EX1A-2B BYLAWS 4 filename4.htm

 

Exhibit 2.2

 

 

 

BYLAWS

 

OF

 

STARTENGINE CROWDFUNDING, INC.

 

April 10, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
   
   
ARTICLE I CORPORATE OFFICES 1
     
1.1 Registered Office 1
     
1.2 Other Offices 1
     
ARTICLE II MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS 1
     
2.1 Place of Meetings 1
     
2.2 Annual Meeting 1
     
2.3 Special Meeting 2
     
2.4 Notice of Stockholders' Meetings 2
     
2.5 Manner of Giving Notice; Affidavit of Notice 2
     
2.6 Quorum 2
     
2.7 Adjourned Meeting; Notice 2
     
2.8 Conduct of Business 3
     
2.9 Voting 3
     
2.10 Waiver of Notice 3
     
2.11 Stockholder Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting 3
     
2.12 Record Date for Stockholder Notice; Voting; Giving Consents 5
     
2.13 Proxies 5
     
2.14 List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote 6
     
ARTICLE III DIRECTORS 6
     
3.1 Powers 6
     
3.2 Number of Directors 6
     
3.3 Election, Qualification and Term of Office of Directors 7

 

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3.4 Resignation and Vacancies 7
     
3.5 Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone 8
     
3.6 First Meetings 8
     
3.7 Regular Meetings 8
     
3.8 Special Meetings; Notice 8
     
3.9 Quorum 8
     
3.10 Waiver of Notice 9
     
3.11 Adjourned Meeting; Notice 9
     
3.12 Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting 9
     
3.13 Fees and Compensation of Directors 9
     
3.14 Approval of Loans to Officers 9
     
3.15 Removal of Directors 10
     
ARTICLE IV COMMITTEES 10
     
4.1 Committees of Directors 10
     
4.2 Committee Minutes 10
     
4.3 Meetings and Action of Committees 10
     
ARTICLE V OFFICERS 11
     
5.1 Officers 11
     
5.2 Election of Officers 11
     
5.3 Subordinate Officers 11
     
5.4 Removal and Resignation of Officers 11
     
5.5 Vacancies in Offices 12
     
5.6 Chairman of the Board 12
     
5.7 President 12
     
5.8 Chief Executive Officer 12

 

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5.9 Chief Financial Officer 12
     
5.10 Vice President 13
     
5.11 Secretary 13
     
5.12 Treasurer 13
     
5.13 Assistant Secretary 14
     
5.14 Assistant Treasurer 14
     
5.15 Authority and Duties of Officers 14
     
ARTICLE VI INDEMNITY 14
     
6.1 Indemnification of Directors and Officers 14
     
6.2 Indemnification of Others 15
     
6.3 Insurance 15
     
6.4 Prepayment of Expenses 15
     
6.5 Claims 15
     
6.6 Non-exclusivity of Rights 15
     
6.7 Other Indemnification 16
     
6.8 Effect of Amendment or Repeal 16
     
ARTICLE VII RECORDS AND REPORTS 16
     
7.1 Maintenance and Inspection of Records 16
     
7.2 Inspection by Directors 16
     
7.3 Annual Statement to Stockholders 17
     
7.4 Annual Report 17
     
7.5 Representation of Shares of Other Corporations 17
     
ARTICLE VIII GENERAL MATTERS 17
     
8.1 Checks 17
     
8.2 Execution of Corporate Contracts and Instruments 17

 

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8.3 Stock Certificates; Partly Paid Shares 18
     
8.4 Special Designation on Certificates 18
     
8.5 Lost Certificates 18
     
8.6 Construction; Definitions 19
     
8.7 Dividends 19
     
8.8 Fiscal Year 19
     
8.9 Seal 19
     
8.10 Transfer of Stock 19
     
8.11 Stock Transfer Agreements 19
     
8.12 Registered Stockholders 20
     
ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS 20
     
ARTICLE X DISSOLUTION 20
     
ARTICLE XI CUSTODIAN 21
     
11.1 Appointment of a Custodian in Certain Cases 21
     
11.2 Duties of Custodian 21
     
ARTICLE XII NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION 21
     
12.1 Notice by Electronic Transmission 21
     
12.2 Definition of Electronic Transmission 22
     
12.3 Inapplicability 22

 

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STARTENGINE CROWDFUNDING, INC.

 

BYLAWS

 

ARTICLE I

 

CORPORATE OFFICES

 

1.1Registered Office

 

The registered office of the corporation in the State of Delaware shall be 1209 Orange Street, County of New Castle, Wilmington, Delaware 19801. The name of the registered agent of the corporation at such location is The Corporation Trust Company.

 

1.2Other Offices

 

The board of directors may at any time establish other offices at any place or places where the corporation is qualified to do business.

 

ARTICLE II

 

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

 

2.1Place of Meetings

 

Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place, within or outside the State of Delaware, designated by the board of directors. The board of directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In the absence of any such designation, stockholders' meetings shall be held at the registered office of the corporation.

 

2.2Annual Meeting

 

An annual meeting of stockholders shall be held for the election of directors at such date and time as may be designated by resolution of the board of directors from time to time. Any other proper business may be transacted at the annual meeting. The corporation shall not be required to hold an annual meeting of stockholders provided that (i) the stockholders are permitted to act by written consent under the corporation’s certificate of incorporation and these bylaws, (ii) the stockholders take action by written consent to elect directors and (iii) the stockholders unanimously consent to such action or, if such consent is less than unanimous, all of the directorships to which directors could be elected at an annual meeting held at the effective time of such action are vacant and are filled by such action.

 

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2.3Special Meeting

 

A special meeting of the stockholders may be called, at any time for any purpose or purposes, by the board of directors or by such person or persons as may be authorized by the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws.

 

2.4Notice of Stockholders' Meetings

 

All notices of meetings with stockholders shall be in writing and shall be sent or otherwise given in accordance with either Section 2.5 or Section 12 of these bylaws not less than ten (10) or more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. The notice shall specify the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.

 

2.5Manner of Giving Notice; Affidavit of Notice

 

Written notice of any meeting of stockholders, (i) if mailed, is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation, or (ii) if electronically transmitted, as provided in Section 12 of these bylaws. An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent of the corporation that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

 

2.6Quorum

 

The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If, however, such quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed.

 

2.7Adjourned Meeting; Notice

 

When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless these bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time, place if any thereof, and the means of remote communications if any by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

 

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2.8Conduct of Business

 

Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the chairman of the board, if any, or in his or her absence by the vice chairman of the board, if any, or in his or her absence by the president, or in his or her absence by a vice president, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by a chairperson designated by the board of directors, or in the absence of such designation by a chairperson chosen at the meeting. The secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his or her absence the chairperson of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting. The chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of business.

 

2.9Voting

 

The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.12 of these bylaws, subject to the provisions of Sections 217 and 218 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint owners of stock and to voting trusts and other voting agreements, respectively).

 

Except as provided in the last paragraph of this Section 2.9, or as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.

 

2.10Waiver of Notice

 

Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

 

2.11Stockholder Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting

 

Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the corporation, or any action that may be taken at any annual or special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice, and without a vote if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted and delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in Delaware, its principle place of business, or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation's registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested.

 

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Every written consent shall bear the date of each stockholder or member who signs the consent and no written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within sixty (60) days of the earliest dated consent delivered to the corporation, written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders or members to take action are delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders or members are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested.

 

A telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a stockholder or proxyholder, or by a person or persons authorized to act for a stockholder or proxyholder, shall be deemed to be written, signed and dated, provided that any such telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered with information from which the corporation can determine (A) that the telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission was transmitted by the stockholder or proxyholder or by a person or persons authorized to act for the stockholder or proxyholder and (B) the date on which such stockholder or proxyholder or authorized person or persons transmitted such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission. The date on which such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission is transmitted shall be deemed to be the date on which such consent was signed. No consent given by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission shall be deemed to have been delivered until such consent is reproduced in paper form and until such paper form shall be delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office, its principal place of business or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation’s registered office shall be made by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. Notwithstanding the foregoing limitations on delivery, consents given by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission may be otherwise delivered to the principal place of business of the corporation or to an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded if, to the extent and in the manner provided by resolution of the board of directors of the corporation.

 

Any copy, facsimile or other reliable reproduction of a consent in writing may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing for any and all purposes for which the original writing could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing.

 

Prompt notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing. In the event that the action which is consented to is such as would have required the filing of a certificate under any section of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, if such action had been voted on by stockholders at a meeting thereof, the certificate filed under such section shall state, in lieu of any statement required by such section concerning any vote of stockholders, that written consent has been given as provided in Section 228 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

 

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2.12Record Date for Stockholder Notice; Voting; Giving Consents

 

In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action.

 

If the board of directors does not so fix a record date:

 

(i)           The record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.

 

(ii)          The record date for determining stockholders entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the board of directors is necessary, shall be the day on which the first written consent is expressed.

 

(iii)         The record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

 

A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the board of directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

 

2.13Proxies

 

Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for him by a written proxy, signed by the stockholder and filed with the secretary of the corporation, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three (3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be deemed signed if the stockholder's name is placed on the proxy (whether by manual signature, typewriting, telegraphic transmission or otherwise) by the stockholder or the stockholder's attorney-in-fact. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212(c) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

 

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2.14List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote

 

The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting: (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the corporation’s principal executive office. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Such list shall presumptively determine the identity of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and the number of shares held by each of them.

 

ARTICLE III

 

DIRECTORS

 

3.1Powers

 

Subject to the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware and any limitations in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws relating to action required to be approved by the stockholders or by the outstanding shares, the business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the board of directors.

 

3.2Number of Directors

 

The exact number of directors shall be determined from time to time by resolution of the board of directors, provided the board of directors shall consist of at least one member. This number of directors may be changed by a duly adopted amendment to the certificate of incorporation or by an amendment to this bylaw duly adopted by the vote or written consent of the holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote or by resolution of a majority of the board of directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation.

 

No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director's term of office expires.

 

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3.3Election, Qualification and Term of Office of Directors

 

Except as provided in Section 3.4 of these bylaws, directors shall be elected at each annual meeting of stockholders to hold office until the next annual meeting or special meeting called for such purpose. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, wherein other qualifications for directors may be prescribed. Each director, including a director elected to fill a vacancy, shall hold office until such director's successor is elected and qualified or until such director's earlier resignation or removal.

 

Elections of directors need not be by written ballot.

 

3.4Resignation and Vacancies

 

Any director may resign at any time upon written notice to the corporation. When one or more directors so resigns and the resignation is effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective, and each director so chosen shall hold office as provided in this section in the filling of other vacancies.

 

Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws:

 

(i)           Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors elected by all of the stockholders having the right to vote as a single class may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director.

 

(ii)          Whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or series thereof are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of the certificate of incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of such class or classes or series may be filled by a majority of the directors elected by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole remaining director so elected.

 

If at any time, by reason of death or resignation or other cause, the corporation should have no directors in office, then any officer or any stockholder or an executor, administrator, trustee or guardian of a stockholder, or other fiduciary entrusted with like responsibility for the person or estate of a stockholder, may call a special meeting of stockholders in accordance with the provisions of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, or may apply to the Court of Chancery for a decree summarily ordering an election as provided in Section 211 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

 

If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created directorship, the directors then in office constitute less than a majority of the whole board (as constituted immediately prior to any such increase), then the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders holding at least ten (10) percent of the total number of the shares at the time outstanding having the right to vote for such directors, summarily order an election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created directorships, or to replace the directors chosen by the directors then in office as aforesaid, which election shall be governed by the provisions of Section 211 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware as far as applicable.

 

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3.5Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone

 

The board of directors of the corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.

 

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, members of the board of directors, or any committee designated by the board of directors, may participate in a meeting of the board of directors, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

 

3.6First Meetings

 

The first meeting of each newly elected board of directors shall be held at such time and place as shall be fixed by the vote of the stockholders at the annual meeting and no notice of such meeting shall be necessary to the newly elected directors in order legally to constitute the meeting, provided a quorum shall be present. In the event of the failure of the stockholders to fix the time or place of such first meeting of the newly elected board of directors, or in the event such meeting is not held at the time and place so fixed by the stockholders, the meeting may be held at such time and place as shall be specified in a notice given as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the board of directors, or as shall be specified in a written waiver signed by all of the directors.

 

3.7Regular Meetings

 

Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the board of directors.

 

3.8Special Meetings; Notice

 

Special meetings of the board of directors may be called by the president on three (3) days' notice to each director either personally by hand, by courier, mail, telegram, facsimile, telex, electronic mail or telephone; special meetings shall be called by the president or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of two (2) directors unless the board consists of only one (1) director, in which case special meetings shall be called by the president or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of the sole director.

 

3.9Quorum

 

At all meetings of the board of directors, a majority of the number of directors then elected to and serving on the board of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the board of directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the board of directors, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.

 

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3.10Waiver of Notice

 

Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the General Corporation Law of Delaware or of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver thereof, signed by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the directors, or members of a committee of directors, need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

 

3.11Adjourned Meeting; Notice

 

If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the board of directors, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.

 

3.12Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting

 

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the board of directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the board of directors or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

 

3.13Fees and Compensation of Directors

 

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the board of directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.

 

3.14Approval of Loans to Officers

 

The corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or of its subsidiary, including any officer or employee who is a director of the corporation or its subsidiary, whenever, in the judgment of the directors, such loan, guaranty or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the corporation. The loan, guaranty or other assistance may be with or without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the board of directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the corporation. Nothing in this section contained shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at common law or under any statute.

 

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3.15Removal of Directors

 

Unless otherwise restricted by statute, by the certificate of incorporation or by these bylaws, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors.

 

No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director prior to the expiration of such director's term of office.

 

ARTICLE IV

 

COMMITTEES

 

4.1Committees of Directors

 

The board of directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation. The board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. The bylaws may provide that in the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the board of directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the board of directors or in the bylaws of the corporation, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the board of directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matter: (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any bylaw of the corporation.

 

4.2Committee Minutes

 

Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the board of directors when required.

 

4.3Meetings and Action of Committees

 

Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of Article III of these bylaws, Section 3.5 (place of meetings and meetings by telephone), Section 3.7 (regular meetings), Section 3.8 (special meetings and notice), Section 3.9 (quorum), Section 3.10 (waiver of notice), Section 3.11 (adjournment and notice of adjournment), and Section 3.12 (action without a meeting), with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the board of directors and its members; provided, however, that the time of regular meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the board of directors, that special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the board of directors, and that notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee. The board of directors may adopt rules for the government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.

 

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ARTICLE V

 

OFFICERS

 

5.1Officers

 

The officers of the corporation shall be a president, one or more vice presidents, a secretary, and a treasurer. The corporation may also have, at the discretion of the board of directors, a chairman of the board, one or more assistant vice presidents, assistant secretaries, assistant treasurers, and any such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 of these bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person.

 

5.2Election of Officers

 

The officers of the corporation, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 5.3 or 5.5 of these bylaws, shall be chosen by the board of directors, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment.

 

5.3Subordinate Officers

 

The board of directors may appoint, or empower the president to appoint, such other officers and agents as the business of the corporation may require, each of whom shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the board of directors may from time to time determine.

 

5.4Removal and Resignation of Officers

 

Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by an affirmative vote of the majority of the board of directors at any regular or special meeting of the board or, except in the case of an officer chosen by the board of directors, by any officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the board of directors.

 

Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the corporation. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice; and, unless otherwise specified in that notice, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract to which the officer is a party.

 

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5.5Vacancies in Offices

 

Any vacancy occurring in any office of the corporation shall be filled by the board of directors.

 

5.6Chairman of the Board

 

The chairman of the board, if such an officer be elected, shall, if present, preside at meetings of the board of directors and exercise and perform such other powers and duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the board of directors or as may be prescribed by these bylaws. If there is no president, then the chairman of the board shall also be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall have the powers and duties prescribed in Section 5.7 of these bylaws.

 

5.7President

 

Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the board of directors to the chairman of the board, if there be such an officer, the president shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the board of directors, have general supervision, direction, and control of the business and the officers of the corporation. He shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, in the absence or nonexistence of a chairman of the board, at all meetings of the board of directors. He shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of president of a corporation and shall have such other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or these bylaws.

 

5.8Chief Executive Officer

 

Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the board of directors to the chairman of the board, if there be such an officer, the chief executive officer shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation, and shall, subject to the control of the board of directors, have general supervision, direction, and control of the business and the officers of the corporation. The chief executive officer shall be deemed to be the “president” of the corporation for purposes of the Code and shall have all of the duties and responsibilities of a “president” for purposes thereof. He shall preside at all meetings of the shareholders and, in the absence or nonexistence of a chairman of the board, at all meetings of the board of directors. He shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of chief executive officer and/or president of a corporation, and shall have such other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or these bylaws.

 

5.9Chief Financial Officer

 

The chief financial officer shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept and maintained, adequate and correct books and records of accounts of the properties and business transactions of the corporation, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital, retained earnings, and shares. The books of account shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection by any director.

 

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The chief financial officer shall deposit all money and other valuables in the name and to the credit of the corporation with such depositaries as may be designated by the board of directors. He shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the board of directors, shall render to the chief executive officer and directors, whenever they request it, an account of all of his transactions as chief financial officer and of the financial condition of the corporation, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or these bylaws.

 

5.10Vice President

 

In the absence or disability of the president, the vice presidents, if any, in order of their rank as fixed by the board of directors or, if not ranked, a vice president designated by the board of directors, shall perform all the duties of the president and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the restrictions upon, the president. The vice presidents shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as from time to time may be prescribed for them respectively by the board of directors, these bylaws, the president or the chairman of the board.

 

5.11Secretary

 

The secretary shall keep or cause to be kept, at the principal executive office of the corporation or such other place as the board of directors may direct, a book of minutes of all meetings and actions of directors, committees of directors, and stockholders. The minutes shall show the time and place of each meeting, whether regular or special (and, if special, how authorized and the notice given), the names of those present at directors' meetings or committee meetings, the number of shares present or represented at stockholders' meetings, and the proceedings thereof.

 

The secretary shall keep, or cause to be kept, at the principal executive office of the corporation or at the office of the corporation's transfer agent or registrar, as determined by resolution of the board of directors, a share register, or a duplicate share register, showing the names of all stockholders and their addresses, the number and classes of shares held by each, the number and date of certificates evidencing such shares, and the number and date of cancellation of every certificate surrendered for cancellation.

 

The secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and of the board of directors required to be given by law or by these bylaws. He shall keep the seal of the corporation, if one be adopted, in safe custody and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or by these bylaws.

 

5.12Treasurer

 

The treasurer shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept and maintained, adequate and correct books and records of accounts of the properties and business transactions of the corporation, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital, retained earnings, and shares. The books of account shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection by any director.

 

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The treasurer shall deposit all money and other valuables in the name and to the credit of the corporation with such depositaries as may be designated by the board of directors. He shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the board of directors, shall render to the president and directors, whenever they request it, an account of all of his transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or these bylaws.

 

5.13Assistant Secretary

 

The assistant secretary, or, if there is more than one, the assistant secretaries in the order determined by the stockholders or board of directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence of the secretary or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors or the stockholders may from time to time prescribe.

 

5.14Assistant Treasurer

 

The assistant treasurer, or, if there is more than one, the assistant treasurers, in the order determined by the stockholders or board of directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election), shall, in the absence of the treasurer or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the treasurer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors or the stockholders may from time to time prescribe.

 

5.15Authority and Duties of Officers

 

In addition to the foregoing authority and duties, all officers of the corporation shall respectively have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the business of the corporation as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or the stockholders.

 

ARTICLE VI

 

INDEMNITY

 

6.1Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

The corporation shall, to the maximum extent and in the manner permitted by the General Corporation Law of Delaware, indemnify each of its directors and officers against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines, settlements, and other amounts actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any proceeding, arising by reason of the fact that such person is or was an agent of the corporation. For purposes of this Section 6.1, a “director” or “officer” of the corporation includes any person (i) who is or was a director or officer of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was a director or officer of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.

 

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6.2Indemnification of Others

 

The corporation shall have the power, to the extent and in the manner permitted by the General Corporation Law of Delaware, to indemnify each of its employees and agents (other than directors and officers) against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines, settlements, and other amounts actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any proceeding, arising by reason of the fact that such person is or was an agent of the corporation. For purposes of this Section 6.2, an “employee” or “agent” of the corporation (other than a director or officer) includes any person (i) who is or was an employee or agent of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the request of the corporation as an employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was an employee or agent of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.

 

6.3Insurance

 

The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against him and incurred by him in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify him against such liability under the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

 

6.4Prepayment of Expenses

 

The corporation shall pay the expenses incurred in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition, provided, however, that the payment of expenses incurred by a director or officer in advance of the final disposition of the proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by the director or officer to repay all amounts advanced if it should be ultimately determined that the director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article or otherwise.

 

6.5Claims

 

If a claim for indemnification or payment of expenses under this Article VI is not paid in full within sixty days after a written claim therefor has been received by the corporation the claimant may file suit to recover the unpaid amount of such claim and, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim. In any such action the corporation shall have the burden of proving that the claimant was not entitled to the requested indemnification or payment of expenses under applicable law.

 

6.6Non-exclusivity of Rights

 

The rights conferred on any person by this Article VI shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

 

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6.7Other Indemnification

 

The corporation’s obligation, if any, to indemnify any person who was or is serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or non-profit entity shall be reduced by any amount such person may collect as indemnification from such other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or non-profit enterprise.

 

6.8Effect of Amendment or Repeal

 

Any amendment or repeal of the foregoing provisions of this Article VI shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such amendment or repeal.

 

ARTICLE VII

 

RECORDS AND REPORTS

 

7.1Maintenance and Inspection of Records

 

The corporation shall, either at its principal executive office or at such place or places as designated by the board of directors, keep a record of its stockholders listing their names and addresses and the number and class of shares held by each stockholder, a copy of these bylaws as amended to date, accounting books, and other records.

 

Any stockholder of record, in person or by attorney or other agent, shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose the corporation's stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records and to make copies or extracts therefrom. A proper purpose shall mean a purpose reasonably related to such person's interest as a stockholder. In every instance where an attorney or other agent is the person who seeks the right to inspection, the demand under oath shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or such other writing that authorizes the attorney or other agent to so act on behalf of the stockholder. The demand under oath shall be directed to the corporation at its registered office in Delaware or at its principal place of business.

 

7.2Inspection by Directors

 

Any director shall have the right to examine the corporation's stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records for a purpose reasonably related to his position as a director. The Court of Chancery is hereby vested with the exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether a director is entitled to the inspection sought. The Court may summarily order the corporation to permit the director to inspect any and all books and records, the stock ledger, and the stock list and to make copies or extracts therefrom. The Court may, in its discretion, prescribe any limitations or conditions with reference to the inspection, or award such other and further relief as the Court may deem just and proper.

 

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7.3Annual Statement to Stockholders

 

The board of directors shall present at each annual meeting, and at any special meeting of the stockholders when called for by vote of the stockholders, a full and clear statement of the business and condition of the corporation.

 

7.4Annual Report

 

The corporation shall cause an annual report to be sent to the stockholders of the corporation to the extent required by applicable law. If and so long as there are fewer than 100 holders of record of the corporation’s shares, the requirement of sending of an annual report to the stockholders of the corporation is expressly waived (to the extent permitted under applicable law).

 

7.5Representation of Shares of Other Corporations

 

The chairman of the board, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or assistant secretary of this corporation, or any other person authorized by the board of directors or the president or a vice president, is authorized to vote, represent, and exercise on behalf of this corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this corporation. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

GENERAL MATTERS

 

8.1Checks

 

From time to time, the board of directors shall determine by resolution which person or persons may sign or endorse all checks, drafts, other orders for payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness that are issued in the name of or payable to the corporation, and only the persons so authorized shall sign or endorse those instruments.

 

8.2Execution of Corporate Contracts and Instruments

 

The board of directors, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws, may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized or ratified by the board of directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

 

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8.3Stock Certificates; Partly Paid Shares

 

The shares of a corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the board of directors of the corporation may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the corporation. Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the board of directors, every holder of stock represented by certificates and upon request every holder of uncertificated shares shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the corporation by the chairman or vice-chairman of the board of directors, or the president or vice-president, and by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of such corporation representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

 

The corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly paid shares, upon the books and records of the corporation in the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the corporation shall declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.

 

8.4Special Designation on Certificates

 

If the corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

 

8.5Lost Certificates

 

Except as provided in this Section 8.5, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the corporation and canceled at the same time. The corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or his legal representative, to give the corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

 

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8.6Construction; Definitions

 

Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions in the Delaware General Corporation Law shall govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes the singular, and the term “person” includes both a corporation and a natural person.

 

8.7Dividends

 

The directors of the corporation, subject to any restrictions contained in the certificate of incorporation, may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of its capital stock pursuant to the General Corporation Law of Delaware. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the corporation's capital stock.

 

The directors of the corporation may set apart out of any of the funds of the corporation available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper purpose and may abolish any such reserve. Such purposes shall include but not be limited to equalizing dividends, repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, and meeting contingencies.

 

8.8Fiscal Year

 

The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the board of directors and may be changed by the board of directors.

 

8.9Seal

 

The seal of the corporation shall be such as from time to time may be approved by the board of directors.

 

8.10Transfer of Stock

 

Upon surrender to the corporation or the transfer agent of the corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate, and record the transaction in its books.

 

8.11Stock Transfer Agreements

 

The corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

 

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8.12Registered Stockholders

 

The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and to vote as such owner, shall be entitled to hold liable for calls and assessments the person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

 

ARTICLE IX

 

AMENDMENTS

 

The original or other bylaws of the corporation may be adopted, amended or repealed by the stockholders entitled to vote; provided, however, that the corporation may, in its certificate of incorporation, confer the power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws upon the directors. The fact that such power has been so conferred upon the directors shall not divest the stockholders of the power, nor limit their power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws.

 

ARTICLE X

 

DISSOLUTION

 

If it should be deemed advisable in the judgment of the board of directors of the corporation that the corporation should be dissolved, the board, after the adoption of a resolution to that effect by a majority of the whole board at any meeting called for that purpose, shall cause notice to be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote thereon of the adoption of the resolution and of a meeting of stockholders to take action upon the resolution.

 

At the meeting a vote shall be taken for and against the proposed dissolution. If a majority of the outstanding stock of the corporation entitled to vote thereon votes for the proposed dissolution, then a certificate stating that the dissolution has been authorized in accordance with the provisions of Section 275 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware and setting forth the names and residences of the directors and officers shall be executed, acknowledged, and filed and shall become effective in accordance with Section 103 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware. Upon such certificate's becoming effective in accordance with Section 103 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, the corporation shall be dissolved.

 

Whenever all the stockholders entitled to vote on a dissolution consent in writing, either in person or by duly authorized attorney, to a dissolution, no meeting of directors or stockholders shall be necessary. The consent shall be filed and shall become effective in accordance with Section 103 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware. Upon such consent's becoming effective in accordance with Section 103 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, the corporation shall be dissolved. If the consent is signed by an attorney, then the original power of attorney or a photocopy thereof shall be attached to and filed with the consent. The consent filed with the Secretary of State shall have attached to it the affidavit of the secretary or some other officer of the corporation stating that the consent has been signed by or on behalf of all the stockholders entitled to vote on a dissolution; in addition, there shall be attached to the consent a certification by the secretary or some other officer of the corporation setting forth the names and residences of the directors and officers of the corporation.

 

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ARTICLE XI

 

CUSTODIAN

 

11.1Appointment of a Custodian in Certain Cases

 

The Court of Chancery, upon application of any stockholder, may appoint one or more persons to be custodians and, if the corporation is insolvent, to be receivers, of and for the corporation when:

 

(i)          at any meeting held for the election of directors the stockholders are so divided that they have failed to elect successors to directors whose terms have expired or would have expired upon qualification of their successors; or

 

(ii)         the business of the corporation is suffering or is threatened with irreparable injury because the directors are so divided respecting the management of the affairs of the corporation that the required vote for action by the board of directors cannot be obtained and the stockholders are unable to terminate this division; or

 

(iii)        the corporation has abandoned its business and has failed within a reasonable time to take steps to dissolve, liquidate or distribute its assets.

 

11.2Duties of Custodian

 

The custodian shall have all the powers and title of a receiver appointed under Section 291 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, but the authority of the custodian shall be to continue the business of the corporation and not to liquidate its affairs and distribute its assets, except when the Court of Chancery otherwise orders and except in cases arising under Sections 226(a)(3) or 352(a)(2) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

 

ARTICLE XII

 

NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION

 

12.1Notice by Electronic Transmission

 

Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any notice to stockholders given by the corporation under any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if:

 

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(i)          the corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the corporation in accordance with such consent; and

 

(ii)         such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice.

 

However, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

 

Any notice given pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall be deemed given:

 

(i)          if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

(ii)         if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

(iii)        if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and

 

(iv)        if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.

 

An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the corporation that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

 

12.2Definition of Electronic Transmission

 

An “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

 

12.3Inapplicability

 

Notice by a form of electronic transmission shall not apply to Sections 164, 296, 311, 312 or 324 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

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STARTENGINE CROWDFUNDING, INC.

 

CERTIFICATE OF ADOPTION OF BYLAWS

 

The undersigned hereby certifies that he is the duly elected, qualified and acting Secretary of StartEngine Crowdfunding, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and that the foregoing bylaws, comprising twenty-three (23) pages, were adopted as the Company’s bylaws on April 10, 2014, by the person appointed in the Certificate of Incorporation to act as the Incorporator of the Company.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has hereunto set his hand this 10th day of April, 2014.

 

  /s/ Howard Marks  
  Howard Marks, Secretary