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Table of Contents


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

________________________________

FORM 10-K
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ý ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition period from __________ to __________

Commission file number: 000-56165
________________________________

cci-20211231_g1.gif
Cottonwood Communities, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
________________________________
Maryland61-1805524
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

1245 Brickyard Road, Suite 250, Salt Lake City, UT 84106
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)

(801) 278-0700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

________________________________

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolsName of each exchange on which registered
NoneNoneNone
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Class A common stock, $0.01 par value per share
Class TX common stock, $0.01 par value per share
________________________________





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Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerýSmaller reporting companyý
Emerging growth companyý
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No ý

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant: No established market exists for the registrant’s common stock. The registrant publishes a net asset value (“NAV”), based on procedures and methodologies established by its board of directors, with an NAV on June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, of $11.7865 per share for each class of share of common stock outstanding. As of December 31, 2021, the NAV was $17.2839 per share for each of class of share of common stock outstanding. There were 12,631,759 shares of common stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.

As of March 22, 2022, there were 1,380,718 shares of the registrant’s Class T common stock, 608,019 shares of the registrations Class I common stock, 23,387,745 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, and 17,525 shares of the registrant’s Class TX common stock outstanding.


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Cottonwood Communities, Inc.
Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2021

Table of Contents
Page
Part I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Part III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV
Item 15.
Item 16.



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Part I

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward looking statements include statements about our business, including, in particular, statements about our plans, strategies and objectives. You can generally identify forward-looking statements by our use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” or other similar words. You should not rely on these forward-looking statements because the matters they describe are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other unpredictable factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our actual results, performance and achievements may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

For a discussion of some of the risks and uncertainties, although not all risks and uncertainties, that could cause actual results to differ materially from those presented in our forward-looking statements, see the risks identified in “Summary Risk Factors” below and in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report”).

SUMMARY RISK FACTORS

The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and an investment in our common stock. This summary highlights certain of the risks that are discussed further in this Annual Report but does not address all the risks that we face. For additional discussion of the risks summarized below and a discussion of other risks that we face, see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report. You should interpret many of the risks identified in this summary and under “Risk Factors” as being heightened as a result of the ongoing and numerous adverse impacts of the novel coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) pandemic.     

We depend on our advisor to identify suitable investments and to manage our investments. There is no assurance that we will be able to successfully achieve our investment objectives.
We have paid distributions from offering proceeds and may continue to fund distributions with offering proceeds. We have not established a limit on the amount of proceeds from our offering that we may use to fund distributions. To the extent we fund distributions from sources other than our cash flow from operations, we will have less funds available for investment in multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets and the overall return to our stockholders may be reduced. Distributions may also be paid from other sources such as borrowings, advances or the deferral of fees and expense reimbursements. During the early stages of our operations, these distributions may constitute a return of capital.
Some of our officers and certain of our directors are also officers and directors of our sponsor, our advisor or its affiliates. As a result, our officers and affiliated directors are subject to conflicts of interest.
We pay certain fees and expenses to our advisor and its affiliates. These fees were not negotiated at arm’s length and therefore may be higher than fees payable to unaffiliated third parties.
Development projects in which we invest will be subject to potential development and construction delays which could result in increased costs and risks and may hinder our operating results and ability to make distributions.
We may incur significant debt in certain circumstances, including through the issuance of preferred equity that is accounted for as debt. Our use of leverage increases the risk of an investment in us. Loans we obtain may be collateralized by some or all of our investments, which will put those investments at risk of forfeiture if we are unable to pay our debts. Principal and interest payments on these loans and dividend payments on our preferred shares reduce the amount of money that would otherwise be available for other purposes.
Volatility in the debt markets could affect our ability to obtain financing for investments or other activities related to real estate assets and the diversification or value of our portfolio, potentially reducing cash available for distribution to our stockholders or our ability to make investments. In addition, volatility in the debt markets could negatively impact our loans with variable interest rates.
If we fail to continue to qualify as a REIT, it would adversely affect our operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders because we will be subject to United States federal income tax at regular corporate rates with no ability to deduct distributions made to our stockholders.


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The Russian Federation’s invasion of Ukraine has caused increased geopolitical tensions around the world and the United States, the United Kingdom, EU member states, and other countries have imposed economic sanctions on the Russian Federation, parts of Ukraine, as well as various designated parties. As further military conflicts and economic sanctions continue to evolve, it has become increasingly difficult to predict the impact of these events or how long they will last. Depending on direction and timing, the Russian Federation-Ukraine conflict may significantly exacerbate the normal risks associated with an investment in us as it could adversely impact our operations and ability to realize our investment objectives.
The COVID-19 pandemic, together with the resulting measures imposed to contain the virus, has had a negative impact on the economy and business activity globally. Although we have not seen a material impact on our operations to date, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our operations, the personal financial position of our tenants and the development projects in which we have invested remains uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence.
    
In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in these forward looking statements, the inclusion of this information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that our objectives and plans, which we consider to be reasonable, will be achieved. Except as otherwise required by federal securities laws, we do not undertake to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

References herein to the “Company,” “CCI,” “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to Cottonwood Communities, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and its subsidiaries, unless the context specifically requires otherwise.

General Description of Business and Operations

Cottonwood Communities, Inc. invests in a diverse portfolio of multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets throughout the United States. We are externally managed by our advisor, CC Advisors III, LLC (“CCA III”), a wholly owned subsidiary of our sponsor, Cottonwood Communities Advisors, LLC (“CCA”). We were incorporated in Maryland in 2016. We own all of our assets through our Operating Partnership. Our Operating Partnership was Cottonwood Communities O.P., LP (“CCOP”) prior to the CRII Merger (defined below) and is Cottonwood Residential O.P., LP (“CROP”) after the CRII Merger. We are the sole member of the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and own general partner interests in the Operating Partnership alongside third party limited partners.

Cottonwood Communities, Inc. is a non-traded, perpetual-life, net asset value (“NAV”), real estate investment trust (“REIT”). We qualified as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning with the taxable year ended December 31, 2019. We generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes on our taxable income to the extent we annually distribute all of our net taxable income to stockholders and maintain our qualification as a REIT.

As December 31, 2021, we had received gross proceeds of $124.5 million from the sale of our common stock and $111.9 million from the sale of Series 2019 Preferred Stock. We have contributed our net proceeds to our Operating Partnership in exchange for a corresponding number of mirrored OP units. CROP has primarily used the net proceeds to make investments in real estate, multifamily real estate-related assets, and conduct its real estate-related operations.

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As December 31, 2021, we had a portfolio of $2.1 billion in total assets, with 83.3% of our equity value in operating properties, 10.4% in development and 6.3% in real estate-related investments. We also currently manage approximately 9,800 units in stabilized assets, including approximately 7,300 units in stabilized properties we own or have ownership interests in. The following presents our real estate portfolio by market and investment type by fair value as of December 31, 2021:

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Refer to Part II, Item 7. “Managements Discussion and Analysis - Our Investments” for further description of our portfolio.

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Investment Objectives

Our investment objectives are to:

preserve, protect and return invested capital;
pay stable cash distributions to stockholders;
realize capital appreciation in the value of our investments over the long term; and
provide a real estate investment alternative with lower expected price volatility relative to public real estate companies whose securities trade daily on a stock exchange.

We seek to invest at least 65% of our assets in stabilized multifamily apartment communities and up to 35% in mortgage loans, preferred equity investments, mezzanine loans or equity investments in a property or land which will be developed into a multifamily apartment community.

The Mergers

On January 26, 2021, we entered into separate agreements with three affiliated REITs and their respective operating partnerships to merge through the exchange of stock-for-stock and units-for-units, respectively. The merger with Cottonwood Residential II, Inc. (“CRII,” the “CRII Merger”) closed on May 7, 2021. The mergers with Cottonwood Multifamily REIT I, Inc. (“CMRI,” the “CMRI Merger”) and with Cottonwood Multifamily REIT II, Inc. (“CMRII,” the “CMRII Merger”) closed on July 15, 2021. We refer to the CRII Merger, the CMRI Merger and the CMRII Merger as the “Mergers.”

Through the Mergers we acquired interests in 22 stabilized multifamily apartment communities, four multifamily development projects, one structured investment, and land held for development. We also acquired CRII’s property management business and its employees, which currently manage approximately 9,800 units, including 7,300 units we own or have ownership interests in, an advisory contract with Cottonwood Multifamily Opportunity Fund, Inc. (“CMOF”), and personnel who performed certain administrative and other services for us, including legal, accounting, property development oversight and certain services relating to construction management, shareholder relations, human resources, renter insurance and information technology.

CCA III continues to manage our business as our external advisor pursuant to an amended and restated advisory agreement. With the exception of our Chief Legal Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Accounting Officer, and Chief Development Officer, we do not employ our executive officers.

See Note 1 of the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further description of the Mergers.

Our Offerings

From August 13, 2018 to December 22, 2020 we conducted an initial public offering of our Class A and Class TX (formerly Class T) common stock (the “Initial Offering”). The Initial Offering ended December 2020 while we pursued the Mergers. We raised $122.0 million in the Initial Offering. On November 4, 2021, after the Mergers were completed, we registered with the SEC our ongoing offering of up to $1.0 billion of shares of common stock (the “Follow-on Offering”), consisting of up to $900.0 million in shares of common stock offered in a primary offering (the “Primary Offering”) and $100.0 million in shares under our distribution reinvestment plan (the “DRP Offering”).

On November 8, 2019 we commenced a private placement offering exempt from registration under the Securities Act pursuant to which we offered a maximum of $128.0 million in shares of Series 2019 Preferred Stock to accredited investors at a purchase price of $10.00 per share (the “Private Offering”). By March 2022, the Private Offering was fully subscribed.

NAV-Based Perpetual-Life Strategy

During 2021 we implemented changes to our public offering and business in pursuit of an NAV-based, perpetual-life strategy. We believe these changes, discussed below, will enhance our equity capital raising efforts, diversify and grow our portfolio for the benefit of our stockholders, and increase liquidity to our stockholders in excess of what was previously available. We also believe becoming a perpetual-life REIT will allow us to acquire and manage our investment portfolio in a more active and flexible manner by not limiting us with a predetermined operational period or the need to provide a “liquidity” event at the end of that period.

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New Share Classes

We restructured the classes of shares we offer in our public offering. We renamed our prior Class T shares as Class TX shares and authorized and designated three new classes of shares: Class T, Class D and Class I shares for sale in our primary public offering. Class T, Class D and Class I shares have different upfront selling commissions and dealer manager fees, and different ongoing distribution fees payable to our dealer manager and reallowed to participating broker-dealers. We believe that having a number of different share classes with different distribution compensation structures will improve our ability to sell shares and raise capital in the current market. All five classes of shares of common stock are offered pursuant to our distribution reinvestment plan.

Shares in the Initial Offering had different underwriting compensation structures, which compensation was paid by our advisor on our behalf. Underwriting compensation in the Follow-on Offering is paid by investors through an adjustment to the purchase price or their distributions (depending on the class of shares purchased), or borne by us, subject to certain limitations.

Revised Advisory Fee Structure

On May 7, 2021, we entered into the Amended and Restated Advisory Agreement and, upon the closing of the CROP Merger, CROP entered into the Fifth Amended and Restated CROP Partnership Agreement. These agreements revised the compensation payable and the expenses that may be reimbursed to our advisor and its affiliates for its services to be consistent with that of a perpetual-life NAV REIT. Additional information about these fees is provided in Part III “Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence.”

Monthly NAV Determinations

On May 27, 2021, our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, adopted valuation procedures that contain a comprehensive set of methodologies to be used in connection with the calculation of a NAV of the company and performed our initial NAV calculation. Since our initial determination of an NAV, we have determined and disclosed monthly our NAV per share for each share class as of the last calendar day of the prior month. We believe more frequent NAV calculations will improve our ability to offer and repurchase our shares at the most fair prices, and also improve visibility and transparency into our performance.

Revised Share Repurchase Program.

Following the CRII Merger our board of directors adopted a revised share repurchase program (the “SRP”) and resumed repurchases under the SRP. The SRP as revised provides that we may make monthly redemptions with an aggregate value of up to 5% of our NAV each quarter. In addition, we removed the funding restrictions from the SRP. For Class T, Class D and Class I shares, the redemption price will equal the most recently disclosed monthly NAV, or 95% of the most recently disclosed NAV if the shares have been held for less than a year. For Class A and Class TX shares, the repurchase price will be at a declining discount to NAV depending on how long the stockholder has held the shares submitted for repurchase and will be repurchased at 100% of NAV after a six-year hold period.

Charter Amendment

On December 17, 2021, we filed Articles of Amendment with the State Department of Assessment and Taxation of the State of Maryland to remove Article XVIII from our charter. Article XVIII required that if we did not list our shares of common stock on a national securities exchange by August 13, 2028, we must either seek stockholder approval of the liquidation of the company; or postpone the decision of whether to liquidate the company if a majority of the board of directors determines that liquidation is not then in the best interests of our stockholders. In order to pursue a perpetual-life-strategy we sought and obtained stockholder approval to remove Article XVIII from our charter.

Economic Dependency

We are dependent on our advisor and its affiliates for certain services that are essential to us, including the identification, evaluation, negotiation, origination, acquisition and disposition of investments; and management of our business. In the event that our advisor is unable to provide these services, we will be required to obtain such services from other sources.

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Competitive Market Factors

The success of our investment portfolio depends, in part, on our ability to invest in multifamily apartment communities that provide attractive and stable returns. We face competition from various entities for investment opportunities in multifamily apartment community properties, including other REITs, pension funds, insurance companies, investment funds and companies, partnerships, and developers. Many of these entities have substantially greater financial resources than we do and may be able to accept more risk than we can prudently manage. Our competitors may also be willing to accept lower returns on their investments and may succeed in buying the assets that we have targeted for acquisition. Competition from these entities may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities offered to us or increase the bargaining power of property owners seeking to sell. Although we believe that we are well-positioned to compete effectively in each facet of our business, there is competition in our market sector and there can be no assurance that we will compete effectively or that we will not encounter increased competition in the future that could limit our ability to conduct our business effectively.

Furthermore, we face competition from other multifamily apartment communities for tenants. This competition could reduce occupancy levels and revenues at our multifamily apartment communities, which would adversely affect our operations. We expect to face competition from many sources. We will face competition from other multifamily apartment communities both in the immediate vicinity and in the larger geographic market where our apartment communities will be located. Overbuilding of multifamily apartment communities may occur. If so, this will increase the number of apartment units available and may decrease occupancy and apartment rental rates.

Compliance with Federal, State and Local Environmental Law

Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations, a current or previous real property owner or operator may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on, under or in such property. These costs could be substantial. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures or prevent us from entering into leases with prospective tenants that may be impacted by such laws. Environmental laws provide for sanctions for noncompliance and may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, by private parties. Certain environmental laws and common law principles could be used to impose liability for the release of and exposure to hazardous substances, including asbestos-containing materials. Third parties may seek recovery from real property owners or operators for personal injury or property damage associated with exposure to released hazardous substances. The cost of defending against claims of liability, of complying with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property, or of paying personal injury claims could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.

We intend to subject our multifamily apartment communities to an environmental assessment prior to acquisition; however, we may not be made aware of all the environmental liabilities associated with a property prior to its purchase. There may be hidden environmental hazards that may not be discovered prior to acquisition. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of hazardous substances may be substantial. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances on one of our properties, or the failure to properly remediate a contaminated property, could adversely affect our ability to sell or rent the property or to borrow using the property as collateral.

Human Capital Resources

Our external advisor, CC Advisors III, through its team of real estate professionals, selects our investments and manages our business, subject to the direction and oversight of our board of directors. Until the effective time of the CRII Merger on May 7, 2021, we had no employees and relied entirely on the employees of our advisor and affiliated property manager to provide services related to our business and operations.
In connection with the CRII Merger, we acquired our affiliated property manager as well as the entity that employs certain individuals who provide services in connection with our operations. As of February 25, 2022, we employ 280 individuals, including our Chief Legal Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Accounting Officer, and Chief Development Officer with 208 employees serving as “site” employees at our properties responsible for maintenance and leasing and the remainder considered corporate-level employees supporting our operations. We continue to rely on employees of our advisor for the management of our business and the employment of certain of our executive officers.

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Our employees are responsible for performing various operational services for us, including property management, legal, accounting, property development oversight and certain services relating to construction management, stockholders, human resources, and information technology. Although we did not have employees until May 7, 2021, many of the same individuals who are now our employees have been involved in our operations through their employment with our advisor, affiliated property manager and their affiliates for an average of over four years. Approximately 49% of our employees are women and approximately 43% are members of racial or ethnic minority groups. We consider our relations with our employees to be good; none of our employees are represented by a labor union.
We believe the caliber and well-being of our people to be critical to our ability to attract talent and sustain an appealing company culture that promotes diversity, inclusion, transparency, innovation, teamwork, and excellence. To support these goals and objectives we provide best-in-class training resources, both in person and virtually, to develop the skills and talents of our people and to prevent discrimination and harassment. We dedicate significant time and attention to building a bench of talent that has a wide array of abilities and interests, and that is capable of promoting continuity and succession, when necessary.
We offer competitive and equitable compensation and benefits packages that include medical, dental, vision, disability and life insurance, 401k and HSA plans with Company matching contributions, equity grants, paid time off, as well as other resources and programs that support the health and well-being of our associates and their families. We frequently benchmark these compensation and benefits packages against industry peers and those of similar disciplines.
Principal Executive Office
Our principal executive offices are located at 1245 Brickyard Road, Suite 250, Salt Lake City, Utah 84106. Our website address is www.cottonwoodcommunities.com.
Available Information
Access to copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, including exhibits to these reports, proxy statements and other filings with the SEC, including amendments to such filings, may be obtained free of charge at our website, www.cottonwoodcommunities.com, or through the SEC’s website, http://www.sec.gov. These filings are available promptly after we file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

The following are some of the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those presented in our forward-looking statements. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face but do represent those risks and uncertainties that we believe are material to us. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also harm our business. Our shareholders may be referred to as “you” or “your” and Cottonwood Communities is referred to as CCI in this Item 1A. “Risk Factors” section.

Risks Related to an Investment in our Common Stock

We have held most of our current investments for only a limited period of time and you will not have the opportunity to evaluate our future investments before we make them, which makes your investment more speculative.

We have held most of our current investments for a limited period of time. Further, we are considered to be a “blind pool,” and are not able to provide you with information to assist you in evaluating the merits of any specific properties or structured investments that we may acquire. Because we have not held our current investments for a long period of time, it may be difficult for you to evaluate our success in achieving our investment objectives. We will continue to seek to invest substantially all of our future net offering proceeds, after the payment of fees and expenses, in the acquisition of or investment in interests in properties and structured investments. However, because you will be unable to evaluate the economic merit of our future investments before we make them, you will have to rely entirely on the ability of our advisor to select suitable and successful investment opportunities. These factors increase the risk that your investment may not generate returns comparable to other real estate investment alternatives.


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There is no public trading market for the shares of our common stock and we do not anticipate that there will be a public trading market for our shares; therefore, your ability to dispose of your shares will likely be limited to repurchase by us. If you do sell your shares to us, you may receive less than the price you paid.

There is no current public trading market for shares of our common stock, and we do not expect that such a market will ever develop. Therefore, the repurchase of your shares by us will likely be the only way for you to dispose of your shares. We will repurchase shares at a price equal to the transaction price of the class of shares being repurchased on the date of repurchase (which will generally be equal to our prior month’s NAV per share, which will be our most recently disclosed NAV at such time) and not based on the price at which you initially purchased your shares. We may repurchase your shares if you fail to maintain a minimum account balance of $500 of shares, even if your failure to meet the minimum account balance is caused solely by a decline in our NAV. Repurchases will be made at the transaction price in effect on the repurchase date, with the following exceptions (collectively, the “Early Repurchase Deduction”): (i) Class T, Class D and Class I shares that have not been outstanding for at least one year will be repurchased at 95.0% of the transaction price, (ii) Class A and Class TX shares that have been outstanding for at least five years and less than six years will be repurchased at 95.0% of the transaction price, (iii) Class A and Class TX shares that have been outstanding for at least three years and less than five years will be repurchased at 90.0% of the transaction price and (iv) Class A and Class TX shares that have been outstanding for at least one year and less than three years will be repurchased at 85.0% of the transaction price.

For purposes of the Early Repurchase Deduction, the holding period is measured from the date the stockholder acquired the share (the “Acquisition Date”) through the first calendar day immediately following the prospective repurchase date. With respect to holders of Class A shares who acquired their shares pursuant to a merger transaction the Acquisition Date is the date the holder acquired the corresponding share that was exchanged in the merger transaction. In addition, with respect to Class A and Class TX shares acquired through our distribution reinvestment plan or issued pursuant to a stock dividend, the shares will be deemed to have been acquired on the same date as the initial share to which the distribution reinvestment plan share or stock dividend relate. The Acquisition Date for stockholders who received shares of our common stock in exchange for their Operating Partnership units is measured as of the date the exchange occurred and they received shares of our common stock. The Early Repurchase Deduction will also generally apply to minimum account repurchases. With respect to Class T, Class D and Class I shares, the Early Repurchase Deduction will not apply to shares acquired through the Company’s distribution reinvestment plan or issued pursuant to a stock dividend. Such Early Repurchase Deductions will inure indirectly to the benefit of our remaining stockholders. As a result of this and the fact that our NAV will fluctuate, you may receive less than the price you paid for your shares upon repurchase by us pursuant to our share repurchase program.

Your ability to have your shares repurchased through our share repurchase program is limited. We may choose to repurchase fewer shares than have been requested to be repurchased, in our discretion at any time, and the amount of shares we may repurchase is subject to caps. Further, our board of directors may modify or suspend our share repurchase program if it deems such action to be in our best interest and the best interest of our stockholders.

We may choose to repurchase fewer shares than have been requested in any particular month to be repurchased under our share repurchase program, or none at all, in our discretion at any time. We may repurchase fewer shares than have been requested to be repurchased due to lack of readily available funds because of adverse market conditions beyond our control, the need to maintain liquidity for our operations or because we have determined that investing in real property or other illiquid investments is a better use of our capital than repurchasing our shares. In addition, the total amount of shares that we will repurchase is limited, in any calendar month, to shares whose aggregate value (based on the repurchase price per share on the date of the repurchase) is no more than 2% of our aggregate NAV as of the last day of the previous calendar month and, in any calendar quarter, to shares whose aggregate value is no more than 5% of our aggregate NAV as of the last day of the previous calendar quarter. Further, our board of directors may modify or suspend our share repurchase program if in its reasonable judgment it deems a suspension to be in our best interest and the best interest of our stockholders, such as when a repurchase request would place an undue burden on our liquidity, adversely affect our operations or risk having an adverse impact on the company that would outweigh the benefit of the repurchase offer. Once the share repurchase program is suspended, our board of directors must consider at least quarterly whether the continued suspension of the share repurchase program is in our best interest and the best interest of our stockholders. Our board of directors cannot terminate our share repurchase program absent a liquidity event which results in stockholders receiving cash or securities listed on a national securities exchange or where otherwise required by law. If the full amount of all shares of our common stock requested to be repurchased in any given month are not repurchased, funds will be allocated pro rata based on the total number of shares of common stock being repurchased without regard to class and subject to the volume limitation. All unsatisfied repurchase requests must be resubmitted after the start of the next month or quarter, or upon the recommencement of the share repurchase program, as applicable.
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The vast majority of our assets consist of properties that cannot generally be readily liquidated without impacting our ability to realize full value upon their disposition. Therefore, we may not always have a sufficient amount of cash to immediately satisfy repurchase requests. Should repurchase requests, in our judgment, place an undue burden on our liquidity, adversely affect our operations or risk having an adverse impact on the company as a whole, or should we otherwise determine that investing our liquid assets in real properties or other illiquid investments rather than repurchasing our shares is in the best interests of the Company as a whole, then we may choose to repurchase fewer shares than have been requested to be repurchased, or none at all. Because we are not required to authorize the recommencement of the share repurchase program within any specified period of time, we may effectively terminate the plan by suspending it indefinitely. As a result, your ability to have your shares repurchased by us may be limited and at times you may not be able to liquidate your investment.

We have incurred net losses under GAAP in the past and may incur net losses in the future, and we have an accumulated deficit and may continue to have an accumulated deficit in the future.

For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had consolidated net losses of $106.9 million and $8.6 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had accumulated deficit of $55.9 million and $11.9 million, respectively. These amounts largely reflect the expense of real estate depreciation and amortization in accordance with GAAP, which was $63.4 million and $7.0 million during these periods. In addition, the year ended December 31, 2021, also included $51.8 million of charges related to the performance participation allocation.

Net loss and accumulated deficit are calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, which, among other things, requires depreciation of real estate investments to be calculated on a straight-line basis. As a result, our operating results imply that the value of our real estate investments will decrease evenly over a set time period. However, we believe that the value of real estate investments will fluctuate over time based on market conditions. Thus, in addition to GAAP financial metrics, management reviews certain non-GAAP financial metrics, funds from operations, or FFO and Core FFO. FFO measures operating performance that excludes gains or losses from sales of depreciable properties, real estate-related depreciation and amortization and after adjustments for our share of consolidated and unconsolidated entities. See Part II, Item 5. “Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities - Funds from Operations for considerations on how to review this metric.

Economic events that may cause our stockholders to request that we repurchase their shares may materially adversely affect our cash flow and our results of operations and financial condition.

Economic events affecting the U.S. economy, such as the general negative performance of the real estate sector, could cause our stockholders to seek to sell their shares to us pursuant to our share repurchase program at a time when such events are adversely affecting the performance of our assets. Even if we decide to satisfy all resulting repurchase requests, our cash flow could be materially adversely affected. In addition, if we determine to sell assets to satisfy repurchase requests, we may not be able to realize the return on such assets that we may have been able to achieve had we sold at a more favorable time, and our results of operations and financial condition, including, without limitation, breadth of our portfolio by property type and location, could be materially adversely affected.

Repurchases of common stock or Operating Partnership units our advisor or the Special Limited Partner elects to receive in lieu of fees or distributions will reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

Our advisor or the Special Limited Partner may choose to receive our common stock or Operating Partnership units in lieu of certain fees or distributions. Under certain circumstances Operating Partnership units held by our advisor or the Special Limited Partner are required to be repurchased, in cash at the holder’s election, and there may not be sufficient cash to make such a repurchase payment; therefore, we may need to use cash from operations, borrowings, offering proceeds or other sources to make the payment, which will reduce cash available for distribution to you or for investment in our operations. Repurchases of our shares or Operating Partnership units from our advisor paid to our advisor as a management fee are not subject to the monthly and quarterly volume limitations or the Early Repurchase Deduction, and such repurchases may receive priority over other shares submitted for repurchase during such period. Repurchases of our shares or Operating Partnership units from the Special Limited Partner distributed to the Special Limited Partner with respect to its performance participation interest are not subject to the Early Repurchase Deduction, but, in the case of shares, such repurchases are subject to the monthly and quarterly volume limitations and do not receive priority over other shares being put for repurchase during such period.


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We are required to pay substantial compensation to our advisor and its affiliates, which may be increased or decreased by a majority of our board of directors, including a majority of the independent directors. Payment of fees and expenses to our advisor and its affiliates reduces the cash available for distribution and increases the risk that you will not be able to recover the amount of your investment in our shares.

Pursuant to our agreements with our advisor and its affiliates, we are obligated to pay substantial compensation to the advisor and its affiliates. Subject to limitations in our charter, the fees, compensation, income, expense reimbursements, interests and other payments that we are required to pay to the advisor and its affiliates may increase or decrease if such change is approved by a majority of our board of directors, including a majority of the independent directors. The compensation payable by us to our advisor and its affiliates may not be on terms that would result from arm’s-length negotiations, is payable whether or not our stockholders receive distributions, and is based on our NAV, which our advisor is responsible for determining. These payments to the advisor and its affiliates will decrease the amount of cash we have available for operations and new investments and could negatively impact our NAV, our ability to pay distributions and your overall return.

Purchases and repurchases or repurchases of shares of our common stock are made based on the most recently disclosed NAV per share at such time, which is generally the prior month’s NAV per share of our common stock.

Generally, our offering price per share and the price at which we make repurchases or repurchases of our shares will equal the prior month’s NAV per share plus, in the case of our offering price, applicable upfront selling commissions and dealer manager fees. The NAV per share as of the date on which you make your subscription request or repurchase request may be significantly different than the offering price you pay or the repurchase price you receive. In addition, in cases where we believe there has been a material change (positive or negative) to our NAV per share since the end of the prior month, we may offer shares at a price that we believe reflects the NAV per share of such stock more appropriately than the prior month’s NAV per share (including by updating a previously disclosed offering price) or suspend our offering and/or our share repurchase program. In such cases, the offering price and repurchase price will be our most recently disclosed NAV per share at such time.

Valuations and appraisals of our properties, real estate-related assets and real estate-related liabilities are estimates of value and may not necessarily correspond to realizable value.

The valuation methodologies used to value our properties and certain real estate-related assets involve subjective judgments regarding such factors as comparable sales, rental revenue and operating expense data, known contingencies, the capitalization or discount rate, and projections of future rent and expenses based on appropriate analysis. As a result, valuations and appraisals of our properties, real estate-related assets and real estate-related liabilities are only estimates of current market value. Ultimate realization of the value of an asset or liability depends to a great extent on economic and other conditions beyond our control and the control of Altus Group U.S. Inc. (the “Independent Valuation Advisor”) and other parties involved in the valuation of our assets and liabilities. Further, these valuations may not necessarily represent the price at which an asset or liability would sell, because market prices of assets and liabilities can only be determined by negotiation between a willing buyer and seller. Valuations used for determining our NAV also are generally made without consideration of the expenses that would be incurred by us in connection with disposing of assets and liabilities. Therefore, the valuations of our properties, our investments in real estate-related assets and our liabilities may not correspond to the timely realizable value upon a sale of those assets and liabilities. In addition to being a month old when share purchases and repurchases take place, our NAV does not currently represent enterprise value and may not accurately reflect the actual prices at which our assets could be liquidated on any given day, the value a third party would pay for all or substantially all of our shares, or the price that our shares would trade at on a national stock exchange. There will be no retroactive adjustment in the valuation of such assets or liabilities, the price of our shares of common stock, the price we paid to repurchase shares of our common stock or NAV-based fees we paid to our advisor and the dealer manager to the extent such valuations prove to not accurately reflect the true estimate of value and are not a precise measure of realizable value. Because the price you will pay for shares of our common stock in our offering, and the price at which your shares may be repurchased by us pursuant to our share repurchase program, are generally based on our estimated NAV per share, you may pay more than realizable value or receive less than realizable value for your investment.


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Our NAV per share amounts may change materially if the appraised values of our properties materially change from prior appraisals or the actual operating results for a particular month differ from what we originally budgeted for that month.

Our properties are appraised monthly by either the Independent Valuation Advisor or a third-party appraiser (the “Third-Party Appraisal Firm”). When these appraisals are considered by our advisor for purposes of determining our NAV, there may be a material change in our NAV per share amounts for each class of our common stock from those previously reported. In addition, actual operating results for a given month may differ from what we originally budgeted for that month, which may cause a material increase or decrease in the NAV per share amounts. We will not retroactively adjust the NAV per share of each class reported for the previous month. Therefore, because a new annual appraisal may differ materially from the prior appraisal or the actual results from operations may be better or worse than what we previously budgeted for a particular month, the adjustment to take into consideration the new appraisal or actual operating results may cause the NAV per share for each class of our common stock to increase or decrease, and such increase or decrease will occur in the month the adjustment is made.

New acquisitions may be valued for purposes of our NAV at less than what we pay for them, which would dilute our NAV, or at more than what we pay for them, which would be accretive to our NAV.

Pursuant to our valuation guidelines, the acquisition price of a newly acquired property will serve as the basis for the initial monthly appraisal performed by the Independent Valuation Advisor. The price we pay to acquire a property will provide a meaningful data point to the Independent Valuation Advisor in its determination of the initial fair market value of the property; however, the Independent Valuation Advisor may conclude that the price we paid to acquire a property is higher or lower than the current fair market value of the property, which shall be used for purposes of determining our NAV. This is true whether the acquisition is funded with cash, equity or a combination thereof. When we obtain the first appraisal performed by the Independent Valuation Advisor on a property, it may not appraise at a value equal to the purchase price, which could negatively affect our NAV. Large portfolio acquisitions, in particular, may require a “portfolio premium” to be paid by us in order to be a competitive bidder, and this “portfolio premium” may not be taken into consideration in calculating our NAV. We may make acquisitions (with cash or equity) of any size without stockholder approval, and such acquisitions may be dilutive or accretive to our NAV. In addition, acquisition expenses we incur in connection with new acquisitions will negatively impact our NAV.

The NAV per share that we publish may not necessarily reflect changes in our NAV that are not immediately quantifiable.

From time to time, we may experience events with respect to our investments that may have a material impact on our NAV. For example, and not by way of limitation, changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies, environmental legislation, acts of God, terrorism, social unrest, civil disturbances and major disturbances in financial markets may cause the value of a property to change materially. Similarly, negotiations, disputes and litigation that involve us and other parties may ultimately have a positive or negative impact on our NAV. The NAV per share of each class of our common stock as published for any given month may not reflect such extraordinary events to the extent that their financial impact is not immediately quantifiable. As a result, the NAV per share that we publish may not necessarily reflect changes in our NAV that are not immediately quantifiable, and the NAV per share of each class published after the announcement of a material event may differ significantly from our actual NAV per share for such class until such time as the financial impact is quantified and our NAV is appropriately adjusted in accordance with our valuation guidelines. The resulting potential disparity in our NAV may inure to the benefit of stockholders submitting for repurchase or stockholders not submitting for repurchase and new purchasers of our common stock, depending on whether our published NAV per share for such class is overstated or understated.


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The realizable value of specific properties may change before the value is adjusted by the Independent Valuation Advisor and reflected in the calculation of our NAV.

Our valuation guidelines generally provide that the Independent Valuation Advisor will adjust a real property’s valuation, as necessary, based on known events that have a material impact on the most recent value (adjustments for non-material events may also be made). We are dependent on our advisor to be reasonably aware of material events specific to our properties (such as tenant disputes, damage, litigation and environmental issues, as well as positive events) that may cause the value of a property to change materially and to promptly notify the Independent Valuation Advisor so that the information may be reflected in our real property portfolio valuation. Events may transpire that, for a period of time, are unknown to us or the Independent Valuation Advisor that may affect the value of a property, and until such information becomes known and is processed, the value of such asset may differ from the value used to determine our NAV. In addition, although we may have information that suggests a change in value of a property may have occurred, there may be a delay in the resulting change in value being reflected in our NAV until such information is appropriately reviewed, verified and processed. For example, we may receive an unsolicited offer, from an unrelated third party, to sell one of our assets at a price that is materially different than the price included in our NAV. Or, we may be aware of a change in collection, or a potential contract for capital expenditure. Where possible, adjustments generally are made based on events evidenced by proper final documentation. It is possible that an adjustment to the valuation of a property may occur prior to final documentation if the Independent Valuation Advisor determines that events warrant adjustments to certain assumptions that materially affect value. However, to the extent that an event has not yet become final based on proper documentation, its impact on the value of the applicable property may not be reflected (or may be only partially reflected) in the calculation of our NAV.

NAV calculations are not governed by governmental or independent securities, financial or accounting rules or standards. Our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, may adopt changes to the valuation guidelines.

The methods used by our advisor to calculate our NAV, including the components used in calculating our NAV, is not prescribed by rules of the SEC or any other regulatory agency. Further, there are no accounting rules or standards that prescribe which components should be used in calculating NAV, and our NAV is not audited by our independent registered public accounting firm. We calculate and publish our NAV solely for purposes of establishing the price at which we sell and repurchase shares of our common stock, and you should not view our NAV as a measure of our historical or future financial condition or performance. The components and methodology used in calculating our NAV may differ from those used by other companies now or in the future.

In addition, calculations of our NAV, to the extent that they incorporate valuations of our assets and liabilities, are not prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. These valuations may differ from liquidation values that could be realized in the event that we were forced to sell assets.

Additionally, errors may occur in calculating our NAV, which could impact the price at which we sell and repurchase shares of our common stock and the amount of the advisor’s management fee and the Special Limited Partner’s performance participation interest. If such errors were to occur, our advisor, depending on the circumstances surrounding each error and the extent of any impact the error has on the price at which shares of our common stock were sold or repurchased or on the amount of our advisor’s management fee or the Special Limited Partner’s performance participation interest, may determine in its sole discretion to take certain corrective actions in response to such errors, including, subject to our advisor’s policies and procedures, making adjustments to prior NAV calculations.

Each year our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, will review the appropriateness of our valuation guidelines and may, at any time, adopt changes to the valuation guidelines.

You should carefully review the disclosure of our valuation policies and how our NAV is calculated under Part II, Item 5. “Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities - Net Asset Value”.

We will face significant competition for multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets, which may limit our ability to acquire suitable investments and achieve our investment objectives or make distributions.

We compete to acquire multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets with other REITs, real estate limited partnerships, pension funds and their advisors, bank and insurance company investment accounts, and other entities. Many of our competitors have greater financial resources, and a greater ability to borrow funds to acquire properties, than we do. We cannot be sure that the board of directors and our advisor will be successful in obtaining suitable investments on financially attractive terms or that, if investments are made, our objectives will be achieved.
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If we are unable to find suitable investments or if we raise substantial offering proceeds in a short period of time and are unable to invest all of the offering proceeds promptly, we may not be able to achieve our investment objectives or make distributions.

The more money we raise, the greater our challenge will be to invest all of our offering proceeds on attractive terms. If we are unable to promptly find suitable multifamily apartment communities or multifamily real estate-related assets, we will hold the proceeds from our offerings in an interest-bearing account, invest the proceeds in short-term investments, or pay down lines of credit. We could also suffer from delays in locating suitable investments. Our reliance on our advisor and sponsor and the real estate professionals that such persons retain to identify suitable investments for us at times when such persons are simultaneously seeking to identify suitable investments for other affiliated programs could also delay the investment of the proceeds of this offering. Delays we encounter in the selection and acquisition of income-producing multifamily apartment communities or the acquisition or origination of multifamily real estate-related assets would likely limit our ability to make distributions to you and reduce your overall returns.

Furthermore, where we acquire properties prior to the start of construction or during the early stages of construction, it will typically take several months to complete construction and rent available space. Therefore, you could suffer delays in the receipt of distributions attributable to those particular properties.

Our success is dependent on general market and economic conditions.

The real estate industry generally and the success of our investment activities in particular will both be affected by global and national economic and market conditions generally and by the local economic conditions where our properties are located. These factors may affect the level and volatility of real estate prices, which could impair our profitability or result in losses. In addition, general fluctuations in the market prices of securities and interest rates may affect our investment opportunities and the value of our investments. Our sponsor’s financial condition may be adversely affected by a significant economic downturn and it may be subject to legal, regulatory, reputational and other unforeseen risks that could have a material adverse effect on its businesses and operations (including our advisor).

A recession, slowdown and/or sustained downturn in the U.S. real estate market, and to a lesser extent, the global economy (or any particular segment thereof) would have a pronounced impact on us, the value of our assets and our profitability, impede the ability of our assets to perform under or refinance their existing obligations, and impair our ability to effectively deploy our capital or realize upon investments on favorable terms. We could also be affected by any overall weakening of, or disruptions in, the financial markets. Any of the foregoing events could result in substantial losses to our business, which losses will likely be exacerbated by the presence of leverage in our investments capital structures.

For example, during the financial crisis, the availability of debt financing secured by commercial real estate was significantly restricted as a result of a prolonged tightening of lending standards. Due to the uncertainties created in the credit market, real estate investors were unable to obtain debt financing on attractive terms, which adversely affected investment returns on acquisitions and their ability to even make acquisitions or tenant improvements to existing holdings. Any future financial market disruptions may force us to use a greater proportion of our offering proceeds to finance our acquisitions and fund tenant improvements, reducing the number of acquisitions we would otherwise make.

In addition, the recent invasion by the Russian Federation of the Ukraine on February 24, 2022 has caused a significant rise in geopolitical tensions and the United States, the United Kingdom and EU member states and other countries have imposed economic sanctions on the Russian Federation, parts of Ukraine, as well as various designated parties. As further military conflicts and economic sanctions continue to evolve, it has become increasingly difficult to predict the impact of these events or how long they will last. Depending on direction and timing, the Russian Federation-Ukraine conflict may significantly adversely affect economic and market conditions.

We may raise significantly less than the maximum offering amount in our public offering.

We are offering on a continuous basis up to $1.0 billion of shares of our common stock. However, we may raise significantly less than this amount. The less capital we raise, the less capital we will have available to make investments in accordance with our investment strategy and policies, to provide liquidity to our stockholders and for general corporate purposes (which may include repayment of our debt or any other corporate purposes we deem appropriate).


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If we fail to diversify our investment portfolio, downturns relating to certain geographic regions, types of assets, industries or business sectors may have a more significant adverse impact on our assets and our ability to make distributions than if we had a diversified investment portfolio.

While we intend to diversify our portfolio of investments, we are not required to observe specific diversification criteria. Therefore, our investments in multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets may be concentrated in assets that are subject to higher risk of foreclosure or concentrated in a limited number of geographic locations. To the extent that our portfolio is concentrated in limited geographic regions, downturns relating generally to such region may result in defaults on a number of our investments within a short time period, which may reduce our net income and the value of our common stock and accordingly limit our ability to make distributions to you.

We may not be able to operate our business successfully or generate sufficient revenue to make or sustain distributions to our stockholders.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to operate our business successfully or implement our operating policies and strategies. We can provide no assurance that our performance will replicate the past performance of CROP, Cottonwood Residential, CRII or any program sponsored by CROP, Cottonwood Residential, or CRII. Our investment returns could be substantially lower than the returns achieved by CROP, Cottonwood Residential, and CRII. The results of our operations depend on several factors, including the availability of opportunities for the acquisition of target assets, the level and volatility of interest rates, the availability of short and long-term financing, and conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions.
We are dependent upon our advisor and its affiliates and any adverse changes in the financial health of our advisor or its affiliates or our relationship with them could hinder our operating performance and the return on our stockholders’ investment.

We are dependent on our advisor to manage our operations and our portfolio of multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets. Any adverse change in the financial condition of our advisor or our relationship with our advisor could hinder its ability to successfully manage our operations and our portfolio of investments.

Our ability to achieve our investment objectives and to conduct our operations is dependent upon the performance of our advisor. Our advisor’s business is sensitive to trends in the general economy, as well as the commercial real estate and credit markets. To the extent any decline in our sponsor’s revenues and operating results impacts the performance of our advisor, our results of operations and financial condition could also suffer. If our relationship with our advisor, its affiliates and their real estate professionals is terminated for any reason, it will be difficult for us to implement our business strategy or manage our portfolio unless we engage another party to provide the services to be provided by our advisor, its affiliates and employees.

We have paid distributions from offering proceeds. In the future we may continue to fund distributions with offering proceeds. To the extent we fund distributions from sources other than our cash flow from operations, we will have less funds available for investment in multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets and the overall return to our stockholders may be reduced.

Our charter permits us to make distributions from any source, including offering proceeds or borrowings (which may constitute a return of capital), and our charter does not limit the amount of funds we may use from any source to pay such distributions. We intend to make distributions on our common stock on a per share basis with each share receiving the same distribution, subject to any class-specific expenses such as distribution fees on our Class T and Class D shares. If we fund distributions from financings, our offerings or other sources, we will have less funds available for investment in multifamily apartment communities and other multifamily real estate-related assets and the number of real estate properties that we invest in and the overall return to our stockholders may be reduced. If we fund distributions from borrowings, our interest expense and other financing costs, as well as the repayment of such borrowings, will reduce our earnings and cash flow from operations available for distribution in future periods. If we fund distributions from the sale of assets or the maturity, payoff or settlement of multifamily real estate-related assets, this will affect our ability to generate cash flows from operations in future periods.


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During the early stages of our operations, it is likely that we will use sources of funds, which may constitute a return of capital to fund distributions. During our offering stage, when we may raise capital more quickly than we acquire income-producing assets, and for some period after, we may not be able to make distributions solely from our cash flow from operations. Further, because we may receive income from our investments at various times during our fiscal year and because we may need cash flow from operations during a particular period to fund capital expenditures and other expenses, we expect that at least during the early stages of our existence and from time to time during our operational stage, we will declare distributions in anticipation of cash flow that we expect to receive during a later period and we will make these distributions in advance of our actual receipt of these funds. In addition, to the extent our investments are in development or redevelopment projects or in properties that have significant capital requirements, our ability to make distributions may be negatively impacted, especially during our early periods of operation. In these instances, we expect to look to third party borrowings to fund our distributions. We may also fund such distributions from the sale of assets. To the extent distributions exceed cash flow from operations, a stockholder’s basis in our stock will be reduced and, to the extent distributions exceed a stockholder’s basis, the stockholder may recognize capital gain.

For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we paid aggregate distributions to common stockholders and limited partnership unitholders of $20.2 million and $5.2 million, including $20.1 million and $4.1 million of distributions paid in cash and $0.1 million and $1.1 million of distributions reinvested through our distribution reinvestment plan, respectively. Our net loss for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was $106.9 million and $8.6 million. Cash flows provided by operating activities were $5.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and cash flows used in operating activities was $2.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2020. We funded our total distributions paid during 2021, which includes net cash distributions and distributions reinvested by stockholders, with $11.0 million prior period cash provided by operating activities, $5.0 million from our revolving credit facility, and $4.0 million of offering proceeds. We funded our total distributions paid during 2020, which includes net cash distributions and distributions reinvested by stockholders, with $0.6 million prior period cash provided by operating activities and $3.6 million of offering proceeds.

Generally, for purposes of determining the source of our distributions paid, we assume first that we use cash flow from operating activities from the relevant or prior periods to fund distribution payments. To the extent that we pay distributions from sources other than our cash flow from operating activities, we will have less funds available for the acquisition of real estate investments, the overall return to our stockholders may be reduced and subsequent investors will experience dilution. In addition, to the extent distributions exceed cash flow from operating activities, a stockholder’s basis in our stock will be reduced and, to the extent distributions exceed a stockholder’s basis, the stockholder may recognize capital gain.

Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to recover claims against our officers and directors are limited, which could reduce your and our recovery against them if they negligently cause us to incur losses.

Maryland law provides that an officer or director has no liability in that capacity if he or she performs his or her duties in good faith, in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in our best interests and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances. Our charter provides that our officers and directors will not be liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages and that we will generally indemnify them for losses unless our directors are negligent or engage in misconduct or our independent directors are grossly negligent or engage in willful misconduct. As a result, you and we may have more limited rights against our officers and directors than might otherwise exist under common law, which could reduce our and your recovery from these persons if they act in a negligent manner. Our charter also requires us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of the final disposition of a proceeding to any individual who is a present or former director or officer and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity or any individual who, while a director or officer and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of another corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employment benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.


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CROP may be subject to tax indemnification obligations upon the taxable sale of certain of its properties. CROP will not have control of the assets that will be subject to an in-kind redemption transaction under the CROP Tax Protection Agreement.

Pursuant to the tax protection agreement between CROP and High Traverse Holdings, LLC (“HT Holdings”), a Delaware limited liability company, which is beneficially owned by Daniel Shaeffer, Chad Christensen, Gregg Christensen and Eric Marlin, each of who are our executive officers and some of whom are our directors, (the “CROP Tax Protection Agreement”), CROP has agreed, for a period of 10 years following the effective time of the CROP Merger, to indemnify HT Holdings (including Daniel Shaeffer, Chad Christensen, Gregg Christensen and Eric Marlin, as beneficial owners of HT Holdings, and their affiliated trusts and certain other entities) (collectively, the “protected partners”) against certain tax consequences of a taxable transfer of all or any portion of the properties that are owned by CROP or any of its subsidiaries as of the closing date of the CROP Merger, subject to certain conditions and limitations. These indemnification obligations could prevent CROP from selling its properties at times and on terms that are in the best interest of CROP, us and the respective equity owners of CROP and us and any indemnification payments that may become payable could be a significant expense for CROP and us. In addition, at any time after the closing (including after expiration of the tax protection term), each protected partner and CROP will have the right to exercise an in-kind redemption transaction (i.e., a redemption of all of the protected partner’s interest in CROP in exchange for one or more assets of CROP at the then-current market price). This would eliminate CROP’s indemnification obligations to the protected partner(s). The protected partners will have the right to select the assets of CROP necessary to effectuate the in-kind redemption transaction, subject to certain limitations. If an in-kind redemption transaction is effectuated, CROP’s portfolio may become less geographically diverse and thus subject to greater market risk, and CROP may be required to transfer some of its prime assets to the protected partner(s).

In addition, CROP has entered and may in the future into tax indemnification agreements with certain persons who contributed their interests in properties to CROP in exchange for CROP Common Units. These current agreements provide that CROP will indemnify such contributors against certain tax consequences of a taxable sale of the property contributed by such contributors through 2025, subject to certain conditions and limitations. Future tax indemnification agreements entered by CROP may extend such obligations beyond 2025. The obligations of CROP under these and future indemnification agreements may constrain CROP with respect to deciding to dispose of a particular property and may also result in financial obligations for us.

We may change our targeted investments and our policies without stockholder consent.

We invest in multifamily apartment communities (including certain multifamily apartment communities that include certain retail or other commercial uses) and multifamily real estate-related assets. Except under certain circumstances, we are not restricted as to the following:

where we may acquire multifamily apartment communities in the United States;
the percentage of our proceeds that may be invested in properties as compared with the percentage of our proceeds that we may invest in multifamily real estate-related assets; investment in direct interests in real estate and multifamily real estate-related assets will have differing risks and profit potential; or
the percentage of our proceeds that we may invest in any one real estate investment (the greater the percentage of our offering proceeds invested in one asset, the greater the potential adverse effect on us if that asset is unprofitable).

We may make adjustments to our target portfolio based on real estate market conditions and investment opportunities and we may change our targeted investments and investment guidelines at any time without the consent of our stockholders, which could result in our making investments that are different from, and possibly riskier than, the investments described in Part II, Item 7. “Managements Discussion and Analysis”. A change in our targeted investments or investment guidelines could adversely affect the value of our common stock and our ability to make distributions to you.

Our board of directors determines our major policies, including our policies regarding financing, growth, REIT qualification, NAV methodologies and distributions. Our board of directors may amend or revise these and other policies without a vote of the stockholders. Under Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter, our stockholders have a right to vote only on limited matters. Our board of director’s broad discretion in setting policies and our stockholders’ inability to exert control over those policies increases the uncertainty and risks you face as a stockholder.

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Our board of directors may change our investment objectives, targeted investments, borrowing policies or other corporate policies without stockholder approval. In addition, we may change the way our fees and expenses are incurred and allocated to different classes of stockholders. Our board of directors may decide that certain significant transactions that require stockholder approval such as dissolution, merger into another entity, consolidation or the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of our assets, are in the best interests of our stockholders. Holders of all classes of our common stock have equal voting rights with respect to such matters and will vote as a single group rather than on a class-by-class basis. Accordingly, investors in our common stock are subject to the risk that our offering, business and operating plans may change.

If our investments and future investments fail to perform as expected, cash distributions to our shareholders may decline.

As December 31, 2021, we had a portfolio of $2.1 billion in total assets, with 83.3% of our equity value in operating properties, 10.4% in development and 6.3% in real estate-related investments. Each of our investments was based on an underwriting analysis with respect to each investment. If our investments do not perform as expected, whether as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 virus on the U.S. and world economies, or otherwise, or future acquisitions do not perform as expected, we may have less cash flow from operations available to fund distributions and investor returns may be reduced.

Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest

Our advisor faces a conflict of interest because the fees it receives and the distributions to be received by the Special Limited Partner, an affiliate of our advisor, with respect to the Special Limited Partner’s performance participation interest in the Operating Partnership are based in part on our NAV, which our advisor is responsible for determining.

Our advisor is paid a management fee for its services based on our NAV, which is calculated by our advisor, based on valuations provided by independent appraisal firms. In addition, the distributions to be received by the Special Limited Partner with respect to its performance participation interest in the Operating Partnership will be based in part upon the Operating Partnership’s net assets. The calculation of our NAV includes certain subjective judgments with respect to estimating, for example, the value of our portfolio and our accrued expenses, net portfolio income and liabilities, and therefore, our NAV may not correspond to realizable value upon a sale of those assets. In order to avoid a reduction in our NAV, the advisor may benefit by us retaining ownership of our assets at times when our stockholders may be better served by the sale or disposition of our assets. If our NAV is calculated in a way that is not reflective of our actual NAV, then the transaction price of shares of our common stock or the price paid for the repurchase of your shares of common stock on a given date may not accurately reflect the value of our portfolio, and your shares may be worth less than the transaction price or more than the repurchase price.

Our advisor’s management fee and the Special Limited Partner’s performance participation interest may not create proper incentives or may induce our advisor and its affiliates to make certain investments or retain certain investments, including speculative investments, that increase the risk of our real estate portfolio.

We pay our advisor a management fee regardless of the performance of our portfolio. Our advisor’s entitlement to a management fee, which is not based upon performance metrics or goals, might reduce its incentive to devote its time and effort to seeking investments that provide attractive risk-adjusted returns for our portfolio. We may be required to pay our advisor a management fee in a particular period despite experiencing a net loss or a decline in the value of our portfolio during that period.

The existence of the Special Limited Partner’s performance participation interest in our Operating Partnership, which is based on our total distributions plus the change in NAV per share, may create an incentive for our advisor to make riskier or more speculative investments on our behalf than it would otherwise make in the absence of such performance-based compensation. In addition, the change in NAV per share will be based on the value of our investments on the applicable measurement dates and not on realized gains or losses. As a result, the performance participation interest may receive distributions based on unrealized gains in certain assets at the time of such distributions and such gains may not be realized when those assets are eventually disposed of.

Because the management fee and performance participation are based on our NAV, our advisor may also be motivated to delay or curtail repurchases to maintain a higher NAV, which could increase amounts payable to our advisor and the Special Limited Partner. In order to avoid a reduction in our NAV, the advisor may also benefit by us retaining ownership of our assets at times when our stockholders may be better served by the sale or disposition of our assets.


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Our advisor, our officers and the real estate, debt finance, legal, management and accounting professionals we retain will face competing demands on their time and this may cause our operations and our stockholders’ investment to suffer.

Subject to the supervision of our board of directors, we rely on our advisor, our officers, and the real estate, debt finance, and management professionals that we retain to provide services to us for the management of our business. Our advisor and its affiliates may advise other real estate programs and rely on many of the same real estate, debt finance, and management professionals. As a result of their interests in other programs sponsored by our sponsor and their obligations to other investors, these professionals will likely face conflicts of interest in allocating their time among us and other programs sponsored by our advisor and its affiliates, as well as other business activities in which they are involved. During times of intense activity in other programs and ventures, these individuals may devote less time and fewer resources to our business than are necessary or appropriate to manage our business. If these events occur, the returns on our investments, and the value of your investment, may decline.

All of our executive officers, some of our directors and the key real estate and debt finance professionals we retain face conflicts of interest related to their positions and/or significant ownership interests in our sponsor and advisor, which could hinder our ability to implement our business strategy and to generate returns to our stockholders.

All of our executive officers, some of our directors, and the key real estate and debt finance professionals we retain are also executive officers, directors and/or key professionals of our advisor and sponsor. As a result, they owe fiduciary or other duties to each of these entities, their members and limited partners, which fiduciary or other duties may from time to time conflict with the fiduciary or other duties that they owe to us and our stockholders. Their loyalties to these other entities and investors could result in action or inaction that is detrimental to our business, which could harm the implementation of our business strategy and our investment and leasing opportunities. If we do not successfully implement our business strategy, we may be unable to generate the cash needed to make distributions to our stockholders and to maintain or increase the value of our assets. Because some of our officers and directors have a significant ownership interest in our sponsor and advisor, they may make decisions regarding the management of the properties which are not in the best interests of our stockholders.

Conflicts of interest could result in our management acting other than in our stockholders’ best interest.

We are party to an advisory agreement with CC Advisors III. CC Advisors III is owned by CCA which is currently beneficially owned and controlled by Daniel Shaeffer, Chad Christensen and Gregg Christensen who currently own 73.5% of CCA. Because our affiliated directors and certain of our officers have a significant ownership interest in and control our sponsor and advisor and have an indirect interest in the performance participation interest in the Operating Partnership they may make decisions regarding the advisory agreement or the Operating Partnership agreement which are not in the best interests of our stockholders.

CCA may sponsor or advise future real estate programs. We may compete with future programs and other affiliates of our advisor for opportunities to acquire or sell multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets, which may have an adverse impact on our operations. We may also buy or sell multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets at the same time as affiliates of our advisor. There may be a conflict of interest with respect to the selection of multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets to be purchased by us and/or our advisor and its affiliates. Affiliates of our advisor may own competing properties in the markets in which our multifamily apartment communities are located which may lead to conflicts of interests with respect to the operations and management of our multifamily apartment communities.

The fees we pay to affiliates in connection with the management of our business were determined without the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

The fees paid to our advisor for services it provides for us were determined without the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties, may be in excess of amounts that we would otherwise pay to third parties for such services and may reduce the amount of cash that would otherwise be available for investments in multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets and distributions to our stockholders.


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Our advisor faces conflicts of interest relating to the fees that we may pay to it and its affiliates, which could result in actions that are not necessarily in the long-term best interests of our stockholders.

Pursuant to our operating partnership agreement, the Special Limited Partner is entitled to receive distributions from the Operating Partnership with respect to its performance participation interest in the Operating Partnership. This participation interest is structured to provide incentive to our advisor to perform in our best interests and in the best interests of our stockholders. The amount of such compensation has not been determined as a result of arm’s-length negotiations, and such amounts may be greater than otherwise would be payable to independent third parties. Because, however, our advisor is entitled to receive substantial minimum compensation regardless of performance, the interests of our advisor and its affiliates is not wholly aligned with those of our stockholders. In that regard, our advisor could be motivated to recommend riskier or more speculative investments in order for us to generate the specified levels of performance or sales proceeds that would entitle our advisor and its affiliates to additional compensation.

Affiliates of our advisor have sponsored other entities and offerings and may sponsor additional entities and offerings in the future.

Affiliates of our advisor acted as the advisor to CMR I and CMR II, which we acquired on July 15, 2021. It is possible that our advisor or its affiliates may form future REITs and sponsor other entities and offerings that may invest in assets that are similar to the multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets we intend to acquire. As a result, conflicts of interest with respect to time, selection of investments and management of our investments may occur if our advisor or its affiliates sponsor additional programs.

If the advisory agreement with our advisor is terminated other than for cause (or non-renewal or termination by our advisor) on or before May 7, 2031, we will be required to pay a certain portion of the contingent acquisition fees and contingent financing fees provided for in our advisory agreement previously in effect.

Our advisor was entitled to receive contingent acquisition fees related to our purchase of multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets and contingent financing fees related to our financing of multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets. Our advisor agreed to defer the payment of any acquisition fee or financing fee until our common stockholders’ receipt of certain specified returns. In connection with the entry into the amended and restated advisory agreement on May 7, 2021, we eliminated our obligation to pay our advisor contingent acquisition fees and contingent financing fees except in the circumstance in which our advisory agreement is terminated other than for cause (or non-renewal or termination by our advisor) before May 7, 2031. If the advisory agreement is terminated other than for cause (or non-renewal or termination by our advisor) the contingent acquisition fees and contingent financing fees provided for in the previous advisory agreement will be due and payable in an amount equal to approximately $22 million (if the termination occurs in year one) reduced by 10% each year thereafter. Thus, there may be conflicts of interest with respect to the termination of the advisory agreement and the payment of the contingent acquisition fees and contingent financing fees.

Our advisor may assign its obligations under the advisory agreement to its affiliates, who may not have the same expertise or provide the same level of service as our advisor.

Under the advisory agreement, our advisor may assign its responsibilities under the agreement to any of its affiliates with the approval of the conflicts committee. If there is such an assignment or transfer, the assignee may not have comparable operational expertise, have sufficient personnel or manage our company as well as our advisor.

Risks Related to Our Offering and Our Corporate Structure

Our charter limits the number of shares a person may own, which may discourage a takeover that could otherwise result in a premium price to our stockholders.

Our charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes our directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. To help us comply with the REIT ownership requirements of the Internal Revenue Code, our charter prohibits a person from directly or constructively owning more than 9.8% of our outstanding shares, unless exempted by our board of directors. This restriction may have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for holders of our common stock.

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Our charter permits our board of directors to issue stock with terms that may subordinate the rights of our common stockholders or discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that could result in a premium price to our stockholders.

Our board of directors may classify or reclassify any unissued common stock or preferred stock and establish the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption of any such stock. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of preferred stock with priority as to distributions and amounts payable upon liquidation over the rights of the holders of our common stock. Such preferred stock could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price to holders of our common stock.

Holders of our preferred stock will have dividend, liquidation and other rights that are senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock.

We have classified and designated 12,800,000 shares of our authorized but unissued preferred stock as shares of non-voting Series 2019 preferred stock. In connection with the CRII Merger, we classified and designated 14,500,000 shares of our authorized but unissued preferred stock as shares of non-voting Series 2016 preferred stock, and designated 5,000,000 shares of our authorized but unissued preferred stock as shares of non-voting Series 2017 preferred stock. We issued one share of our Series 2016 preferred stock for each share of CRII Series 2016 preferred stock outstanding prior to the effective time of the CRII Merger and one share of Series 2017 preferred stock for each share of CRII Series 2017 preferred stock outstanding prior to the effective time of the CRII Merger.

The outstanding shares of our Series 2019 preferred stock are entitled to receive a preferred dividend equal to a 5.5% (subject to an increase to 6.0% in certain circumstances) per annum cumulative but not compounded return. The outstanding shares of our Series 2016 preferred stock are entitled to receive a preferential dividend equal to a 7% cumulative but not compounded annual return. The outstanding shares of our Series 2017 preferred stock are entitled to receive a preferential dividend equal to a 7.5% cumulative but not compounded annual return (subject to an increase to 8% in certain circumstances). As of March 22, 2022, we had 13,983,810 shares of our Series 2016 preferred stock outstanding, which was issued in connection with the CRII Merger and 12,733,485 shares of Series 2019 preferred stock outstanding. We had no Series 2017 preferred stock outstanding.

Holders of the Series 2016 preferred stock and Series 2019 preferred stock are entitled to cumulative dividends before any dividends may be declared or set aside on our common stock, or the redemption of our common stock and a liquidation preference of $10.00 per share plus any accrued and unpaid distributions before any payment is made to holders of our common stock upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up. This will reduce the remaining amount of our assets, if any, available to distribute to holders of our common stock.

Our charter designates the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our charter provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors or officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (c) any action or proceeding asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law or our charter or our bylaws, or (d) any action or proceeding asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, and any of our record or beneficial stockholders who is a party to such an action or proceeding shall cooperate in any request that we may make that the action or proceeding be assigned to the Court’s Business and Technology Case Management Program. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the stockholder believes is favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees, which may discourage meritorious claims from being asserted against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our charter inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.


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We adopted this provision because we believe it makes it less likely that we will be forced to incur the expense of defending duplicative actions in multiple forums and less likely that plaintiffs’ attorneys will be able to employ such litigation to coerce us into otherwise unjustified settlements, and we believe the risk of a court declining to enforce this provision is remote, as the General Assembly of Maryland has specifically amended the Maryland General Corporation Law to authorize the adoption of such provisions. The exclusive forum provision of our charter does not establish exclusive jurisdiction in the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland for claims that arise under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal securities laws if there is exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction in the federal courts or for claims under state securities laws.

Your investment return may be reduced if we are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act; if our subsidiaries or we become an unregistered investment company, then we could not continue our business.

Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries intend to register as investment companies under the Investment Company Act. If we or our subsidiaries were obligated to register as investment companies, then we would have to comply with a variety of substantive requirements under the Investment Company Act that impose, among other things:

limitations on capital structure;
restrictions on specified investments;
prohibitions on transactions with affiliates; and
compliance with reporting, record keeping, voting, proxy disclosure and other rules and regulations that would significantly increase our operating expenses.

Under the relevant provisions of Section 3(a)(1) of the Investment Company Act, an investment company is any issuer that:

pursuant to Section 3(a)(1)(A), is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities (the “primarily engaged test”); or
pursuant to Section 3(a)(1)(C), is engaged or proposes to engage in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and owns or proposes to acquire “investment securities” having a value exceeding 40% of the value of such issuer’s total assets (exclusive of United States government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis (the “40% test”). “Investment securities” excludes United States government securities and securities of majority-owned subsidiaries that are not themselves investment companies and are not relying on the exception from the definition of investment company under Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) (relating to private investment companies).

Neither we nor our Operating Partnership should be required to register as an investment company under either of the tests above. With respect to the 40% test, most of the entities through which we and our Operating Partnership will own our assets will be majority-owned subsidiaries that will not themselves be investment companies and will not be relying on the exceptions from the definition of investment company under Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) (relating to private investment companies).

With respect to the primarily engaged test, we and our Operating Partnership will be holding companies and do not intend to invest or trade in securities ourselves. Rather, through the majority-owned subsidiaries of our Operating Partnership, we and our Operating Partnership will be primarily engaged in the non-investment company businesses of these subsidiaries, namely the business of purchasing or otherwise acquiring real estate and real estate-related assets.

If any of the subsidiaries of our Operating Partnership fail to meet the 40% test, then we believe they will often be able to rely on Section 3(c)(5)(C) of the Investment Company Act for an exception from the definition of an investment company. As reflected in no-action letters, the SEC staff’s position on Section 3(c)(5)(C) generally requires that an issuer maintain at least 55% of its assets in “mortgages and other liens on and interests in real estate” or qualifying assets; at least 80% of its assets in qualifying assets plus real estate-related assets; and no more than 20% of the value of its assets in other than qualifying assets and real estate-related assets. To constitute a qualifying asset under this 55% requirement, a real estate interest must meet various criteria based on no-action letters. We expect that any of the subsidiaries of our Operating Partnership relying on Section 3(c)(5)(C) will invest at least 55% of its assets in qualifying assets, with substantially all of its remaining assets in other types of real estate-related assets. If any subsidiary relies on Section 3(c)(5)(C), then we expect to rely on guidance published by the SEC staff or on our analyses of guidance published with respect to types of assets to determine which assets are qualifying real estate assets and real estate-related assets.

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To maintain compliance with the Investment Company Act, our subsidiaries may be unable to sell assets we would otherwise want them to sell and may need to sell assets we would otherwise wish them to retain. In addition, our subsidiaries may have to acquire additional assets that they might not otherwise have acquired or may have to forego opportunities to make investments that we would otherwise want them to make and would be important to our investment strategy. Moreover, the SEC or its staff may issue interpretations with respect to various types of assets that are contrary to our views and current SEC staff interpretations are subject to change, which increases the risk of non-compliance and the risk that we may be forced to make adverse changes to our portfolio. In this regard, we note that in 2011 the SEC issued a concept release indicating that the SEC and its staff were reviewing interpretive issues relating to Section 3(c)(5)(C) and soliciting views on the application of Section 3(c)(5)(C) to companies engaged in the business of acquiring mortgages and mortgage related instruments. If we were required to register as an investment company but failed to do so, we would be prohibited from engaging in our business and criminal and civil actions could be brought against us. In addition, our contracts would be unenforceable unless a court required enforcement and a court could appoint a receiver to take control of us and liquidate our business.

Rapid changes in the values of our assets may make it more difficult for us to maintain our qualification as a REIT or our exception from the definition of an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

If the market value or income potential of our qualifying real estate assets changes as compared to the market value or income potential of our non-qualifying assets, or if the market value or income potential of our assets that are considered “real estate-related assets” under the Investment Company Act or REIT qualification tests changes as compared to the market value or income potential of our assets that are not considered “real estate-related assets” under the Investment Company Act or REIT qualification tests, whether as a result of increased interest rates, prepayment rates or other factors, we may need to modify our investment portfolio in order to maintain our REIT qualification or exception from the definition of an investment company. If the decline in asset values or income occurs quickly, this may be especially difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish. This difficulty may be exacerbated by the illiquid nature of many of the assets that we may own. We may have to make investment decisions that we otherwise would not make absent REIT and Investment Company Act considerations.

Actions of our potential future joint venture partners could reduce the returns on joint venture investments and decrease our stockholders’ overall return.

We may enter into joint ventures with third parties or affiliates to acquire assets. We may also purchase and develop properties in joint ventures or in partnerships, co-tenancies or other co-ownership arrangements. Such investments may involve risks not otherwise present with other methods of investment, including, for example, the following risks:

that our co-venturer, co-tenant or partner in an investment could become insolvent or bankrupt;
that such co-venturer, co-tenant or partner may at any time have economic or business interests or goals that are or that become inconsistent with our business interests or goals;
that such co-venturer, co-tenant or partner may be in a position to take action contrary to our instructions or requests or contrary to our policies or objectives; or
that disputes between us and our co-venturer, co-tenant or partner may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and directors from focusing their time and effort on our operations.

Any of the above might subject a property to liabilities in excess of those contemplated and thus reduce our returns on that investment and the value of our stockholders’ investment in us.

If funds are not available from our distribution reinvestment plan offering for general corporate purposes, then we may have to use a greater proportion of our cash flow from operations to meet our general cash requirements, which would reduce cash available for distributions and could limit our ability to repurchase shares under our share repurchase program.

We depend on the proceeds from our distribution reinvestment plan offering for general corporate purposes including, but not limited to: the repurchase of shares under our share repurchase program; capital expenditures, tenant improvement costs and leasing costs related to our real estate properties; reserves required by any financings of our real estate investments; the acquisition or origination of real estate investments; and the repayment of debt. We cannot predict with any certainty how much, if any, distribution reinvestment plan proceeds will be available for general corporate purposes. If such funds are not available from our distribution reinvestment plan offering, then we may have to use a greater proportion of our cash flow from operations to meet our general cash requirements, which would reduce cash available for distributions and could limit our ability to repurchase shares under our share repurchase program.


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Military conflict may affect the markets in which we operate, our operations and our profitability.

The Russian Federation invaded Ukraine on February 24, 2022. Geopolitical tensions have risen significantly in response and the United States, the United Kingdom, EU member states, and other countries have imposed economic sanctions on the Russian Federation, parts of Ukraine, as well as various designated parties. As further military conflicts and economic sanctions continue to evolve, it has become increasingly difficult to predict the impact of these events or how long they will last. Depending on direction and timing, the Russian Federation-Ukraine conflict may significantly exacerbate the normal risks associated with an investment in real estate and result in adverse changes to, among other things: (i) general economic and market conditions; (ii) shipping and transportation costs and supply chain constraints; (iii) interest rates, currency exchange rates, and expenses associated with currency management transactions; (iv) demand for real estate; (v) available credit in certain markets; (vi) import and export activity from certain markets; and (vii) laws, regulations, treaties, pacts, accords, and governmental policies. Economic and military sanctions related to the Russian Federation-Ukraine conflict, or other conflicts, have the potential to gravely impact markets, global supply and demand, import/export policies, and the availability of labor in certain markets. There is no guarantee that such sanctions and economic actions will abate or that more restrictive measures will not be put in place in the near term. Moreover, it is expected that the Russian Federation-Ukraine military conflict could spark further sanctions and/or military conflicts which will impact other regions. The foregoing could impact our operations and our ability to realize out investment objectives.

The outbreak of widespread contagious disease, such as the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, could adversely impact our operations and the value of our investments.

The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 virus that has rapidly spread to a growing number of countries, including the United States, has created considerable instability and disruption in the U.S. and world economies. The extent to which our results of operations or our overall value will be affected by the COVID-19 virus will largely depend on future developments, which are uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the COVID-19 virus and the actions required to be undertaken to contain the COVID-19 virus or treat its impact. As a result of shutdowns, quarantines or actual viral health issues, tenants at our multifamily apartment communities may experience reduced wages for a prolonged period of time and may be unable to make their rental payments. In the last year, we have experienced a limited impact from COVID-19 on our operations. We may be unable to evict tenants due to federal, state and/or local laws or regulations or lender requirements implemented as a result of the COVID-19 virus outbreak. In addition, property managers may be limited in their ability to properly maintain our multifamily apartment communities. Market fluctuations may affect our ability to obtain necessary funds for our operations from current lenders or new borrowings. In addition, we may be unable to obtain financing for the acquisition of investments on satisfactory terms, or at all. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events or any other related matters could materially and adversely affect our financial performance and our overall value, and investors could lose all or a substantial portion of their investment in us.

Your interest in us will be diluted if we issue additional shares. Your interest in our assets will also be diluted if the Operating Partnership issues additional units.

Holders of our common stock will not have preemptive rights to any shares we issue in the future. Under our charter, we have the authority to issue a total of 1,100,000,000 shares of capital stock. Of the total shares of stock authorized, 1,000,000,000 shares are classified as common stock with a par value of $0.01 per share, 125,000,000 of which are classified as Class A shares, 50,000,000 of which are classified as Class TX shares, 275,000,000 of which are classified as Class T shares, 275,000,000 of which are classified as Class D shares, 275,000,000 of which are classified as Class I shares, and 100,000,000 shares are classified as preferred stock with a par value of $0.01 per share, 14,500,000 of which are classified as Series 2016, 5,000,000 of which are classified as Series 2017, and 12,500,000 of which are classified as Series 2019.

Our board of directors may amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of capital stock or the number of authorized shares of capital stock of any class or series without stockholder approval. After you purchase shares of common stock in our offering, our board of directors may elect, without stockholder approval, to: (1) sell additional shares in this or future public offerings; (2) issue shares of our common stock or units in our Operating Partnership in private offerings; (3) issue shares of our common stock or units in our Operating Partnership to the advisor or the Special Limited Partner, or their successors or assigns, in payment of an outstanding obligation to pay fees for services rendered to us or the performance participation allocation; or (4) issue shares of our common stock or units in our Operating Partnership to sellers of properties we acquire.


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To the extent we issue additional shares of common stock after you purchase shares of common stock in our offering, your percentage ownership interest in us will be diluted. Because we hold all of our assets through the Operating Partnership, to the extent we issue additional units of our Operating Partnership after you purchase in our offering, your percentage ownership interest in our assets will be diluted. Because certain classes of the units of our Operating Partnership may, in the discretion of our board of directors, be exchanged for shares of our common stock, any merger, exchange or conversion between our Operating Partnership and another entity ultimately could result in the issuance of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, thereby diluting the percentage ownership interest of other stockholders. Because of these and other reasons, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution in their percentage ownership of our shares or their interests in the underlying assets held by our Operating Partnership. Operating Partnership units may have different and preferential rights to the claims of common units of our Operating Partnership which correspond to the common stock held by our stockholders.

In order to maintain what we deem to be sufficient liquidity for our repurchase program, we may keep more of our assets in securities, cash, cash equivalents and other short-term investments than we would otherwise like which would affect returns.

In order to provide liquidity for share repurchase, we intend to, subject to any limitations and requirements relating to our intention to qualify as a REIT, maintain a number of sources of liquidity including cash equivalents (e.g. money market funds), other short-term investments, U.S. government securities, agency securities and liquid real estate-related securities and availability under one or more loan facilities. We may fund repurchases from any available source of funds, including operating cash flows, the sale of assets, borrowings, return of capital or offering proceeds (including from sales of our common stock or Operating Partnership units to the Special Limited Partner, an affiliate of our advisor), and we have no limits on the amounts we may use to fund repurchases from such sources. This could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, NAV and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

If we are unable to obtain funding for future cash needs, cash distributions to our stockholders could be reduced and the value of our investments could decline.

If we need additional capital in the future to improve or maintain our multifamily apartment communities or for any other reason, we may have to obtain financing from sources beyond our cash flow from operations, such as borrowings, sales of assets or future equity offerings. These sources of funding may not be available on attractive terms or at all. If we cannot procure additional funding for capital improvements, our investments may generate lower cash flows or decline in value, or both, which would limit our ability to make distributions to you and could reduce the value of your investment.

Although we will not currently be afforded the protection of the Maryland General Corporation Law relating to deterring or defending hostile takeovers, our board of directors could opt into these provisions of Maryland law in the future, which may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and may prevent our stockholders from receiving a premium price for their shares in connection with a business combination.

Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and certain interested stockholders or affiliates of interested stockholders are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. Also under Maryland law, control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquirer, an officer of the corporation, or an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation are excluded from the vote on whether to accord voting rights to the control shares. Should our board of directors opt into these provisions of Maryland law, it may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer. Similarly, provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the Maryland General Corporation Law could provide similar anti-takeover protection.


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Because Maryland law permits our board of directors to adopt certain anti-takeover measures without stockholder approval, investors may be less likely to receive a “control premium” for their shares.

In 1999, the State of Maryland enacted legislation that enhances the power of Maryland corporations to protect themselves from unsolicited takeovers. Among other things, the legislation permits our board, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter to:

stagger our board of directors into three classes;
require a two-thirds stockholder vote for removal of directors;
provide that only the board can fix the size of the board;
provide that all vacancies on the board, however created, may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office; and
require that special stockholder meetings may only be called by holders of a majority of the voting shares entitled to be cast at the meeting.

Under Maryland law, a corporation can opt to be governed by some or all of these provisions if it has a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act, and has at least three independent directors. Our charter does not prohibit our board from opting into any of the above provisions permitted under Maryland law. Becoming governed by any of these provisions could discourage an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for holders of our securities.

We could be negatively impacted by changes in our relationship with Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, changes in the condition of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac and by changes in government support for multi-family housing.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been a major source of financing for multi-family real estate in the United States and we have used loan programs sponsored by these agencies to finance most of our acquisitions of multi-family properties. There have been ongoing discussion by the government and other interested parties with regard to the long term structure and viability of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which could result in adjustments to guidelines for their loan products. Should these agencies have their mandates changed or reduced, lose key personnel, be disbanded or reorganized by the government or otherwise discontinue providing liquidity for the multi-family sector, our ability to obtain financing through loan programs sponsored by the agencies could be negatively impacted. In addition, changes in our relationships with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and the lenders that participate in these loan programs, with respect to our existing mortgage financing could impact our ability to obtain comparable financing for new acquisitions or refinancing for our existing multi-family real estate investments. Should our access to financing provided through Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac loan programs be reduced or impaired, it would significantly reduce our access to debt capital and/or increase borrowing costs and could significantly limit our ability to acquire properties on acceptable terms and reduce the values to be realized upon property sales.

Breaches of our data security could materially harm us, including our business, financial performance and reputation.

We collect and retain certain personal information provided by our residents and employees. Security measures we have implemented to protect the confidentiality of this information may not prevent unauthorized access to this information. Any breach of our data security measures and loss of this information may result in legal liability and costs (including damages and penalties), as well as damage to our reputation, that could materially and adversely affect us, including our business and financial performance.

We are an “emerging growth company” under the federal securities laws and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, and are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from, or reduced disclosure obligations relating to, various reporting requirements that are normally applicable to public companies. We may retain our status as an “emerging growth company” for a maximum of five years, or until the earliest of (i) the last day of the first fiscal year in which it has total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more, (ii) December 31 of the fiscal year that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act (which would occur if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million, measured as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and we have been publicly reporting for at least 12 months) or (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt during the preceding three-year period.

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Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies (a) are permitted to provide audited financial statements for two fiscal years instead of three fiscal years required for other reporting companies, (b) are not required to provide certain disclosures relating to executive compensation generally required for larger public companies, (c) are not required to provide an auditor’s attestation report on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (d) are not required to comply with the audit rules adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) after April 5, 2012 (unless the SEC determines otherwise) and (e) do not have to hold shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation. Taking advantage of any of these reduced requirements may make our common stock less attractive.

Additionally, the JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” may take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies. This means an “emerging growth company” can delay adopting certain accounting standards until such standards are otherwise applicable to private companies. However, we have elected to “opt out” of such extended transition period and will therefore comply with new or revised accounting standards on the applicable dates on which the adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision to opt out of such extended transition period for compliance with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.

General Risks Related to Investments in Real Estate

We will not be diversified with respect to the class of assets that we own.

We will invest, through our Operating Partnership, solely in multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets. While we intend to invest in a significant number of properties across several geographical locations and markets, we will not invest in a diverse set of asset classes. Further, we have no plans to acquire any assets other than assets consisting of multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets. Therefore, each of our investments could be subject to the same or similar rental property related risks and a decline in real estate values in general or a change in economic conditions which affects real property investment and rental markets could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial performance.

If capitalization rates increase the value of our assets may decrease and we may not be able to sell our assets at anticipated prices.

The value of real estate is generally based on capitalization rates. Capitalization rates generally trend with interest rates. Consequently, if interest rates go up, so do capitalization rates. Based on historical interest rates, current interest rates are low, as are current capitalization rates. However, if interest rates rise in the future, capitalization rates may also rise, and as a result, the value of real estate will decrease. If capitalization rates increase, our assets will likely achieve a lower sales price than anticipated, resulting in reduced returns.

There are risks inherent in the acquisition and management of multifamily apartment communities.

There are risks associated with the operation of multifamily apartment communities, including, but not limited to, vacillations in the demand for residential space; risk of loss or damage to the improvements or property of tenants; environmental risks and other risks associated with ownership of real estate. Any of the above factors, or a combination thereof, could result in a decrease in the value of our investments which would have an adverse effect on our results of operations, reduce the cash flow available for distributions and the return on your investment.

Rental levels at the multifamily apartment communities that we acquire can vary over time and we may not be able to maintain the occupancy rates we anticipate.

We will make our determination regarding the acquisition of multifamily apartment communities that we acquire based, among other things, on the property’s projected rent levels. However, there can be no assurance that a multifamily apartment community will continue to be occupied at the projected rents. It is anticipated that leases with the tenants at our multifamily apartment communities will generally be for terms of one year or less. If the tenants of the properties do not renew or extend their leases, if tenants default under their leases at the properties, if issues arise with respect to the permissibility of certain uses at the properties, if tenants of the properties terminate their leases, or if the terms of any renewal (including concessions to the tenants) are less favorable than existing lease terms, the operating results of the properties could be substantially affected. As a result, we may not be able to make distributions to the stockholders at the anticipated levels.

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We rely on our employees as well as third parties to provide property management services to our properties, should the staff of a particular property perform poorly, our operating results for that property will similarly be hindered and our net income may be reduced.

We depend upon our employees as well as the performance of our third party property managers to effectively manage our properties and real estate-related assets. Rising vacancies across real estate properties have resulted in increased pressure on real estate investors and their property managers to maintain adequate occupancy levels. In order to do so, we may have to offer inducements, such as free rent and resident amenities, to compete for residents. Poor performance by those sales, leasing and other management staff members operating a particular property will necessarily translate into poor results of operations for that particular property. Should we or third parties fail to identify problems in the day-to-day management of a particular property or fail to take the appropriate corrective action in a timely manner, our operating results may be hindered and our net income reduced.

It may be difficult for us to attract new tenants to our multifamily apartment communities.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain the occupancy rates at our multifamily apartment communities. The tenants at any multifamily apartment communities may have the right to terminate their leases upon the occurrence of specified events. It is anticipated that the majority of leases at the properties will be for terms of one year or less.

Rent control and other changes in applicable laws, or noncompliance with applicable laws, could adversely affect our portfolio of residential properties.

Lower revenue growth or significant unanticipated expenditures may result from changes in rent control or rent stabilization laws or other residential landlord/tenant laws. Municipalities may implement, consider or be urged by advocacy groups to consider rent control or rent stabilization laws and regulations or take other actions that could limit our ability to raise rents based on market conditions. For example, in 2016 in Mountain View, California, voters passed a referendum that limits rent increases on existing tenants (but not on new move-ins) in communities built before 1995. These initiatives and any other future enactments of rent control or rent stabilization laws or other laws regulating residential housing, as well as any lawsuits against us arising from such rent control or other laws, may reduce rental revenues or increase operating costs. Such laws and regulations may limit our ability to charge market rents, increase rents, evict tenants or recover increases in our operating costs and could make it more difficult for us to dispose of properties in certain circumstances. Expenses associated with investments in residential properties, such as debt service, real estate taxes, insurance and maintenance costs, are generally not reduced when circumstances cause a reduction in rental income from such properties.

Our inability to sell a multifamily apartment community at the time and on the terms we want could limit our ability to pay cash distributions to our stockholders.

Many factors that are beyond our control affect the real estate market and could affect our ability to sell multifamily apartment communities for the price, on the terms or within the time frame that we desire. These factors include general economic conditions, the availability of financing, interest rates and other factors, including supply and demand. Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, we have a limited ability to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic or other conditions. Further, before we can sell a multifamily apartment community on the terms we want, it may be necessary to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements. However, we can give no assurance that we will have the funds available to correct such defects or to make such improvements. We may be unable to sell our multifamily apartment communities at a profit. Our inability to sell multifamily apartment communities at the time and on the terms we want could reduce our cash flow and limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and could reduce the value of your investment.

We may have no or only limited recourse for any problems later identified for multifamily apartment communities we acquire, which could materially and adversely affect us, including our results of operations.

We anticipate sellers of multifamily apartment communities will sell such properties “as is,” “where is” and “with all faults,” without any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. In addition, purchase and sale agreements may contain limited warranties, representations and indemnifications that will only survive for a limited period after the closing. The purchase of multifamily apartment communities with no or limited warranties increases the risk that we may lose some or all of our invested capital in the property, as well as the loss of rental income from that multifamily apartment community, which could materially and adversely affect us.

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Costs imposed pursuant to governmental laws and regulations may reduce our net income and the cash available for distributions to our stockholders.

Real property and the operations conducted on real property are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to protection of the environment and human health. We could be subject to liability in the form of fines, penalties or damages for noncompliance with these laws and regulations. These laws and regulations generally govern wastewater discharges, air emissions, the operation and removal of underground and above-ground storage tanks, the use, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of solid and hazardous materials, the remediation of contamination associated with the release or disposal of solid and hazardous materials, the presence of toxic building materials and other health and safety-related concerns.

Some of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on the tenants, owners or operators of real property for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault, whether the contamination occurred prior to purchase, or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. Activities of our tenants, the condition of properties at the time we buy them, operations in the vicinity of our properties, such as the presence of underground storage tanks, or activities of unrelated third parties may affect our properties.

The presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly manage or remediate these substances, may hinder our ability to sell, rent, or pledge such property as collateral for future borrowings. Any material expenditures, fines, penalties or damages we must pay will reduce our ability to make distributions and may reduce the value of your investment.

Potential liability for environmental matters could adversely affect our financial condition.

Although we intend to subject our multifamily apartment communities to an environmental assessment prior to acquisition, we may not be made aware of all the environmental liabilities associated with a property prior to its purchase. There may be hidden environmental hazards that may not be discovered prior to acquisition. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of hazardous substances may be substantial. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances on one of our properties, or the failure to properly remediate a contaminated property, could adversely affect our ability to sell or rent the property or to borrow using the property as collateral.

Various federal, state and local environmental laws impose responsibilities on an owner or operator of real estate and subject those persons to potential joint and several liabilities. Typical provisions of those laws include:

responsibility and liability for the costs of investigation, removal, or remediation of hazardous substances released on or in real property, generally without regard to knowledge of or responsibility for the presence of the contaminants;
liability for claims by third parties based on damages to natural resources or property, personal injuries, or costs of removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances in, on, or migrating from our property;
responsibility for managing asbestos-containing building materials, and third-party claims for exposure to those materials; and
environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require expenditures.

Costs associated with complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Fair Housing Amendment Act may decrease cash available for distributions.

Our properties may be subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, or the Disabilities Act and the Fair Housing Amendment Act, as amended, or the Fair Housing Act. Under the Disabilities Act, all places of public accommodation are required to comply with federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons and may require owners of multifamily dwellings to make reasonable exceptions in their policies and operations to afford people with disabilities equal housing opportunities. The Disabilities Act has separate compliance requirements for “public accommodations” and “commercial facilities” that generally require that buildings and services be made accessible and available to people with disabilities. The Disabilities Act’s requirements could require removal of access barriers and could result in the imposition of injunctive relief, monetary penalties, or, in some cases, an award of damages. The Fair Housing Act requires multifamily dwellings first occupied after March 13, 1991 to comply with design and construction requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Any funds used for Disabilities Act and Fair Housing Act compliance will reduce our net income and the amount of cash available for distributions to you.


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Uninsured losses relating to real property or excessively expensive premiums for insurance coverage could reduce our cash flows and the return on our stockholders’ investment.

There are types of losses, generally catastrophic in nature, such as losses due to wars, acts of terrorism, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, pollution, or environmental matters that are uninsurable or not economically insurable, or may be insured subject to limitations, such as large deductibles or co-payments. Insurance risks associated with potential acts of terrorism could sharply increase the premiums we pay for coverage against property and casualty claims. Additionally, mortgage lenders in some cases have begun to insist that commercial property owners purchase coverage against terrorism as a condition for providing mortgage loans. Such insurance policies may not be available at reasonable costs, which may increase our cost of obtaining financing. We may not have adequate coverage for such losses. If any of our properties incurs a casualty loss that is not fully insured, the value of our assets will be reduced by any such uninsured loss, which may reduce the value of your investment. In addition, other than any working capital reserve or other reserves we may establish, we have no source of funding to repair or reconstruct any uninsured property. Also, to the extent we must pay unexpectedly large amounts for insurance, we could suffer reduced earnings that would result in lower distributions to you.

The properties will include certain amenities for the residents at the properties that could increase the potential liabilities at the properties.

In addition to the apartment buildings, the properties will be improved with various amenities, such as swimming pools, exercise rooms, playgrounds, laundry facilities, business centers and/or rentable club houses. Certain claims could arise in the event that a personal injury, death, or injury to property should occur in, on, or around any of these improvements. In addition, certain of the multifamily apartment communities may be located in areas where dangerous wildlife live which could pose dangers to the residents at the applicable property. There can be no assurance that particular risks pertaining to these improvements that currently may be insured will continue to be insurable on an economical basis or that current levels of coverage will continue to be available. If a loss occurs that is partially or completely uninsured, we may lose all or part of the investment. We may be liable for any uninsured or underinsured personal injury, death or property damage claims. Liability in such cases may be unlimited but stockholders will not be personally liable.

Competition and any increased affordability of single-family residential homes could limit our ability to lease our apartments or maintain or increase rents, which may materially and adversely affect us, including our financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and growth prospects.

The multifamily industry is highly competitive, and we face competition from many sources, including from other multifamily apartment communities both in the immediate vicinity and the geographic markets where our properties are and will be located. If so, this would increase the number of apartment units available and may decrease occupancy and unit rental rates. Furthermore, multifamily apartment communities we acquire compete, or will compete, with numerous housing alternatives in attracting residents, including owner occupied single and multifamily homes available to rent or purchase. The number of competitive properties and/or condominiums in a particular area, or any increased affordability of owner occupied single and multifamily homes caused by declining housing prices, mortgage interest rates and government programs to promote home ownership, could adversely affect our ability to retain our residents, lease apartment units and maintain or increase rental rates. These factors could materially and adversely affect us.

Increased construction of similar multifamily apartment communities that compete with our properties in any particular location may materially and adversely affect us, including our results of operations and our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

We may acquire multifamily apartment communities in locations that experience increases in construction of properties that compete with our properties. This increased competition and construction could make it more difficult for us to find residents to lease units in our multifamily apartment communities and/or force us to lower our rental rates in order to lease units in our properties, which could substantially reduce our revenues and could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, overbuilding of multifamily apartment communities may occur.


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We may be unable to secure funds for future capital improvements, which could adversely impact our ability to make cash distributions to our stockholders.

When residents do not renew their leases or otherwise vacate their apartment unit, in order to attract replacement residents, we may be required to expend funds for capital improvements to the vacated apartment homes. In addition, we may require substantial funds to renovate a multifamily apartment community in order to sell it, upgrade it or reposition it in the market. If we have insufficient capital reserves, we will have to obtain financing from other sources. We intend to establish capital reserves in an amount we, in our discretion, believe is necessary. A lender also may require escrow of capital reserves in excess of any established reserves. If these reserves or any reserves otherwise established are designated for other uses or are insufficient to meet our cash needs, we may have to obtain financing from either affiliated or unaffiliated sources to fund our cash requirements. We cannot assure our stockholders that sufficient financing will be available or, if available, will be available on economically feasible terms or on terms acceptable to us. Moreover, certain reserves required by lenders may be designated for specific uses and may not be available for capital purposes such as future capital improvements. Additional borrowing for capital needs and capital improvements will increase our interest expense, and therefore our financial condition and our ability to make cash distributions to our stockholders may be adversely affected.

Our multifamily apartment communities are subject to property taxes that may increase in the future, which could adversely affect our cash flow.

Our multifamily apartment communities are subject to real and personal property taxes that may increase as tax rates change and as the multifamily apartment communities are assessed or reassessed by taxing authorities. As the owner of the multifamily apartment communities, we are ultimately responsible for payment of the taxes to the applicable government authorities. If we fail to pay any such taxes, the applicable taxing authority may place a lien on the real property and the real property may be subject to a tax sale.

Increases in costs to own and maintain our properties may materially and adversely affect us, including our results of operations and cash flows.

We may experience increased costs associated with operating expenses, including capital improvements, routine property maintenance, real estate taxes and utility expenses. Any increases in our expenses to own and maintain our properties would consequently reduce our results of operations and cash flows.

Potential development and construction delays and resultant increased costs and risks may hinder our operating results and decrease our net income.

We may acquire unimproved real property or properties that are under development or construction. Investments in such properties will be subject to the uncertainties associated with the development and construction of real property, including those related to re-zoning land for development, environmental concerns of governmental entities and/or community groups and our builders’ ability to build in conformity with plans, specifications, budgeted costs and timetables. If a builder fails to perform, we may resort to legal action to rescind the purchase or the construction contract or to compel performance. A builder’s performance may also be affected or delayed by conditions beyond the builder’s control. Delays in completing construction could also give tenants the right to terminate preconstruction leases. We may incur additional risks when we make periodic progress payments or other advances to builders before they complete construction. These and other factors can result in increased costs of a project or loss of our investment. In addition, we will be subject to normal lease-up risks relating to newly constructed projects. We also must rely on rental income and expense projections and estimates of the fair market value of property upon completion of construction when agreeing upon a purchase price at the time we acquire the property. If our projections are inaccurate, we may pay too much for a property, and the return on our investment could suffer.


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Risks Related to Multifamily Real Estate-Related Assets

Our investments in multifamily real estate-related assets will be subject to the risks typically associated with real estate.

Our investments in mortgage, mezzanine or other real estate loans will generally be directly or indirectly secured by a lien on real property (or the equity interests in an entity that owns real property) that, upon the occurrence of a default on the loan, could result in our taking ownership of the entity that owns the real estate. We will not know whether the values of the multifamily apartment communities ultimately indirectly securing our loans will remain at the levels existing on the dates of origination or acquisition of those loans. If the values of the underlying multifamily apartment communities drop, our risk will increase because of the lower value of the security associated with such loans. In this manner, real estate values could impact the values of our loan investments. Therefore, our multifamily real estate-related assets will be subject to the risks typically associated with real estate, which are described above under the heading “General Risks Related to Investments in Real Estate.”

Any mortgage loans we acquire or originate and the mortgage loans underlying any mortgage securities we may invest in are subject to delinquency, foreclosure and loss, which could result in losses to us.

Commercial real estate loans generally are secured by commercial real estate properties and are subject to risks of delinquency and foreclosure. The ability of a borrower to repay a loan secured by an income-producing property typically is dependent primarily upon the successful operation of such property rather than upon the existence of independent income or assets of the borrower. If the net operating income of the property is reduced, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. Net operating income of an income-producing property can be affected by, among other things: tenant mix, success of tenant businesses, occupancy rates, property management decisions, property location and condition, competition from comparable types of properties, changes in laws that increase operating expenses or limit rents that may be charged, any need to address environmental contamination at the property, the occurrence of any uninsured casualty at the property, changes in national, regional or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments, declines in regional or local real estate values, declines in regional or local rental or occupancy rates, increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses, changes in governmental rules, fiscal policies and regulations (including environmental legislation), natural disasters, terrorism, social unrest and civil disturbances.

In the event of any default under any mortgage loan held by us, we will bear a risk of loss of principal and accrued interest to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the collateral and the principal and accrued interest of the mortgage loan, which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow from operations. Foreclosure on a property securing a mortgage loan can be an expensive and lengthy process that could have a substantial negative effect on our anticipated return on the foreclosed investment. In the event of the bankruptcy of a mortgage loan borrower, the mortgage loan to such borrower will be deemed to be secured only to the extent of the value of the underlying collateral at the time of bankruptcy (as determined by the bankruptcy court), and the lien securing the mortgage loan will be subject to the avoidance powers of the bankruptcy trustee or debtor-in-possession to the extent the lien is unenforceable under state law.

Delays in liquidating defaulted mortgage loans could reduce our investment returns.

If there are defaults under any mortgage loan we acquire or originate, we may not be able to repossess and sell the underlying properties quickly. The resulting time delay could reduce the value of our investment in the defaulted mortgage loans. An action to foreclose on a property securing a mortgage loan is regulated by state statutes and regulations and is subject to many of the delays and expenses of other lawsuits if the borrower raises defenses or counterclaims. In the event of default by a borrower, these restrictions, among other factors, may impede our ability to foreclose on or sell the mortgaged property or to obtain proceeds sufficient to repay all amounts due to us on the mortgage loan.


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The mezzanine and bridge loans in which we may invest would involve greater risks of loss than loans secured by a first deed of trust or mortgage on property.

We may invest in mezzanine and bridge loans that take the form of subordinated loans secured by a pledge of the ownership interests of either the entity owning (directly or indirectly) the real property or the entity that owns the interest in the entity owning the real property. These types of investments may involve a higher degree of risk than long-term senior mortgage lending secured by income-producing real property because the investment may become unsecured as a result of foreclosure by the senior lender. In the event of a bankruptcy of the entity providing the pledge of its ownership interests as security, we may not have full recourse to the assets of such entity, or the assets of the entity may not be sufficient to satisfy our mezzanine loan. If a borrower defaults on our mezzanine loan or debt senior to our loan, or in the event of a borrower bankruptcy, our mezzanine loan will be satisfied only after the senior debt. As a result, we may not recover some or all of our investment. In addition, mezzanine loans may have higher loan-to-value ratios than conventional mortgage loans, resulting in less equity in the real property and increasing the risk of loss of principal.

The B Notes in which we invest may be subject to additional risks relating to the privately negotiated structure and terms of the transaction, which may result in losses to us.

We have previously invested in a B note and may do so again in the future. A B Note is a mortgage loan typically (i) secured by a first mortgage on a single large commercial property or group of related properties and (ii) subordinated to an A Note secured by the same first mortgage on the same collateral. As a result, if a borrower defaults, there may not be sufficient funds remaining for B Note holders after payment to the A Note holders. Since each transaction is privately negotiated, B Notes can vary in their structural characteristics and risks. For example, under the agreement between the A Note holders and the B Note holders, the A Note holders, whose economic interests may not align with the economic interests of the B Note holders, typically are empowered to take the lead on loan administration, on decisions whether to enforce or negotiate a work-out of a defaulted or stressed loan, and on pricing and market timing for the sale of foreclosed property. While the B Note holders can exercise some influence over those decisions through consent rights, the B Note holders typically lose their consent rights under certain circumstances, including if the liquidation value of the B Note, based on an appraisal, falls below an agreed threshold. We cannot predict the terms of each B Note investment. Further, B Notes typically are secured by a single property, and so reflect the increased risks associated with a single property compared to a pool of properties.

We have invested in and may continue to invest in real estate-related equity, which is subordinate to any indebtedness, but involves different rights.

We have invested in and may continue to invest in noncontrolling equity positions and other real estate-related interests. Preferred equity investments are subordinate to any indebtedness obtained by the entity, but senior to the owners’ common equity. These interests are not secured by the underlying real estate, but upon the occurrence of a default, the preferred equity provider has the right to effectuate a change of control in certain circumstances with respect to the ownership of the property. Preferred equity investments typically earn a preferred return rather than interest payments and often have the right for such preferred return to accrue if there is insufficient cash flow to pay currently. The preferred return provided as a term of our preferred equity investments is not a measure of our investment performance and is not indicative of distributions that we may provide to investors. It should not be relied on to predict an investor’s returns and is subject to the development and performance of the project for which the preferred equity is being provided. Furthermore, the preferred return is only a contractual preference on allocations, and is subordinate to any construction debt and senior preferred equity and there is no guarantee that it will be achieved or paid.

We have invested in the preferred equity of other entities, the management of which may adversely affect our business.

We have invested in the preferred equity of other entities. However, we will not control the management, investment decisions, or operations of these companies. Management of those enterprises may decide to change the nature of their assets, or management may otherwise change in a manner that is not satisfactory to us. We will have no ability to affect these management decisions and we may have only limited ability to dispose of our investments.


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Risks Associated with Debt Financing

We have obtained and are likely to continue to obtain mortgage indebtedness and other borrowings, which increases our risk of loss due to potential foreclosure.

We have obtained and plan to continue obtain long-term financing that is secured by our multifamily apartment communities. In some instances, we may acquire multifamily apartment communities by financing a portion of the price of the multifamily apartment communities and mortgaging or pledging some or all of the multifamily apartment communities purchased as security for that debt. We may also incur mortgage debt on multifamily apartment communities that we already own in order to obtain funds to acquire additional multifamily apartment communities, to fund property improvements and other capital expenditures, to make distributions, and for other purposes. In addition, we may borrow as necessary or advisable to ensure that we maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, including borrowings to satisfy the REIT requirement that we distribute at least 90% of our annual REIT taxable income to our stockholders (computed without regard to the dividends-paid deduction and excluding net capital gain). We, however, can give our stockholders no assurance that we will be able to obtain such borrowings on satisfactory terms.

Incurring mortgage debt increases the risk of loss of a multifamily apartment community since defaults on indebtedness secured by a multifamily apartment community may result in lenders initiating foreclosure actions. In that case, we could lose the multifamily apartment community securing the loan that is in default, reducing the value of our stockholders’ investment. For tax purposes, a foreclosure of any of our multifamily apartment communities would be treated as a sale of the multifamily apartment community for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure even though we would not necessarily receive any cash proceeds. We may give full or partial guaranties to lenders of mortgage debt on behalf of the entities that own our multifamily apartment communities as well as with respect to debt associated with our preferred equity investments, mezzanine loans or equity investments in a property or land which will be developed into a multifamily apartment community. When we give a guaranty on behalf of an entity that owns one of our multifamily apartment communities or real estate-related assets, we will be responsible to the lender for satisfaction of the debt if it is not paid by such entity. If any mortgages contain cross-collateralization or cross-default provisions, a default on a single multifamily apartment community could affect many multifamily apartment communities.

Our multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets may be cross-collateralized.

At December 31, 2021, we had $213.0 million of fixed rate debt and $543.7 million of variable rate debt, including our revolving credit facility and including $116.7 million of variable rate debt related to construction loans; $407.0 million, or 74.9% of our variable rate debt is accompanied by interest rate cap hedging instruments as required by the lenders. In addition, CROP has issued unsecured promissory notes in several private placement offerings, in an aggregate amount of $43.5 million at December 31, 2021. We may obtain additional lines of credit or other debt financing, or take additional advances on our existing lines of credit, which we may utilize to acquire multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets and fund our operations. Thus, our assets may be cross-collateralized. Information about the amount and terms of any new lines of credit are uncertain and will be negotiated by our officers. No assurance can be given that future cash flow will be sufficient to make the debt service payments on any loans and to cover all operating expenses.

If our revenues are insufficient to pay debt service and operating costs, we may be required to seek additional working capital. There can be no assurance that such additional funds will be available. The degree to which we are leveraged could have an adverse impact on us, including (i) increased vulnerability to adverse general economic and market conditions, (ii) impaired ability to expand and to respond to increased competition, (iii) impaired ability to obtain additional financing for future working capital, capital expenditures, general corporate or other purposes and (iv) requiring that a significant portion of cash provided by operating activities be used for the payment of debt obligations, thereby reducing funds available for operations and future business opportunities.


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High mortgage rates or changes in underwriting standards may make it difficult for us to finance or refinance multifamily apartment communities, which could reduce the number of multifamily apartment communities we can acquire, our cash flows from operations and the amount of cash distributions we can make.

If mortgage debt is unavailable at reasonable rates, we may not be able to finance the purchase of multifamily apartment communities. If we place mortgage debt on a multifamily apartment community, we run the risk of being unable to refinance part or all of the multifamily apartment community when the debt becomes due or of being unable to refinance on favorable terms. If interest rates are higher when we refinance our multifamily apartment communities, our income could be reduced. We may be unable to refinance or may only be able to partly refinance our multifamily apartment communities if underwriting standards, including loan to value ratios and yield requirements, among other requirements, are stricter than when we originally financed the multifamily apartment communities. If any of these events occurs, our cash flow could be reduced and/or we might have to pay down existing mortgages. This, in turn, would reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders, could cause us to require additional capital and may hinder our ability to raise capital by issuing more shares or by borrowing more money.

Lenders may require us to enter into restrictive covenants relating to our operations, which could limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders or replace our advisor.

When providing financing, a lender may impose restrictions on us that affect our distribution and operating policies and our ability to incur additional debt. Loan agreements we enter into may contain covenants that limit our ability to further mortgage a property or that prohibit us from discontinuing insurance coverage. In addition, our JP Morgan Credit Facility restricts our ability to remove our affiliated directors which may make it more difficult to replace our advisor. These or other limitations would decrease our operating flexibility and our ability to achieve our operating objectives.

Increases in interest rates and the future discontinuation of LIBOR could increase the amount of our interest payments and could reduce the amount of distributions our shareholders receive.

At December 31, 2021, we had $543.7 million of variable rate debt, including our revolving credit facility and including $116.7 million of variable rate debt related to construction loans; $407.0 million, or 74.9% of our variable rate debt is accompanied by interest rate cap hedging instruments as required by the lenders. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future. Interest we pay reduces our cash flows. Since we have incurred and may continue to incur variable rate debt, increases in interest rates raise our interest costs, which reduces our cash flows. In addition, if we need to repay existing debt during periods of rising interest rates, we could be required to sell one or more of our properties at times or on terms which may not permit realization of the maximum return on such investments. Increases in interest rates may cause our operations to suffer and the amount of distributions our shareholders receive and their overall return on investment may decline.

We currently pay interest under our variable rate debt at an interest rate that is determined based on a US Dollar London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). In July 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that it will stop encouraging or requiring banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after December 31, 2021. On March 5, 2021, the FCA announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative (i) immediately after December 31, 2021, in the case of the 1-week and 2-month US dollar settings; and (ii) immediately after June 30, 2023, in the case of the remaining US dollar settings. The tenors that were extended to June 30, 2023 are more widely used and are the tenors used in our LIBOR-based debt.

The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”), a steering committee comprised of U.S. financial market participants, published model LIBOR replacement language for use in bilateral and syndicated loan facilities. ARRC selected the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the replacement to LIBOR. SOFR is a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash in the overnight U.S. treasury repo market and is a rate published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Our variable rate note remains indexed to LIBOR and not SOFR and includes LIBOR transition language that generally aligns with ARRC recommendations. The transition from LIBOR to SOFR could result in higher all-in interest costs and could reduce the amount of distributions to our shareholders.

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We have broad authority to incur debt and high debt levels could hinder our ability to make distributions and decrease the value of our stockholders’ investment.

Our charter limits our leverage to 300% of our net assets, and we may exceed this limit with the approval of the conflicts committee of our board of directors. High debt levels would cause us to incur higher interest charges and higher debt service payments and may also be accompanied by restrictive covenants. These factors could limit the amount of cash we have available to distribute and could result in a decline in the value of our stockholders’ investment.

Interest-only indebtedness may increase our risk of default and ultimately may reduce our funds available for distribution to our stockholders.

Certain of our debt obligations that require interest-only payments for a number of years before we are required to make payments on the principal. During the interest-only period, the amount of each scheduled payment will be less than that of a traditional amortizing mortgage loan. The principal balance of the mortgage loan will not be reduced (except in the case of prepayments) because there are no scheduled monthly payments of principal during this period. After the interest- only period, we will be required either to make scheduled payments of amortized principal and interest or to make a lump-sum, or “balloon,” payment at maturity. These required principal or balloon payments will increase the amount of our scheduled payments and may increase our risk of default under the related mortgage loan. If the mortgage loan has an adjustable interest rate, the amount of our scheduled payments also may increase at a time of rising interest rates. Increased payments and substantial principal or balloon maturity payments will reduce the funds available for distribution to our stockholders because cash otherwise available for distribution will be required to pay principal and interest associated with these mortgage loans.

We are uncertain of our sources for funding our future capital needs. If we do not have sufficient funds from operations to cover our expenses or to fund improvements to our multifamily apartment communities and cannot obtain debt or equity financing on acceptable terms, our ability to cover our expenses or to fund improvements to our multifamily apartment communities may be adversely affected.

The proceeds of this offering will be used primarily for investments in multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets. In the event that we develop a need for additional capital in the future for the improvement of our multifamily apartment communities or for any other reason, sources of funding may not be available to us. If we do not have sufficient funds from cash flow generated by our assets or out of net sale proceeds, or cannot obtain debt or equity financing on acceptable terms, our financial condition and ability to make distributions may be adversely affected.

Federal Income Tax Risks

Failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution.

Our qualification as a REIT will depend upon our ability to meet requirements regarding our organization and ownership, distributions of our income, the nature and diversification of our income and assets and other tests imposed by the Internal Revenue Code. If we fail to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year after electing REIT status, we will be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at corporate rates (a maximum rate of 35% applied through 2017, with a 21% rate beginning for 2018). In addition, we would generally be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which we lost our REIT status. Losing our REIT status would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to stockholders because of the additional tax liability. In addition, distributions to stockholders would no longer qualify for the dividends-paid deduction and we would no longer be required to pay distributions. If this occurs, we might be required to borrow funds or liquidate some investments in order to pay the applicable tax.

Failure to qualify as a REIT would subject us to U.S. federal income tax, which would reduce the cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

We believe that we have operated and will continue to operate in a manner that will allow us to continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, commencing with the taxable year ended December 31, 2019. However, the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs are extremely complex, and interpretations of the U.S. federal income tax laws governing qualification as a REIT are limited. Qualifying as a REIT requires us to meet various tests regarding the nature of our assets and our income, the ownership of our outstanding stock, and the amount of our distributions on an ongoing basis. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that we will be successful in operating so we can remain qualified as a REIT. While we intend to continue to operate so that we will qualify as a REIT, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations, including the tax treatment of certain investments we may make, and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances, no assurance can be given that we will so qualify for any particular year.
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If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any calendar year and we do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we would be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income. We might need to borrow money or sell assets to pay that tax. Our payment of income tax would decrease the amount of our income available for distribution to our stockholders. Furthermore, if we fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT and we do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we no longer would be required to distribute substantially all of our REIT taxable income to our stockholders. Unless our failure to qualify as a REIT were excused under federal tax laws, we would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost.

Our stockholders may have current tax liability on distributions they elect to reinvest in our common stock.

If our stockholders participate in our distribution reinvestment plan, they will be deemed to have received, and for income tax purposes will be taxed on, the amount reinvested in shares of our common stock to the extent the amount reinvested was not a tax-free return of capital. In addition, our stockholders will be treated for tax purposes as having received an additional distribution to the extent the shares are purchased at a discount to fair market value, if any. As a result, unless our stockholders are tax-exempt entities, they may have to use funds from other sources to pay their tax liability on the value of the shares of common stock received.

Even if we qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we may be subject to federal, state, local or other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flow and our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

Even if we qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we may be subject to some federal, state and local taxes on our income or property. For example:

In order to qualify as a REIT, we must distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income to our stockholders (which is determined without regard to the dividends-paid deduction or net capital gain). To the extent that we satisfy the distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income (and any net capital gain), we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on the undistributed income.
We will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which distributions we pay in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from prior years.
If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may avoid the 100% tax on the gain from a resale of that property, but the income from the sale or operation of that property may be subject to corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate.
If we sell an asset, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, our gain would be subject to the 100% “prohibited transaction” tax unless such sale were made by one of our taxable REIT subsidiaries or the sale met certain “safe harbor” requirements under the Internal Revenue Code.

REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan.

We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, subject to certain adjustments and excluding any net capital gain, in order for federal corporate income tax not to apply to earnings that we distribute. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income (and any net capital gain), we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on our undistributed REIT taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we pay out to our stockholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under federal tax laws. We also may decide to retain net capital gain we earn from the sale or other disposition of our property and pay U.S. federal income tax directly on such income. In that event, our stockholders would be treated as if they earned that income and paid the tax on it directly. However, stockholders that are tax-exempt, such as charities or qualified pension plans, would have no benefit from their deemed payment of such tax liability unless they file U.S. federal income tax returns and thereon seek a refund of such tax. We also will be subject to corporate tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income. We intend to make distributions to our stockholders to comply with the REIT requirements of the Internal Revenue Code.


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From time to time, we may generate taxable income greater than our income for financial reporting purposes, or our taxable income may be greater than our cash flow available for distribution to stockholders (for example, where a borrower defers the payment of interest in cash pursuant to a contractual right or otherwise). If we do not have other funds available in these situations we could be required to borrow funds, sell investments at disadvantageous prices or find another alternative source of funds to pay distributions sufficient to enable us to pay out enough of our taxable income to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax in a particular year. These alternatives could increase our costs or reduce our equity. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits.

To maintain our REIT status, we may be forced to forego otherwise attractive business or investment opportunities, which may delay or hinder our ability to meet our investment objectives and reduce our stockholders’ overall return.

To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy certain tests on an ongoing basis concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, nature of our assets and the amounts we distribute to our stockholders. We may be required to pay distributions to stockholders at times when it would be more advantageous to reinvest cash in our business or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. Compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits and reduce the value of our stockholders’ investment.

If our Operating Partnership fails to maintain its status as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, its income would be subject to taxation and our REIT status would be terminated.

We intend to maintain the status of our Operating Partnership as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, if the Internal Revenue Service (“Internal Revenue Service” or “IRS”) were to successfully challenge the status of our Operating Partnership as a partnership, it would be taxable as a corporation. In such event, this would reduce the amount of distributions that our Operating Partnership could make to us. This would also result in our losing REIT status and becoming subject to a corporate level tax on our own income. This would substantially reduce our cash available to pay distributions and the return on your investment. In addition, if any of the entities through which our Operating Partnership owns its properties, in whole or in part, loses its characterization as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the underlying entity would become subject to taxation as a corporation, thereby reducing distributions to our Operating Partnership and jeopardizing our ability to maintain REIT status.

Potential characterization of distributions or gain on sale may be treated as unrelated business taxable income to tax-exempt investors.

If (i) all or a portion of our assets are subject to the rules relating to taxable mortgage pools, (ii) we are a “pension-held REIT,” (iii) a tax-exempt stockholder has incurred debt to purchase or hold our common stock, or (iv) the residual Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit interests, or REMICs, we buy (if any) generate “excess inclusion income,” then a portion of the distributions to and, in the case of a stockholder described in clause (iii), gains realized on the sale of common stock by such tax-exempt stockholder may be subject to U.S. federal income tax as unrelated business taxable income under the Internal Revenue Code.

The tax on prohibited transactions will limit our ability to engage in transactions that would be treated as sales for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

A REIT’s net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of assets, other than foreclosure property, deemed held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. We might be subject to this tax if we were to dispose of loans in a manner that was treated as a sale of the loans for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Therefore, in order to avoid the prohibited transactions tax, we may choose not to engage in certain sales of loans at the REIT level, and may limit the structures we utilize for our securitization transactions, even though the sales or structures might otherwise be beneficial to us.

It may be possible to reduce the impact of the prohibited transaction tax by conducting certain activities through taxable REIT subsidiaries. However, to the extent that we engage in such activities through taxable REIT subsidiaries, the income associated with such activities may be subject to full corporate income tax.


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Complying with REIT requirements may force us to liquidate otherwise attractive investments.

To qualify as a REIT, we must ensure that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified REIT real estate assets, including certain mortgage loans and residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities. The remainder of our investment in securities (other than government securities and qualified real estate assets) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our assets (other than government securities and qualified real estate assets) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, no more than 20% of the value of our total assets can be represented by securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries and no more than 25% of the value of our total assets can be represented by “non-qualified publicly offered REIT debt instruments.” If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to liquidate from our portfolio otherwise attractive investments. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.

Liquidation of assets may jeopardize our REIT qualification.

To qualify as a REIT, we must comply with requirements regarding our assets and our sources of income. If we are compelled to liquidate our investments to repay obligations to our lenders, we may be unable to comply with these requirements, ultimately jeopardizing our qualification as a REIT, or we may be subject to a 100% tax on any resultant gain if we sell assets that are treated as dealer property or inventory.

Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively.

The REIT provisions of the Internal Revenue Code may limit our ability to hedge our assets and operations. Under these provisions, any income that we generate from transactions intended to hedge our interest rate, inflation and/or currency risks will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests if the purpose of the instrument is to (i) hedge interest rate risk on liabilities incurred to carry or acquire real estate, (ii) hedge risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the REIT 75% or 95% gross income tests, or (iii) manage risk with respect to the termination of certain prior hedging transactions described in (i) and/or (ii) above and, in each case, such instrument is properly identified under applicable Department of the Treasury regulations (“Treasury Regulations”). Income from hedging transactions that do not meet these requirements will generally constitute nonqualifying income for purposes of both the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we may have to limit our use of hedging techniques that might otherwise be advantageous, which could result in greater risks associated with interest rate or other changes than we would otherwise incur.

Our ownership of and relationship with our taxable REIT subsidiaries will be limited and a failure to comply with the limits would jeopardize our REIT status and may result in the application of a 100% excise tax.

A REIT may own up to 100% of the stock of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. A taxable REIT subsidiary may earn income that would not be qualifying income if earned directly by the parent REIT. Both the subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A corporation of which a taxable REIT subsidiary directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. A domestic taxable REIT subsidiary will pay federal, state and local income tax at regular corporate rates on any income that it earns. In addition, the taxable REIT subsidiary rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a taxable REIT subsidiary to its parent REIT to assure that the taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. The rules also impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a taxable REIT subsidiary and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We cannot assure our stockholders that we will be able to comply with the 20% value limitation on ownership of taxable REIT subsidiary stock and securities on an ongoing basis so as to maintain REIT status or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax imposed on certain non-arm’s length transactions.


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The ability of our board of directors to revoke our REIT qualification without stockholder approval may subject us to U.S. federal income tax and reduce distributions to our stockholders.

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT. While we believe we have qualified and intend to continue to qualify to be taxed as a REIT, we may terminate our REIT election if we determine that qualifying as a REIT is no longer in our best interests. If we cease to be a REIT, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income and would no longer be required to distribute most of our taxable income to our stockholders, which may have adverse consequences on our total return to our stockholders and on the market price of our common stock.

Changes recently made to the U.S. tax laws could have a negative impact on our business.

On December 22, 2017, the President signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, Pub. L. No. 115-97 (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act makes significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. In the case of individuals, the tax brackets have been adjusted, the top federal income rate has been reduced to 37%, special rules reduce taxation of certain income earned through pass-through entities and reduce the top effective rate applicable to ordinary dividends from REITs to 29.6% (through a 20% deduction for ordinary REIT dividends received) and various deductions have been eliminated or limited, including limiting the deduction for state and local taxes to $10,000 per year. Most of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. The top corporate income tax rate has been reduced to 21%. The Tax Act includes only minor changes to the REIT rules (other than the 20% deduction applicable to individuals for ordinary REIT dividends received).

The Tax Act makes numerous other changes to the tax laws that may affect REITs and prospective investors directly or indirectly. As a result of the changes to U.S. federal tax laws implemented by the Tax Act, our taxable income and the amount of distributions to our stockholders required in order to maintain our REIT status, and our relative tax advantage as a REIT, could change. As a REIT, we are required to distribute at least 90% of our taxable income to our stockholders annually. In addition, the Tax Act imposes limitations on the deductibility of business interest expense.

In 2020, the several pieces of legislation intended to address the economic impact of the recent outbreak of COVID-19 were enacted (the “COVID-19 Legislation”), including the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, Pub. L. No. 116-136 (the “CARES Act”), which was signed into law on March 27, 2020. The CARES Act makes several changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, including the allowance of net operating loss (“NOL”) carrybacks for certain tax years, the removal of caps on the application of NOLs for certain tax years, the removal of the cap on excess business loss deductions for certain tax years, and an increase in the cap on the deduction of net interest expenses for businesses.

The CARES Act makes numerous other changes to the tax laws that do not affect REITs directly but may affect REITs and investors indirectly. In addition, the novel Coronavirus outbreak is an evolving situation, and there may be additional legislation enacted which has a material impact on tax laws that impact REITs and investors. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the status of COVID-19 Legislation, including the CARES Act, and any other regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on investment.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates.

In general, the maximum tax rate for dividends payable to domestic stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, are generally not eligible for this reduced rate; provided under current law, individuals may be able to deduct 20% of income received as ordinary REIT dividends, thus reducing the maximum effective U.S. federal income tax rate on such dividend. In addition, Treasury Regulations impose a minimum holding period for the 20% deduction that was not set forth in the Internal Revenue Code. Under the Treasury Regulations, in order for a REIT dividend with respect to a share of REIT stock to be treated as a qualified REIT dividend, the U.S. stockholder (i) must have held the share for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend and (ii) cannot have been under an obligation to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property, e.g., pursuant to a short sale. While this tax treatment does not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends paid by REITs, the more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts or estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in stock of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the stock of REITs, including our common stock.
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Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Internal Revenue Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize our REIT qualification. Our continued qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. In addition, our ability to satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT depends in part on the actions of third parties over which we have no control or only limited influence, including in cases where we own an equity interest in an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

The taxation of distributions to our stockholders can be complex; however, distributions that we make to our stockholders generally will be taxable as ordinary income, which may reduce your anticipated return from an investment in us.

Distributions that we make to our taxable stockholders to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits (and not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income) generally will be taxable as ordinary income. However, a portion of our distributions may (i) be designated by us as capital gain dividends generally taxable as long-term capital gain to the extent that they are attributable to net capital gain recognized by us, (ii) be designated by us as qualified dividend income generally to the extent they are attributable to dividends we receive from non-REIT corporations, such as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, or (iii) constitute a return of capital generally to the extent that they exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A return of capital distribution is not taxable, but has the effect of reducing the basis of a stockholder’s investment in our common stock.

We may be required to pay some taxes due to actions of a taxable REIT subsidiary which would reduce our cash available for distribution to you.

Any net taxable income earned directly by a taxable REIT subsidiary, or through entities that are disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes as entities separate from our taxable REIT subsidiaries, will be subject to federal and possibly state corporate income tax. In this regard, several provisions of the laws applicable to REITs and their subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, a taxable REIT subsidiary may be limited in its ability to deduct certain interest payments made to an affiliated REIT. In addition, the REIT has to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that it receives or on some deductions taken by or payments made to a taxable REIT subsidiary if the economic arrangements between the REIT, the REIT’s customers, and the taxable REIT subsidiary are not comparable to similar arrangements between unrelated parties. Finally, some state and local jurisdictions may tax some of our income even though as a REIT we are not subject to U.S. federal income tax on that income because not all states and localities follow the U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs. To the extent that we and our affiliates are required to pay federal, state and local taxes, we will have less cash available for distributions to you.

We may distribute our common stock in a taxable distribution, in which case you may sell shares of our common stock to pay tax on such distributions, and you may receive less in cash than the amount of the dividend that is taxable.

We may make taxable distributions that are payable in cash and common stock. The IRS has issued private letter rulings to other REITs treating certain distributions that are paid partly in cash and partly in stock as taxable distributions that would satisfy the REIT annual distribution requirement and qualify for the dividends paid deduction for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Those rulings may be relied upon only by taxpayers to whom they were issued, but we could request a similar ruling from the IRS. Accordingly, it is unclear whether and to what extent we will be able to make taxable distributions payable in cash and common stock. If we made a taxable dividend payable in cash and common stock, taxable stockholders receiving such distributions will be required to include the dividend as taxable income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, you may be required to pay income tax with respect to such distributions in excess of the cash distributions received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the common stock that it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount recorded in earnings with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our common stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to certain non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. federal income tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in common stock.


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Investments in other REITs and real estate partnerships could subject us to the tax risks associated with the tax status of such entities.

We may invest in the securities of other REITs and real estate partnerships. Such investments are subject to the risk that any such REIT or partnership may fail to satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT or a partnership, as the case may be, in any given taxable year. In the case of a REIT, such failure would subject such entity to taxation as a corporation, may require such REIT to incur indebtedness to pay its tax liabilities, may reduce its ability to make distributions to us, and may render it ineligible to elect REIT status prior to the fifth taxable year following the year in which it fails to so qualify. In the case of a partnership, such failure could subject such partnership to an entity level tax and reduce the entity’s ability to make distributions to us. In addition, such failures could, depending on the circumstances, jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT.

Non-U.S. stockholders will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax and may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on distributions received from us and upon the disposition of our shares.

Subject to certain exceptions, distributions received from us will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such dividends ordinarily will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate, or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as “effectively connected” with the conduct by the non-U.S. stockholder of a U.S. trade or business. Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, capital gain distributions attributable to sales or exchanges of “U.S. real property interests,” or USRPIs, generally (subject to certain exceptions for “qualified foreign pension funds,” entities all the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds,” and certain “qualified shareholders”) will be taxed to a non-U.S. stockholder as if such gain were effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business unless FIRPTA provides an exemption. However, a capital gain dividend will not be treated as effectively connected income if (i) the distribution is received with respect to a class of stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States and (ii) the non-U.S. stockholder does not own more than 10% of the class of our stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date the distribution is received. We do not anticipate that our shares will be “regularly traded” on an established securities market for the foreseeable future, and therefore, this exception is not expected to apply.

Gain recognized by a non-U.S. stockholder upon the sale or exchange of our common stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation unless such stock constitutes a USRPI under FIRPTA (subject to specific FIRPTA exemptions for certain non-U.S. stockholders). Our common stock will not constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.” A domestically-controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT if at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of such REIT’s stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. stockholders. We believe, but cannot assure you, that we will be a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.

Even if we do not qualify as a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity at the time a non-U.S. stockholder sells or exchanges our common stock, gain arising from such a sale or exchange would not be subject to U.S. taxation under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if: (a) our common stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, and (b) such non-U.S. stockholder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of our common stock at any time during the five-year period ending on the date of the sale. However, it is not anticipated that our common stock will be “regularly traded” on an established market. We encourage you to consult your tax advisor to determine the tax consequences applicable to you if you are a non-U.S. stockholder.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes.

At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws or regulations governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws or regulations may be amended. We cannot predict when or if any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and any such law, regulation or interpretation may take effect retroactively. We and our stockholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation.


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Retirement Plan Risks

If you fail to meet the fiduciary and other standards under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, or “ERISA,” or the Internal Revenue Code as a result of an investment in our stock, you could be subject to criminal and civil penalties.

There are special considerations that apply to employee benefit plans subject to ERISA (such as profit-sharing, section 401(k) or pension plans) and other retirement plans or accounts subject to Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code (such as an IRA) or any entity whose assets include such assets (each a “Benefit Plan”) that are investing in our shares. If you are investing the assets of such a plan or account in our common stock, you should satisfy yourself that:
         
your investment is consistent with your fiduciary and other obligations under ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code;
your investment is made in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the plan or IRA, including the plan’s or account’s investment policy;
your investment satisfies the prudence and diversification requirements of Sections 404(a)(1)(B) and 404(a)(1)(C) of ERISA and other applicable provisions of ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code;
your investment in our shares, for which no trading market may exist, is consistent with the liquidity needs of the plan or IRA;
your investment will not produce an unacceptable amount of “unrelated business taxable income” for the plan or IRA;
you will be able to comply with the requirements under ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code to value the assets of the plan or IRA annually; and
your investment will not constitute a non-exempt prohibited transaction under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code.

With respect to the annual valuation requirements described above, we expect to provide an estimated value of our net assets per share annually to those fiduciaries (including IRA trustees and custodians) who request it. Although this estimate will be based upon determinations of the NAV of our shares in accordance with our valuation guidelines, no assurance can be given that such estimated value will satisfy the applicable annual valuation requirements under ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code. The Department of Labor or the Internal Revenue Service may determine that a plan fiduciary or a fiduciary acting for an IRA is required to take further steps to determine the value of our common shares. In the absence of an appropriate determination of value, a plan fiduciary or a fiduciary acting for an IRA may be subject to damages, penalties or other sanctions.

Failure to satisfy the fiduciary standards of conduct and other applicable requirements of ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code may result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties, and can subject the fiduciary to claims for damages or for equitable remedies, including liability for investment losses. In addition, if an investment in our shares constitutes a non-exempt prohibited transaction under ERISA or the Internal Revenue Code, the fiduciary or IRA owner who authorized or directed the investment may be subject to the imposition of excise taxes with respect to the amount invested. Additionally, the investment transaction may have to be undone. In the case of a prohibited transaction involving an IRA owner, the IRA may be disqualified as a tax-exempt account and all of the assets of the IRA may be deemed distributed and subjected to tax. ERISA plan fiduciaries and IRA owners should consult with counsel before making an investment in our shares.

If our assets are deemed to be plan assets, our advisor and we may be exposed to liabilities under Title I of ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code.

In some circumstances where an ERISA plan holds an interest in an entity, the assets of the entity are deemed to be ERISA plan assets unless an exception applies. This is known as the “look-through rule.” Under those circumstances, the obligations and other responsibilities of plan sponsors, plan fiduciaries and plan administrators, and of parties in interest and disqualified persons, under Title I of ERISA and Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code, as applicable, may be applicable, and there may be liability under these and other provisions of ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code. We believe that our assets should not be treated as plan assets because the shares should qualify as “publicly-offered securities” that are exempt from the look-through rules under applicable Treasury Regulations. We note, however, that because certain limitations are imposed upon the transferability of shares so that we may qualify as a REIT, and perhaps for other reasons, it is possible that this exemption may not apply. If that is the case, and if CC Advisors III or we are exposed to liability under ERISA or the Internal Revenue Code, our performance and results of operations could be adversely affected. Prior to making an investment in us, you should consult with your legal and other advisors concerning the impact of ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code on your investment and our performance.

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We do not intend to provide investment advice to any potential investor for a fee. However, we, CC Advisors III and our respective affiliates receive certain fees and other consideration disclosed herein in connection with an investment. If it were determined we provided a Benefit Plan investor with investment advice for a fee, it could give rise to a determination that we constitute an investment advice fiduciary under ERISA. Such a determination could give rise to claims that our fee arrangements constitute non-exempt prohibited transactions under ERISA or the Internal Revenue Code and/or claims that we have breached a fiduciary duty to a Benefit Plan investor. Adverse determinations with respect to ERISA fiduciary status or non-exempt prohibited transactions could result in significant civil penalties and excise taxes.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

See Part II, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Our Investments” for an overview of our real estate investments.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we may be involved in various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. Management is not aware of any legal proceedings of which the outcome is reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition, nor are we aware of any such legal proceedings contemplated by government authorities.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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Part II.

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Offering of Common Stock

We are offering up to $900.0 million of Class T, Class D and Class I shares of our common stock through our Primary Offering and up to $100.0 million of Class T, Class D, Class I, Class A, and Class TX shares of our common stock through our DRP Offering. Other than differences in upfront selling commissions, dealer manager fees, and ongoing distribution fees, each class of common stock has the same economics and voting rights. There is currently no public market for our shares and we currently have no plans to list our shares on a securities exchange. 

The following table summarizes the upfront selling commission and dealer manager fee paid for each applicable share class in the Primary Offering as a percentage of the transaction price, which will generally be the most recently disclosed monthly NAV per share.

Class T (1)
Class DClass I
Maximum Upfront Selling Commissions as a % of Transaction Priceup to 3.0%— — 
Maximum Upfront Dealer Manager Fees as a % of Transaction Price0.5%— — 
(1) Such amounts may vary at certain participating broker-dealers, provided that the sum will not exceed 3.5% of the transaction price.

In addition, we will pay a wholesaling fee of up to 1.85% of the transaction price for the shares sold in the Primary Offering.

Subject to FINRA limitations on underwriting compensation and certain other limitations, the following table shows the distribution fees we pay the dealer manager with respect to the Class T, Class D and Class I on an annualized basis as a percentage of our NAV.

Class T (1)
Class DClass I
Distribution Fee as a % of NAV0.85%0.25%None
(1) Consists of an advisor distribution fee of 0.65% per annum and a dealer distribution fee of 0.20% per annum of the aggregate NAV for the Class T shares, however, with respect to Class T shares sold through certain participating broker-dealers, the advisor distribution fee and the dealer distribution fee may be other amounts, provided that the sum of such fees will always equal 0.85% per annum of the NAV of such shares.

The distribution fee on each share sold is subject to a cap based on the total upfront selling commissions, dealer manager fees, and distribution fees paid from the sale of that share. For Class T shares the cap is 8.5% and for Class D shares the cap is 8.0%. A lower cap may be agreed upon between our dealer manager and a participating broker-dealer. Once the cap is met, the Class T shares or Class D shares in each respective stockholder's account (including shares purchased through the distribution reinvestment plan or received as a stock dividend) will convert into a number of Class I shares (including any fractional shares) with an equivalent aggregate NAV as such shares.

The dealer manager for the public offering anticipates that all or a portion of the upfront selling commissions, dealer manager and stockholder servicing fees will be retained by, or reallowed (paid) to, participating broker-dealers.

The purchase price per share for each class of common stock will vary and will generally equal our prior month’s NAV per share, as determined monthly, plus applicable upfront selling commissions and dealer manager fees. Please see “Net Asset Value Calculation and Valuation Guidelines” in our prospectus for a detailed description of our valuation guidelines.

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The following table presents our historical monthly NAV per share for our outstanding classes of shares and our OP units since we began reporting an NAV. Previously, we sold shares of our Class A and Class TX in our primary public offering at a fixed offering price of $10.00 per share.

Class
DateIATXOP
May 7, 2021 (1)
$10.8315 $10.8315 $10.8315 $10.8315 
May 31, 202110.8488 10.8488 10.8488 10.8488 
June 30, 202111.7865 11.7865 11.7865 11.7865 
July 31, 202112.5373 12.5373 12.5373 12.5373 
August 31, 202112.8855 12.8855 12.8855 12.8855 
September 30, 202115.4799 15.4799 15.4799 15.4799 
October 31, 202116.3305 16.3305 16.3305 16.3305 
November 30, 202116.9316 16.9316 16.9316 16.9316 
December 31, 202117.2839 17.2839 17.2839 17.2839 
(1) All components of NAV are as of May 7, 2021 with the exception of the investments in multifamily operating properties, development properties and real-estate related structured investments which are based on information as of April 30, 2021.

Net Asset Value

We calculate NAV per share in accordance with the valuation guidelines that have been approved by our board of directors. As described in those guidelines, each real property is appraised at least once per calendar year by a third-party appraiser and reviewed by our advisor and our independent valuation advisor. Additionally, the real property assets not appraised in a given calendar month by a third-party appraiser will be appraised for that calendar month by our independent valuation advisor, and such appraisals are reviewed by our advisor.

CROP has classes or series of OP Units held by parties other than us that are economically equivalent to a corresponding class of shares and have the same value as our common stock. Our NAV is the value of CROP. Our NAV per share is calculated on a fully dilutive basis whereby outstanding classes or shares of OP Units, including LTIP units that would be earned as of the valuation date, are included in fully-diluted shares/units outstanding.

The components of our NAV as of December 31, 2021 are as follows ($ and shares/units in thousands):

Components of NAV*December 31, 2021
Investments in Multifamily Operating Properties$1,827,614
Investments in Multifamily Development Properties200,935
Investments in Real-estate Related Structured Investments61,746
Operating Company, Land and Other Net Current Assets62,381
Cash and Cash Equivalents12,517
Secured Real Estate Financing(864,209)
Subordinated Unsecured Notes(43,543)
Preferred Equity(254,431)
Accrued Performance Participation Allocation(51,761)
Net Asset Value$951,249
Fully-diluted Shares/Units Outstanding55,037
* Presented as adjusted for our economic ownership percentage in each asset.
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The following table provides a breakdown of our total NAV and NAV per share/unit by class as of December 31, 2021 ($ and shares/units in thousands, except per share/unit data):
Class
IATX
OP(1)
Total
As of December 31, 2021
Monthly NAV$2,963 $405,225 $303 $542,758 $951,249 
Fully-diluted Outstanding Shares/Units171 23,445 18 31,403 55,037 
NAV per Fully-diluted Share/Unit$17.2839 $17.2839 $17.2839 $17.2839 $17.2839 
(1) Includes the partnership interests of our Operating Partnership held by High Traverse Holdings, an entity beneficially owned by Daniel Shaeffer, Chad Christensen, Gregg Christensen and Eric Marlin and other Operating Partnership interests, including LTIP Units as described above, held by parties other than us.

Below are the weighted averages of the key assumptions that were used by our independent appraisal advisor in the discounted cash flow methodology used in the December 31, 2021, valuations of our real property assets, based on property types.

Discount Rate Exit Capitalization Rate
Operating Assets5.81%4.49%
Development Assets5.98%4.40%
* Presented as adjusted for our economic ownership percentage in each asset, weighted by gross value.

A change in these assumptions would impact the calculation of the value of our operating and development assets. For example, assuming all other factors remain unchanged, the changes listed below would result in the following effects on our operating and development asset values:

Sensitivities ChangeOperating Asset
Values
Development Asset
Values
Discount Rate0.25% decrease2.3%2.3%
 0.25% increase(2.3)%(2.2)%
Exit Capitalization Rate0.25% decrease4.3%4.7%
0.25% increase(3.7)%(4.1)%
* Presented as adjusted for our economic ownership percentage in each asset.

The following table reconciles stockholders’ equity and CROP partners’ capital per our consolidated balance sheet to our NAV (in thousands):

December 31, 2021
Stockholders’ equity
$179,134 
Non-controlling interests attributable to limited partners
291,258 
Total partners’ capital of CROP under U.S. GAAP
470,392 
Adjustments at share:
Accumulated depreciation and amortization, consolidated and unconsolidated entities82,748 
Goodwill(439)
Deferred tax liability3,661 
Discount on preferred stock(9,164)
Unrealized promote19,326 
Unrealized net real estate and debt appreciation384,725 
NAV
$951,249 

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The following describes the adjustments to reconcile GAAP stockholders’ equity and CROP partners’ capital per our consolidated balance sheet to our NAV:

Depreciation and amortization associated with our investments in real estate, both consolidated and unconsolidated, is not recorded for purposes of determining our NAV.
We recorded goodwill for the difference between the transaction price of the CRII Merger and the fair value of identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and non-controlling interests. Goodwill was not included for purposes of determining our NAV.
We recorded deferred tax liabilities for the tax effects on the difference in the value of certain assets recorded with the CRII Merger and their underlying tax basis. These deferred tax liabilities were excluded for purposes of determining our NAV.
Our preferred stock is accounted for as a liability with associated issuance costs deferred and amortized under GAAP. These issuance costs are excluded for purposes of determining our NAV.
We manage properties on behalf of third parties and under certain agreements have contractual rights to receive promotional interests subject to minimum return hurdles. We do not recognize promotes under GAAP until a liquidation transaction is probable, but do include the fair value of promotes, using a hypothetical liquidation valuation method, for purposes of determining our NAV.
Our investments in real estate are presented under historical cost in our GAAP consolidated financial statements. Additionally, our mortgage notes, revolving credit facility and construction loans (“Debt”) are presented at their carrying value in our consolidated GAAP financial statements. As such, any increases or decreases in the fair market value of our investments in real estate or our Debt are not included in our GAAP results. For purposes of determining our NAV, our investments in real estate and our Debt are recorded at fair value.

Distributions

We expect to pay distributions to holders of our common and preferred stock on a monthly basis based on monthly record dates. We have not established a minimum distribution level for holders of our common stock and are not required to make distributions to our common stockholders. Distributions are authorized and declared in the sole discretion of our board of directors. We have two classes of preferred stock outstanding. Each class of preferred stock is entitled to a fixed preferred dividend based on a cumulative, but not compounded, annual return. We may also issue stock dividends. Distributions for stockholders who elect to participate in our distribution reinvestment plan are reinvested into shares of the same class of our common stock as the shares to which the distributions relate.
 
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to make aggregate annual distributions to our common stockholders of at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gain). Our board of directors may authorize distributions in excess of those required for us to maintain REIT status depending on our financial condition and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.

Our board of directors considers many factors before authorizing a distribution, including current and projected cash flow from operations, capital expenditure needs, general financial conditions and REIT qualification requirements. Our board may declare cash distributions that will be paid in advance of our receipt of cash flow that we expect to receive during a later period. We are not limited in the amount of distributions we can fund from sources other than cash flows from operations. Where we do not have sufficient cash flows from operations to cover our distributions, we may borrow funds, issue new securities or sell assets to make and cover our declared distributions, all or a portion of which could be deemed a return of capital.
For more information with respect to our distributions paid, see Part II, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Distributions.”

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Funds from Operations

We believe funds from operations, or FFO, is a beneficial indicator of the performance of an equity REIT and of our company. We compute FFO in accordance with the standards established by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, or NAREIT, as net income or loss (computed in accordance with GAAP), excluding gains or losses from sales of operating real estate assets (which can vary among owners of identical assets in similar conditions based on historical cost accounting and useful-life estimates), gains and losses from change in control, impairment losses on real estate assets, the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles, real estate-related depreciation and amortization, and after adjustments for our share of unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures.

We believe FFO facilitates comparisons of operating performance between periods and among other REITs. However, our computation of FFO may not be comparable to other REITs that do not define FFO in accordance with the NAREIT definition or that interpret the current NAREIT definition differently than we do. Our management believes that historical cost accounting for real estate assets in accordance with GAAP implicitly assumes that the value of real estate assets diminishes predictably over time. Since real estate values have historically risen or fallen with market conditions, many industry investors and analysts have considered the presentation of operating results for real estate companies that use historical cost accounting to be insufficient by themselves. As a result, we believe that the use of FFO, together with the required GAAP presentations, provides a more complete understanding of our performance relative to our competitors and provides a more informed and appropriate basis on which to make decisions involving operating, financing, and investing activities.

Our management also uses Core FFO as a measure of our operating performance. Core FFO is further adjusted from FFO for the following items included in GAAP net income: amortization of issuance costs associated with investments in real-estate related loans and debt, accretion of discounts on preferred stock, the performance participation allocation, acquisition fees and expenses, and amortization of above or below intangible lease assets and liabilities. Our calculation of Core FFO may differ from the methodology used for calculating Core FFO by other REITs and, accordingly, our Core FFO may not be comparable. We believe these measures are useful to investors because they facilitate an understanding of our operating performance after adjusting for non-cash expenses and other items not indicative of ongoing operating performance.

Neither FFO nor Core FFO is equivalent to net income or cash generated from operating activities determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Furthermore, FFO and Core FFO do not represent amounts available for management’s discretionary use because of needed capital replacement or expansion, debt service obligations or other commitments or uncertainties. Neither FFO nor Core FFO should be considered as an alternative to net income as an indicator of our operating performance or as an alternative to cash flow from operating activities as a measure of our liquidity.

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The following table presents a reconciliation of FFO and Core FFO to net loss attributable to CROP ($ in thousands, except share and per share data):

Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(43,916)$(8,551)
Adjustments to arrive at FFO:
Real estate related depreciation and amortization61,254 6,966 
Depreciation and amortization from unconsolidated real estate entities11,973 — 
Gain on sale of real estate assets(10,912)— 
Loss allocated to noncontrolling interests - limited partners(58,923)— 
Amount attributable to above from noncontrolling interests - partially owned entities(5,858)— 
Funds from operations attributable to common stockholders and unit holders(46,382)(1,585)
Adjustments:
Amortization of intangible assets2,143 — 
Amortization of investments in real-estate related loan issuance costs61 49 
Accretion of discount on preferred stock2,350 468 
Amortization of mortgage note premium/discount(378)213 
Performance participation allocation51,761 — 
Acquisition fees and expenses (1)
3,826 2,331 
Accretion of below market leases(834)(54)
Other non-recurring adjustments(200)— 
Amount attributable to above from noncontrolling interests - partially owned entities1,133 — 
Core funds from operations attributable to common stockholders and unit holders$13,480 $1,422 
FFO per common share and unit - basic and diluted$(1.22)$(0.15)
Core FFO per common share and unit - basic and diluted$0.35 $0.13 
Weighted-average diluted common shares and units outstanding38,076,120 10,781,487 
(1) Acquisition fees and expenses include costs associated with the CRII Merger, the CMRI Merger, and the CMRII Merger.

Unregistered Sale of Equity Securities

On November 8, 2019, we launched the Private Offering, a best-efforts private placement offering exempt from registration pursuant to Rule 506(b) of Regulation D of the Securities Act. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we issued and sold 7,877,975 shares of our Series 2019 Preferred Stock in the Private Offering and received aggregate proceeds of $78.9 million. Additional information about the Private Offering and more recent sales of the Series 2019 Preferred Stock in the Private Offering has previously been disclosed under Item 3.02 in our Current Reports on Form 8-K.

Share Repurchase Program

Information regarding the shares available for repurchase under our share repurchase program and the price at which we repurchase shares is found in Note 12 of our consolidated financial statements in this report.

Holders

The following tables shows the number of shares and holders of each class of common equity outstanding as of March 22, 2022, including shares held by our affiliates:
Class
TIATX
Outstanding shares1,380,718608,01923,387,74517,525
Number of stockholders167 101 4,477 

Item 6. [Reserved]    

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical data, this discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business, operations and financial performance based on current expectations that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those in this discussion as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those discussed under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements” and in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
    
Overview

Cottonwood Communities, Inc. invests in a diverse portfolio of multifamily apartment communities and multifamily real estate-related assets throughout the United States. We are externally managed by our advisor, CC Advisors III, LLC (“CC Advisors III”), a wholly owned subsidiary of our sponsor, Cottonwood Communities Advisors, LLC (“CCA”). We were incorporated in Maryland in 2016. We hold all of our assets through our Operating Partnership. Our Operating Partnership was Cottonwood Communities O.P., LP (“CCOP”) prior to the CRII Merger and is Cottonwood Residential O.P., LP (“CROP”) after the CRII Merger. We are the sole member of the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and own general partner interests in the Operating Partnership alongside third party limited partners.

Cottonwood Communities, Inc. is a non-traded perpetual-life, net asset value (“NAV”), real estate investment trust (“REIT”). We qualified as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning with the taxable year ended December 31, 2019. We generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes on our taxable income to the extent we annually distribute all of our net taxable income to stockholders and maintain our qualification as a REIT.

As December 31, 2021, we had received net proceeds of $124.5 million from the sale of common stock and $111.9 million from the sale of Series 2019 Preferred Stock. We have contributed our net proceeds to CROP in exchange for a corresponding number of mirrored OP units. CROP has primarily used the net proceeds to make investments in real estate, multifamily real estate-related assets, and real estate related operations.

As December 31, 2021, we had a portfolio of $2.1 billion in total assets, with 83.3% of our equity value in operating properties, 10.4% in development and 6.3% in real estate-related investments. Refer to the section “Our Investments” below for further description of our portfolio.

COVID-19 Pandemic
    
One of the most significant risks and uncertainties facing the real estate industry generally continues to be the effect of the ongoing public health crisis of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. During the year ended December 31, 2021 we did not experience significant disruptions in our operations from the COVID-19 pandemic; however, we continue to closely monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all aspects of our business, including how the pandemic will impact our tenants and multifamily communities.

2021 Activities

The following highlights activities that occurred during the year ended December 31, 2021:

Merged with Cottonwood Residential II, Inc., Cottonwood Multifamily REIT I, Inc, and Cottonwood Multifamily REIT II, Inc.

Acquired $1.5 billion of real estate and real estate-related assets.
Assumed $622.1 million in property-level financing.
Assumed $64.1 million in construction loans.
Assumed $144.0 million in Series 2016 and Series 2017 Preferred Stock.
Assumed $48.6 million of unsecured promissory notes.

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Implemented an NAV-Based Perpetual-Life Strategy

Restructured the classes of shares we offer.
Revised our compensation arrangements with our advisor and its affiliates.
Adopted a monthly NAV policy beginning on May 7, 2021. NAV was $10.8315 per share as of May 7, 2021 compared to $17.2839 as of December 31, 2021.
Amended our share repurchase program to provide additional liquidity to our stockholders.
Received shareholder approval to remove liquidation provisions in our charter.

Invested and Disposed of Real Estate Assets

Invested $81.8 million in seven projects under various stages of development in the Salt Lake City, UT market.
Contributed $12.4 million of preferred equity to Riverfront, a development in West Sacramento, CA.
Provided a $13.0 mezzanine loan to Integra Peaks, a development in Reno, NV.
Acquired an additional 54.9% interest in Melrose Phase II for $10.6 million, increasing our ownership to 79.8%.
Loaned an additional $1.1 million in B Notes to Dolce Twin Creeks, Phase II prior to being repaid the full $9.3 million of those notes.
Sold a 43% interest in Alpha Mill for $34.8 million.

Raised Capital and Managed Financing

Closed an aggregate of $13.4 million in property-level financing and repaid $24.6 million.
Drew an additional $52.5 million on construction loans.
Raised $78.9 million of proceeds from the sale of our Series 2019 Preferred Stock.
Repaid $5.1 million of unsecured promissory notes.
Launched our Follow-on Offering of up to $1.0 billion of shares of our common stock on November 4, 2021, raising $2.5 million through the end of the year.

Our Investments

Our portfolio of investments consists of ownership interests or structured investment interests in 33 multifamily apartment communities in 13 states with 9,746 units, including 1,373 units in four multifamily apartment communities in which we have a structured investment interest and another 1,079 units in four multifamily apartment communities under construction. In addition, we have an ownership interest in three parcels of land planned for development.

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Information regarding our investments as of December 31, 2021 is as follows:

Stabilized Properties ($ in thousands, except net effective rents)

Property NameLocationNumber
of Units
Average
Unit Size
(Sq Ft)
Purchase
Date
Purchase Date Property Value
Mortgage
Debt
Outstanding (1)
Net Effective RentPhysical
Occupancy
Rate
Percentage
Owned by
CROP
3800 MainHouston, TX319 831 May 2021$58,100 $35,861 $1,449 93.7%50.0%
Alpha MillCharlotte, NC267 830 May 202169,500 39,044 1,438 95.5%57.2%
Cason EstatesMurfreesboro, TN262 1,078 May 202151,400 33,594 1,299 98.1%100.0%
CottonwoodSalt Lake City, UT264 834 May 202147,300 21,645 1,216 96.6%100.0%
Cottonwood BayviewSt. Petersburg, FL309 805 May 202195,900 47,205 2,163 98.1%71.0%
Cottonwood One UplandBoston, MA262 1,160 March 2020103,600 20,000 2,460 93.1%100.0%
Cottonwood ReserveCharlotte, NC352 1,021 May 202177,500 38,314 1,299 94.3%91.1%
Cottonwood RidgeviewPlano, TX322 1,156 May 202170,000 29,800 1,551 96.6%90.5%
Cottonwood West PalmWest Palm Beach, FL245 1,122 May 201966,900 35,995 1,987 95.1%100.0%
Cottonwood WestsideAtlanta, GA197 860 May 202147,900 25,506 1,558 92.9%100.0%
Enclave on Golden TriangleKeller, TX273 1,048 May 202151,600 34,000 1,443 96.0%98.9%
Fox PointSalt Lake City, UT398 841 May 202179,400 46,000 1,234 95.2%52.8%
Heights at MeridianDurham, NC339 997 May 202179,900 33,750 1,379 96.5%100.0%
MelroseNashville, TN220 951 May 202167,400 47,100 1,683 96.4%100.0%
Melrose Phase IINashville, TN139 617 May 202140,350 21,500 1,505 92.1%79.8%
Parc WestboroughBoston, MA249 1,008 May 202174,000 38,010 2,076 98.4%100.0%
PavilionsAlbuquerque, NM240 1,162 May 202161,100 37,350 1,669 96.7%96.4%
RaveneauxHouston, TX382 1,065 May 202157,500 26,675 1,274 92.4%97.0%
RegattaHouston, TX490 862 May 202148,100 35,367 982 95.7%100.0%
Retreat at Peachtree CityPeachtree City, GA312 980 May 202172,500 48,719 1,530 94.9%100.0%
Scott MountainPortland, OR262 927 May 202170,700 48,373 1,537 90.8%95.8%
Stonebriar of FriscoFrisco, TX306 963 May 202159,200 36,400 1,350 96.1%84.2%
Summer ParkBuford, GA358 1,064 May 202175,500 44,620 1,336 98.0%98.7%
The Marq Highland Park (2)
Tampa, FL239 999 May 202165,700 34,613 1,768 95.0%100.0%
Toscana at Valley RidgeLewisville, TX288 738 May 202147,700 30,700 1,113 98.6%58.6%
Total / Weighted-Average7,294 961 $1,638,750 $890,141 $1,495 95.5%
(1) Mortgage debt outstanding is shown as if CROP owned 100% of the property.
(2) Excludes the commercial data in units count and physical occupancy.
Development Properties ($ in thousands)

Property NameLocationUnits to
be Built
Average
Unit Size
(Sq Ft)
Purchase DateEstimated
Completion
Date
Investment AmountPercentage
Owned by
CROP
Cottonwood on BroadwaySalt Lake City, UT254817May 20214Q2022$6,020 
18.84% (1)
Park Avenue Salt Lake City, UT234714May 20211Q20227,824 
23.56%(1)
SugarmontSalt Lake City, UT341904May 20212Q202267,034 
99.00%(3)
Cottonwood on Highland (2)
Millcreek, UT250757May 20211Q20238,221 36.93%
Total1,079$89,099 
(1) Cottonwood Multifamily Opportunity Fund, Inc., a fund sponsored by a subsidiary of CROP, indirectly owns a majority of the remaining interest.
(2) Intended to qualify as a qualified opportunity zone investment. Excludes the commercial data in unit count.
(3) The one percent interest not owned by us has limited rights, including the right to control on behalf of the joint venture the prosecution and resolution of all litigation, claims, or causes of action that the joint venture has or may have against certain third parties associated with the design and construction of Sugarmont, as well as the obligation to defend any cross claims resulting from these actions.

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Land Held for Development ($ in thousands)

Property NameLocationPurchase DateInvestment AmountPercentage Owned by CROP
Block C (1)
Salt Lake City, UTMay 2021$1,946 37.02%
JasperSalt Lake City, UTJune 20213,307 100.00%
3300 CottonwoodSalt Lake City, UTOctober 20217,521 100.00%
Total$12,774 
(1) Cottonwood Multifamily Opportunity Fund, Inc., a fund sponsored by a subsidiary of CROP, indirectly owns a majority of the remaining interest.

Structured Investments ($ in thousands)

Property NameLocationInvestment TypeDate of Initial InvestmentNumber of UnitsFunding CommitmentAmount Funded to Date
Lector85Ybor City, FLPreferred EquityAugust 2019254$9,900 $9,900 
Vernon BoulevardQueens, NYPreferred EquityJuly 202053415,000 15,000 
RiverfrontWest Sacramento, CAPreferred EquityNovember 202028515,092 15,092 
Integra Peaks at DamonteReno, NVMezzanine LoanJune 202130013,000 13,000 
Total1,373$52,992 $52,992 

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Results of Operations

Our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows ($ in thousands, except share and per share data):
Year Ended December 31,
20212020Change
Revenues
Rental and other property revenues$73,129 $10,749 $62,380 
Property management revenues8,597 — 8,597 
Other revenues1,455 576 879 
Total revenues83,181 11,325 71,856 
Operating expenses
Property operations expense27,759 4,570 23,189 
Property management expense11,302 — 11,302 
Reimbursable operating expenses331 1,030 (699)
Asset management fee8,052 2,799 5,253 
Performance participation allocation 51,761 — 51,761 
Depreciation and amortization63,397 6,966 56,431 
General and administrative expenses9,880 3,354 6,526 
Total operating expenses172,482 18,719 153,763 
Loss from operations(89,301)(7,394)(81,907)
Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated real estate entities(533)2,113 (2,646)
Interest income207 198 
Interest expense(26,954)(3,665)(23,289)
Gain on sale of real estate assets10,912 — 10,912 
Other (expense) income197 (195)
Loss before income taxes(105,667)(8,551)(97,116)
Income tax expense(1,238)— (1,238)
Net loss(106,905)(8,551)(98,354)
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests:
Limited partners58,923 — 58,923 
Partially owned entities4,066 — 4,066 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(43,916)$(8,551)$(35,365)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding17,603,981 10,781,487 6,822,494 
Net loss per common share - basic and diluted$(2.49)$(0.79)$(1.70)

Rental and Other Property Revenues, Property Operations Expense

Due to the Mergers in 2021 our rental and other property revenues and property operating expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are not comparable. The assets acquired with the Mergers brought additional rental and property revenues of $59.6 million corresponding with additional property operation expenses of $22.3 million. A full year of activity for One Upland, acquired in March 2020, provided $2.1 million of additional revenue and $872.0 thousand of additional operating expenses in 2021 when compared to 2020.

Property Management Revenues and Property Operations Expense

The property management revenues of $8.6 million and property operations expense of $11.3 million are from CRII’s property management business acquired with the Mergers in 2021.


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Asset Management Fee

Asset management fees prior to the advisory agreement restructuring on May 7, 2021 were 1.25% of gross book value. The current asset management fee is the lesser of 0.0625% gross asset value or 0.125% of net asset value each month (0.75% and 1.5% annually), with values updated monthly. The increase in asset management fees of $5.3 million is due to the increase in assets acquired through the Mergers and the increase in value of the portfolio from May to December as well as the revised fee structure. From May 7, 2021 through December 31, 2021, we incurred asset management fees of $6.9 million.

Performance Participation Allocation

Upon the CRII merger in May and the admission of CROP as our Operating Partnership, the Advisor received a special limited partner interest in CROP which was subsequently transferred to an affiliate of the Advisor. This special limited partnership interest entitles the holder to receive an allocation of CROP's total return to its capital account of 12.5% over a 5% hurdle with a catch up, so long as the advisory agreement has not been terminated. The performance participation allocation is measured annually and any amount earned by the Special Limited Partner becomes payable as of December 31 of the applicable year. See Note 10 of the consolidated financial statements for additional information on the allocation. The performance participation allocation of $51.8 million is due to the growth of our NAV from May to December 2021.

Depreciation and Amortization

Due to the Mergers in 2021 depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are not comparable. The assets acquired with the Mergers brought additional depreciation and amortization of $57.3 million. A full year of ownership in One Upland provided additional depreciation in 2021 when compared to 2020. These increases were offset by $2.3 million of in-place leases recorded with the acquisition of One Upland in March 2020 that were fully amortized that year.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses increased $6.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 primarily due to the Mergers and resulting increase in various corporate level expenses related to the increased size of the Company. Merger costs, professional services, share-based compensation, legal, and insurance expenses all increased during the year ended December 31, 2021 when compared to the corresponding period in 2020.

Equity in Earnings/Losses of Unconsolidated Real Estate Entities

Due to the Mergers in 2021 equity in earnings for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are not comparable. Equity method investments acquired with the Mergers brought $6.6 million of equity in losses, primarily due to our share of depreciation and amortization in those investments. This was partially offset by increased equity in earnings from additional preferred equity investments.

Interest Expense

Due to the Mergers in 2021 interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 is not comparable. Interest from property-level debt, Series 2016 Preferred Stock, Series 2017 Preferred Stock, and unsecured promissory notes acquired with the Mergers totaled $18.8 million. We also incurred additional interest expense of $4.7 million from additional Series 2019 Preferred Stock raised during the year ended December 31, 2021. This was partially offset by a reduction in interest expense from non-merger properties as a result of lower interest rates on variable rate debt.

Gain on Sale of Real Estate Assets

The $10.9 million gain on sale of real estate assets is primarily from the sale of a 43% interest in Alpha Mill.

Policies Regarding Operating Expenses

Our advisor must reimburse us the amount by which our aggregate total operating expenses for the four fiscal quarters then ended exceed the greater of 2% of our average invested assets or 25% of our net income (the 2%/25% Limitation), unless the conflicts committee has determined that such excess expenses were justified based on unusual and non-recurring factors. For the four consecutive quarters ended December 31, 2021, our total operating expenses exceeded the 2%/25% Limitation.

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Based upon a review of unusual and non-recurring factors, including but not limited to outsized performance during this period resulting in increased performance participation allocation expense and the costs of the CRII Merger, the CMRI Merger and the CMRII Merger, our independent directors determined that the excess expenses were justified.
Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our principal demands for funds during the short and long-term are and will be for the acquisition of multifamily apartment communities and investments in multifamily real estate-related assets; operating expenses, including the management fee we pay to our advisor and the performance participation allocation, capital expenditures and general and administrative expenses; payments under debt obligations; repurchases of common and preferred stock; and payments of distributions to stockholders. We will obtain the capital required to purchase multifamily apartment communities and make investments in multifamily real estate-related assets and conduct our operations from the proceeds of the Private Offering, the Follow-on Offering, from our credit facilities, other secured or unsecured financings from banks and other lenders, and from any undistributed funds from our operations, all of which may be adversely affected by the impact COVID-19.

We intend to strengthen our capital and liquidity positions by continuing to focus on our core fundamentals at the property level. Factors which could increase or decrease our future liquidity include but are not limited to operating performance of the properties owned by our joint ventures, including the impact of COVID-19 on the properties owned by the joint ventures, volatility in interest rates, and the satisfaction of REIT dividend requirements.

As of December 31, 2021, we have $213.0 million of fixed rate debt and $543.7 million of variable rate debt, which includes $116.7 million of construction loans. We have interest rate cap hedging instruments on $407.0 million, or 74.9% of our variable rate debt. In addition, CROP has issued unsecured promissory notes in several private placement offerings, in an aggregate amount of $43.5 million as of December 31, 2021.

We have various credit facilities in place that provide us with additional liquidity. Our JP Morgan Revolving Credit Facility has a variable rate and is secured by Cottonwood One Upland. We may obtain advances secured against One Upland up to $74.9 million on the JP Morgan Revolving Credit Facility, as well as finance other future acquisitions up to $125.0 million in total revolving debt capacity. We can draw upon or pay down the JP Morgan Revolving Credit Facility at our discretion, subject to loan-to-value requirements, debt service coverage ratios and other covenants and restrictions as set forth in the loan documents. As of December 31, 2021, we had advances of $20.0 million on the JP Morgan Revolving Credit Facility. Additionally, we have three other credit facilities through Fannie Mae that may provide additional liquidity if necessary, as long as we maintain certain loan-to-value ratios and other requirements as set forth in the loan documents.

We must redeem the Series 2019 Preferred Stock for cash at a redemption price per share equal to $10.00 plus any accrued and unpaid dividends, to the extent there are funds legally available, on December 31, 2023. This date may be extended by two one-year extension options. In addition, we must redeem the Series 2016 Preferred Stock and Series 2017 Preferred Stock for cash at a redemption price equal to $10.00 per share plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to the extent there are any funds legally available, on their respective redemption dates. The initial redemption date was January 31, 2021 for the Series 2016 Preferred Stock and it was extended to January 31, 2023. The Series 2017 Preferred Stock was redeemed on February 1, 2022. Our board of directors has approved the full redemption of the Series 2016 Preferred Stock which we expect to occur by April 30, 2022.

In addition to making investments in accordance with our investment objectives, we expect to use our capital resources to pay offering costs in connection with the Private Offering and the Follow-on Offering, as well as make certain payments to our advisor pursuant to the terms of our advisory management agreement.

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we will be required to make aggregate annual distributions to our stockholders of at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (computed without regard to the dividends-paid deduction and excluding net capital gain). Our board of directors may authorize distributions in excess of those required for us to maintain REIT status depending on our financial condition and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.

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Material Cash Requirements

Our expected material cash requirements for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 and thereafter are comprised of (i) contractually obligated expenditures; (ii) other required expenditures; and (iii) capital expenditures.

Contractually Obligated Expenditures

The following table summarizes our debt payments (excluding extension options), redeemable preferred stock (excluding extension options, deferred financing costs and offering costs), interest payment obligations (excluding debt premiums and discounts, unused fees and deferred financing costs) and obligations under non-cancelable operating leases (excluding renewal options) as of December 31, 2021 ($ in thousands):

Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2022Thereafter
Debt repayments (1)
$82,170 $718,060 
Preferred Stock redemptions142,582 111,863 
Interest payments32,630 113,443 
Operating leases217 147 
$257,599 $943,513 
(1) Includes mortgages notes, revolving credit facilities, construction loans and unsecured promissory notes. Scheduled interest payments included in these amounts for variable rate loans are presented using rates (including the impact of interest rate swaps) as of December 31, 2021.

Refer to subsequent events below for information on refinances, redemptions, or exercised extension options after December 31, 2021.

Other Required Expenditures

We incur certain other required expenditures in the ordinary course of business, such as utilities, insurance, real estate taxes, third-party management fees, certain capital expenditures related to the maintenance of our properties, and corporate level expenses. Additionally, we carry comprehensive insurance to protect our properties against various losses. The amount of insurance expense that we incur depends on the assessed value of our properties, prevailing market rates, changes in risk. Furthermore, we incur real estate taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. The amount of real estate taxes that we incur depends on changes in the assessed value of our properties, changes in tax rates assessed by certain jurisdictions.

In order to continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we must meet several organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that we annually distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gains. We intend to continue to satisfy this requirement and maintain our REIT status.

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The following table shows distributions paid and cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 ($ in thousands):
December 31,
20212020
Distributions paid in cash - common stockholders$9,482 $4,145 
Distributions paid in cash to noncontrolling interests - limited partners10,591 — 
Distributions of DRP (reinvested)141 1,107 
Total distributions (1)
$20,214 $5,252 
Source of distributions (2)
Paid from cash flows provided by operations$11,044 $572 
Paid from revolving credit facility5,000 — 
Paid from offering proceeds4,029 3,573 
Offering proceeds from issuance of common stock pursuant to the DRP141 1,107 
Total sources$20,214 $5,252 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities (2)
$5,424 $(2,816)
(1) Distributions are paid on a monthly basis. In general, distributions for all record dates of a given month are paid on or about the fifth business day of the following month.
(2) The allocation of total sources are calculated on a quarterly basis. Generally, for purposes of determining the source of our distributions paid, we assume first that we use positive cash flow from operating activities from the relevant or prior quarter to fund distribution payments. As such, amounts reflected above as distributions paid from cash flows provided by operations may be from prior quarters which had positive cash flow from operations.

For the year ended December 31, 2021, distributions declared to common stockholders and limited partners were $9.5 million and $11.0 million, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we paid cash distributions to common stockholders of $9.5 million and limited partners of $10.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our net loss was $106.9 million. Cash flows provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $5.4 million.

Capital Expenditures

We deployed $84.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2021 for capital expenditures, funded by debt, proceeds from our offerings and sale of assets, joint venture partners, and property operations. The properties in which we deployed the most capital during the year ended December 31, 2021 are listed separately and the capital expenditures made on all other properties are aggregated in “All other properties” below ($ in thousands):

20212022
Property Name, LocationTotal Capital DeployedCCI/CROP FundedCapital BudgetedCCI/CROP Funded
Cottonwood on Broadway$19,273 $— $17,333 $— 
Sugarmont17,622 — 10,000 10,000 
Park Avenue15,676 1,907 7,480 1,305 
Cottonwood on Highland16,181 — 27,049 739 
All other properties15,939 10,767 1,005 1,005 
$84,691 $12,674 $62,867