10-K 1 whd-20181231x10k.htm 10-K whd_Current_Folio_10K

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


FORM 10‑K


(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to

Commission File Number: 001‑38390


Cactus, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


 

 

 

Delaware

35‑2586106

(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

920 Memorial City Way, Suite 300

Houston, Texas

77024

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip code)

 

(713) 626‑8800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

New York Stock Exchange

(Title of each class)

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well‑known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

  

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

  

 

Emerging growth company

  

If an emerging growth company indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No 

As of June 30, 2018, the aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $893.7 million.

As of March 13, 2019, the registrant had 37,873,071 shares of Class A common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and 37,236,142 shares of Class B common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

ii

Emerging Growth Company Status 

iv

 

 

 

 

PART I

1

 

 

 

Item 1. 

Business

1

Item 1A. 

Risk Factors

10

Item 1B. 

Unresolved Staff Comments

26

Item 2. 

Properties

26

Item 3. 

Legal Proceedings

26

Item 4. 

Mine Safety Disclosures

27

 

 

 

 

PART II

28

 

 

 

Item 5. 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

28

Item 6. 

Selected Financial Data

30

Item 7. 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

32

Item 7A. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

46

Item 8. 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

47

Item 9. 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

80

Item 9A. 

Controls and Procedures

80

Item 9B. 

Other Information

81

 

 

 

 

PART III

82

 

 

 

Item 10. 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

82

Item 11. 

Executive Compensation

89

Item 12. 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

98

Item 13. 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

101

Item 14. 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

109

 

 

 

 

PART IV

109

 

 

 

Item 15. 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

109

Item 16. 

Form 10‑K Summary

112

 

Signatures

113

 

 

i


 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10‑K (this “Annual Report”) contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). When used in this Annual Report, the words “could,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward‑looking statements, although not all forward‑looking statements contain such identifying words. These forward‑looking statements are based on our current expectations and assumptions about future events and are based on currently available information as to the outcome and timing of future events. When considering forward‑looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements described under the heading “Item 1A. Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report. These forward‑looking statements are based on management’s current belief, based on currently available information, as to the outcome and timing of future events.

Forward‑looking statements may include statements about:

·

demand for our products and services, which is affected by, among other things, changes in the price of, and demand for, crude oil and natural gas in domestic and international markets;

·

the level of growth in number of rigs, pad sizes, well spacings and associated well count and lack of takeaway capacity in areas such as the Permian Basin;

·

the level of fracturing activity;

·

the size and timing of orders;

·

availability of raw materials;

·

transportation differentials associated with reduced capacity in and out of the storage hub in Cushing, Oklahoma;

·

expectations regarding raw materials, overhead and operating costs and margins;

·

availability of skilled and qualified workers;

·

potential liabilities such as warranty and product liability claims arising out of the installation, use or misuse of our products;

·

the possibility of cancellation of orders;

·

our business strategy;

·

our financial strategy, operating cash flows, liquidity and capital required for our business;

·

our future revenue, income and operating performance;

·

the termination of relationships with major customers or suppliers;

·

laws and regulations, including environmental regulations, that may increase our costs, limit the demand for our products and services or restrict our operations;

ii


 

·

disruptions in the political, regulatory, economic and social conditions domestically or internationally;

·

increased import tariffs assessed on products from China or imported raw materials used in the manufacture of our goods in the United States;

·

the significance of future liabilities under the Tax Receivable Agreement (the “TRA”) we entered into with certain current or past direct and indirect owners of Cactus LLC (the “TRA Holders”) in connection with our IPO;

·

a failure of our information technology infrastructure or any significant breach of security;

·

potential uninsured claims and litigation against us;

·

our dependence on the continuing services of certain of our key managers and employees; and

·

plans, objectives, expectations and intentions contained in this Annual Report that are not historical.

We caution you that these forward‑looking statements are subject to all of the risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control, incident to the operation of our business. These risks include, but are not limited to the risks described in this Annual Report under “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described in this Annual Report occur, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results and plans could differ materially from those expressed in any forward‑looking statements.

All forward‑looking statements, expressed or implied, included in this Annual Report are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement. This cautionary statement should also be considered in connection with any subsequent written or oral forward‑looking statements that we or persons acting on our behalf may issue.

Except as otherwise required by applicable law, we disclaim any duty to update any forward‑looking statements, all of which are expressly qualified by the statements in this section, to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report.

iii


 

EMERGING GROWTH COMPANY STATUS

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”). For as long as we are an emerging growth company, unlike public companies that are not emerging growth companies under the JOBS Act, we will not be required to:

·

provide an auditor’s attestation report on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our system of internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act of 2002;

·

comply with any new requirements adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) requiring mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report in which the auditor would be required to provide additional information about the audit and the financial statements of the issuer;

·

provide certain disclosure regarding executive compensation required of larger public companies or hold shareholder advisory votes on the executive compensation required by the Dodd‑Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd‑Frank Act”); or

·

obtain shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

We will cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of the:

·

last day of the fiscal year in which we have $1.07 billion or more in annual revenues;

·

date (after being subject to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act for a period of at least twelve calendar months) on which we become a “large accelerated filer” (the fiscal year‑end on which the total market value of our common equity securities held by non‑affiliates is $700 million or more as of June 30);

·

date on which we issue more than $1.0 billion of non‑convertible debt over a three‑year period; or

·

last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), for complying with new or revised accounting standards, but we have irrevocably opted out of the extended transition period and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates in which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies.

For a description of the qualifications and other requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and certain elections that we have made due to our status as an emerging growth company, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Class A common stock—For as long as we are an emerging growth company, we will not be required to comply with certain reporting requirements, including those relating to disclosure about our executive compensation, that apply to other public companies.”

 

 

iv


 

PART I

Except as otherwise indicated or required by the context, all references in this Annual Report to the “Company,” “Cactus,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to (i) Cactus Wellhead, LLC (“Cactus LLC”) and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the completion of our initial public offering and (ii) Cactus, Inc. (“Cactus Inc.”) and its consolidated subsidiaries (including Cactus LLC) following the completion of our initial public offering on February 12, 2018.

Item 1.     Business

Our History

Cactus Inc. was incorporated on February 17, 2017 as a Delaware corporation for the purpose of completing an initial public offering of equity and related transactions (our “IPO”). Cactus LLC is a Delaware limited liability company and was formed on July 11, 2011. We began operating in August 2011, following the formation of Cactus LLC by Scott Bender and Joel Bender, who have owned or operated wellhead manufacturing businesses since the late 1970s, and Cadent Energy Partners II, L.P. (“Cadent”),  an affiliate of Cadent Energy Partners LLC, as its equity sponsor. We acquired our primary manufacturing facility in Bossier City, Louisiana in September 2011 and established our other production facility, located in Suzhou, China, in December 2013 through our subsidiary there. Since we began operating, we have grown to 15 U.S. service centers located in Texas, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, North Dakota, New Mexico, Louisiana, Colorado and Wyoming. In July 2014, we formed a subsidiary in Australia and established a service center to develop the market for our products in Eastern Australia. Our corporate headquarters are located in Houston, Texas.

Cactus Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Cactus LLC, are primarily engaged in the design, manufacture and sale of wellhead and pressure control equipment. In addition, we maintain a fleet of frac valves and ancillary equipment for short-term rental.  Our products are sold and rented principally for onshore unconventional oil and gas wells and are utilized during the drilling, completion and production phases of our customers’ wells. We  also provide field services for all of our products and rental items to assist with the installation, maintenance and handling of the wellhead and pressure control equipment as well as offer repair and refurbishment services. 

Organization Structure

Cactus Inc. is a holding company whose only material asset is an equity interest consisting of units representing limited liability company interests in Cactus LLC (“CW Units”). Cactus Inc. became the sole managing member of Cactus LLC upon completion of our IPO and is responsible for all operational, management and administrative decisions relating to Cactus LLC’s business. The Limited Liability Company Operating Agreement of Cactus LLC was amended and restated as the First Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Operating Agreement of Cactus LLC (the “Cactus Wellhead LLC Agreement”) to, among other things, admit Cactus Inc. as the sole managing member of Cactus LLC. Pursuant to the Cactus Wellhead LLC Agreement, holders of CW Units are entitled to redeem their CW Units which results in a corresponding increase in Cactus Inc.’s membership interest in Cactus LLC, and an increase in the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding.

On February 12, 2018, we completed our initial public offering of 23,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share (“Class A common stock”), at a price to the public of $19.00 per share. We received net proceeds of $408.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and payment of $2.8 million in 2018 offering expenses for the IPO. We also paid $2.2 million in offering expenses during 2017 that were recorded to prepaid expenses in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017. On February 14, 2018 we completed the sale of an additional 3,450,000 shares of Class A common stock pursuant to the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock (the “Option”), from which we received an additional $61.6 million net proceeds after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions. We contributed all of the net proceeds of our IPO (including from the Option) to Cactus LLC in exchange for CW Units.

1


 

Cactus LLC used $469.6 million of the net proceeds from our IPO to (i) repay all of the borrowings outstanding under its term loan facility, including accrued interest, of $251.0 million and (ii) redeem $216.4 million of CW Units from certain direct and indirect owners of Cactus LLC. The remaining $2.2 million was held by Cactus LLC to cover offering expenses previously paid in 2017.

On July 16, 2018, we completed a public offering of 11,196,562 shares (consisting of 10,000,000 base shares and 1,196,562 shares sold pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares) of Class A common stock (the “Follow-on Offering”) at a price to the public of $33.25 per share and received $359.3 million of net proceeds after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions. Cactus Inc. contributed these net proceeds to Cactus LLC in exchange for CW Units. Cactus LLC then used the net proceeds to redeem 11,196,562 CW Units from certain of the owners of Cactus LLC, and Cactus Inc. canceled a  corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share (“Class B common stock”).  

Pursuant to the Cactus Wellhead LLC Agreement, holders of CW Units are entitled to redeem their CW Units which results in a corresponding increase in Cactus Inc.’s membership interest in Cactus LLC, and an increase in the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding. Pursuant to the Cactus Wellhead LLC Agreement, there were redemptions of 7,068 CW Units during the fourth quarter 2018. Future quarterly redemptions are also expected.

In this Annual Report, we refer to the owners of CW Units,  other than Cactus Inc., (along with their permitted transferees) as “CW Unit Holders.”  CW Unit Holders also own one share of our Class B common stock for each CW Unit such CW Unit Holder owns.  As of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to our IPO, Follow-on Offering and the related transactions, Cactus Inc. owns an approximate 50.3% interest in Cactus LLC, and the CW Unit Holders own an approximate 49.7% interest in Cactus LLC. These ownership percentages are based on 37,653,630 shares of Class A common stock and 37,236,142 shares of Class B common stock issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018.

2


 

The following diagram indicates our simplified ownership structure.

Picture 1

Overview

Our principal products include our Cactus SafeDrill®  wellhead systems as well as frac stacks, zipper manifolds and production trees that we design and manufacture. Every oil and gas well requires a wellhead, which is installed at the onset of the drilling process that remains with the well through its entire productive life. The Cactus SafeDrill® wellhead systems employ technology which allows technicians to land and secure casing strings more safely from the rig floor, reducing the need to descend into the cellar. We believe we are a market leader in the application of such technology, with thousands of our products sold and installed across the United States since 2011. During the completion phase of a well, we rent frac stacks, zipper manifolds and other high-pressure equipment that are used for well control

3


 

and for managing the transmission of frac fluids and proppants during the hydraulic fracturing process. These severe service applications require robust and reliable equipment. For the subsequent production phase of a well, we sell production trees that regulate hydrocarbon production, which are installed on the wellhead after the frac stack has been removed. In addition, we provide mission-critical field services for all of our products and rental items, including 24-hour service crews to assist with the installation, maintenance, repair and safe handling of the wellhead and pressure control equipment.

Our innovative wellhead products and pressure control equipment are developed internally. We believe our close relationship with our customers provides us with insight into the specific issues encountered in the drilling and completion processes, allowing us to provide them appropriate product and service solutions. We have achieved significant market share, as measured by the percentage of total active U.S. onshore rigs that we follow (which we define as the number of active U.S. onshore drilling rigs to which we are the primary provider of wellhead products and corresponding services during drilling), and brand name recognition with respect to our engineered products, which we believe is due to our focus on safety, reliability, cost effectiveness and time saving features. We optimize our products for pad drilling (i.e., the process of drilling multiple wellbores from a single surface location) to reduce rig time and provide operators with significant efficiencies that translate to cost savings at the wellsite.

We operate 15 service centers in the United States, which are strategically located in the key oil and gas producing regions, including the Permian, SCOOP/STACK, Marcellus, Utica, Eagle Ford, Bakken and other active oil and gas regions in the United States. We also have one service center in Eastern Australia. These service centers support our field services and provide equipment assembly and repair services.

How We Generate Our Revenues

Our revenues are derived from three sources: products, rentals, and field service and other. Product revenues are primarily derived from the sale of wellhead systems and production trees. Rental revenues are primarily derived from the rental and associated repair of equipment used for well control during the completion process as well as the rental of drilling tools. Field service and other revenues are primarily earned when we provide installation and other field services for both product sales and equipment rental. Additionally, other revenues are derived from providing repair and reconditioning services to customers that have previously installed our products on their wellsite. Items sold or rented generally have an associated service component. As a result, there is some level of correlation between field service and other revenues and revenues from product sales and rentals.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, we derived 53% of our total revenues from the sale of our products, 25% of our total revenues from rental and 22% of our total revenues from field service and other. In 2017, we derived 55% of our total revenues from the sale of our products, 23% of our total revenues from rental and 22% of our total revenues from field service and other. We have predominantly domestic operations, with 99% of our total sales for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 earned from U.S. operations. 

Most all of our sales are made on a call out basis pursuant to agreements, wherein our clients provide delivery instructions for goods and/or services as their operations require. Such goods and/or services are most often priced in accordance with a preapproved price list.

4


 

The actual pricing of our products and services is impacted by a number of factors including competitive pricing pressure, the level of utilized capacity in the oil service sector, maintenance of market share, cost of producing the product and general market conditions.

Costs of Conducting Our Business

The principal elements of cost of sales for our products are the direct and indirect costs to manufacture and supply the product, including labor, materials, machine time, freight and lease expense related to our facilities. The principal elements of cost of sales for rentals are the direct and indirect costs of supplying rental equipment, including depreciation, repairs specifically performed on such rental equipment and freight. The principal elements of cost of sales for field service and other are labor, equipment depreciation and repair, equipment lease expense, fuel and supplies.

Selling, general and administrative expense is comprised of costs such as sales and marketing, engineering expenses, general corporate overhead, business development expenses, compensation expense, stock-based compensation expense, IT expenses, safety and environmental expenses, legal and professional expenses and other related administrative functions.

Interest expense, net is currently comprised primarily of interest expense associated with our Prior Credit Agreement (as defined below), our ABL Credit Facility (as defined below) and capital leases. A portion of the net proceeds of our IPO were used to repay the borrowings outstanding under our Prior Credit Agreement in February 2018.

Impact of Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (“Section 232”)

On March 8, 2018, the President of the United States issued two proclamations imposing tariffs on imports of certain steel and aluminum products, effective March 23, 2018. The decision was made in response to the Department of Commerce's findings and recommendations in its reports of its investigations into the impact of imported steel and aluminum on the national security of the United States pursuant to Section 232. Specifically, the President imposed a 25 percent global tariff on certain imported steel mill products and a 10 percent global tariff on certain imported aluminum products. On March 8, 2018 and March 22, 2018, the President issued proclamations temporarily exempting Mexico, Canada, Australia, Argentina, South Korea, Brazil and the European Union from the global steel and aluminum tariffs to imports until May 1, 2018. The President subsequently announced that the United States had successfully concluded discussions with South Korea on satisfactory alternative means to address U.S. national security threats posed by steel article imports from South Korea, thereby permanently excluding South Korea from the steel tariff, and had agreed in principle with Argentina, Australia and Brazil on satisfactory alternative means to address U.S. national security threats posed by steel and aluminum articles imported from those countries, and thus extended the temporary exemption of steel and aluminum products from those countries until details of those agreements are finalized and implemented. On May 31, 2018, the President issued proclamations permanently excluding Argentina, Australia and Brazil from the steel tariff and Argentina and Australia from the aluminum tariff, though imports of steel from Argentina and Brazil, as well as South Korea, and imports of aluminum from Argentina are subject to absolute quotas. Though the President had temporarily exempted tariffs on steel and aluminum imports from the European Union, Canada and Mexico, on May 31, 2018, the President opted to not extend such exemptions and as a result, imports of steel and aluminum from the European Union, Canada, and Mexico are subject to tariffs effective June 1, 2018. The tariffs and quotas have caused the cost of raw materials to increase.

5


 

Impact of Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (“Section 301”)

On September 21, 2018, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (‘‘USTR’’) determined to modify its prior actions in its investigation into certain acts, policies, and practices of the Government of China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation pursuant to Section 301 by imposing additional tariffs on products of China. Substantially all of the products that we import through our Chinese supply chain are subject to the tariffs that took effect on September 24, 2018. In the three months ended December 31, 2018, we estimate that 50% of our inventory received was sourced through our Chinese supply chain. These aforementioned tariffs were set at a level of 10% until the end of 2018, at which point the tariffs were to increase to 25%. However, on December 19, 2018, the USTR postponed the date on which the rate of the additional duties would increase to 25% until March 2, 2019. The USTR announced on March 5, 2019 that the rate of additional duty will remain at 10% until further notice. We believe that a combination of factors could largely offset the impact of these increases or potential increases in the tariff rate on our results of operations, including, among other things, our negotiations with customers and suppliers, favorable currency exchange expectations and our expected future growth but there can be no assurance that the impact will not be significant to us.  We believe these increases in the tariff rate should not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations; however, there remains significant uncertainty as to the degree of any adverse impact. 

Suppliers and Raw Materials

Forgings, castings and bar stock represent the principal raw materials used in the manufacture of our products and rental equipment. In addition, we require accessory items (such as elastomers, ring gaskets, studs and nuts) and machining services. We purchase these items and services from over 250 vendors, both in the United States and China. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, approximately $46.7 million, $33.4 million and $10.8 million, respectively, of machined component purchases were made from a vendor located in China, representing approximately 21%, 22% and 20%, respectively, of our total third-party vendor purchases of raw materials, finished products, equipment, machining and other services. Although we historically made purchases from this vendor pursuant to a long term contract, such contract expired at the end of 2016. We are currently purchasing from this vendor on terms substantially similar to those contained in the expired agreement. While our relationships with our existing vendors, including the Chinese vendor referred to above, are important to us, we do not believe that we are overly dependent on any individual vendor to supply our required materials or services. The materials and services essential to our business are normally readily available and, where we use one or a few vendors as a source of any particular materials or services, we believe that we can, within a reasonable period of time, make satisfactory alternative arrangements in the event of an interruption of supply from any vendor.

We believe that our materials and services vendors have the capacity to meet additional demand should we require it, although likely at higher costs and delayed deliveries.

Manufacturing

Our manufacturing and production facilities are located in Bossier City, Louisiana and Suzhou, China. Although both facilities can produce our full range of products, our Bossier City facility has advanced capabilities and is designed to support time-sensitive and rapid turnaround orders, while our facility in China is optimized for longer lead time orders and outsources its machining requirements. Both our Bossier City and China facilities are licensed to the latest American Petroleum Institute (“API”) 6A specification for both wellheads and valves and API Q1 and ISO9001:2015 quality management systems.

Our Bossier City facility is configured to provide rapid-response production of made-to-order equipment. Where traditional manufacturing facilities are designed to run in batches with different machining processes occurring in stages, this facility uses advanced computer numeric control (or CNC) machines to perform multiple machining operations in a single step. We believe eliminating the setup and queue times between machining processes allows us to

6


 

offer significantly shorter order-to-delivery time for equipment than our competitors, albeit at higher costs than China. Responsiveness to urgent needs strengthens our relationship with key customers.

Our Bossier City manufacturing facility also functions as a repair and testing facility with its API 6A PSL3 certification and full QA/QC department. The facility also has the ability to perform hydrostatic testing, phosphate and oiling, copper coating and frac valve remanufacturing.

Our production facility in China is configured to efficiently produce our range of pressure control products and components for less time-sensitive, higher-volume orders. All employees in our Suzhou facility are Cactus employees, which we believe is a key factor in ensuring high quality. Our Suzhou facility currently assembles and tests some machined components before shipment to Cactus facilities in the United States and Australia.

Trademarks and Other Intellectual Property

Trademarks are important to the marketing of our products. We consider the Cactus Wellhead trademark to be important to our business as a whole. Additionally, the SafeDrill® trademark is complementary to our marketing efforts and brand recognition. These trademarks are registered in the United States.

We also rely on trade secret protection for our confidential and proprietary information. To protect our information, we customarily enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees and suppliers. There can be no assurance, however, that others will not independently obtain similar information or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets. 

We have been awarded several U.S. Patents and currently have patent applications pending. We seek to protect our technology through use of patent protections, although we do not deem patents to be critical to our success.  

Cyclicality

We are substantially dependent on conditions in the oil and gas industry, including the level of exploration, development and production activity of, and the corresponding capital spending by, oil and natural gas companies. The level of exploration, development and production activity is directly affected by trends in oil and natural gas prices, which has historically been volatile, and by capital spending discipline practiced by customers.

Declines, as well as anticipated declines, in oil and gas prices could negatively affect the level of these activities and capital spending, which could adversely affect demand for our products and services and, in certain instances, result in the cancellation, modification or rescheduling of existing and expected orders and the ability of our customers to pay us for our products and services. These factors could have an adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.

Seasonality

Our business is not significantly impacted by seasonality, although our fourth quarter has historically been impacted by holidays and our clients’ budget cycles.

Customers

We serve over 200 customers representing majors, independents and other oil and gas companies with operations in the key U.S. oil and gas producing basins including the Permian, SCOOP/STACK, Marcellus, Utica, Eagle Ford, Bakken and other active oil and gas basins, as well as in Australia. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, Pioneer Natural Resources represented 11% of our total revenue and no other customer represented 10% or more

7


 

of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2016, Devon Energy Corporation represented 12% of our total revenue, and no other customer represented 10% or more of our total revenue.

Competition

The markets in which we operate are highly competitive. We believe that we are one of the largest suppliers of wellheads in the United States. We compete with divisions of Schlumberger, Baker Hughes a GE company, TechnipFMC and Weir as well as with a number of smaller companies. We believe that the wellhead market is relatively concentrated, with Cactus, Schlumberger and Baker Hughes representing over 50% of the market. Similar to Cactus, each of Schlumberger, Baker Hughes and TechnipFMC manufacture their own engineered products.

We believe that the rental market for frac stacks and related flow control equipment is more fragmented than the wellhead product market. Cactus does not believe that any individual company represents more than 20% of the U.S. market. As is the case in the wellhead market, Cactus, Schlumberger, Baker Hughes and TechnipFMC rent internally engineered and manufactured products. Other competitors generally rent foreign manufactured generic products.

We believe that the principal competitive factors in the markets we serve are technical features, equipment availability, work force competency, efficiency, safety record, reputation, experience and price. Additionally, projects are often awarded on a bid basis, which tends to create a highly competitive environment. While we seek to be competitive in our pricing, we believe many of our customers elect to work with us based on product features, safety, performance and quality of our crews, equipment and services. We seek to differentiate ourselves from our competitors by delivering the highest‑quality services and equipment possible, coupled with superior execution and operating efficiency in a safe working environment.

Environmental, Health and Safety Regulation

We are subject to stringent governmental laws and regulations, both in the United States and other countries, pertaining to protection of the environment and occupational safety and health.  Compliance with environmental legal requirements in the United States at the federal, state or local levels may require acquiring permits to conduct regulated activities, incurring capital expenditures to limit or prevent emissions, discharges and any unauthorized releases, and complying with stringent practices to handle, recycle and dispose of certain wastes. These laws and regulations include, among others:

·

the Federal Water Pollution Control Act;

·

the Federal Clean Air Act;

·

the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act;

·

the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act;

·

the Occupational Safety and Health Act; and

·

national and local environmental protection laws in the People’s Republic of China.

New, modified or stricter enforcement of environmental laws and regulations could be adopted or implemented that significantly increase our compliance costs, pollution mitigation costs, or the cost of any remediation of environmental contamination that may become necessary, and these costs could be material. Our clients are also subject to most, if not all, of the same laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and occupational safety and health in the United States and in foreign countries where we operate. Consequently, to the extent these environmental

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compliance costs, pollution mitigation costs or remedial costs are incurred by our clients, those clients could elect to delay, restrict or cancel drilling, exploration or production programs, which could reduce demand for our products and services and, as a result, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Consistent with our quality assurance and control principles, we have established proactive environmental and worker safety policies in the United States and foreign countries for the management, handling, recycling or disposal of chemicals and gases and other materials and wastes resulting from our operations.  Substantial fines and penalties can be imposed and orders or injunctions limiting or prohibiting certain operations may be issued in connection with any failure to comply with laws and regulations relating to worker health and safety.

API Certifications. Our manufacturing facility and our production facility are currently certified by the API as being in compliance with API 6A specification for both wellheads and valves and API Q1 and ISO9001:2015 quality management systems. API’s standards are subject to revision, however, and there is no guarantee that future amendments or substantive changes to the standards would not require us to modify our operations or manufacturing processes to meet the new standards. Doing so may materially affect our operation costs. We also cannot guarantee that changes to the standards would not lead to the rescission of our licenses should we be unable to make the changes necessary to meet the new standards. Furthermore, these facilities are subjected to annual audits by the API. Loss of our API licenses could materially affect demand for these products.

Hydraulic Fracturing. Many of our customers utilize hydraulic fracturing in their operations. Environmental concerns have been raised regarding the potential impact of hydraulic fracturing on underground water supplies and seismic activity. These concerns have led to several regulatory and governmental initiatives in the United States to restrict the hydraulic fracturing process, which could have an adverse impact on our customers’ completions or production activities. 

 

Although we do not conduct hydraulic fracturing, increased regulation and attention given to the hydraulic fracturing process could lead to greater opposition to oil and gas production activities using hydraulic fracturing techniques. In addition, the adoption of new laws or regulations at the federal, state, local or foreign level imposing reporting obligations on, or otherwise limiting, delaying or banning, the hydraulic fracturing process or other processes on which hydraulic fracturing relies, such as water disposal, could make it more difficult to complete oil and natural gas wells, increase our customers’ costs of compliance and doing business, and otherwise adversely affect the hydraulic fracturing services they perform, which could negatively impact demand for our products.

Climate Change. State, national and international governments and agencies continue to evaluate, and in some instances adopt, climate-related legislation and other regulatory initiatives that would restrict emissions of greenhouse gases. Changes in environmental requirements related to greenhouse gases, climate change and alternative energy sources may negatively impact demand for our services. For example, oil and natural gas exploration and production may decline as a result of environmental requirements, including land use policies responsive to environmental concerns. Because our business depends on the level of activity in the oil and natural gas industry, existing or future laws, regulations, treaties, or international agreements related to greenhouse gases and climate change, including incentives to conserve energy or use alternative energy sources, may reduce demand for oil and natural gas and could have a negative impact on our business. Likewise, such restrictions may result in additional compliance obligations that could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated results of operations and consolidated financial condition.

Insurance and Risk Management

We rely on customer indemnifications and third‑party insurance as part of our risk mitigation strategy. However, our customers may be unable to satisfy indemnification claims against them. In addition, we indemnify our customers against certain claims and liabilities resulting or arising from our provision of goods or services to them. Our

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insurance may not be sufficient to cover any particular loss or may not cover all losses. We carry a variety of insurance coverages for our operations, and we are partially self‑insured for certain claims, in amounts that we believe to be customary and reasonable. Historically, insurance rates have been subject to various market fluctuations that may result in less coverage, increased premium costs, or higher deductibles or self‑insured retentions.

Our insurance includes coverage for commercial general liability, damage to our real and personal property, damage to our mobile equipment, sudden and accidental pollution liability, workers’ compensation and employer’s liability, auto liability, foreign package policy, excess liability, and directors and officers insurance. Our insurance includes various limits and deductibles or self‑insured retentions, which must be met prior to, or in conjunction with, recovery. To cover potential pollution risks, our commercial general liability policy is endorsed with sudden and accidental coverage and our excess liability policies provide additional limits of liability for covered sudden and accidental pollution losses.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we employed over 1,200 people. Our future success will depend partially on our ability to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel. We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements and have not experienced any strikes or work stoppages. We consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory.

Available Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 920 Memorial City Way, Suite 300, Houston, TX 77024, and our telephone number at that address is (713) 626‑8800. Our website address is www.CactusWHD.com. Our periodic reports and other information filed with or furnished to the SEC are available, free of charge, through our website, as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports and other information are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report and does not constitute a part of this Annual Report.

Item 1A.   Risk Factors

Investing in our Class A common stock involves risks. You should carefully consider the information in this Annual Report, including the matters addressed under “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward‑Looking Statements,” and the following risks before making an investment decision. Our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. Additional risks or uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we deem immaterial, may also have an effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The trading price of our Class A common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to the Oilfield Services Industry and Our Business

Demand for our products and services depends on oil and gas industry activity and customer expenditure levels, which are directly affected by trends in the demand for and price of crude oil and natural gas and availability of capital.

Demand for our products and services depends primarily upon the general level of activity in the oil and gas industry, including the number of drilling rigs in operation, the number of oil and gas wells being drilled, the depth and drilling conditions of these wells, the volume of production, the number of well completions and the level of well remediation activity, and the corresponding capital spending by oil and gas companies. Oil and gas activity is in turn heavily influenced by, among other factors, current and anticipated oil and natural gas prices locally and worldwide, which have historically been volatile.

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Declines, as well as anticipated declines, in oil and gas prices could negatively affect the level of these activities and capital spending, which could adversely affect demand for our products and services and, in certain instances, result in the cancellation, modification or rescheduling of existing and expected orders and the ability of our customers to pay us for our products and services. These factors could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Factors affecting the prices of oil and natural gas include, but are not limited to, the following:

·

demand for hydrocarbons, which is affected by worldwide population growth, economic growth rates and general economic and business conditions;

·

available excess production capacity within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and the level of oil and gas production by non‑OPEC countries;

·

transportation differentials associated with reduced capacity in and out of the storage hub in Cushing, Oklahoma;

·

costs of exploring for, producing and delivering oil and natural gas;

·

political and economic uncertainty and sociopolitical unrest;

·

oil refining capacity and shifts in end‑customer preferences toward fuel efficiency and the use of natural gas;

·

conservation measures and technological advances affecting energy consumption;

·

potential acceleration of the commercial development of alternative energy sources (such as wind, solar, geothermal, tidal, fuel cells and biofuels);

·

access to capital and credit markets, which may affect our customers’ activity levels and spending for our products and services;

·

changes in laws and regulations related to hydraulic fracturing activities;

·

changes in environmental laws and regulations (including relating to the use of coal in power plants); and

·

natural disasters.

The oil and gas industry is cyclical and has historically experienced periodic downturns, which have been characterized by diminished demand for our products and services and downward pressure on the prices we charge. These downturns cause many E&P companies to reduce their capital budgets and drilling activity. Any future downturn or expected downturn could result in a significant decline in demand for oilfield services and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

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Growth in U.S. drilling and completions activity, and our ability to benefit from such growth, could be adversely affected by any significant constraints in equipment, labor or takeaway capacity in the regions in which we operate.

Growth in U.S. drilling and completions activity may be impacted by, among other things, pressure pumping capacity, pipeline capacity, and material and labor shortages. The growth in drilling and completions activity that occurred over most of 2018, particularly in the Permian Basin, has led to concerns over availability of the equipment, materials and labor required to drill and complete a well, together with the ability to move the produced oil and natural gas to market. Should significant constraints develop that materially impact the economics of oil and gas producers, growth in U.S. drilling and completions activity could be adversely affected. This would have an adverse impact on the demand for the products we sell and rent, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.  

We may be unable to employ a sufficient number of skilled and qualified workers to sustain or expand our current operations.

The delivery of our products and services requires personnel with specialized skills and experience. Our ability to be productive and profitable will depend upon our ability to attract and retain skilled workers. In addition, our ability to expand our operations depends in part on our ability to increase the size of our skilled labor force. The demand for skilled workers is high, the supply is limited, and the cost to attract and retain qualified personnel has increased. During industry downturns, skilled workers may leave the industry, reducing the availability of qualified workers when conditions improve. In addition, a significant increase in the wages paid by competing employers could result in increases in the wage rates that we must pay. If we are not able to employ and retain skilled workers, our ability to respond quickly to customer demands or strong market conditions may inhibit our growth, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business is dependent on the continuing services of certain of our key managers and employees.

We depend on key personnel. The loss of key personnel could adversely impact our business if we are unable to implement certain strategies or transactions in their absence. The loss of qualified employees or an inability to retain and motivate additional highly‑skilled employees required for the operation and expansion of our business could hinder our ability to successfully maintain and expand our market share.

Equity interests in us are a substantial portion of the net worth of our executive officers and several of our other senior managers. Following the completion of our IPO, those executive officers and other senior managers have increased liquidity with respect to their equity interests in us. As a result, those executive officers and senior managers may have less incentive to remain employed by us. After terminating their employment with us, some of them may become employed by our competitors.

Political, regulatory, economic and social disruptions in the countries in which we conduct business could adversely affect our business or results of operations.

In addition to our facilities in the United States, we operate one production facility in China and have a facility in Australia that sells and rents equipment as well as provides parts, repair services and field services associated with installation. Instability and unforeseen changes in any of the markets in which we conduct business could have an adverse effect on the demand for, or supply of, our products and services, our results of operations and our financial condition. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

·

nationalization and expropriation;

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·

potentially burdensome taxation;

·

inflationary and recessionary markets, including capital and equity markets;

·

civil unrest, labor issues, political instability, terrorist attacks, cyber‑terrorism, military activity and wars;

·

supply disruptions in key oil producing countries;

·

tariffs, trade restrictions, trade protection measures, including those associated with Section 232 and Section 301, or price controls;

·

foreign ownership restrictions;

·

import or export licensing requirements;

·

restrictions on operations, trade practices, trade partners and investment decisions resulting from domestic and foreign laws and regulations;

·

changes in, and the administration of, laws and regulations;

·

inability to repatriate income or capital;

·

reductions in the availability of qualified personnel;

·

development and implementation of new technologies;

·

foreign currency fluctuations or currency restrictions; and

·

fluctuations in the interest rate component of forward foreign currency rates.

We are dependent on a relatively small number of customers in a single industry. The loss of an important customer could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our customers are engaged in the oil and natural gas E&P business primarily in the United States and Australia. Historically, we have been dependent on a relatively small number of customers for our revenues. For each of the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, Pioneer Natural Resources represented 11% of our total revenue, and no other customer represented more than 10% of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2016, Devon Energy Corporation represented 12% of our total revenue, and no other customer represented more than 10% of our total revenue.

Our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected if an important customer ceases to engage us for our services on favorable terms or at all or fails to pay or delays in paying us significant amounts of our outstanding receivables.

Additionally, the E&P industry is characterized by frequent consolidation activity. Changes in ownership of our customers may result in the loss of, or reduction in, business from those customers, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Delays in obtaining, or inability to obtain or renew, permits or authorizations by our customers for their operations could impair our business.

In both the United States and Australia, our customers are required to obtain permits or authorizations from one or more governmental agencies or other third parties to perform drilling and completions activities, including hydraulic fracturing. Such permits or approvals are typically required by state agencies but can also be required by federal and local governmental agencies or other third parties. The requirements for such permits or authorizations vary depending on the location where such drilling and completions activities will be conducted. As with most permitting and authorization processes, there is a degree of uncertainty as to whether a permit will be granted, the time it will take for a permit or approval to be issued and the conditions which may be imposed in connection with the granting of the permit. In some jurisdictions, certain regulatory authorities have delayed or suspended the issuance of permits or authorizations while the potential environmental impacts associated with issuing such permits can be studied and appropriate mitigation measures evaluated. In Texas, rural water districts have begun to impose restrictions on water use and may require permits for water used in drilling and completions activities. Permitting, authorization or renewal delays, the inability to obtain new permits or the revocation of current permits could cause a loss of revenue and potentially have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Competition within the oilfield services industry may adversely affect our ability to market our services.

The oilfield services industry is highly competitive and fragmented and includes numerous small companies capable of competing effectively in our markets on a local basis, as well as several large companies that possess substantially greater financial and other resources than we do. The amount of equipment available may exceed demand, which could result in active price competition. Many contracts are awarded on a bid basis, which may further increase competition based primarily on price. In addition, adverse market conditions lower demand for well servicing equipment, which results in excess equipment and lower utilization rates. If market conditions in our oil‑oriented operating areas were to deteriorate or if adverse market conditions in our natural gas‑oriented operating areas persist, the prices we are able to charge and utilization rates may decline. The competitive environment has intensified since late 2014 as a result of the industry downturn and oversupply of oilfield equipment and services. Any significant future increase in overall market capacity for the products, rental equipment or services that we offer could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

New technology may cause us to become less competitive.

The oilfield services industry is subject to the introduction of new drilling and completions techniques and services using new technologies, some of which may be subject to patent or other intellectual property protections. Although we believe our equipment and processes currently give us a competitive advantage, as competitors and others use or develop new or comparable technologies in the future, we may lose market share or be placed at a competitive disadvantage. Further, we may face competitive pressure to develop, implement or acquire certain new technologies at a substantial cost. Some of our competitors have greater financial, technical and personnel resources that may allow them to enjoy various competitive advantages in the development and implementation of new technologies. We cannot be certain that we will be able to continue to develop and implement new technologies or products. Limits on our ability to develop, bring to market, effectively use and implement new and emerging technologies may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including a reduction in the value of assets replaced by new technologies.

Increased costs, or lack of availability, of raw materials and other components may result in increased operating expenses and adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.

Our ability to source low cost raw materials and components, such as steel castings and forgings, is critical to our ability to manufacture and sell our products and provide our services competitively. Our results of operations may be

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adversely affected by our inability to manage the rising costs and availability of raw materials and components used in our wide variety of products and systems. We cannot assure that we will be able to continue to purchase these raw materials on a timely basis or at commercially viable prices, nor can we be certain of the impact of Section 232, Section 301 and other legislation that may impact trade with China. Further, unexpected changes in the size of regional and/or product markets, particularly for short lead‑time products, could affect our results of operations and cash flows. Should our current suppliers be unable to provide the necessary raw materials or components or otherwise fail to deliver such materials and components timely and in the quantities required, resulting delays in the provision of products or services to our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In accordance with Section 1502 of the Dodd‑Frank Act, the SEC’s rules regarding mandatory disclosure and reporting requirements by public companies of their use of “conflict minerals” (tantalum, tin, tungsten and gold) originating in the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries became effective in 2014. While the conflict minerals rule continues in effect as adopted, there remains uncertainty regarding how the conflict minerals rule, and our compliance obligations, will be affected in the future. Additional requirements under the rule could affect sourcing at competitive prices and availability in sufficient quantities of certain of the conflict minerals used in the manufacture of our products or in the provision of our services, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to purchase these products in the future. The costs of compliance, including those related to supply chain research, the limited number of suppliers and possible changes in the sourcing of these minerals, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.

Our relationship with one of our vendors is important to us.

We obtain certain important materials and machining services from one of our vendors located in China. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, approximately $46.7 million, $33.4 million and $10.8 million of purchases of machined components were made from this vendor, representing approximately 21%, 22% and 20%, respectively, of our total third party vendor purchases of raw materials, finished products, equipment, machining and other services. If we are not able to maintain our relationship with such vendor, our results of operations could be adversely impacted until we are able to find an alternative vendor.

We design, manufacture, sell, rent and install equipment that is used in oil and gas E&P activities, which may subject us to liability, including claims for personal injury, property damage and environmental contamination should such equipment fail to perform to specifications.

We provide products and systems to customers involved in oil and gas exploration, development and production. Some of our equipment is designed to operate in high‑temperature and/or high‑pressure environments, and some equipment is designed for use in hydraulic fracturing operations. We also provide parts, repair services and field services associated with installation at all of our facilities and service centers in the United States and at our facility in Australia, as well as at customer sites. Because of applications to which our products and services are exposed, particularly those involving high pressure environments, a failure of such equipment, or a failure of our customers to maintain or operate the equipment properly, could cause damage to the equipment, damage to the property of customers and others, personal injury and environmental contamination and could lead to a variety of claims against us that could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We indemnify our customers against certain claims and liabilities resulting or arising from our provision of goods or services to them. In addition, we rely on customer indemnifications, generally, and third‑party insurance as part of our risk mitigation strategy. However, our insurance may not be adequate to cover our liabilities. In addition, our customers may be unable to satisfy indemnification claims against them. Further, insurance companies may refuse to honor their policies, or insurance may not generally be available in the future, or if available, premiums may not be commercially justifiable. We could incur substantial liabilities and damages that are either not covered by insurance or that are in excess of policy limits, or incur liability at a time when we are not able to obtain liability insurance. Such

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potential liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Our operations are subject to hazards inherent in the oil and natural gas industry, which could expose us to substantial liability and cause us to lose customers and substantial revenue.

Risks inherent in our industry include the risks of equipment defects, installation errors, vehicle accidents, fires, explosions, blowouts, surface cratering, uncontrollable flows of gas or well fluids, pipe or pipeline failures, abnormally pressured formations and various environmental hazards such as oil spills and releases of, and exposure to, hazardous substances. For example, our operations are subject to risks associated with hydraulic fracturing, including any mishandling, surface spillage or potential underground migration of fracturing fluids, including chemical additives. The occurrence of any of these events could result in substantial losses to us due to injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property, natural resources and equipment, pollution or other environmental damage, clean‑up responsibilities, regulatory investigations and penalties, suspension of operations and repairs required to resume operations. The cost of managing such risks may be significant. The frequency and severity of such incidents will affect operating costs, insurability and relationships with customers, employees and regulators. In particular, our customers may elect not to purchase our products or services if they view our environmental or safety record as unacceptable, which could cause us to lose customers and substantial revenues.

Our insurance may not be adequate to cover all losses or liabilities we may suffer. Also, insurance may no longer be available to us or its availability may be at premium levels that do not justify its purchase. The occurrence of a significant uninsured claim, a claim in excess of the insurance coverage limits maintained by us or a claim at a time when we are not able to obtain liability insurance could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct normal business operations and on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, we may not be able to secure additional insurance or bonding that might be required by new governmental regulations. This may cause us to restrict our operations, which might severely impact our financial condition.

Our operations require us to comply with various domestic and international regulations, violations of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

We are exposed to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations relating to matters such as environmental, workplace, health and safety, labor and employment, customs and tariffs, export and re-export controls, economic sanctions, currency exchange, bribery and corruption and taxation. These laws and regulations are complex, frequently change and have tended to become more stringent over time. They may be adopted, enacted, amended, enforced or interpreted in such a manner that the incremental cost of compliance could adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Our operations outside of the United States require us to comply with numerous anti‑bribery and anti‑corruption regulations. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), among others, applies to us and our operations. Our policies, procedures and programs may not always protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or agents, and severe criminal or civil sanctions may be imposed as a result of violations of these laws. We are also subject to the risks that our employees and agents outside of the United States may fail to comply with applicable laws.

In addition, we import raw materials, semi‑finished goods, and finished products into the United States, China and Australia for use in such countries or for manufacturing and/or finishing for re‑export and import into another country for use or further integration into equipment or systems. Most movement of raw materials, semi‑finished or finished products involves imports and exports. As a result, compliance with multiple trade sanctions, embargoes and import/export laws and regulations pose a constant challenge and risk to us since a portion of our business is conducted outside of the United States through our subsidiaries. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could materially affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Compliance with environmental laws and regulations may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Environmental laws and regulations in the United States and foreign countries affect the equipment, systems and services we design, market and sell, as well as the facilities where we manufacture and produce our equipment and systems in the United States and China, and opportunities our customers pursue that create demand for our products. For example, we may be affected by such laws as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Further, our customers may be subject to a range of laws and regulations governing hydraulic fracturing, offshore drilling, and greenhouse gas emissions.

We are required to invest financial and managerial resources to comply with environmental laws and regulations and believe that we will continue to be required to do so in the future. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the imposition of remedial obligations, or the issuance of orders enjoining operations. These laws and regulations, as well as the adoption of other new laws and regulations affecting exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas by our customers, could adversely affect our business and operating results by increasing our costs, limiting the demand for our products and services or restricting our operations. Increased regulation or a move away from the use of fossil fuels caused by additional regulation could also reduce demand for our products and services.

 The outcome of final actions under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 may adversely affect our business.

On March 22, 2018 the President of the United States announced his decisions on the actions that the U.S. government will take based on the findings of an investigation under Section 301. These actions include a proposed 25% tariff on approximately $50 billion worth of imports from China, pursuit of dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization and restrictions on investment in the United States directed or facilitated by China. On June 20, 2018 the USTR released the list of products imported from China to be subject to these additional tariffs. The initial U.S. tariffs were implemented on July 6, 2018 covering $34 billion worth of Chinese goods, with another $16 billion of goods facing tariffs beginning on August 23, 2018. In response to the initial U.S. action, the government of China specified that it would impose an additional 25% tariff on U.S. goods with a value of $50 billion. In response to China’s announcement, the President issued a statement directing the USTR to identify another $200 billion worth of Chinese goods for additional tariffs at a rate of 10%. The USTR issued a proposed list of products to be subject to an additional 10% tariff on July 17, 2018. On September 17, 2018, the President issued a statement directing the USTR to proceed with placing additional tariffs on approximately $200 billion worth of additional imports from China. These tariffs, which took effect on September 24, 2018, initially were set at a level of 10% until the end of 2018, at which point the tariffs were to rise to 25%. However, on December 19, 2018, the USTR postponed the date on which the rate of the additional duties would increase to 25% until March 2, 2019. The USTR announced on March 5, 2019 that the rate of the additional duties will remain at 10% until further notice. Substantially all of the products that we import through our Chinese supply chain are subject to the tariffs that took effect on September 24, 2018. In the three months ended December 30, 2018, we estimate that 50% of our inventory value received was sourced through our Chinese supply chain. If we are unable to mitigate the impact of the increased costs resulting from the tariff rate of 10% or an increase in the tariff rate to 25%, our business would be materially and adversely affected. To the extent these actions result in a decrease in demand for our products, our business may be adversely impacted. Given the uncertainty regarding the scope and duration of these trade actions by the U.S. or other countries, the impact of these trade actions on our operations or results remains uncertain.

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If we are unable to fully protect our intellectual property rights or trade secrets, we may suffer a loss in revenue or any competitive advantage or market share we hold, or we may incur costs in litigation defending intellectual property rights.

While we have some patents and others pending, we do not have patents relating to many of our key processes and technology. If we are not able to maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets, or if our competitors are able to replicate our technology or services, our competitive advantage would be diminished. We also cannot assure you that any patents we may obtain in the future would provide us with any significant commercial benefit or would allow us to prevent our competitors from employing comparable technologies or processes.

We may become involved in litigation from time to time to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights. In any such litigation, a defendant may assert that our intellectual property rights are invalid or unenforceable. Third parties from time to time may also initiate litigation against us by asserting that our businesses infringe, impair, misappropriate, dilute or otherwise violate another party’s intellectual property rights. We may not prevail in any such litigation, and our intellectual property rights may be found invalid or unenforceable or our products and services may be found to infringe, impair, misappropriate, dilute or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others. The results or costs of any such litigation may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Any litigation concerning intellectual property could be protracted and costly, is inherently unpredictable and could have an adverse effect on our business, regardless of its outcome. 

A failure of our information technology infrastructure and cyberattacks could adversely impact us.

We depend on our information technology (“IT”) systems for the efficient operation of our business. Accordingly, we rely upon the capacity, reliability and security of our IT hardware and software infrastructure and our ability to expand and update this infrastructure in response to our changing needs. Despite our implementation of security measures, our systems are vulnerable to damages from computer viruses, natural disasters, incursions by intruders or hackers, failures in hardware or software, power fluctuations, cyber terrorists and other similar disruptions. Additionally, we rely on third parties to support the operation of our IT hardware and software infrastructure, and in certain instances, utilize web‑based applications. The failure of our IT systems or those of our vendors to perform as anticipated for any reason or any significant breach of security could disrupt our business and result in numerous adverse consequences, including reduced effectiveness and efficiency of operations, inappropriate disclosure of confidential and proprietary information, reputational harm, increased overhead costs and loss of important information, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.

Adverse weather conditions could impact demand for our services or materially impact our costs.

Our business could be materially adversely affected by adverse weather conditions. For example, unusually warm winters could adversely affect the demand for our products and services by decreasing the demand for natural gas or unusually cold winters could adversely affect our ability to perform our services due to delays in the delivery of products that we need to provide our services. Our operations in arid regions can be affected by droughts and limited access to water used in hydraulic fracturing operations. Adverse weather can also directly impede our own operations. Repercussions of adverse weather conditions may include:

·

curtailment of services;

·

weather‑related damage to infrastructure, transportation, facilities and equipment, resulting in delays in operations;

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·

inability to deliver equipment, personnel and products to job sites in accordance with contract schedules; and

·

loss of productivity.

A terrorist attack or armed conflict could harm our business.

The occurrence or threat of terrorist attacks in the United States or other countries, anti‑terrorist efforts, domestic unrest or civil disturbance and other armed conflicts involving the United States or other countries, including continued hostilities in the Middle East, may adversely affect the United States and global economies and could prevent us from meeting our financial and other obligations. If any of these events occur, the resulting political instability and societal disruption could reduce overall demand for oil and natural gas, potentially putting downward pressure on demand for our services and causing a reduction in our revenues. Oil and natural gas related facilities could be direct targets of terrorist attacks, and our operations could be adversely impacted if infrastructure integral to our customers’ operations is destroyed or damaged. Costs for insurance and other security may increase as a result of these threats, and some insurance coverage may become more difficult to obtain, if available at all.

Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock

We are a holding company whose only material asset is our equity interest in Cactus LLC, and accordingly, we are dependent upon distributions from Cactus LLC to pay taxes, make payments under the TRA and cover our corporate and other overhead expenses.

We are a holding company and have no material assets other than our equity interest in Cactus LLC. We have no independent means of generating revenue. To the extent Cactus LLC has available cash and subject to the terms of any current or future credit agreements or debt instruments, we intend to cause Cactus LLC to make (i) generally pro rata distributions to its unitholders, including us, in an amount at least sufficient to allow us to pay our taxes and to make payments under the TRA and (ii) non‑pro rata payments to us to reimburse us for our corporate and other overhead expenses. To the extent that we need funds and Cactus LLC or its subsidiaries are restricted from making such distributions or payments under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of any future financing arrangements, or are otherwise unable to provide such funds, our financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.

Moreover, because we have no independent means of generating revenue, our ability to make payments under the TRA is dependent on the ability of Cactus LLC to make distributions to us in an amount sufficient to cover our obligations under the TRA. This ability, in turn, may depend on the ability of Cactus LLC’s subsidiaries to make distributions to it. The ability of Cactus LLC, its subsidiaries and other entities in which it directly or indirectly holds an equity interest to make such distributions will be subject to, among other things, (i) the applicable provisions of Delaware law (or other applicable U.S. and foreign jurisdictions) that may limit the amount of funds available for distribution and (ii) restrictions in relevant debt instruments issued by Cactus LLC or its subsidiaries and other entities in which it directly or indirectly holds an equity interest. To the extent that we are unable to make payments under the TRA for any reason, such payments will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid.

The requirements of being a public company, including compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the requirements of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act, may strain our resources, increase our costs and distract management, and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost‑effective manner.

As a public company, we need to comply with additional laws, regulations and requirements, certain corporate governance provisions of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act of 2002, related regulations of the SEC, including filing quarterly and annual financial statements, and the requirements of the NYSE, with which we were not required to comply as a private

19


 

company. Complying with these statutes, regulations and requirements will occupy a significant amount of time of our board of directors and management and significantly increases our costs and expenses.

The changes necessitated by becoming a public company require a significant commitment of resources and management oversight that has increased, and may continue to increase, our costs and might place a strain on our systems and resources. Such costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Furthermore, while we generally must comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act of 2002 for our fiscal year ending December 31, 2018, we are not required to have our independent registered public accounting firm attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls until our first annual report subsequent to our ceasing to be an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act. Accordingly, we may not be required to have our independent registered public accounting firm attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls until as late as our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2023, although this could be required earlier. Once it is required to do so, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed. Compliance with these requirements may strain our resources, increase our costs and distract management, and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost‑effective manner.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting,  it could result in material misstatements of our financial statements. 

Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports, our reputation and operating results could be harmed. During 2018 we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

We did not effectively design and maintain controls related to the accounting of the liability and deferred tax asset associated with the tax receivable agreement. This material weakness, or any newly identified material weakness, could result in a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected.

In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm has not performed an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act because no such evaluation has been required. Had our independent registered public accounting firm performed an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, additional material weaknesses may have been identified. If we are unable to successfully remediate our existing or any future material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or identify any additional material weaknesses that may exist, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, and we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to applicable stock exchange listing requirements. 

Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises LLC have the ability to direct the voting of a significant percentage of the voting power of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other shareholders.

Holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock vote together as a single class on all matters presented to our stockholders for their vote or approval, except as otherwise required by applicable law or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises LLC (“Cactus WH Enterprises”), a

20


 

Delaware limited liability company owned by Scott Bender, Joel Bender, Steven Bender and certain of our other officers and employees, own approximately 19.1% and 28.1%% of our voting power, respectively, as of December 31, 2018.

As a result, Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises effectively control matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, changes to our organizational documents and significant corporate transactions. This concentration of ownership will limit your ability to affect the way we are managed or the direction of our business. The interests of Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises with respect to matters potentially or actually involving or affecting us, such as future acquisitions, financings and other corporate opportunities and attempts to acquire us, may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders. In addition, the Chairman of our board of directors is currently a managing director of Cadent Energy Partners LLC. This director’s duties as a partner of Cadent Energy Partners LLC may conflict with his duties as our director, and the resolution of these conflicts may not always be in our or your best interest. Furthermore, in connection with our IPO, we entered into a stockholders’ agreement with Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises. Among other things, the stockholders’ agreement provides each of Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises with the right to designate a certain number of nominees to our board of directors so long as they and their respective affiliates collectively beneficially own at least 5% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. The existence of significant stockholders and the stockholders’ agreement may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers, delaying or preventing changes in control or changes in management or limiting the ability of our other stockholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in our best interests. Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises’ concentration of stock ownership may also adversely affect the trading price of our Class A common stock to the extent investors perceive a disadvantage in owning stock of a company with significant stockholders. See “Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions and Director Independence—Stockholders’ Agreement.”

Certain of our directors have significant duties with, and spend significant time serving, entities that may compete with us in seeking acquisitions and business opportunities and, accordingly, may have conflicts of interest in allocating time or pursuing business opportunities.

Certain of our directors, who are responsible for managing the direction of our operations and acquisition activities, hold positions of responsibility with other entities (including Cadent and its affiliated entities) whose businesses are similar to our business. The existing positions held by these directors may give rise to fiduciary or other duties that are in conflict with the duties they owe to us. These directors may become aware of business opportunities that may be appropriate for presentation to us as well as to the other entities with which they are or may become affiliated. Due to these existing and potential future affiliations, they may present potential business opportunities to other entities prior to presenting them to us, which could cause additional conflicts of interest. They may also decide that certain opportunities are more appropriate for other entities with which they are affiliated, and as a result, they may elect not to present those opportunities to us. These conflicts may not be resolved in our favor. 

Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates are not limited in their ability to compete with us, and the corporate opportunity provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation could enable Cadent Energy Partners to benefit from corporate opportunities that might otherwise be available to us.

Our governing documents provide that Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates (including portfolio investments of Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates) are not restricted from owning assets or engaging in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. In particular, subject to the limitations of applicable law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, among other things:

·

permits Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates, including any of our directors affiliated with Cadent Energy Partners, to conduct business that competes with us and to make investments in any kind of business, asset or property in which we may make investments; and

21


 

·

provides that if Cadent Energy Partners or its affiliates, including any of our directors affiliated with Cadent Energy Partners, becomes aware of a potential business opportunity, transaction or other matter, they will have no duty to communicate or offer that opportunity to us (unless such opportunity is expressly offered to such director in his capacity as one of our directors).

Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates, or our non‑employee directors, may become aware, from time to time, of certain business opportunities (such as, among other things, acquisition opportunities) and may direct such opportunities to other businesses in which they have invested, in which case we may not become aware of or otherwise have the ability to pursue such opportunity. Further, such businesses may choose to compete with us for these opportunities, possibly causing these opportunities to not be available to us or causing them to be more expensive for us to pursue. In addition, Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates, or our non‑employee directors, may dispose of assets owned by them in the future, without any obligation to offer us the opportunity to purchase any of those assets. As a result, our renouncing our interest and expectancy in any business opportunity that may be from time to time presented to Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates, or our non‑employee directors, could adversely impact our business or prospects if attractive business opportunities are procured by such parties for their own benefit rather than for ours. 

Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates potentially have access to resources greater than ours, which may make it more difficult for us to compete with Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates with respect to commercial activities as well as for potential acquisitions. We cannot assure you that any conflicts that may arise between us and our shareholders, on the one hand, and Cadent Energy Partners, on the other hand, will be resolved in our favor. As a result, competition from Cadent Energy Partners and its affiliates could adversely impact our results of operations.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as well as Delaware law, contain provisions that could discourage acquisition bids or merger proposals, which may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes our board of directors to issue preferred stock without shareholder approval. If our board of directors elects to issue preferred stock, it could be more difficult for a third party to acquire us. In addition, some provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us, even if the change of control would be beneficial to our shareholders, including:

·

limitations on the removal of directors;

·

limitations on the ability of our shareholders to call special meetings;

·

establishing advance notice provisions for shareholder proposals and nominations for elections to the board of directors to be acted upon at meetings of shareholders;

·

providing that the board of directors is expressly authorized to adopt, or to alter or repeal our bylaws; and

·

establishing advance notice and certain information requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by shareholders at shareholder meetings.

In addition, certain change of control events have the effect of accelerating the payment due under the TRA, which could be substantial and accordingly serve as a disincentive to a potential acquirer of our company.

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We may issue preferred stock whose terms could adversely affect the voting power or value of our Class A common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our shareholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designations, preferences, limitations and relative rights, including preferences over our Class A common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as our board of directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could adversely impact the voting power or value of our Class A common stock. For example, we might grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we might assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the Class A common stock.

Future sales of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could reduce our stock price, and any additional capital raised by us through the sale of equity or convertible securities may dilute your ownership in us.

Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, the CW Unit Holders may cause Cactus LLC to redeem their CW Units for shares of Class A common stock (on a one‑for‑one basis, subject to conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends and reclassification and other similar transactions) and then sell those shares of Class A common stock. Additionally, we may issue additional shares of Class A common stock or convertible securities in subsequent public offerings. We have 37,653,630 outstanding shares of Class A common stock and 37,236,142 outstanding shares of Class B common stock as of December 31, 2018. The CW Unit Holders own all 37,236,142 shares of Class B common stock, representing approximately 49.7% of our total outstanding common stock.  Cadent and Cactus WH Enterprises are party to a registration rights agreement between us and the CW Unit Holders, which will require us to effect the registration of their shares of Class A common stock in certain circumstances.

We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into Class A common stock or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of shares of our Class A common stock will have on the market price of our Class A common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock (including shares issued in connection with an acquisition), or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices of our Class A common stock.

Under certain circumstances, redemptions of CW Units by CW Unit Holders will result in dilution to the holders of our Class A common stock.

Redemptions of CW Units by CW Unit Holders in accordance with the terms of the Cactus Wellhead LLC Agreement will result in a corresponding increase in our membership interest in Cactus LLC, increase in the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding and decrease in the number of shares of Class B common stock outstanding. In the event that CW Units are exchanged at a time when Cactus LLC has made cash distributions to CW Unit Holders, including Cactus Inc., and Cactus Inc. has accumulated such distributions and neither reinvests them in Cactus LLC in exchange for additional CW Units nor distributes them as dividends to the holders of Cactus Inc.’s Class A common stock, the holders of our Class A common stock would experience dilution with respect to such accumulated distributions.

Cactus Inc. will be required to make payments under the TRA for certain tax benefits that we may claim, and the amounts of such payments could be significant.

In connection with our IPO, we entered into the TRA with the TRA Holders. This agreement generally provides for the payment by Cactus Inc. to each TRA Holder of 85% of the net cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax and franchise tax that Cactus Inc. actually realizes or is deemed to realize in certain circumstances as a

23


 

result of certain increases in tax basis and certain benefits attributable to imputed interest. Cactus Inc. will retain the benefit of the remaining 15% of these net cash savings.

The term of the TRA will continue until all tax benefits that are subject to the TRA have been utilized or expired, unless we exercise our right to terminate the TRA (or the TRA is terminated due to other circumstances, including our breach of a material obligation thereunder or certain mergers or other changes of control), and we make the termination payment specified in the TRA. In addition, payments we make under the TRA will be increased by any interest accrued from the due date (without extensions) of the corresponding tax return. In the event that the TRA is not terminated, the payments under the TRA are anticipated to commence in 2019 and to continue for 16 years after the date of the last redemption of CW Units.

The payment obligations under the TRA are our obligations and not obligations of Cactus LLC, and we expect that the payments we will be required to make under the TRA will be substantial. Estimating the amount and timing of payments that may become due under the TRA Agreement is by its nature imprecise. For purposes of the TRA, cash savings in tax generally are calculated by comparing our actual tax liability (determined by using the actual applicable U.S. federal income tax rate and an assumed combined state and local income tax rate) to the amount we would have been required to pay had we not been able to utilize any of the tax benefits subject to the TRA. The amounts payable, as well as the timing of any payments under the TRA, are dependent upon significant future events and assumptions, including the timing of the redemption of CW Units, the price of our Class A common stock at the time of each redemption, the extent to which such redemptions are taxable transactions, the amount of the redeeming unit holder’s tax basis in its CW Units at the time of the relevant redemption, the depreciation and amortization periods that apply to the increase in tax basis, the amount and timing of taxable income we generate in the future and the U.S. federal income tax rates then applicable, and the portion of our payments under the TRA that constitute imputed interest or give rise to depreciable or amortizable tax basis. The payments under the TRA are not conditioned upon a holder of rights under the TRA having a continued ownership interest in us. For additional information regarding the TRA, see “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement.”

In certain cases, payments under the TRA may be accelerated and/or significantly exceed the actual benefits, if any, we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA.

If we elect to terminate the TRA early or it is terminated early due to Cactus Inc.’s failure to honor a material obligation thereunder or due to certain mergers or other changes of control, our obligations under the TRA would accelerate and we would be required to make an immediate payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future payments to be made by us under the TRA (determined by applying a discount rate of one‑year LIBOR plus 150 basis points) and such payment is expected to be substantial. The calculation of anticipated future payments will be based upon certain assumptions and deemed events set forth in the TRA, including (i) the assumption that we have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the tax benefits covered by the TRA and (ii) the assumption that any CW Units (other than those held by Cactus Inc.) outstanding on the termination date are deemed to be redeemed on the termination date. Any early termination payment may be made significantly in advance of the actual realization, if any, of the future tax benefits to which the termination payment relates.

As a result of either an early termination or a change of control, we could be required to make payments under the TRA that exceed our actual cash tax savings under the TRA. In these situations, our obligations under the TRA could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, or other forms of business combinations or changes of control. If the TRA were terminated as of December 31, 2018, the estimated termination payments, based on the assumptions discussed above, would have been approximately $280 million (calculated using a discount rate equal to one-year LIBOR plus 150 basis points, applied against an undiscounted liability of approximately $400 million). The foregoing number is merely an estimate and the actual payment could differ materially. There can be no assurance that we will be able to finance our obligations under the TRA.

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Payments under the TRA are based on the tax reporting positions that we will determine. The TRA Holders will not reimburse us for any payments previously made under the TRA if any tax benefits that have given rise to payments under the TRA are subsequently disallowed, except that excess payments made to any TRA Holder will be netted against payments that would otherwise be made to such TRA Holder, if any, after our determination of such excess. As a result, in some circumstances, we could make payments that are greater than our actual cash tax savings, if any, and may not be able to recoup those payments, which could adversely affect our liquidity.

If Cactus LLC were to become a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we and Cactus LLC might be subject to potentially significant tax inefficiencies, and we would not be able to recover payments previously made by us under the TRA even if the corresponding tax benefits were subsequently determined to have been unavailable due to such status.

We intend to operate such that Cactus LLC does not become a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A “publicly traded partnership” is a partnership the interests of which are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof. Under certain circumstances, redemptions of CW Units pursuant to the Redemption Right (or our Call Right) or other transfers of CW Units could cause Cactus LLC to be treated as a publicly traded partnership. Applicable U.S. Treasury regulations provide for certain safe harbors from treatment as a publicly traded partnership, and we intend to operate such that one or more such safe harbors shall apply. For example, we intend to limit the number of unitholders of Cactus LLC, and the Cactus Wellhead LLC Agreement, which was entered into in connection with the closing of our IPO, provides for limitations on the ability of CW Unit Holders to transfer their CW Units and provides us, as managing member of Cactus LLC, with the right to impose restrictions (in addition to those already in place) on the ability of unitholders of Cactus LLC to redeem their CW Units pursuant to the Redemption Right to the extent we believe it is necessary to ensure that Cactus LLC will continue to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If Cactus LLC were to become a publicly traded partnership, significant tax inefficiencies might result for us and for Cactus LLC, including as a result of our inability to file a consolidated U.S. federal income tax return with Cactus LLC. In addition, we would no longer have the benefit of certain increases in tax basis covered under the TRA, and we would not be able to recover any payments previously made by us under the TRA, even if the corresponding tax benefits (including any claimed increase in the tax basis of Cactus LLC’s assets) were subsequently determined to have been unavailable.

For as long as we are an emerging growth company, we will not be required to comply with certain reporting requirements, including those relating to accounting standards and disclosure about our executive compensation, that apply to other public companies.

We are classified as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act. For as long as we are an emerging growth company,  unlike other public companies, we will not be required to, among other things: (i) provide an auditor’s attestation report on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our system of internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act; (ii) comply with any new requirements adopted by the PCAOB requiring mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report in which the auditor would be required to provide additional information about the audit and the financial statements of the issuer; (iii) provide certain disclosure regarding executive compensation required of larger public companies; or (iv) hold nonbinding advisory votes on executive compensation. We may remain an emerging growth company for up to five years following the IPO, although we will lose that status sooner if we have more than $1.07 billion of revenues in a fiscal year, have more than $700.0 million in market value of our Class A common stock held by non‑affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non‑convertible debt over a three‑year period.

To the extent that we rely on any of the exemptions available to emerging growth companies, you will receive less information about our executive compensation and internal control over financial reporting than issuers that are not

25


 

emerging growth companies. If some investors find our Class A common stock to be less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.    Properties

The following table sets forth information with respect to our principal facilities as of December 31, 2018. We also own, in some cases, land adjacent to our service centers and we lease several sales offices. We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current operations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

    

Own/

Location

 

Type

 

Lease

United States

 

 

 

 

Athens, PA

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Bossier City, LA(1)

 

Manufacturing Facility and Service Center

 

Lease

Bossier City, LA(1)

 

Assembly Facility and Warehouse / Land

 

Own

Bridgeport, TX

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Broussard, LA

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Casper, WY

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Donora, PA

 

Service Center

 

Lease

DuBois, PA

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Fort Lupton, CO

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Grand Junction, CO

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Hobbs, NM

 

Service Center / Land

 

Own

Houston, TX

 

Administrative Headquarters

 

Lease

New Waverly, TX

 

Service Center / Land

 

Own

Odessa, TX

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Oklahoma City, OK

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Pleasanton, TX

 

Service Center

 

Lease

Williston, ND

 

Service Center

 

Lease

China and Australia:

 

 

 

 

Queensland, Australia

 

Service Center and Offices / Land

 

Lease

Suzhou, China

 

Production Facility and Offices

 

Lease


(1)

Consists of various facilities adjacent to each other constituting our manufacturing facility, assembly facility, warehouse and service center.

 

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

We are party to lawsuits arising in the ordinary course of our business. We cannot predict the outcome of any such lawsuits with certainty, but management believes it is remote that pending or threatened legal matters will have a material adverse impact on our financial condition.

Due to the nature of our business, we are, from time to time, involved in other routine litigation or subject to disputes or claims related to our business activities, including workers’ compensation claims and employment related disputes. In the opinion of our management, none of these other pending litigation, disputes or claims against us, if decided adversely, will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

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Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Common Stock

The principal market for our Class A common stock is the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), where it is traded under the symbol “WHD.” Our Class A common stock began trading on the NYSE on February 8, 2018. Prior to that, there was no public market for our Class A common stock. As a result, we have not set forth quarterly information with respect to the high and low prices for our common stock prior to 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales Price

 

 

    

High

    

Low

 

2018

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter (1)

$

27.96

$

19.18

 

Second Quarter

$

37.50

$

25.37

 

Third Quarter

$

38.84

$

31.36

 

Fourth Quarter

$

40.97

$

24.60

 

(1)

For the period from February 8, 2018 through March 31, 2018.

 

As of December 31, 2018, there was one holder of record of our Class A common stock.  This number excludes owners for whom Class A Common stock may be held in “street” name.

Dividend Policy

We have not paid any dividends to holders of our common stock. We have no immediate plans to pay cash dividends to holders of our Class A common stock. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the growth of our business. Our future dividend policy is within the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon then-existing conditions, including our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, investment opportunities, statutory restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our debt agreements limit our ability to pay cash dividends to holders of our Class A common stock.  

Performance Graph

The graph below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock to the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Oil & Gas Equipment & Services Index and the PHLX Oil Service Index from the date our common stock began trading through December 31, 2018. The total shareholder return assumes $100 invested on February 7, 2018 in Cactus Inc., the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Oil & Gas Equipment & Services Index and the PHLX Oil Service Index. It also assumes reinvestment of all dividends. The following graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing

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under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent that Cactus Inc. specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.  

Picture 5

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

We did not purchase any of our equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2018.

Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

In connection with our IPO, Cactus Inc. and Cactus LLC effected a series of restructuring transactions as a result of which (a) all of the previously outstanding membership interests (including outstanding Class A units, Class A-1 units and Class B units) in Cactus LLC held by its pre-IPO owners were converted into CW Units; (b) Cactus Inc. issued 23,000,000 shares of Class A common stock and contributed the net proceeds of our IPO to Cactus LLC in exchange for 23,000,000 CW Units; (c) Cactus LLC used the net proceeds of our IPO that it received from Cactus Inc. to repay the borrowings outstanding under its term loan facility and to redeem 8,667,841 CW Units from the existing owners; (d) Cactus Inc. issued and contributed 51,889,772 shares of its Class B common stock, equal to the number of outstanding CW Units held by the owners thereof following the redemption described in (c) above to Cactus LLC; and (e) Cactus LLC distributed to each of the owners that continued to own CW Units following our IPO one share of Class B common stock for each CW Unit such holder continued to hold following the redemption described in (c) above. With the exercise of the Option, Cactus Inc. issued an additional 3,450,000 shares of Class A common stock and used the net proceeds to redeem 3,450,000 CW Units from the owners thereof, and Cactus Inc. canceled a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock. The issuances of CW Units and Class B common stock did not involve any underwriters, underwriting discounts or commissions or a public offering, and such issuances were exempt from

29


 

registration requirements pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act. The IPO was registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), pursuant to an effective Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Reg. No. 333-222540), as supplemented by the registration statement supplement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933 (Reg. No. 333-222919). Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC acted as joint book-running managers of the offering and as representatives of the underwriters. 

Item 6.    Selected Financial Data

The following tables show selected historical consolidated financial data, for the periods and as of the dates indicated, of Cactus Inc. and subsidiaries. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results. The following selected financial and operating data should be read in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes, each of which is included in this Annual Report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

    

2015

  

 

 

(in thousands, except per unit data)

 

Consolidated Statements of Income Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenues

 

$

544,135

 

$

341,191

 

$

155,048

 

$

221,395

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

366,434

 

 

252,328

 

 

144,433

 

 

179,190

 

Income from operations

 

 

177,701

 

 

88,863

 

 

10,615

 

 

42,205

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense, net

 

 

(3,595)

 

 

(20,767)

 

 

(20,233)

 

 

(21,837)

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(4,305)

 

 

 —

 

 

2,251

 

 

1,640

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

 

 

169,801

 

 

68,096

 

 

(7,367)

 

 

22,008

 

Income tax expense(1)

 

 

19,520

 

 

1,549

 

 

809

 

 

784

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

150,281

 

$

66,547

 

$

(8,176)

 

$

21,224

 

Less: pre-IPO net income attributable to Cactus LLC

 

 

13,648

 

 

66,547

 

 

(8,176)

 

 

21,224

 

Less: net income attributable to non-controlling interest

 

 

84,950

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

Net income attributable to Cactus Inc.

 

$

51,683

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings per Class A share - basic (2)

 

$

1.60

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

Earnings per Class A share - diluted (2)

 

$

1.58

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average Class A shares outstanding - basic (2)

 

 

32,329

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

Weighted average Class A shares outstanding - diluted (2)

 

 

32,695

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data (at period end):

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

70,841

 

$

7,574

 

$

8,688

 

$

12,526

 

Total assets

 

 

584,744

 

 

266,456

 

 

165,328

 

 

177,559

 

Long-term debt, net (3)

 

 

 —

 

 

241,437

 

 

242,254

 

 

250,555

 

Capital leases

 

 

16,094

 

 

12,613

 

 

3,199

 

 

 —

 

Stockholders'/Members’ equity (deficit) (2) (4)

 

 

362,328

 

 

(36,217)

 

 

(103,321)

 

 

(93,167)

 


(1)

Cactus Inc. is a corporation and is subject to U.S. federal as well as state income tax for its share of ownership in Cactus LLC. Our predecessor and operating subsidiary, Cactus LLC, is not subject to U.S. federal income tax at an entity level. As a result, the consolidated net income (loss) in our historical financial statements does not reflect the tax expense we would have incurred if we were subject to U.S. federal income tax at an entity level during such

30


 

periods. Cactus LLC is subject to entity‑level taxes for certain states within the United States. Additionally, our operations in both Australia and China are subject to local country income taxes.

(2)

Cactus Inc. completed an initial public offering of Class A common stock on February 12, 2018. See “Item 1. BusinessOrganization Structure” above.

(3)

In conjunction with our IPO, we used a portion of the net proceeds to repay all of the borrowings outstanding under Cactus LLC’s term loan facility.

(4)

In March 2014 and July 2014, Cactus LLC entered into an amendment and restatement of its then existing credit facility and a discount loan agreement, respectively, a portion of the proceeds from which were used to make a cash distribution to the Pre-IPO Owners. These transactions had the effect of creating a deficit in our total members’ equity.

 

31


 

Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Except as otherwise indicated or required by the context, all references in this Annual Report to the “Company,” “Cactus,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to (i)  Cactus LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the completion of our initial public offering on February 12, 2018 and (ii)  Cactus Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries (including Cactus LLC) following the completion of our initial public offering. The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes. The following discussion contains “forward-looking statements” that reflect our plans, estimates, beliefs and expected performance. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated as discussed in these forward-looking statements as a result of a variety of risks and uncertainties, including those described in “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Item 1A. Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report, all of which are difficult to predict. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events discussed may not occur. We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements except as otherwise required by law.

Market Factors and Trends

See “Item 1. Business” for information on our products and business. Demand for our products and services depends primarily upon the general level of activity in the oil and gas industry, including the number of drilling rigs in operation, the number of oil and gas wells being drilled, the depth and drilling conditions of these wells, the number of well completions and the level of well remediation activity, the volume of production and the corresponding capital spending by oil and natural gas companies. Oil and gas activity is in turn heavily influenced by, among other factors, oil and gas prices locally and worldwide, which have historically been volatile.

The full year 2018 weekly average U.S. onshore rig count as reported by Baker Hughes was 1,011 rigs. The weekly average U.S. onshore rig count for the full year 2017 was 853 rigs. These rig counts are a material increase relative to the full year 2016 weekly average of 483 rigs. 

The key market factor impacting our product sales is the number of wells drilled, as each well requires an individual wellhead assembly, and after completion, the installation of an associated production tree. We measure our product sales activity levels versus our competitors’ by the number of rigs that we are supporting on a monthly basis as a proxy for wells drilled. Each active drilling rig produces different levels of revenue based on the customer’s drilling plan, which includes factors such as the number of wells drilled per pad, the time taken to drill each well, the number and size of casing strings, the working pressure, material selection and the complexity of the wellhead system chosen by the customer and the rate at which production trees are eventually deployed. All of these factors may be influenced by the oil and gas region in which our customer is operating. While these factors may lead to differing revenues per rig, they allow us to forecast our product needs and anticipated revenue levels based on general trends in a given region and with a specific customer.

Our rental revenues are primarily dependent on the number of wells completed (i.e., hydraulically fractured),  the number of wells on a well pad and the number of fracture stages per well. Rental revenues and prices are more dependent on overall industry activity levels in the short term than product sales. This is due to the more competitive and price sensitive nature of the rental market with more participants having access to completions focused rental equipment. We believe, however, that the current number of drilled but uncompleted wells (“DUCs”) and any increases thereto, particularly resulting from near-term takeaway issues, could provide additional opportunities although we recognize that not all DUCs may be completed and that certain customers may elect to maintain an increased inventory of DUCs to provide production flexibility. 

32


 

Service and other revenues are closely correlated to revenues from product sales and rentals, as items sold or rented almost always have an associated service component. Nearly all service sales are offered in connection with a product sale or rental. Therefore, the market factors and trends of product sales and rental revenues similarly impact the associated levels of service and other revenues generated.

Our business experiences some seasonality during the fourth quarter due to holidays and customers managing their budgets as the year closes out. This can lead to lower activity in our three revenue categories as well as lower margins, particularly in field services due to lower labor utilization.

Factors Affecting the Comparability of Our Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Our historical financial condition and results of operations for the periods presented may not be comparable, either from period to period or going forward, for the following reasons:

·

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. We incur additional selling, general and administrative expenses as a result of being a publicly traded company. These costs include expenses associated with our annual and quarterly reporting, tax return preparation expenses, Sarbanes Oxley compliance expenses, audit fees, legal fees, directors and officers insurance, investor relations expenses, administration expenses relating to the tax receivable agreement (the “TRA”) with certain direct and indirect owners of CW Units in Cactus LLC (the “TRA Holders”) and registrar and transfer agent fees. We also expect to incur greater stock-based compensation expense related to equity awards granted by Cactus Inc. These increases in selling, general and administrative expenses are not reflected in our historical financial statements prior to our IPO, other than a portion of these costs incurred in 2017 in preparation of becoming a public company and historical compensation expense related to equity awards granted as a private company.

·

Long‑Term Incentive Plan. To incentivize individuals providing services to us or our affiliates, our board of directors adopted a long term incentive plan (the “LTIP”) prior to the completion of our IPO. The LTIP provides for the grant, from time to time, at the discretion of our compensation committee of our board of directors, of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units, stock awards, dividend equivalents, other stock based awards, cash awards, substitute awards and performance awards. Any individual who is our officer or employee or an officer or employee of any of our affiliates, and any other person who provides services to us or our affiliates, including members of our board of directors, will be eligible to receive awards under the LTIP at the discretion of our board of directors. In connection with our IPO, we issued 0.7 million restricted stock unit awards, which will vest over one to three years, to certain of our directors, officers and employees. Additional awards have also been granted since our IPO.  We also expect to grant awards in the future. We recognize stock-based compensation expense over the vesting terms related to the respective issuance. 

·

Corporate Reorganization. The historical consolidated financial statements are based on the financial statements of our accounting predecessor, Cactus LLC and its subsidiaries, prior to our reorganization in connection with our IPO. As a result, the historical consolidated financial data may not provide an accurate indication of what our actual results would have been if such transactions had been completed at the beginning of the periods presented or of what our future results of operations are likely to be. In addition, we entered into the  TRA with the TRA Holders. This agreement generally provides for the payment by us to the TRA Holders of 85% of the net cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that we actually realize or are deemed to realize in certain circumstances as a result of certain increases in tax basis and imputed interest, as described below. We will retain the benefit of the remaining 15% of such net cash savings. See Note 2 in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

33


 

·

Income Taxes. Cactus Inc. is a corporation and is subject to U.S. federal income taxes (currently at a statutory rate of 21% of pretax earnings, as adjusted by the Code), as well as state and local income taxes, on its share of income of Cactus LLC. Consequently, we will report income tax expense or benefit attributable to U.S. federal income taxes for periods following our IPO. Our accounting predecessor was a limited liability company that was treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and therefore was not subject to U.S. federal income taxes. Accordingly, no provision for U.S. federal income taxes has been made in our historical results of operations prior to our IPO because taxable income was passed through to Cactus LLC’s members.

·

Non-controlling Interest. As a result of our IPO and a series of related reorganization transactions in connection with the IPO (the “Reorganization”), Cactus Inc. is the sole managing member of Cactus LLC and consolidates entities in which it has a controlling financial interest. The Reorganization was considered a transaction between entities under common control. As a result, the financial statements for periods prior to our IPO and the Reorganization have been adjusted to combine the previously separate entities for presentation purposes. However, Cactus Inc. had no operations or assets and liabilities prior to our IPO. As such, for periods prior to the completion of our IPO, the consolidated financial statements represent the historical financial position and results of operations of Cactus LLC and its subsidiaries. For periods after the completion of our IPO, the financial position and results of operations include those of Cactus Inc. and report the non-controlling interest related to the portion of CW Units not owned by Cactus Inc. All shares of Class B common stock are held by non-controlling interest owners.

During 2018, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting.  This material weakness resulted in the immaterial errors described below that were corrected during the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2018. 

During the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2018, we identified and corrected immaterial errors in the calculation of the liability and deferred tax asset associated with the TRA related to the Reorganization, our IPO and Follow-on Offering that reduced additional paid-in-capital by $1.6 million, reduced the deferred tax asset by $10.9 million and decreased the associated liability related to the TRA by $9.3 million. These corrections relate to immaterial errors associated with inputs (including estimates) and assumptions used in the calculation of the original step-up in basis during the interim periods of 2018.

These changes, if they had been recorded in the interim periods of 2018, would not have had a material impact to our net assets and would not have had any impact on our consolidated results of operations or cash flows.

34


 

Consolidated Results of Operations

Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017

The following table presents summary consolidated operating results for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

$ Change

    

% Change

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenues

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

Product revenue

 

$

290,496

 

$

189,091

 

$

101,405

 

53.6

%

Rental revenue

 

 

133,418

 

 

77,469

 

 

55,949

 

72.2

 

Field service and other revenue

 

 

120,221

 

 

74,631

 

 

45,590

 

61.1

 

Total revenues

 

 

544,135

 

 

341,191

 

 

202,944

 

59.5

 

Costs and expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product revenue

 

 

174,675

 

 

124,030

 

 

50,645

 

40.8

 

Cost of rental revenue

 

 

55,015

 

 

40,519

 

 

14,496

 

35.8

 

Cost of field service and other revenue

 

 

96,215

 

 

60,602

 

 

35,613

 

58.8

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

 

40,529

 

 

27,177

 

 

13,352

 

49.1

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

366,434

 

 

252,328

 

 

114,106

 

45.2

 

Income from operations

 

 

177,701

 

 

88,863

 

 

88,838

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense, net

 

 

(3,595)

 

 

(20,767)

 

 

(17,172)

 

(82.7)

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(4,305)

 

 

 —

 

 

4,305

 

100.0

 

Income before income taxes

 

 

169,801

 

 

68,096

 

 

101,705

 

149.4

 

Income tax expense

 

 

19,520

 

 

1,549

 

 

17,971

 

1,160.2

 

Net income

 

$

150,281

 

$

66,547

 

$

83,734

 

125.8

%

Less: Pre-IPO net income attributable to Cactus LLC

 

 

13,648

 

 

66,547

 

 

(52,899)

 

(79.5)

 

Less: net income attributable to non-controlling interest

 

 

84,950

 

 

 —

 

 

84,950

 

nm

 

Net income attributable to Cactus Inc.

 

$

51,683

 

$

 —

 

 

51,683

 

nm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nm = not meaningful


Revenues

Product revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $290.5 million, an increase of $101.4 million, or 54%, from $189.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily attributable to significant increase in U.S. onshore activity. Overall, the number of drilling rigs operating has increased significantly as well as the number of wells drilled, which has increased the volume of our wellhead sales. The average monthly rigs followed by Cactus increased 29% to 272 rigs for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 211 rigs for the same period in 2017. We have also seen an increase in the sale of production trees as more wells are placed on production.

Rental revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $133.4 million, an increase of $55.9 million, or 72%, from $77.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily attributable to the increased investment in our rental fleet that enabled us to take advantage of more completions activities.

Field service and other revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $120.2 million, an increase of $45.6 million, or 61%, from $74.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily attributable to

35


 

higher demand for these services following the increase in our product and rental revenue, as field service is closely correlated with these activities.

Costs and expenses

Cost of product revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $174.7 million, an increase of $50.6 million, or 41%, from $124.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was largely attributable to increased product sales volume as a result of higher demand for our products. Margins improved in 2018 due to a combination of higher volume and product mix, as well as supply chain efficiencies.

Cost of rental revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $55.0 million, an increase of $14.5 million, or 36%, from $40.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.  The increase was primarily due to higher depreciation expense and repair costs associated with a larger, more active fleet. Margins improved in 2018 due to higher utilization and improved pricing.

Cost of field service and other revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $96.2 million, an increase of $35.6 million, or 59%, from $60.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.  The increase was primarily attributable to higher payroll costs due to additional field personnel and higher operating costs due to activity increases, particularly in areas with high rotational costs. Margins were relatively flat year-over-year.

Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $40.5 million, an increase of $13.4 million, or 49%, from $27.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.  The increase was primarily due to higher payroll and incentive compensation costs associated with our overall growth, as well as higher stock-based compensation expense related to equity awards issued in conjunction with our IPO and increased costs associated with being a  publicly traded company.

Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $3.6 million, a decrease of $17.2 million, or 83%, from $20.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.  The decrease is due to the repayment of our term loan in mid-February 2018 in connection with our IPO.

Other income (expense), net. Other income (expense), net for the year ended December 31, 2018 relates to a $4.3 million loss on debt extinguishment related to the write off of the unamortized balance of debt discount and deferred loan costs in connection with the repayment of our term loan with a portion of the net proceeds from our IPO.

 Income tax expense. Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $19.5 million (11.5% effective tax rate) compared to $1.5 million (2.3% effective tax rate) for 2017. The change was primarily attributable to Cactus Inc. incurring U.S. federal income tax on its share of the income of Cactus LLC during the periods subsequent to our IPO in 2018.

 

36


 

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016

The following table presents summary consolidated operating results for the periods presented:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

2017

    

2016

    

$ Change

    

% Change

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenues

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

Product revenue

 

$

189,091

 

$

77,739

 

$

111,352

 

143.2

%

Rental revenue

 

 

77,469

 

 

44,372

 

 

33,097

 

74.6

 

Field service and other revenue

 

 

74,631

 

 

32,937

 

 

41,694

 

126.6

 

Total revenues

 

 

341,191

 

 

155,048

 

 

186,143

 

120.1

 

Costs and expenses

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

Cost of product revenue

 

 

124,030

 

 

62,766

 

 

61,264

 

97.6

 

Cost of rental revenue

 

 

40,519

 

 

33,990

 

 

6,529

 

19.2

 

Cost of field service and other revenue

 

 

60,602

 

 

28,470

 

 

32,132

 

112.9

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

 

27,177

 

 

19,207

 

 

7,970

 

41.5

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

252,328

 

 

144,433

 

 

107,895

 

74.7

 

Income from operations

 

 

88,863

 

 

10,615

 

 

78,248

 

737.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense, net

 

 

(20,767)

 

 

(20,233)

 

 

534

 

2.6

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

 —

 

 

2,251

 

 

(2,251)

 

(100.0)

 

Income before income taxes

 

 

68,096

 

 

(7,367)

 

 

75,463

 

nm

 

Income tax expense

 

 

1,549

 

 

809

 

 

740

 

91.5

 

Net income

 

$

66,547

 

$

(8,176)

 

$

74,723

 

nm

%

nm = not meaningful


Revenues

Product revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $189.1 million, an increase of $111.4 million, or 143%, from $77.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to accelerated U.S. land activity in 2017 associated with increased E&P drilling, completions and production, which led to a higher onshore rig count in the United States, resulting in increased demand for our products and greater volume of product sales. Additionally, a change in mix toward higher value advanced wellheads has also contributed to the increase in revenues.

Rental revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $77.5 million, an increase of $33.1 million, or 75%, from $44.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to increased drilling and completions activities, which led to increased demand for the rental of our equipment in 2017, as well as pricing improvement in our rental fleet compared to 2016.

Field service and other revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $74.6 million, an increase of $41.7 million, or 127%, from $32.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to higher demand for these services following the increase in our product and rental revenue, as field service is closely correlated with these activities.

37


 

Costs and expenses

Cost of product revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $124.0 million, an increase of $61.3 million, or 98%, from $62.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was largely attributable to increased product sales volume as a result of higher demand for our products. Product margins benefited from price increases together with a change in mix toward higher value advanced wellheads.

Cost of rental revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $40.5 million, an increase of $6.5 million, or 19%, from $34.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher depreciation expense from capital additions and higher operating costs due to an increase in activity. Increased utilization and better pricing contributed to higher margins.

Cost of field service and other revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $60.6 million, an increase of $32.1 million, or 113%, from $28.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher payroll costs attributable to additional field personnel and higher operating costs due to activity increases.

Selling, general and administrative expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $27.2 million, an increase of $8.0 million, or 42%, from $19.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher payroll and incentive compensation costs associated with the overall growth of Cactus. Also, we expensed $1.0 million of costs during 2017 related to preparing for being a public company.

Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $20.8 million, an increase of $0.5 million, or 3%, from $20.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher average interest rates on borrowings under our credit facility and increased interest related to amounts on capital lease obligations.

Other income (expense), net. Other income, net for 2016 relates to a gain on debt extinguishment of $2.3 million associated with our redemption of $7.5 million of debt outstanding under our term loan during the second quarter of 2016.

Income tax expense. Although our operations have not been subject to U.S. federal income tax at an entity level, our operations are subject to state taxes within the United States. In addition, Cactus LLC’s operations located in China and Australia are subject to local country income taxes. Income tax expense for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 were $1.5 million and $0.8 million, respectively.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

In February 2018, we completed our IPO and contributed all of the net proceeds of $469.6 million to Cactus LLC in exchange for CW Units. Cactus LLC used (i) $251.0 million of the net proceeds to repay all of the borrowings outstanding, plus accrued interest, under its term loan facility and (ii) $216.4 million to redeem CW Units from certain direct and indirect owners of Cactus LLC. The remaining $2.2 million was held by Cactus LLC to cover previously paid offering expenses. Following our IPO we had no term loan debt.

In July 2018, we completed the Follow-on Offering and received $359.3 million of net proceeds. Cactus Inc. contributed the net proceeds to Cactus LLC in exchange for CW Units. Cactus LLC then used the net proceeds to redeem CW Units from certain of the other owners of Cactus LLC. No proceeds from this Follow-on Offering were retained by Cactus Inc. 

We expect that our primary sources of liquidity and capital resources will be cash flows generated by operating activities and borrowings under our ABL Credit Facility (described below). Depending upon market conditions and

38


 

other factors, we may also have the ability to issue additional equity and debt if needed. Our primary uses of capital are for working capital requirements, cash distributions to Cactus LLC members, payments of the liabilities related to the TRA and to service debt. Total debt, excluding capital leases, was $0.0 million, $248.5 million and $251.1 million at December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements, including cash distributions to the holders of CW Units to fund their share of taxes of the partnership and liabilities related to the TRA, depends on our future operating performance, which is affected by prevailing economic conditions, market conditions in the E&P industry, availability and cost of raw materials, and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.

We currently estimate that our capital expenditures for the year ending December 31, 2019 will range from $60 million to $65 million, excluding acquisitions, mostly related to rental fleet investments. We continuously evaluate our capital expenditures, and the amount we ultimately spend will depend on a number of factors, including, among other things, demand for rental assets, available capacity in existing locations, prevailing economic conditions, market conditions in the E&P industry, customers’ forecasts, demand volatility and company initiatives.

During the second and third quarters of 2018, Cactus LLC paid pro rata distributions of $4.2 million and $1.6 million, respectively, to its members other than Cactus Inc., which were funded by cash flow generated from operating activities.

We believe that our existing cash on hand, cash generated from operations and available borrowings under our ABL Credit Facility will be sufficient to meet working capital requirements, anticipated capital expenditures, expected cash distributions to Cactus LLC members and anticipated tax liabilities for at least the next 12 months.

At December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, we had approximately $70.8 million and $7.6 million, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $75 million and $50 million, respectively, of available borrowing capacity under our revolving credit facility.

Cash Flows

Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

 

(in thousands)

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

$

167,180

 

$

34,707

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(68,154)

 

 

(30,678)

Net cash used in financing activities

 

 

(35,004)

 

 

(5,313)

 

Net cash provided by operating activities was $167.2 million and $34.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The primary reasons for the change were a  $83.7 million increase in net income, a $30.0 million increase in non-cash items and a $18.7 million reduction in working capital use.

Net cash used in investing activities was $68.2 million and $30.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The reason for the increase was higher capital expenditures during 2018 related to investment in our rental fleet (to meet the increased customer demand for our frac equipment) as well as expansion of certain facilities.

39


 

Net cash used in financing activities was $35.0 million and $5.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The primary reason for the increase in use of cash related to the payment of $31.8 million in Cactus LLC member distributions to provide funds to pay their federal and state liabilities associated with taxable income recognized by them as a result of their ownership in Cactus LLC. Also during 2018, we received $828.2 million of net proceeds from our IPO, the Option and the Follow-on Offering offset by (i) a $248.5 million repayment of the borrowings outstanding under the term loan portion of our Prior Credit Agreement (described below) and (ii) $575.7 million in redemptions of CW Units from certain direct and indirect owners of Cactus LLC in connection with our IPO, the Option and the Follow-on Offering resulting in $4.0 million of net cash provided by these activities. We also made capital lease payments of $6.3 million during 2018.

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

 

    

2017

    

2016

 

 

(in thousands)

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

$

34,707

 

$

23,975

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(30,678)

 

 

(17,358)

Net cash used in financing activities

 

 

(5,313)

 

 

(10,171)

 

Net cash provided by operating activities was $34.7 million and $24.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The primary reason for the change was the $74.7 million increase in net income and $3.2 million increase in non-cash items, offset by a $67.2 million increase in net working capital items due to the significant increase in business activity during the second half of 2017.

Net cash used in investing activities was $30.7 million and $17.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The primary reason for the change was higher capital expenditures during 2017 related to the additional investments in our rental fleet as market activity improved significantly during 2017.

Net cash used in financing activities was $5.3 million and $10.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The primary reason for the change was due to less debt service in 2017 as 2016 included a partial redemption of principal under our term loan. Also, there were no distributions to members in 2017 compared to $2.1 million in 2016.

Credit Agreement

On August 21, 2018, Cactus LLC entered into a five-year senior secured asset-based revolving credit facility with a syndicate of lenders and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent for such lenders and as an issuing bank and swingline lender (the “ABL Credit Facility”). The ABL Credit Facility provides for $75.0 million in revolving commitments, up to $15.0 million of which is available for the issuance of letters of credit. Subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in the ABL Credit Facility, Cactus LLC may request additional revolving commitments in an amount not to exceed $50.0 million, for a total of up to $125.0 million in revolving commitments.

The ABL Credit Facility matures on August 21, 2023. The maximum amount that Cactus LLC may borrow under the ABL Credit Facility is subject to a borrowing base, which is based on a percentage of eligible accounts receivable and eligible inventory, subject to reserves and other adjustments.

The ABL Credit Facility replaced Cactus LLC’s prior credit agreement, dated as of July 31, 2014, with Credit Suisse AG, as administrative agent, collateral agent and issuing bank, and the other lenders party thereto (the “Prior Credit Agreement”). The Prior Credit Agreement provided for a term loan tranche in an aggregate principal amount of

40


 

$275.0 million, the outstanding balance of which was repaid in full in February 2018 with the net proceeds of our IPO, and a revolving credit facility (the “Prior Revolving Credit Facility”) of up to $50.0 million with a $10.0 million sublimit for letters of credit. The Prior Credit Agreement was terminated concurrently with the effectiveness of, and as a condition of entering into, the ABL Credit Facility. No loans or letters of credit under the Prior Credit Agreement were outstanding at the time of, or were repaid in connection with, such termination. The Prior Credit Agreement was scheduled to mature on July 31, 2019.

Cactus LLC’s obligations under the ABL Credit Facility are secured by liens on Cactus LLC’s assets, other than equipment, intellectual property and real estate. Any subsidiary of Cactus LLC that is considered material pursuant to the ABL Credit Facility will be required to (i) guarantee on an unconditional basis all of Cactus LLC’s obligations under the ABL Credit Facility and (ii) grant a lien to secure such guarantee on its assets, other than equipment, intellectual property and real estate.

Borrowings under the ABL Credit Facility bear interest at Cactus LLC’s option at either (i) the Alternate Base Rate (as defined therein) (“ABR”), or (ii) the Adjusted LIBO Rate (as defined therein) (“Eurodollar”), plus, in each case, an applicable margin. Letters of credit issued under the ABL Credit Facility accrue fees at a rate equal to the applicable margin for Eurodollar borrowings. The applicable margin ranges from 0.50% to 1.00% per annum for ABR borrowings and 1.50% to 2.00% per annum for Eurodollar borrowings and, in each case, is based on the average quarterly availability under the ABL Credit Facility for the immediately preceding fiscal quarter. The unused portion of the ABL Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee that varies from 0.250% to 0.375% per annum, according to the average quarterly availability under the ABL Credit Facility for the immediately preceding fiscal quarter.

The ABL Credit Facility contains various covenants and restrictive provisions that limit Cactus LLC’s and each of its subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:

• incur additional indebtedness and create liens;

• make investments or loans;

• enter into asset sales;

• make certain restricted payments and distributions; and

• engage in transactions with affiliates.

The ABL Credit Facility also requires Cactus LLC to maintain a fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.0 to 1.0 based on the ratio of EBITDA (as defined therein) minus Unfinanced Capital Expenditures (as defined therein) to Fixed Charges (as defined therein) during certain periods, including when availability under the ABL Credit Facility is under certain levels. If Cactus LLC fails to perform its obligations under the ABL Credit Facility, (i) the commitments under the ABL Credit Facility could be terminated, (ii) any outstanding borrowings under the ABL Credit Facility may be declared immediately due and payable and (iii) the lenders may commence foreclosure or other actions against the collateral.

As of December 31, 2018, we had no borrowings outstanding under the ABL Credit Facility. As of December 31, 2017, we had $248.5 million of borrowings outstanding under the term loan tranche of the Prior Credit Agreement, no borrowings outstanding under the Prior Revolving Credit Facility and no outstanding letters of credit.

At December 31, 2018, although there were no borrowings outstanding, the applicable margin on our Eurodollar borrowings was 1.5% plus an adjusted base rate of one or three month LIBOR. At December 31, 2017, the weighted average interest rate for the borrowings under the Prior Credit Agreement was 7.3%.

41


 

As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with all covenants under the ABL Credit Facility and as of December 31, 2017, we were in compliance with all covenants under the Prior Credit Agreement.

Tax Receivable Agreement

The TRA that Cactus Inc. entered into with the TRA Holders in connection with our IPO generally provides for the payment by Cactus Inc. to the TRA Holders of 85% of the net cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that Cactus Inc. actually realizes or is deemed to realize in certain circumstances. Cactus Inc. will retain the benefit of the remaining 15% of these net cash savings. To the extent Cactus LLC has available cash, we intend to cause Cactus LLC to make generally pro rata distributions to its unitholders, including us, in an amount at least sufficient to allow us to pay our taxes and to make payments under the TRA.

Except in cases where we elect to terminate the TRA early, the TRA is terminated early due to certain mergers, asset sales, or other forms of business combinations or changes of control or we have available cash but fail to make payments when due under circumstances where we do not have the right to elect to defer the payment, we may generally elect to defer payments due under the TRA if we do not have available cash to satisfy our payment obligations under the TRA. Any such deferred payments under the TRA generally will accrue interest. In certain cases, payments under the TRA may be accelerated and/or significantly exceed the actual benefits, if any, we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA. In these situations, our obligations under the TRA could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity. For further discussion regarding the potential acceleration of payments under the TRA and its potential impact, see Note 2 in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

Contractual Obligations

A summary of our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2018 is provided in the following table. We had no bank debt outstanding as of December 31, 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments Due by Period For the Year Ending December 31, 

 

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

    

2022

    

2023

    

Thereafter

    

Total

 

 

(in thousands)

Operating lease obligations(1)

 

$

6,638

 

$

4,618

 

$

3,487

 

$

2,195

 

$

1,426

 

$

3,339

 

$

21,703

Capital lease obligations(2)

 

 

8,740

 

 

6,790

 

 

2,533

 

 

41

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

18,104

Liability related to TRA(3)

 

 

9,574

 

 

7,806

 

 

7,798

 

 

7,972

 

 

8,134

 

 

106,305

 

 

147,589

Total

 

$

24,952

 

$

19,214

 

$

13,818

 

$

10,208

 

$

9,560

 

$

109,644

 

$

187,396


(1)

Operating lease obligations relate to real estate, vehicles and equipment.

(2)

Capital lease obligations relate to vehicles used in our business.

(3)

Represents obligations by Cactus Inc. to make payments under the TRA. The amount and timing of payments is subject to change.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Certain accounting policies involve judgments and uncertainties to such an extent that there is reasonable likelihood that materially different amounts could have been reported under different conditions, or if different assumptions had been used. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on a regular basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the

42


 

carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions used in preparation of our consolidated financial statements. See Note 2 in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for an expanded discussion of our significant accounting policies and estimates made by management.

Accounts Receivable

We extend credit to customers in the normal course of business. In our determination of the allowance for doubtful accounts, we assess those amounts where there are concerns over collection and record an allowance for that amount. Estimating this amount requires us to analyze the financial condition of our customers, our historical experience and any specific concerns. By its nature, such an estimate is highly subjective and it is possible that the amount of accounts receivable that we are unable to collect may be different from the amount initially estimated.

The allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2018 was $0.6 million, compared to $0.7 million as of December 31, 2017, representing approximately 1.0%, for the respective periods, of our consolidated gross accounts receivable. A 10% increase in our allowance for doubtful accounts at December 31, 2018 would result in a change in reserves of approximately $0.1 million and a change in income before income taxes by the same amount. Currently, management does not believe that there is a reasonable likelihood that there will be a material change in the future estimates or assumptions that were used to calculate our allowance for doubtful accounts.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using standard cost (which approximates average cost) and weighted average methods. Costs include an application of related direct labor and overhead cost. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation. Reserves are made for obsolete and slow‑moving items based on a range of factors, including age, usage and technological or market changes that may impact demand for those products. The amount of allowance recorded is subjective and it may be that the level of provision required may be different from that initially recorded.

The inventory obsolescence reserve as of December 31, 2018 was $7.3 million, compared to $5.9 million as of December 31, 2017, representing approximately 6.8% and 8.4%, respectively, of our consolidated gross inventories. A 10% increase in our inventory obsolescence reserve at December 31, 2018 would result in a change in reserves of approximately $0.7 million and a change in income before income taxes by the same amount. Currently, management does not believe that there is a reasonable likelihood that there will be a material change in the future estimates or assumptions that were used to calculate our inventory obsolescence reserve.

Long‑Lived Assets

Key estimates related to long‑lived assets include useful lives and recoverability of carrying values. Such estimates could be modified, as impairment could arise as a result of changes in supply and demand fundamentals, technological developments, new competitors with cost advantages and the cyclical nature of the oil and gas industry. We evaluate long‑lived assets for potential impairment indicators whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Long‑lived assets assessed for impairment are grouped at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are available, and a provision made where the cash flow is less than the carrying value of the asset. Actual impairment losses could vary from amounts estimated.

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Goodwill

Goodwill represents the excess of acquisition consideration paid over the fair value of identifiable net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized, but is reviewed for impairment on an annual basis (or more frequently if impairment indicators exist). We have established December 31st as the date of our annual test for impairment of goodwill. We perform a qualitative assessment of the fair value of our reporting unit before calculating the fair value of the reporting unit in step one of the two‑step goodwill impairment model. If, through the qualitative assessment, we determine that it is more likely than not that the reporting unit’s fair value is greater than its carrying value, the remaining impairment steps would be unnecessary.

If there are indicators that goodwill has been impaired and thus the two‑step goodwill impairment model is necessary, step one is to determine the fair value of the reporting unit and compare it to the reporting unit’s carrying value. Fair value is determined based on the present value of estimated cash flows using available information regarding expected cash flows of each reporting unit, discount rates and the expected long‑term cash flow growth rates. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value, goodwill is not impaired and no further testing is performed. The second step is performed if the carrying value exceeds the fair value. The implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill must be determined and compared to the carrying value of the goodwill. If the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment loss equal to the difference will be recorded.

Goodwill as of December 31, 2018 was $7.8 million, which is the same value as the year ended December 31, 2017. We performed our annual impairment analysis and concluded there was no impairment. A 10% decrease in the fair value of our reporting unit at December 31, 2018 would not result in an impairment. Currently, management does not believe that there is a reasonable likelihood that there will be a material change in the carrying value of goodwill.

Income Taxes

We follow guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), which clarifies accounting for uncertainty in income taxes by prescribing the minimum recognition threshold an income tax position is required to meet before being recognized in the consolidated financial statements and applies to all income tax positions. Each income tax position is assessed using a two‑step process. A determination is first made as to whether it is more likely than not that the income tax position will be sustained, based upon technical merits, upon examination by the taxing authorities. If the income tax position is expected to meet the more likely than not criteria, the benefit recorded in the consolidated financial statements equals the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon its ultimate settlement.

Deferred taxes are recorded using the liability method, whereby tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The realizability of deferred tax assets are evaluated annually and a valuation allowance is provided if it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not give rise to future benefits in our tax returns. See following discussion under “Tax Receivable Agreement.” See also Note 5 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

Due to our controlling interest in Cactus LLC, we do not expect to realize the benefit of a portion of the related deferred tax asset except through the sale or liquidation of the investment. As such, we have recorded a valuation allowance of $31.2 million against this portion of the deferred tax asset.

Tax Receivable Agreement

Redemptions of CW Units result in adjustments to the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Cactus LLC. These adjustments will be allocated to Cactus Inc. Such adjustments to the tax basis of the tangible and intangible

44


 

assets of Cactus LLC would not have been available to Cactus Inc. absent its acquisition or deemed acquisition of CW Units. In addition, the repayment of borrowings outstanding under the Cactus LLC term loan facility resulted in adjustments to the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Cactus LLC, a portion of which was allocated to Cactus Inc.

These basis adjustments are expected to increase (for tax purposes) Cactus Inc.’s depreciation and amortization deductions and may also decrease Cactus Inc.’s gains (or increase its losses) on future dispositions of certain assets to the extent tax basis is allocated to those assets. Such increased deductions and losses and reduced gains may reduce the amount of tax that Cactus Inc. would otherwise be required to pay in the future. 

Estimating the amount and timing of the tax benefit is by its nature imprecise and the assumptions used in the estimates can change. The tax benefit is dependent upon future events and assumptions, including the timing of the redemption of CW Units, the price of our Class A common stock at the time of each redemption, the extent to which such redemptions are taxable transactions, the amount of the redeeming unit holders' tax basis in its CW Units at the time of the relevant redemption, the depreciation and amortization periods that apply to the increase in tax basis, the amount and timing of taxable income we generate in the future and the U.S. federal, state and local income tax rate then applicable, and the portion of Cactus Inc.’s payments under the TRA that constitute imputed interest or give rise to depreciable or amortizable tax basis. The most critical estimate included in calculating the deferred tax asset to record is the combined U.S. federal income tax rate and an assumed combined state and local income tax rate, to determine the future benefit we will realize. A 100 basis point decrease/increase in the blended tax rate used would decrease/increase the deferred tax asset expected to be realized by approximately $7.1 million. This would decrease/increase the associated TRA liability recorded by $6.1 million representing 85% of the tax-effected change in the deferred tax asset and decrease/increase additional paid-in capital by $1.0 million, representing 15% of the tax-effected change in the deferred tax asset. 

We account for any amounts payable under the TRA in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 450. We believe accounting for the TRA under the provisions of ASC 450 is appropriate, given the significant uncertainties regarding the amount and timing of payments, if any, to be made under the TRA.

The term of the TRA commenced upon completion of our IPO and will continue until all tax benefits that are subject to the TRA have been utilized or expired, unless we exercise our right to terminate the TRA. In the event that the TRA is not terminated, the payments under the TRA are anticipated to commence in 2019 and to continue for 16 years after the date of the last redemption of CW Units. Accordingly, it is expected that payments will continue to be made under the TRA for more than 25 years. If we elect to terminate the TRA early (or it is terminated early due to certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control), our obligations under the TRA would accelerate and we would be required to make an immediate payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future payments to be made by us under the TRA (determined by applying a discount rate of one-year LIBOR plus 150 basis points) and such payment is expected to be substantial. The calculation of anticipated future payments will be based upon certain assumptions and deemed events set forth in the TRA, including the assumptions that (i) we have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the tax benefits covered by the TRA and (ii) any CW Units (other than those held by Cactus Inc.) outstanding on the termination date are deemed to be redeemed on the termination date. Any early termination payment may be made significantly in advance of the actual realization, if any, of the future tax benefits to which the termination payment relates. Assuming no material changes in the relevant tax law, we expect that if the TRA were terminated as of December 31, 2018, the estimated termination payments, based on the assumptions discussed above, would be approximately $280 million (calculated using a discount rate equal to one-year LIBOR plus 150 basis points, applied against an undiscounted liability of $400 million).

45


 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 2 in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for discussion of recent accounting pronouncements.

Inflation

Inflation in the United States has been relatively low in recent years and did not have a material impact on our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. Although the impact of inflation has been insignificant in recent years, it is still a factor in the United States economy, and we tend to experience inflationary pressure on wages and raw materials.

Off‑Balance Sheet Arrangements

Currently, we do not have off‑balance sheet arrangements.

Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

We are exposed to market risk from changes in foreign currency rates and changes in interest rates.

We outsource certain of our wellhead equipment to suppliers in China, and our production facility in China assembles and tests these outsourced components, as we do not engage in machining operations in this facility. In addition, we have a service center in Australia that sells products, rents frac equipment and provides field services. To the extent either facility has net U.S. dollar denominated assets, our profitability is eroded when the U.S. dollar weakens against the Chinese Yuan and the Australian dollar. Our production facility in China generally has net U.S. dollar denominated assets, while our service center in Australia generally has net U.S. dollar denominated liabilities. The U.S. dollar translated profits and net assets of our facilities in China and Australia are eroded if the respective local currency value weakens against the U.S. dollar. We have not entered into any derivative arrangements to protect against fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.

Our ABL Credit Facility is variable rate debt. At December 31, 2018, although there were no borrowings outstanding, the applicable margin on Eurodollar borrowings was 1.5% plus an adjusted base rate of one or three month LIBOR.

We have short-term investments in interest bearing accounts and money market funds.

 

 

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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

The following Consolidated Financial Statements are filed as part of this Annual Report:

Cactus, Inc. and Subsidiaries

 

 

 

47


 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Cactus, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Cactus, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Houston, Texas

March 14, 2019

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2015.

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CACTUS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 

 

December 31, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets

 

 

  

 

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

70,841

 

$

7,574

Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $576 and $740, respectively

 

 

92,269

 

 

84,173

Inventories

 

 

99,837

 

 

64,450

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

11,558

 

 

7,732

Total current assets

 

 

274,505

 

 

163,929

Property and equipment, net