485APOS 1 d583921d485apos.htm JPMORGAN TRUST IV JPMorgan Trust IV
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 29, 2018

Securities Act File No. 333-208312

Investment Company Act File No. 811-23117

 

 

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-1A

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

  
  Pre-Effective Amendment No.   
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 55   

and/or

 

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940

  
  Amendment No. 56   
  (Check appropriate box or boxes)   

 

 

JPMORGAN TRUST IV

(Exact Name of Registrant Specified in Charter)

 

 

270 Park Avenue

New York, New York, 10017

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (800) 480-4111

Frank J. Nasta, Esq.

J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc.

270 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10017

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

With copies to:

 

Gregory S. Samuels, Esq.   Jon S. Rand, Esq.
JPMorgan Chase & Co.   Dechert LLP
270 Park Avenue   1095 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10017   New York, NY 10036

 

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

 

  immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
  on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)
  60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
  on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following box:

 

  The post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 


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The information in this Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS DATED JUNE X, 2018

 

Prospectus

J.P. Morgan Money Market Funds

Agency SL Class Shares

June X, 2018

 

INSTITUTIONAL FUND

JPMorgan Securities Lending Money Market Fund

Ticker: XXXXX

The Securities and Exchange Commission has not approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

LOGO


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CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

JPMorgan Securities Lending Money Market Fund

 

Class/Ticker: Agency SL Class/XXXXX

The Fund’s Objective

The Fund seeks current income while seeking to maintain liquidity and a low volatility of principal.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund.

 

ANNUAL FUND OPERATING EXPENSES

(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value
of your investment)

 
        Agency
SL Class
 
Management Fees        0.08
Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Fees        NONE  
Other Expenses        0.15  

Service Fees

       NONE  

Remainder of Other Expenses1

       0.15  
      

 

 

 
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses        0.23  
Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements2        (0.17
      

 

 

 
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waivers and Expenses Reimbursements2        0.06  

 

1 “Remainder of Other Expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year and are calculated assuming $500 million in average net assets over the period.

 

2 The Fund’s adviser and/or its affiliates have contractually agreed to waive fees and/or reimburse expenses to the extent Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses of Agency SL Class Shares (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, dividend and interest expenses related to short sales, interest, taxes, expenses related to litigation and potential litigation, and extraordinary expenses) exceed 0.06% of their average daily net assets. This waiver is in effect through X/X/19, at which time the adviser and/or its affiliates will determine whether to renew or revise it.

Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses are equal to the total annual fund operating expenses shown in the fee table. Your actual costs may be higher or lower.

WHETHER OR NOT YOU SELL YOUR SHARES, YOUR
COST WOULD BE:
 
     1 Year     3 Years  
AGENCY SL CLASS SHARES ($)     6       57  

The Fund’s Main Investment Strategy

The Fund invests in high quality, short-term money market instruments which are issued and payable in U.S. dollars. The Fund principally invests in:

 

 

high quality commercial paper and other short-term debt securities, including floating and variable rate demand notes of U.S. and foreign corporations,

 

 

debt securities issued or guaranteed by qualified U.S. and foreign banks, including certificates of deposit, time deposits and other short-term securities,

 

 

securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities or Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs),

 

 

asset-backed securities,

 

 

repurchase agreements, and

 

 

taxable municipal obligations.

The Fund is a money market fund managed in the following manner:

 

 

The Fund calculates its net asset value to four decimals (e.g., $1.0000) using market-based pricing and operates with a floating net asset value.

 

 

The dollar-weighted average maturity of the Fund will be 60 days or less and the dollar-weighted average life to maturity will be 120 days or less.

 

 

The Fund will only buy securities that have remaining maturities of 397 days or less or securities otherwise permitted to be purchased because of maturity shortening provisions under applicable regulation.

 

 

The Fund invests only in U.S. dollar-denominated securities.

 

 

The Fund seeks to invest in securities that present minimal credit risk.

The Fund may invest significantly in securities with floating or variable rates of interest. Their yields will vary as interest rates change. The securities in which the Fund may invest include privately placed securities. The Fund will at times hold some of its assets in cash.

The Fund will concentrate its investments in the banking industry. Therefore, under normal conditions, the Fund will invest at least 25% of its total assets in securities issued by companies in the banking industry. The Fund may, however,

 

 

 
JUNE X, 2018         1  


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JPMorgan Securities Lending Money Market Fund (continued)

 

invest less than 25% of its total assets in this industry as a temporary defensive measure.

The Fund may trade securities on a when-issued, delayed settlement or forward commitment basis. The Fund’s adviser seeks to develop an appropriate portfolio by considering the differences in yields among securities of different maturities, market sectors and issuers.

Liquidity Fees and Redemption Gates

The Fund’s policies and procedures permit the Board to impose liquidity fees on redemptions and/or redemption gates in the event that the Fund’s weekly liquid assets were to fall below a designated threshold.

If the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 30% of its total assets, the Board, in its discretion, may impose liquidity fees of up to 2% of the value of the shares redeemed and/or gates on redemptions. In addition, if the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 10% of its total assets at the end of any business day, the Fund must impose a 1% liquidity fee on shareholder redemptions unless the Board determines that not doing so is in the best interests of the Fund.

The Fund’s Main Investment Risks

The Fund is subject to management risk and the Fund may not achieve its objective if the adviser’s expectations regarding particular instruments or interest rates are not met.

You could lose money by investing in the Fund. Because the share price of the Fund will fluctuate, when you sell your shares they may be worth more or less than what you originally paid for them. The Fund may impose a fee upon the sale of your shares or may temporarily suspend your ability to sell shares if the Fund’s liquidity falls below required minimums because of market conditions or other factors. An investment in the Fund is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. The Fund’s sponsor has no legal obligation to provide financial support to the Fund, and you should not expect that the sponsor will provide financial support to the Fund at any time.

Any gain resulting from the sale or exchange of Fund shares will be taxable as long-term or short-term gain, depending upon how long you have held your shares.

 

An investment in this Fund or any other fund may not provide a complete investment program. The suitability of an investment in the Fund should be considered based on the investment objective, strategies and risks described in this prospectus, considered in light of all of the other investments in your portfolio, as well as your risk tolerance, financial goals and time horizons. You may want to consult with a financial advisor to determine if this Fund is suitable for you.

The Fund is subject to the main risks noted below, any of which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and ability to meet its investment objective.

Interest Rate Risk. The Fund’s investments in bonds and other debt securities will change in value based on changes in interest rates. If rates increase, the value of these investments generally declines. Securities with greater interest rate sensitivity and longer maturities generally are subject to greater fluctuations in value. The Fund may invest in variable and floating rate securities. Although these instruments are generally less sensitive to interest rate changes than fixed rate instruments, the value of floating rate and variable securities may decline if their interest rates do not rise as quickly, or as much, as general interest rates. Given that the Federal Reserve has begun to raise interest rates, the Fund may face a heightened level of interest rate risk.

Credit Risk. The Fund’s investments are subject to the risk that issuers and/or counterparties will fail to make payments when due or default completely. Prices of the Fund’s investments may be adversely affected if any of the issuers or counterparties it is invested in are subject to an actual or perceived deterioration in their credit quality. Credit spreads may increase, which may reduce the market values of the Fund’s securities. Credit spread risk is the risk that economic and market conditions or any actual or perceived credit deterioration may lead to an increase in the credit spreads (i.e., the difference in yield between two securities of similar maturity but different credit quality) and a decline in price of the issuer’s securities.

General Market Risk. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one country or region will adversely impact markets or issuers in other countries or regions. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to securities in general financial markets, a particular financial market or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, terrorism, regulatory events and government controls.

Mortgage-Related and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk.

Mortgage-related and asset-backed securities are subject to certain other risks, including prepayment and call risks. During periods of difficult or frozen credit markets, significant changes in interest rates, or deteriorating economic conditions, mortgage-related and asset-backed securities may decline in value, face valuation difficulties, become more volatile and/or become illiquid. When mortgages and other obligations are prepaid and when securities are called, the Fund may have to reinvest in securities with a lower yield or fail to recover additional amounts (i.e., premiums) paid for securities with higher interest rates,

 

 

 
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resulting in an unexpected capital loss and/or a decrease in the amount of dividends and yield. In periods of rising interest rates, the Fund may be subject to extension risk, and may receive principal later than expected. As a result, in periods of rising interest rates, the Fund may exhibit additional volatility.

Government Securities Risk. The Fund invests in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies and instrumentalities (such as securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae), the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) or other Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs)). U.S. government securities are subject to market risk, interest rate risk and credit risk. Securities, such as those issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae or the U.S. Treasury, that are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States are guaranteed only as to the timely payment of interest and principal when held to maturity and the market prices for such securities will fluctuate. Notwithstanding that these securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, circumstances could arise that would prevent the payment of interest or principal. This would result in losses to the Fund. Securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government related organizations, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government and no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support. Therefore, U.S. government related organizations may not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. U.S. government securities include zero coupon securities, which tend to be subject to greater market risk than interest-paying securities of similar maturities.

Municipal Obligations Risk. The risk of a municipal obligation generally depends on the financial and credit status of the issuer. Changes in a municipality’s financial health may make it difficult for the municipality to make interest and principal payments when due. This could decrease the Fund’s income or hurt the ability to preserve capital and liquidity.

Under some circumstances, municipal obligations might not pay interest unless the state legislature or municipality authorizes money for that purpose. Some obligations, including municipal lease obligations, carry additional risks.

Municipal obligations may be more susceptible to downgrades or defaults during recessions or similar periods of economic stress. In addition, since some municipal obligations may be secured or guaranteed by banks and other institutions, the risk to the Fund could increase if the banking or financial sector suffers an economic downturn and/or if the credit ratings of the institutions issuing the guarantee are downgraded or at risk of being downgraded by a national rating organization. Such a downward revision or risk of being downgraded may have an adverse effect on the market prices of the obligations and thus the value of the Fund’s investments. To the extent that the

financial institutions securing the municipal obligations are located outside the U.S., these securities could be riskier than those backed by U.S. institutions because of possible political, social or economic instability, higher transaction costs, currency fluctuations, and possible delayed settlement.

In addition to being downgraded, an insolvent municipality may file for bankruptcy. The reorganization of a municipality’s debts may significantly affect the rights of creditors and the value of the obligations issued by the municipality and the value of the Fund’s investments.

When-Issued, Delayed Settlement and Forward Commitment Transactions Risk. The Fund may purchase or sell securities which it is eligible to purchase or sell on a when-issued basis, may purchase and sell such securities for delayed delivery and may make contracts to purchase or sell such securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond normal settlement time (forward commitments). When-issued transactions, delayed delivery purchases and forward commitments involve the risk that the security the Fund buys will lose value prior to its delivery. There also is the risk that the security will not be issued or that the other party to the transaction will not meet its obligation. If this occurs, the Fund loses both the investment opportunity for the assets it set aside to pay for the security and any gain in the security’s price.

Transactions Risk. The Fund could experience a loss and its liquidity may be negatively impacted when selling securities to meet redemption requests by shareholders. The risk of loss increases if the redemption requests are unusually large or frequent or occur in times of overall market turmoil or declining prices. Similarly, large purchases of Fund shares may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash and is required to maintain a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. The Fund is used exclusively for the investment of cash received as collateral for securities loans. Accordingly, the Fund may experience significant redemptions in response to declines in the value of securities on loan or the quantity of loans outstanding from time to time. If the Fund is required to sell securities to meet significant redemptions during a period of market disruption, the Fund may experience losses.

Concentration Risk. Because the Fund will, under ordinary circumstances, invest a significant portion of its assets in securities of companies in the banking industry, developments affecting the banking industry may have a disproportionate impact on the Fund. These risks generally include interest rate risk, credit risk and risk associated with regulatory changes in the banking industry. The profitability of banks depends largely on the availability and cost of funds, which can change depending on economic conditions.

Foreign Securities Risk. Because the Fund may invest in foreign securities, it is subject to special risks in addition to those

 

 

 
JUNE X, 2018         3  


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JPMorgan Securities Lending Money Market Fund (continued)

 

applicable to U.S. investments. These risks include political and economic risks, civil conflicts and war, greater volatility, expropriation and nationalization risks, sanctions or other measures by the United States or other governments, currency fluctuations, higher transaction costs, delayed settlement, possible foreign controls on investment, and less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards of foreign markets. The securities markets of many foreign countries are relatively small, with a limited number of companies representing a small number of industries. In certain markets where securities and other instruments are not traded “delivery versus payment,” the Fund may not receive timely payment for securities or other instruments it has delivered or receive delivery of securities paid for and may be subject to increased risk that the counterparty will fail to make payments or delivery when due or default completely. Events and evolving conditions in certain economies or markets may alter the risks associated with investments tied to countries or regions that historically were perceived as comparatively stable becoming riskier and more volatile.

Industry and Sector Focus Risk. At times the Fund may increase the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector. The prices of securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector may be more susceptible to fluctuations due to changes in economic or business conditions, government regulations, availability of basic resources or supplies, or other events that affect that industry or sector more than securities of issuers in other industries and sectors. To the extent that the Fund increases the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector, its shares’ values may fluctuate in response to events affecting that industry or sector.

Floating and Variable Rate Securities Risk. Floating and variable rate securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the securities. The rate adjustment intervals may be regular and range from daily up to annually, or may be based on an event, such as a change in the prime rate. Floating and variable rate securities may be subject to greater liquidity risk than other debt securities, meaning that there may be limitations on the Fund’s ability to sell the securities at any given time. Such securities also may lose value.

Repurchase Agreement Risk. There is a risk that the counterparty to a repurchase agreement will default or otherwise become unable to honor a financial obligation and the value of your investment could decline as a result.

Risk Associated with the Fund Holding Cash. The Fund will at times hold some of its assets in cash, which may hurt the Fund’s performance. Cash positions may also subject the Fund to additional risks and costs, such as increased exposure to the custodian bank holding the assets and any fees imposed for large cash balances.

Prepayment Risk. The issuer of certain securities may repay principal in advance, especially when yields fall. Changes in the rate at which prepayments occur can affect the return on investment of these securities. When debt obligations are prepaid or when securities are called, the Fund may have to reinvest in securities with a lower yield. The Fund also may fail to recover additional amounts (i.e., premiums) paid for securities with higher coupons, resulting in an unexpected capital loss.

Privately Placed Securities Risk. Privately placed securities generally are less liquid than publicly traded securities and the Fund may not always be able to sell such securities without experiencing delays in finding buyers or reducing the sale price for such securities. The disposition of some of the securities held by the Fund may be restricted under federal securities laws. As a result, the Fund may not be able to dispose of such investments at a time when, or at a price at which, it desires to do so and may have to bear expenses of registering these securities, if necessary. These securities may also be difficult to value.

 

Investments in the Fund are not deposits or obligations of, or guaranteed or endorsed by, any bank and are not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board or any other government agency. It is possible to lose money by investing in the Fund.

The Fund’s Past Performance

The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this prospectus and therefore, has no reportable performance history. Once the Fund has operated for at least one calendar year, a bar chart and performance table will be included in the prospectus to show the performance of the Fund. Past performance is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future.

Management

J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

Agency SL Class Shares of the Fund are currently not available for sale to any investors other than securities lending agents that invest securities lending cash collateral in Shares of the Fund.

Purchase minimums

 

For Agency SL Class Shares   

To establish an account

     $100,000,000  

To add to an account

     No minimum levels  
 

 

 
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The purchase minimums are applied at each securities lending agent level.

You may purchase or redeem shares on any business day that the Fund is open:

 

 

Through your financial intermediary

 

By writing to J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center, P.O. Box 219265, Kansas City, MO 64121-9265

 

After you open an account, by calling J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center at 1-800-766-7722

Tax Information

The Fund intends to make distributions that may be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains.

 

 

 
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More About the Fund

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND’S INVESTMENT STRATEGIES

The Fund invests in high quality, short-term money market instruments which are issued and payable in U.S. dollars. The Fund principally invests in:

 

 

high quality commercial paper and other short-term debt securities, including floating and variable rate demand notes of U.S. and foreign corporations,

 

 

debt securities issued or guaranteed by qualified U.S. and foreign banks, including certificates of deposit, time deposits and other short-term securities,

 

 

securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities or Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs),

 

 

asset-backed securities,

 

 

repurchase agreements, and

 

 

taxable municipal obligations.

The Fund is a money market fund managed in the following manner:

 

 

The Fund calculates its net asset value to four decimals (e.g., $1.0000) using market-based pricing and operates with a floating net asset value.

 

 

The dollar-weighted average maturity of the Fund will be 60 days or less and the dollar-weighted average life to maturity will be 120 days or less.

 

 

The Fund will only buy securities that have remaining maturities of 397 days or less or securities otherwise permitted to be purchased because of maturity shortening provisions under applicable regulation.

 

 

The Fund invests only in U.S. dollar-denominated securities.

 

 

The Fund seeks to invest in securities that present minimal credit risk.

The Fund may invest significantly in securities with floating or variable rates of interest. Their yields will vary as interest rates change. The securities in which the Fund may invest include privately placed securities. The Fund will at times hold some of its assets in cash.

The Fund will concentrate its investments in the banking industry. Therefore, under normal conditions, the Fund will invest at least 25% of its total assets in securities issued by companies in the banking industry. The Fund may, however, invest less than 25% of its total assets in this industry as a temporary defensive measure.

The Fund may trade securities on a when-issued, delayed settlement or forward commitment basis. The Fund’s adviser seeks to develop an appropriate portfolio by considering the

differences in yields among securities of different maturities, market sectors and issuers.

Liquidity Fees and Redemption Gates

The Fund’s policies and procedures permit the Board to impose liquidity fees on redemptions and/or redemption gates in the event that the Fund’s weekly liquid assets were to fall below a designated threshold.

If the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 30% of its total assets, the Board, in its discretion, may impose liquidity fees of up to 2% of the value of the shares redeemed and/or gates on redemptions. In addition, if the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 10% of its total assets at the end of any business day, the Fund must impose a 1% liquidity fee on shareholder redemptions unless the Board determines that not doing so is in the best interests of the Fund.

The Fund is a money market fund managed to meet the requirements of Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, and therefore is managed in the following manner:

 

 

The dollar-weighted average maturity of the Fund will be 60 days or less, and the dollar-weighted average life to maturity will be 120 days or less. For a discussion of dollar-weighted average maturity and dollar-weighted average life to maturity, please see page 23.

 

 

The Fund will only buy securities that have remaining maturities of 397 days or less as determined under Rule 2a-7.

 

 

The Fund invests only in U.S. dollar-denominated securities.

 

 

The Fund will not acquire any security other than a weekly liquid asset unless, immediately following such purchase, at least 30% of its total assets would be invested in weekly liquid assets. “Weekly liquid assets” means (i) cash; (ii) direct obligations of the U.S. Government; (iii) Government securities issued by a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the Government of the United States pursuant to authority granted by the Congress of the United States, that are issued at a discount to the principal amount to be repaid at maturity without the provision for the payment of interest and have a remaining maturity of 60 days or less; (iv) securities that will mature or are subject to a demand feature that is exercisable and payable within five business days and (v) amounts receivable and due unconditionally within five business days on pending sales of portfolio securities.

The Fund seeks to invest in securities that present minimal credit risk. These securities will:

 

   

have one of the two highest short-term ratings from at least two of Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Fitch Ratings, or one such rating if only one of these statistical rating organizations rates that security;

 

 

 
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have an additional third party guarantee in order to meet the rating requirements; or

 

   

be considered of comparable quality by J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (JPMIM), the Fund’s adviser, if the security is not rated by Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., or Fitch Ratings.

Although not a principal investment strategy, the Fund is permitted to invest in repurchase agreements that are collateralized by cash or government securities. The repurchase agreements in which the Fund invests may be with counterparties with varying degrees of credit quality. The Fund may, in addition, engage in repurchase agreement transactions that are collateralized by money market instruments, debt securities, loan participations or other securities, including equity securities and securities that are rated below investment grade by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations or unrated securities of comparable quality. High yield securities (known as junk bonds) are considered to be speculative and are subject to greater risk of loss, greater sensitivity to interest rate and economic changes, valuation difficulties and potential illiquidity.

 

NON-FUNDAMENTAL INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE
An investment objective is fundamental if it cannot be changed without the consent of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The investment objective for the Fund is not fundamental and may be changed without the consent of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund.

Please note that the Fund also may use strategies that are not described in this section, but which are described in the Statement of Additional Information.

INVESTMENT RISKS

There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

 

An investment in the Fund or any other fund may not provide a complete investment program. The suitability of an investment in the Fund should be considered based on the investment objective, strategies and risks described in this prospectus, considered in light of all of the other investments in your portfolio, as well as your risk tolerance, financial goals and time horizons. You may want to consult with a financial advisor to determine if the Fund is suitable for you.

The main risks associated with investing in the Fund are summarized in “Risk/Return Summary” at the front of this prospectus. More detailed descriptions of the main risks and additional risks of the Fund are described below.

Interest Rate Risk. The Fund invests in debt securities that increase or decrease in value based on changes in interest rates. If rates increase, the value of these investments generally declines. On the other hand, if rates fall, the value of these investments generally increases. Your investment will decline in value if the value of these investments decreases. Securities with greater interest rate sensitivity and longer maturities generally are subject to greater fluctuations in value. Usually, changes in the value of fixed income securities will not affect cash income generated, but may affect the value of your investment. The Fund may invest in variable and floating rate securities. Although these instruments are generally less sensitive to interest rate changes than fixed rate instruments, the value of variable and floating rate securities may decline if their interest rates do not rise as quickly, or as much, as general interest rates. Many factors can cause interest rates to rise. Some examples include central bank monetary policy, rising inflation rates and general economic conditions. Given that the Federal Reserve has begun to raise interest rates, the Fund may face a heightened level of interest rate risk.

Credit Risk. There is a risk that the issuer and/or a counterparty of a security, or the counterparty to a contract, repurchase agreement or other investment, will default or otherwise become unable to honor a financial obligation. The price and liquidity of a security can also be adversely affected if either its credit status or the market environment generally deteriorates and the probability of default rises. The value of your investment could decline as a result of these events. Prices of the Fund’s investments may be adversely affected if any of the issuers or counterparties it is invested in are subject to an actual or perceived deterioration in their credit quality. Credit spreads may increase, which may reduce the market values of the Fund’s securities. Credit spread risk is the risk that economic and market conditions or any actual or perceived credit deterioration may lead to an increase in the credit spreads (i.e., the difference in yield between two securities of similar maturity but different credit quality) and a decline in price of the issuer’s securities.

General Market Risk. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one country or region will adversely impact markets or issuers in other countries or regions. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to securities in general financial markets, a particular financial market or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, terrorism, regulatory events and government controls.

Mortgage-Related and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk. Mortgage-related and asset-backed securities are subject to

 

 

 
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More About the Fund (continued)

 

certain other risks. The value of these securities will be influenced by the factors affecting the housing market and the assets underlying such securities. As a result, during periods of difficult or frozen credit markets, significant changes in interest rates, or deteriorating economic conditions, mortgage-related and asset-backed securities may decline in value, face valuation difficulties, become more volatile and/or become illiquid. Additionally, during such periods and also under normal conditions, these securities are also subject to prepayment and call risk. Gains and losses associated with prepayments will increase/decrease the income available for distributions by the Fund and the Fund’s yield. When mortgages and other obligations are prepaid and when securities are called, the Fund may have to reinvest in securities with a lower yield or fail to recover additional amounts (i.e., premiums) paid for securities with higher interest rates, resulting in an unexpected capital loss and/or a decrease in the amount of dividends and yield. In periods of rising interest rates, the Fund may be subject to extension risk, and may receive principal later than expected. As a result, in periods of rising interest rates, the Fund may exhibit additional volatility. Some of these securities may receive little or no collateral protection from the underlying assets and are thus subject to the risk of default described under “Credit Risk”.

Government Securities Risk. The Fund invests in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies and instrumentalities (such as securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae), the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) or other Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs)). U.S. government securities are subject to market risk, interest rate risk and credit risk. Securities, such as those issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae or the U.S. Treasury, that are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States are guaranteed only as to the timely payment of interest and principal when held to maturity and the market prices for such securities will fluctuate. Notwithstanding that these securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, circumstances could arise that would prevent the payment of interest or principal. This would result in losses to the Fund. Securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government related organizations, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government and no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support. Therefore, U.S. government related organizations may not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. U.S. government securities include zero coupon securities, which tend to be subject to greater market risk than interest-paying securities of similar maturities.

Concentration Risk. Because the Fund will, under ordinary circumstances, invest a significant portion of its assets in securities of companies in the banking industry, developments

affecting the banking industry may have a disproportionate impact on the Fund. These risks generally include interest rate risk, credit risk and risk associated with regulatory changes in the banking industry. The profitability of banks depends largely on the availability and cost of funds, which can change depending on economic conditions.

Foreign Securities Risk. Because the Fund may invest in foreign securities, it is subject to special risks in addition to those applicable to U.S. investments. These risks include political and economic risks, civil conflicts and war, greater volatility, expropriation and nationalization risks, sanctions or other measures by the United States or other governments, currency fluctuations, higher transaction costs, delayed settlement, possible foreign controls on investment, and less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards of foreign markets. The securities markets of many foreign countries are relatively small, with a limited number of companies representing a small number of industries. In certain markets where securities and other instruments are not traded “delivery versus payment,” the Fund may not receive timely payment for securities or other instruments it has delivered or receive delivery of securities paid for and may be subject to increased risk that the counterparty will fail to make payments or delivery when due or default completely. Events and evolving conditions in certain economies or markets may alter the risks associated with investments tied to countries or regions that historically were perceived as comparatively stable becoming riskier and more volatile.

Repurchase Agreement Risk. There is a risk that the counterparty to a repurchase agreement will default or otherwise become unable to honor a financial obligation and the value of your investment could decline as a result.

A repurchase agreement is subject to the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. In the event of default by the seller under a repurchase agreement construed to be a collateralized loan, the underlying securities would not be owned by the Fund, but would only constitute collateral for the seller’s obligation to pay the repurchase price. Therefore, the Fund may suffer time delays and incur costs in connection with the disposition of the collateral. For example, certain repurchase agreements the Fund may enter into may or may not be subject to an automatic stay in bankruptcy proceedings. As a result of the automatic stay, to the extent applicable, the Fund could be prohibited from selling the collateral in the event of a counterparty’s bankruptcy unless the Fund is able to obtain the approval of the bankruptcy court. In addition, to the extent that a repurchase agreement is secured by collateral other than cash and government securities (“Non-Traditional Collateral”), these risks may be magnified and the value of Non-Traditional Collateral may be more volatile or less liquid thereby increasing the risk that the Fund will be unable to

 

 

 
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recover fully in the event of a counterparty’s default. High yield securities (known as junk bonds) are considered to be speculative and are subject to greater risk of loss, greater sensitivity to interest rate and economic changes, valuation difficulties and potential illiquidity.

When-Issued, Delayed Settlement and Forward Commitment Transactions Risk. The Fund may purchase or sell securities which it is eligible to purchase or sell on a when-issued basis, may purchase and sell such securities for delayed delivery and may make contracts to purchase or sell such securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond normal settlement time (forward commitments). When-issued transactions, delayed delivery purchases and forward commitments involve the risk that the security the Fund buys will lose value prior to its delivery. There also is the risk that the security will not be issued or that the other party to the transaction will not meet its obligation. If this occurs, the Fund loses both the investment opportunity for the assets it set aside to pay for the security and any gain in the security’s price.

Transactions and Liquidity Risk. The Fund could experience a loss when selling securities to meet redemption requests by shareholders and its liquidity may be negatively impacted. The risk of loss increases if the redemption requests are large or frequent, occur in times of overall market turmoil or declining prices for the securities sold, or when the securities the Fund wishes to, or is required to, sell are illiquid. To the extent a large proportion of shares of the Fund are held by a small number of shareholders (or a single shareholder) including funds or accounts over which the adviser or its affiliates have investment discretion, the Fund is subject to the risk that these shareholders will purchase or redeem Fund shares in large amounts rapidly or unexpectedly, including as a result of an asset allocation decision made by the adviser or its affiliates. In addition to the other risks described in this section, these transactions could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to conduct its investment program. The Fund may be unable to sell illiquid securities at its desired time or price or the price at which the securities have been valued for purposes of the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”). Illiquidity can be caused by a drop in overall market trading volume, an inability to find a ready buyer, or legal restrictions on the securities’ resale. Other market participants may be attempting to sell debt securities at the same time as the Fund, causing downward pricing pressure and contributing to illiquidity. The capacity for bond dealers to engage in trading or “make a market” in debt securities has not kept pace with the growth of bond markets. This could potentially lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the debt markets. Liquidity and valuation risk may be magnified in a rising interest rate environment, when credit quality is deteriorating or in other circumstances where investor redemptions from fixed income mutual funds may be higher than normal. Certain securities that were liquid when purchased may later become illiquid, particularly in times of overall economic distress. Similarly, large purchases of Fund shares may adversely

affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash and is required to maintain a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. Large redemptions also could accelerate the realization of capital gains, increase the Fund’s transaction costs and impact the Fund’s performance. The Fund is used exclusively for the investment of cash received as collateral for securities loans. Accordingly, the Fund may experience significant redemptions in response to declines in the value of securities on loan or the quantity of loans outstanding from time to time. If the Fund is required to sell securities to meet significant redemptions during a period of market disruption, the Fund may experience losses.

Industry and Sector Focus Risk. At times the Fund may increase the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector. The prices of securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector may be more susceptible to fluctuations due to changes in economic or business conditions, government regulations, availability of basic resources or supplies, or other events that affect that industry or sector more than securities of issuers in other industries and sectors. To the extent that the Fund increases the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector, its shares’ values may fluctuate in response to events affecting that industry or sector.

Floating and Variable Rate Securities Risk. Floating and variable rate securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the securities. The rate adjustment intervals may be regular and range from daily up to annually, or may be based on an event, such as a change in the prime rate. Floating and variable rate securities may be subject to greater liquidity risk than other debt securities, meaning that there may be limitations on the Fund’s ability to sell the securities at any given time. Such securities also may lose value.

Municipal Obligations Risk. The risk of a municipal obligation generally depends on the financial and credit status of the issuer. Changes in a municipality’s financial health may make it difficult for the municipality to make interest and principal payments when due. A number of municipalities have had significant financial problems recently, and these and other municipalities could, potentially, continue to experience significant financial problems resulting from lower tax revenues and/or decreased aid from state and local governments in the event of an economic downturn. This could decrease the Fund’s income or hurt the ability to preserve capital and liquidity.

Under some circumstances, municipal obligations might not pay interest unless the state legislature or municipality authorizes money for that purpose. Some obligations, including municipal lease obligations, carry additional risks. For example, they may be difficult to trade or interest payments may be tied only to a specific stream of revenue.

Municipal obligations may be more susceptible to downgrades or defaults during recessions or similar periods of economic

 

 

 
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More About the Fund (continued)

 

stress. Factors contributing to the economic stress on municipalities may include lower property tax collections as a result of lower home values, lower sales tax revenue as a result of consumers cutting back spending, and lower income tax revenue as a result of a higher unemployment rate. In addition, since some municipal obligations may be secured or guaranteed by banks and other institutions, the risk to the Fund could increase if the banking or financial sector suffers an economic downturn and/or if the credit ratings of the institutions issuing the guarantee are downgraded or at risk of being downgraded by a national rating organization. If such events were to occur, the value of the security could decrease or the value could be lost entirely, and it may be difficult or impossible for the Fund to sell the security at the time and the price that normally prevails in the market. Such a downward revision or risk of being downgraded may have an adverse effect on the market prices of the obligations and thus the value of the Fund’s investments. To the extent that the financial institutions securing the municipal obligations are located outside the U.S., these obligations could be riskier than those backed by U.S. institutions because of possible political, social or economic instability, higher transaction costs, currency fluctuations, and possible delayed settlement.

In addition to being downgraded, an insolvent municipality may file for bankruptcy. For example, Chapter 9 of the Bankruptcy Code provides a financially distressed municipality protection from its creditors while it develops and negotiates a plan for reorganizing its debts. “Municipality” is defined broadly by the Bankruptcy Code as a “political subdivision or public agency or instrumentality of a state” and may include various issuers of obligations in which the Fund invests. The reorganization of a municipality’s debts may include extending debt maturities, reducing the amount of principal or interest, refinancing the debt or taking other measures, which may significantly affect the rights of creditors and the value of the obligations issued by the municipality and the value of the Fund’s investments.

There may be times that, in the opinion of the adviser, municipal money market securities of sufficient quality are not available for the Fund to be able to invest in accordance with its normal investment policies.

Interest on municipal obligations, while generally exempt from federal income tax, may not be exempt from federal alternative minimum tax.

Risk Associated with the Fund Holding Cash. The Fund will at times hold some of its assets in cash, which may hurt the Fund’s performance. Cash positions may also subject the Fund to additional risks and costs, such as increased exposure to the custodian bank holding the assets and any fees imposed for large cash balances.

Prepayment Risk. The issuer of certain securities may repay principal in advance, especially when yields fall. Changes in the rate at which prepayments occur can affect the return on

investment of these securities. When debt obligations are prepaid or when securities are called, the Fund may have to reinvest in securities with a lower yield. The Fund also may fail to recover additional amounts (i.e., premiums) paid for securities with higher coupons, resulting in an unexpected capital loss.

Privately Placed Securities Risk. Privately placed securities generally are less liquid than publicly traded securities and the Fund may not always be able to sell such securities without experiencing delays in finding buyers or reducing the sale price for such securities. The disposition of some of the securities held by the Fund may be restricted under federal securities laws or by the relevant exchange or by a governmental or supervisory authority. As a result, the Fund may not be able to dispose of such investments at a time when, or at a price at which, it desires to do so and may have to bear expenses of registering these securities, if necessary. These securities may also be difficult to value.

Geographic Focus Risk. The Fund may focus its investments in one or more regions or small groups of countries. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be subject to greater volatility than a more geographically diversified fund.

Asia Pacific Market Risk. The economies in the Asia Pacific region are in all stages of economic development and may be intertwined. The small size of securities markets and the low trading volume in some countries in the Asia Pacific region may lead to a lack of liquidity. The share prices of companies in the region tend to be volatile and there is a significant possibility of loss. Many of the countries in the region are developing, both politically and economically, and as a result companies in the region may be subject to risks like nationalization or other forms of government interference, and/or may be heavily reliant on only a few industries or commodities. Investments in the region may also be subject to currency risks, such as restrictions on the flow of money in and out of the country, extreme volatility relative to the U.S. dollar, and devaluation, all of which could decrease the value of the Fund.

European Market Risk. The Fund’s performance will be affected by political, social and economic conditions in Europe, such as growth of the economic output (the gross national product), the rate of inflation, the rate at which capital is reinvested into European economies, the success of governmental actions to reduce budget deficits, the resource self-sufficiency of European countries and interest and monetary exchange rates between European countries. European financial markets may experience volatility due to concerns about high government debt levels, credit rating downgrades, rising unemployment, the future of the euro as a common currency, possible restructuring of government debt and other government measures responding to those concerns, and fiscal and monetary controls imposed on member countries of the European Union. The risk of investing in Europe may be heightened due to steps being taken by the United Kingdom to exit the European Union. In addition, if one or more countries were to

 

 

 
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exit the European Union or abandon the use of the euro as a currency, the value of investments tied to those countries or the euro could decline significantly and unpredictably.

Japan Risk. The Japanese economy may be subject to economic, political and social instability, which could have a negative impact on Japanese securities. In the past, Japan’s economic growth rate has remained relatively low, and it may remain low in the future. At times, the Japanese economy has been adversely impacted by government intervention and protectionism, changes in its labor market, and an unstable financial services sector. International trade, government support of the financial services sector and other troubled sectors, government policy, natural disasters and/or geopolitical developments could significantly affect the Japanese economy. A significant portion of Japan’s trade is conducted with developing nations and can be affected by conditions in these nations or by currency fluctuations. Japan is an island state with few natural resources and limited land area and is reliant on imports for its commodity needs. Any fluctuations or shortages in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on the Japanese economy.

Tax Risk. The Fund may invest in securities whose interest is subject to federal income tax or the federal alternative minimum tax. Consult your tax professional for more information.

Volcker Rule Risk. Pursuant to section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and certain rules promulgated thereunder known as the Volcker Rule, if the adviser and/or its affiliates own 25% or more of the outstanding ownership interests of the Fund after the permitted seeding period from the implementation of the Fund’s investment strategy, the Fund could be subject to restrictions on trading that would adversely impact the Fund’s ability to execute its investment strategy. Generally, the permitted seeding period is three years from the implementation of the Fund’s investment strategy. As a result, the adviser and/or its affiliates may be required to reduce their ownership interests in the Fund at a time that is sooner than would otherwise be desirable, which may result in the Fund’s liquidation or, if the Fund is able to continue operating, may result in losses, increased transaction costs and adverse tax consequences as a result of the sale of portfolio securities.

For more information about risks associated with the types of investments that the Fund purchases, please read the Statement of Additional Information.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

An investment in the Fund is subject to a number of actual or potential conflicts of interest. For example, the Adviser and/or

its affiliates provide a variety of different services to the Fund, for which the Fund compensates them. As a result, the Adviser and/or its affiliates have an incentive to enter into arrangements with the Fund, and face conflicts of interest when balancing that incentive against the best interests of the Fund. The Adviser and/or its affiliates also face conflicts of interest in their service as investment adviser to other clients, and, from time to time, make investment decisions that differ from and/or negatively impact those made by the Adviser on behalf of the Fund. In addition, affiliates of the Adviser provide a broad range of services and products to their clients and are major participants in the global currency, equity, commodity, fixed-income and other markets in which the Fund invests or will invest. In certain circumstances by providing services and products to their clients, these affiliates’ activities will disadvantage or restrict the Fund and/or benefit these affiliates. The Adviser may also acquire material non-public information which would negatively affect the Adviser’s ability to transact in securities for the Fund. JPMorgan and the Fund have adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to appropriately prevent, limit or mitigate conflicts of interest. In addition, many of the activities that create these conflicts of interest are limited and/or prohibited by law, unless an exception is available. For more information about conflicts of interest, see the Potential Conflicts of Interest section in the Statement of Additional Information.

TEMPORARY DEFENSIVE POSITIONS

For liquidity and to respond to unusual market conditions, the Fund may hold all or most of its total assets in cash for temporary defensive purposes. These investments may be inconsistent with the Fund’s main investment strategies. This may result in a lower yield.

If the Fund departs from its investment policies during temporary defensive periods or to meet redemptions, it may not achieve its investment objective and may produce taxable income.

ADDITIONAL FEE WAIVER AND/OR EXPENSE REIMBURSEMENT

Service providers to the Fund, including the Fund’s adviser and/or its affiliates, may, from time to time, voluntarily waive all or a portion of any fees to which they are entitled and/or reimburse certain expenses as they may determine from time to time. The Fund’s service providers may discontinue or modify these voluntary actions at any time without notice. Once reported, performance for the Fund may reflect the voluntary waiver of fees and/or the reimbursement of expenses, if any. Without these voluntary waivers and/or expense reimbursements, performance would have been less favorable.

 

 

 
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The Fund’s Management and Administration

 

The Fund is a series of JPMorgan Trust IV (JPMT IV), a Delaware statutory trust (the Trust).

The Trust is governed by Trustees who are responsible for overseeing all business activities of the Fund. In addition to the Fund, the Trust consists of other series representing separate investment funds (each, a J.P. Morgan Fund).

Call 1-800-766-7722 to obtain more information concerning the Fund. A Financial Intermediary (as described below) who receives compensation for selling Fund shares may receive a different amount of compensation for sales of different classes of shares.

The Fund’s Investment Adviser

J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (JPMIM) acts as investment adviser to the Fund and makes the day-to-day investment decisions for the Fund.

JPMIM is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Asset Management Holdings Inc., which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase & Co. (JPMorgan Chase), a bank holding company. JPMIM is located at 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

The Fund pays JPMIM a management fee of 0.08%, as a percentage of average daily net assets.

A discussion of the basis the Board of Trustees of the Trust used in approving the investment advisory agreements for the Fund will be available in the first shareholder report for the Fund.

The Fund’s Administrator

JPMIM (the Administrator) provides administrative services and oversees the other service providers of the Fund. The Administrator receives a pro-rata portion of the following annual fee on behalf of the Fund for administrative services: 0.10% of the first $100 billion of average daily net assets of all money market funds in the J.P. Morgan Funds Complex plus 0.05% of average daily net assets of such Funds over $100 billion.

The Fund’s Distributor

JPMorgan Distribution Services, Inc. (JPMDS or the Distributor) is the distributor for the Fund. The Distributor is an affiliate of JPMIM.

Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries

Agency SL Class Shares are only available through a financial intermediary if the financial intermediary will not receive from the Fund assets or the Distributor’s or an affiliate’s resources any commission payments, service fees (including sub-transfer agent and networking fees), or distribution fees (including Rule 12b-1) with respect to assets invested in Agency SL Class Shares. JPMIM, JPMDS and, from time to time, other affiliates of JPMorgan Chase may also, at their own expense and out of their own legitimate profits, provide additional cash payments to Financial Intermediaries whose customers invest in shares of the J.P. Morgan Funds. For this purpose, financial intermediaries include financial advisors, investment advisers, brokers, financial planners, banks, insurance companies, retirement or 401(k) plan administrators and others, including various affiliates of JPMorgan Chase, that have entered into agreements with JPMDS. These additional cash payments are payments over and above any sales charges (including Rule 12b-1 fees) and service fees (including sub-transfer agency and networking fees) that are paid to such Financial Intermediaries. These additional cash payments are generally made to Financial Intermediaries that provide shareholder, sub-transfer agency or administrative services or marketing support. Marketing support may include access to sales meetings, sales representatives and Financial Intermediary management representatives, inclusion of the J.P. Morgan Funds on a sales list, or other sales programs and/or for training and educating a Financial Intermediary’s employees. These additional cash payments also may be made as an expense reimbursement in cases where the Financial Intermediary provides shareholder services to J.P. Morgan Fund shareholders. JPMIM and JPMDS may also pay cash compensation in the form of finders’ fees that vary depending on the J.P. Morgan Fund and the dollar amount of shares sold. Such additional compensation may provide such Financial Intermediaries with an incentive to favor sales of shares of the J.P. Morgan Funds over other investment options they make available to their customers. See the Statement of Additional Information for more information.

 

 

 
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How Your Account Works

 

BUYING FUND SHARES

You do not pay any sales charge (sometimes called a load) when you buy Agency SL Class Shares of the Fund.

The price you pay for your shares is the NAV per share of the class. NAV is the value of everything a class of a Fund owns, minus everything the class owes, divided by the number of shares of that class held by investors.

The NAV of each class of shares is generally calculated as of the cut-off time each day the Fund is accepting orders. You will pay the next NAV per share calculated after the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center accepts your order.

Agency SL Class Shares of the Fund are currently not available for sale to anyone other than securities lending agents that invest securities lending cash collateral in Shares of the Fund.

You may purchase Fund shares through your Financial Intermediary. Financial Intermediaries may include securities lending agents, including various affiliates of JPMorgan Chase, that have entered into agreements with JPMDS as Distributor and/or shareholder servicing agent. Shares purchased this way will typically be held for you by the Financial Intermediary. Financial Intermediaries or such other organizations may impose eligibility requirements for each of their clients or customers investing in the Fund, including investment minimum requirements, which may be the same as or different from the requirements for investors purchasing directly from the Fund. You may also purchase shares directly from the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center.

Shares are available on any business day that the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Federal Reserve) is open, except as noted below. In addition to weekends, the Federal Reserve is closed on the following national holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. The Fund may also close on days when the Federal Reserve is open and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is closed, such as Good Friday. On any business day when the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) recommends that the securities markets close trading early, the Fund may close early.

On occasion, the NYSE closes before 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time (ET). When the NYSE closes early, the Fund may also elect to close early and purchase orders accepted by the Fund after the early closing will be effective the following business day. The Fund, however, may elect to remain open following an early close of the NYSE. If your purchase order is accepted by the Fund before the Fund’s close on a day when the NYSE closes early but the Fund remains open, or on a day when the Fund is open but the NYSE is not, it will become effective following the

Fund’s next calculation of its NAV. Purchase orders accepted after a Fund’s final calculation of NAV for the day will be effective the following business day.

The NAV of the Fund is generally calculated as of 3:00 p.m. ET each day the Fund accepts purchase orders and redemption requests.

The NAV of the Fund is calculated using market-based values. The NAV per share of the Fund is equal to the value of all the assets attributable to the Fund, minus the liabilities attributable to that class, divided by the number of outstanding shares of the Fund. The following is a summary of the valuation procedures generally used to value the J.P. Morgan Funds’ investments for market-based NAVs.

Securities for which market quotations are readily available are generally valued at their current market value. Other securities and assets, including securities for which market quotations are not readily available; market quotations are determined not to be reliable; or, their value has been materially affected by events occurring after the close of trading on the exchange or market on which the security is principally traded but before the Fund’s NAV is calculated, may be valued at fair value in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Board. Fair value represents a good faith determination of the value of a security or other asset based upon specifically applied procedures. Fair valuation may require subjective determinations. There can be no assurance that the fair value of an asset is the price at which the asset could have been sold during the period in which the particular fair value was used in determining the Fund’s NAV.

Fixed income securities are valued using prices supplied by an approved independent third party or affiliated pricing services or broker/dealers. Those prices are determined using a variety of inputs and factors as more fully described in the Statement of Additional Information.

Shares of mutual funds are valued at their respective NAVs.

If the Fund accepts your purchase order and receives payment the same day, as described below, your order will be processed at the price calculated at the next cut-off time and you will be entitled to all dividends declared on that day. If the Fund accepts your purchase order after the final cut-off time for a day, it will be processed at the next day’s first calculated price. If the Fund does not receive payment on the same day that your order is placed, as described below, you will not be entitled to any dividends declared on that day.

The Fund has the right to refuse any purchase order or to stop offering shares for sale at any time. In addition, in its discretion, the Board may elect to calculate the price of a Fund’s shares once per day. Under certain circumstances, the Board has delegated to management the ability to temporarily

 

 

 
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How Your Account Works (continued)

 

suspend one or more cut-off times for the Fund, other than the last cut-off time of the day.

Share ownership is electronically recorded; therefore, no certificate will be issued.

Shares of the Fund have not been registered for sale outside of the United States. This prospectus is not intended for distribution to prospective investors outside of the United States. The Fund generally does not market or sell shares to investors domiciled outside of the United States, even, with regard to individuals, if they are citizens or lawful permanent residents of the United States.

The Fund reserves the right to change the manner in which shares are offered at any time.

If a Financial Intermediary holds your shares, it is the responsibility of the Financial Intermediary to send your purchase order and payment to the Fund by the applicable deadlines. Your Financial Intermediary may have earlier cut-off times for purchase orders. In addition, your Financial Intermediary may be closed at times when the Fund is open. Your order through a Financial Intermediary will be processed at the NAV next calculated following receipt of the order from the Financial Intermediary and acceptance by the Fund. In the event that the order is accepted by a Financial Intermediary that the Fund has authorized to accept orders on its behalf, as described herein, the order will be priced at the Fund’s NAV next calculated after it is accepted by the Financial Intermediary. In such cases, if requested by the Fund, a Financial Intermediary will be responsible for providing information with regard to the time that such order for purchase, redemption or exchange was received. Orders submitted through a Financial Intermediary that has not received such authorization will be priced at the Fund’s NAV next calculated after it receives the order from the Financial Intermediary and accepts it, which may not occur on the day submitted to the Financial Intermediary.

In order to receive a dividend on the day that you submit your order, the Fund must receive “federal funds” or other immediately available funds by the close of the Federal Reserve wire transfer system (normally, 6:00 p.m. ET) on the same business day the purchase order is placed. In the event that an order is placed by a cut-off time specified above and payment through federal funds or other immediately available funds is not received by the Fund by the close of the Federal Reserve wire transfer system or other immediately available funds that same day, you will not accrue a dividend on that day and the Fund reserves the right to cancel your purchase order and you will be liable for any resulting losses or fees incurred by the Fund or the Fund’s transfer agent. If you pay by other acceptable methods, before the final cut-off time on a day, we will process your order that day, but you will not receive any dividends declared on that day. Payments received electronically from Financial Intermediaries on your behalf for trades accepted by

the Fund will begin to receive dividends the day payment is received by the Fund.

To open an account, buy or sell shares or get fund information, call:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

1-800-766-7722

The Fund does not permit Financial Intermediaries to serve as its agent for the receipt of orders. All trades in the Fund are priced at the NAV next calculated by the Fund following its receipt of the trade in proper form from the Financial Intermediary. Additionally, the Fund must receive “federal funds” or other immediately available funds by the close of the Federal Reserve wire transfer system (normally, 6:00 p.m. ET) on the same business day the purchase order is placed. In the event that payment is not received by the Fund by the close of the Federal Reserve wire transfer system or through other immediately available funds that same day, the Fund reserves the right to cancel your purchase order and you will be liable for any resulting losses or fees incurred by the Fund or the Fund’s transfer agent. A shareholder that redeems shares of the Fund will not receive a dividend on the date of redemption, regardless of the form of payment requested.

If a Financial Intermediary transmits your request to the Fund, it may charge you a fee for this service. The availability of certain services described herein may be limited by a Financial Intermediary who may set its own minimum purchase, balance, eligibility or other requirements.

Minimum Investments

Agency SL Class Shares are subject to a $100,000,000 minimum investment requirement. The purchase minimums are applied at each securities lending agent level.

There are no minimum levels for subsequent purchases.

The Fund reserves the right to waive any investment minimum. The Statement of Additional Information has additional information on investment minimum waivers, such as when additional accounts of the investor may be aggregated together to meet the minimum requirement. For further information on investment minimum waivers, you can also call 1-800-766-7722.

The Fund does not permit Financial Intermediaries to serve as its agent for the receipt of orders.

General

The Fund is intended for short-term investment horizons, and does not monitor for market timers or prohibit short-term trading activity. Although the Fund is managed in a manner that is consistent with its investment objective, frequent trading by shareholders may disrupt its management and increase its expenses.

 

 

 
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Federal law requires all financial institutions to obtain, verify and record information that identifies each person who opens an account. When you open an account, we will ask for your name, business street address and other information that will allow us to identify you, including your tax identification number or other identifying number. The Fund cannot waive these requirements. The Fund is required by law to reject your Account Application if the required identifying information is not provided.

We will attempt to collect any missing information required on the Account Application, including any information that the Fund or the Distributor, in its sole discretion, may require, by contacting either you or your Financial Intermediary. If we cannot obtain this information within the established time frame, your Account Application will be rejected. Amounts received prior to receipt of the required information will be held uninvested and will be returned to you without interest if your Account Application is rejected. If the required information is obtained, your investment will be accepted and you will pay the NAV per share next calculated after all of the required information is received.

Once we have received all of the required information, federal law requires us to verify your identity. After an account is opened, we may restrict your ability to purchase additional shares until your identity is verified. If we are unable to verify your identity within a reasonable time, the Fund reserves the right to close your account at the current NAV per share. If your account is closed for this reason, your shares will be redeemed at the NAV per share next calculated after the account is closed.

Send the completed Account Application and a check to our Regular or Overnight mailing address:

Regular mailing address:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

P.O. Box 219265

Kansas City, MO 64121-9265

Overnight mailing address:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

c/o DST Systems, Inc.

Suite 219265

430 W. 7th Street

Kansas City, MO 64105-1407

All checks must be in U.S. dollars. The Fund does not accept credit cards, cash, starter checks, money orders or credit card checks. The Fund reserves the right to refuse “third-party” checks and checks drawn on non-U.S. financial institutions even if payment may be effected through a U.S. financial institution. Checks made payable to any individual or company and endorsed to the J.P. Morgan Funds or a Fund are considered third-party checks. The redemption of shares purchased

through the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center by check or an Automated Clearing House (ACH) transaction is subject to certain limitations. See “Selling Fund Shares.”

In the event that payment is not received by the Fund by the close of the Federal Reserve wire transfer system or through other immediately available funds that same day, the Fund reserves the right to cancel your purchase order and you will be liable for any resulting losses or fees incurred by the Fund or the Fund’s transfer agent.

All checks must be made payable to one of the following:

 

 

J.P. Morgan Funds; or

 

 

The specific Fund in which you are investing.

Your purchase may be canceled if your check does not clear and you will be responsible for any expenses and losses to the Funds.

If you choose to pay by wire, please call 1-800-766-7722 to notify the Funds of your purchase and authorize your financial institution to wire funds to:

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.

1 Chase Plaza, New York, NY 10005

ATTN: J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

ABA: 021000021

DDA: 323125832

DDA NAME: DST as Agent for JPMorgan Funds

FBO Your Fund Number & Account Number

(EX: FUND 123-ACCOUNT 123456789)

Your Account Registration

(EX: EYX CORPORATION)

Your J.P. Morgan Fund

(EX: JPMORGAN ABC FUND-AGENCY SL SHARES)

Orders paid by wire may be canceled if the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center does not receive payment by a Fund’s final cut-off time on the day that you placed your order. You will be responsible for any expenses and losses to the Funds.

You can buy shares in one of two ways:

Through Your Financial Intermediary

Tell your Financial Intermediary which Fund you want to buy and they will contact us. Your Financial Intermediary may charge you a fee and may offer additional services, such as special purchase and redemption programs, “sweep” programs, cash advances and redemption checks. Some Financial Intermediaries charge a single fee that covers all services.

 

 

 
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How Your Account Works (continued)

 

Your purchase through a Financial Intermediary will be processed at the NAV next calculated following receipt of the order from the Financial Intermediary and acceptance by a Fund, which may not occur on the day submitted to the Financial Intermediary. In addition, orders placed through a Financial Intermediary are subject to the timing requirements relating to payment for shares described above. Your Financial Intermediary may impose different minimum investments and earlier cut-off times for the submission of orders.

Your Financial Intermediary may be paid by JPMDS to assist you in establishing your account, executing transactions and monitoring your investment. Financial Intermediaries may provide the following services in connection with their customers’ investments in the Fund:

 

 

Acting directly or through an agent, as the sole shareholder of record.

 

 

Maintaining account records for customers.

 

 

Processing orders to purchase, redeem or exchange shares for customers.

 

 

Responding to inquiries from shareholders.

 

 

Assisting customers with investment procedures.

Orders submitted through a Financial Intermediary will be priced at the Fund’s NAV next calculated after it receives the order from the Financial Intermediary and accepts it, which may not occur on the day submitted to the Financial Intermediary.

Through the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

Call 1-800-766-7722

Or

Complete the Account Application and mail it along with a check for the amount you want to invest to our regular or overnight mailing address:

Regular mailing address:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

P.O. Box 219265

Kansas City, MO 64121-9265

Overnight mailing address:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

c/o DST Systems, Inc.

Suite 219265

430 W. 7th Street

Kansas City, MO 64105-1407

The J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center will accept your order when federal funds, a wire, a check or ACH transaction is received together with a completed Account Application or other instructions in proper form.

If you purchase shares through a Financial Intermediary, you may be required to complete additional forms or follow additional procedures. You should contact your Financial Intermediary regarding purchases, exchanges and redemptions.

Shares of the Fund have not been registered for sale outside of the United States. This prospectus is not intended for distribution to prospective investors outside of the United States. The Fund generally does not market or sell shares to investors domiciled outside of the United States, even, with regard to individuals, if they are citizens or lawful permanent residents of the United States.

The Fund reserves the right to change the manner in which shares are offered at any time.

SELLING FUND SHARES

You can sell or redeem your shares on any day that the Fund is open for business. You will receive the NAV per share calculated at the next cut-off time after the Fund receives your order.

A redemption order must be supported by all appropriate documentation and information in good order (meaning that it includes the information required by, and complies with security requirements implemented by, the Fund’s transfer agent or the Fund) including the name of the registered shareholder and your account number. The Fund may refuse to honor incomplete orders.

The length of time that the Fund typically expects to pay redemption proceeds depends on whether payment is made by ACH, wire or check. Under normal circumstances, if the Fund receives your order before the Fund’s final daily cut-off time, the Fund typically expects to pay redemption proceeds to you by wire that same business day. Proceeds may be made available throughout the day following the calculation of the NAV. For payment by check or ACH, the Fund typically expects to mail the check or pay redemption proceeds by ACH on the next business day following receipt of the redemption order by the Fund. For trades submitted through a Financial Intermediary, it is the responsibility of each Financial Intermediary to submit orders to the Fund by the final daily cut-off time in order to receive proceeds that same business day by wire. Otherwise, except as set forth in the section “Suspension of Redemptions” below, your redemption proceeds will be paid within seven days after the Fund receives the redemption order. Shareholders that redeem shares and purchase additional shares on the same day will receive dividends as set forth above under ‘‘Buying Fund Shares.’’ Dividends will not accrue on shares that are redeemed and paid on a same day basis on the date of redemption.

If you have changed your address of record within the previous 15 days, the Fund will not mail your proceeds, but rather will wire them or send them by ACH to a pre-existing bank account on record with the Fund.

 

 

 
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The Fund may hold proceeds for shares purchased by ACH or check until the purchase amount has been collected, which may be as long as five business days.

You may also need to have medallion signature guarantees for all registered owners or their legal representatives if:

 

 

You want to redeem shares with a value of $50,000 or more and you want to receive your proceeds in the form of a check; or

 

 

You want your payment sent to an address, bank account or payee other than the one currently designated on your Fund account.

We may also need additional documents or a letter from a surviving joint owner before selling the shares. Contact the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center for more details.

You can sell your shares in one of two ways:

Through Your Financial Intermediary

Tell your Financial Intermediary which Fund’s shares you want to sell. Once the Fund accepts your order, which must be submitted in good order to your Financial Intermediary, the Fund will process it at the NAV calculated at the next cut-off time. Your Financial Intermediary will be responsible for sending the necessary documents to the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center. This may not occur on the day that an order is submitted to a Financial Intermediary. Your Financial Intermediary may charge you for this service.

Your Financial Intermediary may have earlier cut-off times for redemption orders.

Orders submitted through a Financial Intermediary will be priced at the Fund’s NAV next calculated after it receives the order from the Financial Intermediary and accepts it, which may not occur on the day submitted to the Financial Intermediary.

If you hold your Fund shares through a Financial Intermediary, the length of time that the Fund typically expects to pay redemption proceeds depends on the method of payment and the agreement between the Financial Intermediary and the Fund. For redemption proceeds that are paid directly to you by a Fund, the Fund typically expects to make payments by wire on the same business day. For payments that are made to your Financial Intermediary for transmittal to you, the Funds expect to pay redemption proceeds to the Financial Intermediary for transmittal to you on the same business day or up to three business days following the Fund’s receipt of the redemption order from the Financial Intermediary.

Except as set forth in the section “Suspension of Redemptions” below, payment of redemption proceeds may take longer than the time a Fund typically expects and may take up to seven days after the Fund receives the redemption order as permitted by the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Through the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

Call 1-800-766-7722. We will mail you a check or send the proceeds via electronic transfer or wire to the bank account on our records.

Or

Send a letter signed by an authorized signer with your instructions to our regular or overnight mailing address:

Regular mailing address:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

P.O. Box 219265

Kansas City, MO 64121-9265

Overnight mailing address:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

c/o DST Systems, Inc.

Suite 219265

430 W. 7th Street

Kansas City, MO 64105-1407

Additional Information Regarding Redemptions

Generally, all redemptions will be for cash. The Fund typically expects to satisfy redemption requests by selling portfolio assets or by using holdings of cash or cash equivalents. On a less regular basis, the Fund may also satisfy redemption requests by borrowing from another Fund, by drawing on a line of credit from a bank, or using other short-term borrowings from its custodian. These methods may be used during both normal and stressed market conditions. In addition to paying redemption proceeds in cash, if you redeem shares worth $250,000 or more, the Fund reserves the right to pay part or all of your redemption proceeds in readily marketable securities instead of cash. If payment is made in securities, the Fund will value the securities selected in the same manner in which it computes its NAV. This process minimizes the effect of large redemptions on the Fund and its remaining shareholders. If you receive a redemption-in-kind, securities received by you may be subject to market risk and you could incur taxable gains and brokerage or other charges in converting the securities to cash. While the Fund does not routinely use redemptions-in-kind, the Fund reserves the right to use redemptions-in-kind to manage the impact of large redemptions on the Fund. Except as set forth in the section “Suspension of Redemptions” below, redemption-in-kind proceeds will typically be made by delivering a pro-rata amount of a Fund’s holdings that are readily marketable securities to the redeeming shareholder within seven days after the Fund’s receipt of the redemption order.

The Fund reserves the right to change the manner in which shares are offered at any time.

 

 

 
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How Your Account Works (continued)

 

Liquidity Fees and Redemption Gates

If the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 30% of its total assets, the Board, in its discretion, may impose liquidity fees of up to 2% of the value of the shares redeemed and/or redemption gates. In addition, if the Fund’s weekly liquid assets falls below 10% of its total assets at the end of any business day, the Fund must impose a 1% liquidity fee on shareholder redemptions unless the Board determines that not doing so is in the best interests of the Fund.

Liquidity fees and redemption gates are most likely to be imposed, if at all, during times of extraordinary market stress. The Board generally expects that a redemption gate would be imposed prior to notification to shareholders and Financial Intermediaries that a gate would be imposed. Additionally, the Board generally expects that a liquidity fee would be implemented, if at all, after the Fund has notified Financial Intermediaries and shareholders that a liquidity fee will be imposed (generally, applied to all redemption requests processed at the first NAV calculation on the next business day following the announcement that the Fund will impose a liquidity fee), although the Board, in its discretion, may elect otherwise. In the event that a liquidity fee or redemption gate is imposed, the Board expects that for the duration of its implementation and the day after which such gate or fee is terminated, the Fund would strike only one NAV per day, at the Fund’s last scheduled NAV calculation time.

The imposition and termination of a liquidity fee or redemption gate will be reported by the Fund to the SEC on Form N-CR. Such information will also be available on the Fund’s website (www.jpmorganfunds.com). In addition, the Fund will communicate such action through a supplement to its registration statement and may further communicate such action through a press release or by other means. If a liquidity fee is applied by the Board, it will be charged on all redemption orders submitted after the effective time of the imposition of the fee by the Board. Liquidity fees would reduce the amount you receive upon redemption of your shares. In the event the Fund imposes a redemption gate, the Fund or any Financial Intermediary on its behalf will not accept redemption requests until the Fund provides notice that the redemption gate has been terminated.

Redemption requests submitted while a redemption gate is imposed will be cancelled without further notice. If shareholders still wish to redeem their shares after a redemption gate has been lifted, they will need to submit a new redemption request.

The Board may, in its discretion, terminate a liquidity fee or redemption gate at any time if it believes such action to be in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders. Also, liquidity fees and redemption gates will automatically terminate at the beginning of the next business day once the Fund’s weekly liquid assets reach at least 30% of its total assets. Redemption

gates may only last up to 10 business days in any 90-day period. When a fee or a gate is in place, the Fund may elect not to permit the purchase of shares or to subject the purchase of shares to certain conditions, which may include affirmation of the purchaser’s knowledge that a fee or a gate is in effect. When a fee or a gate is in place, shareholders will not be permitted to exchange into or out of the Fund. The Board may, in its discretion, permanently suspend redemptions and liquidate if, among other things, the Fund, at the end of a business day, has less than 10% of its total assets invested in weekly liquid assets.

There is some degree of uncertainty with respect to the tax treatment of liquidity fees received by the Fund, and such tax treatment may be the subject of future guidance issued by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”). If the Fund receives liquidity fees, it will consider the appropriate tax treatment of such fees to the Fund at such time.

Financial Intermediaries are required to promptly take the steps requested by the Fund or its designees to impose or help to implement a liquidity fee or redemption gate as requested from time to time, including the rejection of orders due to the imposition of a fee or gate or the prompt re-confirmation of orders following a notification regarding the implementation of a fee or gate. If a liquidity fee is imposed, these steps are expected to include the submission of trades on a gross, rather than net, basis from the time of the effectiveness of the liquidity fee or redemption gate and the submission of such order information to the Fund or its designee prior to the next calculation of the Fund’s NAV. Unless otherwise agreed to between the Fund and Financial Intermediary, the Fund will withhold liquidity fees on behalf of Financial Intermediaries. With regard to such orders, a redemption request that the Fund determines in its sole discretion has been received in proper form by the Fund or its designated agent prior to the imposition of a liquidity fee or redemption gate may be paid by the Fund despite the imposition of a redemption gate or without the deduction of a liquidity fee.

EXCHANGING FUND SHARES

Exchanges between the Fund and other J.P. Morgan Funds are not permitted.

The Fund reserves the right to change the manner in which shares are offered at any time.

OTHER INFORMATION CONCERNING THE FUND

The Fund uses reasonable procedures to confirm that instructions given by telephone are genuine. These procedures include recording telephone instructions and asking for personal identification. If these procedures are followed, the Fund will not be responsible for any loss, liability, cost or expense of acting upon unauthorized or fraudulent instructions; you bear the risk of loss.

 

 

 
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If your account value falls below the Fund’s minimum investment requirement, the Fund reserves the right to redeem all of the remaining shares in your account and close your account.

Before these actions are taken, you will be given 60 days’ advance written notice in order to provide you with time to increase your account balance to the required minimum, by purchasing sufficient shares, in accordance with the terms of this prospectus.

Suspension of Redemptions

The Fund may suspend your ability to redeem or may postpone payment for more than seven days when:

 

1. Trading on the NYSE is restricted;
2. The NYSE is closed (other than weekend and holiday closings);

 

3. Federal securities laws permit;

 

4. The SEC has permitted a suspension;

 

5. An emergency exists, as determined by the SEC; or

 

6. The Board elects to implement a liquidity fee or redemption gate on the Fund.

See “Purchases, Redemptions and Exchanges” in the Statement of Additional Information for more details about this process.

 

 

 
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Shareholder Information

 

DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

The Fund has elected to be treated and intends to qualify each taxable year as a regulated investment company. A regulated investment company is not subject to tax at the corporate level on income and gains from investments that are distributed to shareholders. The Fund’s failure to qualify as a regulated investment company would result in corporate-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.

The Fund can earn income and realize capital gain. The Fund deducts any expenses and then pays out the earnings, if any, to shareholders as distributions.

The Fund declares dividends of net investment income, if any, daily, so your shares can start earning dividends on the day you buy them. The Fund distributes such dividends monthly in the form of additional Fund shares of the same class, unless you tell us that you want distributions in cash or as a deposit in a preassigned bank account. Such instruction must be received prior to the final calculation of the NAV on date of payment. Dividends on a dividend reinvestment begin to accrue on the date following the purchase date. In the event that a liquidity or redemption gate is in place at the time that dividends are distributed, all distributions will be made in form of cash. The taxation of dividends will not be affected by the form in which you receive them. For each taxable year, the Fund will distribute substantially all of its net investment income and short-term capital gain. Net short-term capital gains, if any, may be included in the Fund’s daily distribution.

For federal income tax purposes, dividends of net investment income and any net short-term capital gain generally are taxable as ordinary income. It is unlikely that dividends from any of the Fund will qualify to any significant extent for the reduced tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares, but excluding any exempt interest dividends from the Fund) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceed certain threshold amounts.

Dividends of interest earned on bonds issued by the U.S. government and its agencies may be exempt from some types of state and local taxes.

The Fund’s investments in certain debt obligations and asset backed securities may require the Fund to accrue and distribute income not yet received. In order to generate sufficient cash to make the requisite distributions, the Fund may be required to liquidate other investments in its portfolio that it

otherwise would have continued to hold, including when it is not advantageous to do so.

If you receive distributions that are properly reported as capital gain dividends, the tax rate will be based on how long the Fund held a particular asset, not on how long you have owned your shares. The Fund expects substantially all of its distributions of capital gain to be attributable to short-term capital gain which is taxed as ordinary income.

The Fund’s investment in foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding or other taxes. In that case, the Fund’s yield would be decreased.

Any gain resulting from the sale or exchange of Fund shares will be taxable as long-term or short-term gain, depending upon how long you have held your shares. There is some degree of uncertainty with respect to the tax treatment of liquidity fees received by the Fund, and such tax treatment may be the subject of future guidance issued by the IRS. If a Fund receives liquidity fees, it will consider the appropriate tax treatment of such fees to the Fund at such time.

Because the Fund is not expected to maintain a stable share price, a sale or exchange of Fund shares may result in a capital gain or loss for you. Unless you choose to adopt a simplified “NAV method” of accounting (described below), such capital gain or loss generally will be treated either as short-term if you held your Fund shares for one year or less, or long-term if you held your Fund shares longer.

If you elect to adopt the NAV method of accounting, rather than computing gain or loss on every taxable disposition of Fund shares as described above, you would determine your gain or loss based on the change in the aggregate value of your Fund shares during a computation period (such as your taxable year), reduced by your net investment (purchases minus sales) in those shares during that period. Under the NAV method, any resulting net capital gain or loss would be treated as short-term capital gain or loss.

Please see the Statement of Additional Information for additional discussion of the tax consequences of the above-described and other investments to the Fund and its shareholders.

The dates on which net investment income and capital gain, if any, will be distributed are available online at www.jpmorganfunds.com.

Early in each calendar year, the Fund will send you a notice showing the amount of distributions you received during the preceding calendar year and the tax status of those distributions.

Gain, if any, resulting from the sale or exchange of your shares generally will be subject to tax.

 

 

 

 
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Any investor for whom the Fund does not have a valid Taxpayer Identification Number may be subject to backup withholding.

The Fund is not intended for foreign shareholders. Any foreign shareholders would generally be subject to U.S. tax withholding on distributions by the Fund, as discussed in the Statement of Additional Information.

The above is a general summary of tax implications of investing in the Fund. Because each investor’s tax consequences are unique, please consult your tax advisor to see how investing in the Fund will affect your own tax situation.

 

IMPORTANT TAX REPORTING CONSIDERATIONS
Your Financial Intermediary or the Fund (if you hold your shares in a Fund direct account) is required to report gains and losses to the IRS in connection with redemptions of shares by S corporations. If a shareholder is a corporation and has not instructed the Fund that it is a C corporation in its account application or by written instruction to J.P. Morgan Funds Services, P.O. Box 8528, Boston, MA 02266-8528, the Fund will treat the shareholder as an S corporation and file a Form 1099-B.

SHAREHOLDER STATEMENTS AND REPORTS

The Fund will send you transaction confirmation statements and account statements at least quarterly. If your account is held through a Financial Intermediary, you may receive your statements and confirmations from your Financial Intermediary on a different schedule. Please review these statements carefully. The Fund will correct errors if notified within 10 days of the date printed on the transaction confirmation or account statement. Your Financial Intermediary may have a different cut-off time. J.P. Morgan Funds will charge a fee for requests for statements that are older than two years. Please retain all of your statements, as they could be needed for tax purposes.

After each fiscal half-year, you will receive a financial report from the Fund. In addition, the Fund will periodically send you proxy statements and other reports.

If you have any questions or need additional information, please write to the J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center at P.O. Box 219265, Kansas City, MO 64121-9265 or call 1-800-766-7722.

AVAILABILITY OF PROXY VOTING RECORD

The Trustees have delegated the authority to vote proxies for securities owned by the Fund to JPMIM. A copy of the Fund’s voting record for the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 will be available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website at www.jpmorganfunds.com no later than August 31 of each year. The Fund’s proxy voting

record will include, among other things, a brief description of the matter voted on for each portfolio security, and will state how each vote was cast, for example, for or against the proposal.

PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE

Each business day, the Fund will make available upon request an uncertified complete schedule of its portfolio holdings as of the prior business day.

Not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal quarter, the Fund will make available, upon request, a complete schedule of its portfolio holdings as of the last day of that quarter. In addition to providing hard copies upon request, the Fund will post these quarterly schedules on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website at www.jpmorganfunds.com/funddocuments and on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

Not later than five business days after the end of each calendar month, the Fund will post detailed information regarding its portfolio holdings, as well as its dollar-weighted average maturity and dollar-weighted average life, as of the last day of that month on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website at

www.jpmorganfunds.com/funddocuments and provide a link to the SEC website where the most recent twelve months of publicly available information filed by the Fund may be obtained.

In addition, not later than five business days after the end of each calendar month, the Fund will file a schedule of detailed information regarding its portfolio holdings as of the last day of that month with the SEC. These filings will be publicly available on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website at www.jpmorganfunds.com/funddocuments and the SEC’s website upon filing.

Shareholders may request portfolio holdings schedules at no charge by calling 1-800-766-7722. A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Statement of Additional Information.

In addition, the Fund may post portfolio holdings on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website at www.jpmorganfunds.com or on the J.P. Morgan external websites.

On each business day, the Fund will post its levels of daily and weekly liquid assets as of the final time that the NAV was calculated for the Fund on the previous business day and each business day during the preceding six months on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website.

On each business day, the Fund will post information regarding their net inflows/outflows and as of the final time that the NAV was calculated for the Fund on the previous business day and each business day during the preceding six months on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website.

 

 

 
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Shareholder Information (continued)

 

DISCLOSURE OF MARKET-BASED NET ASSET VALUE

On each business day, the Fund will post its market-based NAV per share (Market-Based NAV) to four decimal places shown as of the final time that the net asset value was calculated for the Fund on the previous business day and each business day for the Fund during the preceding six months on the J.P. Morgan Funds’ website.

 

 

 
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What the Terms Mean

 

Asset-backed securities: Interests in a stream of payments from specific assets, such as auto or credit card receivables.

Commercial paper: Short-term securities with maturities of 1 to 270 days which are issued by banks, corporations and others.

Daily liquid assets: Means (i) cash; (ii) direct obligations of the U.S. Government; (iii) securities that will mature or are subject to a demand feature that is exercisable and payable within one business day and (iv) amounts receivable and due unconditionally within one business day on pending sales of portfolio securities.

Demand notes: Debt securities with no set maturity date. The investor can generally demand payment of the principal at any time.

Dollar-weighted average maturity: The average maturity of the Fund is the average amount of time until the organization(s) that issued the debt securities in the Fund’s portfolio must pay off the principal amount of the debt. This calculation may utilize maturity shortening provisions under applicable rules. “Dollar-weighted” means the larger the dollar value of debt security in the Fund, the more weight it gets in calculating this average. To calculate the dollar-weighted average maturity, the Fund may treat a variable or floating rate security as having a maturity equal to the time remaining to the security’s next interest rate reset date rather than the security’s actual maturity date.

Dollar-weighted average life: The dollar weighted average portfolio maturity without reference to the exceptions used for variable or floating rate securities regarding the use of the date of interest rate resets in lieu of the security’s actual maturity date.

Floating rate securities: Securities whose interest rates adjust automatically whenever a particular interest rate changes.

GSE: A financial services corporation created by the United States Congress, such as Federal National Mortgage Association, or Fannie Mae, and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac. Certain securities issued by such corporations may be subject to mortgage-related securities risk.

Liquidity: The ability to easily convert investments into cash without losing a significant amount of money in the process.

Liquidity fees and redemption gates: The Fund’s policies and procedures permit the Board to impose liquidity fees on redemptions and/or redemption gates in the event that the Fund’s weekly liquid assets were to fall below a designated threshold.

Management fee: A fee paid to the investment adviser to manage the Fund and make decisions about buying and selling the Fund’s investments.

Municipal lease obligations: These provide participation in municipal lease agreements and installment purchase

contracts, but are not part of general obligations of the municipality.

Municipal obligations: Debt securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories and possessions or by their agencies or other groups with authority to act for them. Interest on certain municipal obligations, generally issued as general obligation and revenue bonds, is exempt from federal taxation and state and/or local taxes in the state where issued.

Other expenses: Miscellaneous items, including transfer agency, administration, custody and registration fees.

Qualified U.S. and foreign banks: These include (i) U.S. banks with more than $1 billion in total assets, and foreign branches of these banks; or (ii) foreign banks with the equivalent of more than $1 billion in total assets and which have branches or agencies in the U.S. or (iii) other U.S. or foreign commercial banks which the Fund’s adviser judges to have comparable credit standing.

Repurchase agreement: A special type of a short-term investment. A dealer sells securities to the Fund and agrees to buy them back later for a set price. This set price includes interest. In effect, the dealer is borrowing the Fund’s money for a short time, using the securities as collateral.

Reverse repurchase agreement: Contract whereby the Fund sells a security and agrees to repurchase it from the buyer on a particular date and at a specific price. Considered a form of borrowing.

Service fee: A fee to cover the cost of paying Financial Intermediaries to provide certain support services for your account.

U.S. government securities: Debt instruments (Treasury bills, notes, and bonds) guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities for the timely payment of principal and interest.

Variable rate securities: Securities whose interest rates are periodically adjusted.

Weekly liquid assets: Means (i) cash; (ii) direct obligations of the U.S. Government; (iii) Government securities issued by a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the Government of the United States pursuant to authority granted by the Congress of the United States, that are issued at a discount to the principal amount to be repaid at maturity without the provision for the payment of interest and have a remaining maturity of 60 days or less; (iv) securities that will mature or are subject to a demand feature that is exercisable and payable within five business days and (v) amounts receivable and due unconditionally within five business days on pending sales of portfolio securities.

 

 

 
JUNE X, 2018         23  


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Financial Highlights

 

This section would ordinarily include financial highlights. The financial highlights table is intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance for the past five fiscal years or the period of the Fund’s operations, as applicable. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this prospectus, no financial highlights are shown.

 

 
24       J.P. MORGAN MONEY MARKET FUNDS


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HOW TO REACH US

 

MORE INFORMATION

For investors who want more information on the Fund the following documents are available free upon request:

ANNUAL AND SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS

Our annual and semi-annual reports contain more information about the Fund’s investments and performance.

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION (SAI)

The SAI contains more detailed information about the Fund and its policies. It is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This means, by law, it is considered to be part of this prospectus.

You can get a free copy of these documents and other information, or ask us any questions, by calling us at 1-800-766-7722 or writing to:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

P.O. Box 219265

Kansas City, MO 64121-9265

If you buy your shares through a Financial Intermediary, you should contact that Financial Intermediary directly for more information. You can also find information online at www.jpmorganfunds.com/funddocuments.

You can write or e-mail the SEC’s Public Reference Room and ask them to mail you information about the Fund, including the SAI. They will charge you a copying fee for this service. You can also visit the Public Reference Room and copy the documents while you are there.

Public Reference Room of the SEC

Washington, DC 20549-1520

1-202-551-8090

E-mail: publicinfo@sec.gov

Reports, a copy of the SAI and other information about the Fund are also available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

 

Investment Company Act File No. for the Fund is 811-23117
 

©JPMorgan Chase & Co. 2018. All rights reserved. X 2018.

 

PR-SLMMASL-618

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The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION DATED JUNE X, 2018

J.P. Morgan Money Market Funds

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

PART I

June X, 2018

JPMORGAN TRUST IV (“JPMT IV”)

JPMorgan Securities Lending Money Market Fund

Agency SL Class/XXXXX

(the “Securities Lending Money Market Fund” or the “Fund”)

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus, but contains additional information which should be read in conjunction with the prospectus for the Fund dated June X, 2018, as supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”). The Prospectus is available without charge upon request by contacting JPMorgan Distribution Services, Inc. (“JPMDS” or the “Distributor”), the Fund’s distributor, at 1111 Polaris Parkway, Columbus, OH 43240.

This SAI is divided into two Parts — Part I and Part II. Part I of this SAI contains information that is particular to the Fund. Part II of this SAI contains information that generally applies to the Fund and other J.P. Morgan Funds.

For more information about the Fund write or call:

J.P. Morgan Institutional Funds Service Center

P.O. Box 219265

Kansas City, MO 64121-9265

1-800-766-7722

SAI-SLMMKT-618


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PART I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

GENERAL

     1  

The Trust and the Fund

     1  

Share Classes

     1  

Miscellaneous

     1  

INVESTMENT POLICIES

     1  

INVESTMENT PRACTICES

     3  

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION REGARDING FUND INVESTMENT PRACTICES

     6  

DIVERSIFICATION

     7  

QUALITY DESCRIPTION

     7  

TRUSTEES

     7  

Standing Committees

     7  

Ownership of Securities

     8  

Trustee Compensation

     8  

INVESTMENT ADVISER

     9  

Investment Advisory Fees

     9  

ADMINISTRATOR

     9  

Administrator Fees

     9  

DISTRIBUTOR

     9  

Compensation Paid to JPMDS

     9  

Distribution Fees

     9  

SHAREHOLDER SERVICING

     10  

Service Fees

     10  

BROKERAGE AND RESEARCH SERVICES

     10  

Broker Research

     10  

Securities of Regular Broker-Dealers

     10  

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES

     10  

Other Cash Compensation Payments

     10  

TAX MATTERS

     10  

Capital Loss Carryforwards

     10  

PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE

     10  

SHARE OWNERSHIP

     10  

Trustees and Officers

     10  

Principal Holders

     11  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     11  

PLEASE SEE PART II OF THIS SAI FOR ITS TABLE OF CONTENTS

 


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GENERAL

The Trust and the Fund

The Fund is a series of JPMorgan Trust IV (“JPMT IV”), an open-end, management investment company formed as a statutory trust under the laws of the State of Delaware on November 11, 2015, pursuant to a Declaration of Trust dated November 11, 2015, as subsequently amended. In addition to the Fund, the Trust consists of other series representing separate investment funds.

Share Classes

Shares in the Fund are generally offered in multiple classes. The Board of Trustees of JPMT IV has authorized the issuance and sale of Agency SL Class Shares (collectively, the “Shares”).

Much of the information contained herein expands upon subjects discussed in the Prospectus for the Fund. No investment should be made without first reading the Fund’s Prospectus.

Miscellaneous

This SAI describes the financial history, investment strategies and policies, management and operation of the Fund in order to enable investors to determine whether the Fund best suits their needs.

This SAI provides additional information with respect to the Fund and should be read in conjunction with the Fund’s current Prospectuses. Capitalized terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings accorded to them in the applicable Prospectus. The Fund’s executive offices are located at 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

This SAI is divided into two Parts — Part I and Part II. Part I of this SAI contains information that is particular to the Fund. Part II of this SAI contains information that generally applies to the Fund and other series representing separate investment funds or portfolios of JPMorgan Trust I (“JPMT I”), JPMorgan Trust II (“JPMT II”), JPMorgan Trust III (“JPMT III”), JPMT IV, J.P. Morgan Mutual Fund Investment Trust (“JPMMFIT”) and J.P. Morgan Fleming Mutual Fund Group, Inc. (“JPMFMFG”), (each a “J.P. Morgan Fund,” and together with the Fund, the “J.P. Morgan Funds”) and Undiscovered Managers Funds (“UMF”). Throughout this SAI, JPMT I, JPMT II, JPMT III, JPMT IV, JPMMFIT, JPMFMFG and UMF are each referred to as a “Trust” and collectively, as the “Trusts.” Each Trust’s Board of Trustees is referred to herein as the “Board of Trustees,” and each trustee or director is referred to as a “Trustee.”

The Fund is advised by J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (“JPMIM”). Certain other of the J.P. Morgan Funds are advised by J.P. Morgan Alternative Asset Management, Inc. (“JPMAAM”) and/or sub-advised by J.P. Morgan Private Investments Inc. (“JPMPI”) or Fuller & Thaler Asset Management, Inc. (“Fuller & Thaler”). JPMIM, JPMAAM, JPMPI and Fuller & Thaler are also referred to herein as the “Advisers” and, individually, as the “Adviser.” JPMPI is also referred to herein as the “Sub-Advisers” and, individually, as the “Sub-Adviser.”

Investments in the Fund are not deposits or obligations of, nor guaranteed or endorsed by, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPMorgan Chase Bank”), an affiliate of the Adviser, or any other bank. Shares of the Fund are not federally insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other governmental agency. An investment in the Fund is subject to risk that may cause the value of the investment to fluctuate, and when the investment is redeemed, the value may be higher or lower than the amount originally invested by the investor.

The Fund is not subject to registration or regulation as a “commodity pool operator” as defined in the Commodity Exchange Act because the Fund has claimed an exclusion from that definition.

INVESTMENT POLICIES

The following investment policies have been adopted by JPMT IV with respect to the Fund. The investment policies listed below under the heading “Fundamental Investment Policies” are “fundamental” policies which, under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), may not be changed without the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund, as such term is defined in “Additional Information” in Part II of this SAI. All other investment policies of the Fund (including the investment objective of the Fund) are non-fundamental, unless otherwise designated in the Prospectuses or herein, and may be changed by the Trustees of the Fund without shareholder approval.

The percentage limitations contained in the policies below apply at the time of purchase of the securities. If a percentage or rating restriction on investment or use of assets set forth in a fundamental investment policy or a

 

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non-fundamental investment policy or in a Prospectus is adhered to at the time of investment, later changes in percentage resulting from any cause other than actions by the Fund will not be considered a violation. If the value of the Fund’s holdings of illiquid securities at any time exceeds the percentage limitation applicable at the time of acquisition due to subsequent fluctuations in value or other reasons, the Board of Trustees will consider what actions, if any, are appropriate to maintain adequate liquidity.

With respect to fundamental investment policy (6), the Fund may borrow from any bank, provided that immediately after any such borrowing there is an asset coverage of at least 300% for all borrowings by the Fund and provided further, that in the event that such asset coverage shall at any time fall below 300%, the Fund shall, within three days (not including Sundays and holidays) thereafter or such longer period as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) may prescribe by rules and regulations, reduce the amount of its borrowings to such an extent that the asset coverage of such borrowings shall be at least 300%. The Fund may also borrow money or engage in economically similar transactions if those transactions do not constitute “senior securities” under the 1940 Act as interpreted based upon no action letters and other pronouncements of the staff of the SEC. Under current pronouncements, certain Fund positions (e.g., reverse repurchase agreements) are excluded from the definition of “senior security” so long as the Fund follows applicable law, including, but not limited to, maintaining adequate cover and segregation of assets. Similarly, a short sale will not be considered a senior security if the Fund takes certain steps contemplated by SEC staff pronouncements, such as ensuring the short sale transaction is adequately covered.

For purposes of the fundamental investment policy regarding industry concentration, “to concentrate” generally means to invest more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets, taken at market value at the time of investment. This fundamental investment policy regarding industry concentration does not apply to securities issued by other investment companies, securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, any state or territory of the U.S., its agencies, instrumentalities, or political subdivisions, or repurchase agreements secured thereby. For purposes of the fundamental investment policy regarding industry concentration, the Adviser may classify issuers by industry in accordance with classifications set forth in the Directory of Companies Filing Annual Reports with the SEC or other sources. In the absence of such classification or if the Adviser determines in good faith based on its own information that the economic characteristics affecting a particular issuer make it more appropriate to be considered engaged in a different industry, the Adviser may classify an issuer accordingly. For instance, personal credit finance companies and business credit finance companies are deemed to be separate industries and wholly owned finance companies may be considered to be in the industry of their parents if their activities are primarily related to financing the activities of their parent. Accordingly, the composition of an industry or group of industries may change from time to time. For purposes of fundamental investment policies involving industry concentration, “group of industries” means a group of related industries, as determined in good faith by the Adviser, based on published classifications or other sources.

Investment Policies of the Fund

Fundamental Investment Policies.

The Fund:

 

  (1) May not borrow money, except to the extent permitted by applicable law;

 

  (2) May make loans to other persons, in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies and to the extent permitted by applicable law;

 

  (3) May not purchase any security which would cause the Fund to concentrate its investments in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in any particular industry or group of industries except as permitted by the SEC. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Fund may invest more than 25% of its total assets in obligations issued by banks, including U.S. banks;

 

  (4) May purchase and sell commodities to the maximum extent permitted by law;

 

  (5) May not invest directly in real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction does not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments (a) issued by companies that invest, deal or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate, or (b) backed by real estate or interests in real estate;

 

  (6) May not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act or any rule, order or interpretation thereunder;

 

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  (7) May not underwrite securities of other issuers, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under certain securities laws in the disposition of “restricted securities”;

In addition, as a matter of fundamental policy, notwithstanding any other investment policy or restriction, the Fund may seek to achieve its investment objective by investing all of its investable assets in another investment company having substantially the same investment objective and policies as the Fund.

Investment policy (3) above, however, is not applicable to investments by a Fund in municipal obligations where the issuer is regarded as a state, city, municipality or other public authority since such entities are not members of any “industry.” Supranational organizations are collectively considered to be members of a single “industry” for purposes of policy (3) above.

Non-Fundamental Investment Policies.

 

  (1) The Fund may not invest more than 5% of its net assets in illiquid securities.

 

  (2) The Fund may not purchase securities of other investment companies except as permitted by the 1940 Act and rules, regulations and applicable exemptive relief thereunder.

 

  (3) The Fund may not acquire the securities of registered open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.

For purposes of investment policy (1) above, illiquid securities includes securities restricted as to resale unless they are determined to be readily marketable in accordance with procedures established by the Board of Trustees.

The investment objective of the Fund is non-fundamental.

For purposes of the Fund’s investment policies, the issuer of a tax-exempt security is deemed to be the entity (public or private) ultimately responsible for the payment of the principal.

INVESTMENT PRACTICES

The Fund invests in a variety of securities and employs a number of investment techniques. What follows is a list of some of the securities and techniques which may be utilized by the Fund. For a more complete discussion, see the “Investment Strategies and Policies” section in Part II of this SAI.

 

Instrument   

Part II

Section Reference

Asset-Backed Securities: Securities secured by company receivables, home equity loans, truck and auto loans, leases, and credit card receivables or other securities backed by other types of receivables or other assets.    Asset-Backed Securities
Bank Obligations: Bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit and time deposits. Bankers’ acceptances are bills of exchange or time drafts drawn on and accepted by a commercial bank. Maturities are generally six months or less. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued by a bank for a specified period of time and earning a specified return. Time deposits are non-negotiable receipts issued by a bank in exchange for the deposit of funds.    Bank Obligations
Borrowings: The Fund may borrow for temporary purposes and/or for investment purposes. Such a practice will result in leveraging of the Fund’s assets and may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so. The Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage of 300% of the amount borrowed, with the exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the Fund’s total assets made for temporary administrative purposes.    Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Commercial Paper: Secured and unsecured short-term promissory notes issued by corporations and other entities. Maturities generally vary from a few days to nine months.    Commercial Paper
Corporate Debt Securities: May include bonds and other debt securities of domestic and foreign issuers, including obligations of industrial, utility, banking and other corporate issuers.    Debt Instruments

 

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Instrument   

Part II

Section Reference

Demand Features: Securities that are subject to puts and standby commitments to purchase the securities at a fixed price (usually with accrued interest) within a fixed period of time following demand by the Fund.    Demand Features
Extendable Commercial Notes: Variable rate notes which normally mature within a short period of time (e.g., one month) but which may be extended by the issuer for a maximum maturity of thirteen months.    Debt Instruments
Foreign Investments: Commercial paper of foreign issuers and obligations of foreign branches of U.S. banks and foreign banks. Foreign securities may also include American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) and American Depositary Securities.    Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)
Inflation-Linked Debt Securities: Fixed and floating rate debt securities of varying maturities issued by the U.S. government as well as securities issued by other entities such as corporations, foreign governments and foreign issuers.    Debt Instruments
Interfund Lending: Involves lending money and borrowing money for temporary purposes through a credit facility.    Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Investment Company Securities: Shares of other investment companies, including money market funds for which the Adviser and/or its affiliates serve as investment adviser or administrator. The Adviser will waive certain fees when investing in funds for which it serves as investment adviser, to the extent required by law or by contract.    Investment Company Securities and Exchange Traded Funds
Mortgage-Backed Securities: Debt obligations secured by real estate loans and pools of loans such as collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBSs”), and other asset-backed structures.    Mortgage-Related Securities
Municipal Securities: Securities issued by a state or political subdivision to obtain funds for various public purposes. Municipal securities include, among others, private activity bonds and industrial development bonds, as well as general obligation notes, tax anticipation notes, bond anticipation notes, revenue anticipation notes, other short-term tax-exempt obligations, municipal leases, obligations of municipal housing authorities and single family revenue bonds.    Municipal Securities
New Financial Products: New options and futures contracts and other financial products continue to be developed and the Fund may invest in such options, contracts and products.    Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Participation Certificates: Certificates representing an interest in a pool of funds or in other instruments, such as a mortgage pool.    Additional Information on the Use of Participation Certificates in Part I of the SAI
Private Placements, Restricted Securities and Other Unregistered Securities: Securities not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, such as privately placed commercial paper and Rule 144A securities.    Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Repurchase Agreements: The purchase of a security and the simultaneous commitment to return the security to the seller at an agreed upon price on an agreed upon date. This is treated as a loan.    Repurchase Agreements
Reverse Repurchase Agreements: The sale of a security and the simultaneous commitment to buy the security back at an agreed upon price on an agreed upon date. This is treated as a borrowing by a Fund.    Reverse Repurchase Agreements
Short-Term Funding Agreements: Agreements issued by banks and highly rated U.S. insurance companies such as Guaranteed Investment Contracts (“GICs”) and Bank Investment Contracts (“BICs”).    Short-Term Funding Agreements

 

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Instrument   

Part II

Section Reference

Sovereign Obligations: Investments in debt obligations issued or guaranteed by a foreign sovereign government or its agencies, authorities or political subdivisions.    Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)
Structured Investments: A security having a return tied to an underlying index or other security or asset class. Structured investments generally are individually negotiated agreements and may be traded over-the-counter. Structured investments are organized and operated to restructure the investment characteristics of the underlying security.    Structured Investments
Synthetic Variable Rate Instruments: Instruments that generally involve the deposit of a long-term tax exempt bond in a custody or trust arrangement and the creation of a mechanism to adjust the long-term interest rate on the bond to a variable short-term rate and a right (subject to certain conditions) on the part of the purchaser to tender it periodically to a third party at par.    Swaps and Related Swap Products
Temporary Defensive Positions: To respond to unusual circumstances the Fund may hold cash or deviate from its investment strategy.    Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Treasury Receipts: A Fund may purchase interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. Treasury obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and that are created by depositing U.S. Treasury notes and U.S. Treasury bonds into a special account at a custodian bank. Receipts include Treasury Receipts (“TRs”), Treasury Investment Growth Receipts (“TIGRs”), and Certificates of Accrual on Treasury Securities (“CATS”).    Treasury Receipts
U.S. Government Agency Securities: Securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government. These include all types of securities issued or guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), including funding notes, subordinated benchmark notes, Government-Sponsored Enterprises (“GSEs”), CMOs and Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”).    Mortgage-Related Securities
U.S. Government Obligations: May include direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury, including Treasury bills, notes and bonds, all of which are backed as to principal and interest payments by the full faith and credit of the United States, and separately traded principal and interest component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the Federal book-entry system known as Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (“STRIPS”) and Coupons Under Book-Entry Safekeeping (“CUBES”).    U.S. Government Obligations
Variable and Floating Rate Instruments: Obligations with interest rates which are reset daily, weekly, quarterly or some other frequency and which may be payable to a Fund on demand or at the expiration of a specified term.    Debt Instruments
When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments: Purchase or contract to purchase securities at a fixed price for delivery at a future date.    When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments
Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Deferred Payment Securities: Zero-coupon securities are securities that are sold at a discount to par value and on which interest payments are not made during the life of the security. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by delivery of additional securities. Deferred payment securities are zero-coupon debt securities which convert on a specified date to interest bearing debt securities.    Debt Instruments

 

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION REGARDING FUND INVESTMENT PRACTICES

Limitations on the Use of Municipal Securities

The Fund may invest in industrial development bonds that are backed only by the assets and revenues of the non-governmental issuers such as hospitals and airports, provided, however, that the Fund may not invest more than 25% of the value of its total assets in such bonds if the issuers are in the same industry.

Limitations on the Use of Stand-By Commitments

Not more than 10% of the total assets of the Fund will be invested in municipal obligations that are subject to stand-by commitments from the same bank or broker-dealer.

Additional Information on the Use of Participation Certificates

The securities in which the Fund may invest include participation certificates issued by a bank, insurance company or other financial institution in securities owned by such institutions or affiliated organizations (“Participation Certificates”), Participation Certificates are pro rata interests in securities held by others; certificates of indebtedness or safekeeping are documentary receipts for such original securities held in custody by others. A Participation Certificate gives the Fund an undivided interest in the security in the proportion that the Fund’s participation interest bears to the total principal amount of the security and generally provides the demand feature described below.

Each Participation Certificate is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit or guaranty of a bank (which may be the bank issuing the Participation Certificate, a bank issuing a confirming letter of credit to the issuing bank, or a bank serving as agent of the issuing bank with respect to the possible repurchase of the Participation Certificate) or insurance policy of an insurance company that the Board of Trustees of the Trust has determined meets the prescribed quality standards for a particular Fund.

The Fund may have the right to sell the Participation Certificate back to the institution and draw on the letter of credit or insurance on demand after the prescribed notice period, for all or any part of the full principal amount of the Fund’s participation interest in the security, plus accrued interest. The institutions issuing the Participation Certificates would retain a service and letter of credit fee and a fee for providing the demand feature, in an amount equal to the excess of the interest paid on the instruments over the negotiated yield at which the Participation Certificates were purchased by the Fund. The total fees would generally range from 5% to 15% of the applicable prime rate or other short-term rate index. With respect to insurance, the Fund will attempt to have the issuer of the Participation Certificate bear the cost of any such insurance, although the Fund may retain the option to purchase insurance if deemed appropriate. Obligations that have a demand feature permitting a Fund to tender the obligation to a foreign bank may involve certain risks associated with foreign investment. The Fund’s ability to receive payment in such circumstances under the demand feature from such foreign banks may involve certain risks such as future political and economic developments, the possible establishments of laws or restrictions that might adversely affect the payment of the bank’s obligations under the demand feature and the difficulty of obtaining or enforcing a judgment against the bank.

Limitations on the Use of Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may engage in repurchase agreement transactions that are collateralized fully as defined in Rule 5b-3(c)(1) under the 1940 Act (except that 5b-3(c)(1)(iv)(C) shall not apply), which has the effect of enabling a Fund to look to the collateral, rather than the counterparty, for determining whether its assets are “diversified” for 1940 Act purposes. Further, in accordance with the provisions of Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, the Adviser evaluates the creditworthiness of each counterparty. The Adviser may consider the collateral received and any applicable guarantees in making its creditworthiness determination. In addition, the Fund may engage in repurchase agreement transactions that are collateralized by money market instruments, debt securities, loan participations, equity securities or other securities, including securities that are rated below investment grade by the requisite nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSROs”) or unrated securities of comparable quality. For these types of repurchase agreement transactions, the Fund would look to the counterparty, and not the collateral, for determining compliance with the diversification requirements of the 1940 Act.

Under existing guidance from the SEC, certain Funds may transfer uninvested cash balances into a joint account, along with cash of other Funds and certain other accounts. These balances may be invested in one or more repurchase agreements and/or short-term money market instruments.

 

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Additional Information on the Use of Synthetic Floating or Variable Rate Instruments

A synthetic floating or variable rate security, also known as a tender option bond, is issued after long-term bonds are purchased in the secondary market and then deposited into a trust. Custodial receipts are issued to investors, such as the Fund, evidencing ownership interests in the bond deposited in a custody or trust arrangement. The trust sets a floating or variable rate on a daily or weekly basis which is established through a remarketing agent. These types of instruments, to be money market eligible under Rule 2a-7, must have a liquidity facility in place which provides additional comfort to the investors in case the remarketing fails. The sponsor of the trust keeps the difference between the rate on the long-term bond and the rate on the short-term floating or variable rate security.

Limitations on the Use of When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

The Fund does not intend to purchase “when-issued” securities for speculative purposes but only for the purpose of acquiring portfolio securities. Because the Fund will set aside cash or liquid portfolio securities to satisfy its purchase commitments in the manner described, the Fund’s liquidity and the ability of JPMIM to manage the Fund might be affected in the event its commitments to purchase when-issued securities ever exceeded 40% of the value of its total assets.

DIVERSIFICATION

JPMT IV is a registered open-end management investment company and the Fund is a diversified series of JPMT IV. However, the diversification requirements for the Money Market Funds under Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act are more restrictive than the diversification requirements for funds generally. For a more complete discussion, see the “Diversification” section in Part II of this SAI.

QUALITY DESCRIPTION

At the time the Fund acquires its investments, the investments will be rated (or issued by an issuer that is rated with respect to a comparable class of short-term debt obligations of Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Fitch Ratings (or one of these rating organizations)) in one of the two highest rating categories for short-term debt obligations assigned by at least two nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSROs”) (or one rating organization if the obligation was rated by only one such organization). These high quality securities are divided into “first tier” and “second tier” securities. First tier securities have received the highest rating from at least two of Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Fitch Ratings (or one of these rating organizations, if only one has rated the security). Second tier securities have received ratings within the two highest categories from at least two of Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Fitch Ratings (or one, if only one has rated the security), but do not qualify as first tier securities. The Fund may also purchase obligations that are not rated by Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. or Fitch Ratings, but are determined by the Adviser, based on procedures adopted by the Trustees, to be of comparable quality to those rated first or second tier securities.

The Fund only purchases commercial paper consisting of issues rated at the time of purchase in the highest or second highest rating category by at least one of Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Fitch Ratings (such as A-2 or better by S&P, Prime-2 or better by Moody’s or F2 or better by Fitch), or, if unrated by these rating organizations, determined by JPMIM to be of comparable quality.

Under the guidelines adopted by the Board of Trustees and in accordance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, JPMIM may be required to promptly dispose of an obligation held in the Fund’s portfolio in the event of certain developments that indicate a diminishment of the instrument’s credit quality, such as where Standard & Poor’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. or Fitch Ratings downgrades an obligation below the second highest rating category, or in the event of a default relating to the financial condition of the issuer. Repurchase agreements may be entered into with brokers, dealers, banks or other entities that meet the Adviser’s credit guidelines, including the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

TRUSTEES

Standing Committees

There are six standing committees of the Board of Trustees: the Audit and Valuation Committee, the Compliance Committee, the Governance Committee, the Equity Committee, the Fixed Income Committee and the Money Market and Alternative Products Committee. As the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date

 

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of this SAI, there are no committee meetings to report with respect to the Fund. For a more complete discussion, see the “Trustees” section in Part II of this SAI.

Ownership of Securities

The following table shows the dollar range of each Trustee’s beneficial ownership as of December 31, 2017, in the Fund and each Trustee’s aggregate dollar range of ownership in any Funds that the Trustee oversees in the Family of Investment Companies.

 

Name of Trustee

    

Ownership of the

Securities Lending Money Market

Fund (1)

      

Aggregate Dollar Range

of Equity Securities in

All Registered

Investment Companies

Overseen by the
Trustee in the Family of

Investment

Companies(2)(3)

 

Independent Trustees

         

John F. Finn

       None          Over $100,000  

Stephen Fisher*

       None          None  

Dr. Matthew Goldstein

       None          Over $100,000  

Dennis P. Harrington

       None          Over $100,000  

Frankie D. Hughes

       None          Over $100,000  

Raymond Kanner

       None          Over $100,000  

Peter C. Marshall

       None          Over $100,000  

Mary E. Martinez

       None          Over $100,000  

Marilyn McCoy

       None          Over $100,000  

Mitchell M. Merin

       None          Over $100,000  

Dr. Robert A. Oden, Jr.

       None          Over $100,000  

Marian U. Pardo

       None          Over $100,000  

James J. Schonbachler

       None          Over $100,000  

 

(1) The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI. Therefore, the Trustees do not own any shares of the Fund.
(2) A Family of Investment Companies means any two or more registered investment companies that share the same investment adviser or principal underwriter and hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services. The Family of Investment Companies for which the Board of Trustees currently serves includes eleven registered investment companies (134 Funds).
(3) For Ms. McCoy and Messrs. Finn, Marshall, Oden and Schonbachler, these amounts include deferred compensation balances, as of 12/31/17, through participation in the J.P. Morgan Funds’ Deferred Compensation Plan for Eligible Trustees. For a more complete discussion, see the “Trustee Compensation” section in Part II of this SAI.
* Mr. Fisher became a Trustee of the Trust, effective 5/14/18.

As of December 31, 2017, none of the independent Trustees or their immediate family members owned securities of the Adviser or JPMorgan Distribution Services, Inc. (“JPMDS” or the “Distributor”), the Fund’s distributor, or a person (other than a registered investment company) directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by or under common control with the Adviser or JPMDS.

Trustee Compensation

The Funds of the J.P. Morgan Funds Complex overseen by the Trustees paid each Trustee an annual base fee of $340,000. Effective January 1, 2018, the Funds of the J.P. Morgan Funds Complex overseen by the Trustees pay each Trustee an annual base fee of $360,000. Committee chairs who are not already receiving an additional fee are each paid $50,000 annually in addition to their base fee. Prior to September 1, 2017, Ms. Martinez and Ms. Pardo, who were co-chairs of the Money Market and Alternative Products Committee, each received an additional $25,000 annually. From January 1, 2017 until March 1, 2018, Mr. Marshall served in the position of Director of Strategic and Education Initiatives, for which he received an additional $50,000 annually. For his services as a trustee nominee from February 2017 to his appointment as Trustee effective April 7, 2017, Mr. Kanner received $19,429. In addition to the base fee, the Funds pay the Chairman $225,000 annually and reimburse expenses of the Chairman in the amount of $4,000 per month. The Chairman receives no additional compensation for service as committee chair.

 

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Trustee aggregate compensation paid by the Fund and the J.P. Morgan Funds Complex for the calendar year ended December 31, 2017, is set forth below:

 

Name of Trustee

   Securities
Lending Money  Market

Fund(1)
     Total Compensation Paid
from the J.P. Morgan Funds
Complex(2)
 

Independent Trustees

     

John F. Finn

     None      $ 390,000  

Stephen Fisher*

     None        None  

Dr. Matthew Goldstein

     None        565,000  

Dennis P. Harrington

     None        340,000  

Frankie D. Hughes

     None        340,000  

Raymond Kanner**

     None        274,429 (3) 

Peter C. Marshall

     None        390,000 (4) 

Mary E. Martinez

     None        373,333  

Marilyn McCoy

     None        373,333 (5) 

Mitchell M. Merin

     None        390,000  

Dr. Robert A. Oden, Jr.

     None        340,000  

Marian U. Pardo

     None        373,333  

Frederick W. Ruebeck***

     None        340,000 (6) 

James J. Schonbachler

     None        390,000 (7) 
(1) The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI.
(2) A Fund Complex means two or more registered investment companies that (i) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services or (ii) have a common investment adviser or have an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other registered investment companies. The J.P. Morgan Funds Complex for which the Board of Trustees currently serves includes eleven registered investment companies (134 Funds).
(3) Includes $274,429 of Deferred Compensation.
(4) Includes $117,000 of Deferred Compensation.
(5) Includes $93,333 of Deferred Compensation.
(6) Includes $238,000 of Deferred Compensation.
(7) Includes $273,000 of Deferred Compensation.
* Mr. Fisher became a Trustee of the Trust, effective 5/14/18.
** Mr. Kanner became a Trustee of the Trust, effective 4/7/17.
*** Effective 1/1/18, Mr. Ruebeck no longer serves as a Trustee.

For a more complete discussion, see the “Trustee Compensation” section in Part II of this SAI.

INVESTMENT ADVISER

Investment Advisory Fees

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not paid any investment advisory fees. For more information about the investment adviser, see the “Investment Advisers and Sub-Advisers” section in Part II of this SAI.

ADMINISTRATOR

Administrator Fees

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not paid any administrator fees. For more information about the Administrator, see the “Administrator” section in Part II of this SAI.

DISTRIBUTOR

Compensation Paid to JPMDS

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not paid any compensation to JPMDS. For more information about the Distributor, see the “Distributor” section in Part II of this SAI.

 

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SHAREHOLDER SERVICING

Service Fees

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not paid any shareholder servicing agent fees. For more information concerning shareholder servicing, see the “Shareholder Servicing” section in Part II of this SAI.

BROKERAGE AND RESEARCH SERVICES

Broker Research

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not paid any brokerage commissions and therefore no brokerage commissions have been used to pay for broker research.

Securities of Regular Broker-Dealers

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund owns no securities of regular broker-dealers (or parents).

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES

Other Cash Compensation Payments

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund’s Adviser and JPMDS have not made any other cash compensation arrangements with respect to the Fund. For a more complete discussion, see the “Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries” section in Part II of this SAI.

For a more complete discussion, see the “Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries” section in Part II of this SAI.

TAX MATTERS

Capital Loss Carryforwards

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not had any capital loss carryforwards. For more information on tax matters, see the “Distributions and Tax Matters” section in Part II of this SAI.

PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE

A list of the entities that receive the Fund’s portfolio holdings information, the frequency with which it is provided to them and the length of the lag between the date of the information and the date it is disclosed is provided below:

 

Bloomberg LP

     Monthly      30 days after month end

Factset

     Monthly      30 days after month end

JPMorgan Chase & Co.

     Monthly      At least on a 1 day lag

Morningstar Inc.

     Monthly      30 days after month end

Lipper, Inc.

     Monthly      30 days after month end

Vickers Stock Research Corp.

     Monthly      30 days after month end

The McGraw Hill Companies — Standard & Poor’s Corporation

     Monthly      30 days after month end

For a more complete discussion, see the “Portfolio Holdings Disclosure” section in Part II of this SAI.

SHARE OWNERSHIP

Trustees and Officers

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, the officers and Trustees do not own any shares of the Fund.

 

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Principal Holders

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, no persons are owners of record of, or are known by JPMT IV to own beneficially, 5% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Since the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, there are no financial statements for the Fund. When they become available, financial statements will be available without charge upon request by calling J.P. Morgan Funds Services at 1-800-480-4111.

 

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J.P. Morgan Funds
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
PART II
Part II of this SAI describes policies and practices that apply to each of the J.P. Morgan Funds, for which Part I precedes this Part II. Part II is not a standalone document and must be read in conjunction with Part I. References in this Part II to a “Fund” mean each J.P. Morgan Fund, unless noted otherwise. Capitalized terms used and not otherwise defined in this Part II have the meanings given to them in Part I of this SAI.

 

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Part II - iii

 


 

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND POLICIES
As noted in the applicable Prospectuses for each of the Funds, in addition to the main investment strategy and the main investment risks described in the Prospectuses, each Fund may employ other investment strategies and may be subject to other risks, which are described below. The Funds may engage in the practices described below to the extent consistent with their investment objectives, strategies, policies and restrictions. However, no Fund is required to engage in any particular transaction or purchase any particular type of securities or investment even if to do so might benefit the Fund. Because the following is a combined description of investment strategies of all of the Funds, (i) certain matters described herein may not apply to particular Funds and (ii) certain references to the Adviser may also include a Sub-Adviser, as the context requires.
For a list of investment strategies and policies employed by each Fund, see “INVESTMENT PRACTICES” in Part I of this SAI.
Asset-Backed Securities
Asset-backed securities consist of securities secured by company receivables, home equity loans, truck and auto loans, leases, or credit card receivables. Asset-backed securities also include other securities backed by other types of receivables or other assets, including collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which include collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured securities. Such assets are generally securitized through the use of trusts or special purpose corporations. Asset-backed securities are backed by a pool of assets representing the obligations often of a number of different parties. Certain of these securities may be illiquid.
Asset-backed securities are generally subject to the risks of the underlying assets. In addition, asset-backed securities, in general, are subject to certain additional risks including depreciation, damage or loss of the collateral backing the security, failure of the collateral to generate the anticipated cash flow or in certain cases more rapid prepayment because of events affecting the collateral, such as accelerated prepayment of loans backing these securities or destruction of equipment subject to equipment trust certificates. In addition, the underlying assets (for example, the underlying credit card debt) may be refinanced or paid off prior to maturity during periods of declining interest rates. Changes in prepayment rates can result in greater price and yield volatility. If asset-backed securities are pre-paid, a Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds from the securities at a lower rate. Potential market gains on a security subject to prepayment risk may be more limited than potential market gains on a comparable security that is not subject to prepayment risk. Under certain prepayment rate scenarios, a Fund may fail to recover additional amounts paid (i.e., premiums) for securities with higher interest rates, resulting in an unexpected loss.
A CBO is a trust or other special purpose entity (“SPE”) which is typically backed by a diversified pool of fixed income securities (which may include high risk, below investment grade securities). A CLO is a trust or other SPE that is typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and non-U.S. senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. Although certain CDOs may receive credit enhancement in the form of a senior-subordinate structure, over-collateralization or bond insurance, such enhancement may not always be present and may fail to protect a Fund against the risk of loss on default of the collateral. Certain CDOs may use derivatives contracts to create “synthetic” exposure to assets rather than holding such assets directly, which entails the risks of derivative instruments described elsewhere in this SAI. CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses, which are in addition to those of a Fund.
For both CBOs and CLOs, the cash flows from the SPE are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche, which bears the first loss from defaults from the bonds or loans in the SPE and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default (though such protection is not complete). Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CBO or CLO typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CBO or CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, downgrades of the underlying collateral by rating agencies, forced liquidation of the collateral pool due to a failure of coverage tests, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as investor aversion to CBO or CLO securities as a class. Interest on certain tranches of a CDO may be paid in kind or deferred and capitalized (paid in the form of obligations of the same type rather than cash), which involves continued exposure to default risk with respect to such payments.
Part II - 5

 

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CDO in which a Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by a Fund as illiquid securities. However, an active dealer market may exist for CDOs, allowing a CDO to qualify for Rule 144A transactions. In addition to the normal risks associated with fixed income securities and asset-backed securities generally discussed elsewhere in this SAI, CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the risk that the collateral may default or decline in value or be downgraded, if rated by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”); (iii) a Fund may invest in tranches of CDOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; (v) the investment return achieved by the Fund could be significantly different than those predicted by financial models; (vi) the lack of a readily available secondary market for CDOs; (vii) risk of forced “fire sale” liquidation due to technical defaults such as coverage test failures; and (viii) the CDO’s manager may perform poorly.
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses set forth in the fee table and Financial Highlights section of each Fund’s Prospectuses do not include any expenses associated with investments in certain structured or synthetic products that may rely on the exception for the definition of “investment company” provided by Section 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
Auction Rate Securities
Auction rate securities consist of auction rate municipal securities and auction rate preferred securities sold through an auction process issued by closed-end investment companies, municipalities and governmental agencies. For more information on risks associated with municipal securities, see “Municipal Securities” below.
Provided that the auction mechanism is successful, auction rate securities usually permit the holder to sell the securities in an auction at par value at specified intervals. The dividend is reset by “Dutch” auction in which bids are made by broker-dealers and other institutions for a certain amount of securities at a specified minimum yield. The dividend rate set by the auction is the lowest interest or dividend rate that covers all securities offered for sale. While this process is designed to permit auction rate securities to be traded at par value, there is the risk that an auction will fail due to insufficient demand for the securities. Since February 2008, numerous auctions have failed due to insufficient demand for securities and have continued to fail for an extended period of time. Failed auctions may adversely impact the liquidity of auction rate securities investments. Although some issuers of auction rate securities are redeeming or are considering redeeming such securities, such issuers are not obligated to do so and, therefore, there is no guarantee that a liquid market will exist for a Fund’s investments in auction rate securities at a time when the Fund wishes to dispose of such securities.
Dividends on auction rate preferred securities issued by a closed-end fund may be designated as exempt from federal income tax to the extent they are attributable to tax-exempt interest income earned by the closed-end fund on the securities in its portfolio and distributed to holders of the preferred securities. However, such designation may be made only if the closed-end fund treats preferred securities as equity securities for federal income tax purposes and the closed-end fund complies with certain requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).
A Fund’s investment in auction rate preferred securities of closed-end funds is subject to limitations on investments in other U.S. registered investment companies, which limitations are prescribed under the 1940 Act. Except as permitted by rule or exemptive order (see “Investment Company Securities and Exchange-Traded Funds” below for more information), a Fund is generally prohibited from acquiring more than 3% of the voting securities of any other such investment company, and investing more than 5% of a Fund’s total assets in securities of any one such investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in securities of all such investment companies. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees paid by such closed-end funds in addition to the advisory fee payable directly by the Fund.
Bank Obligations
Bank obligations consist of bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit, bank notes and time deposits.
Part II - 6

 

Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange typically drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity.
Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank or a savings and loan association for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Certificates of deposit may also include those issued by foreign banks outside the United States (“U.S.”). Such certificates of deposit include Eurodollar and Yankee certificates of deposit. Eurodollar certificates of deposit are U.S. dollar-denominated certificates of deposit issued by branches of foreign and domestic banks located outside the U.S. Yankee certificates of deposit are certificates of deposit issued by a U.S. branch of a foreign bank denominated in U.S. dollars and held in the U.S. Certain Funds may also invest in obligations (including bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit) denominated in foreign currencies (see “Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)”) herein. With regard to certificates of deposit issued by U.S. banks and savings and loan associations, to be eligible for purchase by a Fund, a certificate of deposit must be issued by (i) a domestic or foreign branch of a U.S. commercial bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System or the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or (ii) a domestic savings and loan association, the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Time deposits are interest-bearing non-negotiable deposits at a bank or a savings and loan association that have a specific maturity date. A time deposit earns a specific rate of interest over a definite period of time. Time deposits cannot be traded on the secondary market and those exceeding seven days and with a withdrawal penalty are considered to be illiquid.
The Funds will not invest in obligations for which a Fund’s Adviser, or any of its affiliated persons, is the ultimate obligor or accepting bank, provided, however, that the Funds maintain demand deposits at their affiliated custodian, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPMorgan Chase Bank”).
Subject to the Funds’ limitations on concentration in a particular industry, there is no limitation on the amount of a Fund’s assets which may be invested in obligations of banks which meet the conditions set forth herein.
Commercial Paper
Commercial paper is defined as short-term obligations, generally with maturities from 1 to 270 days issued by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies. Although commercial paper is generally unsecured, the Funds may also purchase secured commercial paper. In the event of a default of an issuer of secured commercial paper, a Fund may hold the securities and other investments that were pledged as collateral even if it does not invest in such securities or investments. In such a case, the Fund would take steps to dispose of such securities or investments in a commercially reasonable manner. Commercial paper includes master demand obligations. See “Variable and Floating Rate Instruments” below.
Certain Funds may also invest in Canadian commercial paper, which is commercial paper issued by a Canadian corporation or a Canadian counterpart of a U.S. corporation, and in Europaper, which is U.S. dollar denominated commercial paper of a foreign issuer. See “Risk Factors of Foreign Investments” below.
Convertible Securities
Certain Funds may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities include any debt securities or preferred stock which may be converted into common stock or which carry the right to purchase common stock. Generally, convertible securities entitle the holder to exchange the securities for a specified number of shares of common stock, usually of the same company, at specified prices within a certain period of time.
The terms of any convertible security determine its ranking in a company’s capital structure. In the case of subordinated convertible debentures, the holders’ claims on assets and earnings are subordinated to the claims of other creditors, and are senior to the claims of preferred and common shareholders. In the case of convertible preferred stock, the holders’ claims on assets and earnings are subordinated to the claims of all creditors and are senior to the claims of common shareholders.
Part II - 7

 

Convertible securities have characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities. Due to the conversion feature, the market value of convertible securities tends to move together with the market value of the underlying common stock. As a result, selection of convertible securities, to a great extent, is based on the potential for capital appreciation that may exist in the underlying stock. The value of convertible securities is also affected by prevailing interest rates, the credit quality of the issuer, and any call provisions. In some cases, the issuer may cause a convertible security to convert to common stock. In other situations, it may be advantageous for a Fund to cause the conversion of convertible securities to common stock. If a convertible security converts to common stock, a Fund may hold such common stock in its portfolio even if it does not ordinarily invest in common stock.
Certain Funds invest in contingent securities structured as contingent convertible securities also known as CoCos. Contingent convertible securities are typically issued by non-U.S. banks and are designed to behave like bonds in times of economic health yet absorb losses when a pre-determined trigger event occurs. A contingent convertible security is a hybrid debt security either convertible into equity at a predetermined share price or written down in value based on the specific terms of the individual security if a pre-specified trigger event occurs (the “Trigger Event”). Unlike traditional convertible securities, the conversion of a contingent convertible security from debt to equity is “contingent” and will occur only in the case of a Trigger Event. Trigger Events vary by instrument and are defined by the documents governing the contingent convertible security. Such Trigger Events may include a decline in the issuer’s capital below a specified threshold level, increase in the issuer’s risk weighted assets, the share price of the issuer falling to a particular level for a certain period of time and certain regulatory events.
Contingent convertible securities are subject to the credit, interest rate, high yield security, foreign security and markets risks associated with bonds and equities, and to the risks specific to convertible securities in general. Contingent convertible securities are also subject to additional risks specific to their structure including conversion risk. Because Trigger Events are not consistently defined among contingent convertible securities, this risk is greater for contingent convertible securities that are issued by banks with capital ratios close to the level specified in the Trigger Event.
In addition, coupon payments on contingent convertible securities are discretionary and may be cancelled by the issuer at any point, for any reason, and for any length of time. The discretionary cancellation of payments is not an event of default and there are no remedies to require re-instatement of coupon payments or payment of any past missed payments. Coupon payments may also be subject to approval by the issuer’s regulator and may be suspended in the event there are insufficient distributable reserves. Due to uncertainty surrounding coupon payments, contingent convertible securities may be volatile and their price may decline rapidly in the event that coupon payments are suspended.
Contingent convertible securities typically are structurally subordinated to traditional convertible bonds in the issuer’s capital structure. In certain scenarios, investors in contingent convertible securities may suffer a loss of capital ahead of equity holders or when equity holders do not. Contingent convertible securities are also subject to extension risk. Contingent convertible securities are perpetual instruments and may only be callable at pre-determined dates upon approval of the applicable regulatory authority. There is no guarantee that a Fund will receive return of principal on contingent convertible securities.
Convertible contingent securities are a newer form of instrument and the regulatory environment for these instruments continues to evolve. Because the market for contingent convertible securities is evolving, it is uncertain how the larger market for contingent convertible securities would react to a Trigger Event or coupon suspension applicable to a single issuer.
The value of contingent convertible securities is unpredictable and will be influenced by many factors such as: (i) the creditworthiness of the issuer and/or fluctuations in such issuer’s applicable capital ratios; (ii) supply and demand for contingent convertible securities; (iii) general market conditions and available liquidity; and (iv) economic, financial and political events that affect the issuer, its particular market or the financial markets in general.
Custodial Receipts
Certain Funds may acquire securities in the form of custodial receipts that evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on certain U.S. Treasury notes or bonds in connection with programs sponsored by banks and brokerage firms. These are not considered U.S. government securities and are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. These notes and bonds are held in custody by a bank on behalf of the owners of the receipts.
Part II - 8

 

Debt Instruments
Below Investment Grade Securities. Securities that were rated investment grade at the time of purchase may subsequently be rated below investment grade (BB+ or lower by Standard & Poor’s Corporation (“S&P”) and Bal or lower by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”)). Certain Funds that do not invest in below investment grade securities as a main investment strategy may nonetheless continue to hold such securities if the Adviser believes it is advantageous for the Fund to do so. The high degree of risk involved in these investments can result in substantial or total losses. These securities are subject to greater risk of loss, greater sensitivity to interest rate and economic changes, valuation difficulties, and a potential lack of a secondary or public market for securities. The market price of these securities also can change suddenly and unexpectedly.
Corporate Debt Securities. Corporate debt securities may include bonds and other debt securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers, including obligations of industrial, utility, banking and other corporate issuers. All debt securities are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligation and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.
High Yield/High Risk Securities/Junk Bonds. Certain Funds may invest in high yield securities, to varying degrees. High yield, high risk bonds are securities that are generally rated below investment grade by the primary rating agencies (BB+ or lower by S&P and Bal or lower by Moody’s) or unrated but determined by the Fund’s Adviser to be of comparable quality. Other terms used to describe such securities include “lower rated bonds,” “non-investment grade bonds,” “below investment grade bonds,” and “junk bonds.” These securities are considered to be high-risk investments.
High yield securities are regarded as predominately speculative. There is a greater risk that issuers of lower rated securities will default than issuers of higher rated securities. Issuers of lower rated securities generally are less creditworthy and may be highly indebted, financially distressed, or bankrupt. These issuers are more vulnerable to real or perceived economic changes, political changes or adverse industry developments. In addition, high yield securities are frequently subordinated to the prior payment of senior indebtedness. If an issuer fails to pay principal or interest, a Fund would experience a decrease in income and a decline in the market value of its investments. A Fund may also incur additional expenses in seeking recovery from the issuer.
The income and market value of lower rated securities may fluctuate more than higher rated securities. Non-investment grade securities are more sensitive to short-term corporate, economic and market developments. During periods of economic uncertainty and change, the market price of the investments in lower rated securities may be volatile. The default rate for high yield bonds tends to be cyclical, with defaults rising in periods of economic downturn.
It is often more difficult to value lower rated securities than higher rated securities. If an issuer’s financial condition deteriorates, accurate financial and business information may be limited or unavailable. The lower rated investments may be thinly traded and there may be no established secondary market. Because of the lack of market pricing and current information for investments in lower rated securities, valuation of such investments is much more dependent on the judgment of the Adviser than is the case with higher rated securities. In addition, relatively few institutional purchasers may hold a major portion of an issue of lower-rated securities at times. As a result, a Fund that invests in lower rated securities may be required to sell investments at substantial losses or retain them indefinitely even where an issuer’s financial condition is deteriorating.
Credit quality of non-investment grade securities can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and even recently issued credit ratings may not fully reflect the actual risks posed by a particular high-yield security.
Future legislation may have a possible negative impact on the market for high yield, high risk bonds. As an example, in the late 1980’s, legislation required federally-insured savings and loan associations to divest their investments in high yield, high risk bonds. New legislation, if enacted, could have a material negative effect on a Fund’s investments in lower rated securities.
Inflation-Linked Debt Securities. Inflation-linked securities include fixed and floating rate debt securities of varying maturities issued by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities, such as Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (“TIPS”), as well as securities issued by other entities such as corporations, municipalities, foreign governments and foreign issuers, including foreign issuers from emerging markets. See also “Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies).” Typically, such securities are structured as fixed income investments whose principal value is periodically adjusted
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according to the rate of inflation. The following two structures are common: (i) the U.S. Treasury and some other issuers issue inflation-linked securities that accrue inflation into the principal value of the security and (ii) other issuers may pay out the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”) accruals as part of a semi-annual coupon. Other types of inflation-linked securities exist which use an inflation index other than the CPI.
Inflation-linked securities issued by the U.S. Treasury, such as TIPS, have maturities of approximately five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. Typically, TIPS pay interest on a semi-annual basis equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. For example, if a Fund purchased an inflation-indexed bond with a par value of $1,000 and a 3% real rate of return coupon (payable 1.5% semi-annually), and the rate of inflation over the first six months was 1%, the mid-year par value of the bond would be $1,010 and the first semi-annual interest payment would be $15.15 ($1,010 times 1.5%). If inflation during the second half of the year resulted in the whole year’s inflation of 3%, the end-of-year par value of the bond would be $1,030 and the second semi-annual interest payment would be $15.45 ($1,030 times 1.5%).
If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of TIPS, even during a period of deflation, although the inflation-adjusted principal received could be less than the inflation-adjusted principal that had accrued to the bond at the time of purchase. However, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. Other inflation-related bonds exist which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.
The value of inflation-linked securities is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if the rate of inflation rises at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-linked securities.
While inflation-linked securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.
The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-linked securities is tied to the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is not seasonally adjusted and which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-linked securities issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or a foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the U.S.
Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-linked security will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.
Variable and Floating Rate Instruments. Certain obligations purchased by the Funds may carry variable or floating rates of interest, may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature and may include variable amount master demand notes. Variable and floating rate instruments are issued by a wide variety of issuers and may be issued for a wide variety of purposes, including as a method of reconstructing cash flows.
Subject to their investment objective policies and restrictions, certain Funds may acquire variable and floating rate instruments. A variable rate instrument is one whose terms provide for the adjustment of its interest rate on set dates and which, upon such adjustment, can reasonably be expected to have a market value that approximates its par value. Certain Funds may purchase extendable commercial notes. Extendable commercial notes are variable rate notes which normally mature within a short period of time (e.g., 1 month) but which may be extended by the issuer for a maximum maturity of thirteen months.
A floating rate instrument is one whose terms provide for the adjustment of its interest rate whenever a specified interest rate changes and which, at any time, can reasonably be expected to have a market value that approximates its par value. Floating rate instruments are frequently not rated by credit rating agencies; however, unrated variable and floating rate instruments purchased by a Fund will be determined by the
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Fund’s Adviser to be of comparable quality at the time of purchase to rated instruments eligible for purchase under the Fund’s investment policies. In making such determinations, a Fund’s Adviser will consider the earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios of the issuers of such instruments (such issuers include financial, merchandising, bank holding and other companies) and will continuously monitor their financial condition. There may be no active secondary market with respect to a particular variable or floating rate instrument purchased by a Fund. The absence of such an active secondary market could make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of the variable or floating rate instrument involved in the event the issuer of the instrument defaulted on its payment obligations, and the Fund could, for this or other reasons, suffer a loss to the extent of the default. Variable or floating rate instruments may be secured by bank letters of credit or other assets. A Fund may purchase a variable or floating rate instrument to facilitate portfolio liquidity or to permit investment of the Fund’s assets at a favorable rate of return.
As a result of the floating and variable rate nature of these investments, the Funds’ yields may decline, and they may forego the opportunity for capital appreciation during periods when interest rates decline; however, during periods when interest rates increase, the Funds’ yields may increase, and they may have reduced risk of capital depreciation.
Past periods of high inflation, together with the fiscal measures adopted to attempt to deal with it, have seen wide fluctuations in interest rates, particularly “prime rates” charged by banks. While the value of the underlying floating or variable rate securities may change with changes in interest rates generally, the nature of the underlying floating or variable rate should minimize changes in value of the instruments. Accordingly, as interest rates decrease or increase, the potential for capital appreciation and the risk of potential capital depreciation is less than would be the case with a portfolio of fixed rate securities. A Fund’s portfolio may contain floating or variable rate securities on which stated minimum or maximum rates, or maximum rates set by state law limit the degree to which interest on such floating or variable rate securities may fluctuate; to the extent it does, increases or decreases in value may be somewhat greater than would be the case without such limits. Because the adjustment of interest rates on the floating or variable rate securities is made in relation to movements of the applicable banks’ “prime rates” or other short-term rate securities adjustment indices, the floating or variable rate securities are not comparable to long-term fixed rate securities. Accordingly, interest rates on the floating or variable rate securities may be higher or lower than current market rates for fixed rate obligations of comparable quality with similar maturities.
Variable Amount Master Notes. Variable amount master notes are notes, which may possess a demand feature, that permit the indebtedness to vary and provide for periodic adjustments in the interest rate according to the terms of the instrument. Variable amount master notes may not be secured by collateral. To the extent that variable amount master notes are secured by collateral, they are subject to the risks described under the section “Loans—Collateral and Subordination Risk.”
Because master notes are direct lending arrangements between a Fund and the issuer of the notes, they are not normally traded. Although there is no secondary market in the notes, a Fund may demand payment of principal and accrued interest. If the Fund is not repaid such principal and accrued interest, the Fund may not be able to dispose of the notes due to the lack of a secondary market.
While master notes are not typically rated by credit rating agencies, issuers of variable amount master notes (which are normally manufacturing, retail, financial, brokerage, investment banking and other business concerns) must satisfy the same criteria as those set forth with respect to commercial paper, if any, in Part I of this SAI under the heading “Diversification”. A Fund’s Adviser will consider the credit risk of the issuers of such notes, including its earning power, cash flow, and other liquidity ratios of such issuers and will continuously monitor their financial status and ability to meet payment on demand. In determining average weighted portfolio maturity, a variable amount master note will be deemed to have a maturity equal to the period of time remaining until the principal amount can be recovered from the issuer.
Variable Rate Instruments and Money Market Funds. Variable or floating rate instruments with stated maturities of more than 397 days may, under the SEC’s rule applicable to money market funds, Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, be deemed to have shorter maturities (other than in connection with the calculation of dollar-weighted average life to maturity of a portfolio) as follows:
(1) Adjustable Rate Government Securities. A Government Security which is a variable rate security where the variable rate of interest is readjusted no less frequently than every 397 days shall be deemed to have a maturity equal to the period remaining until the next readjustment of the interest rate. A Government Security which is a floating rate security shall be deemed to have a remaining maturity of one day.
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(2) Short-Term Variable Rate Securities. A variable rate security, the principal amount of which, in accordance with the terms of the security, must unconditionally be paid in 397 calendar days or less shall be deemed to have maturity equal to the earlier of the period remaining until the next readjustment of the interest rate or the period remaining until the principal amount can be recovered through demand.
(3) Long-Term Variable Rate Securities. A variable rate security, the principal amount of which is scheduled to be paid in more than 397 days, that is subject to a demand feature shall be deemed to have a maturity equal to the longer of the period remaining until the next readjustment of the interest rate or the period remaining until the principal amount can be recovered through demand.
(4) Short-Term Floating Rate Securities. A floating rate security, the principal amount of which, in accordance with the terms of the security, must unconditionally be paid in 397 calendar days or less shall be deemed to have a maturity of one day.
(5) Long-Term Floating Rate Securities. A floating rate security, the principal amount of which is scheduled to be paid in more than 397 days, that is subject to a demand feature, shall be deemed to have a maturity equal to the period remaining until the principal amount can be recovered through demand.
Limitations on the Use of Variable and Floating Rate Notes. Variable and floating rate instruments for which no readily available market exists (e.g., illiquid securities) will be purchased in an amount which, together with securities with legal or contractual restrictions on resale or for which no readily available market exists (including repurchase agreements providing for settlement more than seven days after notice), exceeds 15% of a Fund’s net assets (5% of total assets for the J.P. Morgan Funds which are money market funds (the “Money Market Funds”)) only if such instruments are subject to a demand feature that will permit the Fund to demand payment of the principal within seven days after demand by the Fund. There is no limit on the extent to which a Fund may purchase demand instruments that are not illiquid or deemed to be liquid in accordance with the Adviser’s liquidity determination procedures (except, with regard to the Money Market Funds, as provided under Rule 2a-7). If not rated, such instruments must be found by the Fund’s Adviser to be of comparable quality to instruments in which a Fund may invest. A rating may be relied upon only if it is provided by an NRSRO that is not affiliated with the issuer or guarantor of the instruments.
Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Deferred Payment Securities. Zero-coupon securities are securities that are sold at a discount to par value and on which interest payments are not made during the life of the security. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the par value of the security. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by delivery of additional securities. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the aggregate par value of the securities. A Fund accrues income with respect to zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities prior to the receipt of cash payments. Deferred payment securities are securities that remain zero-coupon securities until a predetermined date, at which time the stated coupon rate becomes effective and interest becomes payable at regular intervals. While interest payments are not made on such securities, holders of such securities are deemed to have received “phantom income.” Because a Fund will distribute “phantom income” to shareholders, to the extent that shareholders elect to receive dividends in cash rather than reinvesting such dividends in additional shares, the applicable Fund will have fewer assets with which to purchase income-producing securities. Zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and deferred payment securities may be subject to greater fluctuation in value and lesser liquidity in the event of adverse market conditions than comparably rated securities paying cash interest at regular interest payment periods.
Impact of Market Conditions on the Risks associated with Debt Securities
Investments in certain debt securities will be especially subject to the risk that, during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities within a particular investment category, may shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political events, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate.
Current market conditions pose heightened risks for Funds that invest in debt securities. While the U.S. is experiencing historically low interest rate levels, signs of economic recovery and the end of the Federal Reserve Board’s quantitative easing program have increased the risk that interest rates may rise in the near future. Any future interest rate increases or other adverse conditions (e.g., inflation/deflation, increased selling of certain fixed-income investments across other pooled investment vehicles or accounts, changes in investor perception, or changes in government intervention in the markets) could cause the value of any Fund that invests in debt securities to decrease. As such, debt securities markets may
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experience heightened levels of interest rate and liquidity risk, as well as increased volatility. If rising interest rates cause a Fund to lose value, the Fund could also face increased shareholder redemptions, which would further impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives.
The capacity for traditional dealers to engage in fixed-income trading for certain fixed income instruments has not kept pace with the growth of the fixed income market, and in some cases has decreased. As a result, because dealers acting as market makers provide stability to a market, the significant reduction in certain dealer inventories could potentially lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income markets. Such issues may be exacerbated during periods of economic uncertainty or market volatility.
Demand Features
Certain Funds may acquire securities that are subject to puts and standby commitments (“Demand Features”) to purchase the securities at their principal amount (usually with accrued interest) within a fixed period (usually seven days) following a demand by the Fund. The Demand Feature may be issued by the issuer of the underlying securities, a dealer in the securities or by another third party and may not be transferred separately from the underlying security. The underlying securities subject to a put may be sold at any time at market rates. Applicable Funds expect that they will acquire puts only where the puts are available without the payment of any direct or indirect consideration. However, if advisable or necessary, a premium may be paid for put features. A premium paid will have the effect of reducing the yield otherwise payable on the underlying security. Demand Features provided by foreign banks involve certain risks associated with foreign investments. See “Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)” for more information on these risks.
Under a “stand-by commitment,” a dealer would agree to purchase, at a Fund’s option, specified securities at a specified price. A Fund will acquire these commitments solely to facilitate portfolio liquidity and does not intend to exercise its rights thereunder for trading purposes. Stand-by commitments may also be referred to as put options.
The purpose of engaging in transactions involving puts is to maintain flexibility and liquidity to permit a Fund to meet redemption requests and remain as fully invested as possible.
Equity Securities, Warrants and Rights
Common Stock. Common stock represents a share of ownership in a company and usually carries voting rights and may earn dividends. Unlike preferred stock, common stock dividends are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer’s board of directors. Common stock occupies the most junior position in a company’s capital structure. As with all equity securities, the price of common stock fluctuates based on changes in a company’s financial condition, including those that result from management’s performance or changes to the business of the company, and overall market and economic conditions.
Common Stock Warrants and Rights. Common stock warrants entitle the holder to buy common stock from the issuer of the warrant at a specific price (the “strike price”) for a specific period of time. The market price of warrants may be substantially lower than the current market price of the underlying common stock, yet warrants are subject to similar price fluctuations. As a result, warrants may be more volatile investments than the underlying common stock. If a warrant is exercised, a Fund may hold common stock in its portfolio even if it does not ordinarily invest in common stock.
Rights are similar to warrants but normally have a shorter duration and are typically distributed directly by the issuers to existing shareholders, while warrants are typically attached to new debt or preferred stock issuances.
Warrants and rights generally do not entitle the holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying common stock and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer company. Warrants and rights will expire if not exercised on or prior to the expiration date.
Preferred Stock. Preferred stock is a class of stock that generally pays dividends at a specified rate and has preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and liquidation. Preferred stock generally does not carry voting rights. As with all equity securities, the price of preferred stock fluctuates based on changes in a company’s financial condition and on overall market and economic conditions.
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Because preferred stocks generally pay dividends only after the issuing company makes required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt, the value of preferred stocks is more sensitive than bonds and other debt to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects.
Initial Public Offerings (“IPOs”). The Funds may purchase securities in IPOs. These securities are subject to many of the same risks as investing in companies with smaller market capitalizations. Securities issued in IPOs have no trading history, and information about the companies may be available for very limited periods. The prices of securities sold in IPOs may be highly volatile. At any particular time or from time to time, a Fund may not be able to invest in securities issued in IPOs, or invest to the extent desired, because, for example, only a small portion (if any) of the securities being offered in an IPO may be made available to the Fund. In addition, under certain market conditions, a relatively small number of companies may issue securities in IPOs. Similarly, as the number of Funds to which IPO securities are allocated increases, the number of securities issued to any one Fund may decrease. The investment performance of a Fund during periods when it is unable to invest significantly or at all in IPOs may be lower than during periods when the Fund is able to do so. In addition, as a Fund increases in size, the impact of IPOs on the Fund’s performance will generally decrease.
Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)
Some of the Funds may invest in certain obligations or securities of foreign issuers. For purposes of a non-Money Market Fund’s investment policies and unless described otherwise in a Fund’s prospectus, an issuer of a security will be deemed to be located in a particular country if: (i) the principal trading market for the security is in such country, (ii) the issuer is organized under the laws of such country or (iii) the issuer derives at least 50% of its revenues or profits from such country or has at least 50% of its total assets situated in such country. Possible investments include equity securities and debt securities (e.g., bonds and commercial paper) of foreign entities, obligations of foreign branches of U.S. banks and of foreign banks, including, without limitation, eurodollar certificates of deposit, eurodollar time deposits, eurodollar bankers’ acceptances, canadian time deposits and yankee certificates of deposit, and investments in canadian commercial paper, and europaper. Securities of foreign issuers may include sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). Sponsored ADRs are listed on the New York Stock Exchange; unsponsored ADRs are not. Therefore, there may be less information available about the issuers of unsponsored ADRs than the issuers of sponsored ADRs. Unsponsored ADRs are restricted securities. EDRs and GDRs are not listed on the New York Stock Exchange. As a result, it may be difficult to obtain information about EDRs and GDRs.
The Money Market Funds may only invest in U.S. dollar-denominated securities.
Risk Factors of Foreign Investments. The following is a summary of certain risks associated with foreign investments:
Political and Exchange Risks. Foreign investments may subject a Fund to investment risks that differ in some respects from those related to investments in obligations of U.S. domestic issuers. Such risks include potential future adverse political and economic developments, sanctions or other measures by the United States or other governments, possible imposition of withholding taxes on interest or other income, possible seizure, nationalization or expropriation of foreign deposits, possible establishment of exchange controls or taxation at the source, greater fluctuations in value due to changes in exchange rates, or the adoption of other foreign governmental restrictions which might adversely affect the payment of principal and interest on such obligations.
Higher Transaction Costs. Foreign investments may entail higher custodial fees and sales commissions than domestic investments.
Accounting and Regulatory Differences. Foreign issuers of securities or obligations are often subject to accounting treatment and engage in business practices different from those of domestic issuers of similar securities or obligations. In addition, foreign issuers are usually not subject to the same degree of regulation as domestic issuers, and their securities may trade on relatively small markets, causing their securities to experience potentially higher volatility and more limited liquidity than securities of domestic issuers. Foreign branches of U.S. banks and foreign banks are not regulated by U.S. banking authorities and may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements than those applicable to domestic branches of U.S. banks. In addition, foreign banks generally are not bound by accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. banks. Dividends and interest paid by foreign issuers may be subject to withholding and other foreign taxes which may decrease the net return on foreign investments as compared to dividends and interest paid to a Fund by domestic companies.
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Currency Risk. Foreign securities may be denominated in foreign currencies, although foreign issuers may also issue securities denominated in U.S. dollars. The value of a Fund’s investments denominated in foreign currencies and any funds held in foreign currencies will be affected by changes in currency exchange rates, the relative strength of those currencies and the U.S. dollar, and exchange-control regulations. Changes in the foreign currency exchange rates also may affect the value of dividends and interest earned, gains and losses realized on the sale of securities and net investment income and gains, if any, to be distributed to shareholders by a Fund. The exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies are determined by the forces of supply and demand in foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Currency exchange rates also can be affected by intervention (or lack of intervention) by the United States or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or elsewhere.
Accordingly, the ability of a Fund that invests in foreign securities as part of its principal investment strategy to achieve its investment objective may depend, to a certain extent, on exchange rate movements. In addition, while the volume of transactions effected on foreign stock exchanges has increased in recent years, in most cases it remains appreciably below that of domestic securities exchanges. Accordingly, a Fund’s foreign investments may be less liquid and their prices may be more volatile than comparable investments in securities of U.S. companies. In buying and selling securities on foreign exchanges, purchasers normally pay fixed commissions that are generally higher than the negotiated commissions charged in the U.S. In addition, there is generally less government supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, brokers and issuers located in foreign countries than in the U.S.
Settlement Risk. The settlement periods for foreign securities and instruments are often longer than those for securities or obligations of U.S. issuers or instruments denominated in U.S. dollars. Delayed settlement may affect the liquidity of a Fund’s holdings. Certain types of securities and other instruments are not traded “delivery versus payment” in certain markets (e.g., government bonds in Russia) meaning that a Fund may deliver securities or instruments before payment is received from the counterparty. In such markets, the Fund may not receive timely payment for securities or other instruments it has delivered and may be subject to increased risk that the counterparty will fail to make payments when due or default completely.
Brady Bonds. Brady bonds are securities created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to public and private entities in certain emerging markets for new bonds in connection with debt restructurings. Brady bonds have been issued since 1989. In light of the history of defaults of countries issuing Brady bonds on their commercial bank loans, investments in Brady bonds may be viewed as speculative and subject to the same risks as emerging market securities. Brady bonds may be fully or partially collateralized or uncollateralized, are issued in various currencies (but primarily the U.S. dollar) and are actively traded in over-the-counter (“OTC”) secondary markets. Incomplete collateralization of interest or principal payment obligations results in increased credit risk. Dollar-denominated collateralized Brady bonds, which may be either fixed-rate or floating rate bonds, are generally collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities.
Global Depositary Notes. Foreign securities and emerging markets securities include Global Depositary Notes (“GDNs”). A GDN is a debt instrument created by a bank that evidences ownership of local currency-denominated debt securities. GDNs reflect the terms of particular local currency-denominated bonds. GDNs trade, settle, and pay interest and principal in U.S. dollars but typically are restricted securities that do not trade on an exchange. Any distributions paid to the holders of GDNs are usually subject to a fee charged by the depositary bank. In addition to the risks associated with foreign investments, a Fund’s investments in GDNs is subject to the risks associated with the underlying local currency-denominated bond and derivative instruments including credit risk, default or similar event risk, counterparty risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, and management risk. Holders of GDNs may have limited rights, and investment restrictions in certain countries may adversely impact the value of GDNs because such restrictions may limit the ability to convert the bonds into GDNs and vice versa. Such restrictions may cause bonds of the underlying issuer to trade at a discount or premium to the market price of the GDN.
Obligations of Supranational Entities. Obligations of supranational entities include securities designated or supported by governmental entities to promote economic reconstruction or development of international banking institutions and related government agencies. Examples include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “World Bank”), the European Coal and Steel Community, the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Each supranational entity’s
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lending activities are limited to a percentage of its total capital (including “callable capital” contributed by its governmental members at the entity’s call), reserves and net income. There is no assurance that participating governments will be able or willing to honor their commitments to make capital contributions to a supranational entity.
Sukuk. Foreign securities and emerging market securities include sukuk. Sukuk are certificates, similar to bonds, issued by the issuer to obtain an upfront payment in exchange for an income stream. Such income stream may or may not be linked to a tangible asset. For sukuk that are not linked to a tangible asset, the sukuk represents a contractual payment obligation of the issuer or issuing vehicle to pay income or periodic payments to the investor, and such contractual payment obligation is linked to the issuer or issuing vehicle and not from interest on the investor’s money for the sukuk. For sukuk linked to a tangible asset, the Fund will not have a direct interest in the underlying asset or pool of assets. The issuer also makes a contractual promise to buy back the certificate at a future date at par value. Even when the certificate is linked to the returns generated by certain assets of the issuer, the underlying assets are not pledged as security for the certificates, and the Fund (as the investor) is relying on the creditworthiness of the issuer for all payments required by the sukuk. The issuer may be a special purpose vehicle (“SPV”) with no other assets. Investors do not have direct legal ownership of any underlying assets. In the event of default, the process may take longer to resolve than conventional bonds. Changing interpretations of Islamic law by courts or prominent scholars may affect the free transferability of sukuk in ways that cannot now be foreseen. In such an event, the Fund may be required to hold its sukuk for longer than intended, even if their condition is deteriorating.
Issuers of sukuk may include international financial institutions, foreign governments and agencies of foreign governments. Underlying assets may include, without limitation, real estate (developed and undeveloped), lease contracts and machinery and equipment. Although the sukuk market has grown significantly in recent years, there may be times when the market is illiquid and where it is difficult for a Fund to make an investment in or dispose of sukuk at the Fund’s desired time. Furthermore, the global sukuk market is significantly smaller than conventional bond markets, and restrictions imposed by the Shariah board of the issuing entity may limit the number of investors who are interested in investing in particular sukuk. The unique characteristics of sukuk may lead to uncertainties regarding their tax treatment within a Fund.
Investors’ ability to pursue and enforce actions with respect to these payment obligations or to otherwise enforce the terms of the sukuk, restructure the sukuk, obtain a judgment in a court of competent jurisdiction, and/or attach assets of the obligor may be limited. Sukuk are also subject to the risks associated with developing and emerging market economies, which include, among others, the risk of sanctions and inconsistent accounting and legal principles.
Emerging Market Securities. Investing in companies domiciled in emerging market countries may be subject to potentially higher risks than investments in developed countries. These risks include: (i) less social, political, and economic stability; (ii) greater illiquidity and price volatility due to smaller or limited local capital markets for such securities, or low non-existent trading volumes; (iii) less scrutiny and regulation by local authorities of the foreign exchanges and broker-dealers; (iv) the seizure or confiscation by local governments of securities held by foreign investors, and the possible suspension or limiting by local governments of an issuer’s ability to make dividend or interest payments; (v) limiting or entirely restricting repatriation of invested capital, profits, and dividends by local governments; (vi) possible local taxation of capital gains, including on a retroactive basis; (vii) the attempt by issuers facing restrictions on dollar or euro payments imposed by local governments to make dividend or interest payments to foreign investors in the local currency; (viii) difficulty in enforcing legal claims related to the securities and/or local judges favoring the interests of the issuer over those of foreign investors; (ix) bankruptcy judgments being paid in the local currency; (x) greater difficulty in determining market valuations of the securities due to limited public information regarding the issuer, and (xi) difficulty of ascertaining the financial health of an issuer due to lax financial reporting on a regular basis, substandard disclosure and differences in accounting standards.
Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. Although some emerging markets have become more established and tend to issue securities of higher credit quality, the markets for securities in other emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development, and these countries issue securities across the credit spectrum. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities
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markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect a Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests.
Many emerging market countries suffer from uncertainty and corruption in their legal frameworks. Legislation may be difficult to interpret and laws may be too new to provide any precedential value. Laws regarding foreign investment and private property may be weak or non-existent. Sudden changes in governments may result in policies which are less favorable to investors, such as policies designed to expropriate or nationalize “sovereign” assets. Certain emerging market countries in the past have expropriated large amounts of private property, in many cases with little or no compensation, and there can be no assurance that such expropriation will not occur in the future.
Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit a Fund’s investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or to a specific class of securities, which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals.
Many developing countries lack the social, political, and economic stability characteristic of the U.S. Political instability among emerging market countries can be common and may be caused by an uneven distribution of wealth, social unrest, labor strikes, civil wars, and religious oppression. Economic instability in emerging market countries may take the form of: (i) high interest rates; (ii) high levels of inflation, including hyperinflation; (iii) high levels of unemployment or underemployment; (iv) changes in government economic and tax policies, including confiscatory taxation; and (v) imposition of trade barriers.
Currencies of emerging market countries are subject to significantly greater risks than currencies of developed countries. Many emerging market countries have experienced steady declines or even sudden devaluations of their currencies relative to the U.S. dollar. Some emerging market currencies may not be internationally traded or may be subject to strict controls by local governments, resulting in undervalued or overvalued currencies.
Some emerging market countries have experienced balance of payment deficits and shortages in foreign exchange reserves. Governments have responded by restricting currency conversions. Future restrictive exchange controls could prevent or restrict a company’s ability to make dividend or interest payments in the original currency of the obligation (usually U.S. dollars). In addition, even though the currencies of some emerging market countries may be convertible into U.S. dollars, the conversion rates may be artificial to their actual market values.
A Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities, will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates.
Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of a Fund remains uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities, in the Fund deeming those securities to be illiquid, or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, in possible liability to the purchaser.
In the past, governments within the emerging markets have become overly reliant on the international capital markets and other forms of foreign credit to finance large public spending programs which cause huge budget deficits. Often, interest payments have become too overwhelming for a government to meet, representing a large percentage of total gross domestic product (“GDP”). These foreign obligations have become the subject of political debate and have served as fuel for political parties of the opposition, which pressure the government not to make payments to foreign creditors, but instead to use these funds for
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social programs. Either due to an inability to pay or submission to political pressure, foreign governments have been forced to seek a restructuring of their loan and/or bond obligations, have declared a temporary suspension of interest payments or have defaulted. These events have adversely affected the values of securities issued by foreign governments and corporations domiciled in emerging market countries and have negatively affected not only their cost of borrowing, but their ability to borrow in the future as well.
Sovereign Obligations. Sovereign debt includes investments in securities issued or guaranteed by a foreign sovereign government or its agencies, authorities or political subdivisions. An investment in sovereign debt obligations involves special risks not present in corporate debt obligations. The issuer of the sovereign debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due, and a Fund may have limited recourse in the event of a default. During periods of economic uncertainty, the market prices of sovereign debt may be more volatile than prices of U.S. debt obligations. In the past, certain emerging markets have encountered difficulties in servicing their debt obligations, withheld payments of principal and interest and declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on their sovereign debts.
A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange, the relative size of the debt service burden, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward principal international lenders and local political constraints. Sovereign debtors may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and other entities to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The failure of a sovereign debtor to implement economic reforms, achieve specified levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of third-party commitments to lend funds to the sovereign debtor, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts.
Foreign Currency Transactions. Certain Funds may engage in foreign currency transactions which include the following, some of which also have been described elsewhere in this SAI: options on currencies, currency futures, options on such futures, forward foreign currency transactions, forward rate agreements and currency swaps, caps and floors. Certain Funds may engage in such transactions in both U.S. and non-U.S. markets. To the extent a Fund enters into such transactions in markets other than in the U.S., the Fund may be subject to certain currency, settlement, liquidity, trading and other risks similar to those described above with respect to the Fund’s investments in foreign securities including emerging markets securities. Certain Funds may engage in such transactions to hedge against currency risks, as a substitute for securities in which the Fund invests, to increase or decrease exposure to a foreign currency, to shift exposure from one foreign currency to another, for risk management purposes or to increase income or gain to the Fund. To the extent that a Fund uses foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes, the Fund may hedge either specific transactions or portfolio positions.
While a Fund’s use of hedging strategies is intended to reduce the volatility of the net asset value of Fund shares, the net asset value of the Fund will fluctuate. There can be no assurance that a Fund’s hedging transactions will be effective. Furthermore, a Fund may only engage in hedging activities from time to time and may not necessarily be engaging in hedging activities when movements in currency exchange rates occur.
Certain Funds are authorized to deal in forward foreign exchange between currencies of the different countries in which the Fund will invest and multi-national currency units as a hedge against possible variations in the foreign exchange rate between these currencies. This is accomplished through contractual agreements entered into in the interbank market to purchase or sell one specified currency for another currency at a specified future date (up to one year) and price at the time of the contract.
Transaction Hedging. Generally, when a Fund engages in transaction hedging, it enters into foreign currency transactions with respect to specific receivables or payables of the Fund generally arising in connection with the purchase or sale of its portfolio securities. A Fund may engage in transaction hedging when it desires to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price (or a non-U.S. dollar currency (“reference currency”)) of a security it has agreed to purchase or sell, or the U.S. dollar equivalent of a dividend or interest payment in a foreign currency. By transaction hedging, a Fund attempts to protect itself against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar or other reference currency and the applicable foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.
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A Fund may purchase or sell a foreign currency on a spot (or cash) basis at the prevailing spot rate in connection with the settlement of transactions in portfolio securities denominated in that foreign currency. Certain Funds reserve the right to purchase and sell foreign currency futures contracts traded in the U.S. and subject to regulation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”).
For transaction hedging purposes, a Fund may also purchase U.S. exchange-listed call and put options on foreign currency futures contracts and on foreign currencies. A put option on a futures contract gives a Fund the right to assume a short position in the foreign currency futures contract until expiration of the option. A put option on currency gives a Fund the right to sell a currency at an exercise price until the expiration of the option. A call option on a futures contract gives a Fund the right to assume a long position in the futures contract until the expiration of the option. A call option on currency gives a Fund the right to purchase a currency at the exercise price until the expiration of the option.
Position Hedging. When engaging in position hedging, a Fund will enter into foreign currency exchange transactions to protect against a decline in the values of the foreign currencies in which their portfolio securities are denominated or an increase in the value of currency for securities which a Fund’s Adviser expects to purchase. In connection with the position hedging, the Fund may purchase or sell foreign currency forward contracts or foreign currency on a spot basis. A Fund may purchase U.S. exchange-listed put or call options on foreign currency and foreign currency futures contracts and buy or sell foreign currency futures contracts traded in the U.S. and subject to regulation by the CFTC.
The precise matching of the amounts of foreign currency exchange transactions and the value of the portfolio securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the dates the currency exchange transactions are entered into and the dates they mature.
Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts. Certain Funds may purchase forward foreign currency exchange contracts, sometimes referred to as “currency forwards” (“Forward Contracts”), which involve an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract as agreed by the parties in an amount and at a price set at the time of the contract. In the case of a cancelable Forward Contract, the holder has the unilateral right to cancel the contract at maturity by paying a specified fee. The contracts are traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers, so no intermediary is required. A Forward Contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades.
At the maturity of a Forward Contract, a Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are usually effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract. For forward foreign currency contracts (other than Non-Deliverable Forwards) that require physical settlement, the Funds will segregate or earmark liquid assets equal to the current notional value of each contract. In calculating the notional value, the Funds may net long and short contracts with the same currency and the same settlement date. With respect to trades that do not settle through CLS Bank International, the Funds may only net long and short contracts if the contracts are with the same counterparty. Certain Funds may also engage in non-deliverable forwards which are cash settled and which do not involve delivery of the currency specified in the contract. For more information on Non-Deliverable Forwards, see “Non-Deliverable Forwards” below.
Foreign Currency Futures Contracts. Certain Funds may purchase foreign currency futures contracts. Foreign currency futures contracts traded in the U.S. are designed by and traded on exchanges regulated by the CFTC, such as the New York Mercantile Exchange. A Fund may enter into foreign currency futures contracts for hedging purposes and other risk management purposes as defined in CFTC regulations. Certain Funds may also enter into foreign currency futures transactions to increase exposure to a foreign currency, to shift exposure from one foreign currency to another or to increase income or gain to the Fund.
At the maturity of a futures contract, the Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract, or at or prior to maturity enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to futures contracts are effected on a commodities exchange; a clearing corporation associated with the exchange assumes responsibility for closing out such contracts.
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Positions in the foreign currency futures contracts may be closed out only on an exchange or board of trade which provides a secondary market in such contracts. There is no assurance that a secondary market on an exchange or board of trade will exist for any particular contract or at any particular time. In such event, it may not be possible to close a futures position; in the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin.
For more information on futures contracts, see “Futures Contracts” under the heading “Options and Futures Transactions” below.
Foreign Currency Options. Certain Funds may purchase and sell U.S. exchange-listed and over the counter call and put options on foreign currencies. Such options on foreign currencies operate similarly to options on securities. When a Fund purchases a put option, the Fund has the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date. When a Fund sells or writes a call option, the Fund has the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate if the buyer exercises option. Some of the Funds may also purchase and sell non-deliverable currency options (“Non-Deliverable Options”). Non-Deliverable Options are cash-settled, options on foreign currencies (each a “Option Reference Currency”) that are non-convertible and that may be thinly traded or illiquid. Non-Deliverable Options involve an obligation to pay an amount in a deliverable currency (such as U.S. Dollars, Euros, Japanese Yen, or British Pounds Sterling) equal to the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate for the Option Reference Currency and the agreed upon exchange rate (the “Non-Deliverable Option Rate”), with respect to an agreed notional amount. Options on foreign currencies are affected by all of those factors which influence foreign exchange rates and investments generally.
A Fund is authorized to purchase or sell listed foreign currency options and currency swap contracts as a short or long hedge against possible variations in foreign exchange rates, as a substitute for securities in which a Fund may invest, and for risk management purposes. Such transactions may be effected with respect to hedges on non-U.S. dollar denominated securities (including securities denominated in the Euro) owned by the Fund, sold by the Fund but not yet delivered, committed or anticipated to be purchased by the Fund, or in transaction or cross-hedging strategies. As an illustration, a Fund may use such techniques to hedge the stated value in U.S. dollars of an investment in a Japanese yen-dominated security. In such circumstances, the Fund may purchase a foreign currency put option enabling it to sell a specified amount of yen for dollars at a specified price by a future date. To the extent the hedge is successful, a loss in the value of the dollar relative to the yen will tend to be offset by an increase in the value of the put option. To offset, in whole or in part, the cost of acquiring such a put option, the Fund also may sell a call option which, if exercised, requires it to sell a specified amount of yen for dollars at a specified price by a future date (a technique called a “collar”). By selling the call option in this illustration, the Fund gives up the opportunity to profit without limit from increases in the relative value of the yen to the dollar. Certain Funds may also enter into foreign currency futures transactions for non-hedging purposes including to increase or decrease exposure to a foreign currency, to shift exposure from one foreign currency to another or to increase income or gain to the Fund.
Certain differences exist among these foreign currency instruments. Foreign currency options provide the holder thereof the right to buy or to sell a currency at a fixed price on a future date. Listed options are third-party contracts (i.e., performance of the parties’ obligations is guaranteed by an exchange or clearing corporation) which are issued by a clearing corporation, traded on an exchange and have standardized strike prices and expiration dates. OTC options are two-party contracts and have negotiated strike prices and expiration dates. Options on futures contracts are traded on boards of trade or futures exchanges. Currency swap contracts are negotiated two-party agreements entered into in the interbank market whereby the parties exchange two foreign currencies at the inception of the contract and agree to reverse the exchange at a specified future time and at a specified exchange rate.
The JPMorgan Emerging Markets Debt Fund may also purchase and sell barrier/“touch” options (“Barrier Options”), including knock-in options (“Knock-In Options”) and knock-out options (“Knock-Out Options”). A Barrier Option is a type of exotic option that gives an investor a payout once the price of the underlying currency reaches or surpasses (or falls below) a predetermined barrier. This type of option allows the buyer of the option to set the position of the barrier, the length of time until expiration and the payout to be received once the barrier is broken. There are two kinds of Knock-In Options, (i) “up and in” and (ii) “down and in”. With Knock-In Options, if the buyer has selected an upper price barrier, and the currency hits that level, the Knock-In Option turns into a more traditional option (“Vanilla Option”) whereby the owner has the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date. This type of Knock-In Option is called “up and in”. The “down and in” Knock-In Option is the same as the “up and in”, except the currency
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has to reach a lower barrier. Upon hitting the chosen lower price level, the “down and in” Knock-In Option turns into a Vanilla Option. As in the Knock-In Option, there are two kinds of Knock-Out Options, ( i) “up and out” and (ii) “down and out”. However, in a Knock-Out Option, the buyer begins with a Vanilla Option, and if the predetermined price barrier is hit, the Vanilla Option is cancelled and the seller has no further obligation. If the option hits the upper barrier, the option is cancelled and the investor loses the premium paid, thus, “up and out”. If the option hits the lower price barrier, the option is cancelled, thus, “down and out”. Barrier Options usually call for delivery of the underlying currency.
The value of a foreign currency option is dependent upon the value of the foreign currency and the U.S. dollar and may have no relationship to the investment merits of a foreign security. Because foreign currency transactions occurring in the interbank market involve substantially larger amounts than those that may be involved in the use of foreign currency options, investors may be disadvantaged by having to deal in an odd lot market (generally consisting of transactions of less than $1 million) for the underlying foreign currencies at prices that are less favorable than those for round lots.
There is no systematic reporting of last sale information for foreign currencies and there is no regulatory requirement that quotations available through dealer or other market sources be firm or revised on a timely basis. Available quotation information is generally representative of very large transactions in the interbank market and thus may not reflect relatively smaller transactions (less than $1 million) where rates may be less favorable. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, around-the-clock market. To the extent that the U.S. options markets are closed while the markets for the underlying currencies remain open, significant price and rate movements may take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options market.
In addition to writing call options on currencies when a Fund owns the underlying currency, the Funds may also write call options on currencies even if they do not own the underlying currency as long as the Fund segregates cash or liquid assets that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant or a broker as margin, equal the market value of the currency underlying the call option (but not less than the strike price of the call option). The Funds may also cover a written call option by owning a separate call option permitting the Fund to purchase the reference currency at a price no higher than the strike price of the call option sold by the Fund. In addition, a Fund may write a non-deliverable call option if the Fund segregates an amount equal to the current notional value (amount obligated to pay). Netting is generally permitted of long and short positions of a specific country (assuming long and short contracts are similar). If there are securities or currency held in that specific country at least equal to the current notional value of the net currency positions, no segregation is required.
Non-Deliverable Forwards. Some of the Funds may also invest in non-deliverable forwards (“NDFs”). NDFs are cash-settled, short-term forward contracts on foreign currencies (each a “Reference Currency”) that are non-convertible and that may be thinly traded or illiquid. NDFs involve an obligation to pay an amount (the “Settlement Amount”) equal to the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate for the Reference Currency and the agreed upon exchange rate (the “NDF Rate”), with respect to an agreed notional amount. NDFs have a fixing date and a settlement (delivery) date. The fixing date is the date and time at which the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate and the agreed upon exchange rate is calculated. The settlement (delivery) date is the date by which the payment of the Settlement Amount is due to the party receiving payment.
Although NDFs are similar to forward foreign currency exchange contracts, NDFs do not require physical delivery of the Reference Currency on the settlement date. Rather, on the settlement date, the only transfer between the counterparties is the monetary settlement amount representing the difference between the NDF Rate and the prevailing market exchange rate. NDFs typically may have terms from one month up to two years and are settled in U.S. dollars.
NDFs are subject to many of the risks associated with derivatives in general and forward currency transactions including risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currency and the risk that the counterparty will fail to fulfill its obligations. The Funds will segregate or earmark liquid assets in an amount equal to the marked to market value, on a daily basis of the NDF. In calculating the mark-to-market value, the Funds may net opposing NDF contracts with the same currency and the same settlement date. With respect to trades that do not settle through CLS Bank International, the Funds may only net opposing NDF contracts if the contracts are with the same counterparty.
The Funds will typically use NDFs for hedging purposes, but may also, use such instruments to increase income or gain. The use of NDFs for hedging or to increase income or gain may not be successful, resulting in losses to the Fund, and the cost of such strategies may reduce the Funds’ respective returns.
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Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), NDFs are regulated as swaps and are subject to rules requiring central clearing and mandatory trading on an exchange or facility that is regulated by the CFTC. NDFs traded in the over-the-counter market are subject to margin requirements that are expected to be implemented with respect to the Funds beginning in 2017. Implementation of the regulations regarding clearing, mandatory trading and margining of NDFs may increase the cost to the Fund of hedging currency risk and, as a result, may affect returns to investors in the Fund.
Foreign Currency Conversion. Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for currency conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the “spread”) between prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to a Fund at one rate while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer.
Other Foreign Currency Hedging Strategies. New options and futures contracts and other financial products, and various combinations thereof, continue to be developed, and certain Funds may invest in any such options, contracts and products as may be developed to the extent consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and the regulatory requirements applicable to investment companies, and subject to the supervision of each Trust’s Board of Trustees.
Risk Factors in Foreign Currency Transactions. The following is a summary of certain risks associated with foreign currency transactions:
Imperfect Correlation. Foreign currency transactions present certain risks. In particular, the variable degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in hedging strategies and price movements in a security being hedged creates the possibility that losses on the hedging transaction may be greater than gains in the value of a Fund’s securities.
Liquidity. Hedging instruments may not be liquid in all circumstances. As a result, in volatile markets, the Funds may not be able to dispose of or offset a transaction without incurring losses. Although foreign currency transactions used for hedging purposes may reduce the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged security, at the same time the use of these instruments could tend to limit any potential gain which might result from an increase in the value of such security.
Leverage and Volatility Risk. Derivative instruments, including foreign currency derivatives, may sometimes increase or leverage a Fund’s exposure to a particular market risk. Leverage enhances the price volatility of derivative instruments held by a Fund.
Strategy Risk. Certain Funds may use foreign currency derivatives for hedging as well as non-hedging purposes including to gain or adjust exposure to currencies and securities markets or to increase income or gain to a Fund. There is no guarantee that these strategies will succeed and their use may subject a Fund to greater volatility and loss. Foreign currency transactions involve complex securities transactions that involve risks in addition to direct investments in securities including leverage risk and the risks associated with derivatives in general, currencies, and investments in foreign and emerging markets.
Judgment of the Adviser. Successful use of foreign currency transactions by a Fund depends upon the ability of the applicable Adviser to predict correctly movements in the direction of interest and currency rates and other factors affecting markets for securities. If the expectations of the applicable Adviser are not met, a Fund would be in a worse position than if a foreign currency transaction had not been pursued. For example, if a Fund has hedged against the possibility of an increase in interest rates which would adversely affect the price of securities in its portfolio and the price of such securities increases instead, the Fund will lose part or all of the benefit of the increased value of its securities because it will have offsetting losses in its hedging positions. In addition, when utilizing instruments that require variation margin payments, if the Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements, it may have to sell securities to meet such requirements.
Other Risks. Such sales of securities may, but will not necessarily, be at increased prices which reflect the rising market. Thus, a Fund may have to sell securities at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so.
It is impossible to forecast with precision the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration or maturity of a forward contract or futures contract. Accordingly, a Fund may have to purchase additional foreign currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such purchase) if the market value of the security or securities being hedged is less than the amount of foreign currency a Fund is obligated to deliver and if a decision is made to sell the security or securities and make delivery of the foreign currency.
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Conversely, it may be necessary to sell on the spot market some of the foreign currency received upon the sale of the portfolio security or securities if the market value of such security or securities exceeds the amount of foreign currency the Fund is obligated to deliver.
Transaction and position hedging do not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities which a Fund owns or expects to purchase or sell. Rather, an Adviser may employ these techniques in an effort to maintain an investment portfolio that is relatively neutral to fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to major foreign currencies and establish a rate of exchange which one can achieve at some future point in time. Additionally, although these techniques tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they also tend to limit any potential gain which might result from the increase in the value of such currency. Moreover, it may not be possible for a Fund to hedge against a devaluation that is so generally anticipated that the Fund is not able to contract to sell the currency at a price above the anticipated devaluation level.
Insurance-Linked Securities
The JPMorgan Strategic Income Opportunities Fund, JPMorgan Total Return Fund, JPMorgan Tax Aware Income Opportunities Fund and JPMorgan Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund may invest in debt instruments or equity securities structured as event-driven, event-linked or insurance-linked notes or catastrophe bonds (collectively, “catastrophe bonds”) and related instruments such as (re)insurance sidecars (collectively with catastrophe bonds “Insurance-Linked Securities”). These Insurance-Linked Securities are generally debt obligations or equity securities for which the return of principal and the payment of interest or dividends typically are contingent on the non-occurrence of a specific “trigger” event(s) that lead to economic and/or human loss, such as a hurricane of a specific category, earthquake of a particular magnitude, or other physical or weather-related phenomena. For some Insurance-Linked Securities, the magnitude of the effect of the trigger event on the security may be based on losses to a company or industry, modeled losses to a notional portfolio, industry indexes, readings of scientific instruments, or certain other parameters associated with a catastrophe rather than actual losses. If a trigger event, as defined within the terms of each Insurance-Linked Security, occurs, a Fund may lose a portion or all of its accrued interest, dividends and/or principal invested in such Insurance-Linked Security. In addition, if there is a dispute regarding a trigger event, there may be delays in the payment of principal, interest and dividends. A Fund is entitled to receive principal, interest and dividends payments so long as no trigger event occurs of the description and magnitude specified by the Insurance-Linked Security.
Insurance-Linked Securities may be sponsored by government agencies, insurance companies or reinsurers and issued by special purpose corporations or other off-shore or on-shore entities (such special purpose entities are created to accomplish a narrow and well-defined objective, such as the issuance of a note in connection with a specific reinsurance transaction). Typically, Insurance-Linked Securities are issued by off-shore entities including entities in emerging markets and may be non-dollar denominated. As a result, the Funds will be subject to currency and foreign and emerging markets risk including the risks described in Foreign Investments. Often, catastrophe bonds provide for extensions of maturity that are mandatory, or optional at the discretion of the issuer or sponsor, in order to process and audit loss claims in those cases where a trigger event has, or possibly has, occurred. An extension of maturity may increase volatility.
In addition to the specified trigger events, Insurance-Linked Securities also may expose a Fund to certain unanticipated risks including but not limited to issuer risk, credit risk, counterparty risk, adverse regulatory or jurisdictional interpretations, and adverse tax consequences. Additionally, Insurance-Linked Securities are subject to the risk that modeling used to calculate the probability of a trigger event may not be accurate and/or underestimate the likelihood of a trigger event. This may result in more frequent and greater than expected losses including loss of principal and/or interest with respect to catastrophic bonds and dividends with respect to (re)insurance sidecars.
Insurance-Linked Securities are relatively new types of financial instruments. As such, there is no significant trading history of these securities, and there can be no assurance that markets for these instruments will be liquid at all times. Lack of a liquid market may impose the risk of higher transaction costs and the possibility that a Fund may be forced to liquidate positions when it would not be advantageous to do so. Insurance-Linked Securities are generally rated below investment grade or the unrated equivalent and have the same or similar risks as high yield debt securities (also known as junk bonds) including the risks described under High Yield/High Risk Securities/Junk Bonds and are subject to the risk that the Fund may lose some or all of its investment if the particular trigger identified under the Insurance-Linked Security occurs.
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Insurance-Linked Securities typically are restricted to qualified institutional buyers and, therefore, are not subject to registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) or any state securities commission generally are not listed on any national securities exchange. The amount of public information available with respect to Insurance-Linked Securities is generally less extensive than that which is available for exchange listed securities. There can be no assurance that future regulatory determinations will not adversely affect the overall market for Insurance-Linked Securities.
Industry loss warranties are a type of Insurance-Linked Securities that are designed to protect insurers or reinsurers from severe losses due to significant catastrophic events. The buyer pays the seller a premium at the inception of the contract, and in return the buyer can make a claim if losses due to a certain class of catastrophic event (for example, Florida hurricanes), as estimated by a third-party, exceed an agreed trigger level. Industry loss warranties have standard terms and conditions and are collateralized. These contracts are evaluated using detailed underwriting information on the applicable exposures provided by the reinsurers or their intermediaries.
Inverse Floaters and Interest Rate Caps
Inverse floaters are instruments whose interest rates bear an inverse relationship to the interest rate on another security or the value of an index. The market value of an inverse floater will vary inversely with changes in market interest rates and will be more volatile in response to interest rate changes than that of a fixed rate obligation. Interest rate caps are financial instruments under which payments occur if an interest rate index exceeds a certain predetermined interest rate level, known as the cap rate, which is tied to a specific index. These financial products will be more volatile in price than securities which do not include such a structure.
Investment Company Securities and Exchange Traded Funds
Investment Company Securities. A Fund may acquire the securities of other investment companies (“acquired funds”) to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and consistent with its investment objective and strategies. As a shareholder of another investment company, a Fund would bear, along with other shareholders, its pro rata portion of the other investment company’s expenses, including advisory fees. These expenses would be in addition to the advisory and other expenses that a Fund bears directly in connection with its own operations. Except as described below, the 1940 Act currently requires that, as determined immediately after a purchase is made, (i) not more than 5% of the value of a fund’s total assets will be invested in the securities of any one investment company, (ii) not more than 10% of the value of its total assets will be invested in the aggregate in securities of investment companies as a group and (iii) not more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of any one investment company will be owned by a fund.
In addition, Section 17 of the 1940 Act prohibits a Fund from investing in another J.P. Morgan Fund except as permitted by Section 12 of the 1940 Act, by rule, or by exemptive order.
The limitations described above do not apply to investments in money market funds subject to certain conditions. All of the J.P. Morgan Funds may invest in affiliated and unaffiliated money market funds without limit under Rule 12d1-1 under the 1940 Act subject to the acquiring fund’s investment policies and restrictions and the conditions of the Rule.
In addition, the 1940 Act’s limits and restrictions summarized above do not apply to J.P. Morgan Funds that invest in other J.P. Morgan Funds in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, SEC rule, or an exemptive order issued by the SEC (each, a “Fund of Funds”; collectively, “Funds of Funds”). Such Funds of Funds include JPMorgan Investor Funds (the “Investor Funds”), the JPMorgan SmartRetirement Funds and the JPMorgan SmartRetirement Blend Funds (collectively, the “JPMorgan SmartRetirement Funds”), JPMorgan Access Funds, JPMorgan Diversified Fund, and such other J.P. Morgan Funds that invest in other J.P. Morgan Funds in reliance on Section 12(d)(G) of the 1940 Act or the rules issued Section 12.
Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act permits a fund to invest in acquired funds in the “same group of investment companies” (“affiliated funds”), government securities and short-term paper. In addition to the investments permitted by Section 12(d)(1)(G), Rule 12d1-2 permits funds of funds to make investments in addition to affiliated funds under certain circumstances including: (1) unaffiliated investment companies (subject to certain limits), (2) other types of securities (such as stocks, bonds and other securities) not issued by an investment company that are consistent with the fund of fund’s investment policies and (3) affiliated and unaffiliated money market funds. In order to be an eligible investment under Section 12(d)(1)(G), an affiliated fund must have a policy prohibiting it from investing in other funds under Section 12(d)(1)(F) or (G) of the 1940 Act.
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In addition to investments permitted by Section 12(d)(1)(G) and Rule 12d1-2, the J.P. Morgan Funds may invest in derivatives pursuant to an exemptive order issued by the SEC. Under the exemptive order, the Funds of Funds are permitted to invest in financial instruments that may not be considered “securities” for purposes of Rule 12d-1 subject to certain conditions, including a finding of the Board of Trustees that the advisory fees charged by the Adviser to the Funds of Funds are for services that are in addition to, and not duplicative of, the advisory services provided to an underlying fund.
Exchange Traded Funds (“ETFs”). ETFs are pooled investment vehicles whose ownership interests are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. ETFs may be structured investment companies, depositary receipts or other pooled investment vehicles. As shareholders of an ETF, the Funds will bear their pro rata portion of any fees and expenses of the ETFs. Although shares of ETFs are traded on an exchange, shares of certain ETFs may not be redeemable by the ETF. In addition, ETFs may trade at a price below their net asset value (also known as a discount).
Certain Funds may use ETFs to gain exposure to various asset classes and markets or types of strategies and investments By way of example, ETFs may be structured as broad based ETFs that invest in a broad group of stocks from different industries and market sectors; select sector; or market ETFs that invest in debt securities from a select sector of the economy, a single industry or related industries; or ETFs that invest in foreign and emerging markets securities. Other types of ETFs continue to be developed and the Fund may invest in them to the extent consistent with such Funds’ investment objectives, policies and restrictions. The ETFs in which the Funds invest are subject to the risks applicable to the types of securities and investments used by the ETFs (e.g., debt securities are subject to risks like credit and interest rate risks; emerging markets securities are subject risks like currency risks and foreign and emerging markets risk; derivatives are subject to leverage and counterparty risk).
ETFs may be actively managed or index-based. Actively managed ETFs are subject to management risk and may not achieve their objective if the ETF’s manager’s expectations regarding particular securities or markets are not met. Generally, an index based ETF’s objective is to track the performance of a specified index. Index based ETFs may invest in a securities portfolio that includes substantially all of the securities in substantially the same amount as the securities included in the designated index or a representative sample. Because passively managed ETFs are designed to track an index, securities may be purchased, retained and sold at times when an actively managed ETF would not do so. As a result, shareholders of a Fund that invest in such an ETF can expect greater risk of loss (and a correspondingly greater prospect of gain) from changes in the value of securities that are heavily weighted in the index than would be the case if ETF were not fully invested in such securities. This risk is increased if a few component securities represent a highly concentrated weighting in the designated index.
Unless permitted by the 1940 Act or an order or rule issued by the SEC (see “Investment Company Securities” above for more information), the Fund’s investments in unaffiliated ETFs that are structured as investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act are subject to certain percentage limitations of the 1940 Act regarding investments in other investment companies. As a general matter, these percentage limitations currently require a Fund to limit its investments in any one issue of ETFs to 5% of the Fund’s total assets and 3% of the outstanding voting securities of the ETF issue. Moreover, a Fund’s investments in all ETFs may not currently exceed 10% of the Fund’s total assets under the 1940 Act, when aggregated with all other investments in investment companies. ETFs that are not structured as investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act are not subject to these percentage limitations.
SEC exemptive orders granted to various ETFs and their investment advisers permit the Funds to invest beyond the 1940 Act limits, subject to certain terms and conditions, including a finding of the Board of Trustees that the advisory fees charged by the Adviser to the Fund are for services that are in addition to, and not duplicative of, the advisory services provided to those ETFs.
Loans
Some of the Funds may invest in fixed and floating rate loans (“Loans”). Loans may include senior floating rate loans (“Senior Loans”) and secured and unsecured loans, second lien or more junior loans (“Junior Loans”) and bridge loans or bridge facilities (“Bridge Loans”). Loans are typically arranged through private negotiations between borrowers in the U.S. or in foreign or emerging markets which may be corporate issuers or issuers of sovereign debt obligations (“Obligors”) and one or more financial institutions and other lenders (“Lenders”). Generally, the Funds invest in Loans by purchasing assignments of all or a portion of Loans (“Assignments”) or Loan participations (“Participations”) from third parties although certain Funds may originate Loans.
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A Fund has direct rights against the Obligor on the Loan when it purchases an Assignment. Because Assignments are arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, however, the rights and obligations acquired by a Fund as the purchaser of an Assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning Lender. With respect to Participations, typically, a Fund will have a contractual relationship only with the Lender and not with the Obligor. The agreement governing Participations may limit the rights of a Fund to vote on certain changes which may be made to the Loan agreement, such as waiving a breach of a covenant. However, the holder of a Participation will generally have the right to vote on certain fundamental issues such as changes in principal amount, payment dates and interest rate. Participations may entail certain risks relating to the creditworthiness of the parties from which the participations are obtained.
A Loan is typically originated, negotiated and structured by a U.S. or foreign commercial bank, insurance company, finance company or other financial institution (the “Agent”) for a group of Loan investors. The Agent typically administers and enforces the Loan on behalf of the other Loan investors in the syndicate. The Agent’s duties may include responsibility for the collection of principal and interest payments from the Obligor and the apportionment of these payments to the credit of all Loan investors. The Agent is also typically responsible for monitoring compliance with the covenants contained in the Loan agreement based upon reports prepared by the Obligor. In addition, an institution, typically but not always the Agent, holds any collateral on behalf of the Loan investors. In the event of a default by the Obligor, it is possible, though unlikely, that the Fund could receive a portion of the borrower’s collateral. If the Fund receives collateral other than cash, any proceeds received from liquidation of such collateral will be available for investment as part of the Fund’s portfolio.
In the process of buying, selling and holding Loans, a Fund may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, commissions and prepayment penalty fees. When a Fund buys or sells a Loan it may pay a fee. In certain circumstances, a Fund may receive a prepayment penalty fee upon prepayment of a Loan.
Additional Information concerning Senior Loans. Senior Loans typically hold the most senior position in the capital structure of the Obligor, are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Obligor that is senior to that held by subordinated debtholders and shareholders of the Obligor. Collateral for Senior Loans may include (i) working capital assets, such as accounts receivable and inventory; (ii) tangible fixed assets, such as real property, buildings and equipment; (iii) intangible assets, such as trademarks and patent rights; and/or (iv) security interests in shares of stock of subsidiaries or affiliates.
Additional Information concerning Junior Loans. Junior Loans include secured and unsecured loans including subordinated loans, second lien and more junior loans, and bridge loans. Second lien and more junior loans (“Junior Lien Loans”) are generally second or further in line in terms of repayment priority. In addition, Junior Lien Loans may have a claim on the same collateral pool as the first lien or other more senior liens or may be secured by a separate set of assets. Junior Loans generally give investors priority over general unsecured creditors in the event of an asset sale.
Additional Information concerning Bridge Loans. Bridge Loans are short-term loan arrangements (e.g., 12 to 36 months) typically made by an Obligor in anticipation of intermediate-term or long-term permanent financing. Most Bridge Loans are structured as floating-rate debt with step-up provisions under which the interest rate on the Bridge Loan rises the longer the Loan remains outstanding. In addition, Bridge Loans commonly contain a conversion feature that allows the Bridge Loan investor to convert its Loan interest to senior exchange notes if the Loan has not been prepaid in full on or prior to its maturity date. Bridge Loans typically are structured as Senior Loans but may be structured as Junior Loans.
Additional Information concerning Unfunded Commitments. Unfunded commitments are contractual obligations pursuant to which the Fund agrees to invest in a Loan at a future date. Typically, the Fund receives a commitment fee for entering into the Unfunded Commitment.
Additional Information concerning Synthetic Letters of Credit. Loans include synthetic letters of credit. In a synthetic letter of credit transaction, the Lender typically creates a special purpose entity or a credit-linked deposit account for the purpose of funding a letter of credit to the borrower. When a Fund invests in a synthetic letter of credit, the Fund is typically paid a rate based on the Lender’s borrowing costs and the terms of the synthetic letter of credit. Synthetic letters of credit are typically structured as Assignments with the Fund acquiring direct rights against the Obligor.
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Additional Information concerning Loan Originations. In addition to investing in loan assignments and participations, the Strategic Income Opportunities Fund, Global Bond Opportunities Fund, Unconstrained Debt Fund and Income Fund may originate Loans in which the Fund would lend money directly to a borrower by investing in limited liability companies or corporations that make loans directly to borrowers. The terms of the Loans are negotiated with borrowers in private transactions. Such Loans would be collateralized, typically with tangible fixed assets such as real property or interests in real property. Such Loans may also include mezzanine loans. Unlike Loans secured by a mortgage on real property, mezzanine loans are collateralized by an equity interest in a SPV that owns the real property.
Limitations on Investments in Loan Assignments and Participations. If a government entity is a borrower on a Loan, the Fund will consider the government to be the issuer of an Assignment or Participation for purposes of a Fund’s fundamental investment policy that it will not invest 25% or more of its total assets in securities of issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (i.e., foreign government).
Limited Federal Securities Law Protections. Certain Loans may not be considered securities under the federal securities laws. In such circumstances, fewer legal protections may be available with respect to a Fund’s investment in those Loans. In particular, if a Loan is not considered a security under the federal securities laws, certain legal protections normally available to investors under the federal securities laws, such as those against fraud and misrepresentation, may not be available.
Multiple Lender Risk. There may be additional risks associated with Loans, including loan originations, when there are Lenders or other participants in addition to the Fund. For example, a Fund could lose the ability to consent to certain actions taken by the Borrower if certain conditions are not met. In addition, for example, certain governing agreements that provide the Fund with the right to consent to certain actions taken by a Borrower may provide that the Fund will no longer have the right to provide such consent if another Lender makes a subsequent advance to the Borrower.
Risk Factors of Loans. Loans are subject to the risks associated with debt obligations in general including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. When a Loan is acquired from a Lender, the risk includes the credit risk associated with the Obligor of the underlying Loan. The Fund may incur additional credit risk when the Fund acquires a participation in a Loan from another lender because the Fund must assume the risk of insolvency or bankruptcy of the other lender from which the Loan was acquired. To the extent that Loans involve Obligors in foreign or emerging markets, such Loans are subject to the risks associated with foreign investments or investments in emerging markets in general. The following outlines some of the additional risks associated with Loans.
High Yield Securities Risk. The Loans that a Fund invests in may not be rated by an NRSRO, will not be registered with the SEC or any state securities commission and will not be listed on any national securities exchange. To the extent that such high yield Loans are rated, they typically will be rated below investment grade and are subject to an increased risk of default in the payment of principal and interest as well as the other risks described under “High Yield/High Risk Securities/Junk Bonds.” Loans are vulnerable to market sentiment such that economic conditions or other events may reduce the demand for Loans and cause their value to decline rapidly and unpredictably.
Liquidity Risk. Although the Funds limit their investments in illiquid securities to no more than 15% of a Fund’s net assets (5% of the total assets for the Money Market Funds) at the time of purchase, Loans that are deemed to be liquid at the time of purchase may become illiquid or less liquid. No active trading market may exist for certain Loans and certain Loans may be subject to restrictions on resale or have a limited secondary market. Certain Loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. The inability to dispose of certain Loans in a timely fashion or at a favorable price could result in losses to a Fund. Also, to the extent that a Fund needs to satisfy redemption requests or cover unanticipated cash shortfalls, the Fund may seek to engage in borrowing under a credit facility or enter into lending agreements under which the Fund would borrow money for temporary purposes directly from another J.P. Morgan Fund (please see “Interfund Lending”). Certain Money Market Funds also use an interest bearing deposit facility to set aside cash at a level estimated to meet the Money Market Fund’s next business day’s intraday redemption orders. See “Interest Bearing Deposit Facility” for more information.
Collateral and Subordination Risk. With respect to Loans that are secured, a Fund is subject to the risk that collateral securing the Loan will decline in value or have no value or that the Fund’s lien is or will become junior in payment to other liens. A decline in value of the collateral, whether as a result of market value declines, bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise, could cause the Loan to be under collateralized or unsecured. In such event, the Fund may have the ability to require that the Obligor
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pledge additional collateral. The Fund, however, is subject to the risk that the Obligor may not pledge such additional collateral or a sufficient amount of collateral. In some cases (for example, in the case of non-recourse Loans), there may be no formal requirement for the Obligor to pledge additional collateral. In addition, collateral may consist of assets that may not be readily liquidated, and there is no assurance that the liquidation of such assets would satisfy an Obligor’s obligation on a Loan. If the Fund were unable to obtain sufficient proceeds upon a liquidation of such assets, this could negatively affect Fund performance.
If an Obligor becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, a court may restrict the ability of the Fund to demand immediate repayment of the Loan by Obligor or otherwise liquidate the collateral. A court may also invalidate the Loan or the Fund’s security interest in collateral or subordinate the Fund’s rights under a Senior Loan or Junior Loan to the interest of the Obligor’s other creditors, including unsecured creditors, or cause interest or principal previously paid to be refunded to the Obligor. If a court required interest or principal to be refunded, it could negatively affect Fund performance. Such action by a court could be based, for example, on a “fraudulent conveyance” claim to the effect that the Obligor did not receive fair consideration for granting the security interest in the Loan collateral to a Fund. For Senior Loans made in connection with a highly leveraged transaction, consideration for granting a security interest may be deemed inadequate if the proceeds of the Loan were not received or retained by the Obligor, but were instead paid to other persons (such as shareholders of the Obligor) in an amount which left the Obligor insolvent or without sufficient working capital. There are also other events, such as the failure to perfect a security interest due to faulty documentation or faulty official filings, which could lead to the invalidation of a Fund’s security interest in Loan collateral. If the Fund’s security interest in Loan collateral is invalidated or a Senior Loan were subordinated to other debt of an Obligor in bankruptcy or other proceedings, the Fund would have substantially lower recovery, and perhaps no recovery on the full amount of the principal and interest due on the Loan, or the Fund could have to refund interest. Lenders and investors in Loans can be sued by other creditors and shareholders of the Obligors. Losses can be greater than the original Loan amount and occur years after the principal and interest on the Loan have been repaid.
Agent Risk. Selling Lenders, Agents and other entities who may be positioned between a Fund and the Obligor will likely conduct their principal business activities in the banking, finance and financial services industries. Investments in Loans may be more impacted by a single economic, political or regulatory occurrence affecting such industries than other types of investments. Entities engaged in such industries may be more susceptible to, among other things, fluctuations in interest rates, changes in the Federal Open Market Committee’s monetary policy, government regulations concerning such industries and concerning capital raising activities generally and fluctuations in the financial markets generally. An Agent, Lender or other entity positioned between a Fund and the Obligor may become insolvent or enter FDIC receivership or bankruptcy. The Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a Loan or suffer a loss of principal and/ or interest if assets or interests held by the Agent, Lender or other party positioned between the Fund and the Obligor are determined to be subject to the claims of the Agent’s, Lender’s or such other party’s creditors.
Regulatory Changes. To the extent that legislation or state or federal regulators that regulate certain financial institutions impose additional requirements or restrictions with respect to the ability of such institutions to make Loans, particularly in connection with highly leveraged transactions, the availability of Loans for investment may be adversely affected. Furthermore, such legislation or regulation could depress the market value of Loans held by the Fund.
Inventory Risk. Affiliates of the Adviser may participate in the primary and secondary market for Loans. Because of limitations imposed by applicable law, the presence of the Adviser’s affiliates in the Loan market may restrict a Fund’s ability to acquire some Loans, affect the timing of such acquisition or affect the price at which the Loan is acquired.
Information Risk. There is typically less publicly available information concerning Loans than other types of fixed income investments. As a result, a Fund generally will be dependent on reports and other information provided by the Obligor, either directly or through an Agent, to evaluate the Obligor’s creditworthiness or to determine the Obligor’s compliance with the covenants and other terms of the Loan Agreement. Such reliance may make investments in Loans more susceptible to fraud than other types of investments. In addition, because the Adviser may wish to invest in the publicly traded securities of an Obligor, it may not have access to material non-public information regarding the Obligor to which other Loan investors have access.
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Junior Loan Risk. Junior Loans are subject to the same general risks inherent to any Loan investment. Due to their lower place in the Obligor’s capital structure and possible unsecured status, Junior Loans involve a higher degree of overall risk than Senior Loans of the same Obligor. Junior Loans that are Bridge Loans generally carry the expectation that the Obligor will be able to obtain permanent financing in the near future. Any delay in obtaining permanent financing subjects the Bridge Loan investor to increased risk. An Obligor’s use of Bridge Loans also involves the risk that the Obligor may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the Bridge Loan, which may impair the Obligor’s perceived creditworthiness.
Mezzanine Loan Risk. In addition to the risk factors described above, mezzanine loans are subject to additional risks. Unlike conventional mortgage loans, mezzanine loans are not secured by a mortgage on the underlying real property but rather by a pledge of equity interests (such as a partnership or limited liability company membership) in the property owner or another company in the ownership structures that has control over the property. Such companies are typically structured as special purpose entities. Generally, mezzanine loans may be more highly leveraged than other types of Loans and subordinate in the capital structure of the Obligor. While foreclosure of a mezzanine loan generally takes substantially less time than foreclosure of a traditional mortgage, the holders of a mezzanine loan have different remedies available versus the holder of a first lien mortgage loan. In addition, a sale of the underlying real property would not be unencumbered, and thus would be subject to encumbrances by more senior mortgages and liens of other creditors. Upon foreclosure of a mezzanine loan, the holder of the mezzanine loan acquires an equity interest in the Obligor. However, because of the subordinate nature of a mezzanine loan, the real property continues to be subject to the lien of the mortgage and other liens encumbering the real estate. In the event the holder of a mezzanine loan forecloses on its equity collateral, the holder may need to cure the Obligor’s existing mortgage defaults or, to the extent permissible under the governing agreements, sell the property to pay off other creditors. To the extent that the amount of mortgages and senior indebtedness and liens exceed the value of the real estate, the collateral underlying the mezzanine loan may have little or no value.
Foreclosure Risk. There may be additional costs associated with enforcing a Fund’s remedies under a Loan including additional legal costs and payment of real property transfer taxes upon foreclosure in certain jurisdictions or legal costs and expenses associated with operating real property. As a result of these additional costs, the Fund may determine that pursuing foreclosure on the Loan collateral is not worth the associated costs. In addition, if the Fund incurs costs and the collateral loses value or is not recovered by the Fund in foreclosure, the Fund could lose more than its original investment in the Loan. Foreclosure risk is heightened for Junior Loans, including certain mezzanine loans.
Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Borrowings. A Fund may borrow for temporary purposes and/or for investment purposes. Such a practice will result in leveraging of a Fund’s assets and may cause a Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so. This borrowing may be secured or unsecured. If a Fund utilizes borrowings, for investment purposes or otherwise, it may pledge up to 33 13% of its total assets to secure such borrowings. Provisions of the 1940 Act require a Fund to maintain continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with an exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the Fund’s total assets made for temporary administrative or emergency purposes. Any borrowings for temporary administrative purposes in excess of 5% of the Fund’s total assets must maintain continuous asset coverage. If the 300% asset coverage should decline as a result of market fluctuations or other reasons, a Fund may be required to sell some of its portfolio holdings within three days to reduce the debt and restore the 300% asset coverage, even though it may be disadvantageous from an investment standpoint to sell securities at that time. Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on net asset value of any increase or decrease in the market value of a Fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs which may or may not be recovered by appreciation of the securities purchased. A Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with such borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
Certain Trusts, on behalf of certain Funds (“Borrowers”) entered into a 364 day joint syndicated senior unsecured revolving credit facility totaling $1.5 billion, which terminates on August 14, 2018 unless otherwise extended or renewed “Credit Facility”), with various lenders and The Bank of New York Mellon, as administrative agent for the lenders. This Credit Facility provides a source of funds to the Borrowers for
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temporary and emergency purposes, including the meeting of redemption requests that otherwise might require the untimely disposition of securities. Under the terms of the Credit Facility, a borrowing Fund must meet certain requirements, including a minimum adjusted net asset value amount and certain adjusted net asset coverage rations prior to and during the time in which any borrowings are outstanding. If a Fund does not comply with these requirements, the lenders may terminate the Credit Facility and declare any outstanding borrowings to be due and payable immediately. Interest associated with any borrowing under the Credit Facility is charged to the borrowing Fund at a variable rate. In addition, each participating Fund is charged an annual commitment fee, which is incurred on the unused portion of the Credit Facility and is allocated to all participating Funds pro rata based on their respective net assets.
Certain types of investments are considered to be borrowings under precedents issued by the SEC. Such investments are subject to the limitations as well as asset segregation requirements. In addition, each Fund may enter into Interfund Lending Arrangements. Please see “Interfund Lending”.
Commodity-Linked Derivatives. Commodity-linked derivatives are derivative instruments the value of which is linked to the value of a commodity, commodity index or commodity futures contract. A Fund’s investment in commodity-linked derivative instruments may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, particularly if the instruments involve leverage. The value of commodity-linked derivative instruments may be affected by changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. Use of leveraged commodity-linked derivatives creates the possibility for greater loss (including the likelihood of greater volatility of the Fund’s net asset value), and there can be no assurance that a Fund’s use of leverage will be successful. Tax considerations may limit a Fund’s ability to pursue investments in commodity-linked derivatives.
Commodity-Related Pooled Investment Vehicles. Commodity-related pooled investment vehicles include ownership interests in grantor trusts and other pooled investment vehicles that hold tangible assets such as gold, silver or other commodities or invest in commodity futures. Grantor trusts are typically traded on an exchange.
Investors do not have the rights normally associated with ownership of other types of shares when they invest in pooled investment vehicles holding commodities or commodity futures, including those structured as limited partnerships or grantor trusts holding commodities. For example, the owners of these commodity-related grantor trusts or limited partnerships do not have the right to elect directors, receive dividends or take other actions normally associated with the ownership of shares of a corporation. Holders of a certain percentage of shares in a grantor trust may have the right to terminate the trust or exercise other rights which would not be available to small investors. If investors other than a Fund exercise their right to terminate, a Fund that wishes to invest in the underlying commodity through the pooled investment vehicle will have to find another investment and may not be able to find another vehicle that offers the same investment features. In the event that one or more participants holding a substantial interest in these pooled investment vehicles withdraw from participation, the liquidity of the pooled investment vehicle will likely decrease which could adversely affect the market price of the pooled investment vehicle and result in a Fund incurring a loss on its investments.
These pooled investment vehicles are not registered investment companies, and many are not commodity pools, and therefore, do not have the protections available to those types of investments under federal securities or commodities laws. For example, unlike registered investment companies, these vehicles are not subject to federal securities laws that limit transactions with affiliates, require redemption of shares, or limit sales load. Although shares of these vehicles may be traded on an exchange, there may be no active market for such shares and such shares may be highly illiquid.
These vehicles are subject to the risks associated with direct investments in commodities. The market price of shares of these vehicles will be as unpredictable as the price of the underlying commodity. Many factors can cause a decline in the prices of commodities including a change in economic conditions, such as a recession. This risk is magnified when the commodity is used in manufacturing. In addition, the prices of commodities may be adversely impacted by a change in the attitude of speculators and investors toward the applicable commodity, or a significant increase in commodity price hedging activity. In addition, the value of the shares will be adversely affected if the assets owned by the trust are lost, damaged or of inferior quality.
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The commodities represented by shares of a grantor trust will decrease over the life of the trust due to sales of the underlying commodities necessary to pay trust fees and expenses, including expenses associated with indemnification of certain service providers to the pooled investment vehicle. Without increases in the price of the underlying commodity sufficient to compensate for that decrease, the price of the investment will decline and a Fund will incur a loss on its investment.
Commodity-related grantor trusts are passive investment vehicles. This means that the value of the investment in a grantor trust may be adversely affected by trust losses that, if the trust had been actively managed, it might have been possible to avoid. A Fund’s intention to qualify as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code may limit its ability to make investments in grantor trusts or limited partnerships that invest in commodities or commodity futures.
Cyber Security Risk. As the use of technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, the Funds have become more susceptible to operational and financial risks associated with cyber security, including: theft, loss, misuse, improper release, corruption and destruction of, or unauthorized access to, confidential or highly restricted data relating to a Fund and its shareholders; and compromises or failures to systems, networks, devices and applications relating to the operations of a Fund and its service providers. Cyber security risks may result in financial losses to a Fund and its shareholders; the inability of a Fund to transact business with its shareholders; delays or mistakes in the calculation of a Fund’s NAV or other materials provided to shareholders; the inability to process transactions with shareholders or other parties; violations of privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties and reputational damage; and compliance and remediation costs, legal fees and other expenses. A Fund’s service providers (including, but not limited to, its investment adviser, any sub-advisers, administrator, transfer agent, and custodian or their agents), financial intermediaries, companies in which a Fund invests and parties with which a Fund engages in portfolio or other transactions also may be adversely impacted by cyber security risks in their own businesses, which could result in losses to a Fund or its shareholders. While measures have been developed which are designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there is no guarantee that those measures will be effective, particularly since the Funds do not directly control the cyber security defenses or plans of their service providers, financial intermediaries and companies in which they invest or with which they do business.
Volcker Rule Risk. Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and certain rules promulgated thereunder (known as the Volcker Rule) places restrictions on the activities of banking entities, including the adviser and its affiliates, and may impact the long-term viability of a Fund. Under the Volcker Rule, if the adviser or its affiliates own 25% or more of the ownership interests of a Fund outside of the permitted seeding time period, a Fund could be subject to restrictions on trading that would adversely impact a Fund’s ability to execute its investment strategy. Generally, the permitted seeding period is three years from the implementation of a Fund’s investment strategy. As a result, the adviser and/or its affiliates may be required to reduce their ownership interests in a Fund at a time that is sooner than would otherwise be desirable. This may require the sale of Fund securities, which may result in losses, increased transaction costs and adverse tax consequences. In addition, the ongoing viability of a Fund may be adversely impacted by the anticipated or actual redemption of Fund shares owned by the adviser and its affiliates and could result in a Fund’s liquidation.
Exchange-Traded Notes (“ETNs”) are senior, unsecured notes linked to an index. Like ETFs, they may be bought and sold like shares of stock on an exchange. However, ETNs have a different underlying structure. While ETF shares represent an interest in a portfolio of securities, ETNs are structured products that are an obligation of the issuing bank, whereby the bank agrees to pay a return based on the target index less any fees. Essentially, these notes allow individual investors to have access to derivatives linked to commodities and assets such as oil, currencies and foreign stock indexes. ETNs combine certain aspects of bonds and ETFs. Similar to ETFs, ETNs are traded on a major exchange (e.g., the New York Stock Exchange) during normal trading hours. However, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity. At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to principal amount, subject to the day’s index factor. ETN returns are based upon the performance of a market index minus applicable fees. ETNs do not make periodic coupon payments and provide no principal protection. The value of an ETN may be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying commodities markets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the referenced commodity. The value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying index remaining unchanged. The timing and character of income and gains derived from ETNs is under consideration by the U.S. Treasury and Internal Revenue Service and may also be affected by future legislation.
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Impact of Large Redemptions and Purchases of Fund Shares. Under applicable regulations, the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser may be required to reduce its seed investment or other ownership interest in a Fund at a time that is sooner than the Adviser or its affiliate otherwise would. In addition to such redemptions of seed investment, from time to time, shareholders of a Fund (which may include the Adviser or affiliates of the Adviser or accounts for which the Adviser or its affiliates serve as investment adviser or trustee or, for certain Funds, affiliated and/or non-affiliated registered investment companies that invest in a Fund) may make relatively large redemptions or purchases of Fund shares. These transactions may cause a Fund to have to sell securities, or invest additional cash, as the case may be. While it is impossible to predict the overall impact of these transactions over time, there could be adverse effects on a Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is required to sell securities or invest cash at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may result in a loss to the Fund. These transactions may result in higher portfolio turnover, accelerate the realization of taxable income if sales of securities resulted in capital gains or other income and increase transaction costs, which may impact the Fund’s expense ratio. Additionally, a significant reduction in Fund assets would result in Fund expenses being spread over a small asset base, potentially causing an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio. To the extent that such transactions result in short-term capital gains, such gains will generally be taxed at the ordinary income tax rate. In addition to the above information, the Funds’ SAIs include disclosure of accounts holding more than 5% of a Fund’s voting securities.
Government Intervention in Financial Markets. Events in the financial sector over the past several years have resulted in reduced liquidity in credit and fixed income markets and in an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets have been impacted, issuers that have exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets have been particularly affected. These events and the potential for continuing market turbulence may have an adverse effect on the Funds’ investments. It is uncertain how long these conditions will continue.
Recent instability in the financial markets has led governments and regulators around the world to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and segments of the financial markets that have experienced extreme volatility, and in some cases a lack of liquidity. Governments, their regulatory agencies, or self regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which the Funds invest, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which the Funds themselves are regulated.  For instance, in 2016, the SEC adopted rules that regulate the Funds’ management of liquidity risk. Such legislation or regulation could limit or preclude a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.
Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such a program may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of a Fund’s portfolio holdings. Furthermore, volatile financial markets can expose the Funds to greater market and liquidity risk and potential difficulty in valuing portfolio instruments held by the Funds.
Interest Bearing Deposit Facility. As part of seeking to provide intraday liquidity, certain Money Market Funds generally set aside cash in an interest bearing deposit facility (“IBDF”) at a level estimated to meet the Money Market Fund’s next business day’s intraday redemption orders. Under the IBDF, each Money Market Fund expects to retain a balance (“designated balance”) overnight in its custodial cash deposit account with JPMorgan Chase Bank at a level estimated to meet its next business day’s intraday redemption orders. As redemption payments are processed for the Money Market Fund on the next business day, outgoing wires are debited from its account. At the end of that day, the Money Market Fund seeks to allocate cash to the account to restore the designated balance. A Money Market Fund receives interest overnight on the designated balance.
Interfund Lending. To satisfy redemption requests or to cover unanticipated cash shortfalls, a Fund may enter into lending agreements (“Interfund Lending Agreements”) under which the Fund would lend money and borrow money for temporary purposes directly to and from another J.P. Morgan Fund through a credit facility (“Interfund Loan”), subject to meeting the conditions of an SEC exemptive order granted to the Funds permitting such interfund lending. No Fund may borrow more than the lesser of the amount permitted by Section 18 of the 1940 Act or the amount permitted by its investment limitations. All Interfund Loans will consist only of uninvested cash reserves that the Fund otherwise would invest in short-term repurchase agreements or other short-term instruments.
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If a Fund has outstanding borrowings, any Interfund Loans to the Fund (a) will be at an interest rate equal to or lower than any outstanding bank loan, (b) will be secured at least on an equal priority basis with at least an equivalent percentage of collateral to loan value as any outstanding bank loan that requires collateral, (c) will have a maturity no longer than any outstanding bank loan (and in any event not over seven days) and (d) will provide that, if an event of default occurs under any agreement evidencing an outstanding bank loan to the Fund, the event of default will automatically (without need for action or notice by the lending Fund) constitute an immediate event of default under the Interfund Lending Agreement entitling the lending Fund to call the Interfund Loan (and exercise all rights with respect to any collateral) and that such call will be made if the lending bank exercises its right to call its loan under its agreement with the borrowing Fund.
A Fund may make an unsecured borrowing through the credit facility if its outstanding borrowings from all sources immediately after the interfund borrowing total 10% or less of its total assets; provided, that if the Fund has a secured loan outstanding from any other lender, including but not limited to another J.P. Morgan Fund, the Fund’s interfund borrowing will be secured on at least an equal priority basis with at least an equivalent percentage of collateral to loan value as any outstanding loan that requires collateral. If a Fund’s total outstanding borrowings immediately after an interfund borrowing would be greater than 10% of its total assets, the Fund may borrow through the credit facility on a secured basis only. A Fund may not borrow through the credit facility nor from any other source if its total outstanding borrowings immediately after the interfund borrowing would exceed the limits imposed by Section 18 of the 1940 Act.
No Fund may lend to another Fund through the interfund lending credit facility if the loan would cause its aggregate outstanding loans through the credit facility to exceed 15% of the lending Fund’s net assets at the time of the loan. A Fund’s Interfund Loans to any one Fund shall not exceed 5% of the lending Fund’s net assets. The duration of Interfund Loans is limited to the time required to receive payment for securities sold, but in no event may the duration exceed seven days. Loans effected within seven days of each other will be treated as separate loan transactions for purposes of this condition. Each Interfund Loan may be called on one business day’s notice by a lending Fund and may be repaid on any day by a borrowing Fund.
The limitations detailed above and the other conditions of the SEC exemptive order permitting interfund lending are designed to minimize the risks associated with interfund lending for both the lending fund and the borrowing fund. However, no borrowing or lending activity is without risk. When a Fund borrows money from another Fund, there is a risk that the loan could be called on one day’s notice or not renewed, in which case the Fund may have to borrow from a bank at higher rates if an Interfund Loan were not available from another Fund. A delay in repayment to a lending Fund could result in a lost opportunity or additional lending costs.
Master Limited Partnerships. Certain companies are organized as master limited partnerships (“MLPs”) in which ownership interests are publicly traded. MLPs often own several properties or businesses (or directly own interests) that are related to real estate development and oil and gas industries, but they also may finance motion pictures, research and development and other projects or provide financial services. Generally, an MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more managing general partners. Limited partners (like a Fund that invests in an MLP) are not involved in the day-to-day management of the partnership. They are allocated income and capital gains associated with the partnership project in accordance with the terms established in the partnership agreement.
The risks of investing in an MLP are generally those inherent in investing in a partnership as opposed to a corporation. For example, state law governing partnerships is often less restrictive than state law governing corporations. Accordingly, there may be fewer protections afforded investors in an MLP than investors in a corporation. Additional risks involved with investing in an MLP are risks associated with the specific industry or industries in which the partnership invests, such as the risks of investing in real estate, or oil and gas industries.
YieldCos. A YieldCo is a dividend growth-oriented company, created by a parent company (the “YieldCo Sponsor”), that bundles operating assets in order to generate systematic cash flows. YieldCos are not limited by asset or income composition, but they are generally tied to the energy industry, including, for example, renewable energy projects, that offer predictable cash flows. YieldCos generally serve a similar purpose as MLPs and REITs, which most energy companies cannot establish due to regulatory reasons.
The risks of investing in YieldCos involve risks that differ from investments in traditional operating companies, including risks related to the relationship between the YieldCo and the YieldCo Sponsor. A YieldCo is usually dependent on the management of the YieldCo Sponsor and may be impacted by the
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development capabilities and financial health of its YieldCo Sponsor. Additionally, a YieldCo Sponsor may have interests of its YieldCo and may retain control of the YieldCo through classes of stock held by the YieldCo Sponsor.
A YieldCo’s share price is typically a multiple of its distributable cash flow. Therefore, any event that limits a YieldCo’s ability to maintain or grow its distributable cash flow would likely have a negative impact on the YieldCo’s share price. The share price of a YieldCo can be affected by fundamentals unique to the YieldCo, including the robustness and consistency of its earnings and its ability to meet debt obligations including the payment of interest and principle to creditors. A YieldCo may distribute all or substantially all of the cash available for distribution, which may limit new acquisitions and future growth. A YieldCo may finance its growth strategy with debt, which may increase the YieldCo’s leverage and the risk associated with the YieldCo. The ability of a YieldCo to maintain or grow its dividend distributions may depend on the YieldCo’s ability to minimize its tax liabilities through the use of accelerated depreciation schedule, tax loss carryforwards, and tax incentives. Changes to the current tax code could result in greater tax liabilities, which would reduce a YieldCo’s distributable cash flow.
.
New Financial Products. New options and futures contracts and other financial products, and various combinations thereof, including over-the-counter products, continue to be developed. These various products may be used to adjust the risk and return characteristics of certain Funds’ investments. These various products may increase or decrease exposure to security prices, interest rates, commodity prices, or other factors that affect security values, regardless of the issuer’s credit risk. If market conditions do not perform as expected, the performance of a Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these products were not used. In addition, losses may occur if counterparties involved in transactions do not perform as promised. These products may expose the Fund to potentially greater return as well as potentially greater risk of loss than more traditional fixed income investments.
Private Placements, Restricted Securities and Other Unregistered Securities. Subject to its policy limitation, a Fund may acquire investments that are illiquid or have limited liquidity, such as commercial obligations issued in reliance on the so-called “private placement” exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), and cannot be offered for public sale in the U.S. without first being registered under the 1933 Act. An illiquid investment is any investment that cannot be disposed of within seven days in the normal course of business at approximately the amount at which it is valued by a Fund. The price a Fund pays for illiquid securities or receives upon resale may be lower than the price paid or received for similar securities with a more liquid market. Accordingly the valuation of these securities will reflect any limitations on their liquidity.
A Fund is subject to a risk that should the Fund decide to sell illiquid securities when a ready buyer is not available at a price the Fund deems representative of their value, the value of the Fund’s net assets could be adversely affected. Where an illiquid security must be registered under the 1933 Act before it may be sold, a Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses, and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, a Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to sell.
The Funds may invest in commercial paper issued in reliance on the exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act and other restricted securities (i.e., other securities subject to restrictions on resale). Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper (“4(a)(2) paper”) is restricted as to disposition under federal securities law and is generally sold to institutional investors, such as the Funds, that agree that they are purchasing the paper for investment purposes and not with a view to public distribution. Any resale by the purchaser must be in an exempt transaction. 4(a)(2) paper is normally resold to other institutional investors through or with the assistance of the issuer or investment dealers who make a market in 4(a)(2) paper, thus providing liquidity. The Funds believe that 4(a)(2) paper and possibly certain other restricted securities which meet the criteria for liquidity established by the Trustees are quite liquid. The Funds intend, therefore, to treat restricted securities that meet the liquidity criteria established by the Board of Trustees, including 4(a)(2) paper and Rule 144A Securities, as determined by the Fund’s Adviser, as liquid and not subject to the investment limitation applicable to illiquid securities.
The ability of the Trustees to determine the liquidity of certain restricted securities is permitted under an SEC Staff position set forth in the adopting release for Rule 144A under the 1933 Act (“Rule 144A”). Rule 144A is a nonexclusive safe-harbor for certain secondary market transactions involving securities subject to restrictions on resale under federal securities laws. Rule 144A provides an exemption from registration for resales of otherwise restricted securities to qualified institutional buyers. Rule 144A was
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expected to further enhance the liquidity of the secondary market for securities eligible for resale. The Funds believe that the Staff of the SEC has left the question of determining the liquidity of all restricted securities to the Trustees. The Trustees have directed each Fund’s Adviser to consider the following criteria in determining the liquidity of certain restricted securities:
the frequency of trades and quotes for the security;
the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security and the number of other potential buyers;
dealer undertakings to make a market in the security; and
the nature of the security and the nature of the marketplace trades.
Certain 4(a)(2) paper programs cannot rely on Rule 144A because, among other things, they were established before the adoption of the rule. However, the Trustees may determine for purposes of the Trust’s liquidity requirements that an issue of 4(a)(2) paper is liquid if the following conditions, which are set forth in a 1994 SEC no-action letter, are met:
The 4(a)(2) paper must not be traded flat or in default as to principal or interest;
The 4(a)(2) paper must be rated in one of the two highest rating categories by at least two NRSROs, or if only one NRSRO rates the security, by that NRSRO, or if unrated, is determined by a Fund’s Adviser to be of equivalent quality;
The Fund’s Adviser must consider the trading market for the specific security, taking into account all relevant factors, including but not limited to, whether the paper is the subject of a commercial paper program that is administered by an issuing and paying agent bank and for which there exists a dealer willing to make a market in that paper, or whether the paper is administered by a direct issuer pursuant to a direct placement program; and
The Fund’s Adviser shall report to the Board of Trustees on the appropriateness of the purchase and retention of liquid restricted securities under these guidelines no less frequently than quarterly.
Securities Issued in Connection with Reorganizations and Corporate Restructuring. Debt securities may be downgraded and issuers of debt securities including investment grade securities may default in the payment of principal or interest or be subject to bankruptcy proceedings. In connection with reorganizing or restructuring of an issuer, an issuer may issue common stock or other securities to holders of its debt securities. A Fund may hold such common stock and other securities even though it does not ordinarily invest in such securities and such common stock or other securities may be denominated in currencies that a Fund may not ordinarily hold.
Stapled Securities. From time to time, the Funds may invest in stapled securities to gain exposure to companies. A stapled security is a security that is comprised of two or more parts that cannot be separated from one another. The resulting security is influenced by both parts, and must be treated as one unit at all times, such as when buying or selling a security. The value of stapled securities and the income derived from them may fall as well as rise. Stapled securities are not obligations of, deposits in, or guaranteed by, the Fund. The listing of stapled securities on a domestic or foreign exchange does not guarantee a liquid market for stapled securities.
Temporary Defensive Positions. To respond to unusual market conditions, all of the Funds may invest their assets in cash or cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are highly liquid, high quality instruments with maturities of three months or less on the date they are purchased (“Cash Equivalents”) for temporary defensive purposes. These investments may result in a lower yield than lower-quality or longer term investments and may prevent the Funds from meeting their investment objectives. The percentage of Fund’s total assets that a Fund may invest in cash or cash equivalents is described in the applicable Fund’s Prospectuses. They include securities issued by the U.S. government, its agencies, Government-Sponsored Enterprises (“GSEs”) and instrumentalities, repurchase agreements with maturities of 7 days or less, certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, commercial paper, money market mutual funds, and bank deposit accounts. In order to invest in repurchase agreements with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for temporary defensive purposes, certain Funds may engage in periodic “test” trading in order to assess operational abilities at times when the Fund would otherwise not enter into such a position. These exercises may vary in size and frequency.
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Mortgage-Related Securities
Mortgages (Directly Held). Mortgages are debt instruments secured by real property. Unlike mortgage-backed securities, which generally represent an interest in a pool of mortgages, direct investments in mortgages involve prepayment and credit risks of an individual issuer and real property. Consequently, these investments require different investment and credit analysis by a Fund’s Adviser.
Directly placed mortgages may include residential mortgages, multifamily mortgages, mortgages on cooperative apartment buildings, commercial mortgages, and sale-leasebacks. These investments are backed by assets such as office buildings, shopping centers, retail stores, warehouses, apartment buildings and single-family dwellings. In the event that a Fund forecloses on any non-performing mortgage, and acquires a direct interest in the real property, such Fund will be subject to the risks generally associated with the ownership of real property. There may be fluctuations in the market value of the foreclosed property and its occupancy rates, rent schedules and operating expenses. There may also be adverse changes in local, regional or general economic conditions, deterioration of the real estate market and the financial circumstances of tenants and sellers, unfavorable changes in zoning, building, environmental and other laws, increased real property taxes, rising interest rates, reduced availability and increased cost of mortgage borrowings, the need for unanticipated renovations, unexpected increases in the cost of energy, environmental factors, acts of God and other factors which are beyond the control of a Fund or the Fund’s Adviser. Hazardous or toxic substances may be present on, at or under the mortgaged property and adversely affect the value of the property. In addition, the owners of property containing such substances may be held responsible, under various laws, for containing, monitoring, removing or cleaning up such substances. The presence of such substances may also provide a basis for other claims by third parties. Costs of clean up or of liabilities to third parties may exceed the value of the property. In addition, these risks may be uninsurable. In light of these and similar risks, it may be impossible to dispose profitably of properties in foreclosure.
Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMOs” and “REMICs”). Mortgage-backed securities include collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”). A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment under the Code and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property and other permitted investments.
Mortgage-backed securities represent pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by:
various governmental agencies such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”);
organizations such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”); and
non-governmental issuers such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers, and private mortgage insurance companies (non-governmental mortgage securities cannot be treated as U.S. government securities for purposes of investment policies).
There are a number of important differences among the agencies, GSEs and instrumentalities of the U.S. government that issue mortgage-related securities and among the securities that they issue.
Ginnie Mae Securities. Mortgage-related securities issued by Ginnie Mae include Ginnie Mae Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates which are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae. Ginnie Mae’s guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned U.S. government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Ginnie Mae certificates also are supported by the authority of Ginnie Mae to borrow funds from the U.S. Treasury to make payments under its guarantee.
Fannie Mae Securities. Mortgage-related securities issued by Fannie Mae include Fannie Mae Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates which are solely the obligations of Fannie Mae and are not backed by or entitled to the full faith and credit of the U.S. Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored organization owned entirely by private stockholders. Fannie Mae Certificates are guaranteed as to timely payment of the principal and interest by Fannie Mae.
Freddie Mac Securities. Mortgage-related securities issued by Freddie Mac include Freddie Mac Mortgage Participation Certificates. Freddie Mac is a corporate instrumentality of the U.S., created pursuant to an Act of Congress, which is owned by private stockholders. Freddie Mac Certificates are not guaranteed by the U.S. or by any Federal Home Loan Bank and do not constitute a debt or obligation of the U.S. or of any Federal Home Loan Bank. Freddie Mac Certificates entitle the holder
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to timely payment of interest, which is guaranteed by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees either ultimate collection or timely payment of all principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. When Freddie Mac does not guarantee timely payment of principal, Freddie Mac may remit the amount due on account of its guarantee of ultimate payment of principal at any time after default on an underlying mortgage, but in no event later than one year after it becomes payable.
For more information on recent events impacting Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac securities, see “Recent Events Regarding Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Securities” under the heading “Risk Factors of Mortgage-Related Securities” below.
CMOs and guaranteed REMIC pass-through certificates (“REMIC Certificates”) issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae and private issuers are types of multiple class pass-through securities. Investors may purchase beneficial interests in REMICs, which are known as “regular” interests or “residual” interests. The Funds do not currently intend to purchase residual interests in REMICs. The REMIC Certificates represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC Trust, generally consisting of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates (the “Mortgage Assets”). The obligations of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae under their respective guaranty of the REMIC Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae, respectively.
Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates. Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. In addition, Fannie Mae will be obligated to distribute the principal balance of each class of REMIC Certificates in full, whether or not sufficient funds are otherwise available.
Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest, and also guarantees the payment of principal as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates (“PCs”). PCs represent undivided interests in specified residential mortgages or participation therein purchased by Freddie Mac and placed in a PC pool. With respect to principal payments on PCs, Freddie Mac generally guarantees ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans without offset or deduction. Freddie Mac also guarantees timely payment of principal on certain PCs referred to as “Gold PCs.”
Ginnie Mae REMIC Certificates. Ginnie Mae guarantees the full and timely payment of interest and principal on each class of securities (in accordance with the terms of those classes as specified in the related offering circular supplement). The Ginnie Mae guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S.
REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae are treated as U.S. Government securities for purposes of investment policies.
CMOs and REMIC Certificates provide for the redistribution of cash flow to multiple classes. Each class of CMOs or REMIC Certificates, often referred to as a “tranche,” is issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate and must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. This reallocation of interest and principal results in the redistribution of prepayment risk across different classes. This allows for the creation of bonds with more or less risk than the underlying collateral exhibits. Principal prepayments on the mortgage loans or the Mortgage Assets underlying the CMOs or REMIC Certificates may cause some or all of the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates to be retired substantially earlier than their final distribution dates. Generally, interest is paid or accrues on all classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates on a monthly basis.
The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in various ways. In certain structures (known as “sequential pay” CMOs or REMIC Certificates), payments of principal, including any principal prepayments, on the Mortgage Assets generally are applied to the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made on any class of sequential pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.
Additional structures of CMOs and REMIC Certificates include, among others, principal only structures, interest only structures, inverse floaters and “parallel pay” CMOs and REMIC Certificates. Certain of these structures may be more volatile than other types of CMO and REMIC structures. Parallel pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates are those which are structured to apply principal payments and
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prepayments of the Mortgage Assets to two or more classes concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class.
A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in the parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as “Z-Bonds”), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security, and planned amortization class (“PAC”) certificates, which are parallel pay REMIC Certificates which generally require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes of REMIC Certificates (the “PAC Certificates”), even though all other principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets are then required to be applied to one or more other classes of the certificates. The scheduled principal payments for the PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount of principal payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying Mortgage Assets. These tranches tend to have market prices and yields that are much more volatile than the PAC classes. The Z-Bonds in which the Funds may invest may bear the same non-credit-related risks as do other types of Z-Bonds. Z-Bonds in which the Fund may invest will not include residual interest.
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses set forth in the fee table and Financial Highlights section of each Fund’s Prospectuses do not include any expenses associated with investments in certain structured or synthetic products that may rely on the exception for the definition of “investment company” provided by section 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act.
GSE Credit Risk Transfer Securities and GSE Credit-Linked Notes. GSE Credit risk transfer securities are notes issued directly by a GSE, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and GSE credit-linked notes are notes issued by a SPV sponsored by a GSE. Investors in these notes provide credit protection for the applicable GSE’s mortgage-related securities guarantee obligations. In this regard, a noteholder receives compensation for providing credit protection to the GSE and, when a specified level of losses on the relevant mortgage loans occurs, the principal balance and certain payments owed to the noteholder may be reduced. In addition, noteholders may receive a return of principal prior to the stated maturity date reflecting prepayment on the underlying mortgage loans and in any other circumstances that may be set forth in the applicable loan agreement. The notes may be issued in different traches representing the issuance of different levels of credit risk protection to the GSE on the underlying mortgage loans and the notes are not secured by the reference mortgage loans. There are important differences between the structure of GSE credit risk transfer securities and GSE credit-lined notes.
GSE Credit Risk Transfer Securities Structure. In this structure, the GSE receives the note sale proceeds. The GSE pays noteholders monthly interest payments and a return of principal on the stated maturity date based on the initial investment amount, as reduced by any covered losses on the reference mortgage loans.
GSE Credit-linked Notes Structure. In this structure, the SPV receives the note sale proceeds and the SPV’s obligations to the noteholder are collateralized by the note sale proceeds. The SPV invests the proceeds in cash or other short-term assets. The SPV also enters into a credit protection agreement with the GSE pursuant to which the GSE pays the SPV monthly premium payments and the SPV compensates the GSE for covered losses on the reference mortgage loans. The SPV pays noteholders monthly interest payments based on the premium payments paid by the GSE and the performance on the invested note sale proceeds. The noteholders also receive a return of principal on a stated maturity date based on the initial investment amount, as reduced by any covered losses on the reference mortgage loans paid by the SPV or the GSE.
Mortgage TBAs. A Fund may invest in mortgage pass-through securities eligible to be sold in the “to-be-announced” or TBA market (“Mortgage TBAs”). Mortgage TBAs provide for the forward or delayed delivery of the underlying instrument with settlement up to 180 days. The term TBA comes from the fact that the actual mortgage-backed security that will be delivered to fulfill a TBA trade is not designated at the time the trade is made, but rather is generally announced 48 hours before the settlement date. Mortgage TBAs are subject to the risks described in the “When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments” section.
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Mortgage Dollar Rolls. In a mortgage dollar roll transaction, one party sells mortgage-backed securities, principally Mortgage TBAs, for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar (same type, coupon and maturity) but not identical securities on a specified future date. When a Fund enters into TBAs/mortgage dollar rolls, the Fund will segregate or earmark until the settlement date liquid assets, in an amount equal to the original purchase price. TBA positions with the same agency, coupon, and maturity, are generally permitted to be netted if the short position settles on the same date or before the long position. During the period between the sale and repurchase in a mortgage dollar roll transaction, the Fund will not be entitled to receive interest and principal payments on securities sold. Losses may arise due to changes in the value of the securities or if the counterparty does not perform under the terms of the agreement. If the counterparty files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to repurchase or sell securities may be limited. Mortgage dollar rolls may be subject to leverage risks. In addition, mortgage dollar rolls may increase interest rate risk and result in an increased portfolio turnover rate which increases costs and may increase taxable gains. The benefits of mortgage dollar rolls may depend upon a Fund’s Adviser’s ability to predict mortgage prepayments and interest rates. There is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. For purposes of diversification and investment limitations, mortgage dollar rolls are considered to be mortgage-backed securities.
Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities (“SMBS”) are derivative multi-class mortgage securities issued outside the REMIC or CMO structure. SMBS are usually structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions from a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of SMBS will have one class receiving all of the interest from the mortgage assets (“IOs”), while the other class will receive all of the principal (“POs”). Mortgage IOs receive monthly interest payments based upon a notional amount that declines over time as a result of the normal monthly amortization and unscheduled prepayments of principal on the associated mortgage POs.
In addition to the risks applicable to Mortgage-Related Securities in general, SMBS are subject to the following additional risks:
Prepayment/Interest Rate Sensitivity. SMBS are extremely sensitive to changes in prepayments and interest rates. Even though these securities have been guaranteed by an agency or instrumentality of the U.S. government, under certain interest rate or prepayment rate scenarios, the Funds may lose money on investments in SMBS.
Interest Only SMBS. Changes in prepayment rates can cause the return on investment in IOs to be highly volatile. Under extremely high prepayment conditions, IOs can incur significant losses.
Principal Only SMBS. POs are bought at a discount to the ultimate principal repayment value. The rate of return on a PO will vary with prepayments, rising as prepayments increase and falling as prepayments decrease. Generally, the market value of these securities is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates.
Yield Characteristics. Although SMBS may yield more than other mortgage-backed securities, their cash flow patterns are more volatile and there is a greater risk that any premium paid will not be fully recouped. A Fund’s Adviser will seek to manage these risks (and potential benefits) by investing in a variety of such securities and by using certain analytical and hedging techniques.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans. Certain Funds may invest in adjustable rate mortgage loans (“ARMs”). ARMs eligible for inclusion in a mortgage pool will generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a specified period of time. Thereafter, the interest rates (the “Mortgage Interest Rates”) may be subject to periodic adjustment based on changes in the applicable index rate (the “Index Rate”). The adjusted rate would be equal to the Index Rate plus a gross margin, which is a fixed percentage spread over the Index Rate established for each ARM at the time of its origination.
Adjustable interest rates can cause payment increases that some borrowers may find difficult to make. However, certain ARMs may provide that the Mortgage Interest Rate may not be adjusted to a rate above an applicable lifetime maximum rate or below an applicable lifetime minimum rate for such ARM. Certain ARMs may also be subject to limitations on the maximum amount by which the Mortgage Interest Rate may adjust for any single adjustment period (the “Maximum Adjustment”). Other ARMs (“Negatively Amortizing ARMs”) may provide instead or as well for limitations on changes in the monthly payment on such ARMs. Limitations on monthly payments can result in monthly payments which are greater or less than the amount necessary to amortize a Negatively Amortizing ARM by its maturity at the Mortgage Interest Rate in effect in any particular month. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay
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the interest accruing on a Negatively Amortizing ARM, any such excess interest is added to the principal balance of the loan, causing negative amortization and will be repaid through future monthly payments. It may take borrowers under Negatively Amortizing ARMs longer periods of time to achieve equity and may increase the likelihood of default by such borrowers. In the event that a monthly payment exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable Mortgage Interest Rate and the principal payment which would have been necessary to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess (or “accelerated amortization”) further reduces the principal balance of the ARM. Negatively Amortizing ARMs do not provide for the extension of their original maturity to accommodate changes in their Mortgage Interest Rate. As a result, unless there is a periodic recalculation of the payment amount (which there generally is), the final payment may be substantially larger than the other payments. These limitations on periodic increases in interest rates and on changes in monthly payments protect borrowers from unlimited interest rate and payment increases.
Certain ARMs may provide for periodic adjustments of scheduled payments in order to amortize fully the mortgage loan by its stated maturity. Other ARMs may permit their stated maturity to be extended or shortened in accordance with the portion of each payment that is applied to interest as affected by the periodic interest rate adjustments.
There are two main categories of indices which provide the basis for rate adjustments on ARMs: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure such as a cost of funds index or a moving average of mortgage rates. Commonly utilized indices include the one-year, three-year and five-year constant maturity Treasury bill rates, the three-month Treasury bill rate, the 180-day Treasury bill rate, rates on longer-term Treasury securities, the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds, the National Median Cost of Funds, the one-month, three-month, six-month or one-year London InterBank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the prime rate of a specific bank, or commercial paper rates. Some indices, such as the one-year constant maturity Treasury rate, closely mirror changes in market interest rate levels. Others, such as the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds index, tend to lag behind changes in market rate levels and tend to be somewhat less volatile. The degree of volatility in the market value of the Fund’s portfolio and therefore in the net asset value of the Fund’s shares will be a function of the length of the interest rate reset periods and the degree of volatility in the applicable indices.
In general, changes in both prepayment rates and interest rates will change the yield on Mortgage-Backed Securities. The rate of principal prepayments with respect to ARMs has fluctuated in recent years. As is the case with fixed mortgage loans, ARMs may be subject to a greater rate of principal prepayments in a declining interest rate environment. For example, if prevailing interest rates fall significantly, ARMs could be subject to higher prepayment rates than if prevailing interest rates remain constant because the availability of fixed rate mortgage loans at competitive interest rates may encourage mortgagors to refinance their ARMs to “lock-in” a lower fixed interest rate. Conversely, if prevailing interest rates rise significantly, ARMs may prepay at lower rates than if prevailing rates remain at or below those in effect at the time such ARMs were originated. As with fixed rate mortgages, there can be no certainty as to the rate of prepayments on the ARMs in either stable or changing interest rate environments. In addition, there can be no certainty as to whether increases in the principal balances of the ARMs due to the addition of deferred interest may result in a default rate higher than that on ARMs that do not provide for negative amortization.
Other factors affecting prepayment of ARMs include changes in mortgagors’ housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagors’ net equity in the mortgage properties and servicing decisions.
Risk Factors of Mortgage-Related Securities. The following is a summary of certain risks associated with Mortgage-Related Securities:
Guarantor Risk. There can be no assurance that the U.S. government would provide financial support to Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac if necessary in the future. Although certain mortgage-related securities are guaranteed by a third party or otherwise similarly secured, the market value of the security, which may fluctuate, is not so secured.
Interest Rate Sensitivity. If a Fund purchases a mortgage-related security at a premium, that portion may be lost if there is a decline in the market value of the security whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments in the underlying mortgage collateral. As with other interest-bearing securities, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates. Although the value of a mortgage-related security may decline when interest rates rise, the converse is not necessarily true since in periods of declining interest rates the mortgages underlying the securities are prone to prepayment. For this and other reasons, a mortgage-related security’s stated maturity may be shortened by unscheduled prepayments on the underlying mortgages and, therefore, it is not possible to predict
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accurately the security’s return to the Fund. In addition, regular payments received in respect of mortgage-related securities include both interest and principal. No assurance can be given as to the return the Fund will receive when these amounts are reinvested.
Liquidity. The liquidity of certain mortgage-backed securities varies by type of security; at certain times the Fund may encounter difficulty in disposing of such investments. In the past, in stressed markets, certain types of mortgage-backed securities suffered periods of illiquidity when disfavored by the market. It is possible that the Fund may be unable to sell a mortgage-backed security at a desirable time or at the value the Fund has placed on the investment.
Market Value. The market value of the Fund’s adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities may be adversely affected if interest rates increase faster than the rates of interest payable on such securities or by the adjustable rate mortgage loans underlying such securities. Furthermore, adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities or the mortgage loans underlying such securities may contain provisions limiting the amount by which rates may be adjusted upward and downward and may limit the amount by which monthly payments may be increased or decreased to accommodate upward and downward adjustments in interest rates. When the market value of the properties underlying the Mortgage-Backed Securities suffer broad declines on a regional or national level, the values of the corresponding Mortgage-Backed Securities or Mortgage-Backed Securities as a whole, may be adversely affected as well.
Prepayments. Adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities have less potential for capital appreciation than fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities because their coupon rates will decline in response to market interest rate declines. The market value of fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities may be adversely affected as a result of increases in interest rates and, because of the risk of unscheduled principal prepayments, may benefit less than other fixed rate securities of similar maturity from declining interest rates. Finally, to the extent Mortgage-Backed Securities are purchased at a premium, mortgage foreclosures and unscheduled principal prepayments may result in some loss of the Fund’s principal investment to the extent of the premium paid. On the other hand, if such securities are purchased at a discount, both a scheduled payment of principal and an unscheduled prepayment of principal will increase current and total returns and will accelerate the recognition of income.
Yield Characteristics. The yield characteristics of Mortgage-Backed Securities differ from those of traditional fixed income securities. The major differences typically include more frequent interest and principal payments, usually monthly, and the possibility that prepayments of principal may be made at any time. Prepayment rates are influenced by changes in current interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors and cannot be predicted with certainty. As with fixed rate mortgage loans, adjustable rate mortgage loans may be subject to a greater prepayment rate in a declining interest rate environment. The yields to maturity of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which the Funds invest will be affected by the actual rate of payment (including prepayments) of principal of the underlying mortgage loans. The mortgage loans underlying such securities generally may be prepaid at any time without penalty. In a fluctuating interest rate environment, a predominant factor affecting the prepayment rate on a pool of mortgage loans is the difference between the interest rates on the mortgage loans and prevailing mortgage loan interest rates taking into account the cost of any refinancing. In general, if mortgage loan interest rates fall sufficiently below the interest rates on fixed rate mortgage loans underlying mortgage pass-through securities, the rate of prepayment would be expected to increase. Conversely, if mortgage loan interest rates rise above the interest rates on the fixed rate mortgage loans underlying the mortgage pass-through securities, the rate of prepayment may be expected to decrease.
Recent Events Regarding Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Securities. On September 6, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship. As the conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and of any stockholder, officer or director of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac with respect to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the assets of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. FHFA selected a new chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors for each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In connection with the conservatorship, the U.S. Treasury entered into a Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement with each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac pursuant to which the U.S. Treasury will purchase up to an aggregate of $100 billion of each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to maintain a positive net worth in each enterprise. This agreement contains various covenants, discussed below, that severely limit each enterprise’s operations. In exchange for entering into these agreements, the U.S. Treasury received $1 billion of each enterprise’s senior preferred stock and warrants to purchase 79.9% of each enterprise’s common stock. In 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was doubling the size of its commitment to each enterprise under the Senior Preferred Stock Program to $200 billion. The U.S. Treasury’s obligations under the Senior Preferred Stock Program are for an indefinite period of time for a maximum amount of $200 billion per enterprise.
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In 2009, the U.S. Treasury further amended the Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement to allow the cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s net worth through the end of 2012. In August 2012, the Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement was further amended to, among other things, accelerate the wind down of the retained portfolio, terminate the requirement that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac each pay a 10% dividend annually on all amounts received under the funding commitment, and require the submission of an annual risk management plan to the U.S. Treasury.
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remain liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. The Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement is intended to enhance each of Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s ability to meet its obligations. The FHFA has indicated that the conservatorship of each enterprise will end when the director of FHFA determines that FHFA’s plan to restore the enterprise to a safe and solvent condition has been completed.
Under the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008 (the “Reform Act”), which was included as part of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, FHFA, as conservator or receiver, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac prior to FHFA’s appointment as conservator or receiver, as applicable, if FHFA determines, in its sole discretion, that performance of the contract is burdensome and that repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s affairs. The Reform Act requires FHFA to exercise its right to repudiate any contract within a reasonable period of time after its appointment as conservator or receiver. FHFA, in its capacity as conservator, has indicated that it has no intention to repudiate the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac because FHFA views repudiation as incompatible with the goals of the conservatorship. However, in the event that FHFA, as conservator or if it is later appointed as receiver for Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, were to repudiate any such guaranty obligation, the conservatorship or receivership estate, as applicable, would be liable for actual direct compensatory damages in accordance with the provisions of the Reform Act. Any such liability could be satisfied only to the extent of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s assets available therefor. In the event of repudiation, the payments of interest to holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would be reduced if payments on the mortgage loans represented in the mortgage loan groups related to such mortgage-backed securities are not made by the borrowers or advanced by the servicer. Any actual direct compensatory damages for repudiating these guaranty obligations may not be sufficient to offset any shortfalls experienced by such mortgage-backed security holders. Further, in its capacity as conservator or receiver, FHFA has the right to transfer or sell any asset or liability of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac without any approval, assignment or consent. Although FHFA has stated that it has no present intention to do so, if FHFA, as conservator or receiver, were to transfer any such guaranty obligation to another party, holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would have to rely on that party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligation and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party.
In addition, certain rights provided to holders of mortgage-backed securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac under the operative documents related to such securities may not be enforced against FHFA, or enforcement of such rights may be delayed, during the conservatorship or any future receivership. The operative documents for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities may provide (or with respect to securities issued prior to the date of the appointment of the conservator may have provided) that upon the occurrence of an event of default on the part of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, in its capacity as guarantor, which includes the appointment of a conservator or receiver, holders of such mortgage-backed securities have the right to replace Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac as trustee if the requisite percentage of mortgage-backed securities holders consent. The Reform Act prevents mortgage-backed security holders from enforcing such rights if the event of default arises solely because a conservator or receiver has been appointed. The Reform Act also provides that no person may exercise any right or power to terminate, accelerate or declare an event of default under certain contracts to which Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac is a party, or obtain possession of or exercise control over any property of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or affect any contractual rights of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, without the approval of FHFA, as conservator or receiver, for a period of 45 or 90 days following the appointment of FHFA as conservator or receiver, respectively.
In addition, in a February 2011 report to Congress from the Treasury Department and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Obama administration provided a plan to reform America’s housing finance market. The plan would reduce the role of and eventually eliminate Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Notably, the plan does not propose similar significant changes to Ginnie Mae, which guarantees payments on mortgage-related securities backed by federally insured or guaranteed loans such
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as those issued by the Federal Housing Association or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The report also identified three proposals for Congress and the administration to consider for the long-term structure of the housing finance markets after the elimination of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, including implementing: (i) a privatized system of housing finance that limits government insurance to very limited groups of creditworthy low- and moderate-income borrowers; (ii) a privatized system with a government backstop mechanism that would allow the government to insure a larger share of the housing finance market during a future housing crisis; and (iii) a privatized system where the government would offer reinsurance to holders of certain highly-rated mortgage-related securities insured by private insurers and would pay out under the reinsurance arrangements only if the private mortgage insurers were insolvent.
The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of senior preferred stock place significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the Treasury to, among other things, (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions are placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s respective portfolios of mortgages and mortgage-backed securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things) the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in is role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the U.S. Treasury, market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mac, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, including any such mortgage-backed securities held by a Fund.
Risks Related to GSE Credit Risk Transfer Securities and GSE Credit-Linked Notes. GSE Credit risk transfer securities are general obligations issued by a GSE and are unguaranteed and unsecured. GSE Credit-linked notes are similar, except that the notes are issued by an SPV, rather than by a GSE, and the obligations of the SPV are collateralized by the note proceeds as invested by the SPV, which are invested in cash or short-term securities. Although both GSE credit risk transfer securities and GSE credit-linked notes are unguaranteed, obligations of an SPV are also not backstopped by the Department of Treasury or an obligation of a GSE
The risks associated with these investments are different than the risks association with an investment in mortgage-backed securities issued by GSEs or a private issuer. For example, in the event of a default on the obligations to noteholders, noteholders such as the Funds have no recourse to the underlying mortgage loans. In addition, some of all of the mortgage default risk associated with the underlying mortgage loans is transferred to noteholders. As a result, there can be no assurance that losses will not occur on an investment in GSE credit risk transfer securities or GSE credit-linked notes and Funds investing in these instruments may be exposed to the risk of loss on their investment. In addition, these investments are subject to prepayment risk.
In the case of GSE credit-linked notes, if a GSE fails to make a premium or other required payment to the SPV, the SPV may be unable to pay a noteholder the entire amount of interest or principal payable to the noteholder. In the event of a default on the obligations to noteholders, the SPV’s principal and interest payment obligations to noteholders will be subordinated to the SPV’s credit protection payment obligations to the GSE. Payment of such amounts to noteholders depends on the cash available in the trust from the loan proceeds and the GSE’s premium payments.
Any income earned by the SPV on investments of loan proceeds is expected to be less than the interest payments amounts to be paid to noteholders of the GSE credit-linked notes and interest payments to noteholders will be reduced if the GSE fails to make premium payments to the SPV. An SPV’s investment of loan proceeds may also be concentrated in the securities of a few number of issuers. A noteholder bears any investment losses on the allocable portion of the loan proceeds.
An SPV that issues GSE credit-linked notes may fall within the definition of a “commodity pool” under the Commodity Exchange Act. Certain GSEs are not registered as commodity pool operators in reliance on CFTC no-action relief, subject to certain conditions similar to those under CFTC Rule
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4.13(a)(3), which respect to the operation of the SPC. If the GSE or SPV fails to comply with such conditions, noteholders that are investment vehicles, such as the Funds, may need to register as a CPO, which could cause such a Fund to incur increased costs.
Municipal Securities
Municipal Securities are issued to obtain funds for a wide variety of reasons. For example, municipal securities may be issued to obtain funding for the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as:
1. bridges;
2. highways;
3. roads;
4. schools;
5. waterworks and sewer systems; and
6. other utilities.
Other public purposes for which Municipal Securities may be issued include:
1. refunding outstanding obligations;
2. obtaining funds for general operating expenses; and
3. obtaining funds to lend to other public institutions and facilities.
In addition, certain debt obligations known as “Private Activity Bonds” may be issued by or on behalf of municipalities and public authorities to obtain funds to provide:
1. water, sewage and solid waste facilities;
2. qualified residential rental projects;
3. certain local electric, gas and other heating or cooling facilities;
4. qualified hazardous waste facilities;
5. high-speed intercity rail facilities;
6. governmentally-owned airports, docks and wharves and mass transportation facilities;
7. qualified mortgages;
8. student loan and redevelopment bonds; and
9. bonds used for certain organizations exempt from Federal income taxation.
Certain debt obligations known as “Industrial Development Bonds” under prior Federal tax law may have been issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide:
1. privately operated housing facilities;
2. sports facilities;
3. industrial parks;
4. convention or trade show facilities;
5. airport, mass transit, port or parking facilities;
6. air or water pollution control facilities;
7. sewage or solid waste disposal facilities; and
8. facilities for water supply.
Other private activity bonds and industrial development bonds issued to fund the construction, improvement, equipment or repair of privately-operated industrial, distribution, research, or commercial facilities may also be Municipal Securities, however the size of such issues is limited under current and
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prior Federal tax law. The aggregate amount of most private activity bonds and industrial development bonds is limited (except in the case of certain types of facilities) under Federal tax law by an annual “volume cap.” The volume cap limits the annual aggregate principal amount of such obligations issued by or on behalf of all governmental instrumentalities in the state.
The two principal classifications of Municipal Securities consist of “general obligation” and “limited” (or revenue) issues. General obligation bonds are obligations involving the credit of an issuer possessing taxing power and are payable from the issuer’s general unrestricted revenues and not from any particular fund or source. The characteristics and method of enforcement of general obligation bonds vary according to the law applicable to the particular issuer, and payment may be dependent upon appropriation by the issuer’s legislative body. Limited obligation bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source. Private activity bonds and industrial development bonds generally are revenue bonds and thus not payable from the unrestricted revenues of the issuer. The credit and quality of such bonds is generally related to the credit of the bank selected to provide the letter of credit underlying the bond. Payment of principal of and interest on industrial development revenue bonds is the responsibility of the corporate user (and any guarantor).
The Funds may also acquire “moral obligation” issues, which are normally issued by special purpose authorities, and in other tax-exempt investments including pollution control bonds and tax-exempt commercial paper. Each Fund that may purchase municipal bonds may purchase:
1. Short-term tax-exempt General Obligations Notes;
2. Tax Anticipation Notes;
3. Bond Anticipation Notes;
4. Revenue Anticipation Notes;
5. Project Notes; and
6. Other forms of short-term tax-exempt loans.
Such notes are issued with a short-term maturity in anticipation of the receipt of tax funds, the proceeds of bond placements, or other revenues. Project Notes are issued by a state or local housing agency and are sold by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. While the issuing agency has the primary obligation with respect to its Project Notes, they are also secured by the full faith and credit of the U.S. through agreements with the issuing authority which provide that, if required, the Federal government will lend the issuer an amount equal to the principal of and interest on the Project Notes.
There are, of course, variations in the quality of Municipal Securities, both within a particular classification and between classifications. Also, the yields on Municipal Securities depend upon a variety of factors, including:
1. general money market conditions;
2. coupon rate;
3. the financial condition of the issuer;
4. general conditions of the municipal bond market;
5. the size of a particular offering;
6. the maturity of the obligations; and
7. the rating of the issue.
The ratings of Moody’s and S&P represent their opinions as to the quality of Municipal Securities. However, ratings are general and are not absolute standards of quality. Municipal Securities with the same maturity, interest rate and rating may have different yields while Municipal Securities of the same maturity and interest rate with different ratings may have the same yield. Subsequent to its purchase by a Fund, an issue of Municipal Securities may cease to be rated or its rating may be reduced below the minimum rating required for purchase by the Fund. The Adviser will consider such an event in determining whether the Fund should continue to hold the obligations.
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Municipal Securities may include obligations of municipal housing authorities and single-family mortgage revenue bonds. Weaknesses in Federal housing subsidy programs and their administration may result in a decrease of subsidies available for payment of principal and interest on housing authority bonds. Economic developments, including fluctuations in interest rates and increasing construction and operating costs, may also adversely impact revenues of housing authorities. In the case of some housing authorities, inability to obtain additional financing could also reduce revenues available to pay existing obligations.
Single-family mortgage revenue bonds are subject to extraordinary mandatory redemption at par in whole or in part from the proceeds derived from prepayments of underlying mortgage loans and also from the unused proceeds of the issue within a stated period which may be within a year from the date of issue.
Municipal leases are obligations issued by state and local governments or authorities to finance the acquisition of equipment and facilities. Municipal leases may be considered to be illiquid. They may take the form of a lease, an installment purchase contract, a conditional sales contract, or a participation interest in any of the above. The Board of Trustees is responsible for determining the credit quality of unrated municipal leases on an ongoing basis, including an assessment of the likelihood that the lease will not be canceled.
Premium Securities. During a period of declining interest rates, many Municipal Securities in which the Funds invest likely will bear coupon rates higher than current market rates, regardless of whether the securities were initially purchased at a premium.
Risk Factors in Municipal Securities. The following is a summary of certain risks associated with Municipal Securities
Tax Risk. The Code imposes certain continuing requirements on issuers of tax-exempt bonds regarding the use, expenditure and investment of bond proceeds and the payment of rebates to the U.S. Failure by the issuer to comply subsequent to the issuance of tax-exempt bonds with certain of these requirements could cause interest on the bonds to become includable in gross income retroactive to the date of issuance.
Housing Authority Tax Risk. The exclusion from gross income for Federal income tax purposes for certain housing authority bonds depends on qualification under relevant provisions of the Code and on other provisions of Federal law. These provisions of Federal law contain requirements relating to the cost and location of the residences financed with the proceeds of the single-family mortgage bonds and the income levels of tenants of the rental projects financed with the proceeds of the multi-family housing bonds. Typically, the issuers of the bonds, and other parties, including the originators and servicers of the single-family mortgages and the owners of the rental projects financed with the multi-family housing bonds, covenant to meet these requirements. However, there is no assurance that the requirements will be met. If such requirements are not met:
the interest on the bonds may become taxable, possibly retroactively from the date of issuance;
the value of the bonds may be reduced;
you and other Shareholders may be subject to unanticipated tax liabilities;
a Fund may be required to sell the bonds at the reduced value;
it may be an event of default under the applicable mortgage;
the holder may be permitted to accelerate payment of the bond; and
the issuer may be required to redeem the bond.
In addition, if the mortgage securing the bonds is insured by the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”), the consent of the FHA may be required before insurance proceeds would become payable.
Information Risk. Information about the financial condition of issuers of Municipal Securities may be less available than that of corporations having a class of securities registered under the SEC.
State and Federal Laws. An issuer’s obligations under its Municipal Securities are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency, and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors. These laws may extend the time for payment of principal or interest, or restrict the Fund’s ability to collect payments due on Municipal Securities. In addition, recent amendments to some statutes governing security interests (e.g., Revised Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (“UCC”)) change the way in which
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security interests and liens securing Municipal Securities are perfected. These amendments may have an adverse impact on existing Municipal Securities (particularly issues of Municipal Securities that do not have a corporate trustee who is responsible for filing UCC financing statements to continue the security interest or lien).
Litigation and Current Developments. Litigation or other conditions may materially and adversely affect the power or ability of an issuer to meet its obligations for the payment of interest on and principal of its Municipal Securities. Such litigation or conditions may from time to time have the effect of introducing uncertainties in the market for tax-exempt obligations, or may materially affect the credit risk with respect to particular bonds or notes. Adverse economic, business, legal or political developments might affect all or a substantial portion of a Fund’s Municipal Securities in the same manner. .Given the recent bankruptcy-type proceedings by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, risks associated with municipal obligations are heightened.
New Legislation. From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on tax exempt bonds, and similar proposals may be introduced in the future. The Supreme Court has held that Congress has the constitutional authority to enact such legislation. It is not possible to determine what effect the adoption of such proposals could have on (i) the availability of Municipal Securities for investment by the Funds, and (ii) the value of the investment portfolios of the Funds.
Limitations on the Use of Municipal Securities. Certain Funds may invest in Municipal Securities if the Adviser determines that such Municipal Securities offer attractive yields. The Funds may invest in Municipal Securities either by purchasing them directly or by purchasing certificates of accrual or similar instruments evidencing direct ownership of interest payments or principal payments, or both, on Municipal Securities, provided that, in the opinion of counsel to the initial seller of each such certificate or instrument, any discount accruing on such certificate or instrument that is purchased at a yield not greater than the coupon rate of interest on the related Municipal Securities will to the same extent as interest on such Municipal Securities be exempt from federal income tax and state income tax (where applicable) and not be treated as a preference item for individuals for purposes of the federal alternative minimum tax. The Funds may also invest in Municipal Securities by purchasing from banks participation interests in all or part of specific holdings of Municipal Securities. Such participation interests may be backed in whole or in part by an irrevocable letter of credit or guarantee of the selling bank. The selling bank may receive a fee from a Fund in connection with the arrangement. Each Fund will limit its investment in municipal leases to no more than 5% of its total assets.
Options and Futures Transactions
A Fund may purchase and sell (a) exchange traded and OTC put and call options on securities, on indexes of securities and other types of instruments, and on futures contracts on securities and indexes of securities and other instruments such as interest rate futures and global interest rate futures and (b) futures contracts on securities and other types of instruments and on indexes of securities and other types of instruments. Each of these instruments is a derivative instrument as its value derives from the underlying asset or index.
Subject to its investment objective and policies, a Fund may use futures contracts and options for hedging and risk management purposes and to seek to enhance portfolio performance.
Options and futures contracts may be used to manage a Fund’s exposure to changing interest rates and/or security prices. Some options and futures strategies, including selling futures contracts and buying puts, tend to hedge a Fund’s investments against price fluctuations. Other strategies, including buying futures contracts and buying calls, tend to increase market exposure. Options and futures contracts may be combined with each other or with forward contracts in order to adjust the risk and return characteristics of a Fund’s overall strategy in a manner deemed appropriate by the Fund’s Adviser and consistent with the Fund’s objective and policies. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open and close out.
The use of options and futures is a highly specialized activity which involves investment strategies and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions, and there can be no guarantee that their use will increase a Fund’s return. While the use of these instruments by a Fund may reduce certain risks associated with owning its portfolio securities, these techniques themselves entail certain other risks. If a Fund’s Adviser applies a strategy at an inappropriate time or judges market conditions or trends incorrectly, options and futures strategies may lower a Fund’s return. Certain strategies limit a Fund’s possibilities to realize gains, as well as its exposure to losses. A Fund could also experience
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losses if the prices of its options and futures positions were poorly correlated with its other investments, or if it could not close out its positions because of an illiquid secondary market. In addition, the Fund will incur transaction costs, including trading commissions and option premiums, in connection with its futures and options transactions, and these transactions could significantly increase the Fund’s turnover rate.
Certain Funds have filed a notice under the Commodity Exchange Act under Regulation 4.5 and are operated by a person that has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation as a pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act. Certain other Funds may rely on no action relief issued by the CFTC.
Purchasing Put and Call Options. By purchasing a put option, a Fund obtains the right (but not the obligation) to sell the instrument underlying the option at a fixed strike price. In return for this right, a Fund pays the current market price for the option (known as the option premium). Options have various types of underlying instruments, including specific securities, indexes of securities, indexes of securities prices, and futures contracts. A Fund may terminate its position in a put option it has purchased by allowing it to expire or by exercising the option. A Fund may also close out a put option position by entering into an offsetting transaction, if a liquid market exists. If the option is allowed to expire, a Fund will lose the entire premium it paid. If a Fund exercises a put option on a security, it will sell the instrument underlying the option at the strike price. If a Fund exercises an option on an index, settlement is in cash and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. If an option is American style, it may be exercised on any day up to its expiration date. A European style option may be exercised only on its expiration date.
The buyer of a typical put option can expect to realize a gain if the value of the underlying instrument falls substantially. However, if the price of the instrument underlying the option does not fall enough to offset the cost of purchasing the option, a put buyer can expect to suffer a loss (limited to the amount of the premium paid, plus related transaction costs).
The features of call options are essentially the same as those of put options, except that the purchaser of a call option obtains the right to purchase, rather than sell, the instrument underlying the option at the option’s strike price. A call buyer typically attempts to participate in potential price increases of the instrument underlying the option with risk limited to the cost of the option if security prices fall. At the same time, the buyer can expect to suffer a loss if security prices do not rise sufficiently to offset the cost of the option.
Selling (Writing) Put and Call Options on Securities. When a Fund writes a put option on a security, it takes the opposite side of the transaction from the option’s purchaser. In return for the receipt of the premium, a Fund assumes the obligation to pay the strike price for the security underlying the option if the other party to the option chooses to exercise it. A Fund may seek to terminate its position in a put option it writes before exercise by purchasing an offsetting option in the market at its current price. If the market is not liquid for a put option a Fund has written, however, it must continue to be prepared to pay the strike price while the option is outstanding, regardless of price changes, and must continue to post margin as discussed below. If the market value of the underlying securities does not move to a level that would make exercise of the option profitable to its holder, the option will generally expire unexercised, and the Fund will realize as profit the premium it received.
If the price of the underlying securities rises, a put writer would generally expect to profit, although its gain would be limited to the amount of the premium it received. If security prices remain the same over time, it is likely that the writer will also profit, because it should be able to close out the option at a lower price. If security prices fall, the put writer would expect to suffer a loss. This loss should be less than the loss from purchasing and holding the underlying security directly, however, because the premium received for writing the option should offset a portion of the decline.
Writing a call option obligates a Fund to sell or deliver the option’s underlying security in return for the strike price upon exercise of the option. The characteristics of writing call options are similar to those of writing put options, except that writing calls generally is a profitable strategy if prices remain the same or fall. Through receipt of the option premium a call writer offsets part of the effect of a price decline. At the same time, because a call writer must be prepared to deliver the underlying instrument in return for the strike price, even if its current value is greater, a call writer gives up some ability to participate in security price increases.
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In order to meet its asset coverage requirements, when a Fund writes an exchange traded put or call option on a security, it will be required to deposit cash or securities or a letter of credit as margin and to make mark to market payments of variation margin as the position becomes unprofitable.
Certain Funds will usually sell covered call options or cash-secured put options on securities. A call option is covered if the writer either owns the underlying security (or comparable securities satisfying the cover requirements of the securities exchanges) or has the right to acquire such securities. A put option is cash-secured if the writer segregates cash, high-grade short-term debt obligations, or other permissible collateral equal to the exercise price. As the writer of a covered call option, the Fund foregoes, during the option’s life, the opportunity to profit from increases in the market value of the security covering the call option above the sum of the premium and the strike price of the call, but has retained the risk of loss should the price of the underlying security decline. As the Fund writes covered calls over more of its portfolio, its ability to benefit from capital appreciation becomes more limited. The writer of an option has no control over the time when it may be required to fulfill its obligation, but may terminate its position by entering into an offsetting option. Once an option writer has received an exercise notice, it cannot effect an offsetting transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver the underlying security at the exercise price.
When the Fund writes cash-secured put options, it bears the risk of loss if the value of the underlying stock declines below the exercise price minus the put premium. If the option is exercised, the Fund could incur a loss if it is required to purchase the stock underlying the put option at a price greater than the market price of the stock at the time of exercise plus the put premium the Fund received when it wrote the option. While the Fund’s potential gain in writing a cash-secured put option is limited to distributions earned on the liquid assets securing the put option plus the premium received from the purchaser of the put option, the Fund risks a loss equal to the entire exercise price of the option minus the put premium.
Engaging in Straddles and Spreads. In a straddle transaction, a Fund either buys a call and a put or sells a call and a put on the same security. In a spread, a Fund purchases and sells a call or a put. A Fund will sell a straddle when the Fund’s Adviser believes the price of a security will be stable. The Fund will receive a premium on the sale of the put and the call. A spread permits a Fund to make a hedged investment that the price of a security will increase or decline.
Options on Indexes. Certain Funds may purchase and sell options on securities indexes and other types of indexes. Options on indexes are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of index options may be settled by cash payments (or in some instances by a futures contract) and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities or the instruments in the index. In addition, these options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or instruments or segment of the securities’ or instruments’ market rather than price fluctuations in a single security or instrument. A Fund, in purchasing or selling index options, is subject to the risk that the value of its portfolio may not change as much as an index because a Fund’s investments generally will not match the composition of an index. Unlike call options on securities, index options are cash settled, or settled with a futures contract in some instances, rather than settled by delivery of the underlying index securities or instruments.
Certain Funds purchase and sell credit options which are options on indexes of derivative instruments such as credit default swap indexes. Like other index options, credit options can be cash settled or settled with a futures contract in some instances. In addition, credit options can also be settled in some instances by delivery of the underlying index instrument. Credit options may be used for a variety of purposes including hedging, risk management such as positioning a portfolio for anticipated volatility or increasing income or gain to a Fund. There is no guarantee that the strategy of using options on indexes or credit options in particular will be successful.
For a number of reasons, a liquid market may not exist and thus a Fund may not be able to close out an option position that it has previously entered into. When a Fund purchases an OTC option (as defined below), it will be relying on its counterparty to perform its obligations and the Fund may incur additional losses if the counterparty is unable to perform.
Exchange-Traded and OTC Options. All options purchased or sold by a Fund will be traded on a securities exchange or will be purchased or sold by securities dealers (“OTC options”) that meet the Fund’s creditworthiness standards. While exchange-traded options are obligations of the Options Clearing Corporation, in the case of OTC options, a Fund relies on the dealer from which it purchased the option to perform if the option is exercised. Thus, when a Fund purchases an OTC option, it relies on the dealer from which it purchased the option to make or take delivery of the underlying securities. Failure by the dealer to do so would result in the loss of the premium paid by a Fund as well as loss of the expected benefit of the transaction.
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Provided that a Fund has arrangements with certain qualified dealers who agree that a Fund may repurchase any option it writes for a maximum price to be calculated by a predetermined formula, a Fund may treat the underlying securities used to cover written OTC options as liquid. In these cases, the OTC option itself would only be considered illiquid to the extent that the maximum repurchase price under the formula exceeds the intrinsic value of the option.
Futures Contracts. When a Fund purchases a futures contract, it agrees to purchase a specified quantity of an underlying instrument at a specified future date or, in the case of an index futures contract, to make a cash payment based on the value of a securities index. When a Fund sells a futures contract, it agrees to sell a specified quantity of the underlying instrument at a specified future date or, in the case of an index futures contract, to receive a cash payment based on the value of a securities index. The price at which the purchase and sale will take place is fixed when a Fund enters into the contract. Futures can be held until their delivery dates or the position can be (and normally is) closed out before then. There is no assurance, however, that a liquid market will exist when the Fund wishes to close out a particular position.
When a Fund purchases a futures contract, the value of the futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of its underlying instrument. Therefore, purchasing futures contracts will tend to increase a Fund’s exposure to positive and negative price fluctuations in the underlying instrument, much as if it had purchased the underlying instrument directly. When a Fund sells a futures contract, by contrast, the value of its futures position will tend to move in a direction contrary to the value of the underlying instrument. Selling futures contracts, therefore, will tend to offset both positive and negative market price changes, much as if the underlying instrument had been sold.
The purchaser or seller of a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying instrument unless the contract is held until the delivery date. However, when a Fund buys or sells a futures contract, it will be required to deposit “initial margin” with a futures commission merchant (“FCM”). Initial margin deposits are typically equal to a small percentage of the contract’s value. If the value of either party’s position declines, that party will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments equal to the change in value on a daily basis.
The party that has a gain may be entitled to receive all or a portion of this amount. A Fund may be obligated to make payments of variation margin at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so. Furthermore, it may not always be possible for a Fund to close out its futures positions. Until it closes out a futures position, a Fund will be obligated to continue to pay variation margin. Initial and variation margin payments do not constitute purchasing on margin for purposes of a Fund’s investment restrictions. In the event of the bankruptcy of an FCM that holds margin on behalf of a Fund, the Fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. For cash-settled futures, the Fund will segregate or earmark liquid assets in an amount equal to the mark-to-market value. For physically settled futures, the Fund will earmark or segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the notional value. For physically settled futures, except for certain physically settled futures held by the JPMorgan Systematic Alpha Fund or its Cayman subsidiary, the Fund will earmark or segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the notional value. Futures contracts will be treated as cash-settled for asset segregation purposes when the JPMorgan Systematic Alpha Fund and/or its Cayman subsidiary have entered into a contractual arrangement (each, a side letter”) with a third party FCM or other counterparty to off-set the Fund’s or Subsidiary’s exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligation under the contract to the FCM or counterparty. In calculating the segregation amount, netting of similar contracts is generally permitted. Such assets cannot be sold while the futures contract or option is outstanding unless they are replaced with other suitable assets. By setting aside assets equal only to its net obligation under cash-settled futures or under physically-settled futures for which the JPMorgan Systematic Alpha Fund and/or its Cayman subsidiary have entered into a side letter, a Fund will have the ability to have exposure to such instruments to a greater extent than if a Fund were required to set aside assets equal to the full notional value of such contracts. There is a possibility that earmarking and reservation of a large percentage of a Fund’s assets could impede portfolio management or a Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.
The Funds only invest in futures contracts on securities to the extent they could invest in the underlying securities directly. Certain Funds may also invest in index futures where the underlying securities or instruments are not available for direct investments by the Funds.
Cash Equitization. The objective where equity futures are used to “equitize” cash is to match the notional value of all futures contracts to a Fund’s cash balance. The notional values of the futures contracts and of the cash are monitored daily. As the cash is invested in securities and/or paid out to participants in
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redemptions, the Adviser simultaneously adjusts the futures positions. Through such procedures, a Fund not only gains equity exposure from the use of futures, but also benefits from increased flexibility in responding to client cash flow needs. Additionally, because it can be less expensive to trade a list of securities as a package or program trade rather than as a group of individual orders, futures provide a means through which transaction costs can be reduced. Such non-hedging risk management techniques involve leverage, and thus present, as do all leveraged transactions, the possibility of losses as well as gains that are greater than if these techniques involved the purchase and sale of the securities themselves rather than their synthetic derivatives.
Options on Futures Contracts. Futures contracts obligate the buyer to take and the seller to make delivery at a future date of a specified quantity of a financial instrument or an amount of cash based on the value of a securities or other index. Currently, futures contracts are available on various types of securities, including but not limited to U.S. Treasury bonds, notes and bills, Eurodollar certificates of deposit and on indexes of securities. Unlike a futures contract, which requires the parties to buy and sell a security or make a cash settlement payment based on changes in a financial instrument or securities or other index on an agreed date, an option on a futures contract entitles its holder to decide on or before a future date whether to enter into such a contract. If the holder decides not to exercise its option, the holder may close out the option position by entering into an offsetting transaction or may decide to let the option expire and forfeit the premium thereon. The purchaser of an option on a futures contract pays a premium for the option but makes no initial margin payments or daily payments of cash in the nature of “variation margin” payments to reflect the change in the value of the underlying contract as does a purchaser or seller of a futures contract.
The seller of an option on a futures contract receives the premium paid by the purchaser and may be required to pay initial margin. For physically settled options on futures, the Funds will earmark or segregate an amount of liquid assets equal to the notional value of the underlying future. For cash-settled options on futures, the Fund will earmark or segregate an amount of liquid assets equal to the market value of the obligation. Market value is equal to the intrinsic value, which is calculated by taking the number of contracts times a multiplier times the difference between the strike and current market price.
Combined Positions. Certain Funds may purchase and write options in combination with futures or forward contracts, to adjust the risk and return characteristics of the overall position. For example, a Fund may purchase a put option and write a call option on the same underlying instrument, in order to construct a combined position whose risk and return characteristics are similar to selling a futures contract. Another possible combined position would involve writing a call option at one strike price and buying a call option at a lower price, in order to reduce the risk of the written call option in the event of a substantial price increase. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open and close out.
Correlation of Price Changes. Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded options and futures contracts, it is likely that the standardized options and futures contracts available will not match a Fund’s current or anticipated investments exactly. A Fund may invest in futures and options contracts based on securities or instruments with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which it typically invests, which involves a risk that the options or futures position will not track the performance of a Fund’s other investments.
Options and futures contracts prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match the Fund’s investments well. Options and futures contracts prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the options and futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how options and futures and securities are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. A Fund may purchase or sell options and futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a Fund’s options or futures positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.
Liquidity of Options and Futures Contracts. There is no assurance that a liquid market will exist for any particular option or futures contract at any particular time even if the contract is traded on an exchange. In addition, exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for options and futures contracts and may halt trading if a contract’s price moves up or down more than the limit in a given day. On
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volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible for a Fund to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. If the market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or otherwise, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions, and could potentially require a Fund to continue to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value. As a result, a Fund’s access to other assets held to cover its options or futures positions could also be impaired. (See “Exchange-Traded and OTC Options” above for a discussion of the liquidity of options not traded on an exchange.)
Foreign Investment Risk. Certain Funds may buy and sell options on interest rate futures including global interest rate futures in which the reference interest rate is tied to currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Such investments are subject to additional risks including the risks associated with foreign investment and currency risk. See “Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)” in this SAI Part II.
Position Limits. Futures exchanges can limit the number of futures and options on futures contracts that can be held or controlled by an entity. If an adequate exemption cannot be obtained, a Fund or the Fund’s Adviser may be required to reduce the size of its futures and options positions or may not be able to trade a certain futures or options contract in order to avoid exceeding such limits.
Asset Segregation for Futures Contracts and Options Positions. A Fund will set aside or earmark appropriate liquid assets for asset segregation purposes. Such assets cannot be sold while the futures contract or option is outstanding, unless they are replaced with other suitable assets. As a result, there is a possibility that the reservation of a large percentage of a Fund’s assets could impede portfolio management or a Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)
Certain of the Funds may invest in equity interests or debt obligations issued by REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in income producing real estate or real estate related loans or interest. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling property that has appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Similar to investment companies, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with several requirements of the Code. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of expenses incurred by REITs in which a Fund invests in addition to the expenses incurred directly by a Fund.
Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills and on cash flows, are not diversified, and are subject to default by borrowers and self-liquidation. REITs are also subject to the possibilities of failing to qualify for tax free pass-through of income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemption from registration under the 1940 Act.
REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks. When interest rates decline, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to rise. Conversely, when interest rates rise, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to decline. In contrast, as interest rates on adjustable rate mortgage loans are reset periodically, yields on a REIT’s investment in such loans will gradually align themselves to fluctuate less dramatically in response to interest rate fluctuations than would investments in fixed rate obligations.
Investment in REITs involves risks similar to those associated with investing in small capitalization companies. These risks include:
limited financial resources;
infrequent or limited trading; and
more abrupt or erratic price movements than larger company securities.
In addition, small capitalization stocks, such as certain REITs, historically have been more volatile in price than the larger capitalization stocks included in the S&P 500 Index.
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Recent Events Relating to the Overall Economy
The U.S. Government, the Federal Reserve, the Treasury, the SEC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and other governmental and regulatory bodies have taken actions to address the financial crisis. These actions included, in part, the enactment by the United States Congress of the “Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act”, which was signed into law on July 21, 2010 and imposed a new regulatory framework over the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general, and proposed and final regulations by the SEC. Given the broad scope, sweeping nature, and relatively recent enactment of some of these regulatory measures, the potential impact they could have on securities held by the Funds is unknown. There can be no assurance that these measures will not have an adverse effect on the value or marketability of securities held by the Funds. Furthermore, no assurance can be made that the U.S. Government or any U.S. regulatory body (or other authority or regulatory body) will not continue to take further legislative or regulatory action, and the effect of such actions, if taken, cannot be known. However, current efforts by the U.S. Government to reduce the impact of regulations on the U.S. financial services industry could lead to the repeal of certain elements of the regulatory framework.
Repurchase Agreements
Repurchase agreements may be entered into with brokers, dealers or banks or other entities that meet the Adviser’s credit guidelines. A Fund will enter into repurchase agreements only with member banks of the Federal Reserve System and securities dealers or other entities believed by the Adviser to be creditworthy. The Adviser may consider the collateral received and any applicable guarantees in making its determination. In a repurchase agreement, a Fund buys a security from a seller that has agreed to repurchase the same security at a mutually agreed upon date and price. The resale price normally is in excess of the purchase price, reflecting an agreed upon interest rate. This interest rate is effective for the period of time a Fund is invested in the agreement and is not related to the coupon rate on the underlying security. A repurchase agreement may also be viewed as a fully collateralized loan of money by a Fund to the seller. The maximum maturity permitted for a non-“putable” repurchase agreement will be (i) 95 days for a Money Market Fund for certain counterparties and 45 days for others and (ii) 190 days for any Fund that is not a Money Market Fund. The maximum notice period permitted for a “putable” or “open” repurchase agreement (i.e., where the Fund has a right to put the repurchase agreement to the counterparty or terminate the transaction at par plus accrued interest at a specified notice period) will be (i) 95 days for a Money Market Fund for certain counterparties and 45 days for others and (ii) 190 days for any Fund that is not a Money Market Fund. The securities which are subject to repurchase agreements, however, may have maturity dates in excess of 190 days from the effective date of the repurchase agreement. In addition, the maturity of a “putable” or “open” repurchase agreement may be in excess of 190 days. Repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days (or where the put right or notice provision requires greater than seven days’ notice) are treated as illiquid for purposes of a Fund’s restrictions on purchases of illiquid securities. A Fund will always receive securities as collateral during the term of the agreement whose market value is at least equal to 100% of the dollar amount invested by the Fund in each agreement plus accrued interest. The repurchase agreements further authorize the Fund to demand additional collateral in the event that the dollar value of the collateral falls below 100%. A Fund will make payment for such securities only upon physical delivery or upon evidence of book entry transfer to the account of the custodian. Repurchase agreements are considered under the 1940 Act to be loans collateralized by the underlying securities.
All of the Funds that are permitted to invest in repurchase agreements may engage in repurchase agreement transactions that are collateralized fully as defined in Rule 5b-3(c)(1) of the 1940 Act (except that Rule 5b-3(c)(1)(iv)(C) under the 1940 Act shall not apply for the Money Market Funds), which has the effect of enabling a Fund to look to the collateral, rather than the counterparty, for determining whether its assets are “diversified” for 1940 Act purposes. With respect to the Money Market Funds, in accordance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, the Adviser evaluates the creditworthiness of each counterparty. The Adviser may consider the collateral received and any applicable guarantees in making its determination. Certain Funds may, in addition, engage in repurchase agreement transactions that are collateralized by money market instruments, debt securities, loan participations, equity securities or other securities including securities that are rated below investment grade by the requisite NRSROs or unrated securities of comparable quality. For these types of repurchase agreement transactions, the Fund would look to the counterparty, and not the collateral, for determining such diversification.
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A repurchase agreement is subject to the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. In the event of default by the seller under a repurchase agreement construed to be a collateralized loan, the underlying securities would not be owned by the Fund, but would only constitute collateral for the seller’s obligation to pay the repurchase price. Therefore, a Fund may suffer time delays and incur costs in connection with the disposition of the collateral. The collateral underlying repurchase agreements may be more susceptible to claims of the seller’s creditors than would be the case with securities owned by the Fund.
Under existing guidance from the SEC, certain Funds may transfer uninvested cash balances into a joint account, along with cash of other Funds and certain other accounts. These balances may be invested in one or more repurchase agreements and/or short-term money market instruments.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
In a reverse repurchase agreement, a Fund sells a security and agrees to repurchase the same security at a mutually agreed upon date and price reflecting the interest rate effective for the term of the agreement. For purposes of the 1940 Act, a reverse repurchase agreement is considered borrowing by a Fund and, therefore, a form of leverage. Leverage may cause any gains or losses for a Fund to be magnified. The Funds will invest the proceeds of borrowings under reverse repurchase agreements. In addition, except for liquidity purposes, a Fund will enter into a reverse repurchase agreement only when the expected return from the investment of the proceeds is greater than the expense of the transaction. A Fund will not invest the proceeds of a reverse repurchase agreement for a period which exceeds the duration of the reverse repurchase agreement. A Fund would be required to pay interest on amounts obtained through reverse repurchase agreements, which are considered borrowings under federal securities laws. The repurchase price is generally equal to the original sales price plus interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are usually for seven days or less and cannot be repaid prior to their expiration dates. Each Fund will earmark and reserve Fund assets, in cash or liquid securities, in an amount at least equal to its purchase obligations under its reverse repurchase agreements. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the portfolio securities transferred may decline below the price at which a Fund is obliged to purchase the securities. All forms of borrowing (including reverse repurchase agreements) are limited in the aggregate and may not exceed 33 13% of a Fund’s total assets, except as permitted by law.
Securities Lending
To generate additional income, certain Funds may lend up to 33 13% of such Fund’s total assets pursuant to agreements requiring that the loan be continuously secured by collateral equal to at least 100% of the market value plus accrued interest on the securities lent. Securities lending involves counterparty risk, including the risk that the loaned securities may not be returned or returned in a timely manner and/or a loss of rights in the collateral if the borrower or the lending agent defaults or fails financially. This risk is increased when a Fund’s loans are concentrated with a single or limited number of borrowers. The earnings on the collateral invested may not be sufficient to pay fees incurred in connection with the loan. Also, the principal value of the collateral invested may decline and may not be sufficient to pay back the borrower for the amount of collateral posted. There are no limits on the number of borrowers a Fund may use and a Fund may lend securities to only one or a small group of borrowers. Funds participating in securities lending bear the risk of loss in connection with investments of the cash collateral received from the borrowers, which do not trigger additional collateral requirements from the borrower.
To the extent that the value or return of a Fund’s investments of the cash collateral declines below the amount owed to a borrower, the Fund may incur losses that exceed the amount it earned on lending the security. In situations where the Adviser does not believe that it is prudent to sell the cash collateral investments in the market, a Fund may borrow money to repay the borrower the amount of cash collateral owed to the borrower upon return of the loaned securities. This will result in financial leverage, which may cause the Fund to be more volatile because financial leverage tends to exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. While certain Funds are permitted to engage in securities lending, the Funds did not loan their securities or employ securities lending agents during their most recent fiscal year.
Short Selling
In short selling transactions, a Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the security. To complete the transaction, a Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. A Fund is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it subsequently at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at
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which the security was sold by a Fund, which may result in a loss or gain, respectively. Unlike taking a long position in a security by purchasing the security, where potential losses are limited to the purchase price, short sales have no cap on maximum losses, and gains are limited to the price of the security at the time of the short sale.
Short sales of forward commitments and derivatives do not involve borrowing a security. These types of short sales may include futures, options, contracts for differences, forward contracts on financial instruments and options such as contracts, credit linked instruments, and swap contracts.
A Fund may not always be able to borrow a security it wants to sell short. A Fund also may be unable to close out an established short position at an acceptable price and may have to sell long positions at disadvantageous times to cover its short positions. The value of your investment in a Fund will fluctuate in response to movements in the market. Fund performance also will depend on the effectiveness of the Adviser’s research and the management team’s investment decisions. The SEC and financial industry regulatory authorities in other countries may impose prohibitions, restrictions or other regulatory requirements on short sales, which could inhibit the ability of the Adviser to sell securities short on behalf of the Fund. For example, in September 2008, in response to spreading turmoil in the financial markets, the SEC temporarily banned short selling in the stocks of numerous financial services companies, and also promulgated new disclosure requirements with respect to short positions held by investment managers. The SEC’s temporary ban on short selling of such stocks has since expired, but should similar restrictions and/or additional disclosure requirements be promulgated, especially if market turmoil occurs, a Fund may be forced to cover short positions more quickly than otherwise intended and may suffer losses as a result. Such restrictions may also adversely affect the ability of a Fund (especially if a Fund utilizes short selling as a significant portion of its investment strategy) to execute its investment strategies generally.
Short sales also involve other costs. A Fund must repay to the lender an amount equal to any dividends or interest that accrues while the loan is outstanding. To borrow the security, a Fund may be required to pay a premium. A Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales. The amount of any ultimate gain for a Fund resulting from a short sale will be decreased and the amount of any ultimate loss will be increased by the amount of premiums, interest or expenses a Fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale. Until a Fund closes the short position, it will earmark and reserve Fund assets, in cash or liquid securities, to offset a portion of the leverage risk. Realized gains from short sales are typically treated as short-term gains/losses.
Certain of a Fund’s service providers may have agreed to waive fees and reimburse expenses to limit the Fund’s operating expenses in the amount and for the time period specified in the Fund’s prospectuses. The expense limitation does not include certain expenses including, to the extent indicated in the Fund’s prospectuses, dividend and interest expense on short sales. In calculating the interest expense on short sales for purposes of this exclusion, the Fund will recognize all economic elements of interest costs, including premium and discount adjustments.
Short-Term Funding Agreements
Short-term funding agreements issued by insurance companies are sometimes referred to as Guaranteed Investment Contracts (“GICs”), while those issued by banks are referred to as Bank Investment Contracts (“BICs”). Pursuant to such agreements, a Fund makes cash contributions to a deposit account at a bank or insurance company. The bank or insurance company then credits to the Fund on a monthly basis guaranteed interest at either a fixed, variable or floating rate. These contracts are general obligations of the issuing bank or insurance company (although they may be the obligations of an insurance company separate account) and are paid from the general assets of the issuing entity.
Generally, there is no active secondary market in short-term funding agreements. Therefore, short-term funding agreements may be considered by a Fund to be illiquid investments. To the extent that a short-term funding agreement is determined to be illiquid, such agreements will be acquired by a Fund only if, at the time of purchase, no more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets (5% of the total assets for the Money Market Funds) will be invested in short-term funding agreements and other illiquid securities.
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies
The Funds may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market fund securities and cash. To the extent the SPAC is invested in cash or similar securities, this may impact a Fund’s ability to meet its
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investment objective. If an acquisition that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time, the invested funds are returned to the entity’s shareholders, less certain permitted expense, and any warrants issued by the SPAC will expire worthless. Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank check companies without an operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. In addition, these securities, which are typically traded in the over-the-counter market, may be considered illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale.
Structured Investments
A structured investment is a security having a return tied to an underlying index or other security or asset class. Structured investments generally are individually negotiated agreements and may be traded over-the-counter. Structured investments are organized and operated to restructure the investment characteristics of the underlying security. This restructuring involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity, such as a corporation or trust, or specified instruments (such as commercial bank loans) and the issuance by that entity or one or more classes of securities (“structured securities”) backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued structured securities to create securities with different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, payment priorities and interest rate provisions, and the extent of such payments made with respect to structured securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the under