportunities and investments and to service our debt. Free Cash Flow is not a measure of our liquidity under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities.
Management and our board of directors regularly use these measures as tools in evaluating our operating and financial performance and in establishing discretionary annual compensation. Such measures are provided in addition to, and should not be considered to be a substitute for, or superior to, the comparable measures under GAAP. In addition, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow are frequently used by investors and other interested parties in the evaluation of issuers, many of which also present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow when reporting their results in an effort to facilitate an understanding of their operating and financial results and liquidity.
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow should not be considered as alternatives to net income (loss) or any other performance measure derived in accordance with GAAP, or as alternatives to cash flow from operating activities as a measure of our liquidity. Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow have limitations as analytical tools, and you should not consider such measures either in isolation or as substitutes for analyzing our results as reported under GAAP.
Included in our discussion of our consolidated and segment results below are changes in revenues and Adjusted EBITDA on a Constant Currency basis. Constant Currency information compares results between periods as if exchange rates had remained constant period over period. We define Constant Currency revenues and Adjusted EBITDA as total revenues and Adjusted EBITDA excluding the impact of foreign exchange rate movements and use it to determine the Constant Currency revenue and Adjusted EBITDA growth on a year-over-year basis. Constant Currency revenues and Adjusted EBITDA are calculated by translating current period revenues and Adjusted EBITDA using corresponding prior period exchange rates. These results should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, results reported in accordance with GAAP. Results on a Constant Currency basis, as we present them, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies and are not a measure of performance presented in accordance with GAAP.
For further information regarding these measures, see “Item 6. Selected Financial Data” and “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below.
Results of Operations
Consolidated results should be read in conjunction with segment results and the Segment Information notes to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, which provide more detailed discussions concerning certain components of our consolidated statements of operations. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated within the consolidated results.
This section discusses our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. For a discussion and analysis of the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to the same in 2018, please refer to the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition” and “Results of Operations” sections included in Item 7 in Exhibit 99.2 of our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on June 5, 2020.
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Consolidated Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Consolidated Statements of Operations
Revenues$4,910.2 $2,451.9 
Cost of sales3,296.8 1,540.2 
Gross Profit1,613.4 911.7 
Selling and administrative expenses894.8 436.4 
Amortization of intangible assets395.8 124.3 
Impairment of other intangible assets19.9 — 
Other operating expense, net217.2 75.7 
Operating Income85.7 275.3 
Interest expense111.1 88.9 
Loss on extinguishment of debt2.0 0.2 
Other income, net(8.0)(4.7)
Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes(19.4)190.9 
Provision for income taxes13.0 31.8 
Net Income (Loss)(32.4)159.1 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests0.9 — 
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Ingersoll Rand Inc.$(33.3)$159.1 
Percentage of Revenues
Gross profit32.9 %37.2 %
Selling and administrative expenses18.2 %17.8 %
Operating income1.7 %11.2 %
Net income(0.7)%6.5 %
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
20.7 %22.9 %
Other Financial Data
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
$1,017.6 $561.7 
Adjusted net income(1)
599.0 329.3 
Cash flows - operating activities914.3 343.3 
Cash flows - investing activities(37.9)(54.3)
Cash flows - financing activities328.7 (11.5)
Free cash flow(1)
865.6 300.1 
(1)See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for a reconciliation to the most directly comparable GAAP measure.
Revenues
Revenues for 2020 were $4,910.2 million, an increase of $2,458.3 million, or 100.3%, compared to $2,451.9 million in 2019. The increase in revenues was primarily due to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial of $2,934.9 million partially offset by lower volumes due to the effects of COVID-19 in our Industrial Technologies and Services segment of $260.5 million and in our High Pressure Solutions segment of $220.5 million. The percentage of consolidated revenues derived from aftermarket parts and services was 36.1% in 2020 compared to 37.8% in 2019.
Gross Profit
Gross profit in 2020 was $1,613.4 million, an increase of $701.7 million, or 77.0%, compared to $911.7 million in 2019, and as a percentage of revenues was 32.9% in 2020 and 37.2% in 2019. The increase in gross profit is primarily due to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial, partially offset by the runoff of the fair valuation adjustments related to purchase price allocation from inventory into cost of sales, lower volumes due to the effects of COVID-19 in our Industrial Technologies and
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Services segment and our High Pressure Solutions segment. The decrease in gross profit as a percentage of revenues is primarily due to the runoff of the fair valuation adjustments related to purchase price allocation from inventory into cost of sales and changes in segment mix.
Selling and Administrative Expenses
Selling and administrative expenses were $894.8 million in 2020, an increase of $458.4 million, or 105.0%, compared to $436.4 million in 2019. Selling and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues increased to 18.2% in 2020 from 17.8% in 2019. This increase in selling and administrative expenses was primarily due to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial, increased professional and consultant fees and increased stock based compensation expense, partially offset by a decrease in advertising expenses and employee related expenses including salaries and wages, within our legacy business units.
Amortization of Intangible Assets
Amortization of intangible assets was $395.8 million in 2020, an increase of $271.5 million compared to $124.3 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to the amortization of intangible assets related to the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial.
Impairment of Intangible Assets
Impairment of intangible assets was $19.9 million in 2020 due to the impairment of two tradenames in the Industrial Technologies and Services segment. See Note 8 “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for further details.
Other Operating Expense, Net
Other operating expense, net was $217.2 million in 2020, an increase of $141.5 million compared to $75.7 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to higher restructuring charges of $75.8 million, higher acquisition related expenses of $43.5 million, higher foreign currency transaction losses, net of $12.8 million and lower shareholder litigation recoveries of $6.0 million.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $111.1 million in 2020, an increase of $22.2 million compared to $88.9 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to the addition of a $1,900 million term loan entered into in conjunction with the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial and the addition of a $400 million term loan entered into in the second quarter of 2020, partially offset by a decrease in the weighted-average interest rate. The weighted-average interest rate was approximately 3.5% in 2020 and 5.4% in 2019.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt was $2.0 million in 2020, which was related to the refinancing of the senior secured term loan facility denominated in U.S. Dollars and the senior secured term loan facility denominated in Euros. See Note 10 “Debt” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for further details.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net, was $8.0 million in 2020, an increase of $3.3 million compared to $4.7 million in 2019. The increase in other income, net was primarily due to increased gains on postretirement plan investments of $10.5 million due to the additional defined benefit plans from the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial, partially offset by increased costs in the other components of net periodic benefit cost of $6.1 million due to the additional defined benefit plans from the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial.
Provision for Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes was $13.0 million resulting in a (67.0)% effective tax rate in 2020 compared to a provision of $31.8 million resulting in a 16.7% effective tax provision rate in 2019. The decrease in the tax provision and the change in the effective tax rate is primarily due to a reduction in the pre-tax book income in jurisdictions with lower effective tax rates combined with significant earnings in jurisdictions with higher tax rates. The reduction in pre-tax book income is mainly from the COVID-19 global pandemic, the transaction costs associated with the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial, and additional amortization and depreciation expense associated with the purchase price step up adjustments.
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Net Income (Loss)
Net loss was $32.4 million in 2020 compared to net income of $159.1 million in 2019. The decrease in net income was primarily due to higher selling and administrative expenses, higher amortization, increased other operating expenses, net, and higher interest expense, partially offset by higher gross profit on increased revenues.
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA increased $455.9 million to $1,017.6 million in 2020 compared to $561.7 million in 2019. Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenues decreased 220 basis points to 20.7% in 2020 from 22.9% in 2019. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial of $691.1 million, partially offset by lower organic sales volume of $179.0 million and increased corporate costs associated with Ingersoll Rand Industrial. The decrease in Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenues is primarily attributable to end market challenges in the upstream oil and gas market in our High Pressure Solutions segment.
Adjusted Net Income
Adjusted Net Income increased $269.7 million to $599.0 million in 2020 compared to $329.3 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to increased Adjusted EBITDA, partially offset by an increased income tax provision, as adjusted and higher depreciation and interest expenses.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Set forth below are reconciliations of net income (loss) to Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income and cash flows from operating activities to Free Cash Flow. For additional information regarding Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income, see “How We Assess the Performance of Our Business” above.
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Net Income (Loss)$(32.4)$159.1 
Plus:
Interest expense111.1 88.9 
Provision for income taxes13.0 31.8 
Depreciation expense(a)
97.1 53.8 
Amortization expense(b)
395.8 124.3 
Impairment of other intangible assets
19.9 — 
Restructuring and related business transformation costs(c)
97.9 25.6 
Acquisition related expenses and non-cash charges(d)
233.2 54.6 
Stock-based compensation(e)
50.8 20.7 
Foreign currency transaction losses (gains), net20.9 8.1 
Loss on extinguishment of debt(f)
2.0 0.2 
Shareholder litigation settlement recoveries(g)
— (6.0)
Establish public company financial reporting compliance— 0.6 
Other adjustments(h)
8.3 — 
Adjusted EBITDA$1,017.6 $561.7 
Minus:
Interest expense$111.1 $88.9 
Income tax provision, as adjusted(i)
192.0 77.9 
Depreciation expense97.1 53.8 
Amortization of non-acquisition related intangible assets18.4 11.8 
Adjusted Net Income$599.0 $329.3 
Free Cash Flow
Cash flows - operating activities$914.3 $343.3 
Minus:
Capital expenditures48.7 43.2 
Free Cash Flow$865.6 $300.1 
(a)Depreciation expense excludes $8.0 million of depreciation of rental equipment for the year ended December 31, 2020.
(b)Represents $377.4 million and $112.5 million of amortization of intangible assets arising from the acquisition of Ingersoll Rand Industrial and other acquisitions (customer relationships, technology, tradenames and backlog) and $18.4 million and $11.8 million of amortization of non-acquisition related intangible assets, in each case for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
(c)Restructuring and related business transformation costs consisted of the following.
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Restructuring charges$92.9 $17.1 
Facility reorganization, relocation and other costs2.1 2.4 
Other, net2.9 6.1 
Total restructuring and related business transformation costs$97.9 $25.6 
(d)Represents costs associated with successful and/or abandoned acquisitions, including third-party expenses, post-closure integration costs (including certain incentive and non-incentive cash compensation costs), and non-cash charges and credits arising from fair value purchase accounting adjustments.
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(e)Represents stock-based compensation expense recognized for the year ended December 31, 2020 of $51.3 million decreased by $0.5 million due to costs associated with employer taxes. Represents stock-based compensation expense recognized for stock options outstanding for the year ended December 31, 2019 of $19.2 million increased by $1.5 million due to costs associated with employer taxes.
(f)Represents losses on the extinguishment of a portion of the U.S. term loan and the amendment of the revolving credit facility.
(g)Represents insurance recoveries of our shareholder litigation settlement in 2014.
(h)Includes (i) effects of the amortization of prior service costs and amortization of losses in pension and other postemployment (“OPEB”) expense, (ii) certain legal and compliance costs and (iii) other miscellaneous adjustments.
(i)Represents our income tax provision adjusted for the tax effect of pre-tax items excluded from Adjusted Net Income and the removal of applicable discrete tax items. The tax effect of pre-tax items excluded from Adjusted Net Income is computed using the statutory tax rate related to the jurisdiction that was impacted by the adjustment after taking into account the impact of permanent differences and valuation allowances. Discrete tax items include changes in tax laws or rates, changes in uncertain tax positions relating to prior years and changes in valuation allowances. All impacts relating to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 have been included as an adjustment on the “Tax law change” line of the table below.
The income tax provision, as adjusted for each of the periods presented below consists of the following.
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Provision (benefit) for income taxes$13.0 $31.8 
Tax impact of pre-tax income adjustments184.0 45.6 
Discrete tax items(5.0)0.5 
Income tax provision, as adjusted$192.0 $77.9 
Segment Results
As discussed above, we reorganized our segments during the three month period ended March 31, 2020 and no longer report under the three reportable segments of Industrial, Energy and Medical. Discussed below are the results of operations for the three reorganized reportable segments of Industrial Technologies and Services, Precision and Science Technologies and High Pressure Solutions as well as our new Specialty Vehicles Technologies reportable segment. Our Corporate operations (as described below) are not discussed separately as any results that had a significant impact on operating results are included in the consolidated results discussion above.
We evaluate the performance of our segments based on Segment Revenues and Segment Adjusted EBITDA. Segment Adjusted EBITDA is indicative of operational performance and ongoing profitability. Our management closely monitors Segment Adjusted EBITDA to evaluate past performance and identify actions required to improve profitability.
The segment measurements provided to, and evaluated by, the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) are described in Note 22 “Segment Information” to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Included in our discussion of our segment results below are changes in Segment Revenues and Segment Adjusted EBITDA on a Constant Currency basis. Constant Currency information compares results between periods as if exchange rates had remained constant period over period. We define Constant Currency as changes in Segment Revenues and Segment Adjusted EBITDA excluding the impact of foreign exchange rate movements. We use these measures to determine the Constant Currency Segment Revenues and Segment Adjusted EBITDA growth on a year-on-year basis. Constant Currency Segment Revenues and Segment Adjusted EBITDA are calculated by translating current period Segment Revenues and Segment Adjusted EBITDA using prior period exchange rates. These results should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, results reported in accordance with GAAP. Results on a constant currency basis, as we present them, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies and are not a measure of performance presented in accordance with GAAP.
Segment Results for Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
The following tables display Segment Revenues, Segment Adjusted EBITDA and Segment Adjusted EBITDA Margin (Segment Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of Segment Revenues) for each of our Segments and illustrates, on a percentage basis, the impact of foreign currency fluctuations on Segment Revenues and Segment Adjusted EBITDA growth.
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Industrial Technologies and Services Segment Results
Years Ended December 31,Percent Change
20202019
2020 vs. 2019
Segment Revenues$3,248.2 $1,700.9 91.0 %
Segment Adjusted EBITDA$759.8 $391.4 94.1 %
Segment Margin23.4 %23.0 %40 bps
2020 vs. 2019
Segment Revenues for 2020 were $3,248.2 million, an increase of $1,547.3 million, or 91.0%, compared to $1,700.9 million in 2019. The increase in Segment Revenues was primarily due to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial, of $1,787.4 million or 105.1% and improved pricing of $21.2 million or 1.2%, partially offset by lower volume of $260.5 million or 15.3%. The percentage of Segment Revenues derived from aftermarket parts and service was 40.2% in 2020 compared to 32.3% in 2019.
Segment Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 was $759.8 million, an increase of $368.4 million, or 94.1%, from $391.4 million in 2019. Segment Adjusted EBITDA Margin increased 40 bps to 23.4% from 23.0% in 2019. The increase in Segment Adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial, of $432.4 million or 110.5%, lower selling and administrative expenses of $35.4 million or 9.0%, and improved pricing of $21.2 million or 5.4%, partially offset by lower organic sales volumes of $104.0 million or 26.6% and unfavorable margin mix of $19.1 million or 4.9%.
Precision and Science Technologies Segment Results
Years Ended December 31,Percent Change
20202019
2020 vs. 2019
Segment Revenues$725.0 $316.6 129.0 %
Segment Adjusted EBITDA$220.2 $95.8 129.9 %
Segment Margin30.4 %30.3 %10 bps
2020 vs. 2019
Segment Revenues for 2020 were $725.0 million, an increase of $408.4 million, or 129.0%, compared to $316.6 million in 2019. The increase in Segment Revenues was primarily due to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial, of $406.1 million or 128.3% and improved pricing of $4.7 million or 1.5%, partially offset by lower volume of $4.6 million or 1.5%. The percentage of Segment Revenues derived from aftermarket parts and service was 14.6% in 2020 compared to 4.2% in 2019.
Segment Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 was $220.2 million, an increase of $124.4 million, or 129.9%, from $95.8 million in 2019. Segment Adjusted EBITDA Margin increased 10 bps to 30.4% from 30.3% in 2019. The increase in Segment Adjusted EBITDA was due primarily to acquisitions, including Ingersoll Rand Industrial, of $120.1 million or 125.4%, improved pricing of $4.7 million or 4.9% and lower selling and administrative expenses of $2.1 million or 2.2%, partially offset by lower volume of $1.8 million or 1.9%.
Specialty Vehicle Technologies Segment Results
The Specialty Vehicle Technologies segment is entirely composed of businesses acquired as part of the Ingersoll Rand Industrial transaction. Therefore, comparative prior period information was not part of our consolidated results.
Segment Revenues for 2020 were $741.4 million. The percentage of Segment Revenues derived from aftermarket parts and service was 26.0% in 2020.
Segment Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 was $138.6 million. Segment Adjusted EBITDA Margin was 18.7% in 2020.
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High Pressure Solutions Segment Results
Years Ended December 31,Percent Change
20202019
2020 vs. 2019
Segment Revenues$195.6 $434.4 (55.0)%
Segment Adjusted EBITDA$12.1 $117.0 (89.7)%
Segment Margin6.2 %26.9 %(2,070) bps
2020 vs. 2019
Segment Revenues for 2020 were $195.6 million, a decrease of $238.8 million, or 55.0%, compared to $434.4 million in 2019. The decrease in Segment Revenues was primarily due to lower volume of $220.5 million or 50.8% and lower pricing $17.3 million or 4.0%. The percentage of Segment Revenues derived from aftermarket parts and service was 86.7% in 2020 compared to 83.9% in 2019.
Segment Adjusted EBITDA in 2020 was $12.1 million, a decrease of $104.9 million, or 89.7%, from $117.0 million in 2019. Segment Adjusted EBITDA Margin decreased 2,070 bps to 6.2% from 26.9% in 2019. The decrease in Segment Adjusted EBITDA was due primarily to lower volume of $73.2 million or 62.6%, lower pricing of $17.3 million or 14.8%, unfavorable margin mix of $10.6 million or 9.1% and higher selling and administrative expenses of $5.0 million or 4.3%.
Unaudited Quarterly Results of Operations
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Year Ended December 31, 2020(1)
Year Ended December 31, 2019
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4
Revenues$799.9 $1,264.4 $1,335.2 $1,510.7 $620.3 $629.1 $596.7 $605.8 
Gross profit$244.5 $360.0 $482.0 $526.9 $230.5 $234.4 $221.5 $225.3 
Operating income (loss)$(66.8)$(52.2)$74.3 $130.4 $80.2 $74.6 $72.9 $47.6 
Net income (loss)$(36.8)$(176.6)$29.9 $151.1 $