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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________
FORM 10-K
______________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from___  to___
Commission file number: 001-41065
______________________________
Braze, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
______________________________
Delaware
45-2505271
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
330 West 34th Street, Floor 18
New YorkNew York 10001
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(609) 964-0585
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
______________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share
BRZE
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
______________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes      No   
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”).    Yes      No   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes      No   

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of the registrant’s shares of Class A common stock as reported by The Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 31, 2022 was approximately $2.7 billion. The registrant has elected to use January 31, 2022 as the calculation date, which was the last trading date of the registrant’s most recently completed fiscal year, because on July 31, 2021 (the last business day of the registrant’s second fiscal quarter), the registrant was a privately-held company.
At March 25, 2022, there were 26,327,254 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock and 66,905,307 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock, each with a par value of $0.0001 per share, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended January 31, 2022.
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Braze, Inc.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended January 31, 2022
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
Item 6.
Item 9C.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

our expectations regarding our revenue and the timing of revenue recognition under our customer contracts, expenses and other operating results;
our ability to acquire new customers and successfully retain existing customers;
our ability to increase usage of our platform and upsell and cross-sell additional products;
our ability to achieve or sustain our profitability;
future investments in our business, our anticipated capital expenditures and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;
the costs and success of our marketing efforts, and our ability to promote our brand;
our reliance on key personnel and our ability to identify, recruit and retain skilled personnel;
our growth strategies for our platform and our ability to effectively manage our growth, including any international expansion;
the estimated addressable market opportunity for our platform;
our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights and any costs associated therewith;
the effect of COVID-19, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, or other public health crises on our business, industry and the global economy;
our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; and
the size and growth rates of the markets in which we compete.

You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this report. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are inherently uncertain. While we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information.

The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking
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statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the terms “Braze,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Braze, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

“Braze” “Braze Currents,” “Braze Alloys,” “Braze Firebrands,” “Braze Classification,” “Braze Teams,” “Braze Cares” and other trade names and trademarks of ours appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are our property. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains trade names and trademarks of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply an endorsement or sponsorship of us by such companies, or any relationship with any of these companies.

We may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (www.investors.braze.com). We therefore encourage investors and others interested in Braze to review the information that we make available on our website, in addition to following our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, webcasts, press releases and conference calls.
PART I
Item 1. Business
Mission

Our mission is to forge human connections between consumers and the brands they love through relevant and memorable experiences.
Overview

Braze is a leading comprehensive customer engagement platform that powers customer-centric interactions between consumers and brands. Our platform empowers brands to listen to their customers better, understand them more deeply and act on that understanding in a way that is human and personal. Using our platform, brands ingest and process customer data in real time, orchestrate and optimize contextually relevant, cross-channel marketing campaigns and continuously evolve their customer engagement strategies. As of January 2022, more than 1,300 customers around the world trust Braze with their most valuable assets: their customer relationships. In January 2022, our platform enabled interactions with 3.7 billion monthly active users via our customers’ apps, websites and other digital interfaces, up from 3.0 billion in January 2021. In fiscal year 2022 alone, we processed over nine trillion consumer-generated data points on our platform, and our customers sent approximately one and a half trillion messages to their consumers using our platform.

Today, consumers can interact with a seemingly unlimited number of brands anytime, anywhere, resulting in a dramatic increase in competitive pressure among brands. At the same time, the data generated from digital experiences and the increased number of consumer touchpoints have provided brands with new opportunities to reach consumers and personalize consumer experiences. But with this opportunity comes greater consumer expectations for highly relevant and seamless cross-channel interactions. These trends have led brands to increase their focus and investment on customer experience–the holistic impression that brands create across the customer journey–to differentiate themselves and form long-lasting customer relationships.

Most marketing platforms available today approach customer engagement on a channel-by-channel basis. Channel-centric strategies often lead to disjointed customer experiences that destroy brand equity and diminish customer loyalty.

We offer a new and different way of thinking about customer engagement. We built our platform on the premise that in order to foster positive customer experiences and long-lasting customer relationships, brands must create personal and human connections with consumers. To ensure that interactions between brands and consumers have the same relevance and cross-channel continuity as human interactions, we avoid channel silos so that each channel is aware of activity occurring in other channels and is able to react to that activity in real time.

The real-time nature of the interactions we enable is made possible by our proprietary, enterprise-grade stream processing architecture. This architecture receives, contextualizes, and responds to first-party customer data in the moment. We have designed it to mimic the human ability to listen, process new information in context, and react instantaneously.
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We vertically integrate our orchestration, classification and personalization capabilities such that coordinating between them is simple and fast. Meanwhile, we decouple our data ingestion and message sending capabilities from the channels they support. This enables our capabilities to be centralized and available across channels and easily extensible to new channels. We support interactions across in-product and out-of-product messaging channels. Today, our in-product messaging channels consist of Content Cards, which are pieces of personalized content embedded into a brand’s website or application, and in-app and in-browser messages. Our out-of-product channels include, but are not limited to, mobile push notifications, web push notifications, email, SMS and MMS messages, webhooks, Facebook and Google advertisements and multiple over-the-top, or OTT, media services and connected TV channels.

Braze unleashes the power of interdisciplinary teams by serving numerous stakeholders, beyond traditional marketers, including product and engineering teams and business intelligence teams. Our platform produces valuable data that informs decisions and actions across the entire customer engagement spectrum. Our messaging capabilities transcend marketing use cases, often being used for product or transactional use cases that facilitate or enhance the consumer’s experience with the brand or product.

We enable brands to easily integrate our platform with both their in-house technical infrastructure and our expanding partner ecosystem of best-in-class technologies. Our customers can import data from other systems into any layer of our technology stack via our application programming interfaces, or APIs. They can also use Braze Currents to stream data in real time to those systems, which increases the return on our customers’ other technology investments. We support direct integrations with cloud data service providers such as Snowflake, customer data management platforms such as Segment, analytic solutions such as Amplitude and other components of the modern marketing technology ecosystem.

Our platform is designed to serve the needs of customers across sizes, stages of growth, industries, and geographies. Our customers include many established global enterprises and leading technology innovators. We employ a land-and-expand business model centered around offering products that are easy to adopt and have a rapid time to value. We expand our reach within existing customers when our customers add new channels, purchase additional subscription products such as Braze Currents, implement new engagement strategies, or onboard new business units and geographies. We also grow as our customers grow because our pricing is based in large part on the number of consumers that our customers reach and the volume of messages our customers send.

Our Competitive Strengths

Cross-Channel Approach, Enabling Customer-Centric Experiences

Our cross-channel engagement approach enables customer-centric experiences. We build a more complete picture of the customer and draw insights from data to inform strategy, enabling brands to tactically deploy channels according to each channel’s strengths and proven customer preferences.

Our architecture ensures that our capabilities can be used across all of our channels, maximizing the impact of new feature development. Additionally, when we add new channels, they immediately benefit from all of the existing features that we have already built, which makes them fully robust from the outset.

The applicability of features across all channels, combined with our intuitive user interface, allows our customers to quickly and easily construct cross-channel consumer journeys without the need to learn different skills for each channel or be constantly retrained. This is accomplished without sacrificing the unique qualities or capabilities associated with each individual channel that we support.

Data Streaming Architecture Processes First-Party Data in Real Time

The real-time nature of the interactions we enable is made possible by our proprietary, enterprise-grade stream processing architecture. This architecture receives, contextualizes and responds to first-party customer data in the moment. Our platform allows for high-volume, continuous data streaming, providing a live view of the various interactions that consumers are having with a brand. Unlike batch processing, where data is processed only when a specific time or threshold is hit, our data streaming architecture processes each unit of data as it is created. Real-time data processing enhances messaging relevance, while delayed data processing often leads to irrelevant messages and frustrated consumers.

We not only process data but also create analytical data. When a consumer interacts with an out-of-product marketing campaign or a website or application with the Braze software development kit, SDK, embedded, that consumer generates data that is processed and contextualized with existing data in real time.
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Value Propositions Across the Organization

While for many brands the marketing organization has traditionally owned overall responsibility for customer engagement, cross-functional collaboration enhances the experience for the customer and improves the return on investment for the marketing organization. For brands that take a collaborative approach, marketing teams work hand-in-hand with other groups within the organization, including data, product and engineering teams to optimize customer engagement.

Braze unleashes the power of interdisciplinary teams by serving numerous stakeholders, beyond traditional marketers, including product and engineering teams, and business intelligence teams. Our platform produces valuable data that informs decisions and actions across the entire customer engagement spectrum. Our messaging capabilities transcend marketing use cases, often being used for product or transactional use cases that facilitate or enhance the customer’s experience with the brand or product.

Braze gives teams across a company the power to imagine, create and evolve brilliant customer experiences. When designing campaigns, marketers use our composition tools to unlock new creative ideas that can be deployed across all appropriate channels and platforms. They can also leverage the strategic and creative insights of our Customer Success teams or find inspiration through engaging with our Braze Bonfire customer community as they brainstorm new approaches. When it comes time for execution, marketers and product engineers use Braze to orchestrate personalized messaging experiences directly into their products, and to ensure that all campaigns, regardless of channel, are highly coordinated and additive to the overall customer experience. Finally, data scientists and business intelligence teams analyze data gained from marketing and lifecycle campaigns, creating a rapid experimentation loop that compounds improvements and gains over time, and helps inspire new creative ideas. We serve as the unifying thread that enables brands to draw on the strength of multiple teams working in concert to bring creative, technical and business intelligence skills together.

Rapid Time to Value

Our platform’s ease of use and seamless integration into existing technologies, coupled with the high value data and insights that it generates, enables brands to develop and run campaigns that meet their strategic goals quickly and efficiently. Using our intuitive user interface, individuals across all roles and technical skill levels can design and quickly deploy multi-message, multi-channel, A/B-tested strategies, with the process of new campaign creation accelerating over time.

High Performance at Scale

As brands continue to globalize and conduct more of their business digitally, they need a scalable customer engagement platform. In January 2022, our platform enabled interactions with 3.7 billion monthly active users via our customers’ apps, websites and other digital interfaces, up from 3.0 billion in January 2021. Our scalability distinguishes our platform from point solutions, and we can handle the biggest of enterprise needs. We facilitate the rapid delivery of a high volume of messages, which enables us to power a brand’s highest-volume events, whether they are expected, like Black Friday, or unexpected, like the sudden surge of food delivery demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Seamless, Real-Time Interoperability across the Customer Engagement Technology Stack

Our open APIs support easy-to-implement integrations with an expanding selection of technology partners, which we refer to as Braze Alloys, other third-party technology providers and in-house systems. These integrations allow our platform to import and export data to and from a wide variety of sources.

These seamless integrations with technology partners not only enrich the consumer insights collected by our platform but also increase the return on other technology investments by allowing other systems and tools to benefit from or add to the data and insights collected by our platform.

For example, a food delivery app may combine a consumer’s food preferences with weather data to either send a campaign to encourage a consumer to order in their favorite foods when a blizzard is forecasted or skip the “order-in tonight” discount on days when the weather is sunny. A retailer might reach out to a consumer when a favorite article of clothing goes on sale after confirming with their inventory management technology that the particular article of clothing is in stock in the consumer’s size and color preference.

Customer Engagement Expertise and Highly Engaged Community

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When brands partner with us, they get access to strategic and technical advice from our experts and from a community of like-minded, forward-thinking marketers and product leaders.

Our documentation library, interactive online certification courses and customer success and technical support teams help brands design effective marketing strategies and use our platform to its maximum capability. Braze Bonfire, our virtual, global customer community, includes thousands of individuals across a wide spectrum of industries, business sizes, and roles. As of January 31, 2022, over 5,000 community members use Braze Bonfire to exchange growth marketing and lifecycle marketing best practices, to give direct feedback to our product and engineering teams and to attend events and engage in professional networking.

As of January 31, 2022, Braze Firebrands, our customer advocacy group, consists of over 300 customers that represent us in the market. In addition to serving as references to prospective customers, they participate in case studies, speaking engagements and media interviews, adding to our brand equity and overall market awareness.

Growth Strategy

The principal components of our growth strategy are:

Acquire new customers: We intend to continue to expand our customer base in verticals where we already have a strong presence, such as retail, eCommerce, media, entertainment, and on-demand services, and to increase our presence in verticals where we are not yet strongly represented. Through our sales and marketing efforts, we plan to capitalize on the ongoing digital transformation in regulated industries like healthcare and financial services to further propel adoption of our technology.

Expand within our existing customer base: We believe we can achieve significant growth by expanding sales within our existing customer base. We expand the use of our platform by existing customers by, among others, adding new channels and increasing the messaging volume we sell to our customers as their businesses and needs continue to grow and as they reach additional consumers, which in turn leads to a need for greater messaging capacity. We also anticipate that as more customers reach higher levels of digital sophistication, they will invest in additional data streaming and data management capabilities. We see an opportunity within our customers’ organizations to create new use cases for our platform as they broaden the use of our platform beyond the traditional marketing team, as marketers become more technically savvy, as technologists work more closely with marketing teams, and as data scientists become more influential within their organizations. Given that many of our customers are multinational conglomerates, we also see the opportunity to further penetrate our existing customer base by expanding to new brands and new geographies within those existing customer organizations.

Expand geographically: We believe there is a significant opportunity to continue to expand usage of our platform outside the United States, both by expanding our presence in international markets where we operate today and by entering markets we have not yet penetrated. We expect to increase market penetration in regions like Europe and Asia-Pacific and to further capitalize on the greenfield opportunity in regions such as Latin America.

Expand our technology leadership through continued investment and new products: We are focused on investing in research and development to continue to enhance our platform. For example, we continue to develop our artificial intelligence capabilities to enable brands to better analyze and act on customer data. We believe our market-driven product development approach maximizes the return on new feature development and channel expansion. Our customers consistently volunteer to participate in the testing of new products, which indicates their appetite for new and innovative functionality. We believe our continued innovation will provide new avenues for growth through which we will continue to deliver differentiated outcomes for our customers.

Continue to increase and strengthen our partnerships: We have built and plan to continue investing in direct integrations with technology partners that augment our core offering with a broad range of complementary offerings, including data augmentation and enrichment, analytics, and channel extensions. We are also expanding our relationships with the ecosystem of solution partners, marketing agencies, and consultancies that offer opportunities for new customer referrals.

Our Products

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We offer a single, vertically integrated platform that encompasses the major functionalities, or layers, required for modern customer engagement: data ingestion, classification, orchestration, personalization, and action.

Data Ingestion

Braze SDKs: The primary way in which customers integrate our platform into their websites and applications is via our SDKs. SDKs are software libraries that reside within our customers’ applications or websites, automatically managing data ingestion and the delivery of mobile and web notifications, in-application / in-browser interstitial messages, and Content Cards. Our SDKs can be integrated into a wide variety of digital interfaces including iOS, Android, Desktop / Mobile Web, connected TVs, the Unity and Unreal game engines, and application development frameworks such as React Native and Cordova. By embedding new messaging capabilities directly in our SDKs, we can rapidly deploy new functionality to our customers, with little to no additional effort on their part.

REST API: The majority of our customers also integrate via connecting to server-to-server APIs. The Braze REST API can be used to import or export data or to trigger workflows between Braze and brands’ existing technology stacks. For example, customers can send messages using Braze within internal business processes or connect Braze to third-party services such as customer data platforms or attribution providers.

Partner Cohort Syncing: Brands can sync user cohorts from partners such as Amplitude or Mixpanel to our platform. They can then use membership in these user cohorts as additional criteria in the Braze Classification layer.

Classification

Segmentation: Customers can define reusable segments of consumers based upon attributes, events, or predictive propensity scores from our machine learning algorithms. Braze Segments are updated in real-time as data is ingested, allowing them to stay up-to-date with the latest data inputs.

Segment Insights: Segment Insights allows customers to analyze how segments are performing relative to each other across a set of pre-selected key performance indicators. Additionally, customers can use this tool to understand the factors that determine which consumers belong to a particular segment.

Predictive Suite: Our Predictive Suite allows customers to identify groups of consumers that are of critical business value such as “consumers who are likely to churn.” Our platform uses machine learning to automatically identify consumers who have a propensity to behave similarly to the identified audience, allowing customers to preemptively engage these consumers and thereby encourage or discourage their predicted behaviors.

Orchestration

Canvas: Canvas is our flagship orchestration tool, allowing customers to create journeys, mapping out multi-step, cross-channel messaging experiences such as onboarding flows, nurture campaigns, win-back strategies, and more. Canvases are designed to be flexible and real-time, able to execute nearly any digital marketing campaign strategy that customers can envision. Canvas is natively cross-channel and customers use it to design and execute strategies that span all of the platforms and channels that our platform supports. Using Canvas, customers can create multiple variants of a journey and automatically optimize customer journeys based on the performance of the variants.

Campaigns: Campaigns allow customers to send one set of single-channel or multi-channel messages to be delivered to customers in a particular user segment. Campaigns can be one-time or recurring sends that are delivered on a time-based schedule, or can be sent in response to a user’s actions, or triggered by an API call. Campaigns support all of Braze’s messaging channels and offer experimentation such as A/B testing.

Event and API Triggering: Messages, steps within a Canvas, or entire Canvas flows can be triggered in a variety of ways, such as when events of a certain type are received or when API calls are initiated from our customers’ servers.

Frequency Capping and Rate Limiting: Customers can limit the number of messages sent from the platform by capping the frequency of message type (e.g., no more than three push notifications per week or no more than one promotional email per day), or by limiting the speed at which our platform sends messages (e.g., no more than 10,000 messages per minute).

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Intelligent Selection: Our platform can automatically run a multi-armed bandit optimization to improve the outcomes of a recurring Canvas or Campaign. Consumers can traverse different Canvas paths or receive different Campaign variations in a manner designed to maximize the total number of conversions.

Reporting and Analytics: We provide a variety of analytics features to help our customers understand and improve their customer engagement strategies:

Campaign and Canvas Analytics: Our platform provides analytics breakdowns for all Campaigns and Canvases, including tracking conversion rates. Customers can create multiple variants and results can be compared statistically against one another or a control.

Funnel and Retention Reports: Customers can analyze the retention uplift caused by a messaging strategy, or create and analyze funnels of actions that were taken by consumers after receiving a message.

Report Builder: Customers can create custom reports to analyze the total uplift and aggregate statistics from their usage of our platform.

Global Holdout Groups: To allow customers to isolate the impact of their marketing efforts, customers can create global holdout groups, consisting of consumers who should only receive a subset of critical communications from the customer (e.g., password reset emails) and otherwise be held out from all communication. Lifetime value of this holdout group can be easily compared against that of consumers who received the full suite of Braze engagement.

Personalization

Liquid Templating: Customers can personalize messages using the Liquid Templating language to inject personalized content into their messages. Our platform allows customers to flexibly utilize a wide variety of data in this templating process, including data ingested and stored on consumer profiles, as well as contextual data, such as properties of a consumer action that triggered a message flow. Personalization options include use cases such as listing a set of consumer-specific recommendations or creating complex if/else logic inside of a message to conditionally determine what content to deliver.

Connected Content: Customers can connect to remote servers (including both third-party partners and first-party customer-owned endpoints) and pull back data for advanced personalization use cases. For example, customers can personalize messages on a one-to-one basis by connecting to a recommendation engine or modify messages to a user based upon the current weather at the user’s location.

Content Blocks: Customers can store and reuse blocks of content (including Liquid Templating content) which can be used across multiple messages. Content Blocks can also be updated and managed via API, extending their functionality and connecting them to customer data sources dynamically.

Intelligent Timing: Our platform will automatically calculate when consumers are most likely to engage with a particular messaging channel, and can send messages to consumers at the time that is optimal for them based upon their behavior patterns for a particular channel.

Promotion Codes: Customers can store promotion codes within the platform, and use them to serve unique, one-time use promotional coupon codes to consumers.

Action

In-Product Messaging:

In-App and In-Browser Messages: Our platform offers a variety of interstitial messages that can be added to mobile applications and web browsers for engagement use cases – ranging from reminders, confirmation dialogs, promotions, surveys, and more. These in-experience messages can be built from templates or built from scratch with nearly infinite customizability.

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Content Cards: In addition to ephemeral messages, we offer Content Cards, a proprietary Braze product where a personalized feed of user-controllable content is embedded directly into applications and browsers for persistent viewing.

Out-of-Product Messaging:

Push Notifications: Our platform provides robust push notification messaging capabilities across both mobile and web. In addition to supporting push notifications on all major platforms, we have released advanced functionality such as Push Stories (paginated image carousels within notifications) to increase the power and flexibility of the channel.

Email: Our platform provides a full suite of email engagement technology, including email template editing and management, link tracking and heatmap analytics, email preference centers, and seed lists. We also support advanced email content types, such as Accelerated Mobile Pages, which enables marketers to embed interactive elements.

SMS and MMS: Our platform offers a native product for SMS and MMS messaging. In addition to sending messages via the SMS and MMS protocols, customers can manage links and analytics and respond to inbound keyword responses with an automated follow-up message.

Ad Network Integrations: Using Braze Audience Sync with Facebook or Google, brands can sync user data from Braze to Facebook Custom Audiences and Google Display Network to deliver advertisements outside the Braze platform based upon behavioral triggers, segmentation and more.

Webhooks: Our platform offers flexible webhooks, allowing customers to connect Braze to any external application via outbound web requests, using all of the targeting and templating mechanisms available on other channels. Customers can use webhooks for utility purposes (such as messaging to their own servers) as well as to build integrations with other third-party partner systems, such as to direct email providers, extending the range and utility of our platform.

Transactional Messaging: We offer an optional premium service with even higher speed and reliability guarantees for critical use cases.

Braze Currents: All data sent to and generated by our platform can be exported to a range of partner systems. These systems include data storage partners such as Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services, and Google Cloud; Customer Data Platforms such as Segment, mParticle and Tealium; and analytics providers such as Amplitude and Mixpanel. Braze Currents can also export data to generic web endpoints for maximum flexibility. Customers can use these integrations to leverage their Braze data elsewhere within their technology ecosystem, thereby enabling tighter collaboration between marketing/growth teams and their partners in business intelligence or engineering.

Snowflake Data Sharing: Alongside Braze Currents, data tracked and stored within our platform can also be accessed directly via our partnership with Snowflake using Snowflake’s Data Sharing mechanism.

In addition, we provide several features for general management of our platform designed to allow customers of all
sizes to maximize their efficiency:

Activity Logs: we provide activity logs for major actions that occur in our platform, and changelogs for updates to objects such as Campaigns, Segments, or Canvases on our dashboard. These logs allow customers to troubleshoot their integrations and audit their team’s activities on the platform.

Media Library: we offer a media library consisting of images that can be stored and reused in messages across the entire platform.

User Permissions: we provide a complete set of Role-Based Access Controls to allow large global teams to manage our platform effectively. In addition to these Role-Based Access Control mechanisms, we offer Braze Teams, which allows customers to break their consumer base into segments based on the consumer’s country, language, or a custom attribute. With Braze Teams, customers can create groups to manage individual regions or subsets of their businesses while restricting their ability to view or manage data outside of their assigned region.

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Our Competition

The market for customer engagement solutions is evolving and highly competitive. There are several established and emerging competitors that address specific aspects of customer engagement, but we believe that none of our competitors currently offer comparable comprehensive customer engagement solutions. We face intense competition from software companies that offer marketing solutions, such as legacy marketing clouds like Adobe and Salesforce, and point solutions like Airship, Iterable, Leanplum, MailChimp and MoEngage.

Many of our existing competitors have, and our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, larger sales and marketing budgets and resources, greater customer support resources, lower labor and development costs, larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios and substantially greater financial, technical and other resources than we do. In addition, our competitors may have an advantage in markets where our policies regarding the use of customer data are more restrictive than local laws, regulations, policies and standards. For example, competitors willing to sell customer data in markets where such activity is permissible may have a pricing advantage over us in such markets. With the introduction of new technologies and the entry of new competitors into the market, we expect competition to persist and intensify in the future. In addition, merger and acquisition activity in the technology industry could increase the likelihood that we compete with other large technology companies. This could harm our ability to increase sales, maintain or increase subscription renewals, and maintain our prices.

Conditions in our market could change rapidly and significantly as a result of technological advancements, partnering among our competitors or continuing market consolidation. Some of our larger competitors also have substantially broader product lines and market focus and therefore may not be as susceptible to downturns in a particular market. New start-up companies that innovate, and large companies that are making significant investments in research and development, may invent similar or superior products and technologies that compete with one or more of our platform offerings. In addition, some of our competitors may enter into new alliances with each other or may establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with agency partners, technology and application providers in complementary categories, or other parties. Competitors may also consolidate with existing partners that we rely on, and as a result we could lose such partnerships. Any such consolidation, acquisition, alliance or cooperative relationship could lead to pricing pressure, a loss of market share or a smaller addressable share of the market and could result in a competitor with greater financial, technical, marketing, service and other resources, all of which could harm our ability to compete.

Some of our larger competitors use their broader product offerings to compete with us, bundling their competitive products with other products being purchased from that company by a customer or closing access to their technology platform, thereby making it more difficult for customers to integrate. Potential customers may prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier, regardless of product performance or features. Furthermore, potential customers may be more willing to incrementally add solutions to their existing infrastructure from competitors than to replace their existing infrastructure with our platform and offerings. These competitive pressures in our market, or our failure to compete effectively, may result in price reductions, fewer sales, reduced revenue and gross margins, increased net losses and loss of, or failure to expand, our market share.

Sales and Marketing

We sell subscriptions to our platform primarily through a direct sales force with primary operations in New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, London, Berlin, Austin, Tokyo and Singapore. Our team of account executives is responsible for selling to new customers as well as existing customers who may renew their subscriptions, increase the usage of our platform over time and expand the deployment of our platform across their organizations. In addition, we sell our platform through our joint venture in Japan, as well as through resellers in South Korea, Australia and Latin America.

Our marketing activities are designed to build broad brand awareness, generate thought leadership and create demand and leads for our sales organizations within our target markets. Our marketing programs target influencers and decision makers participating in the buying cycle, including the chief marketing officer, chief customer officer, chief technology officer, and other key functional marketing and technology heads. Additionally, we conduct marketing programs to engage with our customers to promote upsell and cross-sell opportunities, and we engage with industry analysts, consulting firms, marketing service providers, data and technology partners, marketing agencies and other platform partners, business and trade press and other industry experts who exert considerable influence in our market.

Intellectual Property

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Intellectual property rights are important to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements with third parties, and other contractual protections, to protect our intellectual property rights, including our proprietary technology, software, know-how and brand. We use open source software in our services.

As of January 31, 2022, we owned 19 patents and had seven patent applications pending for examination in the United States and no non-U.S. patents or patent applications. The pending U.S. patent applications, if issued, would be scheduled to expire in 2039 and 2040. Our pending U.S. patent applications may not result in issued patents. As of January 31, 2022, we owned ten registered trademarks in the United States and 19 registered trademarks in various non-U.S. jurisdictions.

Although we rely on intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as contractual protections to establish and protect our proprietary rights, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, creation of new services, features and functionality, and frequent enhancements to our platform are more essential to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.

We control access to and use of our proprietary technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners. We require our employees, consultants and other third parties to enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements, and we control and monitor access to our software, documentation, proprietary technology and other confidential information. Our policy is to require all employees and independent contractors to sign agreements assigning to us any inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments, processes and other intellectual property generated by them on our behalf and under which they agree to protect our confidential information. In addition, we generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our customers and partners. See the section titled “Risk Factors” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property.

Security, Privacy, Data Protection and Regulatory Matters

In the ordinary course of our business, we may process personal data. We are, or may become, subject to a number of data privacy and security obligations, including federal, state and foreign laws and regulations that involve matters central to our business. These laws and regulations may involve privacy, data security, data protection, rights of publicity, content regulation, intellectual property, competition, consumer protection, taxation, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and corruption, economic or other trade prohibitions or sanctions or securities law compliance or other subjects. Such obligations may include, without limitation, the Federal Trade Commission Act, or the FTCA, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, or COPPA, the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing Act of 2003, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or the CCPA, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679, or the EU GDPR, the EU GDPR as it forms part of United Kingdom, or the U.K., law by virtue of section 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, or the U.K. GDPR, the ePrivacy Directive, and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or PCI DSS. In addition, several states within the United States have enacted or proposed data privacy laws. For example, Virginia passed the Consumer Data Protection Act, and Colorado passed the Colorado Privacy Act.

The CCPA and EU GDPR are examples of the increasingly stringent and evolving regulatory frameworks related to personal data processing that may increase our compliance obligations and exposure for any noncompliance. For example, the CCPA imposes obligations on covered businesses to provide specific disclosures related to a business’s collecting, using, and disclosing personal data and to respond to certain requests from California residents related to their personal data (for example, requests to know of the business’s personal data processing activities, to delete the individual’s personal data, and to opt out of certain personal data disclosures). Also, the CCPA provides for civil penalties and a private right of action for data breaches which may include an award of statutory damages. In addition, it is anticipated that the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or the CPRA, effective January 1, 2023, will expand the CCPA. The CPRA will, among other things, give California residents the ability to limit use of certain sensitive personal data, establish restrictions on personal data retention, expand the types of data breaches that are subject to the CCPA’s private right of action, and establish a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the new law. U.S. federal and state consumer protection laws may require us to publish statements that accurately and fairly describe how we handle personal data and choices individuals may have about the way we handle their personal data.

European data privacy and security laws (including the EU GDPR and U.K. GDPR) impose significant and complex compliance obligations on entities that are subject to those laws. For example, the EU GDPR applies to any company established in the European Economic Area, or the EEA, and to companies established outside the EEA that process personal data in connection with the offering of goods or services to data subjects in the EEA or the monitoring of the behavior of data subjects in the EEA. These obligations may include limiting personal data processing to only what is necessary for specified,
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explicit, and legitimate purposes; requiring a legal basis for personal data processing; requiring the appointment of a data protection officer in certain circumstances; increasing transparency obligations to data subjects; requiring data protection impact assessments in certain circumstances; limiting the collection and retention of personal data; increasing rights for data subjects; formalizing a heightened and codified standard of data subject consents; requiring the implementation and maintenance of technical and organizational safeguards for personal data; mandating notice of certain personal data breaches to the relevant supervisory authorities and affected individuals; and mandating the appointment of representatives in the U.K. or the EU in certain circumstances.

For additional information about the laws and regulations to which we are or may become subject and about the risks to our business associated with such laws and regulations, please see the section titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Privacy, Data Security and Data Protection Laws.”

Our Culture

We believe our culture and core values are critical to our success and have delivered tangible financial and operational benefits to our customers, employees, and stockholders. We are a mission-driven company and have designed our core values as a guiding set of principles for our employees and business.

Our core values are:

Take Your Seat at the Table: Our community welcomes and respects our employees’ unique talents and perspectives. We encourage employees to roll up their sleeves and join in as we build Braze together.

Don’t Ignore Smoke: With constant vigilance, we help each other notice issues before smoke turns to fire. When employees come to us, we celebrate the messenger and assist them however we can.

Shape the Future: We believe in the positive trajectory of change. We make investments, take calculated risks and guide others down the path of our vision for the future.

Embrace Curiosity: We are explorers of details and new horizons. We embrace a growth mindset and pursue our curiosities to acquire new mastery and hone existing skills.

Seek the Truth: We combine intelligence with humility to challenge our assumptions and ask thoughtful questions. We make better decisions by deeply understanding our world.

Be a Human: Each of us contributes to the Braze culture through our individuality. We operate with integrity, and above all else, we are kind.

Our core values were built from the ground up by our employees and represent what our employees have told us Braze means to them. Accordingly, these core values represent not only the ideals of our business, but the guiding tenets of how we operate every day, including how we communicate, how we make decisions, and how we treat our customers and our colleagues.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

We believe our impact is greatest when our workforce represents the diverse and global community that we serve. Accordingly, we started our Braze For ALL initiative in 2018 and our Social Impact Department in 2021 in support of our view that diversity, equity and inclusion, or DEI, efforts are integral to our success and a key part of our core values. As part of our Braze For ALL initiative, our DEI efforts include:

Hiring Practices: We use a number of techniques focused on the achievement of a diverse workforce. For instance, we try to utilize recruitment strategies that will provide a diverse pipeline of candidates, including partnerships with colleges, universities and non-profit organizations that support underrepresented populations from which we can source talent.

Employee Resource Groups: Employee resource groups at Braze are employee-led and organizationally-supported groups of employees that are drawn together by shared characteristics (such as ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, etc.) or shared interests. Participation is open to all. Our employee resource groups serve as a resource, point of connection and community for underrepresented employees and their allies, and are an important part of building and maintaining an equitable, diverse and inclusive workforce and community.

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Cultural Education, Bias Mitigation and Allyship: We provide regular programming on cultural awareness, bias mitigation and allyship, including through partnerships with third parties. All new hires are required to participate in unconscious bias and diversity training.

As of January 31, 2022, our workforce was, based upon employee self-identification, 59% white, 20% Asian, 5% of two or more racial groups, 5% black, 4% of Latin background, 3% of our workforce identified as an ethnicity not included in these groups and the remainder declined to self-identify or did not respond. As of the same date, based upon employee self-identification, our workforce was 54% male, 44% female, 0.4% non-binary or gender fluid and the remainder declined to self-identify or did not respond.

Social Responsibility and Community Initiatives

Our core values not only express how we drive our business, but they also reflect how we seek to support the communities of which we are a part. To support this, we have established a Social Impact Department with the goal of using our technology, expertise, and resources to transform how the world connects and communicates to shape an equitable and more sustainable future. Our Social Impact Department oversees our corporate social responsibility and DEI initiatives under the pillars of community, education, and sustainability.

We desire to improve our communities through a number of social initiatives, core among them our participation in the joint-initiative Tech for Black Founders. As part of Tech for Black Founders, our mission is to create an ecosystem that provides resources and technology to empower Black-founded businesses and level the playing field for underserved founders. All companies led by one or more Black founders that have bootstrapped or raised less than $30.0 million in venture capital financing and with fewer than 150 employees are eligible for this program. Companies that satisfy these criteria are eligible to use certain aspects of our platform and certain products for free for a year, with the ability to apply for an additional year if the company continues to meet the applicable criteria. As of January 31, 2022, there were 16 companies using Braze through this initiative.

We have established the Braze Cares initiative which focuses on our charitable giving and fostering opportunities for our employees to volunteer in their communities. As of January 31, 2022, through our Braze Cares program, we and our employees have made donations of approximately $294,787 to over 567 organizations. Our employees have also volunteered with numerous organizations worldwide as part of this program.

We have also joined the Pledge 1% movement and have reserved up to 964,647 shares of our Class A common stock, which we may donate over the next ten years, to fund our social impact and environmental, social, and governance initiatives. We may also donate our time and technology, in addition to our equity and financial resources, to support our social responsibility and community initiatives.

Human Capital

As a technology company, our employees are our most valuable resource. We are led by a diverse, global, and talented team of software developers and subject matter experts who seek to understand our customers’ challenges and are dedicated to tackling them.

As of January 31, 2022, we had a total of 1,164 full-time employees. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good. We offer employees a variety of professional development opportunities and encourage a performance-driven environment. We have focused on creating a robust culture to encourage retention and engagement. See “— Our Culture” above for additional information about our human capital management practices.

General Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in 2011. Our headquarters is located at 330 West 34th Street, Floor 18, New York, New York 10001 and our telephone number is (609) 964-0585. Our website address is www.braze.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Other Available Information

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, are filed with the SEC. Such reports and other information filed by us with the SEC are available free of charge on our website at
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www.investors.braze.com when such reports are available on the SEC’s website. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The information contained on the websites referenced in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is not incorporated by reference into this filing. Further, our references to website URLs are intended to be inactive textual references only.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face.  Additional risk and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also impair our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risk factors is realized, our business, operating results, financial condition, cash flows, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.  In that event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risk Factors Summary

Our business operations are subject to numerous risks, factors and uncertainties, including those outside of our control, that could cause our actual results to be harmed, including risks regarding the following:

Our rapid revenue growth may not be indicative of our future revenue growth. Our rapid revenue growth also makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.
We may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
We have a limited history operating at our current scale, and our future results of operations may fluctuate significantly due to a wide range of factors, which make it difficult to forecast our future results of operations.
We have a history of operating losses and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
We face intense competition, including from well-established companies that offer products that compete with ours. We may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position, which may harm our ability to add new customers, retain existing customers, and grow our business.
If we are unable to attract new customers and renew existing customers, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, or changing regulations, or to changing customer or consumer needs, requirements or preferences, our platform may become less competitive.
We are substantially dependent upon customers renewing their subscriptions to, and expanding their use of, our platform to maintain and grow our revenue, which requires us to scale our platform infrastructure and business quickly enough to meet our customers’ growing needs. If we are not able to grow in an efficient manner, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
Failure to effectively develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities could harm our ability to expand our customer base and achieve broader market adoption of our platform and products.
We are dependent on a single platform, and the failure to achieve continued market acceptance of our platform could cause our results of operations to suffer.
If our platform fails to perform properly or there are defects or disruptions in the rollout of our platform updates or enhancements, our reputation could be adversely affected, our market share could decline, and we could be subject to liability claims.
We may need to reduce prices or change our pricing model to remain competitive.
Our business depends on our ability to send consumer engagement messages, including emails, SMS and mobile and web notifications, and any significant disruption in service with our third-party providers or on mobile operating systems could result in a loss of customers or less effective consumer-brand engagement, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely upon third-party providers of cloud-based infrastructure, including Amazon Web Services, to host our products. Any disruption in the operations of these third-party providers or limitations on capacity or interference with our use could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We are subject to stringent and changing laws and regulations, industry standards and contractual obligations related to privacy, data security and data protection. The restrictions and costs imposed by these requirements and our actual or perceived failure to comply with them, could harm our business.
If we or our third-party service providers experience a security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data or our platform, our solution may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform and products may be reduced and we may incur significant liabilities.
Changes in laws and regulations related to the internet or changes in the internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our platform and could have a negative impact on our business.
We employ third-party licensed software for use in or with our platform, and the inability to maintain these licenses or errors or vulnerabilities in the software we license could result in increased costs, or reduced service levels, which would adversely affect our business.
We have identified three material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and if we are unable to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected.
The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our executive officers, directors and significant holders of our capital stock, which limits the ability of holders of our Class A common stock to influence the outcome of important transactions.

Risks Related to Our Growth and Capital Requirements

Our rapid revenue growth may not be indicative of our future revenue growth. Our rapid revenue growth also makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.

Our revenue was $238.0 million and $150.2 million for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. You should not rely on our historical revenue growth as an indication of our future performance. Even if our revenue continues to increase, we expect that our annual revenue growth rate will decline in the future as a result of a variety of factors, including the maturation of our business. Overall growth of our revenue depends on several factors, including our ability to:

expand subscriptions for our platform to our existing customers;
expand the products for and functionality of our platform and achieve market acceptance for them;
attract new customers, particularly in verticals and organizations where we have already experienced revenue growth;
succeed in selling our products outside the United States;
continue to partner with existing customers to improve our platform and its products and functionality;
keep pace with technological developments;
price our platform subscriptions effectively;
provide our customers with support that meets their needs;
successfully identify and acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform; and
increase awareness of our brand on a global basis and successfully compete with other companies.

We may not successfully accomplish any of these objectives and, as a result, it is difficult for us to forecast our future results of operations. If the assumptions that we use to plan our business are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our market, or if we are unable to maintain revenue growth, our stock price could be volatile, it may be difficult to achieve and maintain profitability, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. The adverse effect on our results of operations resulting from a failure to achieve our revenue expectations may be particularly acute because of the significant research, development, marketing, sales and other expenses we expect to incur.

We may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

We have funded our operations since inception primarily through equity financings and, more recently, sales of subscriptions to our platform. We cannot be certain when or if our operations will generate sufficient cash to fully fund our ongoing operations or the growth of our business. We intend to continue to make investments to support our business and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new features or enhance our platform, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. Additional financing may not be available on terms favorable to us, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to invest in future growth opportunities, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we incur debt, the debt holders would have
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rights senior to holders of our Class A common stock to make claims on our assets, and the terms of any debt could include restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, any of which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. Furthermore, if we issue equity securities, our stockholders will experience dilution, and the new equity securities could have rights senior to those of our Class A common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in the future will depend on numerous considerations, including factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, or nature of any future issuances of debt or equity securities. As a result, our stockholders bear the risk of future issuances of debt or equity securities reducing the value of our Class A common stock and diluting their interests.

We have a limited history operating at our current scale, and our future results of operations may fluctuate significantly due to a wide range of factors, which make it difficult to forecast our future results of operations.

We were founded in 2011, but our business and revenue have grown rapidly over the last several years. As a result of our limited history operating at our current scale, our ability to accurately forecast our future results of operations is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. Our results of operations may fluctuate significantly from period to period due to many factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:

failure to execute on our growth strategies;
the level of demand for our platform;
the rate of renewal of subscriptions with, and extent of sales of additional subscriptions to, existing customers;
the size, timing, duration and pricing, and other terms of our subscription agreements with existing and new customers;
the introduction of new products and product enhancements by existing competitors or new entrants into our market, and changes in pricing for products offered by our competitors;
network outages, security breaches and other cyber-attacks, technical difficulties with or interruptions to our platform;
customers delaying purchasing decisions in anticipation of new developments or enhancements by us or our competitors or otherwise;
changes in customers’ budgets;
seasonal variations related to sales and marketing and other activities, such as expenses related to our customers’ increased usage of our platform and products during the fourth quarter;
our ability to increase, retain and incentivize the strategic partners that market and sell our platform;
the timing of growth of our business, in particular through our hiring of new employees and international expansion;
our ability to control our operating expenses and other costs;
our ability to hire, train and maintain our direct sales team;
unforeseen litigation and inability to enforce, protect or defend our intellectual property, or claims of infringement by third parties;
the timing of our adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to us and the impact on our results of operations;
fluctuations in our effective tax rate; and
general economic and political conditions, as well as economic conditions specifically affecting industries in which our customers operate.

Any one of these or other risks or uncertainties discussed elsewhere in this report or the cumulative effect of some of these factors may result in fluctuations in our revenue, results of operations and cash flows, meaning that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our revenue, results of operations and cash flows may not necessarily be indicative of our future performance, may cause us to miss our guidance and analyst expectations and may cause the price of our Class A common stock to decline. Additionally, if our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties are incorrect or change, including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, or the ongoing geopolitical instability resulting from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our revenue and results of operations could differ materially from our expectations, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We have a history of operating losses and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

We have experienced net losses in each of our last several fiscal years. We generated a net loss of $78.2 million and $32.0 million for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of January 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $215.0 million. While we have experienced significant revenue growth in recent periods, we are not certain whether or when we will achieve or maintain profitability in the future. We also expect our costs and expenses to
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increase in future periods, which could negatively affect our future results of operations if our revenue does not continue to increase. In particular, we intend to continue to expend substantial financial and other resources on:

our technology infrastructure and operations, including systems architecture, scalability, availability, performance and security;
our sales and marketing organization, to engage our existing and prospective customers, increase brand awareness and drive adoption of our products;
platform development, including investments in our platform development team and the development of new products and functionality for our platform as well as investments in further improving our existing platform and infrastructure;
acquisitions or strategic investments;
international expansion; and
general administration, including increased insurance, legal and accounting expenses associated with being a public company.

These investments may not result in increased revenue. If we are unable to maintain or increase our revenue at a rate sufficient to offset the expected increase in our costs, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability over the long term.

The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Market estimates and growth forecasts are uncertain and based on assumptions and estimates that may be inaccurate. Our addressable market depends on a number of factors, including businesses’ desire to differentiate themselves through digital customer engagement, partnership opportunities, changes in the competitive landscape, technological changes, data security or privacy concerns, customer budgetary constraints, changes in business practices, changes in the regulatory environment and changes in economic conditions. Our estimates and forecasts relating to the size and expected growth of our market may prove to be inaccurate, and our ability to produce accurate estimates and forecasts may be impacted by economic uncertainty that is outside our control, including the uncertainty associated with (i) the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, and any uncertainties related to the recovery therefrom, (ii) international conflicts that may impact international trade and global economic performance, such as the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the related economic sanctions imposed by the United States and its trading partners against Russia and Belarus, and (iii) other macroeconomic trends, such as international and domestic supply chain risks that impact our customers. Any of these risks could have a significant impact on our business or the business of our customers, either of which could result in a material adverse effect on our results and operations and cause our current estimates and projections to be inaccurate. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth rates we forecast, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Brand

We face intense competition, including from well-established companies that offer products that compete with ours. We may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position, which may harm our ability to add new customers, retain existing customers, and grow our business.

The market for customer engagement products is evolving and highly competitive. There are several established and emerging competitors that address specific aspects of customer engagement. We face intense competition from software companies that offer marketing solutions, such as legacy marketing clouds like Adobe and Salesforce, and point solutions like Airship, Iterable, Leanplum, MailChimp and MoEngage. Many of our existing competitors have, and our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, larger sales and marketing budgets and resources, greater customer support resources, lower labor and development costs, larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios and substantially greater financial, technical and other resources than we do. In addition, our competitors may have an advantage in markets where our policies regarding the use of customer data are more restrictive than local laws, regulations, policies and standards. For example, competitors willing to sell customer data in markets where such activity is permissible may have a pricing advantage over us in such markets. Any such pricing advantages that our competitors have may negatively affect our ability to gain new customers and retain existing customers. With the introduction of new technologies and the entry of new competitors into the market, we expect competition to persist and intensify in the future. In addition, merger and acquisition activity in the technology industry could increase the likelihood that we compete with other large technology companies. This could harm our ability to increase sales, maintain or increase subscription renewals, and maintain our prices.

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Conditions in our market could change rapidly and significantly as a result of technological advancements, partnering by our competitors or continuing market consolidation. Some of our larger competitors also have substantially broader product lines and market focus and therefore may not be as susceptible to downturns in a particular market. New start-up companies that innovate, and large companies that are making significant investments in research and development, may invent similar or superior products and technologies that compete with one or more of our platform offerings. In addition, some of our competitors may enter into new alliances with each other or may establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with agency partners, technology and application providers in complementary categories, or other parties. Competitors may also consolidate with existing service providers or strategic partners that we rely on, and as a result we could lose partnerships that are difficult to replace. Any such consolidation, acquisition, alliance or cooperative relationship could lead to pricing pressure, a loss of market share or a smaller addressable share of the market and could result in a competitor with greater financial, technical, marketing, service and other resources, all of which could harm our ability to compete.

Some of our larger competitors may use their broader product offerings to compete with us, including by bundling their competitive products with other products being purchased from that company by a customer or by restricting access to their technology platforms thereby making it more difficult for customers to integrate the use of our platform with other competitor products. Potential customers may prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of product performance or features. Furthermore, potential customers may be more willing to incrementally add solutions to their existing infrastructure from competitors than to replace their existing infrastructure with our platform and products. These competitive pressures in our market, or our failure to compete effectively, may result in price reductions, fewer sales, reduced revenue and gross margins, increased net losses and loss of, or failure to expand, our market share. Any failure to address these challenges could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to attract new customers and renew existing customers, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.

To increase our revenue, we must continue to attract new customers and retain, and sell more products to, existing customers. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the widespread adoption of our platform and products as an alternative to existing products in which many enterprises have invested substantial personnel and financial resources and, therefore, may be reluctant or unwilling to abandon. In addition, as our market matures, our products evolve and competitors introduce lower cost or differentiated products that are perceived to compete with our platform, products and services, our ability to sell subscriptions for our products could be impaired. Similarly, our subscription sales could be adversely affected if customers or users within these organizations perceive that features incorporated into competitive products reduce the need for our products or if they prefer to purchase other products that are bundled with products offered by other companies that operate in adjacent markets and compete with our products. In addition, the value of our products and services to our customers depends, in part, on our customers’ ability to use them as part of an overall effective marketing strategy. To the extent our customers’ marketing strategies are not effective, they may reduce the use of our products and services or fail to renew their existing contracts. As a result of these and other factors, we may be unable to attract new customers, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, or changing regulations, or to changing customer or consumer needs, requirements or preferences, our platform may become less competitive.

Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers depends in large part on our ability to enhance and improve our platform and its products and functionality, increase adoption and usage of our platform, and introduce new products and functionality. The market in which we compete is relatively new and subject to rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and changing regulations, as well as changing customer and consumer needs, requirements and preferences, including changes in the use of channels through which consumers desire to communicate with brands. For instance, the SEC has recently indicated that it may increase regulatory focus on the use of customer engagement tools in the financial services industry, and we cannot predict if other regulators will take similar actions in other markets in the future. Any regulatory restrictions on the use of customer engagement tools from the SEC or other domestic or foreign regulators could have the effect of reducing demand for our platform in this and other markets. The success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to adapt and respond effectively to these changes on a timely basis. If we were unable to enhance our platform offerings to keep pace with rapid technological and regulatory change, or if new technologies emerge that are able to deliver competitive products at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely than our platform, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

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The success of our platform depends, in part, on our ability to continuously modify and enhance our platform to adapt to changes and innovation in existing and new technologies to maintain and grow our integrations. We expect that the number of integrations with our customers’ infrastructure that we will need to support will continue to expand as developers adopt new software solutions, and we will have to develop new versions of our platform to work with those new solutions. This development effort may require significant engineering, sales and marketing resources, all of which could adversely affect our business. Any failure of our platform to operate effectively with customer infrastructures could reduce the demand for our platform, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We are substantially dependent upon customers renewing their subscriptions to, and expanding their use of, our platform to maintain and grow our revenue, which requires us to scale our platform infrastructure and business quickly enough to meet our customers’ growing needs. If we are not able to grow in an efficient manner, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

As usage of our platform grows and as customers use it for more complex projects, we may need to devote additional resources to improving our platform architecture, updating our platform’s products and functionality, integrating with third-party systems and maintaining infrastructure performance. In addition, we will need to appropriately scale our internal business as well as grow our partner services network to serve our growing customer base, particularly as our customer base expands over time. Our ability to scale our business is dependent on our ability to maintain and grow our revenue through new and renewed customer subscriptions to our platform, from which we derive substantially all of our revenue. We cannot assure you that we will be able to renew subscriptions with any of our customers at the same or higher contract value. In addition, some customers have multiple order forms with different divisions of their entities, which could increase the complexity of negotiating renewals.

The market for customer engagement products is still evolving, and competitive dynamics may cause our pricing to change as the market matures and as existing and new market participants introduce new types of products and different approaches to enable customers to address their needs. As a result, we may be forced to reduce the prices we charge for our subscriptions and may be required to offer terms less favorable to us for new and renewal agreements, particularly for mid-to large-size enterprises that may demand substantial price discounts as part of the negotiation of subscription contracts.

Further, some of our contracts limit the amount we can increase prices from period to period or include pricing guarantees. In the past, we have made certain pricing concessions for customers that were significantly negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. If our customers do not renew their agreements, require pricing concessions, terminate their agreements as a result of a change of control or otherwise, renew their agreements on terms less favorable to us or fail to purchase additional product subscriptions, our revenue may decline, and as a result our ability to scale our business may be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations would likely be harmed as a result.

Any failure of or delay in efforts to scale our business could cause difficulty or delay in deploying our products or functionality to customers, could lead to impaired performance, other declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increased costs, difficulty in introducing new features or other operational inefficiencies or failures. These issues could reduce the attractiveness of our platform to customers, resulting in decreased subscriptions with existing and new customers, lower subscription renewal rates, the issuance of service credits or requests for refunds, which could hurt our revenue growth and our reputation. Even if we can upgrade our systems and expand our staff, any such expansion will be expensive and complex, requiring management time and attention, as well as improvements to our operational and financial controls and reporting systems and procedures. Because of these risks and other inherent risks associated with upgrading, improving and expanding our information technology systems, any needed expansion and improvements to our infrastructure and systems may not be fully or effectively implemented on a timely basis, if at all. Any such expansion efforts may reduce revenue or may not bring the benefits we anticipate, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Failure to effectively develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities could harm our ability to expand our customer base and achieve broader market adoption of our platform and products.

Our ability to expand our customer base and achieve broader market adoption of our platform will depend on our ability to expand our sales and marketing operations. We plan to continue expanding our sales team and strategic partners, both domestically and internationally; however, there is no assurance that we will be successful in attracting and retaining talented sales personnel or strategic partners or that any new sales personnel will be able to achieve productivity in a reasonable period of time or at all. We also plan to dedicate significant resources to sales and marketing programs to drive new customer acquisition, as well as engage with customers to promote upsell and cross-sell opportunities. We also engage with industry analysts, consulting firms, marketing service providers, data and technology partners, marketing agencies and other solution
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partners, business and trade press, and other industry experts who exert considerable influence in our market to promote our platform and our brand. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed if our sales and marketing efforts do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue. In addition, we may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales team if we are unable to hire, develop and retain talented sales personnel, if our new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective. If the cost of marketing our platform and products increases or competition reduces the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We are dependent on a single platform, and the failure to achieve continued market acceptance of our platform could cause our results of operations to suffer.

Substantially all of our revenue is attributable to subscriptions for our cloud-based platform. We expect that we will be substantially dependent on our platform to generate revenue for the foreseeable future. As a result, our results of operations could suffer due to:

any decline in demand for our platform;
the failure of our platform to achieve continued market acceptance;
the market for our platform not continuing to grow, or growing more slowly than we expect;
the introduction of products and technologies that serve as a replacement or substitute for, or represent an improvement over, our platform;
technological innovations or new standards that our platform does not address;
incidents or interruptions with third-party service providers, including Apple or Google services, that affect the ability of our customers to use our platform;
sensitivity to current or future prices offered by us or our competitors;
our inability to release enhanced versions of our platform on a timely basis;
the development of new communication channels with which we are not able to adequately integrate our platform; and
changes to mobile devices and platforms that prevent or degrade the functionality of our platform, or our inability to maintain interoperability of our platform with such mobile devices and platforms.

If the market for our platform grows more slowly than anticipated or if demand for our products does not grow as quickly as anticipated, whether as a result of competition, pricing sensitivities, product obsolescence, technological change, unfavorable economic conditions, uncertain geopolitical environment, budgetary constraints of our customers or other factors, we may not be able to grow our revenue, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

If our platform fails to perform properly or there are defects or disruptions in the rollout of our platform updates or enhancements, our reputation could be adversely affected, our market share could decline, and we could be subject to liability claims.

Our platform is inherently complex and may contain material defects or errors. Any defects or errors that impact functionality or that cause interruptions in the availability of our platform could result in:

loss or delayed market acceptance and subscriptions;
breach of warranty claims;
breach of contract claims;
sales credits or refunds for prepaid amounts;
loss of customers;
diversion of development and support resources; and
injury to our reputation.

The costs we would be forced to incur to correct any material defects or errors could be substantial and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our customer agreements often provide service level commitments. If we are unable to meet the stated service level commitments or suffer extended periods of unavailability of our platform, we may be contractually obligated to provide these customers with service credits or we could face contract terminations. We outsource substantially all the infrastructure relating to our cloud-based platform to third-party hosting providers and, as a result, our services may be impacted in the future, and have been impacted in the past, by unscheduled downtime at such providers that is beyond our control. Our revenue could be
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significantly affected if we suffer unscheduled downtime that exceeds the allowed downtimes under our agreements with our customers.

Because of the large amount of data that we collect, process, transmit, store and manage, it is possible that hardware failures or errors in our systems could result in data loss or cause the information that we collect to be incomplete which may result in breach of contract claims, damage our reputation or subject us to regulatory fines or investigations. Furthermore, the availability or performance of our platform could be adversely affected by a number of factors outside our control, including customers’ inability to access the internet, the failure of software systems caused by our third-party vendors, security breaches, cyberattacks or variability in user traffic for our services. For example, our customers access our platform through their internet service providers. If a customer’s service provider fails to provide sufficient capacity to support our platform or otherwise experiences service outages, such failure could interrupt our customers’ access to our platform and adversely affect their perception of our platform’s reliability. In addition to potential liability, if we experience interruptions in the availability of our cloud-based platform, our reputation could be adversely affected, and we could lose customers or have difficulty acquiring new customers.

We also provide frequent incremental releases of updates and functional enhancements to our platform. Despite extensive pre-release testing, such new versions occasionally contain undetected errors when first introduced or released. We have, from time to time, found errors in our platform, and new errors in our platform may be detected in the future. Since our customers use our products for important aspects of their business, any errors, defects, disruptions in our platform or other performance problems with our solutions could hurt our reputation and may damage our customers’ businesses. If that occurs, some of our customers may delay or withhold payment to us, elect not to renew their subscriptions with us, make service credit claims, warranty claims or other claims against us, and we could lose future sales. The occurrence of any of these events could result in an increase in our bad debt expense, an increase in collection cycles for accounts receivable or a decrease in future revenue and earnings, or could cause us to incur the risk or expense of litigation.

We may need to reduce prices or change our pricing model to remain competitive.

Our subscription fees are principally based on an upfront commitment by our customers for a specific number of monthly active users, volume of email, level of platform functionality, volume of SMS messages and certain add-on features. We expect that we may need to change our pricing from time to time. As new or existing competitors introduce products that compete with ours or reduce their prices, we may be unable to attract new customers or retain existing customers. We also must determine the appropriate price to enable us to compete effectively internationally. Customers may demand substantial price discounts as part of the negotiation of subscription agreements. As a result, we may be required or choose to reduce our prices or otherwise change our pricing model, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our sales cycle with large enterprise customers can be long and unpredictable, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense.

The timing of our sales cycles with our large enterprise customers and related revenue recognition is difficult to predict because of the length and unpredictability of the sales cycle for these customers. Large enterprise customers may have a lengthy sales cycle for the evaluation and procurement of our platform. Work-from-home arrangements resulting from, and continuing after, the COVID-19 pandemic may cause a lengthening of these sales cycles or a reduction in sales cycle win rates as we have historically benefited from using face-to-face selling techniques. Any delays in our sales cycles may cause a delay between increasing operating expenses for such sales efforts and, upon successful sales, the generation of corresponding revenue. We are often required to spend significant time and resources to better educate our potential large enterprise customers and familiarize them with the platform. The length of our sales cycle for these customers, from initial evaluation to contract execution, is generally three to six months but can vary substantially and sometimes extend for over 12 months. Large enterprise customers often view a subscription to our platform and products as a strategic decision with significant investment. As a result, customers frequently require considerable time to evaluate, test and qualify our platform prior to entering into or expanding a subscription. During the sales cycle, we expend significant time and money on sales and marketing and contract negotiation activities, which may not result in a sale. Additional factors that may influence the length and variability of our sales cycle include:

the effectiveness of our sales team as we hire and train our new salespeople to sell to large enterprise customers;
our ability to meet with customers in person during a sales cycle;
the discretionary nature of purchasing and budget cycles and decisions;
the obstacles placed by customers’ procurement process;
economic conditions and other factors impacting customer budgets;
customers’ familiarity with our products;
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customers’ evaluation of competing products during the purchasing process; and
evolving customer demands.

Given these factors, it is difficult to predict whether and when a sale will be completed. Consequently, a shortfall in demand for our products and services or a decline in new or renewed contracts in a given period may not significantly reduce our revenue for that period but could negatively affect our revenue in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business and reputation could be adversely affected if our customers are not satisfied with the integration, implementation, or services provided by us or our partners.

The success of our business depends on our customers’ satisfaction with our platform, the support that we provide for our platform and the services that we provide to help integrate and utilize our platform. Onboarding services may be performed by our own staff, by a third party or by a combination of the two. We have partnered with third parties to increase the breadth, capability and depth of capacity for delivery of these onboarding services to our customers, and third parties provide a significant portion of such support. If a customer is not satisfied with the quality of work performed by us or a third party or with the solutions delivered, we could incur additional costs to address the deficiency, which would diminish the profitability of the customer relationship. If we do not help our customers quickly resolve issues and provide effective ongoing support, our ability to sell new products to existing and new customers will suffer and our reputation with existing or potential customers will be harmed, even if the dissatisfaction is with services provided by a third-party partner. Further, customer dissatisfaction with our services could impair our ability to expand the subscriptions within our customer base or adversely affect our customers’ renewal of existing subscriptions. In addition, negative publicity related to our customer relationships, regardless of accuracy, may further damage our business by affecting our ability to compete for new business with actual and prospective customers.

Because we generally recognize revenue ratably over the term of each subscription agreement, downturns or upturns in our sales may not be immediately reflected in our financial condition and results of operations.

We recognize revenue ratably over the term of each subscription agreement. Consequently, while a decline in new sales or renewals in any one period may not be reflected in our revenue for that period, this decline will negatively affect our revenue in future periods. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our products and potential changes in our rate of renewals may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Our model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers generally is recognized over the term of the applicable agreement.

If we fail to maintain and enhance our brand, our ability to expand our customer base may be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand is important to support the marketing and sale of our existing and future products to new customers and expand sales of our platform and products to existing customers. We also believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successfully maintaining and enhancing our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, our ability to provide reliable products that continue to meet the needs of our customers at competitive prices, our ability to maintain our customers’ trust, our ability to continue to develop new functionality and use cases, and our ability to successfully differentiate our products and platform capabilities from competitive products. Our brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or yield increased revenue and, even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction or adequately address competitive challenges.

We may continue to experience rapid growth and organizational change, which may continue to place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial resources. We have also experienced growth in the number of customers, the number of engagements we enable and the amount of data that our infrastructure supports. In particular, acquiring and supporting enterprise customers can require significant resources due to their size, volume of messaging and complexity. Our success will depend in part on our ability to manage this growth effectively. We will require significant capital
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expenditures and valuable management resources to grow without undermining our culture of innovation, teamwork and attention to customer success, which has been central to our growth so far.

We intend to continue to expand our international operations in the future. For example, we recently announced our plans to expand our international operations to include offices in Canada and France. Our expansion will continue to place a significant strain on our managerial, administrative, financial and other resources. If we are unable to manage our growth successfully, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

It is important that we maintain a high level of customer services, integration services, technical support and satisfaction as we expand our business. As our customer base continues to grow and as our penetration with existing customers expands, we will need to expand our account management, customer service and other personnel. Failure to manage growth could result in difficulty or delays in launching our platform, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features, or other operational difficulties. Any of these could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We anticipate that our operations will continue to increase in complexity as we grow, which will create management challenges.

Our business has experienced strong growth and is complex. We expect this growth to continue and for our operations to become increasingly complex. To manage this growth, we continue to make substantial investments to improve our operational, financial and management controls as well as our reporting systems and procedures. We may not be able to implement and scale improvements to our systems and processes in a timely or efficient manner or in a manner that does not negatively affect our results of operations. For example, we may not be able to effectively monitor certain contract requirements for specific products. We may have difficulty managing improvements to our systems, processes and controls or in connection with third-party software, which could impair our ability to provide our platform to our customers, causing us to lose customers, limiting our platform to less significant updates or increasing our technical support costs. If we are unable to manage this complexity, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

As our customer base continues to grow, we will need to expand our services and other personnel, and maintain and enhance our partnerships, to provide a high level of customer service. We also will need to manage our sales processes as our sales personnel and partner network continue to grow and become more complex and as we continue to expand into new geographies and market segments. If we do not effectively manage this increasing complexity, the quality of our platform and customer service could suffer, and we may not be able to adequately address competitive challenges. These factors could impair our ability to attract and retain customers and expand our customers’ use of our platform.

We depend on our senior management team and the loss of one or more key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our executive officers, particularly our chief executive officer. We rely heavily on our chief executive officer’s vision, expertise and reputation. We rely on our leadership team for research and development, marketing, sales, services and general and administrative functions, and on mission-critical individual contributors. From time to time, our executive management team may change due to the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. We do not have employment agreements with our executive officers or other key personnel that require them to continue to work for us for any specified period; therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers, particularly our chief executive officer, or key employees (including any limitation on the performance of their duties or short-term or long-term absences as a result of illness or disability) could have a serious adverse effect on our business.

To execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially for experienced software engineers and senior sales executives. In addition, partially in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have a large, remote workforce, which adds to the complexity and costs of our business operations. We expect to continue to experience difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Additional stay-at-home, business closure and other restrictive orders may also impact our ability to identify, hire and train new personnel. We recently completed our initial public offering, and potential candidates may not perceive our compensation package, including our equity awards, as favorably as employees hired prior to our initial public offering. In addition, our recruiting personnel, methodology and approach may need to be altered to address a changing candidate pool and profile. We may not be able to identify or implement such changes in a timely manner. Also, it is not uncommon for companies to see significant turnover in their workforce following an initial public offering, a trend which may only be further amplified by the competitive market for highly-skilled employees. If we fail to attract new personnel, experience significant turnover or the loss of key
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personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, it could adversely affect our business and future growth prospects. Further, many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources.

If we are unable to maintain our culture and core values as we grow, we could lose the innovation, teamwork, passion and focus on execution that we believe contribute to our success, and our business may be harmed.

We believe our culture and core values are critical to our success and have delivered tangible financial and operational benefits to our customers, employees and stockholders. We are a mission-driven company and have designed our core values as a guiding set of principles for our employees and business. Accordingly, we have invested substantial time and resources in building a team that reflects our culture and core values. As we grow and develop our infrastructure as a public company, our operations may become increasingly complex. We may find it difficult to maintain these important aspects of our culture and core values. In addition, the growth of our remote workforce, partially in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, may impact our ability to preserve our culture and core values. Any failure to preserve our culture or core values could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel, and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives.

Indemnity provisions in various agreements potentially expose us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement, privacy law violations, data breaches and other losses.

Many of our agreements with customers and certain other third parties include indemnification provisions under which we agree to indemnify them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, violation of privacy and other applicable law or breaches of information security obligations, or other liabilities relating to or arising from our platform, products or other contractual obligations. Some of these agreements provide for uncapped liability for losses caused by intellectual property infringement or gross negligence or willful misconduct, and some indemnity provisions survive termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. While we cap all other liabilities, in some instances, the cap may represent a significant amount of potential liability, and such large indemnity payments could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we normally contractually limit our liability with respect to these obligations, we may still incur substantial liability related to them and we may be required to cease use of certain functions of our platform or products as a result of any such claims. Additionally, while we maintain insurance related to these matters, this insurance might not cover all such claims, provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more of such claims or continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or under-insured could result in unanticipated costs, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. Further, any dispute with a customer with respect to such obligations could have adverse effects on our relationship with that customer, other existing customers and new customers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our current operations are international in scope, and we plan further geographic expansion. This will create a variety of operational challenges.

A component of our growth strategy involves the further expansion of our operations and customer base internationally. We currently have customers in the United States, Canada, Europe, the Middle East, the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America. We are continuing to adapt and develop strategies to address international markets, but such efforts may not be successful. In addition, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variant strains COVID-19, and related stay-at-home, business closure and other restrictive orders and travel restrictions into and outside the United States, may pose additional challenges for international expansion and may impact our ability to launch new locations and further expand geographically.

We expect that our international activities will continue to grow over the foreseeable future as we continue to pursue opportunities in existing and new international markets. For example, we previously announced our plans to expand our international operations to include offices in Canada and France. This and any other future expansion of our international activities and operations will require significant management attention and financial resources.

Our current international operations and future initiatives involve a variety of risks, including:

changes in a country’s or region’s political or economic conditions;
the need to adapt and localize our platform for specific countries;
greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;
unexpected changes in laws, regulatory requirements, taxes or trade laws;
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more stringent regulations relating to privacy and data security and the unauthorized collection, processing, transmission or use of, or access to, commercial and personal information, particularly in Europe;
differing labor regulations, especially in Canada and Europe, where labor laws are generally more advantageous to employees as compared to the United States, including deemed hourly wage and overtime regulations in these locations;
difficulties in managing a business in new markets with diverse cultures, languages, customs, legal systems, alternative dispute systems and regulatory systems;
increased travel, real estate, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with international operations;
currency exchange rate fluctuations and the resulting effect on our revenue and expenses and the cost and risk of entering into hedging transactions if we chose to do so in the future;
laws and business practices favoring local competitors or general preferences for local vendors;
limited or insufficient intellectual property protection or difficulties enforcing our intellectual property;
political instability, economic sanctions, terrorist activities, or international conflicts, including the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which may impact the operations of our business or the businesses of our customers;
risks related to global health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, and related restrictions on our ability and our customers’ ability to travel;
exposure to liabilities under anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010, the U.K. Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and similar laws and regulations in other jurisdictions; and
adverse tax burdens and foreign exchange controls that could make it difficult to repatriate earnings and cash.

Failure to overcome any of these difficulties could negatively affect our results of operations. If we invest substantial time and resources to expand our international operations and are unable to do so successfully, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships or alliances could be difficult to identify, pose integration challenges, divert the attention of management, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have in the past and may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, joint ventures, products and platform capabilities, or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our products and platform capabilities, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. Further, our proceeds from our initial public offering increase the likelihood that we will devote resources to exploring larger and more complex acquisitions and investments than we have previously attempted. We may not be able to find and identify desirable acquisition targets or business opportunities or be successful in entering into an agreement with any particular strategic partner. Additionally, any such acquisition or investment may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable opportunities, whether or not the transactions are completed, and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. In particular, we may encounter difficulties assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, products and platform capabilities, personnel or operations of any acquired companies, particularly if the key personnel of an acquired company choose not to work for us, their software is not easily adapted to work with our platform or we have difficulty retaining the customers of any acquired business due to changes in ownership, management or otherwise. These transactions may also disrupt our business, divert our resources and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for development of our existing business. Any such transactions that we are able to complete may not result in any synergies or other benefits we had expected to achieve, which could result in impairment charges that could be substantial. These transactions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if the resulting business from such a transaction fails to meet our expectations, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected, or we may be exposed to unknown risks or liabilities.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

Our business depends on our ability to send consumer engagement messages, including emails, SMS and mobile and web notifications, and any significant disruption in service with our third-party providers or on mobile operating systems could result in a loss of customers or less effective consumer-brand engagement, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our brand, reputation and ability to attract new customers depend on the reliable performance of our technology infrastructure and content delivery. Our platform engages with consumers through emails, SMS, mobile and web notifications. We are dependent on third-party services for delivery of emails and SMS, and we are dependent on Apple services and Google services for delivery of mobile and web notifications. For example, unrelated third parties are utilized throughout our industry to deliver email and SMS messages to consumers. If these third-party services change their policies regarding the delivery of certain email or SMS messages, some of our customers may no longer be able to use these channels through our platform. If this were to occur, it could lead to customer dissatisfaction, harm to our reputation or subject us to liability, any of which may harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, any incident broadly affecting the interaction of Apple or Android devices with necessary Apple or Google services (e.g., iCloud or Apple push notifications), including any delays or interruptions in such Apple or Google services, could adversely affect our business. Further, any cybersecurity events affecting Apple or Google Android devices could result in a disruption to Apple or Google services, regulatory investigations, reputational damage and a loss of sales and customers for Apple or Google, which could in turn impact our business. A prolonged disruption, cybersecurity event or any other negative event affecting Apple or Google could lead to customer dissatisfaction and could in turn damage our reputation with current and potential customers, expose us to liability and cause us to lose customers or otherwise harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend in part on mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS, and their respective infrastructures to send notifications through various applications that utilize our platform. Any changes in such systems that negatively impact the functionality of our platform could adversely affect our ability to interact with consumers in a timely and effective fashion, which could adversely affect our ability to retain and attract new customers. For example, any anti-tracking features adopted by Apple or Google that require applications to obtain additional permissions to track end user data may impact our customers’ decisions relating to how to interact with users on our platform. While it is the contractual obligation of our customers to comply with these requirements and applicable laws when using our platform, we cannot guarantee that all customers will do so at all times. Accordingly, if any of our customers were to use our platform in violation of these policies or applicable law, even without our knowledge, we may be subject to financial penalties and reputational harm. Additionally, if such mobile operating systems change their policies or otherwise limit or prohibit us from sending notifications or otherwise make changes that degrade the functionality of our platform, such changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

As new mobile devices and mobile, web and email platforms are released, there is no guarantee that these mobile devices and platforms will continue to support our platform or effectively roll out updates to our customers’ applications. The parties that control the operating systems for mobile devices and mobile, web and email platforms have no obligation to test the interoperability of new mobile devices or platforms with our platform, and third parties may produce new products that are incompatible with or not optimal for the operation of our platform. Additionally, in order to deliver high-quality customer engagement, we need to ensure that our platform is designed to work effectively with a range of mobile technologies, systems, networks and standards. If consumers choose to use products or platforms that do not support our platforms, or if we do not ensure our platform can work effectively with such products or platforms, our business and growth could be harmed. We also may not be successful in developing or maintaining relationships with key participants in the mobile industry that permit such interoperability. If we are unable to adapt to changes in popular operating systems, we expect that our customer retention and customer growth would be adversely affected.

We rely upon third-party providers of cloud-based infrastructure, including Amazon Web Services, to host our products. Any disruption in the operations of these third-party providers or limitations on capacity or interference with our use could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We outsource substantially all the infrastructure relating to our cloud-based platform to third-party hosting providers. Our customers need to be able to access our platform at any time, without interruption or degradation of performance, and we provide them with service-level commitments with respect to uptime and, occasionally, throughput. Our products depend on protecting the virtual cloud infrastructure hosted by third-party hosting providers by maintaining its configuration, architecture, features and interconnection specifications, as well as the information stored in these virtual data centers, which is transmitted by third-party internet service providers. Any limitation on the capacity or availability of our third-party hosting providers could impede our ability to onboard new customers or expand the usage of our existing customers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Currently, we rely on cloud computing infrastructure, particularly from Amazon Web Services, or AWS, to host our platform and support our operations and many of the internal products we use to operate our business. We do not have control over the operations of the facilities of AWS or other cloud providers. Each provider’s respective facilities may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, cybersecurity attacks, terrorist attacks, power losses, telecommunications failures and other events beyond our or their control. In the event that AWS’s or any other third-party provider’s systems or service abilities are hindered by any of the events
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discussed above, our ability to operate our platform may be impaired, our customers may be impacted, we may be subject to claims for refunds or terminations under our contracts, and our reputation and brand may be harmed. A decision to close these facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems, could result in lengthy interruptions to our platform. All of the aforementioned risks may be exacerbated if our or our partners’ business continuity and disaster recovery plans prove to be inadequate in such a scenario.

Additionally, AWS or other cloud providers may experience threats or attacks from computer malware, ransomware, viruses, social engineering (including phishing attacks), denial of service or other attacks, employee error, theft or misuse and general hacking, including from state-sponsored or criminal hacking groups, which have become more prevalent in our industry. Any of these security incidents could result in unauthorized access or damage to, or the disablement, encryption, use or misuse, disclosure, modification, destruction or loss of our data or our partners’ data, including personal information, or disrupt our ability to provide our platform or service. Our platform’s continuing and uninterrupted performance is critical to our success. Users may become dissatisfied by any system failure that interrupts our ability to provide our platform to them and could make claims for refunds or terminations under our contracts. We may not be able to easily switch our AWS operations to another cloud or other data center provider if there are disruptions or interference with our use of any third-party provider’s services, and even if we do switch our operations, the process can require significant time and expense and other cloud and data center providers are subject to the same risks. Sustained or repeated system failures would reduce the attractiveness of our platform to our partners, thereby reducing revenue. Moreover, negative publicity arising from these types of disruptions could damage our reputation and may adversely impact use of our platform. We may not carry sufficient business interruption insurance or have sufficient contractual remedies to compensate us for losses that may occur as a result of any events that cause interruptions in our service.

In the event that our service agreements with our third-party hosting providers are terminated or there is a lapse of service, elimination of services or features that we utilize, interruption of internet service provider connectivity or damage to such facilities, we could experience interruptions in access to our platform as well as significant delays and additional expense in arranging or creating new facilities and services and/or re-architecting our cloud solution for deployment on a different cloud infrastructure service provider, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our agreement with AWS allows AWS to terminate for any reason with 30 days’ advance notice or in case of a breach of contract if such breach is uncured for 30 days. AWS may also terminate immediately upon notice if (1) AWS determines that our use of its service poses a security risk to its services or any other third party, could otherwise adversely impact AWS’s systems, could subject AWS to liability or could be fraudulent, (2) we fail to pay AWS in accordance with our agreement, (3) we cease to operate in the ordinary course, make an assignment for the benefit of creditors or become the subject of any bankruptcy, reorganization, liquidation, dissolution or other similar proceeding, (4) AWS’s relationship with any third-party providers terminates or requires AWS to change the way it provides services or (5) termination is necessary to comply with the law or the requests of governmental entities. Although we expect that we could receive similar services from other third parties if any of our arrangements with AWS are terminated, transitioning the cloud infrastructure currently hosted by AWS to alternative providers would likely be disruptive, and we could incur significant one-time costs. If we are unable to renew our agreement with AWS on commercially reasonable terms or at all, our agreement with AWS is prematurely terminated or we add additional infrastructure providers, we may experience costs or downtime in connection with the transfer to, or the addition of, new data center providers. If AWS or other infrastructure providers increase the costs of their services, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.

In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on relationships with strategic partners, including cloud alliance/marketing, infrastructure and technology partners, to provide broader customer coverage and solution delivery capabilities, and also achieve product stickiness. While our strategic partners have not played a lead role in our customer generation process in the past, we intend to develop these relationships to rely more heavily on our partners to help us generate business going forward. Identifying partners, and negotiating, documenting and maintaining relationships with them, requires significant time and resources. Our agreements with our strategic partners are non-exclusive and do not prohibit them from working with our competitors or recommending competing products. Our competitors may be effective in providing incentives to such third parties to favor their products or services or to prevent or reduce subscriptions to our services. If our partners choose to place greater emphasis on products of their own or those offered by our competitors or do not effectively market and sell our platform, our ability to grow our business and sell our products and services may be adversely affected. In addition, acquisitions of our partners by our competitors could result in a decrease in the number of our current and potential customers, as our partners may no longer facilitate the adoption of our platform by potential customers.

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We are highly dependent upon our relationship with the developer platforms, web browsers and operating systems provided by third-party technology companies such as Apple and Google. Changes to mobile device operating systems may diminish the usefulness of marketing providers or require significant modifications or demands on our business to continue supporting those operating systems. Changes to developer platform policies related to third-party software, such as Apple or Google, creating restrictions that limit the ability of our existing or potential customers to use SDKs or that further limit the use of cookies could similarly adversely affect our business.

If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer. Even if we are successful, it is not assured that these relationships will result in increased customer usage of our platform or increased revenue.

Risks Related to Privacy, Data Security and Data Protection Laws

We are subject to stringent and changing laws and regulations, industry standards and contractual obligations related to privacy, data security and data protection. The restrictions and costs imposed by these requirements and our actual or perceived failure to comply with them, could harm our business.

Operating our business and platform involves the collection, use, processing, storage, transfer and sharing of sensitive, proprietary, confidential, regulated and personal information, including such information that we handle on behalf of our customers. These activities subject us to numerous data privacy and security obligations, such as various laws, regulations, guidance, industry standards, external and internal privacy and security policies, contracts, and other obligations that govern the processing of personal data by us and on our behalf.

In the United States, federal, state, and local governments have enacted numerous data privacy and security laws, including data breach notification laws, personal data privacy laws, and consumer protection laws. For example, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, imposes specified requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Federal laws also limit the processing of data for children under 13. Violations of these laws can lead to statutory penalties (up to $46,515 per violation in the case of COPPA, for example). If a private plaintiff or regulator alleges that our privacy or security policies and practices are either unfair or deceptive, we may be subject to litigation or regulatory enforcement. In the United States, there are federal and state laws that prohibit unfair and deceptive acts and practices, with federal enforcement typically arising out of Section 5 of the FTCA. State analogs to the FTCA often allow for a private right of action as well (such as the California Unfair Competition Law).

Similarly, the CCPA imposes obligations on businesses to which it applies. These obligations include, but are not limited to, providing specific disclosures in privacy notices and affording California residents certain rights related to their personal data. The CCPA allows for statutory fines for noncompliance (up to $7,500 per violation). In addition, it is anticipated that the CPRA, effective January 1, 2023, will expand the CCPA. For example, the CPRA establishes a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the CCPA (as amended), which could increase the risk of an enforcement action. Other states have enacted data privacy laws. For example, Virginia passed the Consumer Data Protection Act, and Colorado passed the Colorado Privacy Act, both of which differ from the CPRA and become effective in 2023. If we become subject to new data privacy laws at the state level, the risk of enforcement action against us could increase because we may become subject to additional obligations, and the number of individuals or entities that can initiate actions against us may increase (including individuals, via a private right of action, and state actors).

Outside the United States, an increasing number of laws, regulations, and industry standards apply to data privacy and security. For example, the EU GDPR and the U.K. GDPR impose strict requirements for processing the personal data of individuals located, respectively within the EEA and the U.K. Under the EU GDPR, government regulators may impose temporary or definitive bans on data processing, as well as fines of up to 20 million euros or 4% of annual global revenue, whichever is greater. Further, individuals may initiate litigation related to our processing of their personal data. In Canada, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, or PIPEDA, and various related provincial laws, as well as Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation, or CASL, also apply to our operations.

In addition, many jurisdictions have enacted data localization laws and cross-border personal data transfer laws. These laws may make it more difficult for us to transfer personal data across jurisdictions, which could impede our business. For example, absent appropriate safeguards or other circumstances, the EU GDPR generally restricts the transfer of personal data to
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countries outside of the EEA, such as the United States, which the European Commission does not consider providing an adequate level of data privacy and security. The European Commission released a set of “Standard Contractual Clauses” that are designed to be a valid mechanism by which entities can transfer personal data out of the EEA to jurisdictions that the European Commission has not found to provide an adequate level of protection. Currently, these Standard Contractual clauses are a valid mechanism to transfer personal data outside of the EEA. The Standard Contractual Clauses, however, require parties that rely upon that legal mechanism to comply with additional obligations, such as conducting transfer impact assessments to determine whether additional security measures are necessary to protect the personal data being transferred. Moreover, due to potential legal challenges, there exists some uncertainty regarding whether the Standard Contractual Clauses will remain a valid mechanism for transfers of personal data out of the EEA. In addition, laws in Switzerland and the U.K. similarly restrict transfers of personal data outside of those jurisdictions to countries such as the United States that do not provide an adequate level of personal data protection. In addition to European restrictions on cross-border transfers of personal data, other jurisdictions have enacted or are considering similar cross-border personal data transfer laws and local personal data residency laws, any of which could increase the cost and complexity of doing business in those jurisdictions. If we cannot implement a valid compliance mechanism for cross-border privacy and security transfers, we may face increased exposure to regulatory actions, substantial fines, and injunctions against processing or transferring personal data from Europe or elsewhere. The inability to import personal data to the United States could significantly and negatively impact our business operations, including by limiting our ability to offer our full range of services in Europe and elsewhere; limiting our ability to collaborate with parties that are subject to European and other data privacy and security laws or requiring us to increase our personal data processing capabilities in Europe and elsewhere at significant expense.

Our obligations related to data privacy and security are quickly changing in an increasingly stringent fashion. These obligations may be subject to differing applications and interpretations, which may be inconsistent or in conflict among jurisdictions. Preparing for and complying with these obligations requires us to devote significant resources (including, without limitation, financial and time-related resources). These obligations may necessitate changes to our information technologies, systems and practices and to those of any third parties that process personal data on our behalf. In addition, these obligations may require us to change our business model. Although we endeavor to comply with all applicable data privacy and security obligations, we may at times fail (or be perceived to have failed) to do so. Moreover, despite our efforts, our personnel or third parties upon whom we rely may fail to comply with such obligations which could impact our compliance posture. If we fail, or are perceived to have failed, to address or comply with data privacy and security obligations, we could face significant consequences. These consequences may include, but are not limited to, government enforcement actions (e.g., investigations, fines, penalties, audits, inspections, and similar), litigation (including class-related claims), additional reporting requirements or oversight, bans on processing personal data and orders to destroy or not use personal data. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, or financial condition, including, but not limited to, loss of customers, interruptions or stoppages in our business operations, inability to process personal data or to operate in certain jurisdictions, limited ability to develop or commercialize our products, expenditure of time and resources to defend any claim or inquiry, adverse publicity or revision or restructuring of our operations.

If we or our third-party service providers experience a security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data or our platform, our solution may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform and products may be reduced and we may incur significant liabilities.

Operating our business and platform involves the collection, processing, storage and transmission of sensitive, regulated, proprietary and confidential information, including personal information of our customers, their users and our personnel and our customers’ proprietary and confidential information. We may rely upon third parties (such as service providers) for our data processing–related activities. We may share or receive sensitive data with or from third parties. Cyberattacks, malicious internet-based activity, and online and offline fraud are prevalent and continue to increase. These threats are becoming increasingly difficult to detect. These threats come from a variety of sources. In addition to traditional computer “hackers,” threat actors, personnel (such as through theft or misuse), sophisticated nation-states, and nation-state-supported actors now engage in cyberattacks, including without limitation nation-state actors for geopolitical reasons and in conjunction with military conflicts and defense activities. We may be subject to a variety of evolving threats, including but not limited to social-engineering attacks (including through phishing attacks), malicious code (such as viruses and worms), malware (including as a result of advanced persistent threat intrusions), denial-of-service attacks (such as credential stuffing), personnel misconduct or error, ransomware attacks, supply-chain attacks, software bugs, server malfunctions, software or hardware failures, loss of data or other information technology assets, adware, telecommunications failures, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other similar threats. Ransomware attacks, including those perpetrated by organized criminal threat actors, nation-states, and nation-state-supported actors, are becoming increasingly prevalent and severe and can lead to significant interruptions in our operations, loss of data and income, reputational harm, and diversion of funds. Extortion payments may alleviate the negative impact of a ransomware attack, but we may be unwilling or unable to make such payments due to, for example, applicable laws or regulations prohibiting such payments. Any of the previously identified or similar threats could cause a security incident. Additionally, the risk of these threats may increase for us and our third-party service providers due to ongoing international instability. In the past, nation-states have sponsored cybersecurity attacks against private companies in response to U.S.
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governmental actions or for other strategic purposes. We cannot guarantee that similar actions will not occur the future, including in connection with the ongoing conflict between Russia and the Ukraine. A security incident could result in unauthorized, unlawful, or accidental acquisition, modification, destruction, loss, alteration, encryption, disclosure of, or access to data. A security incident could disrupt our ability (and that of third parties upon whom we rely) to provide our platform.

We may expend significant resources or modify our business activities in an effort to protect against security incidents. Certain data privacy and security obligations may require us to implement and maintain specific security measures, industry-standard or reasonable security measures to protect our information technology systems and data. While we have taken steps designed to protect the proprietary, regulated, sensitive, confidential and personal information in our control, our security measures or those of the third parties on which we rely may not be effective against current or future security risks and threats. Moreover, we or our third-party service providers may be more vulnerable to such attacks in remote work environments, which have increased in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and will likely continue into the foreseeable future.

If we or our third-party service providers suffer, or are perceived to have suffered, a security breach or other security incident, we may experience adverse consequences. Applicable data privacy and security obligations may require us to notify relevant stakeholders of security incidents. Such disclosures are costly, and the disclosures or the failure to comply with such requirements could lead to adverse consequences. If we (or a third party upon whom we rely) experience a security incident or are perceived to have experienced a security incident, we may experience adverse consequences. These consequences may include, but are not limited to, government enforcement actions (for example, investigations, fines, penalties, audits, and inspections), additional reporting requirements or oversight, restrictions on processing data (including personal data), litigation (including class action claims), indemnification obligations, negative publicity, reputational harm, monetary fund diversions, interruptions in our operations (including availability of data to us and our customers), financial loss and other similar harms. Security incidents and attendant consequences may cause customers to stop using our platform, deter new customers for using our platform and negatively impact our ability to grow and operate our business.

Our inability to comply with agreements we enter into with our customers regarding the collection, processing, use and disclosure of personal information could result in additional costs and liabilities to us or inhibit sales of our products.

We enter into agreements with our customers regarding our collection, processing, use, and disclosure of personal information in relation to the services we provide to them. Although we endeavor to comply with such agreements, we may at times fail to do so or may be perceived to have failed to do so, including due to the errors or omissions of our personnel and third-party service providers. Such failures or perceived failures can subject us to customer lawsuits, termination of customer agreements and governmental enforcement actions. Even if we eventually prevail in any such dispute, resolving them could be expensive and time-consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity and reputational harm that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Other Laws and Litigation

Changes in laws and regulations related to the internet or changes in the internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our platform and could have a negative impact on our business.

The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of smart cell phones, other mobile devices and internet-connected devices as primary mediums for commerce, communication and business applications. Government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the internet and internet-connected devices and cell phones as commercial mediums. Changes in these laws or regulations could require us to modify our platform in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations may begin to impose taxes, fees or other charges for accessing the internet or commerce conducted via the internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of internet-related commerce or communications generally, resulting in reductions in the demand for internet-based solutions such as ours.

In addition, the use of the internet as a business tool could be adversely affected due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease of use, accessibility and quality of service. The performance of the internet and its acceptance as a business tool have been adversely affected by “viruses,” “worms” and similar malicious programs, along with distributed denial of service and similar attacks. As a result, the internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of such damage to or attacks on portions of its infrastructure. If the use of the internet is adversely affected by these issues, demand for our platform could suffer.

Any future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.

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We may become subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by our customers in connection with commercial disputes or employment claims made by our current or former employees. Litigation might result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, which might seriously harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Insurance might not cover such claims, provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more of such claims or continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or under-insured could result in unanticipated costs, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

If our platform fails to function in a manner that allows our customers to operate in compliance with regulations and/or industry standards, our revenue and results of operations could be harmed.

Since our customers are able to upload data into our platform, we may be hosting or otherwise processing substantial amounts of personally identifiable information. Some of our customers may require our platform to comply with certain privacy, security and other certifications and standards. Our cloud platform holds various security certifications from industry organizations, designed to meet, in all material respects, the ISO 27001 and various HIPAA standards. Governments and industry organizations may also adopt new laws, regulations or requirements, or make changes to existing laws or regulations, that could impact the demand for, or value of, our applications. If we fail to maintain our current security certifications and/or to continue to meet security standards, or if we are unable to adapt our platform to changing legal and regulatory standards or other requirements in a timely manner, our customers may lose confidence in our platform, and our revenue, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010, the U.K. Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and other anti-corruption laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit our company from authorizing, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. We use third-party law firms, accountants and other representatives for regulatory compliance, sales and other purposes in several countries. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party representatives, our employees, contractors, partners and other agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. In addition, although we have implemented policies and procedures to ensure compliance with anti-corruption laws, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners and agents may not comply with these laws at all times.

Noncompliance with these laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension and/or debarment from contracting with certain persons, the loss of export privileges, reputational harm, adverse media coverage and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could further harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Moreover, as an issuer of securities, we also are subject to the accounting and internal controls provisions of the FCPA. These provisions require us to maintain accurate books and records and a system of internal controls sufficient to detect and prevent corrupt conduct. Failure to abide by these provisions may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets and subject us to liability if we violate the controls.

Our platform is subject to U.S. export controls, including the Export Administration Regulations and economic sanctions administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control. We incorporate encryption technology into our platform. These encryption products and the underlying technology are currently considered “publicly available” by the Export Administration Regulations and may be exported outside of the United States. However, if they cease to be considered “publicly available,” then these encryption products and underlying technology may be exported outside of the United States only with the required export authorizations, including by license, a license exception or other appropriate government authorizations.
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Furthermore, our activities are subject to U.S. economic sanctions laws and regulations that prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to countries, governments and persons targeted by U.S. embargoes or sanctions. Obtaining the necessary export license or other authorization for a particular sale may be time consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities even if the export license ultimately may be granted. While we take precautions to prevent our platform from being exported in violation of these laws, including obtaining authorizations for our platform and performing geolocation IP blocking and screenings against United States and other lists of restricted and prohibited persons, we cannot guarantee that the precautions we take will prevent violations of export control and sanctions laws. Additionally, U.S. embargoes and sanctions can change rapidly and unpredictably in response to international events, such as the recent application of new and broad sanctions against Russia and Belarus in connection with the invasion of Ukraine. Future embargoes or sanctions could have a significant impact on our business or the business of our customers, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and operations. Violations of U.S. sanctions or export control laws can result in significant fines or penalties and possible incarceration for responsible employees and managers could be imposed for criminal violations of these laws.

If our partners fail to obtain appropriate import, export or re-export licenses or permits, we may also be adversely affected through reputational harm as well as other negative consequences, including government investigations and penalties. We presently incorporate export control compliance requirements into our strategic partner agreements, however, our partners may not comply with such requirements.

Various countries regulate the import and export of certain encryption and other technology, including import and export licensing requirements. Some countries have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our platform or could limit our customers’ ability to implement our platform in those countries. Changes in our platform or future changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of our platform in international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from launching our platform globally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our platform to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Various governmental agencies have proposed additional regulation of encryption technology, including the escrow and government recovery of private encryption keys. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could limit our ability to export or sell our platform to existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our platform or limitation on our ability to export or sell our platform would adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

Our international operations may subject us to potential adverse tax consequences.

We are expanding our international operations and staff to better support our growth into international markets. Our corporate structure and associated transfer pricing policies contemplate future growth into the international markets, and consider the functions, risks and assets of the various entities involved in the intercompany transactions. The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions may depend on (1) the application of the tax laws of the various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, (2) changes in tax rates, (3) new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies and (4) our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. Taxing authorities may challenge the pricing methodologies of our intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur and our position were not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties. This could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency.

Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

As of January 31, 2022, we had net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes of approximately $179.4 million and $119.1 million, respectively, some of which may be available to offset taxable income in the future, and which expire in various years beginning in 2035 for federal purposes and 2026 for state purposes if not utilized. Under current law, U.S. federal NOLs incurred in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of federal NOLs is limited to 80% of taxable income in tax years beginning after December 31, 2020. Accordingly, $140.0 million of our NOLs may be carried forward indefinitely for federal tax purposes and various states have enacted tax policies or rules that conform to federal tax laws. A lack of future taxable income would adversely affect our ability to utilize NOLs incurred in tax years beginning on or before December 31, 2017 before they expire. In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” (which generally is defined under Section 382 of the Code and applicable Treasury Regulations as a greater than 50%
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change, by value, in its equity ownership over a three-year period) is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs to offset future taxable income. We have experienced ownership changes in the past and we may experience a future ownership change under Section 382 of the Code that could affect our ability to utilize the NOLs to offset our income, some of which may be outside of our control. Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we have acquired or may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to reduce future income tax liabilities, including for state tax purposes. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of the NOLs reflected on our balance sheets, even if we attain profitability, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in our effective tax rate or tax liability may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our effective tax rate could increase due to several factors, including:

changes in the relative amounts of income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;
expansion to new jurisdictions;
changes in tax laws, tax treaties and regulations or the interpretation of them;
changes in our assessment of our ability to realize our deferred tax assets that are based on estimates of our future results, the advisability and feasibility of possible tax planning strategies and the economic and political environments in which we do business;
the outcome of future tax audits, examinations or administrative appeals; and
limitations or adverse findings regarding our ability to do business in some jurisdictions.

Any of these developments could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We could be required to collect additional sales taxes or be subject to other tax liabilities that may increase the costs our customers would have to pay for our products and adversely affect our results of operations.

An increasing number of states have considered or adopted laws that attempt to impose tax collection obligations on out-of-state companies. Additionally, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in 2018 in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc. et al, or Wayfair, that online sellers can be required to collect sales and use tax despite not having a physical presence in the buyer’s state. In response to Wayfair, or otherwise, state or local governments may adopt, or begin to enforce, laws requiring us to calculate, collect and remit taxes on sales in their jurisdictions. In addition, we are subject to indirect taxes in foreign jurisdictions, such as value-added tax and goods and services tax, in connection with certain foreign sales transactions. A successful assertion by one or more tax authorities requiring us to collect taxes where we presently do not do so, or to collect more taxes in a jurisdiction in which we currently do collect some taxes, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including taxes on past sales, as well as penalties and interest that we otherwise have not accounted for in our financial statements. The imposition by tax authorities of indirect tax collection obligations on out-of-jurisdiction sellers also could create additional administrative burdens for us, put us at a competitive disadvantage if similar obligations are not imposed on our competitors and decrease our future sales, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

We employ third-party licensed software for use in or with our platform, and the inability to maintain these licenses or errors or vulnerabilities in the software we license could result in increased costs, or reduced service levels, which would adversely affect our business.

Our platform incorporates certain third-party software obtained under licenses from third parties. We anticipate that we will continue to rely on such third-party software and development tools from third parties in the future. Although we believe that there are commercially reasonable alternatives to the third-party software, we currently license, including open-source software, this may not always be the case, or it may be difficult or costly to migrate to other third-party software. Our use of additional or alternative third-party software may require us to enter into new license agreements with third parties, which may not be available on as favorable terms as our current licenses. In addition, integration of the third-party software used in our software with new third-party software may require significant work and require substantial investment of our time and resources, or require downtime affecting our service level commitments. Also, any undetected errors or defects, or security vulnerabilities, in third-party software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our software, delay new updates or enhancements to our platform, result in a failure of our platform and injure our reputation.
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We use open-source software in our products, which could negatively affect our ability to sell our services or subject us to litigation or other actions.

We use open-source software in our products, and we expect to continue to incorporate open-source software in our services in the future. Few of the licenses applicable to open-source software have been interpreted by courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products or to maintain the confidentiality of our proprietary source code. Moreover, we may encounter instances in which we have incorporated additional open-source software in our proprietary software in a manner that is inconsistent with the terms of the applicable license or our current policies and procedures. While we have adopted guidelines for the appropriate use of, and regularly audit our use of, open-source software, these measures may not always be effective. If we were to combine or link our proprietary software products with open-source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open-source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software products and allow others to use it at no cost. If an author or other third party that distributes such open-source software were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our products that contained the open-source software and required to comply with onerous conditions or restrictions on these products, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of these products or put our proprietary source code at risk.

From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership rights in open-source software against companies that incorporate it into their products and the licensors of such open-source software provide no warranties or indemnities with respect to such claims. As a result, we and our customers could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open-source software. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our products. Some open-source projects have known vulnerabilities and architectural instabilities and are provided on an “as-is” basis which, if not properly addressed, could negatively affect the performance of our product. If we inappropriately use or incorporate open-source software subject to certain types of open-source licenses that challenge the proprietary nature of our products, we may be required to re-engineer such products, discontinue the sale of such products or take other remedial actions.

Any failure to protect our proprietary technology and intellectual property rights could substantially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our success and ability to compete depend in part on our ability to protect our proprietary technology and intellectual property. To safeguard these rights, we rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws and contractual protections, all of which provide only limited protection and may not now or in the future provide us with a competitive advantage.

As of January 31, 2022, we had 19 granted patents and seven patents pending related to our platform and its technology. Our patent applications may not result in the issuance of a patent, or the examination process may require us to narrow our claims. Any patents that issue from any patent applications may not give us the protection that we seek or may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. Any patents that may issue in the future from our pending or future patent applications may not provide sufficiently broad protection and may not be valid and enforceable in actions against alleged infringers or provide us with a competitive advantage. Any patents we have obtained or may obtain in the future may be found to be invalid or unenforceable in light of recent and future changes in the law, or because of technology developed prior to the inventions we have sought to patent or because of defects in our patent prosecution process. The United States Patent and Trademark Office, or the USPTO, and various foreign governmental patent agencies also require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process and after a patent has issued. There are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction.

We have registered the “Braze” name, logo, and/or other marks as trademarks in the United Kingdom, United States, EU, Japan, Singapore, Canada and Tonga. However, any future trademark registrations for pending or future applications may not be issued, and any registered trademarks may not be enforceable or provide adequate protection of our proprietary rights. The USPTO and various foreign trademark offices also require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the trademark registration process and after a registration has issued. There are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or cancellation of a trademark filing, resulting in partial or complete loss of trademark rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If this occurs, our competitors might be able to enter the market under identical or similar brands.
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In order to protect our proprietary technologies and processes, we also rely on trade secret laws and confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, strategic partners, vendors and others. Also, despite our efforts to protect our proprietary technology and trade secrets, unauthorized parties may attempt to misappropriate, copy, reverse engineer or otherwise obtain and use them. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets. Further, the contractual provisions that we enter into may not prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary technology or intellectual property rights and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary technology or intellectual property rights. Moreover, policing unauthorized use of our technologies, trade secrets and intellectual property is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, particularly in countries where the laws may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States and where mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be weak. For instance, in response to U.S. sanctions, the Russian government has adopted a decree which allows local companies and individuals to use inventions, utility models and industrial designs held by owners from “unfriendly countries” without the owner’s consent and without paying any compensation. If similar policies or laws are adopted in other jurisdictions, it may be difficult for us to enforce our intellectual property rights internationally and subject us to material risk of unauthorized use of our technologies, trade secrets and intellectual property. As we expand our activities outside of the United States, our exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our platform and proprietary information may increase. We may be unable to determine the extent of any unauthorized use or infringement of our platform, technologies or intellectual property rights.

The steps that we take may not be adequate to protect our proprietary technology and intellectual property, others may develop or patent similar or superior technologies, products or services, or our trademarks, patents and other intellectual property may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented by others. Furthermore, effective trademark, patent, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available or commercially feasible in every country in which our software is available or where we have employees or independent contractors.

In order to protect our intellectual property rights, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect these rights. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could materially adversely affect our brand and business. An adverse determination of any litigation proceedings could put our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our related patents, patent applications and trademark filings at risk of not issuing or being cancelled. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, some of our confidential or sensitive information could be compromised by disclosure in the event of litigation. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our platform, impair the functionality of our platform, delay introductions of new functionality to our platform, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our platform or injure our reputation. We will not be able to protect our intellectual property if we are unable to enforce our rights or if we do not detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property. If we fail to meaningfully protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We may be subject to intellectual property rights claims by third parties, which are extremely costly to defend, could require us to pay significant damages and could limit our ability to use certain technologies.

We cannot guarantee that the operation of our business does not infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties. Companies in the software and technology industries, including some of our current and potential competitors, own significant numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, many of these companies have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. Further, patent litigation may involve patent holding companies, commonly known as patent “trolls,” or other adverse patent owners that have no relevant product revenue and against which our patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence. In the past, we have been subject to allegations of patent infringement that were unsuccessful, and we may in the future be subject to claims that we have misappropriated, misused, or infringed other parties’ intellectual property rights, and, to the extent we gain greater market visibility or face increasing competition, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims, which is not uncommon with respect to enterprise software companies. In addition, we may in the future be subject to claims that employees or contractors, or we, have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of our competitors or other parties. Because patent applications can take
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years to issue and are often afforded confidentiality for some period of time, there may currently be pending applications, unknown to us, that later result in issued patents that could cover one or more of our products. To the extent that intellectual property claims are made against our customers based on their usage of our technology, we have certain obligations to indemnify and defend such customers from those claims. The term of our contractual indemnity provisions often survives termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. Large indemnity payments, defense costs or damage claims from contractual breach could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Any intellectual property claims, with or without merit, could be very time-consuming, could be expensive to settle or litigate, could divert our management’s attention and other resources and could result in adverse publicity. These claims could also subject us to making substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments and other costs or damages, potentially including treble damages if we are found to have willfully infringed patents or copyrights. Intellectual property claims could also result in our having to stop making, selling, offering for sale or using technology found to be in violation of a third party’s rights. We might be required to seek a license for the third-party intellectual property rights, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all. Even if a license is available to us, we may be required to pay significant upfront fees, milestone payments or royalties, which would increase our operating expenses. Moreover, to the extent we only have a license to any intellectual property used in our platform, there may be no guarantee of continued access to such intellectual property, including on reasonable terms. As a result, we may be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense. If a third party is able to obtain an injunction preventing us from accessing such third-party intellectual property rights, or if we cannot license or develop technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our products or cease business activities covered by such intellectual property and may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these results would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We could face liability, or our reputation might be harmed, as a result of the activities of our customers, the content sent through our platform or the data they store on our servers.

As a provider of cloud-based solutions, we may be subject to potential liability for the activities of our customers on or in connection with the content or data they store on or send through our servers. Although our customer terms of use and our acceptable use policy, or AUP, prohibit (1) illegal use of our services by our customers, (2) the use of our services for certain activities that do not comply with industry standards and guidelines outlined in our AUP, or (3) the use of our services in any manner that would infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of third parties, customers may nonetheless engage in prohibited activities or upload or store content with us in violation of our agreement, our AUP, applicable law or the customer’s own policies, which could subject us to liability and/or harm our reputation.

We do not typically monitor the content, activities or messages of our customers in connection with their use of our services, so inappropriate content may be sent to third parties, which could subject us to legal liability. Even if we comply with legal obligations to remove or disable certain content, our customers may continue to send messages through our platform that third parties may find hostile, offensive or inappropriate. The activities of our customers or the content of our customers’ messages may lead us to experience adverse political, business and reputational consequences, especially if such use is high profile. For instance, if our customers use our platform in violation of law it may subject us to increased regulatory scrutiny or direct financial penalties, either of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation and financial results, even if we have complied with our legal obligations. Conversely, actions we take in response to the activities of our customers or users, up to and including suspending their use of our products or services, may harm our brand and reputation.

There are certain statutory and common law frameworks and doctrines that offer defenses against liability for customer activities, including the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the Communications Decency Act, the fair use doctrine in the United States and the Electronic Commerce Directive in the EU. Although these and other statutes and case law in the United States offer certain defenses against liability from customer activities under U.S. copyright law or regarding secondary liability from the Telephone Consumer Protection Act or the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act, they are subject to uncertain or evolving judicial interpretation and regulatory and legislative amendments, and in any event we cannot assure you that we will be successful in asserting them. In addition, pending or recently adopted legislation in the EU may impose additional obligations or liability on us associated with content uploaded by users to our platform. Laws governing these activities are unsettled in many international jurisdictions, or may prove difficult or impossible for us to comply with in some international jurisdictions. Even if ultimately resolved in our favor, we may become involved in related complaints, lawsuits or investigations which add cost to our doing business and may divert management’s time and attention or otherwise harm our reputation.

Risks Related to Socioeconomic Factors
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Our future revenue and results of operations could be harmed if the increases in demand we have seen from certain industries as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic fail to continue after the pandemic ends.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, governments have instituted shelter-in-place orders, social distancing requirements, travel restrictions and similar measures to slow infection rates. These restrictions have prompted shifts from physical commerce to ecommerce, from in-room dining to take out and delivery, from gyms to at home health and fitness and from the theaters to in-home media streaming services. Despite our penetration in these industries that have benefited from increased demand in the COVID-19 era, this trend may not continue. After the COVID-19 pandemic has abated, some of our customers may experience decreases or decreased growth rates in transactions, which would negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also experience decreases or decreased growth rates in sales of new subscriptions to some of our customers, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In light of the uncertain and rapidly evolving situation relating to the spread of COVID-19, in the past we have taken measures intended to help minimize the risk of the virus to our employees and the communities in which we participate, including promoting a remote work environment for our employees. While we have reopened many of our offices, a significant portion of our employees continue to work remotely.

We have a distributed workforce and our employees are accustomed to working remotely and working with others who are working remotely. However, as we continue to reopen our offices, we may face operational or other challenges as we and our customers, partners, suppliers and vendors and other parties with whom we do business continue to adjust to a hybrid model of remote and onsite work. These challenges may result in operational inefficiencies or employee dissatisfaction, either of which could harm our business. In addition, our management team has spent, and will likely continue to spend, significant time, attention, and resources monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, and seeking to manage its effects on our business and workforce. For instance, due to the prior emergence of variant strains of COVID-19, we had to previously alter our office reopening plans and modified or cancelled anticipated events. If a new variant strain of COVID-19 were to arise, we might be forced to take similar actions again in the future. Further, the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19 could also adversely affect workforces, economies and financial markets globally, potentially leading to an economic downturn and a reduction in customer spending on our products or an inability for our customers, partners, suppliers or vendors or other parties with whom we do business to meet their contractual obligations.

While it is not possible at this time to predict the duration and extent of the impact that COVID-19 or the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19 could have on worldwide economic activity and our business in particular, the continued spread of COVID-19, especially in light of the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, the timing, distribution, rate of public acceptance and efficacy of vaccines and other treatments, and the measures taken by governments, businesses and other organizations in response to COVID-19 could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial condition, and results of operations, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including, but not limited to, those related to our ability to expand within our existing customer base, acquire new customers, develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities, and expand internationally.

Natural catastrophic events and human-made problems such as power disruptions, computer viruses, global pandemics, data security breaches and terrorism may disrupt our business.

We rely heavily on our network infrastructure and information technology systems for our business operations. An online attack, damage as a result of civil unrest, earthquake, fire, terrorist attack, power loss, global pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19), telecommunications failure or other similar catastrophic event could cause system interruptions, delays in accessing our service, reputational harm and loss of critical data. Such events could prevent us from providing our platform and products to our customers. A catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of our data centers, or our network infrastructure, or information technology systems, including any errors, defects, or failures in third-party hardware, could affect our ability to conduct normal business operations and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, many companies that provide cloud-based services have reported a significant increase in cyberattack activity since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Risks Related to Being a Public Company

We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.
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We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404, or Section 404, of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Pursuant to Section 107 of the JOBS Act, as an emerging growth company, we have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. As a result, our consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of issuers who are required to comply with the effective dates for new or revised accounting standards that are applicable to public companies, which may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors. In addition, if we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will no longer be able to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, (2) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more, (3) the date on which we have, during the previous rolling three-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt securities and (4) the last day of the fiscal year in which the market value of our Class A common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of July 31 of such fiscal year.

We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. For example, if we do not adopt a new or revised accounting standard as a result of our election to use the extended transition period, our future results of operations may not be as comparable to the results of operations of certain other companies in our industry that adopted such standards. If some investors find our Class A common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock, and our share price may be more volatile.

We have identified three material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and if we are unable to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected.

Prior to our initial public offering, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. In connection with the audits and preparation of our consolidated financial statements, we identified three material weaknesses in our internal controls, one over the financial statement close process specifically related to insufficient written policies and procedures for accounting and financial reporting and related controls, and the second over the lack of properly designed controls related to accounting for revenue recognition in accordance with standards under Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and the third related to our inadequate information technology controls for systems that are relevant to the preparation of financial statements. A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

We are working to remediate these material weaknesses through the development and implementation of processes and controls over the financial reporting process. Specifically, we have:

invested in and continue to hire additional internal resources with appropriate knowledge and expertise to effectively operate financial reporting processes and internal controls;
engaged external resources to assist with the remediation efforts and internal control execution, including the development of policies and procedures in certain areas;
begun adopting new information security policies and procedures, including training for users to further educate them on best practices for information security procedures;
begun developing program change management controls to ensure that IT program and data changes affecting financial IT applications and underlying accounting records are authorized and implemented appropriately;
begun developing financial application user access controls designed to ensure appropriate segregation of duties, restriction and privileges to personnel;
begun developing computer operations controls designed to ensure system interfaces and batch jobs process completely and accurately;
begun training application users to further educate them on best practices for information security procedures; and
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implemented a revenue recognition system designed to reduce the number of manual controls required to recognize revenue.

We will also continue to invest in financial operations and reporting applications on an ongoing basis.

While we have designed and are implementing new controls to remediate these material weaknesses, they have not been in operation for a sufficient period of time to demonstrate that the material weaknesses have been remediated. We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken to date will be sufficient to remediate the material weaknesses we identified or avoid the identification of additional material weaknesses in the future. If the steps we take do not remediate the material weaknesses in a timely manner, there could continue to be a reasonable possibility that our internal control deficiencies or others could result in a material misstatement of our financial statements that would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

As a public company, we are required to further design, document and test our internal control over financial reporting to comply with Section 404. We cannot be certain that additional material weaknesses and control deficiencies will not be discovered in the future. If material weaknesses or control deficiencies occur in the future, we may be unable to report our financial results accurately on a timely basis or adequately reduce the risk of fraud, which could cause our reported financial results to be materially misstated and result in the loss of investor confidence or delisting and cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline. If we have material weaknesses in the future, it could affect the financial results that we report or create a perception that those financial results do not fairly state our financial position or results of operations. Either of those events could have an adverse effect on the value of our Class A common stock.

Further, even if we conclude that our internal control over financial reporting provides reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect fraud or misstatements. Failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our future reporting obligations.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future and, as a result, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our Class A common stock.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our Class A or Class B common stock and we do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings for use in the development of our business and for general corporate purposes. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and governed by the limitations of any credit agreements we may become party to. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their Class A common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.

The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our executive officers, directors and significant holders of our capital stock, which limits the ability of holders of our Class A common stock to influence the outcome of important transactions.

Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share and our Class A common stock, which is the stock listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, has one vote per share. As a result, as of January 31, 2022, holders of our Class B common stock collectively beneficially owned, in the aggregate, shares representing approximately 97.6% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock, and our executive officers, directors and holders of 5% or more of our common stock collectively beneficially owned, in the aggregate, outstanding shares representing approximately 76.3% of the total voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, the holders of our Class B common stock, and in particular our executive officers, directors and holders of 5% or more of our common stock, will be able to exercise considerable influence over matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or our assets, even if their stock holdings represent less than 50% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock. This concentration of ownership will limit the ability of other stockholders to influence corporate matters and may cause us to make strategic decisions that could involve risks to holders of our Class A common stock or that may not be aligned with the interests of holders of our Class A common stock. This control may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.

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Further, future transfers by holders of our Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting into shares of our Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for tax or estate planning purposes. The conversion of shares of our Class B common stock into shares of our Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term.

We cannot predict the impact our dual class structure may have on the market price of our Class A common stock.

We cannot predict whether our dual class structure, combined with the concentrated control of certain stockholders, including our executive officers, employees and directors, investors and their affiliates, will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class A common stock or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple class share structures in certain of their indexes. In July 2017, FTSE Russell and Standard & Poor’s announced that they would cease to allow most newly public companies utilizing dual or multi-class capital structures to be included in their indices. Under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure makes us ineligible for inclusion in either of these indices. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indexes, exclusion from stock indexes would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.

An active public trading market for our Class A common stock may not develop or be sustained.

Prior to the closing of our initial public offering in November 2021, no public market for our Class A common stock existed. An active public trading market for our Class A common stock may not continue to develop or, if further developed, it may not be sustained. The lack of an active market may impair the ability of holders of our Class A common stock to sell their shares at the time they wish to sell them or at a price that the holders of our Class A common stock consider reasonable. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair value of shares of our Class A common stock. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration.

Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our Class A common stock.

Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, each as currently in effect, may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Such amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:

authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, shares of undesignated preferred stock with terms, rights and preferences determined by our board of directors that may be senior to our Class A common stock;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;
specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors or our chief executive officer;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;
establish that our board of directors is divided into three classes, with each class serving three-year staggered terms;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors;
provide that our directors may be removed for cause only upon the vote of at least 66 2/3% of our outstanding shares of voting stock;
provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum; and
require the approval of our board of directors or the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our outstanding shares of voting stock to amend our bylaws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the
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provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, which generally, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our Class A common stock, and they could deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that holders of our Class A common stock would receive a premium for their shares of our Class A common stock in an acquisition.

The provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation requiring exclusive venue in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware and the federal district courts of the United States for certain types of lawsuits may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation as currently in effect provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware be the sole and exclusive forum for:

any derivative claim or cause of action brought on our behalf;
any claim or cause of action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;
any claim or cause of action against us arising under the DGCL;
any claim or cause of action arising under or seeking to interpret our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; and
any claim or cause of action against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation as currently in effect further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolutions of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including all causes of action asserted against any defendant named in such complaint. The exclusive forum clauses described above shall not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. For the avoidance of doubt, this provision is intended to benefit and may be enforced by us, our officers and directors, the underwriters to any offering giving rise to such complaint, and any other professional entity whose profession gives authority to a statement made by that person or entity and who has prepared or certified any part of the documents underlying any offering.

Although we believe these provisions benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of applicable law in the types of lawsuits to which they apply, the provisions may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provisions. In addition, investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. It is possible that, in connection with any applicable action brought against us, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our currently effective amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in such action. If so, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Future sales of our Class A common stock in the public market could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market following filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our Class A common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Many of our existing equity holders have substantial unrecognized gains on the value of the equity they hold, and therefore they may take steps to sell their shares or otherwise secure the unrecognized gains on those shares. We are unable to predict the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our Class A common stock.

In connection with our initial public offering, all of our directors, executive officers and the holders of substantially all of our capital stock issued prior to our initial public offering are subject to lock-up agreements or agreements with market standoff provisions that restrict their ability to transfer shares until the earlier of (a) the commencement of trading on May 15, 2022 or (b) two full trading days following our second public release of quarterly or annual financial results (which for this purpose shall not include “flash” numbers or preliminary, partial earnings) following November 16, 2021, subject to certain exceptions. On January 5, 2022, 20% of the then outstanding securities (including shares of Class A common stock, stock options and other equity) held by our current and former employees, contractors, consultants and advisors (excluding our directors, executive officers and individuals associated or affiliated with any of our institutional investors) were released from these transfer
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restrictions. These transfer restrictions will end with respect to all other securities that remain subject to these lock-up restrictions at the commencement of trading on April 4, 2022. All such securities will then become eligible for immediate sale in the public market, subject to trading limitations on shares held by our affiliates, or other limitations imposed by Rule 144 under the Securities Act, continued vesting of any unvested equity awards as of such date and our insider trading policies. As a result, a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock will become eligible for sale in the public market in April 2022.

We have registered all of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options, settlement of outstanding restricted stock units, or RSUs, or otherwise issuable pursuant to the terms of any equity incentives we may grant in the future, for public resale under the Securities Act. Such underlying common stock will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent such options are exercised or RSUs are settled, subject to the lock-up agreements described above and compliance with applicable securities laws.

Further, the holders of Class A and Class B common stock issued in connection with the conversion of our previously outstanding convertible preferred stock immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders.

General Risk Factors

The price of our Class A common stock may be volatile, and you may lose some or all of your investment.

The market price of our Class A common stock may be highly volatile and may fluctuate substantially as a result of a variety of factors. Factors that may affect the market price of our Class A common stock include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations;
variance in our financial performance from expectations of securities analysts;
changes in the prices of our products and services;
changes in our projected financial condition and results of operations;
changes in laws or regulations applicable to the provision of our products and services;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, acquisitions or new offerings;
security breaches impacting us or similar companies;
our involvement in any material litigation;
future sales of our Class A common stock by us or our stockholders, as well as the anticipation of lockup releases, or our sales of other securities in the future;
changes in senior management or key personnel;
the trading volume of our Class A common stock;
changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market;
general economic, regulatory and market conditions; and
technical factors in the public trading market for our Class A common stock that may produce price movements that may or may not comport with macro, industry, or company-specific fundamentals, including, without limitation, the sentiment of retail investors, the amount and status of short interest in our securities, access to margin debt, trading in options and other derivatives on our common stock and other technical trading factors.

Accordingly, we cannot assure you of the liquidity of an active trading market, your ability to sell your shares of our Class A common stock when desired, or the prices that you may obtain for your shares of our Class A common stock. The lack of an active market may impair your ability to sell your shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair value of your shares. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration.

The stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, regulatory and market conditions, may negatively impact the market price of our Class A common stock. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future, which could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention.

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Our issuance of additional capital stock in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, our equity incentive plans or otherwise will dilute all other stockholders.

We expect to issue additional capital stock in the future that will result in dilution to all other stockholders. We expect to grant equity awards to employees, directors and consultants under our equity incentive plans. We may also raise capital through equity financings in the future. As part of our business strategy, we may acquire or make investments in companies, products, services or technologies and issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition or investment. Any such issuances of additional capital stock may cause stockholders to experience significant dilution of their ownership interests and the per share value of our Class A common stock to decline.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or publish negative reports about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If our financial performance fails to meet analyst estimates or one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our shares or change their opinion of our shares, our share price would likely decline. Our business results may vary significantly from such analyst estimates or any analyst consensus due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including due to the global economic uncertainty and financial market conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic or by geopolitical instability resulting from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and resulting sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries against Russia and Belarus, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to support compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.

We have only recently become a public company. Accordingly, we have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant finance, legal, accounting and other expenses, including director and officer liability insurance, that we did not incur as a private company, which we expect to further increase after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, stock exchange listing requirements, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies in the United States. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to support compliance with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a public company or the specific timing of such costs.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our headquarters is located in New York City, where we lease approximately 84,000 square feet pursuant to two leases that expire in April 2024. We also lease additional office space in San Francisco, Austin, Chicago, Berlin, London, and Singapore. These offices are leased, and we do not own any real property. We believe that our current facilities are generally suitable to meet our needs for the foreseeable future. In addition, to the extent we require additional space in the future, we believe that it would be readily available on commercially reasonable terms.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may become involved in various legal proceedings arising from the normal course of business activities. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not presently a party to any litigation the outcome of which, we believe, if determined adversely to us, would individually or taken together have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows or financial condition. Defending such proceedings can be costly and can impose a significant burden on management and employees. The results of any current or future litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, and regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
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Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information for Our Common Stock

Our Class A common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “BRZE”. Our Class B common stock is not listed or traded on any exchange, but each share of Class B common stock is convertible at any time at the option of the holder into one share of Class A common stock, and is automatically converted upon sale or transfer into one share of Class A common stock.

Holders of Record

As of March 25, 2022, there were 5 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock. The number of stockholders of record is based upon the actual number of holders registered with our transfer agent on this date and does not include holders of Class A common stock in “street name” by brokers or other entities on behalf of stockholders or any other individual participants in security position listings.

As of March 25, 2022 there were approximately 63 stockholders of record of our Class B common stock.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our Class A common stock or Class B common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for the operation and expansion of our business. Accordingly, we do not anticipate declaring or paying dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our results of operations, capital requirements, financial condition, prospects, contractual arrangements, any limitations on payment of dividends present in any debt agreements, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

The following sets forth information regarding all unregistered securities sold since October 31, 2021:

From November 1, 2021 to January 31, 2022, we issued an aggregate of 43,250 shares of common stock upon the exercise of stock options at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.21 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $0.1 million.

None of the foregoing transactions involved any underwriters, underwriting discounts or commissions, or any public offering. Unless otherwise specified above, we believe these transactions were exempt from registration under the Securities Act in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act (and Regulation D or Regulation S promulgated thereunder) or Rule 701 promulgated under Section 3(b) of the Securities Act as transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering or under benefit plans and contracts relating to compensation as provided under Rule 701. The recipients of the securities in each of these transactions represented their intentions to acquire the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof, and appropriate legends were placed on the share certificates issued in these transactions. All recipients had adequate access, through their relationships with us, to information about us. The sales of these securities were made without any general solicitation or advertising.
Use of Proceeds

On November 19, 2021, we closed our initial public offering through which we sold 7,500,000 shares of our Class A common stock at an offering price of $65.00 per share, including 800,000 shares pursuant to the underwriters’ overallotment option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock, resulting in gross proceeds to us of $487.5 million. In addition, the selling stockholders, named in our final prospectus that forms a part of the Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-260428) for the initial public filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) on November 18, 2021, or the Final Prospectus, sold an additional 1,300,000 shares of our Class A common stock, for which we did not receive any proceeds. All of the shares issued and sold in our initial public offering were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-260428), which was declared effective by the SEC on November 16, 2021. Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Barclays Capital Inc., Piper Sandler & Co., William Blair & Company, L.L.C.,
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Canaccord Genuity LLC, Cowen and Company, LLC, JMP Securities LLC, Needham & Company, LLC, Oppenheimer & Co. Inc., Raymond James & Associates, Inc. and Loop Capital Markets LLC acted as underwriters for our initial public offering. Following the sale of all the shares upon the closing of our initial public offering, the offer terminated.

The net proceeds to us after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $26.8 million and net offering expenses of $3.9 million were $456.8 million. No offering expenses were paid directly or indirectly to any of our directors or officers (or their associates) or persons owning ten percent or more of any class of our equity securities or to any other affiliates. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering from those disclosed in the Final Prospectus.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table contains information relating to the repurchase of our early-exercised options made by us in the fourth quarter of fiscal year ended January 31, 2022:
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price Paid per Share
November 1 - November 30, 2021625$1.64
December 1 - December 31, 2021292$1.88
January 1 - January 31, 2022
Total917
(1) All purchases represent the repurchase of unvested shares of Class A common stock previously issued to employees pursuant to our Amended and Restated 2011 Equity Incentive Plan.

Item 6. [Reserved]

Not Applicable in accordance with Regulation S-K issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission, effective February 10, 2021.
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes that are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that are based upon current plans, expectations and beliefs that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
Braze is a leading comprehensive customer engagement platform that powers customer-centric interactions between consumers and brands. Our platform empowers brands to listen to their customers better, understand them more deeply, and act on that understanding in a way that is human and personal. Using our platform, brands ingest and process customer data in real time, orchestrate and optimize contextually relevant, cross-channel marketing campaigns, and continuously evolve their customer engagement strategies.

Our customers include many established global enterprises and leading technology innovators, and span a wide variety of sizes and industries, including retail, eCommerce, media, entertainment and on-demand services.

We primarily generate revenue from the sale of subscriptions to customers for the use of our platform. Our subscription fees are principally based on an upfront commitment by our customers for a specific number of monthly active users, on a cost-per-message basis for volume of email and/or SMS messages sent, platform access and/or support and certain add-on products. Additionally, we provide professional services, which better enable customers to successfully onboard and use our platform, including certain premium professional services such as email deliverability support and dedicated technical support staff.

We employ a land-and-expand business model centered around offering products that are easy to adopt and have a rapid time to value. We expand our reach within existing customers when our customers add new channels, purchase additional
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subscription products such as Braze Currents, implement new engagement strategies, or onboard new business units and geographies. We also grow as our customers grow because our pricing is based in large part on the number of consumers that our customers reach and the volume of messages our customers send. Accordingly, as our customers increase the use of our platform and increase the number of end users reached via our platform, the value of our contracts with such customers also increases.

We have grown significantly in recent periods. We generated revenue of $238.0 million, $150.2 million, and $96.4 million in the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 58% from the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021 to January 31, 2022 and 56% from the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 to January 31, 2021. We had net losses of $78.2 million, $32.0 million and $31.8 million, in the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. We had net cash used in operating activities of $35.4 million, $6.1 million, and $7.4 million in the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. Our Non-GAAP free cash flow was $(39.8) million, $(9.9) million and $(10.4) million in the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. See the section titled “— Non-GAAP Free Cash Flow” for additional information about how we calculate free cash flow, a non-GAAP financial metric, and a reconciliation to net cash used in operating activities, the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP.
Factors Affecting Our Performance

Acquiring New Customers

We believe there is substantial opportunity to continue to grow our customer base. We intend to continue to expand our customer base in verticals where we already have a strong presence, such as retail, eCommerce, media, entertainment and on-demand services, and to increase our presence in verticals where we are not yet strongly represented. Through our sales and marketing efforts, we plan to capitalize on the ongoing digital transformation in regulated industries like healthcare and financial services to further propel adoption of our technology. As of January 31, 2022, we had 1,375 customers across a broad range of sizes and industries. Our ability to attract new customers will depend on a number of factors, including the quality and pricing of our products, offerings of our competitors and the effectiveness of our marketing efforts.

We define a customer as the separate and distinct, ultimate parent-level entity that has an active subscription with us to use our products. A single organization could have multiple distinct contracting divisions or subsidiaries, all of which together would be considered a single customer.

Expanding Within Our Existing Customer Base

We believe we can achieve significant growth by expanding sales within our existing customer base. We expand the use of our platform by existing customers by, among others, adding new channels and increasing the messaging volume we sell to our customers as their businesses and needs continue to grow. We intend to continue to invest in developing and enhancing our products and functionality. Our ability to increase sales to existing customers will depend on a number of factors, including our customers’ satisfaction with our solutions, the ability of our customers to attract new end users, competition, pricing and overall changes in our customers’ spending levels.

Historically, we have experienced significant expansion within a customer’s business once our platform is deployed, with customers typically increasing the number of monthly active users, channels and use cases as well as purchasing additional products. A monthly active user is an end user of a customer who has engaged with the customer’s applications and websites in the previous calendar month. We include each distinguishable end user in our calculation of monthly active users, even though some users may access our customers’ applications and websites using more than one device, and multiple users may gain access using the same device. As of January 31, 2022, we had approximately 3.7 billion monthly active users, up from approximately 3.0 billion monthly active users as of January 31, 2021. Currently, our in-product messaging channels consist of Content Cards, which embed personalized content into a brand’s website or application, and in-app and in-browser messages. Our out-of-product channels include, but are not limited to, mobile push notifications, web push notifications, email, SMS and MMS messages, webhooks, Facebook and Google advertisements and multiple over-the-top media services and connected TV channels.

In addition to monthly active users, we have a history of increasing annual recurring revenue, or ARR, from our customers. We define ARR as the annualized value of customer subscription contracts, including certain premium professional services that are subject to contractual subscription terms, as of the measurement date, assuming any contract that expires during the next 12 months is renewed on its existing terms (including contracts for which we are negotiating a renewal). Our
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calculation of ARR is not adjusted for the impact of any known or projected future events (such as customer cancellations, expansion or contraction of existing customers relationships or price increases or decreases) that may cause any such contract not to be renewed on its existing terms. Our ARR may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customers’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our products and professional services, pricing, competitive offerings, economic conditions or overall changes in our customers’ spending levels. ARR should be viewed independently of revenue and does not represent our GAAP revenue on an annualized basis or a forecast of revenue, as it is an operating metric that can be impacted by contract start and end dates and renewal rates.

For clarity, we use annualized invoiced amounts per customer subscription contract, including certain premium professional services that are subject to contractual subscription terms, as compared to revenue calculated in accordance with GAAP, to calculate our ARR. Our invoiced amounts are not matched to the performance obligations associated with the underlying subscription contract and premium professional service obligations as they are with respect to our GAAP revenue. This can result in timing differences between our GAAP revenue and ARR calculations. For our revenue calculated in accordance with GAAP, we recognize revenue related to contracts with customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for subscription and professional services. See the section titled “— Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” for additional information regarding how we recognize revenue on a GAAP basis. Investors should not place undue reliance on ARR as an indicator of our future or expected results. Moreover, ARR may differ from similarly titled metrics presented by other companies and may not be comparable to such other metrics.

A further indication of the propensity of our customer relationships to expand over time is our dollar-based net retention rate. We calculate our dollar-based net retention rate as of a period end by starting with the ARR from the cohort of all customers as of 12 months prior to such period-end, or the Prior Period ARR. We then calculate the ARR from these same customers as of the current period-end, or the Current Period ARR. Current Period ARR includes any expansion and is net of contraction or attrition over the last 12 months but excludes ARR from new customers in the current period. We then divide the total Current Period ARR by the total Prior Period ARR to arrive at the point-in-time dollar-based net retention rate. We then calculate the weighted average point-in-time dollar-based net retention rates as of the last day of each month in the current trailing 12-month period to arrive at the dollar-based net retention rate. Our dollar-based net retention rate for the trailing 12 months ended January 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, was 128%, 123%, and 126% respectively, for all our customers, and 136%, 133%, and 127%, respectively, for our customers with ARR of $500,000 or more. In addition, 107, 71, and 45 of our customers had ARR of $500,000 or more as of January 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.

Expanding Geographically

We believe there is a significant opportunity to continue to expand our presence in international markets we have already penetrated and by entering markets we have not yet penetrated. For the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, approximately 40%, 40%, and 39%, of our revenue was generated outside of the United States, respectively. We expect to increase market penetration in regions including Europe and Asia-Pacific and to further capitalize on the greenfield opportunity in regions such as Latin America. For example, in the second half of fiscal year 2021, we entered into a joint venture with our partner Japan Cloud Computing Co., Ltd., to facilitate further expansion into the Japanese market. Although these investments in geographic regions may negatively affect our operating results in the near term, we believe that they will contribute to our long-term growth.

Sustaining Innovation and Technology Leadership

Our success is dependent on our ability to sustain innovation and technology leadership in order to maintain our competitive advantage. We are focused on investing in research and development to continue to enhance our platform. For example, we continue to develop our artificial intelligence capabilities to enable brands to better analyze and act on customer data. We believe our market-driven product development approach maximizes the return on new feature development and channel expansion. Our customers consistently volunteer to participate in the testing of new products, which indicates their appetite for new and innovative functionality. We believe our continued innovation will provide new avenues for growth through which we will continue to deliver differentiated outcomes for our customers. We intend to continue to invest in building additional products that expand our capabilities and facilitate the extension of our platform to new channels and use cases.

Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business

Beginning in January 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic caused general business disruption worldwide. In response to the spread of COVID-19, including the emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19, a significant portion of our employees
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currently work remotely to minimize the risk of the virus to our employees and the communities in which we operate, and we may continue to take actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, and business partners.

While we do not believe our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition have been materially impacted due to the COVID-19 pandemic to date, we have experienced, and may continue to experience, a modest adverse impact on certain aspects of our business, including a lengthening of the sales cycle for some prospective customers. We have also experienced, and may continue to experience, a modest positive impact on other aspects of our business, including an increase in the volume of messaging utilized by our existing customers. Moreover, we have seen slower growth in certain operating expenses due to reduced business travel, the virtualization or cancellation of customer and employee events and reduced lease obligations. While a reduction in these operating expenses may have an immediate positive impact on our results of operations, we do not yet have visibility into the full impact this will have on our business and we do not know if or when these expenses will return to pre-pandemic levels, which could negatively impact our results of operations in the future.

Certain of our customers negatively impacted by the spread of COVID-19 decreased or delayed their spending, requested pricing discounts, requested modified payment terms or sought to reduce their commitments when renewing subscriptions, and they may continue to do so, any of which may result in decreased revenue and cash receipts for us. Our customers that were positively impacted by increased demand during the COVID-19 pandemic may have similar requests or experience similar issues if this increased demand does not continue in the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Additionally, we cannot predict what, if any, changes to our business and the global economy generally will persist following the COVID-19 pandemic or how our business or the global economy will be impacted as restrictions on in-person activities are relaxed and the world returns to pre-pandemic normalcy. Given the uncertainty, we cannot reasonably estimate the impact on our future results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. For additional details, see the section titled “Risk Factors.”

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

Revenue is derived from two primary sources: (1) subscription services and (2) professional services and other.

Subscription services primarily consist of access to our customer engagement platform and related customer support. Our customers enter into a subscription for committed contractual entitlements. To the extent that our customers’ usage exceeds the committed contractual entitlements under their subscription plans, they are charged for excess usage, or they may exercise an option to purchase an incremental volume tier of committed contractual entitlements. Revenue associated with platform subscriptions is recognized ratably over the contract term, which is consistent with the period over which services are provided to the customer. Fees associated with excess usage and incremental volume are also treated as subscription revenue. To date, fees associated with excess usage have not been material.

Professional services and other revenue consists of fees for distinct services rendered in training and assisting our customers to configure our platform for their use at the onset of their initial contract or when a new product is purchased. Such revenue is generally recognized over a period of up to six months from providing access to the platform. We also provide additional platform and feature enhancement and optimization services which are generally recognized ratably over the contract term.

Deferred revenue consists of customer billings in advance of revenue being recognized. We generally invoice our customers for subscription services arrangements annually in advance and for professional services upfront.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists of direct costs related to providing platform access to our customers and to performing onboarding and professional services including consulting services. These costs primarily include payments to third-party cloud infrastructure providers for hosting software solutions, costs associated with application service providers utilized to deliver the platform, personnel-related costs, including salaries, cash-based performance compensation, benefits and stock-based compensation, and overhead cost allocations, including rent, utilities, depreciation, information technology costs, amortization of internal use software and certain administrative personnel costs.

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We intend to continue to invest additional resources in our platform infrastructure and our customer support and success organizations to expand the capabilities of our platform. The level, timing and relative investment in our infrastructure could affect our cost of revenue in the future. We expect our cost of revenue to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to grow our business.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Gross profit represents revenue less cost of revenue. Gross margin is gross profit expressed as a percentage of revenue. Our gross margin may fluctuate from period to period as our revenue and cost of revenue fluctuates, including as a result of the timing and amount of resources we dedicate to improving our platform and expanding our products.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, research and development and general and administrative expenses. Personnel costs, including salaries, cash-based performance compensation, benefits and stock-based compensation, are the most significant component of operating expenses. Operating expenses also include allocated overhead costs, which include rent, utilities, depreciation, information technology costs and certain administrative personnel costs. As we continue to expand our operations, we expect an increase in personnel headcount and expansion of our global footprint.

Sales and Marketing

Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for our sales and marketing organization, sales commissions, costs related to brand awareness, sponsorships, customer marketing events and advertising, agency costs, travel-related expenses and allocated overhead costs.

We intend to continue to invest in sales and marketing to help drive the growth of our business. During the short term, we expect travel to remain lower than our historical pre-pandemic norms as we focus our marketing and sales activities on virtual platforms. However, we expect our sales and marketing expenses will increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in sales and marketing activities to acquire new customers and increase sales to existing customers.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for our engineering, service, design and information technology teams. Additionally, research and development expenses include allocated overhead costs and contractor fees. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Capitalized internal-use software development costs are excluded from research and development expenses as they are capitalized as a component of property and equipment, net and amortized to cost of revenue over the software’s expected useful life, which is generally three years.

We expect to continue our investment in research and development to enhance the user experience of our current customers and attract new customers. We expect research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in enhancing our platform.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for finance, legal, human resources and other administrative functions, as well as non-personnel costs such as legal, accounting and other professional service fees, software costs, certain tax, license and insurance-related expenses and allocated overhead costs.

We expect that general and administrative expenses will increase in absolute dollars and vary from period to period as a percentage of revenue for the foreseeable future but decrease as a percentage of revenue over the long term, as we focus on processes, systems, and controls to enable our internal support functions to scale with the growth of our business. We expect to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including expenses to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, expenses related to compliance and reporting obligations pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, and higher expenses for directors’ and officers’ insurance, investor relations and professional services.

Investment Income

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Investment income consists primarily of income earned on our investments, cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net, primarily consists of net exchange gains or losses on foreign currency transactions.

Provision for Income Taxes

Provision for income taxes consists of state income taxes and income taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We maintain a full valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets as we have concluded that it is not more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will be realized.
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of operations data for each of the periods indicated:
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
202220212020
(in thousands)
Revenue$238,035 $150,191 $96,364 
Cost of revenue (1)
78,511 54,511 35,686 
Gross profit159,524 95,680 60,678 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing (1)
127,137 70,661 57,348 
Research and development (1)
59,034 29,212 20,339 
General and administrative (1)
51,564 27,959 16,524 
Total operating expenses237,735 127,832 94,211 
Loss from operations(78,211)(32,152)(33,533)
Other income (expense):
Investment income137 840 2,127 
Other (expense) income, net(258)(120)48 
Loss before provision for income taxes(78,332)(31,432)(31,358)
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes(165)537 452 
Net loss$(78,167)$(31,969)$(31,810)
(1) Includes stock-based compensation expense, net of amounts capitalized as follows:
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
202220212020
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$2,185 $650 $276 
Sales and marketing16,281 2,892 6,365 
Research and development15,613 2,102 3,705 
General and administrative13,101 1,896 2,062 
Total$47,180 $7,540 $12,408 
The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for each of the periods indicated:
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Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
202220212020
(as a percentage of revenue)
Revenue100 %100 %100 %
Cost of revenue33 %36 %37 %
Gross profit67 %64 %63 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing53 %47 %60 %
Research and development25 %19 %21 %
General and administrative22 %19 %17 %
Total operating expenses100 %85 %98 %
Loss from operations(33)%(21)%(35)%
Other income (expense):
Investment income— %%%
Other (expense) income, net— %— %— %
Loss before (benefit of) provision for income taxes(33)%(20)%(33)%
(Benefit of) provision for income taxes— %— %— %
Net loss(33)%20 %(33)%

Comparison of the Fiscal Years Ended January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021
Revenue

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
20222021Change% Change
($ in thousands)
Revenue$238,035 $150,191 $87,844 58.5 %
The increase in revenue of $87.8 million, or 58.5%, for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was primarily driven by an $80.6 million or 57.1% increase in subscription revenue. Approximately 62.0% of the increase in subscription revenue was attributable to the growth from existing customers due to customer expansion of committed entitlements and features, and the remaining 38.0% was attributable to new customers. Total customers grew to 1,375 as of January 31, 2022 from 890 as of January 31, 2021. The increase in total customers was the primary driver of a $7.2 million or 79.4% increase in professional services revenue from configuration services provided to those new customers. Additionally, in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 our international revenue increased by $35.7 million as we continue to expand market penetration in regions such as Europe and Asia-Pacific.
Cost of Revenue, Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
20222021Change% Change
($ in thousands)
Cost of revenue$78,511$54,511$24,000 44.0 %
Gross profit$159,524$95,680$63,844 66.7 %
Gross margin67.0 %63.7 %
The increase in cost of revenue of $24.0 million, or 44.0%, for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was primarily driven by an increase of $11.0 million in hosting, infrastructure, and other third-party fees associated with delivering our platform and an $8.1 million increase in third-party messaging fees associated with growth in our email and SMS channels. In addition, we had an increase in personnel costs and overhead costs of $4.2 million. The increased infrastructure, messaging, and personnel costs were incurred to support overall revenue growth.

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Our gross profit increased $63.8 million, or 66.7%, in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, and our gross margin increased by 3.3% to 67.0% in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 from 63.7% in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021. These increases were due to economies of scale as our infrastructure costs to support our revenue growth did not increase at the same pace as our revenue. In addition, we have undertaken initiatives to optimize the costs of our tech stack and drive personnel efficiencies related to customer support functions.
Operating Expenses

Sales and Marketing Expense
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
20222021Change% Change
($ in thousands)
Sales and marketing$127,137 $70,661 $56,476 79.9 %
The increase in sales and marketing expense of $56.5 million, or 79.9%, for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was primarily driven by an increase in personnel costs and overhead costs of $42.4 million, which included $13.4 million of stock-based compensation costs, as a result of a year-over-year increase in headcount, and an increase in software and recruiting fees of $2.1 million as we continue to expand our sales and marketing presences globally. Additionally, the increase was driven in part by an increase in amortization of deferred contract costs of $6.4 million as a result of sales growth, an increase of $0.7 million in travel and entertainment costs due to the loosening of COVID-19 travel and event restrictions, and an increase in advertising and marketing costs of $4.1 million.
Research and Development Expense
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
20222021Change% Change
($ in thousands)
Research and development$59,034 $29,212 $29,822 102.1 %

The increase in research and development expense of $29.8 million, or 102.1%, for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was primarily driven by an increase of personnel and overhead costs of $27.2 million, which included $13.5 million of stock-based compensation costs. The increase in personnel costs was primarily due to a year-over-year increase in headcount. In addition, professional service fees increased $1.0 million and infrastructure and software costs increased $0.8 million as part of our strategy to continue investing in our technology and to develop new and improve existing functionalities for our platform.

General and Administrative Expense
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
20222021Change% Change
($ in thousands)
General and administrative$51,564 $27,959 $23,605 84.4 %

The increase in general and administrative expenses of $23.6 million, or 84.4%, for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was primarily driven by an increase in personnel and overhead costs of $20.9 million, which included $11.2 million of stock-based compensation costs. The increase in personnel costs was primarily due to a year-over-year increase in headcount as we continue to invest in our finance and administrative functions to build processes, systems, and controls to enable our internal support functions to scale with the growth of our business. In
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addition, there was an increase in software costs of $1.6 million incurred in connection with our public company readiness initiatives, including investments in our infrastructure to support our operations.

Other Income (Expense)
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
20222021Change% Change
($ in thousands)
Investment income$137 $840 $(703)(83.7)%
Other (expense) income, net$(258)$(120)$(138)115.0 %

Other income (expense), which primarily consists of gains and losses from foreign exchange and investment income from marketable securities, decreased primarily due to a reduction in marketable securities and investments with a shorter time to maturity.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Funds
As of January 31, 2022, our principal source of liquidity was cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $518.1 million. Our cash and cash equivalents consist of deposit accounts, interest-bearing money market accounts and overnight short-term repurchase agreements that are stated at fair value. Our marketable securities positions consists mostly of highly liquid short-term investments. The investment income that we generate on these investments is not material to our overall cash balance, but may be adversely affected due to volatility in interest rates.

In November 2021, we closed our initial public offering through which we issued and sold 7,500,000 shares of our Class A common stock at an offering price of $65.00 per share, including 800,000 shares pursuant to the underwriters’ overallotment option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock, resulting in aggregate net proceeds to us of $456.8 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and related offering expenses.

Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through the net proceeds received from the sales of equity securities and cash generated from the sale of subscriptions to our platform. We have generated losses from our operations as reflected in our accumulated deficit of $215.0 million as of January 31, 2022, and cash flows used in operating activities for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 of $35.4 million.

A substantial source of our cash used in operating activities is our deferred revenue, which is included on our consolidated balance sheets as a liability. Deferred revenue consists of the unearned portion of billed fees for our subscriptions, which is recorded as revenue over the term of the subscription agreement. As of January 31, 2022, we had total deferred revenue of $126.3 million of which substantially all was recorded as a current liability. Deferred revenue will be recognized as revenue when all of the revenue recognition criteria are met.
Cash Flow Overview
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
202220212020
(in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities$(35,398)$(6,080)$(7,365)
Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities$18,040 $22,472 $(87,234)
Net cash provided by financing activities$467,910 $4,866 $1,257 

Operating Activities
For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, net cash used in operating activities was $35.4 million, primarily due to a net loss of $78.2 million adjusted for non-cash charges of $68.4 million and net changes in our operating assets and liabilities of $25.7 million. The non-cash adjustments primarily relate to stock-based compensation of $47.2 million, amortization of deferred contract costs of $17.7 million and depreciation and amortization expense of $2.8 million. The cash outflow from
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changes in our operating assets and liabilities were primarily due to an increase in deferred contract costs and accounts receivable of $32.0 million and $29.8 million, respectively, as a result of commissions and billings for new bookings and renewals and prepaid expense and other current assets of $17.5 million due to prepayments for third-party software fees, primarily consisting of hosting arrangements. The cash outflow was offset by cash inflows primarily from an increase in deferred revenue of $51.5 million, as a result of increased billings driven by timing of subscriptions and renewals and an increase in total bookings, and an overall increase in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $6.0 million related to employee compensation costs.

For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, net cash used in operating activities was $6.1 million, primarily due to a net loss of $32.0 million adjusted for non-cash charges of $21.2 million and net changes in our operating assets and liabilities of $4.7 million. The non-cash adjustments primarily relate to stock-based compensation of $7.5 million, amortization of deferred contract costs of $10.6 million and depreciation and amortization expense of $1.6 million. The cash inflow from changes in our operating assets and liabilities was primarily the result of an increase of deferred revenue of $23.4 million due to timing of subscriptions and renewals and an overall increase in revenue and an increase in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $13.8 million incurred to support the growth of the business. The increases were partially offset by an increase in accounts receivable and deferred contract costs of $12.4 million and of $20.0 million, respectively, due to increases in revenue.
Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities was $18.0 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, primarily consisting of maturities of marketable securities of $59.3 million, partially offset by purchases of marketable securities of $36.9 million, purchases of property and equipment of $2.3 million and capitalized internal-use software costs of $2.1 million.

Net cash provided by investing activities was $22.5 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, primarily consisting of maturities of marketable securities of $86.2 million, partially offset by purchases of marketable securities of $59.4 million and purchases of property and equipment and capitalized internal-use software costs of $2.5 million and $1.9 million, respectively.
Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was $467.9 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, primarily consisting of the proceeds from the issuance of common stock upon our initial public offering, net of underwriting discounts and offering costs of $457.1 million, proceeds from the exercise of common stock options of $8.4 million and an investment from our redeemable non-controlling interest in connection with our joint venture Braze KK of $2.5 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities was $4.9 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, primarily consisting of the proceeds from the exercise of common stock options of $2.8 million and an investment in our redeemable non-controlling interest in connection with our joint venture Braze KK of $2.5 million.
Non-GAAP Free Cash Flow
We report our financial results in accordance with GAAP. To supplement our consolidated financial statements, we provide investors with the amount of free cash flow, which is a non-GAAP financial measure. Our management uses free cash flow to assess our operating performance and our progress towards our goal of positive free cash flow. We define free cash flow as net cash used in operating activities less cash used for purchases of property and equipment and amounts capitalized for internal-use software development costs. We believe that free cash flow is a useful indicator of liquidity as it measures our ability to generate cash, or our need to access additional sources of cash, to fund operations and investments.

Free cash flow has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are (1) it is not a substitute for net cash used in operating activities, (2) other companies may calculate free cash flow or similarly titled non-GAAP measures differently or may use other measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of free cash flow as a tool for comparison, and (3) the utility of free cash flow is further limited as it does not reflect our future contractual commitments and does not represent the total increase or decrease in our cash balance for any given period.

The following table presents a reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash used in operating activities, the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP, for the periods presented:
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Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
202220212020
(in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities$(35,398)$(6,080)$(7,365)
Less:
Purchases of property and equipment(2,310)(2,466)(1,724)
Capitalized internal-use software costs(2,065)(1,886)(830)
Non-GAAP Free cash flow$(39,773)$(10,432)$(9,919)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities$18,040 $22,472 $(87,234)
Net cash provided by financing activities$467,910 $4,866 $1,257 
Our free cash flow decreased for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 from the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, primarily as a result of continued investment in our sales and marketing function and in our infrastructure to support the growth of our business and our operations as a public company. We expect our free cash flow to fluctuate in future periods with changes in our operating expenses and as we continue to invest in our growth.

Liquidity Outlook

We assess our liquidity primarily through our cash on hand as well as the projected timing of billings under contracts with our paying customers and related collection cycles. While our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including revenue growth and costs incurred to support customer usage and growth in our customer base, increased research and development expenses to support the growth of our business and related infrastructure, and increased general and administrative expenses to support being a publicly-traded company, we believe our current cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months.

Our most significant funding requirements are principally comprised of employee compensation and related taxes and benefits, non-cancelable purchase commitments, and operating lease obligations. Non-cancelable purchase commitments for business operations and operating lease obligations total $189.9 million and $76.1 million, respectively, as of January 31, 2022, due primarily over the next five years. Purchase commitments for business operations are primarily related to cloud hosting, infrastructure, and other software-based services. Our future funding requirements to settle our obligations in foreign jurisdictions are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign exchange rates.

While we anticipate being able to satisfy our commitments through a combination of our available current cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and cash generated from the sale of subscriptions to our platform, if our estimates prove to be inaccurate we may seek to sell additional equity or other securities that may result in dilution to our stockholders, issue debt or seek other third-party funding, in order to satisfy our future funding requirements.

Comparison of the Fiscal Years Ended January 31, 2021 and January 31, 2020

For a discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, refer to “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Final Prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) on November 18, 2021.

Seasonality

We may experience seasonality in our cost of revenue as a result of our customers’ increase usage of our platform based on their business demands. We typically experience the highest sequential increase in overall messaging volume and compute and storage requirements during the fourth quarter due to the increased activity related to the holiday season and general customer engagement efforts around the end of the calendar year.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and related disclosures. We
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evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ from these estimates.

We believe that the following critical accounting policies involve a greater degree of judgement or complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

Revenue Recognition

We recognize revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which we adopted as of February 1, 2019 on a modified retrospective basis. We generate revenue from fees related to subscription services and professional services and other. We recognize revenue related to contracts with customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those services. This is determined by following a five-step process, which includes (1) identifying the contract with a customer, (2) identifying the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determining the transaction price, (4) allocating the transaction price and (5) recognizing revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation.

We identify performance obligations in a contract based on the goods and services that will be transferred to the customer that are identifiable from other promises in the contract, or that are distinct. If not considered distinct, the promised goods or services are combined with other goods or services and accounted for as a combined performance obligation. Determining the distinct performance obligations in a contract requires judgment. Our performance obligations primarily include access to our platform, which includes subscription contracts, technical support and platform updates and professional services, which include onboarding services.

We allocate the transaction price of the contract to each distinct performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. Estimating standalone selling prices for our performance obligations requires judgment and is based on multiple factors, including, but not limited to, observable cost data, industry margin studies, historical selling prices, internal cost structure, internal pricing policies, and pricing practices in different regions and sales channels. We review the estimated standalone selling price for our performance obligations periodically and update, if needed, to ensure that the methodology utilized reflects our current pricing practices. The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is recognized as revenue when or as the products or services are transferred to the customer.

Cost to Obtain a Contract with a Customer

We capitalize incremental costs of obtaining revenue contracts, which primarily consist of internal sales commissions and agent commissions. We amortize these commissions on a systematic basis, consistent with the pattern of transfer of the expected benefit period or services to which the contract relates, generally up to four years. Four years represents the estimated benefit period of the customer relationship taking into account factors such as peer estimates of technology lives and customer lives as well as our own historical data. Commissions paid for contract renewals are amortized over the renewal period.

Contract costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over up to four years, which reflects the expected period of benefit of the performance obligation, and may be longer than the initial contract period. We determine the estimated benefit period by considering both qualitative and quantitative factors, including the length of the subscription terms in our customer contracts and the anticipated life of our technology, among other factors.

Stock-Based Compensation

Accounting for stock-based compensation requires us to make a number of judgments, estimates and assumptions.

We estimate the fair value of stock options granted to employees and directors using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which requires the input of subjective assumptions, including (1) fair value of common stock, (2) expected volatility, (3) expected term of the award, (4) the risk-free interest rate and (5) expected dividends. We estimate forfeitures at the date of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods. These assumptions are estimated as follows:

Fair value of common stock. Prior to the Company’s initial public offering, the estimated fair value of the Company’s shares were determined based on the “— Common Stock Valuations” discussion below.

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Expected volatility. Due to the lack of historical and implied volatility data of our common stock, the expected stock price volatility has been estimated based on the historical volatilities of a specified group of companies in our industry for a period equal to the expected life of the option. We selected companies with comparable characteristics to us, including enterprise value, risk profiles and position within the industry, and with historical share price information sufficient to meet the expected term of the stock options. We compute the historical volatility data using the daily closing prices for the selected companies.

Expected term. We determine the expected term based on the average period the stock options are expected to remain outstanding using the simplified method, generally calculated as the midpoint of the stock options’ vesting term and contractual expiration period, as we do not have sufficient historical information to develop reasonable expectations about future exercise patterns and post-vesting employment termination behavior.

Risk-free interest rate. We use the U.S. Treasury yield that corresponds with the expected term for our risk-free interest rate.

Expected dividends. We utilize a dividend yield of zero, as we do not currently issue dividends and do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future.

Forfeiture rate. We are required to estimate a forfeiture rate to calculate the stock-based compensation expense for our awards. Our forfeiture rate is based on an analysis of our actual forfeitures since the adoption of our equity award plan. We routinely evaluate the appropriateness of the forfeiture rate based on actual forfeiture experience, analysis of employee turnover and expectations of future option exercise behavior.

We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the assumptions related to our stock-based compensation on a prospective basis. As we continue to accumulate additional data related to our common stock, we may have refinements to our estimates, which could materially impact our future stock-based compensation expense. Refer to Note 12. Employee Stock Plans for details around the assumptions used for valuing stock options.

Common Stock Valuations

Prior to our initial public offering, the fair value of the shares of our common stock underlying the stock options has historically been determined by our board of directors, with input from management and contemporaneous third-party valuations, as there was no public market for our common stock. We believe that our board of directors has the relevant experience and expertise to determine the fair value of our common stock. In accordance with the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, our board of directors has exercised reasonable judgment and considered numerous objective and subjective factors to determine the best estimate of the fair value of our common stock at each grant date. These factors include:

the prices of our common or preferred stock sold to third-party investors by us and in secondary transactions;
lack of marketability of our common stock;
our actual operating and financial performance;
current business conditions and projections;
hiring of key personnel and the experience of our management;
our history and the introduction of new services;
our stage of development;
likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an initial public offering or a merger or acquisition given prevailing market conditions;
the market performance of comparable publicly traded companies; and
United States and global capital markets conditions.

Our board of directors historically determined the value of our common stock by probability-weighting different valuation approaches and methodologies, including both the income approach and select methodologies from the market approach. The income approach estimates value based on the expectation of future cash flows that a company will generate. These future cash flows are discounted to their present values using our weighted average cost of capital, or WACC. To derive our WACC, we calculate a cost of equity using the Capital Asset Pricing Model and comparable company betas while benchmarking to relevant equity return studies, and we calculate a cost of debt using our estimated cost of borrowing. The costs of equity and debt are then weighted based on our actual capital structure. The comparable company method is a market approach that estimates value based on a comparison of our company to comparable public companies in a similar line of
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business and based on acquisitions in the market. From the comparable companies, a representative market multiple is determined and subsequently applied to our historical and forecasted financial results to estimate our enterprise value. The recent security transaction method is a market approach that considers the recent price paid by market participants for a security issued by our company to estimate our enterprise value. While we have historically considered an income approach, we have never included or relied upon a discounted cash flow analysis due to the lack of historical and projected profitability.

Application of these approaches involves the use of estimates, judgment and assumptions that are highly complex and subjective, such as those regarding our expected future revenue, expenses, and future cash flows, discount rates, market multiples, the selection of comparable companies, and the probability of possible future events.

Subsequent to our initial public offering, the fair value of each share of underlying common stock is based on the closing price of our Class A common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Market on the date of grant.

Income Taxes

We account for income taxes using the asset and liability method. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the consolidated financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.

In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred income tax assets, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including our operating results, ongoing tax planning, and forecasts of future taxable income on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis. In the event we determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would make an adjustment to the valuation allowance that would reduce the provision for income taxes. Conversely, in the event that all or part of the net deferred tax assets are determined not to be realizable in the future, we would charge an adjustment to the valuation allowance to earnings in the period when such determination is made. As of January 31, 2022, we recorded a full valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets, which consist of net operating loss carryforwards and other basis differences, as we have concluded that it is more likely than not that our deferred tax assets will not be realized.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

Refer to Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements.

JOBS Act Accounting Election

Section 107(b) of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Thus, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of the extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards and to adopt some of the reduced disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies. As a result of the accounting standards election, we will not be subject to the same implementation timing for new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. This may make comparison of our consolidated financial statements to those of other public companies more difficult.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risk in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily the result of fluctuations in interest rates.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations, other than its impact on the general economy. Nonetheless, if our costs were to become subject to inflationary pressures, we might not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Interest Rate Risk and Market Risk

We had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $518.1 million as of January 31, 2022, of which $35.2 million was invested in government bonds, commercial paper, corporate debt securities and asset-backed securities. Our cash and cash equivalents are held for working capital and general corporate purposes. Our investments in marketable securities are made for capital preservation purposes. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes.

Our cash equivalents and our portfolio of marketable securities are subject to market risk due to changes in interest rates. Fixed rate securities may have their market value adversely affected due to a rise in interest rates, while floating rate securities may produce less income than expected if interest rates fall. As of January 31, 2022, a hypothetical 10% change in interest rates would not have had a material impact on the value of our cash, cash equivalents, or available-for-sale investments. Because we classify our debt securities as “available for sale,” no gains or losses are recognized due to changes in interest rates unless such securities are sold prior to maturity or unless declines in fair value are determined to be non-temporary.

Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk

Our reporting and functional currency is the U.S. dollar, and the functional currency of our foreign subsidiaries is the respective local currency. Substantially all of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars. Our only sales denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollars are our sales in Japan, which are denominated in Yen. Therefore, our revenue is not currently subject to significant foreign currency risk. Our operating expenses are denominated in the currencies of the countries in which our operations are located, which are primarily the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Japan. Our consolidated results of operations and cash flows are therefore subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and may be adversely affected in the future due to changes in foreign exchange rates. The assets and liabilities of each of our foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at each balance sheet date. Adjustments resulting from translating foreign functional currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are recorded as a separate component on the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. Gains or losses due to transactions in foreign currencies are included in interest and other income, net in our consolidated statements of operations.

The volatility of exchange rates depends on many factors that we cannot forecast with reliable accuracy. We have experienced and will continue to experience fluctuations in foreign exchange gains and losses related to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. In the event our foreign currency denominated assets, liabilities, revenue, or expenses increase, our results of operations may be more greatly affected by fluctuations in the exchange rates of the currencies in which we do business. To date we have not engaged in the hedging of foreign currency transactions, although we may choose to do so in the future. A hypothetical 10% change in the relative value of the U.S. dollar to other currencies during any of the periods presented would not have had a material effect on our realized and unrealized gains (losses) on foreign exchange transactions.
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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
BRAZE, INC.

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
PAGE
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Braze, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Braze, Inc. (the “Company”) as of January 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, convertible preferred stock, redeemable non-controlling interest and stockholders’ equity (deficit), and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at January 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB and in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP



We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2019.

New York, NY
March 31, 2022
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BRAZE, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
January 31,
20222021
ASSETS
CURRENT ASSETS:
Cash and cash equivalents$478,937 $28,509 
Restricted cash, current 472 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $743 and $934 at January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively
64,504 34,771 
Marketable securities35,156 58,004 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets29,588 12,202 
Total current assets608,185 133,958 
Restricted cash, noncurrent4,036 4,037 
Property and equipment, net7,393 5,486 
Deferred contract costs41,689 27,433 
Other assets4,959 480 
TOTAL ASSETS$666,262 $171,394 
LIABILITIES, CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK, REDEEMABLE NON-CONTROLLING INTEREST, AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable$2,083 $439 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities31,623 25,904 
Deferred revenue126,260 74,789 
Total current liabilities159,966 101,132 
Deferred tax liabilities 80 
Other long-term liabilities1,478 2,227 
TOTAL LIABILITIES161,444 103,439 
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (Note 13)
Convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; no shares and 65,318,250 shares authorized as of January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively; no shares and 62,830,697 shares issued and outstanding, January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively
 174,229 
Redeemable non-controlling interest (Note 4)3,235 2,233 
STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 10,000,000 authorized as of January 31, 2022; no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2022; no preferred stock authorized, issued, or outstanding as of January 31, 2021
  
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; no shares and 98,500,000 shares authorized as of January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively; no shares and 19,498,295 shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively
  
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value; 2,000,000,000 and no shares authorized as of January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively; 18,549,183 and no shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively
8  
Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value; 110,000,000 and no shares authorized as of January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively; 74,418,847 and no shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2022 and January 31, 2021, respectively
1  
Additional paid-in capital717,175 29,777 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(640)(42)
Accumulated deficit(214,961)(138,242)
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)501,583 (108,507)
TOTAL LIABILITIES, CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK, REDEEMABLE NON-CONTROLLING INTEREST AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)$666,262 $171,394 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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BRAZE, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
202220212020
Revenue$238,035 $150,191 $96,364 
Cost of revenue78,511 54,511 35,686 
Gross Profit159,524 95,680 60,678 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing127,137 70,661 57,348 
Research and development59,034 29,212 20,339 
General and administrative51,564 27,959 16,524 
Total operating expenses237,735 127,832 94,211 
Loss from operations(78,211)(32,152)(33,533)
Other income (expense):
Investment income137 840 2,127 
Other (expense) income, net(258)(120)48 
Loss before provision for income taxes(78,332)(31,432)(31,358)
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes(165)537 452 
Net loss(78,167)(31,969)(31,810)
Net loss attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest(1,448)(217) 
Net loss attributable to Braze, Inc.$(76,719)$(31,752)$(31,810)
Net loss per share attributable to Braze, Inc. common stockholders, basic and diluted$(2.20)$(