10-K 1 pcsb-10k_20180630.htm 10-K ANNUAL FILING pcsb-10k_20180630.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2018

OR

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Commission File No. 001-38065

PCSB FINANCIAL CORPORATION

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

Maryland

 

81-4710738

(State of Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

 

2651 Strang Blvd., Suite 100, Yorktown Heights, New York

 

10598

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

(914) 248-7272

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including area code)

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

 

The NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC

(Title of each class)

 

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

 

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding twelve months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer   

 

Accelerated filer   

 

Smaller reporting company   

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer   

 

 

 

Emerging growth company   

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.    ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    YES      NO  

As of December 29, 2017, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was $306.8 million. The registrant does not have any non-voting common equity.

As of September 13, 2018, there were issued and outstanding 18,165,110 shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (Part III).

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

Item Number

Page Number

PART I

 

 

1

Business

3

1A

Risk Factors

22

1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

30

2

Properties

30

3

Legal Proceedings

30

4

Mine Safety Disclosures

30

 

 

 

PART II

 

5

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

31

6

Selected Financial Data

33

7

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

36

7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

56

8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

57

9

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

104

9A

Controls and Procedures

104

9B

Other Information

105

 

 

 

PART III

 

10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

105

11

Executive Compensation

105

12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

105

13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

105

14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

105

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

105

16

Form 10-K Summary

107

 

Signatures

108

 

 

 

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Forward Looking Statements

This annual report contains forward-looking statements, which can be identified by the use of words such as “estimate,” “project,” “believe,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “seek,” “expect” and words of similar meaning. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

 

statements of our goals, intentions and expectations;

 

statements regarding our business plans, prospects, growth and operating strategies;

 

statements regarding the quality of our loan and investment portfolios; and

 

estimates of our risks and future costs and benefits.

These forward-looking statements are based on current beliefs and expectations of our management and are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, these forward-looking statements are subject to assumptions with respect to future business strategies and decisions that are subject to change.

The following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from the anticipated results or other expectations expressed in the forward-looking statements:

 

general economic conditions, either nationally or in our market areas, that are worse than expected;

 

changes in the level and direction of loan delinquencies and charge-offs and changes in estimates of the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses;

 

our ability to access cost-effective funding;

 

fluctuations in real estate values and both residential and commercial real estate market conditions;

 

demand for loans and deposits in our market area;

 

our ability to continue to implement our business strategies;

 

competition among depository and other financial institutions;

 

inflation and changes in the interest rate environment that reduce our margins and yields, reduce the fair value of financial instruments or reduce the origination levels in our lending business, or increase the level of defaults, losses and prepayments on loans we have made and make whether held in portfolio or sold in the secondary markets;

 

adverse changes in the securities markets;

 

changes in laws or government regulations or policies affecting financial institutions, including changes in regulatory fees and capital requirements;

 

our ability to manage market risk, credit risk and operational risk in the current economic conditions;

 

our ability to enter new markets successfully and capitalize on growth opportunities;

 

our ability to successfully integrate any assets, liabilities, customers, systems and management personnel we may acquire into our operations and our ability to realize related revenue synergies and cost savings within expected time frames and any goodwill charges related thereto;

 

changes in consumer spending, borrowing and savings habits;

 

changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the bank regulatory agencies, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board;

 

our ability to retain key employees;

 

our compensation expense associated with equity allocated or awarded to our employees; and

 

changes in the financial condition, results of operations or future prospects of issuers of securities that we own.

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Because of these and other uncertainties, our actual future results may be materially different from the results indicated by these forward-looking statements. See “Risk Factors” contained in Item 1A. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, except as may be required by applicable law or regulation.

Item 1. Business

PCSB Financial Corporation

PCSB Financial Corporation (“PCSB Financial” or the “Company”), a Maryland corporation, is the bank holding company for PCSB Bank (the “Bank”). On April 20, 2017, the Company completed its initial public offering in connection with the Bank’s conversion from a mutual savings bank to a stock savings bank, selling 17,826,408 shares of common stock at a price of $10.00 per share. In addition, the Company contributed 338,702 shares of common stock and $1.6 million in cash to the PCSB Community Foundation, a charitable foundation formed in connection with the conversion. As of June 30, 2018, we had consolidated assets of $1.48 billion, consolidated deposits of $1.16 billion and consolidated equity of $287.6 million. Other than holding the common stock of PCSB Bank, PCSB Financial has not engaged in any significant business to date. In the future, we may pursue other business activities, including mergers and acquisitions, investment alternatives and diversification of operations; however, there are no current agreements for these activities.

The Company’s executive offices/headquarters are located at 2651 Strang Blvd., Suite 100, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, and the telephone number at that address is (914) 248-7272.

PCSB Bank

PCSB Bank is a New York-chartered stock savings bank that serves the banking needs of customers in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York State. We operate from our executive offices/headquarters and 15 banking offices located in Dutchess (3 offices), Putnam (3 offices), Rockland (1 office) and Westchester (8 offices) Counties, New York. Our primary business activity is attracting deposits from the general public and using those funds primarily to originate and purchase commercial real estate, business loans, and one-to four-family loans and purchase investment securities. We are subject to comprehensive regulation and examination by the New York State Department of Financial Services (the “NYSDFS”) and by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”).  

Our website address is www.pcsb.com.  Information on our website is not and should not be considered a part of this annual report.

Market Area

Our primary market area encompasses all of Putnam and Westchester Counties, and parts of Dutchess and Rockland Counties in New York, which are the counties in which our offices are located, and the surrounding areas.  We view Westchester County, which borders the Bronx (New York City’s northernmost borough) and is more populous than the other counties, as a primary area for growth, particularly for commercial lending and deposit opportunities. Westchester County includes a high concentration of office, medical, retail, industrial, mixed use and multi-family real estate buildings and businesses. Our primary focus in this marketplace is small to middle market businesses in these segments. Rising real estate values and lack of available commercial space in Brooklyn and Manhattan have caused businesses to migrate to central and lower Westchester County, which has increased the demand for flex-industrial and multi-family loans in our market area. Dutchess, Putnam and Rockland Counties offer similar commercial opportunities to Westchester County, but on a significantly smaller scale, and provide greater opportunities in residential mortgage lending and consumer lending and in retail deposit gathering. The close proximity of Bronx County, New York City, Fairfield County, Connecticut, and Bergen County, New Jersey, to our market area also creates a secondary area of opportunity for office, industrial and multi-family property loans.

Competition

We face significant competition for deposits and loans. Our most direct competition for deposits has historically come from the many financial institutions operating in our market area, many of which are significantly larger than we are and, therefore, have greater resources. We compete with these larger institutions particularly in

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our Westchester County market area. We also face competition for funds from other financial service companies such as brokerage firms, money market funds, mutual funds and other corporate and government securities issuers.

Competition for loans comes primarily from the many financial institutions operating in our market area. Our experience in recent years has been that many financial institutions in our market area, especially community banks seeking to expand their commercial loan portfolios and institutions located in highly competitive Westchester County, have been willing to price commercial loans aggressively in order to gain market share.

Lending Activities

Commercial Real Estate Loans. At June 30, 2018, commercial real estate loans were $495.3 million, or 54.7%, of total loans receivable. Our commercial real estate loans are generally secured by properties used for business purposes such as office buildings, industrial facilities and retail facilities, and multi-family properties. At June 30, 2018, multi-family residential real estate loans, which are described below, totaled $103.1 million.  Excluding multi-family loans, $76.1 million of our commercial real estate portfolio was owner occupied real estate and $316.1 million was secured by income producing, or non-owner occupied real estate.

At June 30, 2018, substantially all of our commercial real estate loans were secured by properties located in the lower Hudson Valley; however, we will originate commercial real estate loans on properties located outside this area based on an established relationship with a strong borrower. We intend to continue to grow our commercial real estate loan portfolio while maintaining prudent underwriting standards. In addition to originating these loans, we also purchase and participate in commercial real estate loans with other financial institutions. At June 30, 2018, we had $94.0 million in commercial real estate loan participations and whole loan purchases, which constituted 19.0% of our commercial loan portfolio, as compared with $70.6 million in commercial loan participations and whole loan purchases, which constituted 16.1% of our commercial loan portfolio at June 30, 2017. Such loans are independently underwritten according to our policies and require satisfactory documentation review by our legal counsel before we will purchase or participate in such loans.

We originate a variety of adjustable-rate commercial real estate loans with terms and amortization periods generally up to 25 years, which may include balloon payment loans. Interest rates and payments on our adjustable-rate loans adjust every five, seven or ten years and generally are indexed to the prime rate or the corresponding Treasury rate, plus a margin. We generally include pre-payment penalties on commercial real estate loans we originate.  

In underwriting commercial real estate loans, we consider a number of factors, which include the projected net cash flow to the loan’s debt service requirement (generally requiring a minimum of 120%), the age and condition of the collateral, the financial resources and income level of the borrower and the borrower’s experience in owning or managing similar properties. Commercial real estate loans are generally originated in amounts up to 75% of the appraised value or the purchase price of the property securing the loan, whichever is lower. Generally, guarantees are obtained from commercial real estate customers. In addition, the borrower’s and guarantor’s financial information on such loans is monitored on an ongoing basis by requiring periodic financial statement updates. We encourage our commercial business borrowers to maintain their primary deposit accounts with us, which would enhance our interest rate spread and overall profitability.

If we foreclose on a commercial real estate loan, the marketing and liquidation period to convert the real estate asset to cash can be a lengthy process with substantial holding costs. In addition, vacancies, deferred maintenance, repairs and market stigma can result in prospective buyers expecting sale price concessions to offset their real or perceived economic losses for the time it takes them to return the property to profitability. Depending on the individual circumstances, initial charge-offs and subsequent losses on commercial real estate loans can be unpredictable and substantial.

At June 30, 2018, our largest commercial real estate loan had an outstanding balance of $9.0 million and is secured by a non-owner occupied industrial property. At June 30, 2018, this loan was performing according to its original terms.

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Multi-Family Residential Real Estate Loans. At June 30, 2018, multi-family real estate loans were $103.1 million, or 11.4%, of total loans receivable. Our multi-family real estate loans are generally secured by properties consisting of five to 100 rental units in our market area.  In addition to originating these loans, we also purchase and participate in multi-family residential real estate loans with other financial institutions. At June 30, 2018, we had $63.4 million in multi-family residential real estate loan participations, which constituted 61.5% of our multi-family residential real estate loan portfolio, as compared with $51.1 million in multi-family residential real estate loan participations, which constituted 55.9% of our multi-family residential real estate loan portfolio at June 30, 2017. Such loans are independently underwritten according to our policies and require satisfactory documentation review by our legal counsel before we will purchase or participate in such loans.

We originate a variety of adjustable-rate multi-family residential real estate loans with terms and amortization periods generally up to 30 years, which may include balloon loans. Interest rates and payments on our adjustable-rate loans adjust every five, seven or ten years and generally are indexed to the prime rate or the corresponding Treasury rate, plus a margin. We generally include pre-payment penalties on multi-family residential real estate loans we originate.  

In underwriting multi-family residential real estate loans, we consider a number of factors, which include the projected net cash flow to the loan’s debt service requirement (generally requiring a minimum of 120%), the age and condition of the collateral, the financial resources and income level of the borrower and the borrower’s experience in owning or managing similar properties. Multi-family residential real estate loans are generally originated in amounts up to 75% of the appraised value or the purchase price of the property securing the loan, whichever is lower.  Generally, guarantees are obtained from multi-family residential real estate customers. In addition, the borrower’s and guarantor’s financial information on such loans is monitored on an ongoing basis by requiring periodic financial statement updates. We encourage our commercial business borrowers to maintain their primary deposit accounts with us, which would enhance our interest rate spread and overall profitability.

At June 30, 2018, our largest multi-family residential real estate loan had an outstanding balance of $7.2 million and is secured by a 208-unit apartment complex.  At June 30, 2018, this loan was performing according to its original terms.  

Commercial Loans.  We originate commercial term loans and variable lines of credit to a variety of small and medium sized businesses in our market area. These loans are generally secured by business assets, and we may support this collateral with junior liens on real property. At June 30, 2018, commercial business loans were $104.1 million, or 11.5% of total loans receivable. Customers for these loans include professional businesses, multi-generational family-owned businesses, and not for profit businesses. We encourage our commercial business borrowers to maintain their primary deposit accounts with us, which would enhance our interest rate spread and overall profitability.

The commercial loans we offer include term loans and revolving lines of credit. Commercial loans and lines of credit are made with either variable or fixed rates of interest. Variable rates are based on the prime rate, plus a margin. Commercial loans typically have shorter terms to maturity, higher interest rates than commercial real estate loans, and may involve more credit risk because of the type and nature of the collateral.

When making commercial loans, we consider the financial statements of the borrower, our lending history with the borrower, the debt service capabilities and global cash flows of the borrower and guarantors, the projected cash flows of the business and the value of the collateral, accounts receivable, inventory and equipment. Depending on the collateral used to secure the loans, commercial loans are generally made in amounts of up to 75% of the value of the collateral securing the loan. All of these loans are secured by assets of the respective borrowers.

At June 30, 2018, $2.9 million of commercial loans are to developers to purchase land. These loans are underwritten for projects with appropriate construction or development approvals already in place, have variable rates of interest and terms up to 3 years. Additionally, these loans are made in amounts up to 50% of the land value.

At June 30, 2018, our largest commercial loan had an outstanding balance of $14.3 million and is secured by 165 individual loans to medical professionals. At June 30, 2018, this loan was performing according to its original terms.

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Construction Loans. We originate loans to finance the construction of one- to four-family residential properties, and commercial and multi-family properties. At June 30, 2018, construction and land development loans were $17.4 million, or 1.9% of total loans receivable, consisting of $3.8 million of one- to four-family residential construction loans and $13.6 million of commercial and multi-family real estate construction loans. The majority of these loans are secured by properties located in our primary market area. PCSB Bank will occasionally, through a local nonprofit, fund the construction of low-income multi-family properties.

Most of our construction loans are interest-only loans that provide for the payment of interest during the construction phase, which is usually up to 24 months. Interest is generally a variable rate based on the prime rate, plus a margin.  At the end of the construction phase, the loan may convert to a permanent mortgage loan or the loan may be payable in full. Loans generally can be made with a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 75% of the appraised market value upon completion of the project. Before making a commitment to fund a construction loan, we generally require an appraisal of the property by an independent licensed appraiser. We also generally require an inspection of the property before disbursement of funds during the term of the construction loan. Loan proceeds are disbursed periodically in increments as construction progresses and as inspection by our approved inspectors warrant.

At June 30, 2018, our largest construction and land development loan had an outstanding balance of $7.0 million and is secured by a 75-unit apartment complex. At June 30, 2018, this loan was performing according to its original terms.

Residential Mortgage Loans. Our one- to four-family residential loan portfolio consists of mortgage loans that enable borrowers to purchase or refinance existing homes, most of which serve as the primary residence of the owner. At June 30, 2018, one- to four-family residential real estate loans were $250.6 million, or 27.7% of total loans receivable, consisting of $223.8 million of fixed-rate loans and $26.4 million of adjustable-rate loans. In addition to originating these loans, we also purchase residential mortgage loans from other financial institutions. At June 30, 2018, purchased loans totaled $56.3 million, or 22.5% of the residential mortgage loan portfolio, as compared to $21.5 million, or 9.9% of the residential mortgage loan portfolio as of June 30, 2017.  

We offer fixed-rate and adjustable-rate residential mortgage loans with maturities up to 30 years. Some of the properties include two- to four-unit properties, all of which are classified as residential mortgage loans. Our one- to four-family residential mortgage loans that we originate or purchase are generally underwritten according to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac guidelines, and we refer to loans that conform to such guidelines as “conforming loans.” We generally originate both fixed- and adjustable-rate mortgage loans in amounts up to the maximum conforming loan limits as established by the Federal Housing Finance Agency. We also originate loans above the conforming limits, which are referred to as “jumbo loans.” We generally underwrite jumbo loans, whether originated or purchased, in a manner similar to conforming loans. Jumbo loans are common in our market area. We generally retain one- to four-family residential mortgage loans in our portfolio.

We originate our adjustable-rate one- to four-family residential mortgage loans with initial interest rate adjustment periods of one, three, five, seven or ten years, based on changes in a designated market index. These loans are limited to a 200 basis point initial increase in their interest rate, a 200 basis point increase in their interest rate annually after the initial adjustment, and a maximum upward adjustment of 400 to 600 basis points over the life of the loan. We determine whether a borrower qualifies for an adjustable-rate mortgage loan in conformance with the underwriting guidelines set forth by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in the secondary mortgage market. In particular, we determine whether a borrower qualifies for an adjustable-rate mortgage loan with an initial fixed-rate period of five years or less based on the ability to repay both principal and interest using an interest rate which is 2.0% above the initial interest rate, including a reasonable estimate of real estate taxes and insurance, and taking into account the maximum debt-to-income ratio stipulated in the underwriting guidelines in the secondary mortgage market. The qualification for an adjustable-rate mortgage loan with an initial fixed-rate period exceeding five years is based on the borrower’s ability to repay at the initial fixed interest rate.

We will originate one- to four-family residential mortgage loans with loan-to-value ratios up to 80% without private mortgage insurance. We will originate loans with loan-to-value ratios of up to 95% with private mortgage insurance and where the borrower’s debt does not exceed 45% of the borrower’s monthly cash flow. To encourage lending to low- and moderate-income home buyers, we have several in-house developed programs which can

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include low down payments, lender-paid PMI, a lower than market interest rate, or a grant to be used towards closing costs.

We generally do not offer “interest only” mortgage loans on one- to four-family residential properties. We do not offer loans that provide for negative amortization of principal, such as “Option ARM” loans, where the borrower can pay less than the interest owed on the loan, resulting in an increased principal balance during the life of the loan.  Additionally, outside of the loan programs mentioned previously, we do not offer “subprime loans” (loans that are made with low down-payments to borrowers with weakened credit histories typically characterized by payment delinquencies, previous charge-offs, judgments, bankruptcies, or borrowers with questionable repayment capacity as evidenced by low credit scores or high debt-burden ratios) or Alt-A loans (defined as loans having less than full documentation).

Home Equity Lines of Credit.  At June 30, 2018, the outstanding balance owed on home equity lines of credit was $37.4 million, or 4.1 % of total loans receivable. Home equity lines of credit have adjustable rates of interest that are indexed to the prime rate, plus a margin.

The procedures for underwriting home equity lines of credit include an assessment of the applicant’s payment history on other debts and ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. Although the applicant’s creditworthiness is a primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the collateral to the proposed loan amount.

The home equity lines of credit that we originate are revolving lines of credit which generally have a term of 25 years, with draws available for the first ten years. Our 25-year lines of credit are interest only during the first ten years, and amortize on a fifteen-year basis thereafter. We generally originate home equity lines of credit with loan-to-value ratios of up to 75% when combined with the principal balance of the existing first mortgage loan, although loan-to-value ratios may occasionally exceed 75% on a case-by-case basis. Maximum loan-to-value ratios are determined based on an applicant’s credit score, property value, loan amount and debt-to-income ratio. Rates are adjusted monthly based on changes in a designated market index.

Other Loans. We offer consumer and deposit overdraft loans. At June 30, 2018, other loans were $745,000, or 0.1% of total loans receivable, and included $255,000 of personal loans and $490,000 of overdrafts. The procedures for underwriting these loans include an assessment of the applicant’s and guarantor’s, if applicable, payment history on other debts and ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan.

Loan Underwriting Risks

Commercial and Multi-Family Real Estate Loans. Loans secured by commercial and multi-family real estate generally have larger balances and involve a greater degree of risk than one- to four-family residential mortgage loans. Of primary concern in commercial and multi-family real estate lending is the borrower’s creditworthiness and the feasibility and cash flow potential of the property. Payments on loans secured by income properties often depend on successful operation and management of the properties. As a result, repayment of such loans may be subject to a greater extent than residential real estate loans, to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. To monitor cash flows on income properties, we require borrowers and loan guarantors, if any, to provide annual financial statements on commercial and multi-family real estate loans. In reaching a decision on whether to make a commercial or multi-family real estate loan, we consider and review a global cash flow analysis of the borrower and consider the net operating income of the property, the borrower’s expertise, credit history and profitability and the value of the underlying property. We generally require that the properties securing these real estate loans have debt service coverage ratios (the ratio of net operating income before debt service to debt service) of at least 1.20x. An environmental report is obtained for all commercial and multi-family real estate loans.

Construction Loans.  Our construction loans are based upon estimates of costs and values and the absorption associated with the completed project. Underwriting is focused on the borrowers’ financial strength, credit history and demonstrated ability to produce a quality product and effectively market and manage their operations.  All construction loans require an unlimited guarantee of completion (construction, including certificate of occupancy) for the project.

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Construction lending involves additional risks when compared with permanent residential lending because funds are advanced upon the security of the project, which is of uncertain value before its completion. Because of the uncertainties inherent in estimating construction costs, as well as the market value of the completed project and the effects of state and local governmental regulation of real property, it is relatively difficult to evaluate accurately the total funds required to complete a project and the related loan-to-value ratio. This type of lending also typically involves higher loan principal amounts and is often concentrated with a small number of builders. In addition, generally during the term of a construction loan, interest may be funded by the borrower or disbursed from an interest reserve set aside from the construction loan budget. These loans often involve the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment substantially dependent on the success of the ultimate project and the ability of the borrower to sell or lease the property or obtain permanent take-out financing, rather than the ability of the borrower or guarantor to repay principal and interest. If the appraised value of a completed project proves to be overstated, we may have inadequate security for the repayment of the loan upon completion of construction of the project and may incur a loss. Typically, for-rent commercially occupied properties require minimum pre-leasing; and for condominiums or cooperative for sale development loans, the project is underwritten as a multi-family rental property. Our ability to continue to originate a significant amount of construction loans is dependent on the strength of the housing and commercial real estate markets in our market areas.

Commercial Loans. Unlike residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from his or her employment or other income, and which are secured by real property whose value tends to be more easily ascertainable, commercial business loans are of higher risk and typically are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flow of the borrower’s business as the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value. Our commercial business loans are originated primarily based on the identified cash flow of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. Most often, this collateral consists of real estate, accounts receivable, inventory or equipment. Credit support provided by the borrower for most of these loans and the probability of repayment is based on the liquidation of the pledged collateral and enforcement of a personal guarantee, if any. As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial business loans may depend substantially on the success of the business itself.  Further, any collateral securing such loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value.

Adjustable-Rate Loans.  While we anticipate that adjustable-rate loans will better offset the adverse effects of an increase in interest rates as compared to fixed-rate loans, an increased monthly payment required of adjustable-rate loan borrowers in a rising interest rate environment could cause an increase in delinquencies and defaults. The marketability of the underlying property also may be adversely affected in a high interest rate environment. In addition, although adjustable-rate loans make our asset base more responsive to changes in interest rates, the extent of this interest sensitivity is somewhat limited by the annual and lifetime interest rate adjustment limits on residential loans.

Consumer Loans.  Consumer loans may entail greater risk than residential mortgage loans, particularly in the case of consumer loans that are unsecured or secured by assets that depreciate rapidly, such as motor vehicles. Repossessed collateral for a defaulted consumer loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment for the outstanding loan and a small remaining deficiency often does not warrant further substantial collection efforts against the borrower. Consumer loan collections depend on the borrower’s continuing financial stability, and therefore are likely to be adversely affected by various factors, including job loss, divorce, illness or personal bankruptcy. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on such loans.

Loan Approval Procedures and Authority

 

Our lending activities follow written, non-discriminatory, underwriting standards and loan origination procedures established by our board of directors and management. The board of directors has granted loan approval authority to certain senior officers up to prescribed limits not exceeding $4.0 million depending on the officer’s experience.  Loans approved under these officer authorities require dual signatures of the loan officer assigned to the loan and the officer with the appropriate approval authority. Loans in excess of $4.0 million and up to $11.0 million require approval of the Loan Committee of the board of directors, as do any extensions of credit to classified

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borrowers in excess of $2.0 million or loans up to $4.0 million that involve an exception to policy. Loans greater than $11.0 million and loans greater than $4.0 million that involve exceptions to policy must be authorized by the board of directors. Exceptions are reported to the board of directors monthly.

Investment Activities

We have legal authority to invest in various types of investment securities and liquid assets, including U.S. Treasury obligations, securities of various government-sponsored enterprises, residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities, municipal government securities, deposits at the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York (“FHLBNY”), certificates of deposit of federally insured institutions, and investment grade corporate bonds. We also are required to maintain an investment in FHLBNY stock, which investment is based on the level of our FHLBNY borrowings. At June 30, 2018, our investment portfolio had a fair value of $448.7 million and consisted primarily of U.S. Government securities, U.S. Government agency securities, including residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities, collateralized mortgage obligations and investment grade corporate bonds.

Although we have the authority under applicable law to invest in derivative securities, we had no investments in derivative securities at June 30, 2018.

Our investment objectives are to provide and maintain liquidity, to establish an acceptable level of interest rate and credit risk, to provide a use of funds when demand for loans is weak and to generate a favorable return. Our board of directors has the overall responsibility for the investment portfolio, including approval of our investment policy. Our management is responsible for implementation of the investment policy and monitoring our investment performance. The Asset/Liability Committee reviews the status of our investment portfolio quarterly.  See Note 4 to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Sources of Funds

General. Deposits have traditionally been our primary source of funds for our lending and investment activities. To a lesser degree, we also use borrowings, primarily FHLBNY advances, to supplement cash flow needs, as needed. In addition, funds are derived from scheduled loan payments, investment maturities, loan prepayments, retained earnings and income on earning assets. While scheduled loan payments and income on earning assets are relatively stable sources of funds, deposit inflows and outflows can vary widely and are influenced by prevailing interest rates, market conditions and levels of competition.

Deposit Accounts. The substantial majority of our deposits are from depositors who reside in our primary market area. Deposits are attracted through the offering of a broad selection of deposit instruments for both individuals and businesses. At June 30, 2018, our deposits totaled $1.16 billion and included $60.0 million of brokered time deposits, as well as $39.1 million of municipal deposits held by PCSB Bank’s commercial bank subsidiary, PCSB Commercial Bank.

Deposit account terms vary according to the minimum balance required, the time period that funds must remain on deposit, and the interest rate, among other factors. In determining the terms of our deposit accounts, we consider the rates offered by our competition, our liquidity needs, profitability, and customer preferences and concerns. We generally review our deposit mix and pricing on a weekly basis. Our deposit pricing strategy has generally been to offer competitive rates and services and to periodically offer special rates in order to attract deposits of a specific type or term.

Borrowings. We primarily utilize advances from the FHLBNY to supplement our supply of investable funds. The FHLBNY functions as a central reserve bank providing credit for its member financial institutions. As a member, we are required to own capital stock in the FHLBNY and are authorized to apply for advances on the security of such stock and securities which are obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States. Advances are made under several different programs, each having its own interest rate and range of maturities. Depending on the program, limitations on the amount of advances are based either on a fixed percentage of an institution’s net worth or on the FHLBNY’s assessment of the institution’s creditworthiness. At June 30, 2018, we had $296.1 million of available borrowing capacity with the FHLBNY and had $18.8 million in advances outstanding. All of our

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borrowings from the FHLBNY are secured by investment securities. At June 30, 2018, we also had an available line of credit with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s discount window program of $122.1 million, none of which was outstanding at that date. This line of credit is secured by certain qualifying 1-4 family residential mortgage loans.

Personnel

At June 30, 2018, we had 155 full-time and 28 part-time employees, none of whom is represented by a collective bargaining unit.

Subsidiaries

PCSB Bank is the wholly-owned subsidiary of PCSB Financial. PCSB Bank has three wholly-owned subsidiaries: PCSB Commercial Bank, PCSB Funding Corp. and UpCounty Realty Inc. PCSB Commercial Bank, a New York-chartered special purpose commercial bank, is authorized to accept deposits from New York municipalities. PCSB Funding Corp., a Delaware corporation, is a real estate investment trust that holds certain mortgage assets. UpCounty Realty Inc., a New York corporation, holds title to real estate properties foreclosed upon by PCSB Bank.

Regulation and Supervision

General

PCSB Bank is a New York-chartered savings bank and the wholly-owned subsidiary of PCSB Financial, a Maryland corporation, which is a registered bank holding company. PCSB Bank’s deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the FDIC. PCSB Bank is subject to extensive regulation by the NYSDFS, as its chartering agency, and by the FDIC, as its deposit insurer. PCSB Bank is required to file reports with, and is periodically examined by, the FDIC and the NYSDFS concerning its activities and financial condition and must obtain regulatory approvals before entering into certain transactions, including, but not limited to, mergers with or acquisitions of other financial institutions. PCSB Bank is a member of the FHLBNY.

As a registered bank holding company, PCSB Financial is regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve Board”) and NYSDFS. PCSB Financial is required to file certain reports with the Federal Reserve Board and is subject to examination by and the enforcement authority of the Federal Reserve Board and the NYSDFS. PCSB Financial is also subject to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission under the federal securities laws.

The regulatory and supervisory structure establishes a comprehensive framework of activities in which an institution can engage and is intended primarily for the protection of depositors and the deposit insurance funds, rather than for the protection of stockholders and creditors. The regulatory structure also gives the regulatory authorities extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including policies concerning the establishment of deposit insurance assessment fees, classification of assets and establishment of adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes.

The Dodd-Frank Act made extensive changes in the regulation of depository institutions and their holding companies. The Dodd-Frank Act created a new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau as an independent bureau of the Federal Reserve Board. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is responsible for the implementation of the federal financial consumer protection and fair lending laws and regulations, a function previously assigned to prudential regulators, and now has the authority to impose new requirements. However, institutions of less than $10 billion in assets, such as PCSB Bank, continue to be examined for compliance with consumer protection and fair lending laws and regulations by, and be subject to the enforcement authority of, their federal prudential regulator, although the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has back-up authority to examine and enforce consumer protection laws against all institutions, including institutions with less than $10 billion in assets.

In addition to creating the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the Dodd-Frank Act, among other things, directed changes in the way that institutions are assessed for deposit insurance, mandated the imposition of tougher

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consolidated capital requirements on holding companies, required the issuance of regulations requiring originators of securitized loans to retain a percentage of the risk for the transferred loans, imposed regulatory rate-setting for certain debit card interchange fees, repealed restrictions on the payment of interest on commercial demand deposits and contained a number of reforms related to mortgage originations. The Dodd-Frank Act has increased our compliance costs and we expect that these costs will persist.

The Dodd-Frank Act contained the so-called “Volcker Rule,” which generally prohibits banking organizations from engaging in proprietary trading and from investing in, sponsoring or having certain relationships with hedge or private equity funds (“covered funds”). The federal agencies have issued a final rule implementing the Volcker Rule which, among other things, requires banking organizations to restructure and limit certain of their investments in and relationships with covered funds.  PCSB Bank does not engage in activities subject to the Volcker Rule.

Any change in applicable laws or regulations, whether by the NYSDFS, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board, New York State or the U.S. Congress, could have a material adverse impact on the operations and financial performance of PCSB Financial and PCSB Bank. In addition, PCSB Financial and PCSB Bank will be affected by the monetary and fiscal policies of various agencies of the United States Government, including the Federal Reserve Board. In view of changing conditions in the national economy and in the money markets, it is impossible for management to accurately predict future changes in monetary policy or the effect of such changes on the business or financial condition of PCSB Financial and PCSB Bank.

Set forth below is a brief description of material regulatory requirements that are or will be applicable to PCSB Bank and PCSB Financial. The description is limited to certain material aspects of the statutes and regulations that are addressed, and is not intended to be a complete description of such statutes and regulations and their effects on PCSB Bank and PCSB Financial.

New York Banking Laws and Supervision

PCSB Bank, as a New York savings bank, is regulated and supervised by the NYSDFS, which is required to regularly examine each state-chartered bank. The approval of the NYSDFS is required to establish or close branches, to merge with another bank, to issue stock and to undertake many other activities. Any New York savings bank that does not operate according to the regulations, policies and directives of the NYSDFS may be sanctioned. The NYSDFS may suspend or remove directors or officers of a savings bank who have violated the law, conducted a bank’s business in a manner that is unsafe, unsound or contrary to the depositors’ interests, or been negligent in the performance of their duties. In addition, the NYSDFS has the authority to appoint a receiver or conservator if it is determined that the savings bank is conducting its business in an unsafe or unauthorized manner, and under certain other circumstances.

The powers that New York-chartered savings banks can exercise under these laws include, but are not limited to, the following:

Lending Activities. A New York-chartered savings bank may make a wide variety of mortgage loans including fixed-rate loans, adjustable-rate loans, variable-rate loans, participation loans, graduated payment loans, construction and development loans, condominium and co-operative loans, second mortgage loans and other types of loans that may be made according to applicable regulations. Commercial loans may be made to corporations and other commercial enterprises with or without security. Consumer and personal loans may also be made with or without security.

Investment Activities.  In general, PCSB Bank may invest in certain types of debt securities (including certain corporate debt securities, and obligations of federal, state, and local governments and agencies), certain types of corporate equity securities, and certain other assets. However, these investment authorities are constrained by federal law.  See “—Federal Bank Regulation—Investment Activities” for such federal restrictions.

Loans to One Borrower Limitations. Under the New York Banking Law, PCSB Bank’s total loans or extensions of credit to a single borrower or group of related borrowers cannot exceed, with specified exceptions, 15% of its capital stock, surplus fund and undivided profits. The Bank’s lending limit as of June 30, 2018 was $30.8

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million. PCSB Bank may lend additional amounts up to 10% if the loans or extensions of credit are fully secured by readily-marketable collateral. At June 30, 2018, PCSB Bank complied with these loans-to-one-borrower limitations.  At June 30, 2018, PCSB Bank’s largest aggregate amount of loans to one borrower was $23.7 million.

Dividends. Under New York banking law, PCSB Bank is permitted to declare and pay dividends out of its net profits, unless there is an impairment of capital.  Additionally, the approval of the NYSDFS is required if the total of all dividends declared in a calendar year would exceed the total of its net profits for that year combined with its retained net profits of the preceding two years, subject to certain adjustments provided for in the applicable law.

Loans to Directors and Executive Officers. Under applicable NYSDFS regulations (which are substantially similar to applicable federal banking regulations), PCSB Bank generally may not make a loan or other extension of credit to any of its executive officers or directors unless the loan or other extension of credit (i) is made on terms, including interest rate and collateral, that are not more favorable to the executive officer or director than those customarily offered by PCSB Bank to persons who are not executive officers or directors and who are not employed by PCSB Bank, and (ii) does not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. Depending on the size of the loan or other extension of credit, prior approval of PCSB Bank’s board of directors (with the interested party, if a director, abstaining from participating directly or indirectly in the voting) may be required.

Assessments. As a New York state-chartered savings bank, PCSB Bank is required to pay to the NYSDFS a general assessment fee in connection with the NYSDFS’ regulation and supervision (including examination) of PCSB Bank. Each state institution is billed five times per each fiscal year, with four estimated quarterly assessments set as approximately 25% of the annual amount based on the NYSDFS’ estimated annual budget at the time of the billing, and a final assessment, or “true-up,” based on the NYSDFS’ actual expenses for the fiscal year.  The FDIC does not charge a state bank for supervision, although as discussed below, it charges all insured depository institutions deposit insurance assessments in connection with its administration of the Deposit Insurance Fund.

Regulatory Enforcement Authority. Any New York bank that does not operate according to the regulations, policies and directives of the NYSDFS may be subject to sanctions for non-compliance, including seizure of the property and business of the savings bank and suspension or revocation of its charter. The NYSDFS may, under certain circumstances, suspend or remove officers or directors who have violated the law, conducted the savings bank’s business in a manner which is unsafe, unsound or contrary to the depositors’ interests or been negligent in the performance of their duties. In addition, upon finding that a bank has engaged in an unfair or deceptive act or practice, the NYSDFS may issue an order to cease and desist and impose a fine on the savings bank concerned.  New York consumer protection and civil rights statutes applicable to PCSB Bank permit private individual and class action law suits and provide for the rescission of consumer transactions, including loans, and the recovery of statutory and punitive damage and attorney’s fees in the case of certain violations of those statutes.

Recent New York Legislative and Regulatory Developments. The New York State Legislature and the NYSDFS have adopted and proposed new laws and regulations and issued new guidance in a number of areas affecting PCSB Bank’s operations. These include:

 

In June 2016, the New York Legislature enacted legislation to address "zombie properties", meaning residential property abandoned by a homeowner after the initiation, but prior to the completion of, a foreclosure proceeding. Under this law, a mortgagee bank has a duty to maintain and secure a residential real property where there is a reasonable basis to believe it is vacant and abandoned, and faces civil penalties up to $500 per violation, per property, per day for failing to do so. As enacted, the legislation does not apply to PCSB Bank because we originate, own, service and maintain our own mortgages and we originate less than 0.3 percent of one- to four-family real property mortgages in New York. However, there can be no assurance that any future amendments to this law will not include us.

 

In June 2016, the NYSDFS adopted a regulation that requires New York chartered banks to maintain programs to monitor and filter transactions for potential Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering violations and prevent transactions with sanctioned entities. The regulation requires regulated institutions annually to submit a board resolution or senior officer compliance finding confirming steps taken to ascertain compliance with the regulation. Under the new regulation, which became effective

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January 1, 2017, banks are required to review their transaction-monitoring and filtering programs and ensure that they are reasonably designed to comply with risk-based safeguards. The institutions also must adopt (at the institution’s option) an annual board resolution or senior officer compliance finding to certify compliance with the regulation beginning April 15, 2018. The resolution or finding must state that documents, reports, certifications and opinions of officers and other relevant parties have been reviewed by the board of directors or senior official to certify compliance with the regulation.

 

In March 2017, the NYSDFS adopted a regulation which requires New York chartered banks to establish and maintain a cybersecurity program designed to protect consumers and ensure the safety and soundness of the savings bank. The regulation, which is similar to guidance issued by the federal bank regulators, requires regulated financial institutions to establish a cybersecurity program; adopt a written cybersecurity policy; designate a Chief Information Security Officer responsible for implementing, overseeing and enforcing its new program and policy; and have policies and procedures designed to ensure the security of information systems and nonpublic information accessible to, or held by, third-parties, along with a variety of other requirements to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information systems. Certain sections of the regulation have transitional periods requiring compliance 180 days to 2 years from the effective day, with written certification of compliance to NYSDFS commencing on February 15, 2018. We believe that our cybersecurity policies and procedures comply with the new regulation.

 

In October 2016, the NYSDFS issued guidance regarding incentive compensation. The guidance prohibits the payment by New York chartered banks of incentive compensation tied to employee performance indicators, such as the number of accounts opened, or the number of products sold per customer, without effective risk management, oversight and control. Banks considering the adoption of such incentive compensation plans must balance between risks and rewards, emplace effective controls and risk management and have strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the board of directors. We will ensure that any incentive compensation plan we adopt will conform to this guidance. See “Management – Executive Compensation-Proposed Short-Term Incentive Plan”.

New York has other statutes and regulations that are similar to the federal provisions discussed below.

Federal Bank Regulation

Capital Requirements.  Under FDIC regulations, federally insured state-chartered banks that are not members of the Federal Reserve System (“state non-member banks”), such as PCSB Bank, are required to comply with minimum leverage capital requirements. The minimum leverage capital requirement is a ratio of Tier 1 capital to total assets that is not less than 4.0%. Tier 1 capital consists of “CET1” and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting specified requirements. CET1 is defined as common stock, plus related surplus, and retained earnings plus limited amounts of minority interest in the form of common stock, less the majority of the regulatory deductions.

The FDIC regulations require state non-member banks to maintain certain levels of regulatory capital in relation to regulatory risk-weighted assets. The ratio of regulatory capital to regulatory risk-weighted assets is referred to as a bank’s “risk-based capital ratio.” Risk-based capital ratios are determined by allocating assets and specified off-balance sheet items (including recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes and residual interests) to risk-weighted categories ranging from 0% to 1,250%, with higher levels of capital being required for the categories perceived as representing greater risk.

State non-member banks must maintain a minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0%, of which at least one-half must be Tier 1 capital. Total capital consists of Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital.  Tier 1 capital consists of common stock, plus related surplus and retained earnings.  Under the new capital rules, for most banking organizations, the most common form of Additional Tier 1 capital is noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and the most common form of Tier 2 capital is subordinated notes and a portion of the allowance for loan and lease losses, in each case, subject to the new capital rules’ specific requirements. Banks that engage in specified levels of trading activities are subject to adjustments in their risk-based capital calculation to ensure the maintenance of sufficient capital to support market risk.

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In July 2013, the FDIC and the other federal bank regulatory agencies issued a final rule that has revised their leverage and risk-based capital requirements and the method for calculating risk-weighted assets to make them consistent with agreements that were reached by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. Among other things, the rule establishes a new common equity Tier 1 minimum capital requirement (4.5% of risk-weighted assets), increases the minimum Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets requirement (from 4% to 6% of risk-weighted assets), sets the leverage ratio at a uniform 4% of total assets and assigns a higher risk weight (150%) to exposures that are more than 90 days past due or are on non-accrual status and to certain commercial real estate facilities that finance the acquisition, development or construction of real property. The final rule also requires unrealized gains and losses on certain “available-for-sale” securities holdings to be included for purposes of calculating regulatory capital requirements unless a one-time opt-out is exercised.  PCSB Bank has elected to exercise its one-time option to opt-out of the requirement under the final rule to include certain “available-for-sale” securities holdings for purposes of calculating its regulatory capital requirements. The rule limits a banking organization’s capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to executive officers if the banking organization does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” which, when fully phased in, will consist of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets in addition to the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements. The final rule became effective on January 1, 2015. The “capital conservation buffer” will be phased in from January 1, 2016 to January 1, 2019, when the full capital conservation buffer will be effective.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act required each federal banking agency to revise its risk-based capital standards for insured institutions to ensure that those standards take adequate account of interest-rate risk, concentration of credit risk, and the risk of nontraditional activities, as well as to reflect the actual performance and expected risk of loss on multi-family residential loans. The FDIC, along with the other federal banking agencies, adopted a regulation providing that the agencies will take into account the exposure of a bank’s capital and economic value to changes in interest rate risk in assessing a bank’s capital adequacy. The FDIC also has authority to establish individual minimum capital requirements in appropriate cases upon determination that an institution’s capital level is, or is likely to become, inadequate in light of the particular circumstances.

Standards for Safety and Soundness. As required by statute, the federal banking agencies adopted final regulations and Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness to implement safety and soundness standards. The guidelines set forth the safety and soundness standards that the federal banking agencies use to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. The guidelines address internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, credit underwriting, loan documentation, interest rate exposure, asset growth, asset quality, earnings and compensation, fees and benefits. The agencies have also established standards for safeguarding customer information. If the appropriate federal banking agency determines that an institution fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, the agency may require the institution to submit to the agency an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard.

Investment Activities. All state-chartered FDIC-insured banks, including savings banks, are generally limited in their investment activities to principal and equity investments of the type and in the amount authorized for national banks, notwithstanding state law, subject to certain exceptions. For example, state chartered banks may, with FDIC approval, continue to exercise state authority to invest in common or preferred stocks listed on a national securities exchange or the Nasdaq Global Market and in the shares of an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940. The maximum permissible investment is 100% of Tier 1 Capital, as specified by the FDIC’s regulations, or the maximum amount permitted by New York law, whichever is less.

In addition, the FDIC is authorized to permit such a state bank to engage in state-authorized activities or investments not permissible for national banks (other than non-subsidiary equity investments) if it meets all applicable capital requirements and it is determined that such activities or investments do not pose a significant risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund. The FDIC has adopted procedures for institutions seeking approval to engage in such activities or investments. In addition, a nonmember bank may control a subsidiary that engages in activities as principal that would only be permitted for a national bank to conduct in a “financial subsidiary” if a bank meets specified conditions and deducts its investment in the subsidiary for regulatory capital purposes.

Interstate Banking and Branching. Federal law permits well capitalized and well managed bank holding companies to acquire banks in any state, subject to Federal Reserve Board approval, certain concentration limits and

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other specified conditions. Interstate mergers of banks are also authorized, subject to regulatory approval and other specified conditions. In addition, among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act permits banks to establish de novo branches on an interstate basis provided that branching is authorized by the law of the host state for the banks chartered by that state.

Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action.  Federal law requires, among other things, that federal bank regulatory authorities take “prompt corrective action” with respect to banks that do not meet minimum capital requirements. For these purposes, the law establishes five capital categories: well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized.

The FDIC has adopted regulations to implement the prompt corrective action legislation. An institution is deemed to be “well capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 6.5% or greater. An institution is “adequately capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 4.0% or greater and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 4.5% or greater. An institution is “undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 4.0% or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 4.5%. An institution is deemed to be “significantly undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 3.0% or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 3.0%. An institution is considered to be “critically undercapitalized” if it has a ratio of tangible equity (as defined in the regulations) to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%. At June 30, 2018, PCSB Bank was classified as a “well capitalized” institution.

At each successive lower capital category, an insured depository institution is subject to more restrictions and prohibitions, including restrictions on growth, restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, restrictions or prohibitions on payment of dividends, and restrictions on the acceptance of brokered deposits. Furthermore, if an insured depository institution is classified in one of the undercapitalized categories, it is required to submit a capital restoration plan to the appropriate federal banking agency, and the holding company must guarantee the performance of that plan. Based upon its capital levels, a bank that is classified as well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, or undercapitalized may be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition, or an unsafe or unsound practice, warrants such treatment. An undercapitalized bank’s compliance with a capital restoration plan is required to be guaranteed by any company that controls the undercapitalized institution in an amount equal to the lesser of 5.0% of the institution’s total assets when deemed undercapitalized or the amount necessary to achieve the status of adequately capitalized. If an “undercapitalized” bank fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly undercapitalized.” “Significantly undercapitalized” banks must comply with one or more of a number of additional restrictions, including but not limited to an order by the FDIC to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets, cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks or dismiss directors or officers, and restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, compensation of executive officers and capital distributions by the parent holding company. “Critically undercapitalized” institutions are subject to additional measures including, subject to a narrow exception, the appointment of a receiver or conservator within 270 days after it obtains such status.

Transaction with Affiliates and Regulation W of the Federal Reserve Regulations. Transactions between banks and their affiliates are governed by federal law. An affiliate of a bank is any company or entity that controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the bank. In a holding company context, the parent bank holding company and any companies which are controlled by such parent holding company are affiliates of the bank (although subsidiaries of the bank itself, except financial subsidiaries, are generally not considered affiliates). Generally, Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act and the Federal Reserve Board’s Regulation W limit the extent to which the bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10.0% of such institution’s capital stock and surplus, and with all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20.0% of such institution’s capital stock and surplus.  Section 23B applies to “covered transactions” as well as to certain other transactions and requires that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the institution or subsidiary as those provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to, purchase of assets from, and issuance of a guarantee to an affiliate, and other similar transactions. Section 23B transactions also include the provision of services and the sale of assets by a bank to an affiliate. In addition, loans or other extensions of credit by the financial institution to the affiliate are required to be collateralized according to the requirements set forth in Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act.

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Sections 22(h) and (g) of the Federal Reserve Act place restrictions on loans to a bank’s insiders, i.e., executive officers, directors and principal shareholders. Under Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act, loans to a director, an executive officer and to a greater than 10.0% shareholder of a financial institution, and certain affiliated interests of these, together with all other outstanding loans to such person and affiliated interests, may not exceed specified limits. Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act also requires that loans to directors, executive officers and principal shareholders be made on terms substantially the same as offered in comparable transactions to other persons and also requires prior board approval for certain loans. In addition, the aggregate amount of extensions of credit by a financial institution to insiders cannot exceed the institution’s unimpaired capital and surplus. Section 22(g) of the Federal Reserve Act places additional restrictions on loans to executive officers.

Enforcement. The FDIC has extensive enforcement authority over insured state savings banks, including PCSB Bank. The enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, issue cease and desist orders and remove directors and officers. In general, these enforcement actions may be initiated in response to violations of laws and regulations, breaches of fiduciary duty and unsafe or unsound practices. The FDIC is required, with certain exceptions, to appoint a receiver or conservator for an insured state non-member bank if that bank was “critically undercapitalized” on average during the calendar quarter beginning 270 days after the date on which the institution became “critically undercapitalized.” It may also appoint itself as conservator or receiver for an insured state non-member bank under specified circumstances, including: (1) insolvency; (2) substantial dissipation of assets or earnings through violations of law or unsafe or unsound practices; (3) existence of an unsafe or unsound condition to transact business; (4) insufficient capital; or (5) the incurrence of losses that will deplete substantially all of the institution’s capital with no reasonable prospect of replenishment without federal assistance.

Federal Insurance of Deposit Accounts. PCSB Bank is a member of the Deposit Insurance Fund, which is administered by the FDIC. Deposit accounts in PCSB Bank are insured up to a maximum of $250,000 for each separately insured depositor.

The FDIC imposes an assessment for deposit insurance on all depository institutions. Under its risk-based assessment system, insured institutions are assigned to risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors. An institution’s assessment rate depends upon the category to which it is assigned and certain adjustments specified by regulation, with less risky institutions paying lower rates. Assessment rates (inclusive of possible adjustments) currently range from 2 1/2 to 45 basis points of each institution’s total assets less tangible capital. The FDIC may increase or decrease the scale uniformly, except that no adjustment can deviate by more than two basis points from the base scale without notice and comment rulemaking. The FDIC’s current system represents a change, required by the Dodd-Frank Act, from its prior practice of basing the assessment on an institution’s volume of deposits.

The Dodd-Frank Act increased the minimum target Deposit Insurance Fund ratio from 1.15% of estimated insured deposits to 1.35% of estimated insured deposits. The FDIC must seek to achieve the 1.35% ratio by September 30, 2020. Insured institutions with assets of $10 billion or more are supposed to fund the increase. The Dodd-Frank Act eliminated the 1.5% maximum fund ratio, instead leaving it to the discretion of the FDIC. It has recently exercised that discretion by establishing a long range fund ratio of 2%.

The FDIC has authority to increase insurance assessments. A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of PCSB Bank. Future insurance assessment rates cannot be predicted.

Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or regulatory condition imposed in writing. We do not know of any practice, condition or violation that might lead to termination of PCSB Bank’s deposit insurance.

In addition to the FDIC assessments, the Financing Corporation (“FICO”) is authorized to impose and collect, with the approval of the FDIC, assessments for anticipated payments, issuance costs and custodial fees on bonds issued by the FICO in the 1980s to recapitalize the former Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. The bonds issued by the FICO are due to mature in 2017 through 2019.

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Privacy Regulations. FDIC regulations generally require that PCSB Bank disclose its privacy policy, including identifying with whom it shares a customer’s “non-public personal information,” to customers at the time of establishing the customer relationship and annually thereafter. In addition, PCSB Bank is required to provide its customers with the ability to “opt-out” of having their personal information shared with unaffiliated third parties and not to disclose account numbers or access codes to non-affiliated third parties for marketing purposes. PCSB Bank currently has a privacy protection policy in place and believes that such policy is in compliance with the regulations.

Community Reinvestment Act. Under the Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, as implemented by FDIC, a state non-member bank has a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with its safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions nor does it limit an institution’s discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community, consistent with the CRA. The CRA requires the FDIC, in connection with its examination of a state non-member bank, to assess the institution’s record of meeting the credit needs of its community and to take such record into account in its evaluation of certain applications by such institution, including applications to acquire branches and other financial institutions. The CRA requires the FDIC to provide a written evaluation of an institution’s CRA performance utilizing a four-tiered descriptive rating system. PCSB Bank’s latest FDIC CRA rating was “Satisfactory.”

New York has its own statutory counterpart to the CRA, which is applicable to PCSB Bank. New York law requires the NYSDFS to consider a bank’s record of performance under New York law in considering any application by the bank to establish a branch or other deposit-taking facility, to relocate an office or to merge or consolidate with or acquire the assets and assume the liabilities of any other banking institution.  PCSB Bank’s most recent rating under New York law was “Satisfactory.”

Consumer Protection and Fair Lending Regulations. New York savings banks are subject to a variety of federal and New York statutes and regulations that are intended to protect consumers and prohibit discrimination in the granting of credit. These statutes and regulations provide for a range of sanctions for non-compliance with their terms, including imposition of administrative fines and remedial orders, and referral to the Attorney General for prosecution of a civil action for actual and punitive damages and injunctive relief. Certain of these statutes, including Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, which prohibits unfair and deceptive acts and practices against consumers, authorize private individual and class action lawsuits and the award of actual, statutory and punitive damages and attorneys’ fees for certain types of violations. New York’s Attorney General has vigorously enforced fair lending and other consumer protection laws. The Dodd Frank Act added a new statute that prohibits unfair, deceptive or abusive acts practices against consumers, which can be enforced by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the FDIC and state Attorneys General. The Superintendent of Financial Services of the State of New York has stated that NYDFS will vigorously enforce consumer protection laws to the extent that federal bank regulators reduce such enforcement.

USA Patriot Act. PCSB Bank is subject to the USA PATRIOT Act, which gave federal agencies additional powers to address terrorist threats through enhanced domestic security measures, expanded surveillance powers, increased information sharing, and broadened anti-money laundering requirements. By way of amendments to the Bank Secrecy Act, Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act provided measures intended to encourage information sharing among bank regulatory agencies and law enforcement bodies. Further, certain provisions of Title III impose affirmative obligations on a broad range of financial institutions, including banks, thrifts, brokers, dealers, credit unions, money transfer agents, and parties registered under the Commodity Exchange Act.

Other Regulations

Interest and other charges collected or contracted for by PCSB Bank are subject to state usury laws and federal laws concerning interest rates. Loan operations are also subject to state and federal laws applicable to credit transactions, such as the:

 

Truth in Lending Act, which requires lenders to disclose the terms and conditions of consumer credit;

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Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, which requires lenders to disclose the nature and costs of the real estate settlement process and prohibits specific practices, such as kickbacks, and places limitations upon the use of escrow accounts;

 

Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975, requiring financial institutions to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether a financial institution is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the community it serves;

 

Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the New York Executive Law, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, creed or other prohibited factors in extending credit;

 

Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1978, governing the use and provision of information to credit reporting agencies; and

 

Rules and regulations of the various federal and state agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing such federal and state laws.

The deposit operations of PCSB Bank also are subject to, among others, the:

 

Truth in Savings Act, which requires financial institutions to disclose the terms and conditions of their deposit accounts;

 

Expedited Funds Availability Act, which requires banks to make funds deposited in transaction accounts available to their customers within specified time frames;

 

Right to Financial Privacy Act, which imposes a duty to maintain confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribes procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records;

 

Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (also known as “Check 21”), which gives “substitute checks,” such as digital check images and copies made from that image, the same legal standing as the original paper check;

 

Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E promulgated thereunder, which govern automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of automated teller machines and other electronic banking services; and

 

New York banking laws and regulations, which governs deposit powers.

Federal Reserve System

Federal Reserve Board regulations require depository institutions to maintain reserves against their transaction accounts (primarily NOW and regular checking accounts). For 2018, the regulations generally require that reserves be maintained against aggregate transaction accounts as follows: for that portion of transaction accounts aggregating $122.3 million or less (which may be adjusted by the Federal Reserve Board) the reserve requirement is 3.0% and the amounts greater than $122.3 million require a 10.0% reserve (which may be adjusted annually by the Federal Reserve Board between 8.0% and 14.0%). The first $16.0 million of otherwise reservable balances (which may be adjusted by the Federal Reserve Board) are exempted from the reserve requirements.  PCSB Bank is in compliance with these requirements.  

Federal Home Loan Bank System

PCSB Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System, which consists of 12 regional Federal Home Loan Banks. The Federal Home Loan Bank provides a central credit facility primarily for member institutions.  Members of the Federal Home Loan Bank are required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank. PCSB Bank complied with this requirement at June 30, 2018. Based on redemption provisions of the FHLBNY, the stock has no quoted market value and is carried at cost. PCSB Bank reviews for impairment based on the ultimate recoverability of the cost basis of the FHLBNY stock. At June 30, 2018, no impairment has been recognized.

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At its discretion, the FHLBNY may declare dividends on the stock. The Federal Home Loan Banks are required to provide funds for certain purposes including the resolution of insolvent thrifts in the late 1980s and to contributing funds for affordable housing programs. These requirements could reduce the amount of dividends that the FHLB pay to their members and result in the FHLB imposing a higher rate of interest on advances to their members. While the FHLBNY currently pays a dividend on its capital stock, there can be no assurance that such dividends will continue in the future. Further, there can be no assurance that the impact of recent or future legislation on the FHLB also will not cause a decrease in the value of the FHLBNY stock held by PCSB Bank.  

Holding Company Regulation

PCSB Financial, as a bank holding company, is subject to examination, regulation, and periodic reporting under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, as administered by the Federal Reserve Board. In addition, the Federal Reserve Board has enforcement authority over PCSB Financial and its non-savings bank subsidiaries. Among other things, this authority permits the Federal Reserve Board to restrict or prohibit activities that are determined to be a serious risk to the subsidiary savings bank.

A bank holding company is generally prohibited from engaging in non-banking activities, or acquiring direct or indirect control of more than 5% of the voting securities of any company engaged in non-banking activities. One of the principal exceptions to this prohibition is for activities found by the Federal Reserve Board to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. Some of the principal activities that the Federal Reserve Board has determined by regulation to be so closely related to banking are: (i) making or servicing loans; (ii) performing certain data processing services; (iii) providing discount brokerage services; (iv) acting as fiduciary, investment or financial advisor; (v) leasing personal or real property; (vi) making investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare; and (vii) acquiring a savings and loan association whose direct and indirect activities are limited to those permitted for bank holding companies.

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 authorized a bank holding company that meets specified conditions, including being “well capitalized” and “well managed,” to opt to become a “financial holding company” and thereby engage in a broader array of financial activities than previously permitted. Such activities can include insurance underwriting and investment banking. PCSB Financial has not elected to become a financial holding company.

PCSB Financial is subject to the Federal Reserve Board’s capital adequacy guidelines for bank holding companies (on a consolidated basis), which have historically been similar to, though less stringent than, those of the FDIC for PCSB Bank. The Dodd-Frank Act, however, required the Federal Reserve Board to promulgate consolidated capital requirements for depository institution holding companies that are no less stringent, both quantitatively and in terms of components of capital, than those applicable to depository institutions themselves. Instruments such as cumulative preferred stock and trust preferred securities would no longer be includable as Tier 1 capital, as is currently the case with bank holding companies, subject to certain grandfathering rules. The previously discussed final rule regarding regulatory capital requirements implements the Dodd-Frank Act as to bank holding company capital standards. Consolidated regulatory capital requirements identical to those applicable to the subsidiary banks apply to bank holding companies (with greater than $1.0 billion of assets) at January 1, 2015.  As is the case with depository institutions themselves, the capital conservation buffer will be phased-in between 2016 and 2019.

A bank holding company is generally required to give the Federal Reserve Board prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of then outstanding equity securities if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of the company’s consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve Board may disapprove such a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would constitute an unsafe and unsound practice, or would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve Board order or directive, or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve Board. There is an exception to this approval requirement for well-capitalized bank holding companies that meet certain other conditions.

The Federal Reserve Board has issued a policy statement regarding capital distributions, including dividends, by bank holding companies. In general, the policies provide that dividends should be paid only out of current earnings and only if the prospective rate of earnings retention by the bank holding company appears consistent with

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the organization’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The policies also require that a bank holding company serve as a source of financial strength to its subsidiary banks by standing ready to use available resources to provide adequate capital funds to those banks during periods of financial stress or adversity and by maintaining the financial flexibility and capital-raising capacity to obtain additional resources for assisting its subsidiary banks where necessary. The Dodd-Frank Act codified the source of strength doctrine. Under the prompt corrective action laws, the ability of a bank holding company to pay dividends may be restricted if a subsidiary bank becomes undercapitalized. These regulatory policies could affect the ability of PCSB Financial to pay dividends or otherwise engage in capital distributions.

Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, depository institutions are liable to the FDIC for losses suffered or anticipated by the FDIC in connection with the default of a commonly controlled depository institution or any assistance provided by the FDIC to such an institution in danger of default.

The status of PCSB Financial as a registered bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 will not exempt it from certain federal and state laws and regulations applicable to corporations generally, including, without limitation, certain provisions of the federal securities laws.

New York Holding Company Regulation.  PCSB Financial is subject to regulation under New York banking law. Among other requirements, PCSB Financial must receive the approval of the NYSDFS before acquiring 10% or more of the voting stock of another banking institution, or to otherwise acquire a banking institution by merger or purchase.

Federal Securities Laws

PCSB Financial’s common stock is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. PCSB Financial is subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading restrictions and other requirements under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Emerging Growth Company Status

PCSB Financial qualifies as an emerging growth company under the The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”). Under the JOBS Act, a company with total annual gross revenues of less than $1.0 billion (adjusted for inflation) during its most recently completed fiscal year qualifies as an “emerging growth company.”  

An “emerging growth company” may choose not to hold shareholder votes to approve annual executive compensation (more frequently referred to as “say-on-pay” votes) or executive compensation payable in connection with a merger (more frequently referred to as “say-on-golden parachute” votes). An emerging growth company also is not subject to the requirement that its auditors attest to the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting, and can provide scaled disclosure regarding executive compensation. Finally, an emerging growth company may elect to comply with new or amended accounting pronouncements in the same manner as a private company but must make such election when the company is first required to file a registration statement.  Such an election is irrevocable during the period a company is an emerging growth company. PCSB Financial has elected to comply with new or amended accounting pronouncements in the same manner as a public company.

A company loses emerging growth company status on the earlier of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year of the company during which it had total annual gross revenues of $1.0 billion or more; (ii) the last day of the fiscal year of the issuer following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of common equity securities of the company pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933; (iii) the date on which such company has, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (iv) the date on which such company is deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under Securities and Exchange Commission regulations (generally, at least $700 million of voting and non-voting equity held by non-affiliates).

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is intended to improve corporate responsibility, to provide for enhanced penalties for accounting and auditing improprieties at publicly traded companies and to protect investors by

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improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures pursuant to the securities laws. PCSB Financial has policies, procedures and systems designed to comply with these regulations, and we review and document such policies, procedures and systems to ensure continued compliance with these regulations.

Change in Control Regulations

Under the Change in Bank Control Act, no person may acquire control of a bank holding company such as PCSB Financial unless the Federal Reserve Board has been given 60 days’ prior written notice and not disapproved the proposed acquisition. The Federal Reserve Board considers several factors in evaluating a notice, including the financial and managerial resources of the acquirer and competitive effects. Control, as defined under the applicable regulations, means the power, directly or indirectly, to direct the management or policies of the company or to vote 25% or more of any class of voting securities of the company. Acquisition of more than 10% of any class of a bank holding company’s voting securities constitutes a rebuttable presumption of control under certain circumstances, including where, as is the case with PCSB Financial, the issuer has registered securities under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  

Federal regulations provide that no company may acquire control (as defined in the Bank Holding Company Act) of a bank holding company without the prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board. Any company that acquires such control becomes a “bank holding company” subject to registration, examination and regulation by the Federal Reserve Board. In addition, under the New York Banking Law, for a period of three years following completion of a conversion to stock form, no person may directly or indirectly offer to acquire or acquire beneficial ownership of more than 10% of any class of equity security of a converting mutual savings bank without prior written approval of NYSDFS.

Taxation

Federal Taxation

General.  PCSB Financial and PCSB Bank are subject to federal income taxation in the same general manner as other corporations, with some exceptions discussed below. The following discussion of federal taxation is intended only to summarize material federal income tax matters and is not a comprehensive description of the tax rules applicable to PCSB Financial and PCSB Bank.

Tax Reform. On December 22, 2017, the Tax Act was enacted, which among other changes included a reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. As a result, the Company was required to remeasure, through income tax expense, the Company’s deferred tax assets and liabilities using the enacted rate at which the deferred items are expected to be recovered or settled. The remeasurement of our net deferred tax asset resulted in additional income tax expense of $1.6 million for the year ended June 30, 2018.

Method of Accounting. For federal income tax purposes, PCSB Bank currently reports its income and expenses on the accrual method of accounting and uses a tax year ending December 31 for filing its federal income tax returns.

Minimum Tax. As a result of the aforementioned tax reform, the alternative minimum tax rate is reduced from 20% to 0% for all tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. Alternative minimum tax credit carryforwards from prior tax years can be applied to reduce future taxable income and are refundable, subject to certain limitations. At June 30, 2018, PCSB Bank had no alternative minimum tax credit carryforwards.

Net Operating Loss Carryovers. Generally, a financial institution may carry forward net operating losses indefinitely and are subject to a limitation of 80% of taxable income. See Note 14 to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Charitable Contributions Carryovers. Generally, charitable contributions are limited to 10% of taxable income, however financial institutions may carryforward unused contributions for up to 5 years. At June 30, 2018 the Company has charitable contributions carryforwards totaling $3.8 million, for which we expect to fully realize the benefit. See Note 14 to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

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Capital Loss Carryovers. Generally, a financial institution may carry back capital losses to the preceding three taxable years and forward to the succeeding five taxable years. Any capital loss carryback or carryover is treated as a short-term capital loss for the year to which it is carried. As such, it is grouped with any other capital losses for the year to which carried and is used to offset any capital gains. Any undeducted loss remaining after the five-year carryover period is not deductible. At June 30, 2018, PCSB Bank had no capital loss carryovers.

Corporate Dividends. We may generally exclude from our income 100% of dividends received from PCSB Bank as a member of the same affiliated group of corporations. To date, no dividends have been paid by PCSB Bank.

Audit of Tax Returns.  PCSB Bank’s federal income tax returns and New York State income tax returns have not been audited in the last three years.

State Taxation

In March 2014, tax legislation was enacted that changed the manner in which financial institutions and their affiliates are taxed in New York State. Taxable income is apportioned to New York State based on the location of the taxpayer’s customers, with special rules for income from certain financial transactions. The location of the taxpayer’s offices and branches are not relevant to the determination of income apportioned to New York State. The statutory tax rate is currently 6.5%. An alternative tax of 0.15% on apportioned capital is imposed to the extent that it exceeds the tax on apportioned income. The New York State alternative tax is capped at $5 million for a tax year and is gradually phased out over a six-year period. Thrift institutions that maintain a qualified residential loan portfolio are entitled to a specially computed modification that reduces the income taxable to New York State.

The Company is also taxable in Connecticut and New Jersey, primarily as a result of income earned on loans where the borrower or the real estate collateral underlying the loan is located in these states.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

In the ordinary course of operating our business, we are exposed to a variety of risks inherent to the financial services industry. The following discusses what we believe to be the significant risk factors that could affect our business and operations. If any of the following conditions or events actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be negatively affected, the market price of your investment in the Company’s common stock could decline, and you could lose all or a part of your investment in the Company’s common stock.

Our emphasis on commercial real estate and commercial business lending involves risks that could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We originate and purchase commercial real estate and commercial business loans. At June 30, 2018, our commercial real estate and commercial business loans totaled $616.8 million, or 68.0% of our loan portfolio. While these types of loans are potentially more profitable than residential mortgage loans, they are generally more sensitive to regional and local economic conditions, making loss levels more difficult to predict. These loans also generally have relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Accordingly, any charge-offs may be larger on a per loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. See “—Loan Underwriting Risks.”

The level of our commercial real estate loan portfolio subjects us to additional regulatory scrutiny.

The FDIC and the other federal bank regulatory agencies have promulgated joint guidance on sound risk management practices for financial institutions with concentrations in commercial real estate lending. Under the guidance, a financial institution that, like us, is actively involved in commercial real estate lending should perform a risk assessment to identify concentrations. A financial institution may have a concentration in commercial real estate lending if, among other factors, (i) total reported loans for construction, land acquisition and development, and other land (“ADC loans”) represent 100% or more of total risk-based capital, or (ii) total reported loans secured by multi-family and non-owner occupied, non-farm, non-residential properties, loans for construction, land acquisition and development and other land, and loans otherwise sensitive to the general commercial real estate market, including

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loans to commercial real estate related entities, represent 300% or more of total risk-based capital. At June 30, 2018, the Bank’s ADC loans and total commercial real estate loans represented 13.13% and 228.58% of total risk-based capital.

The purpose of the guidance is to assist banks in developing risk management practices and capital levels commensurate with the level and nature of real estate concentrations. The guidance states that management should employ heightened risk management practices including board and management oversight and strategic planning, development of underwriting standards, risk assessment and monitoring through market analysis and stress testing. Our bank regulators could require us to implement additional policies and procedures consistent with their interpretation of the guidance that may result in additional costs to us or that may result in a curtailment of our multi-family and commercial real estate lending and/or the requirement that we maintain higher levels of regulatory capital, either of which would adversely affect our loan originations and profitability. We believe the Company has adequate risk management and monitoring policies and procedures in place to address the requirements of the guidance.

If our allowance for loan losses is not sufficient to cover actual loan losses, our earnings could decrease.  

We maintain an allowance for loan losses, which is established through a provision for loan losses that represents management’s best estimate of probable incurred losses within the existing portfolio of loans. We make various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of loans. In determining the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses, we rely on our experience and our evaluation of economic conditions. If our assumptions prove to be incorrect, our allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover losses inherent in our loan portfolio and adjustment may be necessary to allow for different economic conditions or adverse developments in our loan portfolio. Consequently, a problem with one or more loans could require us to significantly increase the level of our provision for loan losses. In addition, federal and state regulators periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase our provision for loan losses or recognize further loan charge-offs. Material additions to the allowance would materially decrease our net income.  

A worsening of economic conditions could reduce demand for our products and services and/or result in increases in our level of non-performing loans, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Unlike larger financial institutions that are more geographically diversified, our profitability depends primarily on the general economic conditions in our primary market area. Local economic conditions have a significant impact on our residential real estate, commercial real estate, construction and consumer loans, the ability of the borrowers to repay these loans and the value of the collateral securing these loans.

Deterioration in economic conditions could result in the following consequences, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations:

 

demand for our products and services may decline;

 

loan delinquencies, problem assets and foreclosures may increase;

 

collateral for loans, especially real estate, may decline in value, in turn reducing customers’ future borrowing power, and reducing the value of assets and collateral associated with existing loans;

 

the net worth and liquidity of loan guarantors may decline, impairing their ability to honor commitments to us.

Moreover, a significant decline in general economic conditions, caused by inflation, recession, acts of terrorism, an outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic calamities, unemployment or other factors beyond our control could further impact these local economic conditions and could further negatively affect the financial results of our banking operations. In addition, deflationary pressures, while possibly lowering our operating costs, could have a significant negative effect on our borrowers, especially our business borrowers, and the values of underlying collateral securing loans, which could negatively affect our financial performance.

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Changes in interest rates could reduce our profits.

Our profitability, like that of most financial institutions, depends to a large extent upon our net interest income, which is the difference between our interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans and securities, and our interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowed funds. Accordingly, our results of operations depend largely on movements in market interest rates and our ability to manage our interest-rate-sensitive assets and liabilities in response to these movements. Factors such as inflation, recession and instability in financial markets, among other factors beyond our control, may affect interest rates.  

If rates on our deposits reprice upwards faster than the rates on our long-term loans and investments, we would experience compression of our interest rate spread, which would have a negative effect on our profitability. Furthermore, increases in interest rates may adversely affect the ability of our borrowers to make loan repayments on adjustable-rate loans, as the interest owed on such loans would increase as interest rates increase. Conversely, decreases in interest rates can result in increased prepayments of loans and mortgage-related securities, as borrowers refinance to reduce their borrowing costs. Under these circumstances, we are subject to reinvestment risk as we may have to redeploy such loan or securities proceeds into lower-yielding assets, which might also negatively impact our income. If interest rates rise, we expect that our net portfolio value of equity would decrease. Net portfolio value of equity represents the present value of the expected cash flows from our assets less the present value of the expected cash flows arising from our liabilities adjusted for the value of off-balance sheet contracts. At June 30, 2018, and assuming a 200 basis point increase in market interest rates, we estimate that our net portfolio value of equity would decrease by $50.7 million, or 15.2%. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Management of Market Risk—Net Portfolio Value Simulation.”

Any substantial, unexpected, prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. While we pursue an asset/liability strategy designed to mitigate our risk from changes in interest rates, changes in interest rates can still have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Changes in the level of interest rates also may negatively affect our ability to originate real estate loans, the value of our assets and our ability to realize gains from the sale of our assets, all of which ultimately affect our earnings. Also, our interest rate risk modeling techniques and assumptions may not fully predict or capture the impact of actual interest rate changes on our balance sheet or projected operating results.  For further discussion of how changes in interest rates could impact us, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Management of Market Risk.”

Changes in the valuation of our securities portfolio could reduce our profits and reduce our capital levels.  

Our securities portfolio may be impacted by fluctuations in market value, potentially reducing accumulated other comprehensive income and/or earnings. Fluctuations in market value may be caused by changes in market interest rates, lower market prices for securities and limited investor demand. Management evaluates securities for other-than-temporary impairment on a quarterly basis, with more frequent evaluation for selected issues. In analyzing a debt issuer’s financial condition, management considers whether the securities are issued by the federal government or its agencies, whether downgrades by bond rating agencies have occurred, industry analysts’ reports and, to a lesser extent, spread differentials between the effective rates on instruments in the portfolio compared to risk-free rates. In analyzing an equity issuer’s financial condition, management considers industry analysts’ reports, financial performance and projected target prices of investment analysts within a one-year time frame. If this evaluation shows impairment to the actual or projected cash flows associated with one or more securities, a potential loss to earnings may occur. Except for a nominal investment in a community development fund, PCSB Bank has no equity securities in its portfolio. Changes in interest rates can also have an adverse effect on our financial condition, as our available-for-sale securities are reported at their estimated fair value, and therefore are impacted by fluctuations in interest rates. We increase or decrease our shareholders’ equity by the amount of change in the estimated fair value of the available-for-sale securities, net of taxes. Declines in market value could result in other-than-temporary impairments of these assets, which would lead to accounting charges that could have a material adverse effect on our net income and capital levels.  See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Securities Portfolio.”

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Changes in laws and regulations and the cost of regulatory compliance with new laws and regulations may adversely affect our operations and/or increase our costs of operations.

We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by our banking regulators. Such regulation and supervision governs the activities in which an institution and its holding company may engage and are intended primarily for the protection of insurance funds and the depositors and borrowers of PCSB Bank rather than for holders of our common stock. Regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the imposition of restrictions on our operations, the classification of our assets and determination of the level of our allowance for loan losses. These regulations, along with the currently existing tax, accounting, securities, deposit insurance, monetary laws, rules, standards, policies, and interpretations control the methods by which financial institutions conduct business, implement strategic initiatives and tax compliance, and govern financial reporting and disclosures. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of federal and state taxation, regulatory policy, regulations, legislation or supervisory action, may have a material impact on our operations. Further, changes in accounting standards can be both difficult to predict and involve judgment and discretion in their interpretation by us and our independent accounting firms. These changes could materially impact, potentially retroactively, how we report our financial condition and results of operations as could our interpretation of those changes.

Strong competition within our market area could reduce our profits and slow growth.  

We face intense competition in making loans and attracting deposits. Price competition for loans and deposits sometimes results in us charging lower interest rates on our loans and paying higher interest rates on our deposits and may reduce our net interest income. Competition also makes it more difficult, and costly to attract and retain qualified employees. Many of the institutions with which we compete have substantially greater resources and lending limits than we have and may offer services that we do not provide. Our competitors often aggressively price loan and deposit products when they enter into new lines of business or new market areas. If we are not able to effectively compete in our market area, our profitability may be negatively affected. The greater resources and broader offering of deposit and loan products of some of our competitors may also limit our ability to increase our interest-earning assets.  

We have become subject to more stringent capital requirements, which may adversely impact our return on equity, require us to raise additional capital, or constrain us from paying dividends or repurchasing shares.

In July 2013, the federal banking agencies approved a new rule that has substantially amended regulatory risk-based capital rules. The final rule implements the regulatory capital reforms from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (“Basel III”) and changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act.

The final rule includes new minimum risk-based capital and leverage ratios, which were effective for us on January 1, 2015, and refines the definition of what constitutes “capital” for purposes of calculating these ratios. The new minimum capital requirements are: (i) a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5%; (ii) a Tier 1 to risk-based assets capital ratio of 6% (increased from 4%); (iii) a total capital ratio of 8% (unchanged from prior rules); and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4%. The final rule also requires unrealized gains and losses on certain “available-for-sale” securities holdings to be included for purposes of calculating regulatory capital requirements unless a one-time opt-out is exercised. We have elected to exercise our one-time option to opt-out of the requirement under the final rule to include certain “available-for-sale” securities holdings for purposes of calculating our regulatory capital requirements. The final rule also establishes a “capital conservation buffer” of 2.5%, and, when fully phased in, will result in the following minimum ratios: (i) a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 7.0%, (ii) a Tier 1 to risk-based assets capital ratio of 8.5%, and (iii) a total capital ratio of 10.5%. The new capital conservation buffer requirement has been phased in beginning in January 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and would increase each year until fully implemented in January 2019. An institution will be subject to limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases, and paying discretionary bonuses if its capital level falls below the buffer amount. These limitations will establish a maximum percentage of eligible retained income that can be utilized for such actions.  

We have analyzed the effects of these new capital requirements, and we believe that we would meet all of these new requirements, including the full 2.5% capital conservation buffer, as if these new requirements had been in effect as of June 30, 2018.

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The application of more stringent capital requirements could, among other things, result in lower returns on equity, require the raising of additional capital, and result in regulatory actions if we were to be unable to comply with such requirements. Furthermore, the imposition of liquidity requirements in connection with the implementation of Basel III could result in our having to lengthen the term of our funding, restructure our business models, and/or increase our holdings of liquid assets. Implementation of changes to asset risk weightings for risk-based capital calculations, items included or deducted in calculating regulatory capital and/or additional capital conservation buffers could result in management modifying its business strategy, and could limit our ability to make distributions, including paying out dividends or buying back shares. See “Supervision and Regulation—Federal Bank Regulation—Capital Requirements.”

Non-compliance with the USA PATRIOT Act, Bank Secrecy Act, or other laws and regulations could result in fines or sanctions.

The USA PATRIOT and Bank Secrecy Acts require financial institutions to develop programs to prevent financial institutions from being used for money laundering and terrorist activities. If such activities are detected, financial institutions are obligated to file suspicious activity reports with the U.S. Treasury’s Office of Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. These rules require financial institutions to establish procedures for identifying and verifying the identity of customers seeking to open new financial accounts. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines or sanctions, including restrictions on conducting acquisitions or establishing new branches.  During the last year, several banking institutions have received large fines for non-compliance with these laws and regulations. While we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, these policies and procedures may not be effective in preventing violations of these laws and regulations.

Legal and regulatory proceedings and related matters could adversely affect us.

We, and other participants in the financial services industry upon whom we rely to operate, have been and may in the future become involved in litigation and regulatory proceedings. Most of these proceedings we consider to be in the normal course of our business or typical for the industry; however, it is inherently difficult to assess the outcome of these matters and we may not prevail in any proceeding or litigation. Additionally, regulatory proceedings and litigation can be costly and could divert management resources from the Company’s business. Regardless of the merits of a particular claim, and whether or not we ultimately prevail, litigation and regulatory proceedings could have a materially adverse effect on our business, brand or image, or our financial condition and results of our operations.

Various factors may make takeover attempts more difficult to achieve.

Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws and state and federal banking laws, including regulatory approval requirements, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of PCSB Financial without our board of directors’ prior approval.

 

Under Federal Reserve Board regulations, for a period of three years following completion of the conversion and offering, no person may directly or indirectly acquire or offer to acquire beneficial ownership of more than 10% of our common stock without prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board. Under federal law, subject to certain exemptions, a person, entity or group must notify the Federal Reserve Board before acquiring control of a bank holding company. Acquisition of 10% or more of any class of voting stock of a bank holding company creates a rebuttable presumption that the acquirer “controls” the bank holding company. Also, a bank holding company must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board and the NYSDFS before, among other things, acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of any class of voting shares of any bank, including PCSB Bank.

There also are provisions in our articles of organization that may be used to delay or block a takeover attempt, including a provision that prohibits any person from voting more than 10% of the shares of common stock outstanding. Furthermore, shares of restricted stock and stock options that we have granted or may grant to employees and directors, stock ownership by our management and directors, employment agreements that we have entered into with our executive officers and other factors may make it more difficult for companies or persons to

26


 

acquire control of the Company without the consent of our board of directors. Taken as a whole, these statutory provisions and provisions in our articles of incorporation could result in our being less attractive to a potential acquirer and thus could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Our funding sources may prove insufficient to replace deposits at maturity and support our future growth.  

We must maintain sufficient funds to respond to the needs of depositors and borrowers. As a part of our liquidity management, we use a number of funding sources in addition to core deposit growth and repayments and maturities of loans and investments. These additional sources consist primarily of advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank and wholesale deposits. As we continue to grow, we are likely to become more dependent on these sources. Adverse operating results or changes in industry conditions could lead to difficulty or an inability in accessing these additional funding sources. Our financial flexibility will be severely constrained if we are unable to maintain our access to funding or if adequate financing is not available to accommodate future growth at acceptable interest rates. If we are required to rely more heavily on more expensive funding sources to support future growth, our revenues may not increase proportionately to cover our costs. In this case, our operating margins and profitability would be adversely affected.

Our success depends on retaining certain key personnel.

Our performance largely depends on the talents and efforts of highly skilled individuals who comprise our senior management team. We rely on key personnel to manage and operate our business, including major revenue generating functions such as loan and deposit generation. The loss of key staff may adversely affect our ability to maintain and manage these functions effectively, which could negatively affect our revenues. In addition, loss of key personnel could result in increased recruiting and hiring expenses, which could cause a decrease in our net income.  Our continued ability to compete effectively depends on our ability to attract new employees and to retain and motivate our existing employees.  

System failure or breaches of our network security could subject us to increased operating costs as well as litigation and other liabilities.  

The computer systems and network infrastructure we and our third-party service providers use could be vulnerable to unforeseen problems. Our operations are dependent upon our ability to protect our computer equipment against damage from physical theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or a similar catastrophic event, as well as from security breaches, denial of service attacks, viruses, worms and other disruptive problems caused by hackers. Any breach, damage or failure that causes an interruption in our operations could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations due to the time and money needed to correct the issue. Computer break-ins, phishing and other disruptions could also jeopardize the security of information stored in and transmitted through our computer systems and network infrastructure, which may result in significant liability to us and may cause existing and potential customers to refrain from doing business with us. The Company has emplaced controls to defeat threats to its operating systems. Despite these safeguards, the Company cannot be certain that all of its systems are entirely free from vulnerability to attack or other technological difficulties or failures, such as cyber-attacks. In addition, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the algorithms we and our third-party service providers use to encrypt and protect customer transaction data. A failure of such security measures could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We have general liability and cyber-related insurance, however there are limitations on coverage as well as dollar amount. Finally, depending on the type of incident, banking regulators can impose restrictions on our business and consumer laws may require reimbursement of customer losses.

Our business may be adversely affected by fraud and other financial crimes.

Our loans to businesses and individuals and our deposit relationships and related transactions are subject to exposure to the risk of loss due to fraud and other financial crimes. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent such losses, losses may still occur which could cause both financial and reputational harm.

27


 

Managing reputational risk is important to attracting and maintaining customers, investors and employees.

Threats to our reputation can come from many sources, including adverse sentiment about financial institutions generally, unethical practices, employee misconduct, failure to deliver minimum standards of service or quality, compliance deficiencies, and questionable or fraudulent activities of our customers. We have policies and procedures in place to protect our reputation and promote ethical conduct, but these policies and procedures may not be fully effective. Negative publicity regarding our business, employees, or customers, with or without merit, may result in the loss of customers and employees, costly litigation and increased governmental regulation, all of which could adversely affect our operating results.

Changes in management’s estimates and assumptions may have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and our financial condition or operating results.

In preparing our consolidated financial statements, our management is and will be required under applicable rules and regulations to make estimates and assumptions at a specified date. These estimates and assumptions are based on management’s best estimates and experience at that date and are subject to substantial risk and uncertainty. Materially different results may occur as circumstances change and additional information becomes known. Areas requiring significant estimates and assumptions by management include our valuation of investment securities, our determination of our income tax provision, our determination of goodwill impairment, and our evaluation of the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses.

Our operations may be adversely affected if our external vendors do not perform as expected.

The Company relies on certain external vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain its day-to-day operations. These include, but are not limited to, data processing and storage, recording and monitoring transactions, internet connections and network access. The Company’s operations are exposed to the risk that these vendors will not perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements under service level agreements. The failure of an external vendor to perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements under service level agreements because of changes in the vendor’s organizational structure, financial condition, support for existing products and services or strategic focus or for any other reason, could disrupt the Company’s operations. If we are unable to find alternative sources for our vendors’ services and products quickly and cost-effectively, the failures of our vendors could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business and, in turn, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Counterparties expose the Company to risks.

The Company intends to use derivative financial instruments, primarily interest rate swaps, which will expose it to financial and contractual risks with counterparty banks. Additionally, the Company maintains correspondent bank relationships, manages certain loan participations, and engages in securities transactions and other activities with financial counterparties which are customary in the banking business. Financial risks are inherent in these counterparty relationships.

Our inability to achieve profitability on new branches may negatively affect our earnings.

We may pursue further expansion through de novo branching or the purchase of branches from other financial institutions. The profitability of these branches will depend on whether the income that we generate from the new branches will offset the increased expenses resulting from operating these branches. We expect that it may take a period of time before these branches can become profitable, especially in areas in which we do not have an established presence. During this period, the expense of operating these branches may negatively affect our net income.

The risks presented by acquisitions could adversely affect the Company's financial condition and result of operations.

The Company’s business strategy includes growth through acquisitions, which present risks, including: regulatory approval delays, operations and personnel integration challenges, potential ongoing business disruption,

28


 

difficulty maintaining uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies, issues with information systems integration and the impairment of relationships with employees and customers as a result of changes in ownership and management. Further, the asset quality or other financial characteristics of a company may deteriorate after the acquisition agreement is signed or after the acquisition closes.

Our risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risk and reducing the potential for significant losses.  

Our risk management framework is designed to minimize risk and loss to us. We seek to identify, measure, monitor, report and control our exposure to risk, including strategic, market, liquidity, compliance and operational risks. While we use a broad and diversified set of risk monitoring and mitigation techniques, these techniques are inherently limited because they cannot anticipate the existence or future development of currently unanticipated or unknown risks. Recent economic conditions, increased cybersecurity threats, and heightened legislative and regulatory scrutiny of the financial services industry, among other developments, have increased our level of risk.  Accordingly, we could suffer losses as a result of our failure to anticipate and manage these risks.  

We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with lending activities.

A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate, and we could become subject to environmental liabilities with respect to one or more of these properties. During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing defaulted loans. In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous conditions or toxic substances are found on these properties, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage, civil fines and criminal penalties regardless of when the hazardous conditions or toxic substances first affected any particular property. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses to address unknown liabilities and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability. Although we have policies and procedures to perform an environmental review before initiating any foreclosure action on nonresidential real property, these reviews may not be sufficient to detect all potential environmental hazards. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on us.

Loan participations could expose the Company to losses.

We purchase and participate in residential, business and commercial real estate loans with other financial institutions. The agreements documenting these transactions typically provide for retention by the selling institution of the servicing of the participated loans and require that institution to service the loan with the same degree of care that it uses for loans in its portfolio. However, if the servicing institution fails to administer loans in accordance with its contractual obligations, for example, by neglecting to enforce lender’s rights and remedies against a defaulting borrower, or by waiving or modifying loan terms without our consent, we could incur significant losses, including loss of the outstanding principal balance.

 

We may be adversely affected by recent changes in U.S. tax laws and regulations.

Changes in tax laws contained in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which was enacted in December 2017, include a number of provisions that will have an impact on the banking industry, borrowers and the market for single-family residential real estate. Included in this legislation is a reduction of the corporate income tax rate from 34% to 21%. In addition, other changes include (i) a lower limit on the deductibility of mortgage interest on single-family residential mortgage loans, (ii) the elimination of interest deductions for home equity loans, (iii) a limitation on the deductibility of business interest expense and (iv) a limitation on the deductibility of property taxes and state and local income taxes. These recent changes in the tax laws may have an adverse effect on the market for, and valuation of, residential properties, and on the demand for such loans in the future and could make it harder for borrowers to make their loan payments. In addition, these recent changes may also have a disproportionate effect on taxpayers in states with high residential home prices and high state and local taxes, such as New York. If home ownership becomes less attractive, demand for mortgage loans could decrease. The value of the properties securing loans in our

29


 

loan portfolio may be adversely impacted as a result of the changing economics of home ownership, which could require an increase in our provision for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our ability to pay dividends is subject to regulatory limitations and other limitations.

PCSB Financial is a separate legal entity from our subsidiary, the Bank, and we do not have significant operations of our own. The availability of dividends from the Bank is limited by various statutes and regulations. It is possible, depending upon the financial condition of the Bank and other factors, that the Bank’s regulators could assert that payment of dividends or other payments may result in an unsafe or unsound practice. In addition, under the Dodd-Frank Act, we are subjected to consolidated capital requirements and must serve as a source of strength to the Bank. If the Bank is unable to pay dividends to us or we are required to retain capital or contribute capital to the Bank, we may not be able to pay dividends on our common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2. Properties

At June 30, 2018, we conducted business through our administrative/headquarters office in Yorktown Heights and our 15 banking offices located in Brewster (main banking office), Eastchester, Fishkill, Greenburgh, Jefferson Valley, Kent, Mahopac, Mount Kisco, Mount Vernon, New City, Pawling (2 branch offices), East White Plains, Somers, and Yorktown Heights, all of which are located in New York.  We own 4 and lease 12 of our properties.  At June 30, 2018, the net book value of our land, buildings, furniture, fixtures and equipment was $11.6 million. The Company’s and Bank’s executive offices/headquarters are located in a leased facility at 2651 Strang Blvd., Suite 100, Yorktown Heights, New York.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Periodically, there have been various claims and lawsuits against us, such as claims to enforce liens, condemnation proceedings on properties in which we hold security interests, claims involving the making and servicing of real property loans and other issues incident to our business. We are not a party to any pending legal proceedings that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

30


 

PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

 

The Company’s shares of common stock are traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “PCSB”. The approximate number of stockholders of record of the Company’s common stock as of June 30, 2018 is 1,438.

 

The following tables set forth for the periods indicated the intra-day high and low sales prices per share of common stock as reported by The Nasdaq Stock Market. The Company completed its initial public offering on April 20, 2017, and its stock commenced trading on April 21, 2017. Prior to the initial public offering, the Company had no shares issued or outstanding. On June 30, 2018, the closing market price of the Company’s common stock was $19.87.

 

 

 

Year Ended June 30, 2018

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

Dividend

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

21.66

 

 

$

19.61

 

 

$

0.03

 

Third Quarter

 

 

21.95

 

 

 

18.92

 

 

 

 

Second Quarter

 

 

20.12

 

 

 

18.25

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

 

18.94

 

 

 

16.69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended June 30, 2017

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

Dividend

 

Fourth Quarter (from April 21, 2017)

 

$

17.91

 

 

$

16.24

 

 

$

 

Third Quarter

 

N/A

 

 

N/A

 

 

 

 

Second Quarter

 

N/A

 

 

N/A

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

N/A

 

 

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividends

 

The Company’s board of directors has the authority to declare dividends on our shares of common stock, subject to statutory and regulatory requirements. In determining whether to pay a cash dividend and the amount of such cash dividend, the board of directors is expected to take into account a number of factors, including capital requirements, our consolidated financial condition and results of operations, other uses of funds for the long-term value of stockholders, tax considerations, statutory and regulatory limitations and general economic conditions. No assurances can be given that any dividends will be paid or that, if paid, will not be reduced or eliminated in the future. Special cash dividends, stock dividends or returns of capital, to the extent permitted by applicable law, may be paid in addition to, or in lieu of, regular cash dividends. PCSB Financial files a consolidated tax return with PCSB Bank. Accordingly, any cash distributions made by us to our stockholders would be treated as cash dividends and not as a non-taxable return of capital for federal and state tax purposes. Additionally, pursuant to applicable regulations, during the three-year period following our stock offering, we will not take any action to declare an extraordinary dividend to stockholders that would be treated by recipients as a tax-free return of capital for federal income tax purposes.

 

The Federal Reserve Board has issued a policy statement regarding the payment of dividends by bank holding companies. In general, the policy provides that dividends should be paid only out of current earnings and only if the prospective rate of earnings retention by the holding company appears consistent with the organization’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. In addition, the Federal Reserve Board has established requirements with respect to the maintenance of appropriate levels of capital by registered bank holding companies. These regulatory policies and requirements could affect our ability to pay dividends. See “Regulation and Supervision-Holding Company Regulation.” and “–Federal Bank Regulation–Capital Requirements.”

 

Initially, dividends we can declare and pay will depend upon the net proceeds retained from the stock offering and the earnings received from the investment of those proceeds.  In the future, dividends will depend in large part

31


 

upon receipt of dividends from PCSB Bank, because we expect to have limited sources of income other than dividends from PCSB Bank, net income earned on the net proceeds of the offering and interest payments received in connection with the loan to the employee stock ownership plan

 

Pursuant to our articles of incorporation, we are authorized to issue preferred stock. If we issue preferred stock, the holders thereof may have a priority over the holders of our shares of common stock with respect to the payment of dividends. We have no preferred stock outstanding and currently have no plans to issue preferred stock in the future.

 

New York banking law and FDIC regulations impose limitations on capital distributions by savings institutions. See “Supervision and Regulation-New York Banking Laws and Supervision-Dividends.”

 

Any payment of dividends by PCSB Bank to us that would be deemed to be drawn out of PCSB Bank’s bad debt reserves, if any, would require a payment of taxes at the then-current tax rate by PCSB Bank on the amount of earnings deemed to be removed from the reserves for such distribution. PCSB Bank does not intend to make any distribution to us that would create such a federal tax liability.

 

On August 2, 2018, the Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.03 per share. The dividend was paid on August 31, 2018 to stockholders of record on August 17, 2018.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities

 

None.

 

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

 

None.

 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

None.

32


 

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The summary information presented below at or for each of the periods presented is derived in part from and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements of the Company presented in Item 8.

 

 

At June 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

Selected Financial Condition Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Assets

$

1,480,187

 

 

$

1,426,458

 

 

$

1,262,071

 

 

$

1,200,750

 

 

$

976,630

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

62,145

 

 

 

60,486

 

 

 

41,578

 

 

 

77,761

 

 

 

105,250

 

Securities held-to-maturity

 

353,183

 

 

 

383,551

 

 

 

270,679

 

 

 

269,913

 

 

 

267,146

 

Securities available-for-sale

 

105,504

 

 

 

111,889

 

 

 

112,351

 

 

 

84,943

 

 

 

72,109

 

Loans receivable, net

 

902,336

 

 

 

809,648

 

 

 

782,336

 

 

 

727,134

 

 

 

507,161

 

Goodwill and other intangibles

 

6,539

 

 

 

6,665

 

 

 

6,808

 

 

 

6,703

 

 

 

-

 

Total Liabilities

 

1,192,628

 

 

 

1,146,612

 

 

 

1,152,122

 

 

 

1,090,479

 

 

 

864,991

 

Deposits

 

1,157,457

 

 

 

1,088,461

 

 

 

1,112,695

 

 

 

1,060,505

 

 

 

856,518

 

Federal Home Loan Bank advances

 

18,841

 

 

 

42,598

 

 

 

20,081

 

 

 

14,000

 

 

 

-

 

Total shareholders' equity (total equity before June 30, 2017)

 

287,559

 

 

 

279,846

 

 

 

109,949

 

 

 

110,271

 

 

 

111,639

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended June 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

Selected Operating Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest and dividend income

$

47,960

 

 

$

40,958

 

 

$

39,044

 

 

$

28,827

 

 

$

25,864

 

Interest expense

 

6,323

 

 

 

5,293

 

 

 

4,812

 

 

 

3,884

 

 

 

3,634

 

Net interest income

 

41,637

 

 

 

35,665

 

 

 

34,232

 

 

 

24,943

 

 

 

22,230

 

Provision for loan losses

 

414

 

 

 

823

 

 

 

1,859

 

 

 

1,326

 

 

 

903

 

Net interest income after provision

 

41,223

 

 

 

34,842

 

 

 

32,373

 

 

 

23,617

 

 

 

21,327

 

Non-interest income (1)

 

2,519

 

 

 

4,084

 

 

 

1,951

 

 

 

1,567

 

 

 

1,650

 

Non-interest expense (2)(3)

 

32,116

 

 

 

34,431

 

 

 

30,265

 

 

 

23,974

 

 

 

20,651

 

Income before income tax expense

 

11,626

 

 

 

4,495

 

 

 

4,059

 

 

 

1,210

 

 

 

2,326

 

Income tax expense (4)

 

5,022

 

 

 

1,266

 

 

 

1,133

 

 

 

702

 

 

 

699

 

Net income

$

6,604

 

 

$

3,229

 

 

$

2,926

 

 

$

508

 

 

$

1,627

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Non-interest income for the year ended June 30, 2018 includes $236,000 of gains on sale of securities and the year ended June 30, 2017 includes a $1.6 million settlement on an acquired loan, respectively.

(2)

Non-interest expense for the years ended June 30, 2016 and 2015 include merger expenses of $790,000 and $1.1 million, respectively.

(3)

Non-interest expense for the year ended June 30, 2017 includes a $5.0 million contribution expense related to the Company’s contribution and establishment of the PCSB Community Foundation, as well as a $919,000 curtailment gain on the Bank’s defined benefit pension plan.

(4)

In connection with the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the Company recorded a $1.6 million charge to income tax expense for the year ended June 30, 2018, primarily reflecting a write-down of our deferred tax asset resulting from a decrease in the corporate income tax rate from 34% to 21%.

33


 

 

 

At or For the Year Ended June 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

Selected Financial Ratios:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Return on average assets (1)

 

0.46

%

 

 

0.25

%

 

 

0.24

%

 

 

0.05

%

 

 

0.17

%

Return on average equity (2)

 

2.33

 

 

 

2.14

 

 

 

2.59

 

 

 

0.45

 

 

 

1.47

 

Noninterest income to average assets

 

0.18

 

 

 

0.31

 

 

 

0.16

 

 

 

0.15

 

 

 

0.17

 

Noninterest expense to average assets

 

2.24

 

 

 

2.64

 

 

 

2.48

 

 

 

2.34

 

 

 

2.14

 

Interest rate spread

 

2.86

 

 

 

2.79

 

 

 

2.84

 

 

 

2.41

 

 

 

2.27

 

Net interest margin (3)

 

3.03

 

 

 

2.88

 

 

 

2.92

 

 

 

2.50

 

 

 

2.30

 

Efficiency ratio (4)(7)

 

72.73

 

 

 

86.62

 

 

 

83.64

 

 

 

90.43

 

 

 

86.46

 

Dividend payout ratio (8)

 

7.63

 

 

n/a

 

 

n/a

 

 

n/a

 

 

n/a

 

Average interest-earning assets to average interest-bearing liabilities

 

135.94

 

 

 

122.32

 

 

 

120.01

 

 

 

122.55

 

 

 

125.00

 

Loans to deposits

 

77.96

 

 

 

74.38

 

 

 

70.31

 

 

 

68.56

 

 

 

59.21

 

Equity to assets (5)

 

19.80

 

 

 

11.59

 

 

 

9.27

 

 

 

11.03

 

 

 

11.47

 

Tangible equity to tangible assets (6)

 

19.43

 

 

 

11.13

 

 

 

8.77

 

 

 

10.93

 

 

 

11.47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book value per common share

$

15.83

 

 

$

15.41

 

 

n/a

 

 

n/a

 

 

n/a

 

Tangible book value per common share (7)

$

15.47

 

 

$

15.04

 

 

n/a

 

 

n/a

 

 

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital Ratios:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tier 1 capital (to adjusted total assets)

 

19.54

%

 

 

19.95

%

 

 

8.92

%

 

 

8.88

%

 

 

11.73

%

Tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets)

 

30.29

 

 

 

31.63

 

 

 

13.47

 

 

 

15.47

 

 

 

22.49

 

Total capital (to risk-weighted assets)

 

30.29

 

 

 

31.63

 

 

 

13.96

 

 

 

16.03

 

 

 

23.29

 

Common equity Tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets)

 

30.81

 

 

 

32.21

 

 

 

13.47

 

 

 

15.47

 

 

 

22.49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asset Quality Ratios:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allowance for loan losses as a percent of total gross loans

 

0.54

 

 

 

0.63

 

 

 

0.51

 

 

 

0.54

 

 

 

0.80

 

Allowance for loan losses as a percent of non-performing loans

 

81.71

 

 

 

42.66

 

 

 

32.17

 

 

 

18.69

 

 

 

22.70

 

Net charge-offs (recoveries) to average outstanding loans during the period

 

0.08

 

 

 

(0.04

)

 

 

0.23

 

 

 

0.27

 

 

 

0.17

 

Non-performing loans as a percent of total loans

 

0.66

 

 

 

1.48

 

 

 

1.60

 

 

 

2.87

 

 

 

3.51

 

Non-performing assets as a percent of total assets

 

0.44

 

 

 

0.92

 

 

 

1.07

 

 

 

1.78

 

 

 

1.85

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Number of offices

 

15

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

10

 

Number of full-time equivalent employees

 

170

 

 

 

171

 

 

 

169

 

 

 

174

 

 

 

138

 

 

 

(1)

Represents net income divided by average total assets.

(2)

Represents net income divided by average equity.

(3)

Represents net interest income as a percent of average interest-earning assets.

(4)

Represents non-interest expense divided by the sum of net interest income and non-interest income.

(5)

Represents average equity divided by average total assets.

(6)

Average tangible equity to average tangible assets is a non-GAAP financial measure and represents average tangible equity calculated as a percentage of average tangible assets for the period presented.  We believe that a disclosure of tangible equity to tangible assets may be helpful for those investors who seek to evaluate our equity without giving effect to goodwill and other intangible assets. The following table presents a reconciliation of average tangible equity to average tangible assets for the periods presented:

34


 

 

 

For the Year Ended June 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

Average equity

$

283,672

 

 

$

151,026

 

 

$

112,955

 

 

$

112,760

 

 

$

110,671

 

Less: Average goodwill and other intangibles

 

6,606

 

 

 

6,741

 

 

 

6,663

 

 

 

1,158

 

 

 

-

 

Average tangible equity

$

277,066

 

 

$

144,285

 

 

$

106,292

 

 

$

111,602

 

 

$

110,671

 

Average assets

$

1,432,778

 

 

$

1,302,584

 

 

$

1,218,073

 

 

$

1,022,363

 

 

$

964,700

 

Less: Goodwill and other intangibles

 

6,606

 

 

 

6,741

 

 

 

6,663

 

 

 

1,158

 

 

 

-

 

Average tangible assets

$

1,426,172

 

 

$

1,295,843

 

 

$

1,211,410

 

 

$

1,021,205

 

 

$

964,700

 

Tangible equity to tangible assets

 

19.43

%

 

 

11.13

%

 

 

8.77

%

 

 

10.93

%

 

 

11.47

%

 

(7)

Represent non-GAAP financial measures, which we believe may be helpful for investors in evaluating our equity and profitability.

(8)

Dividends declared per share divided by net income per share.

 

 

 

35


 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

General

This section is intended to help investors understand the consolidated financial performance of PCSB Financial through a discussion of the factors affecting our financial condition at June 30, 2018 and 2017 and our results of operations for the years ended June 30, 2018 and 2017. This section should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes to the consolidated financial statements contained in this annual report.

Overview

Income. Our primary source of income is net interest and dividend income. Net interest and dividend income is the difference between interest and dividend income, which is the income that we earn on our loans and investments, and interest expense, which is the interest that we pay on our deposits and borrowings. Other sources of income include earnings from customer service fees (mostly from service charges on deposit accounts), bank-owned life insurance and gains on the sale of securities.

Provision for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is maintained at a level representing management’s best estimate of probable incurred losses in the loan portfolio, based upon management’s evaluation of the portfolio’s collectability. The allowance is established through the provision for loan losses, which is charged against income. Charge-offs are charged to the allowance. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance. Allocation of the allowance may be made for specific loans or pools of loans, but the entire allowance is available for the entire loan portfolio.

Expenses. The noninterest expenses we incur in operating our business consist of salaries and employee benefits, occupancy and equipment, data processing, federal deposit insurance and other general and administrative expenses. Our noninterest expenses have increased as a result of operating as a public company. These additional expenses consist primarily of legal and accounting fees, expenses of stockholder communications and meetings and stock exchange listing fees.

Salaries and employee benefits consist primarily of salaries and wages paid to our employees, payroll taxes, and expenses for health insurance, retirement plans and other employee benefits. We anticipate that we will also recognize additional annual employee compensation expenses stemming from the adoption of new equity benefit plans, subject to shareholder approval. We cannot determine the actual amount of these new stock-related compensation and benefit expenses at this time because applicable accounting practices require that they be based on the fair market value of the shares of common stock or stock options at specific points in the future.

Occupancy and equipment expenses, which are the fixed and variable costs of buildings and equipment, consist primarily of depreciation charges, rental expenses, furniture and equipment expenses, maintenance, real estate taxes and costs of utilities. Depreciation of premises and equipment is computed using a straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the related assets or the expected lease terms, if shorter. Data processing expenses are the fees we pay to third parties for the use of their software and for processing customer information, deposits and loans.

Federal deposit insurance premiums are payments we make to the FDIC for insurance of our deposit accounts.

Other expenses include expenses for professional services, advertising, office supplies, postage, telephone, insurance and other miscellaneous operating expenses.

Critical Accounting Policies

A summary of our accounting policies is described in Note 2 to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.  Critical accounting estimates are necessary in the application of certain accounting policies and procedures and are particularly susceptible to significant change. Critical accounting policies are defined as those involving significant judgments and assumptions by management that could have a material impact on the carrying value of certain assets

36


 

or on income under different assumptions or conditions. Management believes that the most critical accounting policies, which involve the most complex or subjective decisions or assessments, are as follows:

Allowance for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is established as probable losses are estimated to have occurred through a provision for loan losses charged to earnings. Loan losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the collectability of a loan balance is confirmed. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance. See Note 5 to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a complete discussion of the allowance for loan losses.

Income Taxes. We recognize income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are established for the temporary differences between the accounting basis and the tax basis of our assets and liabilities at enacted tax rates expected to be in effect when the amounts related to such temporary differences are realized or settled. See Note 14 to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a complete discussion of income taxes.

Loan Portfolio

General. Loans are our primary interest-earning asset. At June 30, 2018, net loans represented 61.0% of our total assets. The following tables set forth certain information about our loan portfolio.

Loan Portfolio Analysis. The following table sets forth the composition of our loan portfolio by type of loan at the dates indicated.  

 

 

 

At June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

 

Amount

 

 

Percent

 

 

Amount

 

 

Percent

 

 

Amount

 

 

Percent

 

 

Amount

 

 

Percent

 

 

Amount

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

Mortgage loans:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Residential

 

$

250,578

 

 

 

27.67

%

 

$

217,778

 

 

 

26.77

%

 

$

226,073

 

 

 

28.79

%

 

$

240,448

 

 

 

32.93

%

 

$

161,740

 

 

 

31.74

%

Commercial

 

 

495,265

 

 

 

54.70

 

 

 

437,651

 

 

 

53.80

 

 

 

385,827

 

 

 

49.14

 

 

 

324,574

 

 

 

44.46

 

 

 

188,741

 

 

 

37.03

 

Construction

 

 

17,352

 

 

 

1.92

 

 

 

22,404

 

 

 

2.75

 

 

 

25,050

 

 

 

3.19

 

 

 

11,886

 

 

 

1.63

 

 

 

19,517

 

 

 

3.83

 

Total

 

 

763,195

 

 

 

84.29