485BPOS 1 d732920d485bpos.htm 485BPOS 485BPOS

AS FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ON MAY 16, 2019

No. 333-221046

No. 811-23304

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

   Pre-Effective Amendment No.        
   Post-Effective Amendment No. 41   

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940

   Amendment No. 42   

(Check appropriate box or boxes)

 

 

Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515

(Address of Principal Executive Office)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (800) 983-0903

Anna Paglia, Esquire

3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

With Copies to:

 

Alan P. Goldberg   Eric S. Purple

Stradley Ronon Stevens & Young, LLP

191 North Wacker Drive, Suite 1601

Chicago, Illinois 60606

 

Stradley Ronon Stevens & Young, LLP

1250 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 500

Washington, DC 20036

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

 

immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)

60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)

75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485

If appropriate, check the following box:

 

This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 


LOGO   Prospectus   May 24, 2019
  Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust

 

 

  ESGL   Invesco ESG Revenue ETF   NYSE Arca, Inc.
  OMFL   Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
  OMFS   Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.

 

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Funds’ shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. If you hold accounts through a financial intermediary, you may contact your financial intermediary to enroll in electronic delivery. Please note that not all financial intermediaries may offer this service.

You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you hold accounts through a financial intermediary, you can follow the instructions included with this disclosure, if applicable, or contact your financial intermediary to request that you continue to receive paper copies of your shareholder reports. Please note that not all financial intermediaries may offer this service.

Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held with your financial intermediary.

 

LOGO

 

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


Table of Contents

 

Summary Information

  

Invesco ESG Revenue ETF

     3  

Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF

     8  

Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF

     14  

Additional Information About the Funds’ Strategies and Risks

     20  

Tax-Advantaged Structure of ETFs

     31  

Portfolio Holdings

     31  

Management of the Funds

     31  

How to Buy and Sell Shares

     32  

Dividends, Other Distributions and Taxes

     33  

Distributor

     34  

Fund Service Providers

     35  

Financial Highlights

     35  

Index Providers

     39  

Disclaimers

     39  

Premium/Discount Information

     40  

Other Information

     40  

 

 

  2  

 


 

ESGL

   Invesco ESG Revenue ETF

 

 

Summary Information

Investment Objective

The Invesco ESG Revenue ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to track the investment results (before fees and expenses) of the OFI Revenue Weighted ESG Index™ (to be renamed the Invesco Revenue Weighted ESG Index™ as soon as practicable following the Fund’s acquisition of the Oppenheimer ESG Revenue ETF) (the “Underlying Index”).

Fund Fees and Expenses

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay brokerage commissions on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the table or the example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)      
Management Fees     0.40%  
Other Expenses(1)     0.00%  
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses     0.40%  

 

(1)

“Other Expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

Example

This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.

This example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. This example does not include the brokerage commissions that investors may pay to buy and sell Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, your costs, based on these assumptions, would be:

 

1 Year   3 Years   5 Years   10 Years

$41

 

$128

 

$224

 

$505

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate will cause the Fund to incur additional transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the portfolio turnover rate of the Oppenheimer ESG Revenue ETF (the “Predecessor Fund”) was 27% of the average value of its portfolio, excluding the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of the Predecessor Fund’s in-kind creations and redemptions.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund generally will invest at least 80% of its total assets in the securities that comprise the Underlying Index.

Strictly in accordance with its guidelines and mandated procedures, Invesco Indexing LLC (“Invesco Indexing” or the “Index Provider”) compiles the Underlying Index, which is designed to select companies from within the S&P 500® Index (the “S&P 500®” or “Parent Index”) that have strong environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) practices.

 

 

  3  

 


S&P Dow Jones Indices calculates the Underlying Index. The Index Provider is affiliated with Invesco Capital Management LLC, the Fund’s investment adviser (the “Adviser”), and Invesco Distributors, Inc., the Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”).

Each company within the Parent Index is assigned a score using a system established by Sustainalytics, a third-party research provider, that measures the strength of each pillar of ESG practices (the “ESG Score”). The top half of companies based on their ESG Scores, excluding those with a detrimental score for controversies, are selected for inclusion in the Underlying Index. Unlike the Parent Index, which employs a market capitalization-weighted methodology, the Underlying Index’s methodology weights each constituent security according to its revenue earned, subject to a maximum 5% per company weighting.

The Fund generally invests in all of the securities comprising its Underlying Index in proportion to their weightings in the Underlying Index. The Fund is “non-diversified” and therefore is not required to meet certain diversification requirements under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).

Concentration Policy. The Fund will concentrate its investments (i.e., invest more than 25% of the value of its net assets) in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries only to the extent that the Underlying Index reflects a concentration in that industry or group of industries. The Fund will not otherwise concentrate its investments in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries. Historically, the Underlying Index has focused on certain sectors. As of October 26, 2018, the Underlying Index focused on the consumer discretionary, consumer staples, healthcare, industrials and information technology sectors. The Fund’s portfolio holdings, and the extent to which it concentrates, are likely to change over time.

Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund

The following summarizes the principal risks of the Fund.

The Shares will change in value, and you could lose money by investing in the Fund. The Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. Only authorized participants (“APs”) may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as APs, and such APs have no obligation to submit creation or redemption orders. Consequently, there is no assurance that those APs will establish or maintain an active trading market for the Shares. This risk may be heightened to the extent that securities held by the Fund are traded outside a collateralized settlement system. In that case, APs may be required to post collateral on certain trades on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants), which only a limited number of APs may be able to do. In addition, to the extent that APs exit the business or are unable to proceed with processing creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other AP is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units (as defined below), this may result in a significantly diminished trading market for Shares, which may be more likely to

trade at a premium or discount to the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) and to face trading halts and/or delisting.

Calculation Methodology Risk. The Underlying Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Underlying Index (or its Parent Index), including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund nor the investment adviser can offer assurances that the Underlying Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers.

Equity Risk. Equity risk is the risk that the value of equity securities, including common stocks, may fall due to both changes in general economic conditions that impact the market as a whole, as well as factors that directly relate to a specific company or its industry. Such general economic conditions include changes in interest rates, periods of market turbulence or instability, or general and prolonged periods of economic decline and cyclical change. It is possible that a drop in the stock market may depress the price of most or all of the common stocks that the Fund holds. In addition, equity risk includes the risk that investor sentiment toward particular industries will become negative. The value of a company’s common stock may fall solely because of factors, such as an increase in production costs, that negatively impact other companies in the same region, industry or sector of the market. A company’s common stock also may decline significantly in price over a short period of time due to factors specific to that company, including decisions made by its management or lower demand for the company’s products or services. For example, an adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report or the failure to make anticipated dividend payments, may depress the value of common stock.

ESG Investing Strategy Risk. The stocks of companies with favorable ESG practices may underperform the stock market as a whole. As a result, the Fund may underperform other funds that do not screen companies based on ESG practices. The criteria used to select companies for the Underlying Index may result in the Fund investing in securities, industries or sectors that underperform the market as a whole or underperform other funds screened for ESG standards.

Index Risk. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not utilize an investing strategy that seeks returns in excess of its Underlying Index. Therefore, it would not necessarily buy or sell a security unless that security is added or removed, respectively, from the Underlying Index, even if that security generally is underperforming.

Industry Concentration Risk. In following its methodology, the Underlying Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers operating in a single industry or industry group. To the extent that the Underlying Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or industry group, the Fund will also concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or industry group, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or industry groups. Such industry-based risks, any of

 

 

 

  4  

 


which may adversely affect the companies in which the Fund invests, may include, but are not limited to, legislative or regulatory changes, adverse market conditions and/or increased competition within the industry or industry group. In addition, at times, such industry or industry group may be out of favor and underperform other industries, industry groups or the market as a whole.

Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. Companies engaged in the consumer discretionary sector are affected by fluctuations in supply and demand and changes in consumer preferences, social trends and marketing campaigns. Changes in consumer spending as a result of world events, political and economic conditions, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources and labor relations also may adversely affect these companies.

Consumer Staples Sector Risk. Changes in the worldwide economy, consumer spending, competition, demographics and consumer preferences, exploration and production spending may adversely affect companies in the consumer staples sector. Companies in this sector also are affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions, as well as natural and man-made disasters and political, social or labor unrest that affect production and distribution of consumer staple products.

Healthcare Sector Risk. Factors such as extensive government regulation, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products, services and facilities, pricing pressure, an increased emphasis on outpatient services, limited number of products, industry innovation, costs associated with obtaining and protecting patents, product liability and other claims, changes in technologies and other market developments can affect companies in the healthcare sector.

Industrials Sector Risk. Changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions may adversely affect companies in the industrials sector. In addition, these companies are at risk for environmental and product liability damage claims. Also, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources, technological developments and labor relations could adversely affect the companies in this sector.

Information Technology Sector Risk. Factors such as the failure to obtain, or delays in obtaining, financing or regulatory approval, intense competition, product compatibility, consumer preferences, corporate capital expenditure, rapid obsolescence, competition from alternative technologies, and research and development of new products may significantly affect the market value of securities of issuers in the information technology sector.

Investment Approach Risk. The Underlying Index, and thus the Fund, seeks to provide exposure to investments based on a specific selection criteria and a revenue weighting approach. There can be no assurance that the selection criteria and

weighting approach will enhance the Fund’s performance over time. It is expected that exposure to such investment criteria and weighting will detract from performance in some market environments, perhaps for extended periods. In such circumstances, the Fund’s investment adviser will not adjust the Fund’s investment process to target different criteria or weighting processes.

Issuer-Specific Changes Risk. The value of an individual security or particular type of security may be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform differently from the value of the market as a whole.

Large Shareholder Risk. Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser, an AP, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. Similarly, to the extent the Fund permits cash purchases, large purchases of Shares may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash and is required to maintain a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the Exchange and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares. To the extent the Fund permits redemptions in cash, the Fund may hold a relatively large proportion of its assets in cash in anticipation of large redemptions, diluting its investment returns.

Market Risk. Securities in the Underlying Index are subject to market fluctuations. You should anticipate that the value of the Shares will decline, more or less, in correlation with any decline in value of the securities in the Underlying Index.

Market Trading Risk. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including the potential lack of an active market for the Shares, losses from trading in secondary markets, and disruption in the creation/redemption process of the Fund. Any of these factors may lead to the Shares trading at a premium or discount to the Fund’s NAV.

Non-Correlation Risk. The Fund’s return may not match the return of the Underlying Index for a number of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses not applicable to the Underlying Index, and incurs costs in buying and selling securities, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the Underlying Index. In addition, the performance of the Fund and the Underlying Index may vary due to asset valuation differences and differences between the Fund’s portfolio and the Underlying Index resulting from legal restrictions, costs or liquidity constraints.

 

 

 

  5  

 


Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and can invest a greater portion of its assets in securities of individual issuers than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in Share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

Operational Risk. The Fund is exposed to operational risks arising from a number of factors, including, but not limited to, human error, processing and communication errors, errors of the Fund’s service providers, counterparties or other third-parties, failed or inadequate processes and technology or systems failures. The Fund and the investment adviser seek to reduce these operational risks through controls and procedures. However, these measures do not address every possible risk and may be inadequate to address these risks.

Risks Relating to Calculation of NAV. The Fund relies on various third parties and other informative sources to calculate its NAV. Therefore, the Fund is subject to certain operational risks associated with reliance on third party service providers and data sources. NAV calculation may be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of the Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures.

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may engage in frequent trading of its portfolio securities in connection with the rebalancing or adjustment of the Underlying Index. A portfolio turnover rate of 200%, for example, is equivalent to the Fund buying and selling all of its securities two times during the course of a year. A high portfolio turnover rate (such as 100% or more) could result in high brokerage costs for the Fund. While a high portfolio turnover rate can result in an increase in taxable capital gains distributions to the Fund’s shareholders, the Fund will seek to utilize the in-kind creation and redemption mechanism (described below) to minimize realization of capital gains to the extent possible.

Performance

The bar chart below shows how the Fund has performed. The table below the bar chart shows the Fund’s average annual total returns (before and after taxes). The bar chart and table provide an indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing how the Fund’s total returns have varied from year to year and by showing how the Fund’s average annual total returns compared with a broad measure of market performance and an additional index with characteristics relevant to the Fund. Although the information shown in the bar chart and the table gives you some idea of the risks involved in investing in the Fund, the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily indicative of how the Fund will perform in the future.

The Fund is the successor to the investment performance of the Predecessor Fund as a result of the reorganization of the Predecessor Fund into the Fund, which was consummated after

the close of business on May 24, 2019. Accordingly, the performance shown below for periods ending on or prior to May 24, 2019 is that of the Predecessor Fund. Updated performance information is available online at www.invesco.com/ETFs.

 

 

Annual Total Returns—Calendar Years

LOGO

 

Best Quarter    Worst Quarter

6.83% (4th Quarter 2017)

  

(12.98)% (4th Quarter 2018)

The Fund’s year-to-date total return for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was 11.78%.

Average Annual Total Returns for the Periods Ended December 31, 2018

After-tax returns in the table below are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown, and after-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold Shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.

 

     
    1 Year      Since Inception
(10/28/16)
 
Return Before Taxes     (7.83 )%       7.61
Return After Taxes on Distributions     (8.36 )%       7.03
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares     (4.21 )%       5.87
OFI Revenue Weighted ESG Index™
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
    (7.50 )%       7.87
S&P 500® Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
    (4.38 )%       10.06

Management of the Fund

Investment Adviser. Invesco Capital Management LLC.

Portfolio Managers. The following individuals are responsible jointly and primarily for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio:

 

     
Name    Title with Adviser/Trust   

Date Began

Managing

the Fund

Peter Hubbard    Director of Portfolio Management of the Adviser and Vice President of the Trust    May 2019
Michael Jeanette    Senior Portfolio Manager of the Adviser    May 2019
Tony Seisser    Portfolio Manager of the Adviser    May 2019
 

 

 

  6  

 


Purchase and Sale of Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only with APs and only in large blocks of 50,000 Shares (each block of Shares is called a “Creation Unit”) or multiples thereof (“Creation Unit Aggregations”), generally in exchange for the deposit or delivery of a basket of securities. However, the Fund also reserves the right to permit or require Creation Units to be issued in exchange for cash. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the Shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

Individual Shares may be purchased and sold only on a national securities exchange through brokers. Shares will be listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. and because the Shares will trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at prices greater than NAV (at a premium), at NAV, or less than NAV (at a discount).

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions generally are taxed as ordinary income, capital gains or some combination of both, unless you are investing through a tax-advantaged arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account, in which case your distributions may be taxed as ordinary income when withdrawn from such account.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund’s distributor or its related companies may pay the intermediary for certain Fund-related activities, including those that are designed to make the intermediary more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, such as the Fund, as well as for marketing, education or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Fund shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson or financial adviser to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or financial adviser or visit your financial intermediary’s web-site for more information.

 

 

 

  7  

 


 

OMFL

   Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF

 

 

Summary Information

Investment Objective

The Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to track the investment results (before fees and expenses) of the Russell 1000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index (to be renamed the Russell 1000® Invesco Dynamic Multifactor Index as soon as practicable following the Fund’s acquisition of the Oppenheimer Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF) (the “Underlying Index”).

Fund Fees and Expenses

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay brokerage commissions on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the table or the example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)      
Management Fees     0.29%  
Other Expenses(1)     0.00%  
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses     0.29%  

 

(1)

“Other Expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

Example

This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.

This example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. This example does not include the brokerage commissions that investors may pay to buy and sell Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, your costs, based on these assumptions, would be:

 

1 Year   3 Years   5 Years   10 Years

$30

 

$93

 

$163

 

$368

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate will cause the Fund to incur additional transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the portfolio turnover rate of the Oppenheimer Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF (the “Predecessor Fund”) was 213% of the average value of its portfolio, excluding the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of the Predecessor Fund’s in-kind creations and redemptions.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund generally will invest at least 80% of its total assets in the securities that comprise the Underlying Index.

Strictly in accordance with its guidelines and mandated procedures, Frank Russell Company (“Frank Russell” or the “Index Provider”) compiles and maintains the Underlying Index. The Underlying Index is designed to select equity securities from within the

 

 

  8  

 


Russell 1000® Index (the “Russell 1000” or “Parent Index”), which measures the performance of the 1,000 largest-capitalization companies in the United States. Invesco Indexing LLC (“Invesco Indexing”) will provide certain data to the Index Provider as described below. The Underlying Index is sponsored by the Index Provider, which is unaffiliated with the Fund and Invesco Capital Management LLC, the Fund’s investment adviser (the “Adviser”). The Index Provider publishes information regarding the market value of the Underlying Index. Since Invesco Indexing provides data to the Index Provider, Invesco Indexing may be deemed a creator and sponsor of the Underlying Index. Invesco Indexing is affiliated with the Adviser and Invesco Distributors, Inc., the Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”).

The Underlying Index consists of one of four pre-determined factor configurations that emphasize a subset of the following five investment style factors:

Value. A company’s value factor score is based on an equally-weighted composite of cash flow yield, earnings yield, and sales to price ratio, calculated based on the company’s total market capitalization and information reported in the company’s most recent annual financial statement as of the last business day of the prior month.

Momentum. A company’s momentum factor score is based on historical total return over the 11 months ending on the last business day of the prior month.

Quality. A company’s quality factor score is based on an equally-weighted composite of return on assets, change in asset turnover, accruals, and leverage, calculated based on information reported in the company’s most recent annual financial statement as of the last business day of the prior month.

Low Volatility. A company’s volatility factor score is based on the standard deviation of weekly total returns to a company’s stock price over the trailing five years ending on the last business day of the prior month.

Size. A company’s size factor score is based on total market capitalization as of the last business day of the prior month.

The factor configuration that comprises the Underlying Index will vary with different economic cycles and overall market conditions, as reflected in one of the following four categories: expansion, slowdown, contraction and recovery. The current economic cycle/market condition category, which determines which factor configuration is applied, is derived from a rules-based methodology that relies on certain leading economic indicators and information regarding global risk appetite. The applicable category is provided to the Index Provider by Invesco Indexing in the form of a data signal (the “Signal”).

To construct the Underlying Index, each constituent in the Parent Index is assigned a multi-factor score based on the extent to which the constituent exhibits greater characteristics of the relevant factors (for example, size and value), relative to the other constituents in the Parent Index. The multi-factor score is the product of the security’s individual factor scores, each of which is

calculated as set forth above. An initial weight for each security is determined from the product of the security’s multi-factor score and its weight in the Parent Index. These weights are adjusted to ensure that each constituent and the Underlying Index as a whole satisfy certain constraints with respect to industry exposure, maximum security weights and minimum security weights, as compared to the Parent Index. With respect to each factor other than momentum, constraints regarding diversification and liquidity are also applied. Securities in the Parent Index are excluded from the Underlying Index if their relevant factor characteristics fall below an algorithmically-determined threshold, or if their adjusted weights fall below a certain de minimis amount. Finally, a maximum security weight limit is applied to ensure no security weight exceeds a fixed level.

The Fund generally invests in all of the securities comprising its Underlying Index in proportion to their weightings in the Underlying Index. The Fund is “non-diversified” and therefore is not required to meet certain diversification requirements under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).

Concentration Policy. The Fund will concentrate its investments (i.e., invest more than 25% of the value of its net assets) in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries only to the extent that the Underlying Index reflects a concentration in that industry or group of industries. The Fund will not otherwise concentrate its investments in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries. Historically, the Underlying Index has focused on certain sectors. As of October 26, 2018, the Underlying Index focused on the basic materials, communications services, consumer discretionary, consumer staples, energy, financials, healthcare, industrials, information technology, real estate, and utilities sectors. The Fund’s portfolio holdings, and the extent to which it concentrates, are likely to change over time.

Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund

The following summarizes the principal risks of the Fund.

The Shares will change in value, and you could lose money by investing in the Fund. The Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. Only authorized participants (“APs”) may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as APs, and such APs have no obligation to submit creation or redemption orders. Consequently, there is no assurance that those APs will establish or maintain an active trading market for the Shares. This risk may be heightened to the extent that securities held by the Fund are traded outside a collateralized settlement system. In that case, APs may be required to post collateral on certain trades on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants), which only a limited number of APs may be able to do. In addition, to the extent that APs exit the business or are unable to proceed with processing creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other AP is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units (as defined below), this may result in a significantly diminished trading market for Shares, which may be more likely to

 

 

 

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trade at a premium or discount to the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) and to face trading halts and/or delisting.

Calculation Methodology Risk. The Underlying Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Underlying Index (or its Parent Index), including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund nor the investment adviser can offer assurances that the Underlying Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers.

Equity Risk. Equity risk is the risk that the value of equity securities, including common stocks, may fall due to both changes in general economic conditions that impact the market as a whole, as well as factors that directly relate to a specific company or its industry. Such general economic conditions include changes in interest rates, periods of market turbulence or instability, or general and prolonged periods of economic decline and cyclical change. It is possible that a drop in the stock market may depress the price of most or all of the common stocks that the Fund holds. In addition, equity risk includes the risk that investor sentiment toward particular industries will become negative. The value of a company’s common stock may fall solely because of factors, such as an increase in production costs, that negatively impact other companies in the same region, industry or sector of the market. A company’s common stock also may decline significantly in price over a short period of time due to factors specific to that company, including decisions made by its management or lower demand for the company’s products or services. For example, an adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report or the failure to make anticipated dividend payments, may depress the value of common stock.

Index Construction Risk. A stock included in the Underlying Index may not exhibit the factor trait or provide specific factor exposure for which it was selected, and consequently, the Fund’s holdings may not exhibit returns consistent with that factor trait.

Index Risk. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not utilize an investing strategy that seeks returns in excess of its Underlying Index. Therefore, it would not necessarily buy or sell a security unless that security is added or removed, respectively, from the Underlying Index, even if that security generally is underperforming.

Industry Concentration Risk. In following its methodology, the Underlying Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers operating in a single industry or industry group. To the extent that the Underlying Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or industry group, the Fund will also concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or industry group, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or industry groups. Such industry-based risks, any of which may adversely affect the companies in which the Fund invests, may include, but are not limited to, legislative or regulatory changes, adverse market conditions and/or increased competition within the industry or industry group. In addition, at

times, such industry or industry group may be out of favor and underperform other industries, industry groups or the market as a whole.

Basic Materials Sector Risk. Changes in world events, political, environmental and economic conditions, energy conservation, environmental policies, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources and labor relations may adversely affect the companies engaged in the production and distribution of basic materials.

Communication Services Sector Risk. The value of the securities of communication services companies are particularly vulnerable to rapid advancements in technology, the innovation of competitors, rapid product obsolescence, and government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication services company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communication services sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.

Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. Companies engaged in the consumer discretionary sector are affected by fluctuations in supply and demand and changes in consumer preferences, social trends and marketing campaigns. Changes in consumer spending as a result of world events, political and economic conditions, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources and labor relations also may adversely affect these companies.

Consumer Staples Sector Risk. Changes in the worldwide economy, consumer spending, competition, demographics and consumer preferences, exploration and production spending may adversely affect companies in the consumer staples sector. Companies in this sector also are affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions, as well as natural and man-made disasters and political, social or labor unrest that affect production and distribution of consumer staple products.

Energy Sector Risk. Changes in worldwide energy prices, exploration and production spending may adversely affect companies in the energy sector. Changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions also affect these companies, particularly in the countries where companies are located or do business. In addition, these companies are at risk of civil liability from accidents resulting in injury, loss of life or property, pollution or other environmental damage claims and risk of loss from terrorism and natural disasters. Commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources, development of

 

 

 

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alternative energy sources, technological developments and labor relations also could affect companies in this sector.

Financials Sector Risk. The Fund may be susceptible to adverse economic or regulatory occurrences affecting the financial services sector. Financial services companies are subject to extensive government regulation and, as a result, their profitability may be affected by new regulations or regulatory interpretations. Unstable interest rates can have a disproportionate effect on the financial services sector and financial services companies whose securities the Fund may purchase may themselves have concentrated portfolios, which makes them vulnerable to economic conditions that affect that sector. Financial services companies have also been affected by increased competition, which could adversely affect the profitability or viability of such companies.

Healthcare Sector Risk. Factors such as extensive government regulation, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products, services and facilities, pricing pressure, an increased emphasis on outpatient services, limited number of products, industry innovation, costs associated with obtaining and protecting patents, product liability and other claims, changes in technologies and other market developments can affect companies in the healthcare sector.

Industrials Sector Risk. Changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions may adversely affect companies in the industrials sector. In addition, these companies are at risk for environmental and product liability damage claims. Also, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources, technological developments and labor relations could adversely affect the companies in this sector.

Information Technology Sector Risk. Factors such as the failure to obtain, or delays in obtaining, financing or regulatory approval, intense competition, product compatibility, consumer preferences, corporate capital expenditure, rapid obsolescence, competition from alternative technologies, and research and development of new products may significantly affect the market value of securities of issuers in the information technology sector.

Real Estate Securities Risk. Investing in securities of real estate companies includes risks such as: fluctuations in the value of the underlying properties; defaults by borrowers or tenants; market saturation; changes in general and local economic conditions; decreases in market rates for rents; changes in the availability, cost and terms of mortgage funds; increased competition, property taxes, capital expenditures, or operating expenses; and other economic, political or regulatory occurrences, including the impact of changes in environmental laws, that may affect the real estate industry.

Utilities Sector Risk. Companies in the utilities sector are subject to a variety of factors that may adversely affect their business or operations, including high interest costs

associated with capital construction and improvement programs; difficulty in raising adequate capital in periods of high inflation and unsettled capital markets; governmental regulation of rates the issuer can charge to customers; costs associated with compliance with environmental and other regulations; effects of economic slowdowns and surplus capacity; increased competition; and potential losses resulting from a developing deregulatory environment.

Investment Approach Risk. The Underlying Index, and thus the Fund, seeks to provide exposure to investments based on the following factors: value, momentum, quality, low volatility and size, and to weight such factors based on changes in the Signal. There can be no assurance that doing so will enhance the Fund’s performance over time. It is expected that targeting exposure to such investment factors will detract from performance in some market environments, perhaps for extended periods. In such circumstances, while the weights allocated to particular targeted investment factors may be adjusted based on the changes in the Signal, the investment adviser will not adjust a Fund’s investment process to target different factors.

Issuer-Specific Changes Risk. The value of an individual security or particular type of security may be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform differently from the value of the market as a whole.

Large Shareholder Risk. Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser, an AP, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. Similarly, to the extent the Fund permits cash purchases, large purchases of Shares may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash and is required to maintain a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the Exchange and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares. To the extent the Fund permits redemptions in cash, the Fund may hold a relatively large proportion of its assets in cash in anticipation of large redemptions, diluting its investment returns.

Low Volatility Risk. Although subject to the risks of common stocks, low volatility stocks are seen as having a lower risk profile than the overall markets. However, a portfolio comprised of low volatility stocks may not produce investment exposure that has lower variability to changes in such stocks’ price levels. Low volatility stocks are likely to underperform the broader market during periods of rapidly rising stock prices. Although the Underlying Index was created to seek lower volatility than the Parent Index, there is no guarantee that this strategy will be successful.

 

 

 

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Market Risk. Securities in the Underlying Index are subject to market fluctuations. You should anticipate that the value of the Shares will decline, more or less, in correlation with any decline in value of the securities in the Underlying Index.

Market Trading Risk. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including the potential lack of an active market for the Shares, losses from trading in secondary markets, and disruption in the creation/redemption process of the Fund. Any of these factors may lead to the Shares trading at a premium or discount to the Fund’s NAV.

Momentum Investing Risk. The momentum style of investing is subject to the risk that the securities may be more volatile than the market as a whole, or that the returns on securities that previously have exhibited price momentum are less than returns on other styles of investing. Momentum can turn quickly, and stocks that previously have exhibited high momentum may not experience continued positive momentum. In addition, there may be periods when the momentum style of investing is out of favor and therefore, the investment performance of the Fund may suffer.

Non-Correlation Risk. The Fund’s return may not match the return of the Underlying Index for a number of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses not applicable to the Underlying Index, and incurs costs in buying and selling securities, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the Underlying Index. In addition, the performance of the Fund and the Underlying Index may vary due to asset valuation differences and differences between the Fund’s portfolio and the Underlying Index resulting from legal restrictions, costs or liquidity constraints.

Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and can invest a greater portion of its assets in securities of individual issuers than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in Share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

Operational Risk. The Fund is exposed to operational risks arising from a number of factors, including, but not limited to, human error, processing and communication errors, errors of the Fund’s service providers, counterparties or other third-parties, failed or inadequate processes and technology or systems failures. The Fund and the investment adviser seek to reduce these operational risks through controls and procedures. However, these measures do not address every possible risk and may be inadequate to address these risks.

Risks Relating to Calculation of NAV. The Fund relies on various third parties and other informative sources to calculate its NAV. Therefore, the Fund is subject to certain operational risks associated with reliance on third party service providers and data sources. NAV calculation may be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of the Fund’s NAV and/or the

inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures.

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may engage in frequent trading of its portfolio securities in connection with the rebalancing or adjustment of the Underlying Index. A portfolio turnover rate of 200%, for example, is equivalent to the Fund buying and selling all of its securities two times during the course of a year. A high portfolio turnover rate (such as 100% or more) could result in high brokerage costs for the Fund. While a high portfolio turnover rate can result in an increase in taxable capital gains distributions to the Fund’s shareholders, the Fund will seek to utilize the in-kind creation and redemption mechanism (described below) to minimize realization of capital gains to the extent possible.

Quality Securities Risk. Securities included in the Underlying Index are deemed to be quality stocks pursuant to the Underlying Index’s methodology, but there is no guarantee that the past performance of these stocks will continue. Companies that issue these stocks may experience lower than expected returns or may experience negative growth, as well as increased leverage, resulting in lower than expected or negative returns to Fund shareholders. Many factors can affect a stock’s quality and performance, and the impact of these factors on a stock or its price can be difficult to predict.

Value Securities Risk. “Value” securities are subject to the risk that valuations never improve or that the returns on “value” securities are less than returns on other styles of investing or the overall stock market. Thus, the value of the Fund’s investments will vary and at times may be lower or higher than that of other types of investments.

Performance

The bar chart below shows how the Fund has performed. The table below the bar chart shows the Fund’s average annual total returns (before and after taxes). The table provides an indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing how the Fund’s average annual total returns compared with a broad measure of market performance and an additional index with characteristics relevant to the Fund. Although the information shown in the bar chart and the table gives you some idea of the risks involved in investing in the Fund, the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily indicative of how the Fund will perform in the future.

The Fund is the successor to the investment performance of the Predecessor Fund as a result of the reorganization of the Predecessor Fund into the Fund, which was consummated after the close of business on May 24, 2019. Accordingly, the performance shown below for periods ending on or prior to May 24, 2019 is that of the Predecessor Fund. Updated performance information is available online at www.invesco.com/ETFs.

 

 

 

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Annual Total Returns—Calendar Year

LOGO

 

Best Quarter    Worst Quarter

8.95% (3rd Quarter 2018)

  

(12.69)% (4th Quarter 2018)

The Fund’s year-to-date total return for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was 15.00%.

Average Annual Total Returns for the Periods Ended December 31, 2018

After-tax returns in the table below are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown, and after-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold Shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.

 

     
    1 Year      Since Inception
(11/08/17)
 
Return Before Taxes     (2.31 )%       1.75
Return After Taxes on Distributions     (2.64 )%       1.38
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares     (1.16 )%       1.32
Russell 1000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
    (2.01 )%       2.08
Russell 1000® Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
    (4.78 )%       (1.30 )% 

Management of the Fund

Investment Adviser. Invesco Capital Management LLC.

Portfolio Managers. The following individuals are responsible jointly and primarily for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio:

 

     

Name

   Title with Adviser/Trust   

Date Began

Managing

the Fund

Peter Hubbard    Director of Portfolio Management of the Adviser and Vice President of the Trust    May 2019
Michael Jeanette    Senior Portfolio Manager of the Adviser    May 2019
Tony Seisser    Portfolio Manager of the Adviser    May 2019

Purchase and Sale of Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only with APs and only in large blocks of 50,000 Shares (each block of Shares is called a “Creation Unit”) or multiples thereof (“Creation Unit Aggregations”), generally in exchange for the deposit or delivery of a basket of securities. However, the Fund also reserves the right to permit or require Creation Units to be issued in exchange for cash. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the Shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

Individual Shares may be purchased and sold only on a national securities exchange through brokers. Shares will be listed for trading on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. and because the Shares will trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at prices greater than NAV (at a premium), at NAV, or less than NAV (at a discount).

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions generally are taxed as ordinary income, capital gains or some combination of both, unless you are investing through a tax-advantaged arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account, in which case your distributions may be taxed as ordinary income when withdrawn from such account.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund’s distributor or its related companies may pay the intermediary for certain Fund-related activities, including those that are designed to make the intermediary more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, such as the Fund, as well as for marketing, education or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Fund shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson or financial adviser to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or financial adviser or visit your financial intermediary’s web-site for more information.

 

 

 

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OMFS

   Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF

 

 

Summary Information

Investment Objective

The Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to track the investment results (before fees and expenses) of the Russell 2000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index (to be renamed the Russell 2000® Invesco Dynamic Multifactor Index as soon as practicable following the Fund’s acquisition of the Oppenheimer Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF) (the “Underlying Index”).

Fund Fees and Expenses

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay brokerage commissions on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the table or the example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)      
Management Fees     0.39%  
Other Expenses(1)     0.00%  
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses     0.39%  

 

(1)

“Other Expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

Example

This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.

This example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. This example does not include the brokerage commissions that investors may pay to buy and sell Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, your costs, based on these assumptions, would be:

 

1 Year   3 Years   5 Years   10 Years

$40

 

$125

 

$219

 

$493

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate will cause the Fund to incur additional transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the portfolio turnover rate of the Oppenheimer Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF (the “Predecessor Fund”) was 173% of the average value of its portfolio, excluding the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of the Predecessor Fund’s in-kind creations and redemptions.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund generally will invest at least 80% of its total assets in the securities that comprise the Underlying Index.

Strictly in accordance with its guidelines and mandated procedures, Frank Russell Company (“Frank Russell” or the “Index Provider”) compiles and maintains the Underlying Index. The Underlying Index is designed to select equity securities from within the

 

 

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Russell 2000 Index (the “Russell 2000” or “Parent Index”), which measures the performance of 2,000 small-capitalization companies in the United States. Invesco Indexing LLC (“Invesco Indexing”) will provide certain data to the Index Provider as described below. The Underlying Index is sponsored by the Index Provider, which is unaffiliated with the Fund and Invesco Capital Management LLC, the Fund’s investment adviser (the “Adviser”). The Index Provider publishes information regarding the market value of the Underlying Index. Since Invesco Indexing provides data to the Index Provider, Invesco Indexing may be deemed a creator and sponsor of the Underlying Index. Invesco Indexing is affiliated with the Adviser and Invesco Distributors, Inc., the Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”).

The Underlying Index consists of one of four pre-determined factor configurations that emphasize a subset of the following five investment style factors:

Value. A company’s value factor score is based on an equally-weighted composite of cash flow yield, earnings yield, and sales to price ratio, calculated based on the company’s total market capitalization and information reported in the company’s most recent annual financial statement as of the last business day of the prior month.

Momentum. A company’s momentum factor score is based on historical total return over the 11 months ending on the last business day of the prior month.

Quality. A company’s quality factor score is based on an equally-weighted composite of return on assets, change in asset turnover, accruals, and leverage, calculated based on information reported in the company’s most recent annual financial statement as of the last business day of the prior month.

Low Volatility. A company’s volatility factor score is based on the standard deviation of weekly total returns to a company’s stock price over the trailing five years ending on the last business day of the prior month.

Size. A company’s size factor score is based on total market capitalization as of the last business day of the prior month.

The factor configuration that comprises the Underlying Index will vary with different economic cycles and overall market conditions, as reflected in one of the following four categories: expansion, slowdown, contraction and recovery. The current economic cycle/market condition category, which determines which factor configuration is applied, is derived from a rules-based methodology that relies on certain leading economic indicators and information regarding global risk appetite. The applicable category is provided to the Index Provider by Invesco Indexing in the form of a data signal (the “Signal”).

To construct the Underlying Index, each constituent in the Parent Index is assigned a multi-factor score based on the extent to which the constituent exhibits greater characteristics of the relevant factors (for example, size and value), relative to the other constituents in the Parent Index. The multi-factor score is the product of the security’s individual factor scores, each of which is

calculated as set forth above. An initial weight for each security is determined from the product of the security’s multi-factor score and its weight in the Parent Index. These weights are adjusted to ensure that each constituent and the Underlying Index as a whole satisfy certain constraints with respect to industry exposure, maximum security weights and minimum security weights, as compared to the Parent Index. With respect to each factor other than momentum, constraints regarding diversification and liquidity are also applied. Securities in the Parent Index are excluded from the Underlying Index if their relevant factor characteristics fall below an algorithmically-determined threshold, or if their adjusted weights fall below a certain de minimis amount. Finally, a maximum security weight limit is applied to ensure no security weight exceeds a fixed level.

The Fund generally invests in all of the securities comprising its Underlying Index in proportion to their weightings in the Underlying Index. The Fund is “non-diversified” and therefore is not required to meet certain diversification requirements under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).

Concentration Policy. The Fund will concentrate its investments (i.e., invest more than 25% of the value of its net assets) in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries only to the extent that the Underlying Index reflects a concentration in that industry or group of industries. The Fund will not otherwise concentrate its investments in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries. Historically, the Underlying Index has focused on certain sectors. As of October 26, 2018, the Underlying Index focused on the basic materials, communications services, consumer discretionary, consumer staples, energy, financials, healthcare, industrials, information technology, real estate and utilities sectors. The Fund’s portfolio holdings, and the extent to which it concentrates, are likely to change over time.

Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund

The following summarizes the principal risks of the Fund.

The Shares will change in value, and you could lose money by investing in the Fund. The Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. Only authorized participants (“APs”) may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as APs, and such APs have no obligation to submit creation or redemption orders. Consequently, there is no assurance that those APs will establish or maintain an active trading market for the Shares. This risk may be heightened to the extent that securities held by the Fund are traded outside a collateralized settlement system. In that case, APs may be required to post collateral on certain trades on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants), which only a limited number of APs may be able to do. In addition, to the extent that APs exit the business or are unable to proceed with processing creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other AP is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units (as defined below), this may result in a significantly diminished trading market for Shares, which may be more likely to

 

 

 

  15  

 


trade at a premium or discount to the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) and to face trading halts and/or delisting.

Calculation Methodology Risk. The Underlying Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Underlying Index (or its Parent Index), including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund nor the investment adviser can offer assurances that the Underlying Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers.

Equity Risk. Equity risk is the risk that the value of equity securities, including common stocks, may fall due to both changes in general economic conditions that impact the market as a whole, as well as factors that directly relate to a specific company or its industry. Such general economic conditions include changes in interest rates, periods of market turbulence or instability, or general and prolonged periods of economic decline and cyclical change. It is possible that a drop in the stock market may depress the price of most or all of the common stocks that the Fund holds. In addition, equity risk includes the risk that investor sentiment toward particular industries will become negative. The value of a company’s common stock may fall solely because of factors, such as an increase in production costs, that negatively impact other companies in the same region, industry or sector of the market. A company’s common stock also may decline significantly in price over a short period of time due to factors specific to that company, including decisions made by its management or lower demand for the company’s products or services. For example, an adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report or the failure to make anticipated dividend payments, may depress the value of common stock.

Increased Volatility Risk. Increased volatility may result from increased cash flows to the Fund and other market participants that continuously or systematically buy large holdings of small or medium capitalization companies, which can drive prices up and down more dramatically. Additionally, the announcement that a security has been added to a widely followed index or benchmark may cause the price of that security to increase. Conversely, the announcement that a security has been deleted from a widely followed index or benchmark may cause the price of that security to decrease.

Index Construction Risk. A stock included in the Underlying Index may not exhibit the factor trait or provide specific factor exposure for which it was selected, and consequently, the Fund’s holdings may not exhibit returns consistent with that factor trait.

Index Risk. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not utilize an investing strategy that seeks returns in excess of its Underlying Index. Therefore, it would not necessarily buy or sell a security unless that security is added or removed, respectively, from the Underlying Index, even if that security generally is underperforming.

Industry Concentration Risk. In following its methodology, the Underlying Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers operating in a single industry or industry group. To the extent that the Underlying

Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or industry group, the Fund will also concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or industry group, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or industry groups. Such industry-based risks, any of which may adversely affect the companies in which the Fund invests, may include, but are not limited to, legislative or regulatory changes, adverse market conditions and/or increased competition within the industry or industry group. In addition, at times, such industry or industry group may be out of favor and underperform other industries, industry groups or the market as a whole.

Basic Materials Sector Risk. Changes in world events, political, environmental and economic conditions, energy conservation, environmental policies, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources and labor relations may adversely affect the companies engaged in the production and distribution of basic materials.

Communication Services Sector Risk. The value of the securities of communication services companies are particularly vulnerable to rapid advancements in technology, the innovation of competitors, rapid product obsolescence, and government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication services company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communication services sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.

Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. Companies engaged in the consumer discretionary sector are affected by fluctuations in supply and demand and changes in consumer preferences, social trends and marketing campaigns. Changes in consumer spending as a result of world events, political and economic conditions, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources and labor relations also may adversely affect these companies.

Consumer Staples Sector Risk. Changes in the worldwide economy, consumer spending, competition, demographics and consumer preferences, exploration and production spending may adversely affect companies in the consumer staples sector. Companies in this sector also are affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions, as well as natural and man-made disasters and political, social or labor unrest that affect production and distribution of consumer staple products.

Energy Sector Risk. Changes in worldwide energy prices, exploration and production spending may adversely affect companies in the energy sector. Changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions also affect

 

 

 

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these companies, particularly in the countries where companies are located or do business. In addition, these companies are at risk of civil liability from accidents resulting in injury, loss of life or property, pollution or other environmental damage claims and risk of loss from terrorism and natural disasters. Commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources, development of alternative energy sources, technological developments and labor relations also could affect companies in this sector.

Financials Sector Risk. The Fund may be susceptible to adverse economic or regulatory occurrences affecting the financial services sector. Financial services companies are subject to extensive government regulation and, as a result, their profitability may be affected by new regulations or regulatory interpretations. Unstable interest rates can have a disproportionate effect on the financial services sector and financial services companies whose securities the Fund may purchase may themselves have concentrated portfolios, which makes them vulnerable to economic conditions that affect that sector. Financial services companies have also been affected by increased competition, which could adversely affect the profitability or viability of such companies.

Healthcare Sector Risk. Factors such as extensive government regulation, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products, services and facilities, pricing pressure, an increased emphasis on outpatient services, limited number of products, industry innovation, costs associated with obtaining and protecting patents, product liability and other claims, changes in technologies and other market developments can affect companies in the healthcare sector.

Industrials Sector Risk. Changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions may adversely affect companies in the industrials sector. In addition, these companies are at risk for environmental and product liability damage claims. Also, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources, technological developments and labor relations could adversely affect the companies in this sector.

Information Technology Sector Risk. Factors such as the failure to obtain, or delays in obtaining, financing or regulatory approval, intense competition, product compatibility, consumer preferences, corporate capital expenditure, rapid obsolescence, competition from alternative technologies, and research and development of new products may significantly affect the market value of securities of issuers in the information technology sector.

Real Estate Securities Risk. Investing in securities of real estate companies includes risks such as: fluctuations in the value of the underlying properties; defaults by borrowers or tenants; market saturation; changes in general and local economic conditions; decreases in market rates for rents; changes in the availability, cost and terms of mortgage funds; increased competition, property taxes, capital expenditures, or operating expenses; and other economic, political or

regulatory occurrences, including the impact of changes in environmental laws, that may affect the real estate industry.

Utilities Sector Risk. Companies in the utilities sector are subject to a variety of factors that may adversely affect their business or operations, including high interest costs associated with capital construction and improvement programs; difficulty in raising adequate capital in periods of high inflation and unsettled capital markets; governmental regulation of rates the issuer can charge to customers; costs associated with compliance with environmental and other regulations; effects of economic slowdowns and surplus capacity; increased competition; and potential losses resulting from a developing deregulatory environment.

Investment Approach Risk. The Underlying Index, and thus the Fund, seeks to provide exposure to investments based on the following factors: value, momentum, quality, low volatility and size, and to weight such factors based on changes in the Signal. There can be no assurance that doing so will enhance the Fund’s performance over time. It is expected that targeting exposure to such investment factors will detract from performance in some market environments, perhaps for extended periods. In such circumstances, while the weights allocated to particular targeted investment factors may be adjusted based on the changes in the Signal, the investment adviser will not adjust a Fund’s investment process to target different factors.

Issuer-Specific Changes Risk. The value of an individual security or particular type of security may be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform differently from the value of the market as a whole.

Large Shareholder Risk. Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser, an AP, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. Similarly, to the extent the Fund permits cash purchases, large purchases of Shares may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash and is required to maintain a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the Exchange and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares. To the extent the Fund permits redemptions in cash, the Fund may hold a relatively large proportion of its assets in cash in anticipation of large redemptions, diluting its investment returns.

Low Volatility Risk. Although subject to the risks of common stocks, low volatility stocks are seen as having a lower risk profile than the overall markets. However, a portfolio comprised of low volatility stocks may not produce investment exposure that has

 

 

 

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lower variability to changes in such stocks’ price levels. Low volatility stocks are likely to underperform the broader market during periods of rapidly rising stock prices. Although the Underlying Index was created to seek lower volatility than the Parent Index, there is no guarantee that this strategy will be successful.

Market Risk. Securities in the Underlying Index are subject to market fluctuations. You should anticipate that the value of the Shares will decline, more or less, in correlation with any decline in value of the securities in the Underlying Index.

Market Trading Risk. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including the potential lack of an active market for the Shares, losses from trading in secondary markets, and disruption in the creation/redemption process of the Fund. Any of these factors may lead to the Shares trading at a premium or discount to the Fund’s NAV.

Momentum Investing Risk. The momentum style of investing is subject to the risk that the securities may be more volatile than the market as a whole, or that the returns on securities that previously have exhibited price momentum are less than returns on other styles of investing. Momentum can turn quickly, and stocks that previously have exhibited high momentum may not experience continued positive momentum. In addition, there may be periods when the momentum style of investing is out of favor and therefore, the investment performance of the Fund may suffer.

Non-Correlation Risk. The Fund’s return may not match the return of the Underlying Index for a number of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses not applicable to the Underlying Index, and incurs costs in buying and selling securities, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the Underlying Index. In addition, the performance of the Fund and the Underlying Index may vary due to asset valuation differences and differences between the Fund’s portfolio and the Underlying Index resulting from legal restrictions, costs or liquidity constraints.

Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and can invest a greater portion of its assets in securities of individual issuers than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in Share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

Operational Risk. The Fund is exposed to operational risks arising from a number of factors, including, but not limited to, human error, processing and communication errors, errors of the Fund’s service providers, counterparties or other third-parties, failed or inadequate processes and technology or systems failures. The Fund and the investment adviser seek to reduce these operational risks through controls and procedures. However, these measures do not address every possible risk and may be inadequate to address these risks.

Risks Relating to Calculation of NAV. The Fund relies on various third parties and other informative sources to calculate its NAV. Therefore, the Fund is subject to certain operational risks associated with reliance on third party service providers and data sources. NAV calculation may be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of the Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures.

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may engage in frequent trading of its portfolio securities in connection with the rebalancing or adjustment of the Underlying Index. A portfolio turnover rate of 200%, for example, is equivalent to the Fund buying and selling all of its securities two times during the course of a year. A high portfolio turnover rate (such as 100% or more) could result in high brokerage costs for the Fund. While a high portfolio turnover rate can result in an increase in taxable capital gains distributions to the Fund’s shareholders, the Fund will seek to utilize the in-kind creation and redemption mechanism (described below) to minimize realization of capital gains to the extent possible.

Quality Securities Risk. Securities included in the Underlying Index are deemed to be quality stocks pursuant to the Underlying Index’s methodology, but there is no guarantee that the past performance of these stocks will continue. Companies that issue these stocks may experience lower than expected returns or may experience negative growth, as well as increased leverage, resulting in lower than expected or negative returns to Fund shareholders. Many factors can affect a stock’s quality and performance, and the impact of these factors on a stock or its price can be difficult to predict.

Small Capitalization Company Risk. Investing in securities of small capitalization companies involves greater risk than customarily is associated with investing in larger, more established companies. These companies’ securities may be more volatile and less liquid than those of more established companies. These securities may have returns that vary, sometimes significantly, from the overall securities market. Often small capitalization companies and the industries in which they focus are still evolving and, as a result, they may be more sensitive to changing market conditions.

Value Securities Risk. “Value” securities are subject to the risk that valuations never improve or that the returns on “value” securities are less than returns on other styles of investing or the overall stock market. Thus, the value of the Fund’s investments will vary and at times may be lower or higher than that of other types of investments.

 

 

 

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Performance

The bar chart below shows how the Fund has performed. The table below the bar chart shows the Fund’s average annual total returns (before and after taxes). The table provides an indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing how the Fund’s average annual total returns compared with a broad measure of market performance and an additional index with characteristics relevant to the Fund. Although the information shown in the bar chart and the table gives you some idea of the risks involved in investing in the Fund, the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily indicative of how the Fund will perform in the future.

The Fund is the successor to the investment performance of the Predecessor Fund as a result of the reorganization of the Predecessor Fund into the Fund, which was consummated after the close of business on May 24, 2019. Accordingly, the performance shown below for periods ending on or prior to May 24, 2019 is that of the Predecessor Fund. Updated performance information is available online at www.invesco.com/ETFs.

 

 

Annual Total Returns—Calendar Year

LOGO

 

Best Quarter    Worst Quarter

6.71% (2nd Quarter 2018)

  

(16.65)% (4th Quarter 2018)

The Fund’s year-to-date total return for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was 12.55%.

Average Annual Total Returns for the Periods Ended December 31, 2018

After-tax returns in the table below are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown, and after-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold Shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.

 

     
    1 Year     Since Inception
(11/08/17)
 
Return Before Taxes     (8.42 )%      (4.79 )% 
Return After Taxes on Distributions     (8.75 )%      (5.17 )% 
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares     (4.77 )%      (3.65 )% 
Russell 2000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
    (8.02 )%      (4.38 )% 
Russell 2000® Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
    (11.01 )%      (6.63 )% 

Management of the Fund

Investment Adviser. Invesco Capital Management LLC.

Portfolio Managers. The following individuals are responsible jointly and primarily for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio:

 

     
Name    Title with Adviser/Trust   

Date Began

Managing

the Fund

Peter Hubbard    Director of Portfolio Management of the Adviser and Vice President of the Trust    May 2019
Michael Jeanette    Senior Portfolio Manager of the Adviser    May 2019
Tony Seisser    Portfolio Manager of the Adviser    May 2019

Purchase and Sale of Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only with APs and only in large blocks of 50,000 Shares (each block of Shares is called a “Creation Unit”) or multiples thereof (“Creation Unit Aggregations”), generally in exchange for the deposit or delivery of a basket of securities. However, the Fund also reserves the right to permit or require Creation Units to be issued in exchange for cash. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the Shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

Individual Shares may be purchased and sold only on a national securities exchange through brokers. Shares will be listed for trading on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. and because the Shares will trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at prices greater than NAV (at a premium), at NAV, or less than NAV (at a discount).

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions generally are taxed as ordinary income, capital gains or some combination of both, unless you are investing through a tax-advantaged arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account, in which case your distributions may be taxed as ordinary income when withdrawn from such account.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund’s distributor or its related companies may pay the intermediary for certain Fund-related activities, including those that are designed to make the intermediary more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, such as the Fund, as well as for marketing, education or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Fund shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson or financial adviser to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or financial adviser or visit your financial intermediary’s web-site for more information.

 

 

 

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Additional Information About the Funds’ Strategies and Risks

Principal Investment Strategies

Each Fund generally will invest at least 80% of its total assets in components of its respective Underlying Index. Each Fund operates as an index fund and will not be actively managed. Each Fund uses an “indexing” investment approach to seek to track the investment results, before fees and expenses, of its Underlying Index. The Adviser seeks correlation over time of 0.95 or better between a Fund’s performance and the performance of its Underlying Index; a figure of 1.00 would represent perfect correlation. Another means of evaluating the relationship between the returns of a Fund and its Underlying Index is to assess the “tracking error” between the two. Tracking error means the variation between a Fund’s annual return and the return of its Underlying Index, expressed in terms of standard deviation. Each Fund seeks to have a tracking error of less than 5%, measured on a monthly basis over a one-year period by taking the standard deviation of the difference in the Fund’s returns versus its Underlying Index’s returns. Because each Fund uses an indexing approach to try to achieve its investment objective, each Fund does not take temporary defensive positions during periods of adverse market, economic or other conditions.

Each Fund employs a “full replication” methodology in seeking to track its Underlying Index, meaning that it generally will invest in all of the securities comprising its Underlying Index in proportion to their weightings in the Underlying Index. However, under various circumstances, it may not be possible or practicable to purchase all of those securities in those same weightings. In those circumstances, a Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Underlying Index. A “sampling” methodology means that the Adviser uses quantitative analysis to select securities from an Underlying Index universe to obtain a representative sample of securities that have, in the aggregate, investment characteristics similar to the Underlying Index in terms of key risk factors, performance attributes and other characteristics. These include industry weightings, market capitalization, return variability, earnings valuation, yield and other financial characteristics of securities. When employing a sampling methodology, the Adviser bases the quantity of holdings in a Fund on a number of factors, including asset size of the Fund, and generally expects the Fund to hold less than the total number of securities in its Underlying Index. However, the Adviser reserves the right to invest a Fund in as many securities as it believes necessary to achieve the Fund’s investment objective.

There also may be instances in which the Adviser may choose to (i) overweight a security in an Underlying Index, (ii) purchase securities not contained in an Underlying Index that the Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in the Underlying Index, or (iii) utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques in seeking to track an Underlying Index. Each Fund may sell securities included in an Underlying Index in anticipation of their removal from the Underlying Index, or purchase securities not included in an Underlying Index in anticipation of their addition to the Underlying Index.

Additional information about the construction of each Fund’s Underlying Index is set forth below.

OFI Revenue Weighted ESG Index™ (Invesco ESG Revenue ETF)

The Underlying Index for the Invesco ESG Revenue ETF is designed to select companies from within the S&P 500® that have strong environmental, social and governance practices. Each company within the S&P 500® is assigned an ESG Score using a system established by Sustainalytics, a third-party research provider, that measures the strength of each pillar of environmental, social, and governance practices. Sustainalytics uses a variety of criteria to determine a company’s ESG score, which may change from time to time. The environmental criteria includes, but is not limited to, climate change (carbon, energy efficiency, fines), natural resources (water stress, biodiversity), pollution and waste (air/water pollution, waste management), and environmental opportunities (clean technology, green building, renewable energy). The social criteria includes, but is not limited to, human capital (labor management, development, supply chain, health and safety, employee sentiment, diversity), product liability (safety and quality, consumer satisfaction), stakeholder opposition (controversial sourcing), social opportunities (access to finance, healthcare, communications, nutrition and health, philanthropy), and board composition (diversity). The governance criteria includes, but is not limited to, corporate governance (board, executive pay, ownership structure, accounting and disclosures, audit committee structure) and corporate behavior (business ethics, anti-competition strategies, corruption, lobbying, political contributions, shareholder rights).

In accordance with the Underlying Index methodology, the top half of companies in the S&P 500® based on their ESG Scores, excluding those with a detrimental score for controversies, are selected for inclusion in the Underlying Index. As of August 31, 2018, the Underlying Index was comprised of 233 securities.

Unlike the Parent Index, which employs a market capitalization-weighted methodology, the Underlying Index’s methodology weights each constituent security according to its one-year trailing revenue. No single constituent security may have a weighting greater than 5%.

The Underlying Index is rebalanced quarterly. In addition to the quarterly rebalance, the Underlying Index may be reweighted to limit each constituent security’s weight to 5% and may be rebalanced when securities that are constituents of the Underlying Index are deleted from the Parent Index or when a security in the Parent Index that is a constituent of the Underlying Index is altered due to corporate actions.

When a security is deleted from the Underlying Index, a replacement security is typically added and the replacement security assumes the deleted security’s weight until the following rebalance. In the event that two or more companies are added to a Parent Index and other companies are removed, the two or more companies being added to the corresponding Underlying Index will have a combined weighting equal to that of the companies that are being removed, and the new companies will have a relative pro rata weighting allocation based on the

 

 

 

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companies’ revenues as of the previous quarter. In the event a company is added to a Parent Index and no companies are removed, the new company will not be added to the Underlying Index until the quarterly rebalancing.

Typical examples of corporate actions include those associated with price adjustments, stock splits and when a company or an ADR is delisted from a stock exchange. For price adjustments, the proportion of a stock’s representation in the Underlying Index will be adjusted to return the stock to its pre-adjusted weightings. Dividends of constituent securities will be deemed to have been reinvested pro rata by company weighting in the Underlying Index. Similarly, rights offerings will be deemed to have been sold for cash and reinvested pro rata by company weighting in the Underlying Index.

The Fund is rebalanced and reweighted in accordance with the Underlying Index.

Russell 1000 OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index (Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF) and Russell 2000 OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index (Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF)

The Underlying Index for the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF is designed to select equity securities from within the Russell 1000, which measures the performance of the 1,000 largest-capitalization companies in the United States. All constituents of the Russell 1000 are eligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index. As of August 31, 2018, the Underlying Index was comprised of 224 securities.

The Underlying Index for the Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF is designed to select equity securities from within the Russell 2000, which measures the performance of 2,000 small-capitalization companies in the United States. All constituents of the Russell 2000 are eligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index. As of August 31, 2018, the Underlying Index was comprised of 592 securities.

The Underlying Indexes for Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF are rebalanced and reweighted at the beginning of the month when the Signal for the respective Underlying Index changes, which may be as frequently as monthly, and rebalanced when the factor scores are recalculated by the Index Provider, which occurs semi-annually on the third Friday of the month in June and December with respect to the expansion and contraction factor configurations, and annually on the third Friday of the month in June with respect to the recovery and slowdown factor configurations. As a result, an Underlying Index will be both reweighted and rebalanced in June, if the Signal changes in June, and in December, if the Signal changes to expansion or contraction in December. The FTSE Russell Global Factor Index Series, from which the factor configurations are derived, is a suite of benchmarks designed to represent the performance of specific factor characteristics. The FTSE Russell Global Factor Index Series includes, but is not limited to, the following single factors: low volatility, momentum, quality, size, and value. Multi-factor indexes seek increased exposure to stocks within a starting universe that possess combinations of specific factor characteristics (for example, size and value), thereby creating an index comprised of

stocks demonstrating such factors. Each factor configuration consists of companies in the relevant starting universe selected based on a subset of the following investment style factors: low volatility, momentum, quality, size, and value. To determine which factor configuration is applicable, Invesco Indexing uses a rules-based methodology to calculate the Signal based on certain leading economic indicators (for example, data regarding the volume of durable goods orders, or the number of private housing units authorized by building permits) and information regarding global risk appetite (as exhibited by certain global index prices). Invesco Indexing provides the Signal to the Index Provider, which generates factor scores for each security in the Parent Index based on one of the following criteria:

Value. A company’s value factor score is based on an equally-weighted composite of cash flow yield, earnings yield, and sales to price ratio, calculated based on the company’s total market capitalization and information reported in the company’s most recent annual financial statement as of the last business day of the prior month.

Momentum. A company’s momentum factor score is based on historical total return over the 11 months ending on the last business day of the prior month.

Quality. A company’s quality factor score is based on an equally-weighted composite of return on assets, change in asset turnover, accruals, and leverage, calculated based on information reported in the company’s most recent annual financial statement as of the last business day of the prior month.

Low Volatility. A company’s volatility factor score is based on the standard deviation of weekly total returns to a company’s stock price over the trailing five years ending on the last business day of the prior month.

Size. A company’s size factor score is based on total market capitalization as of the last business day of the prior month.

During the calculation process, certain values that fall outside a fixed range are set to the minimum or maximum of the range, in order to standardize the resulting factor scores. Each security’s factor score is multiplied by the security’s weight in the relevant Parent Index, and the resulting weights generate a broad factor index. Except with respect to the momentum factor, the broad factor index is then narrowed by a single security at a time to increase factor exposure, subject to the following restrictions, which seek to ensure that the overall diversification and liquidity of the narrow factor index remain within a certain range relative to the relevant Parent Index:

Diversification. The “effective” number of securities is at least two-thirds the “effective” number of securities in the relevant Parent Index. For example, an index holding three securities, one of which is weighted very heavily while the other two have very low weights, includes only one “effective” security.

Liquidity. The average security weight is less than or equal to two-and-a-half times the average security weight of the Parent Index.

 

 

 

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The resulting narrow factor index (or, in the case of the momentum factor, the broad factor index) is then constrained to ensure that exposure to particular industries remains within approximately 20% of such exposure in the relevant Parent Index. In addition, any security weights that are greater than twenty times the security’s weight in the relevant Parent Index are reweighted to twenty times the security’s weight in the relevant Parent Index. Any security weights that are less than a certain de minimis amount are set to zero, and therefore excluded. Finally, a maximum security weight limit is applied to ensure no security weight exceeds a fixed level (currently set at 5% with respect to the Russell 1000 OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index and 3% with respect to the Russell 2000 OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index). The resulting security weights constitute the final Underlying Index. Neither Underlying Index is required to hold a pre-determined minimum number of securities.

The Funds are rebalanced and reweighted in accordance with their respective Underlying Index.

Principal Risks of Investing in the Funds

The following provides additional information regarding certain of the principal risks identified under “Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund” in each Fund’s “Summary Information” section.

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk

Only APs may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with a Fund. Each Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as APs, and such APs have no obligation to submit creation or redemption orders. Consequently, there is no assurance that those APs will establish or maintain an active trading market for the Shares. This risk may be heightened to the extent that securities held by a Fund are traded outside a collateralized settlement system. In that case, APs may be required to post collateral on certain trades on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants), which only a limited number of APs may be able to do. In addition, to the extent that APs exit the business or are unable to proceed with processing creation and/or redemption orders with respect to a Fund and no other AP is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units (as defined below), this may result in a significantly diminished trading market for Shares, which may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to a Fund’s NAV and to face trading halts and/or delisting.

Calculation Methodology Risk

Each Underlying Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Underlying Index (or its respective Parent Index), including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither a Fund nor the Adviser can offer assurances that an Underlying Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers.

Equity Risk

Equity risk is the risk that the value of equity securities, including common stocks, will fall. The value of an equity security may fall due to changes in general economic conditions that impact the market as a whole and that are relatively unrelated to an issuer or

its industry. These conditions include changes in interest rates, specific periods of overall market turbulence or instability, or general and prolonged periods of economic decline and cyclical change. An issuer’s common stock in particular may be especially sensitive to, and more adversely affected by, these general movements in the stock market; it is possible that a drop in the stock market may depress the price of most or all of the common stocks that a Fund holds.

In addition, equity risk includes the risk that investor sentiment toward, and perceptions regarding, particular industries or economic sectors will become negative. Price changes of equity securities may occur in a particular region, industry, or sector of the market, and as a result, the value of an issuer’s common stock may fall solely because of factors, such as increases in production costs, that negatively impact other companies in the same industry or in a number of different industries.

Equity risk also includes the financial risks of a specific company, including that the value of the company’s securities may fall as a result of factors directly relating to that company, such as decisions made by its management or lower demand for the company’s products or services. In particular, the common stock of a company may decline significantly in price over short periods of time. For example, an adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report, may depress the value of common stock; similarly, the common stock of an issuer may decline in price if the issuer fails to make anticipated dividend payments because, among other reasons, the issuer experiences a decline in its financial condition.

ESG Investing Strategy Risk

The stocks of companies with favorable ESG practices may underperform the stock market as a whole. As a result, the Invesco ESG Revenue ETF may underperform other funds that do not screen companies based on ESG practices. The criteria used to select companies for the Underlying Index may result in the Fund investing in securities, industries or sectors that underperform the market as a whole or underperform other funds screened for ESG standards.

Increased Volatility Risk

Increased volatility risk is associated with increased volatility in the price of small and medium capitalization companies. The announcement that a security has been added to a widely followed index or benchmark may cause the price of that security to increase. Conversely, the announcement that a security has been deleted from a widely followed index or benchmark may cause the price of that security to decrease. To the extent that an index or benchmark’s methodology is rules-based and transparent, any price increase or decrease generally would be expected to be smaller than the increase or decrease resulting from a change to a non-transparent index or benchmark (because the transparency of the index or benchmark likely would provide the market with more notice of such change). Because it is impossible to predict when and how market participants will react to announced changes in the constituent securities of a Fund’s Parent Index (and its Underlying Index), the Funds cannot predict when and how these changes will impact the market price and NAV of a Fund.

 

 

 

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Index Construction Risk

A stock included in an Underlying Index may not exhibit the factor trait or provide specific factor exposure for which it was selected, and consequently, a Fund’s holdings may not exhibit returns consistent with that factor trait.

Index Risk

Unlike many investment companies that are “actively managed,” the Funds are “passive” investors and therefore do not utilize investing strategies that seek returns in excess of their respective Underlying Index. Therefore, the Funds would not necessarily buy or sell a security unless that security is added or removed, respectively, from its respective Underlying Index, even if that security generally is underperforming. If a specific security is removed from an Underlying Index, a Fund may be forced to sell shares of the security at an inopportune time or for a price lower than the security’s current market value. An Underlying Index may not contain the appropriate mix of securities for any particular economic cycle. Unlike with an actively managed fund, the Adviser does not use techniques or defensive strategies designed to lessen the impact of periods of market volatility or market decline. This means that, based on certain market and economic conditions, certain Funds’ performance could be lower than other types of mutual funds that actively manage their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities.

Industry Concentration Risk

In following its methodology, an Underlying Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers operating in a single industry or industry group. To the extent that its Underlying Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or industry group, a Fund will also concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or industry group, a Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or industry groups. Such industry-based risks, any of which may adversely affect the companies in which a Fund invests, may include, but are not limited to legislative or regulatory changes, adverse market conditions and/or increased competition within the industry or industry group. In addition, at times, such industry or industry group may be out of favor and underperform other industries, industry groups or the market as a whole. Information about the Funds’ exposure to a particular industry or industry group is available in the Funds’ Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to Shareholders, as well as on required forms filed with the SEC.

Basic Materials Sector Risk. Companies engaged in the production and distribution of basic materials may be adversely affected by changes in world events, political and economic conditions, energy conservation, environmental policies, commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, increased competition and the imposition of import controls. Production of industrial materials may exceed demand as a result of market imbalances or economic downturns, leading to poor investment returns. In addition, issuers in the basic materials sector are at risk for environmental damage and product liability claims and may be adversely affected by depletion of resources, technical progress, labor relations and government regulations.

Communication Services Sector Risk. The value of the securities of communication services companies are particularly vulnerable to rapid advancements in technology, the innovation of competitors, rapid product obsolescence, and government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication services company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communication services sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.

Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. Companies engaged in the consumer discretionary sector are affected by fluctuations in supply and demand and changes in consumer demographics and preferences. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies. Moreover, changes in consumer spending as a result of world events, political and economic conditions, commodity price volatility, changes in interest and exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources and labor relations also may adversely affect these companies. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.

Consumer Staples Sector Risk. Changes in the worldwide economy, consumer spending, competition, demographics and consumer preferences, exploration and production spending may adversely affect companies, as well as natural and man-made disasters and political, social or labor unrest, in the consumer staples sector. Companies in this sector also are affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions.

Energy Sector Risk. Companies in the energy sector are subject to extensive government regulation, including contractual fixed pricing, which may increase the cost of business and limit these companies’ earnings. A significant portion of their revenues may depend on a relatively small number of customers, including governmental entities and utilities. As a result, governmental budget constraints may have a material adverse effect on the stock prices of companies in this industry.

Energy companies may do business with companies in countries other than the United States. Such companies often operate in countries with less stringent regulatory regimes and countries that have a history of expropriation and/or nationalization, among other adverse policies. In addition, these companies are at risk of civil liability from accidents resulting in injury, loss of life or property, pollution or other environmental damage claims and risk of loss from terrorism and natural disasters. The energy sector is cyclical, and

 

 

 

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commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources, development of alternative energy sources, technological developments and labor relations also could affect companies in this sector. Recent global economic events have created greater volatility in the energy sector, including substantial declines in the price of oil. Such events may create wide fluctuations in the value of companies in this sector, which may affect the value of the Shares.

Financials Sector Risk. Financial services companies are subject to extensive government regulation and, as a result, their profitability may be affected by new regulations or regulatory interpretations, unstable interest rates can have a disproportionate effect on the financial services sector; financial services companies whose securities a Fund may purchase may themselves have concentrated portfolios, which makes them vulnerable to economic conditions that affect that sector; and financial services companies have been affected by increased competition, which could adversely affect the profitability or viability of such companies. In addition, the financial services sector is undergoing numerous changes, including continuing consolidations, development of new products and structures and changes to its regulatory framework. Increased government involvement in financial institutions, including measures such as taking ownership positions in such institutions, could result in a dilution in the value of the shares held by shareholders in such institutions.

Moreover, global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the possibilities that conditions in one country or region may adversely affect issuers in another country or region, which may adversely affect securities held by a Fund. These circumstances have also decreased liquidity in some markets and may continue to do so. Liquidity in some markets has decreased and credit has become scarcer worldwide. The recent deterioration of the credit markets has caused an adverse impact on a broad range of financial markets, thereby causing certain financial services companies to incur large losses. Certain financial services companies have experienced decline in the valuation of their assets and even ceased operations.

Financial services companies also are subject to extensive government regulation and, as a result, their profitability may be affected by new regulations or regulatory interpretations. Recent regulatory changes, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and the introduction of new international capital and liquidity requirements under the Basel III Accords (“Basel III”), may cause lending activity within the financial services sector to be constrained for several years as Basel III rules phase in and rules and regulations are promulgated and interpreted under the Dodd-Frank Act. These market conditions may continue or deteriorate further and may add significantly to the risk of short-term volatility within the sector.

Healthcare Sector Risk. Factors that may affect the profitability of companies in the healthcare sector include

extensive government regulation, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products, services and facilities, pricing pressure, an increased emphasis on outpatient services, limited number of products and product obsolescence due to industry innovation, changes in technologies and other market developments. A major source of revenue for the healthcare sector is payments from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. As a result, the sector is sensitive to legislative changes and reductions in governmental spending for such programs. Companies in the healthcare sector depend heavily on patent protection. The process of obtaining patent approval can be long and costly, and the expiration of patents may adversely affect the profitability of the companies. Healthcare companies also are subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims. Additional factors also may adversely affect healthcare companies, and state or local healthcare reform measures. Many new products are subject to regulatory approval and the process of obtaining such approval can be long and costly. Healthcare companies also are subject to competitive forces that may make raising prices difficult and, at times, may result in price discounting. In addition, companies in the healthcare sector may be thinly capitalized and therefore may be susceptible to product obsolescence.

Industrials Sector Risk. Changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions may adversely affect the companies in the industrials sector. In addition, these companies are at risk for environmental damage claims. Industrial companies also may be adversely affected by commodity price volatility, changes in exchange rates, imposition of import controls, increased competition, depletion of resources, technological developments, labor relations and changes in the supply of and demand for their specific products or services or for industrials sector products in general.

Information Technology Sector Risk. Companies in the technology sector may be adversely affected by the failure to obtain, or delays in obtaining, financing or regulatory approval, intense competition, both domestically and internationally, product compatibility, consumer preferences, corporate capital expenditure, rapid obsolescence and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Companies in the technology sector also face competition or potential competition with numerous alternative technologies. In addition, the highly competitive technology sector may cause the prices for these products and services to decline in the future.

Technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights. The loss or impairment of these rights may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

The technology sector is subject to rapid and significant changes in technology that are evidenced by the increasing pace of technological upgrades, evolving industry standards, ongoing improvements in the capacity and quality of digital

 

 

 

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technology, shorter development cycles for new products and enhancements, developments in emerging wireless transmission technologies and changes in customer requirements and preferences. The success of sector participants depends substantially on the timely and successful introduction of new products.

Real Estate Securities Risk. Investing in securities of real estate companies includes risks such as: fluctuations in the value of the underlying properties; defaults by borrowers or tenants; market saturation; changes in general and local economic conditions; decreases in market rates for rents; changes in the availability, cost and terms of mortgage funds; increased competition, property taxes, capital expenditures, or operating expenses; and other economic, political or regulatory occurrences, including the impact of changes in environmental laws, that may affect the real estate industry.

The value or price of real estate company securities may drop because of, among other adverse events, the failure of borrowers to repay their loans and the inability to obtain financing either on favorable terms or at all. If real estate properties do not generate sufficient income to meet operating expenses, including, where applicable, debt service, ground lease payments, tenant improvements, third-party leasing commissions and other capital expenditures, the income and ability (or perceived ability) of a real estate company to make payments of interest and principal on their loans will be adversely affected, which, as a result, may adversely affect a Fund. Many real estate companies utilize leverage, which increases investment risk and could adversely affect a company’s operations and market value in periods of rising interest rates.

Utilities Sector Risk. The risks inherent in the utilities sector include a variety of factors that may adversely affect the business or operations of utilities companies, including high interest costs associated with capital construction and improvement programs; difficulty in raising adequate capital on reasonable terms in periods of high inflation and unsettled capital markets; governmental regulation of rates that the issuer can charge to customers; costs associated with compliance with, and adjusting to changes to, environmental and other regulations; effects of economic slowdowns and surplus capacity; and increased competition from other providers of utility services. Utilities companies may also be adversely affected by increased costs associated with the reduced availability of certain types of fuel, occasionally reduced availability and high costs of natural gas for resale, and the effects of energy conservation policies; effects of a national energy policy and lengthy delays, increased costs and other problems associated with the design, construction, licensing, regulation and operation of nuclear facilities for electric generation, which may include the problems associated with the use of radioactive materials and the disposal of radioactive wastes.

Technological innovations may render existing plants, equipment or products obsolete, and companies may experience difficulty in obtaining regulatory approval of new technologies; a lack of compatibility of telecommunications equipment; and may be affected by the potential impact of

terrorist activities on the utility industry and its customers, as well as the impact of natural or man-made disasters. Any such event could have serious consequences for the general population of the affected area and may adversely impact a Fund’s portfolio securities performance. Issuers in the utilities sector also may be subject to regulation by various governmental authorities and may be affected by the imposition of special tariffs and changes in tax laws, regulatory policies and accounting standards. Deregulation is subjecting utilities companies to greater competition and may adversely affect profitability. As deregulation allows utilities to diversify outside of their original geographic regions and their traditional lines of business, utilities companies may engage in riskier ventures. There is no assurance that regulatory authorities will, in the future, grant rate increases, or that such increases will be adequate to permit the payment of dividends on stocks issued by a utilities company.

Investment Approach Risk

Each Underlying Index, and thus the respective Fund, seeks to provide exposure to investments based on a specific criteria and weighting approach. There can be no assurance that the selection criteria and weighting approach will enhance a Fund’s performance over time. It is expected that exposure to such investment criteria and weighting will detract from performance in some market environments, perhaps for extended periods. In such circumstances, the Adviser will not adjust a Fund’s investment process to target different criteria or weighting processes. For certain Funds, the weights allocated to particular targeted investment factors may be adjusted based on changes in the Signal, but the Adviser will not otherwise adjust the Fund’s investment process.

Issuer-Specific Changes Risk

The performance of a Fund depends on the performance of individual securities to which the Fund has exposure. The value of an individual security or particular type of security may be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform worse than the market as a whole, causing the value of its securities to decline. Poor performance may be caused by poor management decisions, competitive pressures, changes in technology, expiration of patent protection, disruptions in supply, labor problems or shortages, corporate restructurings, fraudulent disclosures or other factors. Issuers may, in times of distress or at their own discretion, decide to reduce or eliminate dividends, which may also cause their stock prices to decline.

Large Shareholder Risk

Certain large shareholders, including other funds advised by the investment adviser or an affiliate of the investment adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of a Fund’s shares. In addition, a third party investor, the investment adviser or an affiliate of the investment adviser, an authorized participant, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in a Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment. Dispositions of a large number of Shares by these shareholders may adversely affect a Fund’s liquidity and net assets to the extent such

 

 

 

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transactions are executed directly with the Fund in the form of redemptions through an authorized participant, rather than executed in the secondary market. These redemptions may also force a Fund to sell portfolio securities when it might not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and increase the Fund’s brokerage costs. Further, such sales may accelerate the realization of taxable income and/or gains to shareholders, or a Fund may be required to sell its more liquid Fund investments to meet a large redemption, in which case the Fund’s remaining assets may be less liquid, more volatile, and more difficult to price. To the extent a Fund permits cash purchases, large purchases of Shares may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash and is required to maintain a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. To the extent these large shareholders transact in shares on the secondary market, such transactions may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on a Fund’s listing exchange and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares. To the extent a Fund permits redemptions in cash, the Fund may hold a relatively large proportion of its assets in cash in anticipation of large redemptions, diluting its investment returns.

Low Volatility Risk

Although subject to the risks of common stocks, low volatility stocks are seen as having a lower risk profile than the overall markets. However, a portfolio comprised of low volatility stocks may not produce investment exposure that has lower variability to changes in such stocks’ price levels. Low volatility stocks are likely to underperform the broader market during periods of rapidly rising stock prices. There is no guarantee that a strategy seeking lower volatility will be successful.

Market Risk

The securities in each Underlying Index are subject to market fluctuations, and a Fund could lose money due to short-term market movements and over longer periods during market downturns. You should anticipate that the value of the Shares will decline, more or less, in correlation with any decline in value of the securities in the respective Underlying Index. The value of a security may decline due to general market conditions, economic trends or events that are not specifically related to the issuer of the security or due to factors that affect a particular industry or group of industries. During a general downturn in the securities markets, multiple asset classes may be negatively affected.

Market Trading Risk

Each Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including losses from trading in secondary markets, periods of high volatility and disruption in the creation/redemption process of the Fund. Although the Shares of each Fund are listed for trading on a securities exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for the Shares will develop or be maintained by market makers or APs, that the Shares will continue to trade on any such exchange or that the Shares will continue to meet the requirements for listing on an exchange. Any of these factors, among others, may lead to the Shares trading at a premium or discount to a Fund’s NAV. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods. Further, a Fund may

experience low trading volume and wide bid/ask spreads. Bid/ask spreads vary over time based on trading volume and market liquidity (including for the underlying securities held by a Fund), and are generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Additionally, in stressed market conditions, the market for the Shares may become less liquid in response to deteriorating liquidity in the markets for a Fund’s portfolio holdings, which may cause a variance in the market price of the Shares and their underlying value.

Momentum Investing Risk

In general, momentum is the tendency of an investment to exhibit persistence in its relative performance; a “momentum” style of investing emphasizes investing in securities that have had better recent performance compared to other securities, on the theory that these securities will continue to increase in value.

Momentum investing is subject to the risk that the securities may be more volatile than the market as a whole. High momentum may also be a sign that the securities’ prices have peaked, and therefore the returns on securities that previously have exhibited price momentum may be less than returns on other styles of investing. Momentum can turn quickly, and stocks that previously have exhibited high momentum may not experience continued positive momentum. A Fund may experience significant losses if momentum stops, reverses or otherwise behaves differently than predicted. In addition, there may be periods when the momentum style of investing is out of favor and therefore, the investment performance of a Fund may suffer.

Non-Correlation Risk

A Fund’s return may not match the return of its Underlying Index (that is, it may experience tracking error) for a number of reasons. For example, a Fund incurs operating expenses not applicable to its Underlying Index and incurs costs in buying and selling securities, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of its Underlying Index. If a Fund has recently commenced operations or otherwise has a relatively small amount of assets, such transaction costs could have a proportionally greater impact on the Fund. Additionally, if a Fund used a sampling approach, it may result in returns that are not as well-correlated with the return of its Underlying Index as would be the case if the Fund purchased all of the components of its Underlying Index in the proportions represented in the Underlying Index.

The performance of each Fund and its Underlying Index may vary due to asset valuation differences and differences between the Fund’s portfolio and the Underlying Index resulting from legal restrictions, costs or liquidity constraints. Additionally, a Fund that issues or redeems Creation Units principally for cash will incur higher costs in buying and selling securities than if it issued and redeemed Creation Units principally in-kind. A Fund may fair value certain of the securities it holds. To the extent a Fund calculates its NAV based on fair value prices, the Fund’s ability to track its Underlying Index may be adversely affected. Since an Underlying Index is not subject to the tax diversification requirements to which the Funds must adhere, a Fund may be required to deviate its investments from the securities contained in, and relative

 

 

 

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weightings of, its Underlying Index. A Fund may not invest in certain securities included in its Underlying Index due to liquidity constraints. Liquidity constraints also may delay a Fund’s purchase or sale of securities included in its Underlying Index. For tax efficiency purposes, a Fund may sell certain securities to realize losses, causing it to deviate from its respective Underlying Index.

The Adviser may not fully invest a Fund at times, either as a result of cash flows into the Fund, to retain a reserve of cash to meet redemptions and expenses, or because of low assets (particularly when a Fund is new and has operated for only a short period).

The investment activities of one or more of the Adviser’s affiliates, including other subsidiaries of the Adviser’s parent company, Invesco Ltd., for their proprietary accounts and for client accounts also may adversely impact a Fund’s ability to track its Underlying Index. For example, in regulated industries, certain emerging or international markets and under corporate and regulatory ownership definitions, there may be limits on the aggregate amount of investment by affiliated investors that may not be exceeded, or that may not be exceeded without the grant of a license or other regulatory or corporate consent, or, if exceeded, may cause the Adviser, the Fund or other client accounts to suffer disadvantages or business restrictions. As a result, a Fund may be restricted in its ability to acquire particular securities due to positions held by the Adviser’s affiliates.

Non-Diversified Fund Risk

Funds that are considered non-diversified can invest a greater portion of their assets in securities of individual issuers than a diversified fund. For such Funds, changes in the market value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in the Share price of those Funds than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase a Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

Operational Risk

Each Fund is exposed to operational risks arising from a number of factors, including, but not limited to, human error, processing and communication errors, errors of the Fund’s service providers, counterparties or other third-parties, failed or inadequate processes and technology or systems failures. Each Fund and the investment adviser seek to reduce these operational risks through controls and procedures. However, these measures do not address every possible risk and may be inadequate to address these risks.

Risks Relating to Calculation of NAV

A Fund relies on various third parties and other informative sources to calculate its NAV. Therefore, a Fund is subject to certain operational risks associated with reliance on third party service providers and data sources. NAV calculation may be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of a Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. A Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures.

Portfolio Turnover Risk

To the extent that a Fund’s Underlying Index rebalances frequently, a Fund may engage in frequent trading of its portfolio securities in connection with the rebalancing or adjustment of its Underlying Index. This may result in a high portfolio turnover rate. A portfolio turnover rate of 200%, for example, is equivalent to a Fund buying and selling all of its securities two times during the course of a year. A high portfolio turnover rate (such as 100% or more) could result in high brokerage costs for a Fund. A high portfolio turnover rate also can result in an increase in taxable capital gains distributions to a Fund’s shareholders and an increased likelihood that the capital gains will be taxable at ordinary rates.

Quality Securities Risk

Companies that issue stocks deemed to be quality stocks may experience lower than expected returns or may experience negative growth, as well as increased leverage, resulting in lower than expected or negative returns to Fund shareholders. Many factors can affect a stock’s quality and performance, and the impact of these factors on a stock or its price can be difficult to predict. There is no guarantee that the past performance of these stocks will continue.

Small Capitalization Company Risk

Investing in securities of small capitalization companies involves greater risk than customarily is associated with investing in larger, more established companies. These companies’ securities may be more volatile and less liquid than those of more established companies. These securities may have returns that vary, sometimes significantly, from the overall securities market. Often small capitalization companies and the industries in which they focus are still evolving and, as a result, they may be more sensitive to changing market conditions.

Value Securities Risk

A value style of investing focuses on undervalued companies with characteristics for improved valuations. Value securities are subject to the risk that valuations never improve or that the returns on value securities are less than returns on other styles of investing or the overall stock market. Thus, the value of a Fund’s investments will vary and at times may be lower or higher than that of other types of investments. Historically, value investments have performed best during periods of economic recovery. Therefore, the value investing style may over time go in and out of favor. Value stocks also may decline in price, even though in theory they are already underpriced.

Non-Principal Investment Strategies

Each Fund, after investing at least 80% of its total assets in the components that comprise its respective Underlying Index, may invest its remaining assets in securities (including other funds) not included in its Underlying Index, and in money market instruments, including other funds, including affiliated funds, that invest exclusively in money market instruments (subject to applicable limitations under the 1940 Act or exemptions therefrom), or repurchase agreements, convertible securities and structured notes (notes on which the amount of principal

 

 

 

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repayment and interest payments is based on the movement of one or more specified factors, such as the movement of a particular security or securities index) and in futures contracts, options, options on futures contracts and swaps. Convertible securities, structured notes, futures contracts, options, options on futures contracts and swaps may be used by a Fund in seeking performance that corresponds to its respective Underlying Index and to manage cash flows. The Adviser anticipates that it may take approximately two business days (i.e., each day that the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open) for additions to, and deletions from, a Fund’s Underlying Index to fully settle in the portfolio composition of that Fund.

Each Fund’s investment objective constitutes a non-fundamental policy that the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (the “Trust”) may change at any time without shareholder approval upon 60 days written notice to shareholders. The complete list of fundamental and non-fundamental policies of the Funds is set forth in the Trust’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) under the section “Investment Restrictions.”

Borrowing Money

Each Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, (ii) the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC under the 1940 Act, or (iii) an exemption or other relief applicable to the Fund from the provisions of the 1940 Act.

Securities Lending

Each Fund may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers, and other financial institutions. In connection with such loans, each such Fund receives liquid collateral equal to at least 102% (105% for international securities) of the value of the loaned portfolio securities. This collateral is marked-to-market on a daily basis.

Additional Risks of Investing in the Funds

The following provides additional risk information regarding investing in the Funds.

Affiliated Index Provider Risk

Invesco Indexing is an affiliated person of the Adviser, which poses the appearance of a conflict of interest. For example, a potential conflict could arise between an affiliated person of Invesco Indexing or the Adviser and the Fund if that entity attempted to use information regarding changes and composition of the Underlying Index to the detriment of the Fund. Additionally, potential conflicts could arise with respect to the personal trading activity of personnel of the affiliated person who may have access to, or knowledge of, pending changes to the Underlying Index’s composition methodology or the constituent securities in the Underlying Index prior to the time that information is publicly disseminated. If shared, such knowledge could facilitate “front-running” (which describes an instance in which other persons trade ahead of a Fund). Although the Adviser and Invesco Indexing have taken steps designed to ensure that these potential conflicts are mitigated (e.g., via the adoption of policies and procedures that are designed to minimize potential conflicts of interest and the implementation of informational barriers designed

to minimize the potential for the misuse of information about the Underlying Index), there can be no assurance that such measures will be successful.

Convertible Securities Risk

A convertible security generally is a preferred stock that may be converted within a specified period of time into common stock. Convertible securities nevertheless remain subject to the risks of both debt securities and equity securities. As with other equity securities, the value of a convertible security tends to increase as the price of the underlying stock goes up, and to decrease as the price of the underlying stock goes down. Declining common stock values therefore also may cause the value of a Fund’s investments to decline. Like a debt security, a convertible security provides a fixed income stream and also tends to decrease in value when interest rates rise. Moreover, many convertible securities have credit ratings that are below investment grade (such securities are commonly known as “junk bonds”), are subject to the same risks as lower-rated debt securities and are considered speculative.

Cybersecurity Risk

The Funds, like all companies, may be susceptible to operational and information security risks. Cybersecurity failures or breaches of the Funds or their service providers or the issuers of securities in which the Funds invest, have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Funds and their shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

Derivatives Risk

The Funds may invest in derivatives, such as futures and options. Derivatives are financial instruments that derive their value from an underlying asset, such as a security, index or exchange rate. Derivatives may be riskier than other types of investments and may be more volatile and less liquid than other securities.

Derivatives may be used to create synthetic exposure to an underlying asset or to hedge a portfolio risk. If a Fund uses derivatives to “hedge” a portfolio risk, the change in value of a derivative may not correlate as expected with the underlying asset being hedged, and it is possible that the hedge therefore may not succeed. In addition, given their complexity, derivatives may be difficult to value.

Derivatives are subject to a number of risks including credit risk, interest rate risk, and market risk. Credit risk refers to the possibility that a counterparty will be unable and/or unwilling to perform under the agreement. Interest rate risk refers to fluctuations in the value of an asset resulting from changes in the general level of interest rates. Over-the-counter derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk (sometimes referred to as “default risk”), which is the risk that the other party to the contract will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

Derivatives may be especially sensitive to changes in economic and market conditions, and their use may give rise to a form of leverage. Leverage may cause the portfolios of the Funds to be more volatile than if the portfolio had not been leveraged because

 

 

 

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leverage can exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of securities held by a Fund. For some derivatives, such leverage could result in losses that exceed the original amount invested in the derivative.

Index Provider Risk

Each Fund seeks to track the investment results, before fees and expenses, of its Underlying Index, as published by an Index Provider. There is no assurance that an Index Provider will compile an Underlying Index accurately, or that an Underlying Index will be determined, composed or calculated accurately. While an Index Provider gives descriptions of what an Underlying Index is designed to achieve, the Index Provider generally does not provide any warranty or accept any liability in relation to the quality, accuracy or completeness of data in such indexes, and it generally does not guarantee that an Underlying Index will be in line with its methodology. Errors made by an Index Provider with respect to the quality, accuracy and completeness of the data within an Underlying Index may occur from time to time and may not be identified and corrected by the Index Provider for a period of time, if at all. Therefore, gains, losses or costs associated with an Index Provider’s errors will generally be borne by a Fund and its shareholders.

Index Rebalancing Risk

Because each Fund seeks to track the investment results, before fees and expenses, of its Underlying Index, the Fund may sell securities at inopportune times or for prices other than at current market values or may hold onto the securities in unfavorable market conditions. In addition, a Fund may elect not to sell such securities on the day that they are removed from its Underlying Index, due to market conditions or otherwise. Due to these factors, the variation between a Fund’s annual return and the return of its Underlying Index may increase significantly.

Apart from scheduled rebalances, an Index Provider may carry out additional ad hoc rebalances to an Underlying Index, for example, to correct an error in the selection of constituents. When a Fund in turn rebalances its portfolio, any transaction costs and market exposure arising from such portfolio rebalancing will be borne by the Fund and its shareholders. Unscheduled rebalances also expose a Fund to additional tracking error risk. Therefore, errors and additional ad hoc rebalances carried out by an Index Provider may increase a Fund’s costs and market exposure.

Money Market Funds Risk

Money market funds are subject to management fees and other expenses, and a Fund’s investments in money market funds will cause it to bear proportionately the costs incurred by the money market funds’ operations while simultaneously paying its own management fees and expenses. An investment in a money market fund is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency; it is possible to lose money by investing in a money market fund. To the extent that a Fund invests in money market funds, the Fund will be subject to the same risks that investors experience when investing in money market funds. These risks may include the impact of significant fluctuations in assets as a result of the cash sweep program or purchase and redemption activity in those funds.

Money market funds are open-end registered investment companies that historically have traded at a stable $1.00 per share price. However, under recent amendments to money market fund regulations under the 1940 Act, money market funds that do not meet the definition of a “retail money market fund” or “government money market fund” are required to transact at a floating NAV per share (i.e., in a manner similar to how all other non-money market mutual funds transact), instead of at a $1.00 stable share price. Those rule amendments also permit money market funds to impose liquidity fees and redemption gates for use in times of market stress. If a Fund invested in a money market fund with a floating NAV, the impact on the trading and value of the money market instrument as a result of the rule amendments may negatively affect the Fund’s return potential.

Repurchase Agreements Risk

Repurchase agreements are agreements pursuant to which a Fund acquires securities from a third party with the understanding that the seller will repurchase them at a fixed price on an agreed date. Repurchase agreements may be characterized as loans secured by the underlying securities. If the seller of securities under a repurchase agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying securities, as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, a Fund will seek to dispose of such securities, which action could involve costs or delays. If the seller becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under applicable bankruptcy or other laws, a Fund’s ability to dispose of the underlying securities may be restricted. If the seller fails to repurchase the securities, a Fund may suffer a loss to the extent proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities are less than the repurchase prices.

Risks of Futures and Options

Each Fund may enter into U.S. futures contracts, options and options on futures contracts to simulate full investment in its Underlying Index, or to manage cash flows. The Funds will not use futures or options for speculative purposes. Each Fund intends to use futures and options contracts to limit its risk exposure to levels comparable to direct investment in securities.

An option gives a holder the right to buy or sell a specific security or an index at a specified price within a specified period of time. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in the underlying futures contract at a specified price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option. Options can offer large amounts of leverage, which may result in a Fund’s NAV being more sensitive to changes in the value of the related instrument. The purchase of put or call options could be based upon predictions as to anticipated trends; such predictions could prove to be incorrect resulting in loss of part or all of the premium paid. The risk of trading uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered stock index futures contracts) potentially is unlimited.

Futures contracts provide for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific instrument or index at a specified future time and at a specified price. Because futures contracts project price levels in the future, market circumstances may cause a discrepancy between the price of the stock index future and the movement in the Underlying

 

 

 

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Index. In the event of adverse price movements, a Fund would remain required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures contract at any particular time. The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or potentially is unlimited.

Each Fund must segregate liquid assets or take other appropriate measures to “cover” open positions in futures contracts. For futures contracts that do not cash settle, each Fund must segregate liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the futures contracts while the positions are open. For futures contracts that do cash settle, each Fund is permitted to set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the futures contract, if any, rather than their full notional value.

Risks of Swap Agreements

A Fund may enter into swap transactions, including total return swaps, to simulate full investment in its Underlying Index or to manage cash flows. A swap is an agreement involving the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive payments at specified dates on the basis of a specified amount. In a total return swap transaction, one party agrees to pay the other party an amount equal to the total return on a defined underlying asset or a non-asset reference during a specified period of time. The underlying asset might be a security or basket of securities, and the non-asset reference could be a securities index. In return, the other party would make periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or on the total return from a different underlying asset or non-asset reference. The payments of the two parties could be made on a net basis.

Swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional instruments. The use of swap agreements entails certain risks that may be different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the reference instrument that underlies the swap agreement. Such risks include including leverage risk, liquidity risk and counterparty risk.

Swap agreements may have a leverage component, and therefore adverse changes in the value or level of the reference instrument, such as an underlying asset, can result in gains or losses that are substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. Certain swaps, such as total return swaps, have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment.

Counterparty risk is the risk that the other party in a swap agreement might default on a contract or fail to perform by not paying amounts due. In that event, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction. However, such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws that could affect a Fund’s rights as a creditor (e.g., the Fund may not receive the net amount of payments that it contractually is entitled to receive). A Fund could experience lengthy delays in recovering its assets and may not receive any recovery at all. Further, there is a risk that no suitable

counterparties will be willing to enter into, or continue to enter into, transactions with a Fund, which may cause the Fund to experience difficulty in purchasing or selling these instruments in a timely manner.

A Fund will earmark or segregate assets in the form of cash and cash equivalents in an amount equal to the aggregate market value of the swaps of which it is the seller, marked-to-market on a daily basis.

Securities Lending Risk

Securities lending involves a risk of loss because the borrower may fail to return the securities in a timely manner or at all. If a Fund that lent its securities were unable to recover the securities loaned, it may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement security in the market. Lending securities entails a risk of loss to a Fund if and to the extent that the market value of the loaned securities increases and the collateral is not increased accordingly.

Any cash received as collateral for loaned securities will be invested in an affiliated money market fund. This investment is subject to market appreciation or depreciation and a Fund will bear any loss on the investment of its cash collateral.

Shares May Trade at Prices Different than NAV

The NAV of the Shares generally will fluctuate with changes in the market value of each Fund’s holdings. The market prices of Shares generally will fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV, as well as the relative supply of and demand for Shares on the exchange on which a Fund trades. The Adviser cannot predict whether the Shares will trade below, at or above a Fund’s NAV. Price differences may be due largely to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the Shares will be related, but not identical, to the same forces influencing the prices of the securities of each Fund’s Underlying Index trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time. In addition, disruptions to creations and redemptions or the existence of extreme market volatility may result in trading prices that differ significantly from NAV. If a shareholder purchases at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.

Structured Notes Risk

Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Interest rate risk refers to fluctuations in the value of a note resulting from changes in the general level of interest rates. When the general level of interest rates goes up, the prices of notes tend to go down. Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a note will be unable and/or unwilling to make timely interest payments and/or repay the principal on its debt. Depending on the factors used, changes in interest rates and movement of such factors may cause significant price fluctuations. Structured notes may be less liquid than other types of securities and more volatile than the reference factor underlying the note. This means that a Fund may lose money if the issuer of the note defaults, as the Fund may not be able to readily close out its investment in such notes without incurring losses.

 

 

 

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Trading Issues Risk

Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market may pay brokerage commissions or other charges, which may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. Moreover, trading in Shares on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. or NYSE Arca, Inc. (each, an “Exchange” and together, the “Exchanges”), as applicable, may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the relevant Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on an Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to the Exchange’s “circuit breaker” rules. There can be no assurance that the requirements of an Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of each Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged. Foreign exchanges may be open on days when Shares are not priced, and therefore, the value of the securities in a Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell Shares.

 

 

Tax-Advantaged Structure of ETFs

Unlike interests in conventional mutual funds, which typically are bought and sold only at closing NAVs, Shares are traded throughout the day in the secondary market on a national securities exchange on an intra-day basis, and are created and redeemed principally in-kind in Creation Units at each day’s next calculated NAV. These in-kind arrangements are designed to protect shareholders from the adverse effects on a Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash creation and redemption transactions. In a conventional mutual fund, redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders because the mutual funds may need to sell portfolio securities to obtain cash to meet such redemptions. These sales may generate taxable gains that must be distributed to the shareholders of the mutual fund, whereas the Shares’ in-kind redemption mechanism generally will not lead to such taxable events for a Fund or its shareholders.

A Fund may recognize gains as a result of rebalancing its securities holdings to reflect changes in the securities included in its Underlying Index. A Fund also may be required to distribute any such gains to their shareholders to avoid adverse federal income tax consequences. For information concerning the tax consequences of distributions, see the section entitled “Dividends, Other Distributions and Taxes” in this Prospectus.

 

 

Portfolio Holdings

A description of the Trust’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Funds’ SAI, which is available at www.invesco.com/ETFs.

 

 

Management of the Funds

Invesco Capital Management LLC is a registered investment adviser with its offices at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515. The Adviser serves as the investment adviser to the Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust,

Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust, a family of ETFs with combined assets under management of approximately $102.3 billion as of December 31, 2018.

As the Funds’ investment adviser, the Adviser has overall responsibility for selecting and continuously monitoring each Fund’s investments, managing each Fund’s business affairs and providing certain clerical, bookkeeping and other administrative services for the Trust.

Portfolio Managers

The Adviser uses a team of portfolio managers, investment strategists and other investment specialists in managing the Funds. This team approach brings together many disciplines and leverages the Adviser’s extensive resources.

Peter Hubbard, Vice President of the Trust, oversees all research, portfolio management and trading operations of the Funds. In this capacity, Mr. Hubbard oversees a team of portfolio managers (collectively, with Mr. Hubbard, the “Portfolio Managers”) who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds. In managing the Funds, Mr. Hubbard receives management assistance from Michael Jeanette and Tony Seisser. Each Portfolio Manager is responsible for various functions related to portfolio management, including investing cash flows, coordinating with other team members to focus on certain asset classes, implementing investment strategy and researching and reviewing investment strategy. Each Portfolio Manager has limitations on his authority for risk management and compliance purposes that the Adviser believes to be appropriate.

Peter Hubbard, Director of Portfolio Management of the Adviser, has been one of the Portfolio Managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of each Fund since May 2019. Mr. Hubbard has been a portfolio manager at the Adviser since June 2007 and has been associated with the Adviser since 2005.

Michael Jeanette, Senior Portfolio Manager of the Adviser, has been one of the Portfolio Managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of each Fund since May 2019. He has been associated with the Adviser since 2008.

Tony Seisser, Portfolio Manager of the Adviser, has been one of the Portfolio Managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of each Fund since May 2019. He has been associated with the Adviser since 2013.

The Funds’ SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts that the Portfolio Managers manage and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares.

Advisory Fees

Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement between the Adviser and the Trust (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”), each Fund pays the Adviser an annual unitary management fee

 

 

 

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equal to a percentage of its average daily net assets set forth in the chart below:

 

   
Fund   Management Fee
Invesco ESG Revenue ETF   0.40%
Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   0.29%
Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   0.39%

Out of each Fund’s unitary management fee, the Adviser pays substantially all expenses of the Fund, including the cost of transfer agency, custody, fund administration, legal, audit and other services, except for advisory fees, distribution fees, if any, brokerage expenses, taxes, interest, litigation expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, if any, and other extraordinary expenses (as set forth in the Investment Advisory Agreement).

The Adviser has agreed to waive a portion of its unitary management fee to the extent necessary to prevent each Fund’s operating expenses (excluding advisory fees, distribution fees, if any, brokerage expenses, taxes, interest, litigation expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, if any, and other extraordinary expenses (as set forth in the Investment Advisory Agreement)) from exceeding the management fee for at least two years following each Fund’s acquisition of its corresponding Predecessor Fund.

The Funds may invest in money market funds that are managed by affiliates of the Adviser. The indirect portion of the management fee that a Fund incurs through such investments is in addition to the Adviser’s unitary management fee. Therefore, the Adviser has contractually agreed to waive the management fees that it receives in an amount equal to the indirect management fees that a Fund incurs through its investments in affiliated money market funds through at least two years following each Fund’s acquisition of its corresponding Predecessor Fund. There is no guarantee that the Adviser will extend the waiver of these fees past that date.

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Investment Advisory Agreement with respect to each Fund will be available in the Fund’s next Annual or Semi-Annual Report to shareholders.

 

 

How to Buy and Sell Shares

Each Fund issues or redeems its Shares at NAV per Share only in Creation Units or Creation Unit Aggregations.

Most investors will buy and sell Shares of each Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares. There is no minimum investment. Although Shares generally are purchased and sold in “round lots” of 100 Shares, brokerage firms typically permit investors to purchase or sell Shares in smaller “odd lots,” at no per share price differential. When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale)

transaction. Shares of the Funds trade under the following symbols on the following Exchanges:

 

     
Fund   Symbol    Exchange
Invesco ESG Revenue ETF   ESGL    NYSE Arca, Inc.
Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   OMFL    Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   OMFS    Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.

Share prices are reported in dollars and cents per Share.

APs may acquire Shares directly from each Fund, and APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to each Fund, at NAV per Share only in Creation Units or Creation Unit Aggregations, and in accordance with the procedures described in the SAI.

Under normal circumstances, a Fund will pay out redemption proceeds to a redeeming AP within two days after the AP’s redemption request is received, in accordance with the process set forth in the Funds’ SAI and in the agreement between the AP and the Funds’ distributor. However, each Fund reserves the right, including under stressed market conditions, to take up to seven days after the receipt of a redemption request (as discussed above) to pay an AP, all as permitted by the 1940 Act. Each Fund anticipates regularly meeting redemption requests primarily through in-kind redemptions. However, each Fund reserves the right to pay redemption proceeds to an AP in cash, consistent with the Trust’s exemptive relief. Cash used for redemptions will be raised from the sale of portfolio assets or may come from existing holdings of cash or cash equivalents.

Each Fund may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.

Book Entry

Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares and is recognized as the owner of all Shares for all purposes.

Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” form.

Share Trading Prices

The trading prices of Shares of each Fund on the relevant Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of Shares.

 

 

 

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The approximate value of Shares of each Fund, an amount representing on a per share basis the sum of the current market price of the securities accepted by such Fund, and an estimated cash component will be disseminated every 15 seconds throughout the trading day through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV per Share of a Fund because the approximate value will not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day, generally at the end of the business day. The Funds are not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the approximate value of the Shares, and the Funds do not make any warranty as to the accuracy of the approximate value.

Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares

Shares of the Funds may be purchased and redeemed directly from the Funds only in Creation Units by APs. The vast majority of trading in Shares of the Funds occurs on the secondary market and does not involve a Fund directly. In-kind purchases and redemptions of Creation Units by APs and cash trades on the secondary market are unlikely to cause many of the harmful effects of frequent purchases and/or redemptions of Shares of a Fund. Cash purchases or redemptions of Creation Units, however, can result in increased tracking error, disruption of portfolio management, dilution to a Fund and increased transaction costs, which could negatively impact a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective, and may lead to the realization of capital gains. These consequences may increase as the frequency of cash purchases and redemptions of Creation Units by APs increases. However, direct trading by APs is critical to ensuring that Shares trade at or close to NAV.

To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions of Shares, each Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs the Funds incur in effecting trades. In addition, the Adviser monitors trades by APs for patterns of abusive trading and the Funds reserve the right to not accept orders from APs that the Adviser has determined may be disruptive to the management of the Funds or otherwise are not in the best interests of the Funds. For these reasons, the Board has not adopted policies and procedures with respect to frequent purchases and redemptions of Shares of the Funds.

 

 

Dividends, Other Distributions and Taxes

Dividends and Other Distributions

Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid quarterly by each Fund. Each Fund also intends to distribute its net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually. Dividends and other distributions may be declared and paid more frequently to comply with the distribution requirements of Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and to avoid a federal excise tax imposed on regulated investment companies.

Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available.

Taxes

Each Fund intends to qualify each year as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) and, as such, will not be subject to entity-level tax on the income and gain it distributes. If you are a taxable investor, dividends and distributions you receive generally are taxable to you whether you reinvest distributions in additional Shares or take them in cash. Every year, you will be sent information showing the amount of dividends and distributions you received during the prior calendar year. In addition, investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic tax points as supplemented below where relevant:

Fund Tax Basics

 

  A Fund earns income generally in the form of dividends or interest on its investments. This income, less expenses incurred in the operation of a Fund, constitutes the Fund’s net investment income from which dividends may be paid to shareholders. If you are a taxable investor, distributions of net investment income generally are taxable to you as ordinary income.

 

  Distributions of net short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income. A fund with a high portfolio turnover rate (a measure of how frequently assets within a fund are bought and sold) is more likely to generate short-term capital gains than a fund with a low portfolio turnover rate.

 

  Distributions of net long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains no matter how long you have owned your Shares.

 

  A portion of income dividends paid by a Fund may be reported as qualified dividend income eligible for taxation by individual shareholders at long-term capital gain rates, provided certain holding period requirements are met. These reduced rates generally are available for dividends derived from a Fund’s investment in stocks of domestic corporations and qualified foreign corporations.

 

  The use of derivatives by a Fund may cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of ordinary income or short-term capital gain, distributions from which are taxable to individual shareholders at ordinary income tax rates rather than at the more favorable tax rates for long-term capital gain.

 

  Distributions declared to shareholders with a record date in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable for federal income tax purposes as if received in December.

 

  Any long-term or short-term capital gains realized on the sale of your Shares will be subject to federal income tax.

 

  A shareholder’s cost basis information will be provided on the sale of any of the shareholder’s Shares, subject to certain exceptions for exempt recipients. Please contact the broker (or other nominee) that holds your Shares with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

 

 

At the time you purchase your Shares, a Fund’s NAV may reflect undistributed income or undistributed capital gains. A subsequent distribution to you of such amounts, although constituting a return of your investment, would be taxable. Buying Shares in a Fund just before it declares an income

 

 

 

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dividend or capital gains distribution is sometimes known as “buying a dividend.” In addition, a Fund’s NAV may, at any time, reflect net unrealized appreciation, which may result in future taxable distributions to you.

 

  By law, if you do not provide a Fund with your proper taxpayer identification number and certain required certifications, you may be subject to backup withholding on any distributions of income, capital gains, or proceeds from the sale of your Shares. A Fund also must withhold if the IRS instructs it to do so. When withholding is required, the amount will be 24% of any distributions or proceeds paid.

 

  An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from a Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds a threshold amount. This Medicare tax, if applicable, is reported by you on, and paid with, your federal income tax return.

 

  You will not be required to include the portion of dividends paid by a Fund derived from interest on U.S. government obligations in your gross income for purposes of personal and, in some cases, corporate income taxes in many state and local tax jurisdictions. The percentage of dividends that constitutes dividends derived from interest on federal obligations will be determined annually. This percentage may differ from the actual percentage of interest received by a Fund on federal obligations for the particular days on which you hold shares.

 

  Fund distributions and gains from sale of Shares generally are subject to state and local income taxes.

 

  If a Fund qualifies to pass through the tax benefits from foreign taxes it pays on its investments, and elects to do so, then any foreign taxes it pays on these investments may be passed through to you as a foreign tax credit. You will then be required to include your pro-rata share of these taxes in gross income, even though not actually received by you, and will be entitled either to deduct your share of these taxes in computing your taxable income, or to claim a foreign tax credit for these taxes against your U.S. federal income tax.

 

  Foreign investors should be aware that U.S. withholding, special certification requirements to avoid U.S. backup withholding and claim any treaty benefits, and estate taxes may apply to an investment in a Fund.

 

  Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), a 30% withholding tax is imposed on income dividends made by a Fund to certain foreign entities, referred to as foreign financial institutions or non-financial foreign entities. After December 31, 2018, FATCA withholding also would have applied to certain capital gain distributions, return of capital distributions and the proceeds arising from the sale of Shares; however, based on proposed regulations recently issued by the IRS on which a Fund may rely, such withholding is no longer required unless final regulations provide otherwise (which is not expected). A Fund may disclose the
   

information that it receives from its shareholders to the IRS, non-U.S. taxing authorities or other parties as necessary to comply with FATCA or similar laws. Withholding also may be required if a foreign entity that is a shareholder of a Fund fails to provide the Fund with appropriate certifications or other documentation concerning its status under FATCA.

Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units

An AP that exchanges securities for a Creation Unit generally will recognize a capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of exchange (plus any cash received by an AP as part of the issue) and the sum of the AP’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus any cash component paid. Similarly, an AP that redeems a Creation Unit in exchange for securities generally will recognize a capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the AP’s basis in the Creation Units (plus any cash paid by the AP as part of the redemption) and the aggregate market value of the securities received (plus any cash received by the AP as part of the redemption). The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for a Creation Unit, or of a Creation Unit for securities, cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the ground that there has been no significant change in the AP’s economic position. An AP exchanging securities should consult its own tax advisors with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss otherwise might not be deductible.

Any capital gain or loss realized on a redemption of a Creation Unit generally is treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less, assuming that such Creation Units are held as a capital asset .

If you purchase or redeem one or more Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many Shares you purchased or sold and at what price.

The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the more important possible consequences under current federal, state and local tax law of an investment in the Funds. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state, local, and/or foreign tax on a Fund’s distributions and sales and/or redemptions of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor(s) about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws.

 

 

Distributor

Invesco Distributors, Inc. serves as the distributor of Creation Units for each Fund on an agency basis. The Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor is an affiliate of the Adviser and Invesco Indexing.

 

 

Net Asset Value

The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNYM”) calculates each Fund’s NAV at the close of regular trading (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) every day the NYSE is open. The NAV for each Fund will be

 

 

 

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calculated and disseminated daily on each day that the NYSE is open. NAV is calculated by deducting all of a Fund’s liabilities from the total value of its assets and dividing the result by the number of Shares outstanding, rounding to the nearest cent. Generally, the portfolio securities are recorded in the NAV no later than trade date plus one day. All valuations are subject to review by the Trust’s Board or its delegate.

In determining NAV, expenses are accrued and applied daily and securities and other assets for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value. Securities listed or traded on an exchange (except convertible securities) generally are valued at the last sales price or official closing price that day as of the close of the exchange where the security is primarily traded. Investment companies are valued using such company’s NAV per share, unless the shares are exchange-traded, in which case they will be valued at the last sale or official closing price on the exchanges on which they primarily trade. Debt obligations (including convertible securities) and securities not listed on an exchange normally are valued on the basis of prices provided by independent pricing services. Pricing services generally value debt securities assuming orderly transactions of institutional round lot size, but a Fund may hold or transact in the same securities in smaller, odd lot sizes. Odd lots often trade at lower prices than institutional round lots. The Adviser may use various pricing services or discontinue the use of any pricing service at any time. Deposits, other obligations of U.S. and non-U.S. banks and financial institutions, and cash equivalents are valued at their daily account value. Options generally are valued at the closing price (and, if no closing price is available, at the mean of the last bid/ask quotations), generally from the exchange where such instruments principally trade. Futures contracts generally are valued based on quotations from a pricing vendor or market makers. Swaps and options not listed on an exchange are valued by an independent source.

Securities for which market prices or market quotations are not readily available or have become unreliable will be valued in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board.

Even when market quotations are available for portfolio securities, they may be stale or unreliable because the security is not traded frequently, trading on the security ceased before the close of the trading market or issuer-specific events occurred after the security ceased trading or because of the passage of time between the close of the market on which the security trades and the close of the NYSE and when a Fund calculates its NAV. Events that may cause the last market quotation to be unreliable include a merger or insolvency, events which affect a geographical area or an industry segment, such as political events or natural disasters, or market events, such as a significant movement in the U.S. market. Where market quotations are not readily available, including where the Adviser determines that the closing price of the security is unreliable, the Adviser will value the security at fair value in good faith using procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of the security. In addition, fair value pricing could result in a difference between the

prices used to calculate a Fund’s NAV and the prices used by the Fund’s Underlying Index. This may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to track its Underlying Index. With respect to securities that are primarily listed on foreign exchanges, the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell your Shares.

 

 

Fund Service Providers

BNYM, 240 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10286, is the administrator, custodian, and fund accounting and transfer agent for each Fund.

Stradley Ronon Stevens & Young, LLP, 191 North Wacker Drive, Suite 1601, Chicago, Illinois 60606, and 1250 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 500, Washington, D.C. 20036, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, One North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60606, serves as the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP is responsible for auditing the annual financial statements of each Fund and performs other related audit services. Cohen & Company, Ltd., located at 1350 Euclid Avenue, Suite 800, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, served as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Predecessor Funds.

 

 

Financial Highlights

The Funds are new and have no performance history as of the date of this Prospectus. Financial information for the Funds therefore is not available.

Each Fund has adopted the financial and performance history of its respective Predecessor Fund as a result of a reorganization. The financial highlights tables below are intended to help you understand each Predecessor Fund’s financial performance for the past few fiscal years, or if shorter, for the period since a Predecessor Fund’s inception and the six-month period ended December 31, 2018. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Predecessor Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned (or lost) on an investment in a Predecessor Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and other distributions). The information for the six-month period ended December 31, 2018, was unaudited. The information provided below, other than for the six-month period ended December 31, 2018, has been derived from financial statements that have been audited by Cohen & Company, Ltd., the Predecessor Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Predecessor Funds’ financial statements, are included in the Predecessor Funds’ Annual Report for the fiscal year or period ended June 30, 2018. The Predecessor Funds’ Annual Reports and Semi-Annual Reports are available upon request.

 

 

 

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For a share outstanding throughout each period presented.

 

Oppenheimer ESG Revenue ETF   Six Months Ended
December 31, 2018
(Unaudited)
    Year Ended
June 30, 2018
    For the Period
October 31, 20161
Through
June  30, 2017
 
Per Share Operating Performance:                        
Net asset value, beginning of period/year   $ 30.48     $ 28.42     $ 25.00  

Net investment income2

    0.38       0.66       0.40  

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments

    (2.51 )     2.16       3.28  

Total gain (loss) from investment operations

    (2.13 )     2.82       3.68  
Less Distributions from:                        

Net investment income

    (0.40 )     (0.76 )     (0.26 )

Realized gains

    (0.04 )            

Total distributions

    (0.44 )     (0.76 )     (0.26 )
Net asset value, end of period/year   $ 27.91     $ 30.48     $ 28.42  
Total Return at Net Asset Value3     (7.07 )%     9.96 %     14.78 %
Total Return at Market Value3     (7.10 )%     9.93 %     14.82 %
Ratios/Supplemental Data:                        
Net assets, end of period/year (000’s omitted)   $ 20,930     $ 22,859     $ 22,736  
Average Net Assets (000’s omitted)     23,358       23,490       21,828  
Ratio to average net assets of:                        

Expenses, net of expense waivers and reimbursements

    0.40 %4     0.40 %     0.40 %4

Expenses, prior to expense waivers and reimbursements

    0.40 %4     0.47 %     0.78 %4

Net investment income, net of waivers and reimbursements

    2.43 %4     2.19 %     2.22 %4
Portfolio turnover rate5     20.24 %     26.95 %     42.11 %

 

1.

Commencement of operations.

2.

Based on average daily shares outstanding.

3.

Net asset value total return is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the net asset value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value during the period and redemption on the last day of the period at net asset value. Market value total return is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the market value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends, and distributions at market value during the period, and sale at the market value on the last day of the period. Market value is determined by trading that occurs on the NYSE Arca, and may be greater or less than net asset value, depending on the 4 p.m. mean of the bid and offer prices for a share of the Fund. Total return calculated for a period of less than one year is not annualized. The total return would have been lower if certain expenses had not been reimbursed/waived by the Adviser.

4.

Annualized for periods less than one full year.

5.

Portfolio turnover rate is not annualized and excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

 

 

  36  

 


For a share outstanding throughout each period presented.

 

Oppenheimer Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   Six Months Ended
December 31, 2018
(Unaudited)
    For the Period
November 08, 20171
Through
June  30, 2018
 
Per Share Operating Performance:

 

Net asset value, beginning of period   $ 26.65     $ 25.00  

Net investment income2

    0.29       0.22  

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments

    (1.58 )     1.59  

Total gain (loss) from investment operations

    (1.29 )     1.81  
Less Distributions from:                

Net investment income

    (0.27 )     (0.16 )
Net asset value, end of period   $ 25.09     $ 26.65  
Total Return at Net Asset Value3     (4.89 )%     7.26 %
Total Return at Market Value3     (4.88 )%     7.28 %
Ratios/Supplemental Data:                
Net assets, end of period (000’s omitted)   $ 232,084     $ 150,592  
Average Net Assets (000’s omitted)     183,536       25,996  
Ratio to average net assets of:                

Expenses

    0.29 %4     0.29 %4

Net investment income

    2.12 %4     1.42 %4
Portfolio turnover rate5     159.30     213.35 %

 

1.

Commencement of operations.

2.

Based on average daily shares outstanding.

3.

Net asset value total return is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the net asset value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value during the period and redemption on the last day of the period at net asset value. Market value total return is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the market value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends, and distributions at market value during the period, and sale at the market value on the last day of the period. Market value is determined by trading that occurs on the Cboe BZX Exchange, and may be greater or less than net asset value, depending on the 4 p.m. mean of the bid and offer prices for a share of the Fund. Total return calculated for a period of less than one year is not annualized.

4.

Annualized for periods less than one full year.

5.

Portfolio turnover rate is not annualized and excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

 

 

  37  

 


For a share outstanding throughout each period presented.

 

Oppenheimer Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   Six Months Ended
December 31, 2018
(Unaudited)
    For the Period
November 08, 20171
Through
June  30, 2018
 
Per Share Operating Performance:

 

Net asset value, beginning of period   $ 27.12     $ 25.00  

Net investment income2

    0.22       0.22  

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments

    (3.84 )     2.08  

Total gain (loss) from investment operations

    (3.62 )     2.30  
Less Distributions from:                

Net investment income

    (0.26 )     (0.18 )
Net asset value, end of period   $ 23.24     $ 27.12  
Total Return at Net Asset Value3     (13.43 )%     9.22 %
Total Return at Market Value3     (13.40 )%     9.21 %
Ratios/Supplemental Data:                
Net assets, end of period (000’s omitted)   $ 10,460     $ 13,561  
Average Net Assets (000’s omitted)     12,827       13,212  
Ratio to average net assets of:                

Expenses

    0.39 %4     0.39 %4

Net investment income

    1.58 %4     1.30 %4
Portfolio turnover rate5     99.35 %     172.92 %

 

1.

Commencement of operations.

2.

Based on average daily shares outstanding.

3.

Net asset value total return is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the net asset value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value during the period and redemption on the last day of the period at net asset value. Market value total return is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the market value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends, and distributions at market value during the period, and sale at the market value on the last day of the period. Market value is determined by trading that occurs on the Cboe BZX Exchange, and may be greater or less than net asset value, depending on the 4 p.m. mean of the bid and offer prices for a share of the Fund. Total return calculated for a period of less than one year is not annualized.

4.

Annualized for periods less than one full year.

5.

Portfolio turnover rate is not annualized and excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

 

 

  38  

 


 

Index Providers

Each Index Provider is responsible for the maintenance and calculation of its respective Underlying Index. The Adviser has entered into a license agreement with each Index Provider to use each Underlying Index. Each Fund is entitled to use its Underlying Index pursuant to a sublicensing agreement with the Adviser. Each Fund does not pay a fee for the use of its respective Underlying Index.

Set forth below is a list of each Fund and its Underlying Index:

 

   
Fund    Underlying Index
Invesco ESG Revenue ETF    OFI Revenue Weighted ESG Index™
Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF    Russell 1000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index
Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF    Russell 2000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index

Invesco Indexing LLC. Invesco Indexing is the index provider for the Invesco ESG Revenue ETF’s Underlying Index. In addition, since Invesco Indexing provides the Signal to Frank Russell, the index provider to the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF, Invesco Indexing may be deemed a creator and sponsor of the Underlying Indexes for each of the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF. Invesco Indexing is affiliated with the Adviser and the Distributor. The Adviser has in place a code of ethics designed to prevent misuse of non-public index information, and the Adviser and Invesco Indexing have each implemented significant informational barriers to prevent impermissible sharing of non-public index information.

Frank Russell Company. Frank Russell is the index provider for the Underlying Indexes for each of the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF. Frank Russell is not affiliated with the Funds or the Adviser.

S&P Dow Jones Indices. S&P Dow Jones serves as calculation agent for the Underlying Index for the Invesco ESG Revenue ETF. S&P Dow Jones is not affiliated with the Fund or the Adviser.

 

 

Disclaimers

S&P Dow Jones Indices. Upon Invesco ESG Revenue ETF’s acquisition of the Oppenheimer ESG Revenue ETF, the OFI Revenue Weighted ESG Index™ will be the exclusive property of Invesco Indexing, which has contracted with S&P Dow Jones Indices to calculate the Underlying Index. The Underlying Index is not sponsored by S&P Dow Jones Indices or its affiliates. Neither S&P Dow Jones Indices, Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“SPFS”), nor any of their affiliates will be liable for any errors or omissions in calculating the Underlying Index. “Calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices” and the related stylized mark(s) are service marks of SPFS and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices and sublicensed for certain purposes by the Adviser.

The Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices, SPFS, or any of their affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices Entities”). S&P Dow Jones Indices Entities do not make any representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly or the ability of the Underlying Index to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices Entities only relationship to the Adviser with respect to the Underlying Index is the licensing of the S&P 500 Index and certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices Entities and the provision of the calculation and maintenance services related to the Underlying Indexes. S&P Dow Jones Indices Entities are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices and amount of the Fund or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Fund or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Fund Shares are converted into cash or other redemption mechanics. S&P Dow Jones Indices Entities have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Fund. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not an investment adviser. Inclusion of a security within the Underlying Index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices Entities to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it investment advice.

S&P DOW JONES INDICES ENTITIES DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE UNDERLYING INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES ENTITIES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES ENTITIES MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY THE ADVISER, OWNERS OF THE FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE UNDERLYING INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE.

Frank Russell Company. “Russell” is a trademark of Frank Russell (“Russell”) and has been licensed for use in the respective Underlying Index for the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF (each, a “Licensed Fund”). The Licensed Funds are not in any way sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Russell or the London Stock Exchange Group companies (“LSEG”) (together the “Licensor Parties”) and none of the Licensor Parties make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to (i) the results to be obtained from the use of an Underlying Index (upon which the applicable

 

 

 

  39  

 


Licensed Fund is based), (ii) the figure at which an Underlying Index is said to stand at any particular time on any particular day or otherwise, or (iii) the suitability of an Underlying Index for the purpose to which it is being put in connection with the applicable Licensed Fund. None of the Licensor Parties have provided or will provide any financial or investment advice or recommendation in relation to an Underlying Index to the Adviser or to its clients. Each Underlying Index is calculated by Russell or its agent. None of the Licensor Parties shall be (a) liable (whether in negligence or otherwise) to any person for any error in an Underlying Index or (b) under any obligation to advise any person of any error therein.

Invesco Indexing LLC. The Funds and their Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Invesco Indexing and Invesco Indexing makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in Shares of the Funds. Invesco Indexing makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the shareholders of the Funds or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Funds particularly or the ability of any data supplied by Invesco Indexing to track general market performance. Invesco Indexing is an affiliate of the Adviser and its relationship to the Adviser includes the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of Invesco Indexing and of the data supplied by Invesco Indexing, which is determined and composed by Invesco Indexing. Invesco Indexing has no obligation to take the needs of the Adviser or the shareholders of the Funds into consideration in determining, or composing the data supplied by Invesco Indexing. Invesco Indexing is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the prices of the Shares of the Funds or the timing of the issuance or sale of such Shares. Invesco Indexing has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Funds or their Shares.

The Adviser does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of each Underlying Index or any data included therein and the Adviser shall have no liability for any errors, omissions, restatements, re-calculations, or interruptions therein. The Adviser makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Funds, owners of the Shares of the Funds or any other person or entity from the use of the Underlying Indexes or any data included therein. The Adviser makes no express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Underlying Indexes or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Adviser have any liability for any special, punitive, direct, indirect or consequential damages (including lost profits) arising out of matters relating to the use of the Underlying Indexes even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

 

Premium/Discount Information

Information on the daily NAV per Share for each Fund, once available, can be found at www.invesco.com/ETFs. Additionally, information regarding how often the Shares of each Fund traded on the relevant Exchange at a price above (at a premium) or below (at a discount) the NAV of the Fund during the prior calendar year and subsequent quarters, when available, can be found at www.invesco.com/ETFs.

 

Other Information

Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies (and companies relying on Section 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act) in the securities of other investment companies. However, registered investment companies are permitted to invest in a Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Trust, including that such investment companies enter into a participant agreement with the Trust on behalf of the Fund prior to exceeding the limits imposed by Section 12(d)(1). Additionally, each Fund is permitted to invest in other registered investment companies beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in another exemptive order that the SEC has issued to the Trust. If a Fund relies on this exemptive relief, however, other investment companies may not invest in that Fund beyond the statutory provisions of Section 12(d)(1).

Continuous Offering

The method by which Creation Unit Aggregations of Shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Unit Aggregations of Shares are issued and sold by a Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act. For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Unit Aggregations after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent Shares and sells such Shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for Shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

Broker-dealer firms also should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in Shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of Shares, generally are required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions), and thus dealing with the Shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses

 

 

 

  40  

 


to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act only is available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

Delivery of Shareholder Documents—Householding

Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Funds. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Funds is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of the Prospectus and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you currently are enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.

For More Information

For more detailed information on the Trust, the Funds and the Shares, you may request a copy of the Funds’ SAI. The SAI provides detailed information about the Funds and is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. This means that the SAI legally is a part of this Prospectus. Additional information about the Funds’ investments also will appear in the Funds’ Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to Shareholders, when available. In the Funds’ Annual Reports, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected each Fund’s performance during its most recent fiscal year. If you have questions about the Funds or Shares or you wish to obtain the SAI, Annual Report and/or Semi-Annual Report, when available, free of charge, or to make shareholder inquiries, please:

 

  Call:

Invesco Distributors, Inc. at 1-800-983-0903 Monday through Friday

   

8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Central Time

 

  Write:

Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust c/o Invesco Distributors, Inc.

   

11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000

   

Houston, Texas 77046-1173

 

  Visit:

www.invesco.com/ETFs

Reports and other information about the Funds are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at www.sec.gov, and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

No person is authorized to give any information or to make any representations about a Fund and its Shares not contained in this Prospectus, and you should not rely on any other information. Read and keep this Prospectus for future reference.

Dealers effecting transactions in the Shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, generally are required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

The Trust’s registration number under the 1940 Act is 811-23304.

 

 

 

  41  

 


Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust

3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

  O-SIFT-PRO-1  

www.invesco.com

 

800.983.0903  LOGO @InvescoUS


Investment Company Act File No. 811-23304

 

 

Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust

 

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Dated May 24, 2019

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus. It should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus dated May 24, 2019, for the Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (the “Trust”), relating to the series of the Trust listed below (each, a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”), as it may be revised from time to time (the “Prospectus”).

 

Fund

    

Principal U.S. Listing Exchange

    

Ticker

Invesco ESG Revenue ETF

    

NYSE Arca, Inc.

     ESGL

Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF

    

Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.

     OMFL

Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF

    

Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.

     OMFS

Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. A copy of the Prospectus may be obtained without charge by writing to the Trust’s Distributor, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (the “Distributor”), 11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173, or by calling toll free 1-800-983-0903.

The Funds are newly organized and have been created, respectively, for the purposes of acquiring the assets and liabilities of the Oppenheimer ESG Revenue ETF (“ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund”), Oppenheimer Russell 1000 Dynamic Multifactor ETF (“Russell 1000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund”), and Oppenheimer Russell 2000 Dynamic Multifactor ETF (“Russell 2000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund”) (each also referred to as a “Predecessor Fund” and, collectively, the “Predecessor Funds”). The most recent Annual Report to shareholders, and Semi-Annual Report to shareholders, for each of the Predecessor Funds are incorporated by reference (are legally a part of this SAI). To obtain a copy of the Predecessor Funds’ most recent Annual and/or Semi-Annual Reports, without charge, call 1-800-983-0903 during normal business hours.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

General Description of the Trust and the Funds

     1  

Exchange Listing and Trading

     1  

Investment Restrictions

     2  

Investment Strategies and Risks

     3  

Portfolio Turnover

     15  

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

     15  

Management

     16  

Brokerage Transactions and Commissions on Affiliated Transactions

     31  

Additional Information Concerning the Trust

     32  

Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations

     35  

Taxes

     44  

Determination of NAV

     57  

Dividends and Other Distributions

     59  

Miscellaneous Information

     59  

Financial Statements

     59  

Appendix A

     A-1  

Appendix B

     B-1  


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUNDS

The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on October 30, 2015 and is authorized to have multiple series or portfolios. The Trust is an open-end management investment company, registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). The Trust currently consists of 51 funds. This SAI relates to three series of the Trust: Invesco ESG Revenue ETF, Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF. Each Fund is “non-diversified,” and as such, the Fund’s investments are not required to meet certain diversification requirements under the 1940 Act. The shares of each of the Funds are referred to in this SAI as “Shares.”

The investment objective of each Fund is to seek to track the investment results (before fees and expenses) of its specific underlying index (each, an “Underlying Index”).

Invesco Capital Management LLC (the “Adviser”), an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Invesco Ltd., manages the Funds. Each Fund issues and redeems Shares at net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of 50,000 Shares (each a “Creation Unit” or a “Creation Unit Aggregation”). Each Fund generally issues and redeems Shares at NAV in Creation Unit Aggregations principally in exchange for a basket of securities included in its Underlying Index (the “Deposit Securities”), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (the “Cash Component”), plus certain transaction fees. However, each Fund also reserves the right to permit or require Creation Units to be issued in whole or in part in exchange for cash.

Invesco ESG Revenue ETF is expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE Arca”) and Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF are expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (“Cboe” and together with NYSE Arca, each, an “Exchange” and together the “Exchanges”). Shares of a Fund will trade throughout the day on the NYSE Arca or Cboe, as applicable, at market prices that may be below, at, or above NAV. In the event of the liquidation of a Fund, the Trust may decrease the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

Each Fund may issue Shares in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash at least equal to 105% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities. To offset the added brokerage and other transaction costs a Fund incurs with using cash to purchase or sell the requisite Deposit Securities, during each instance of cash creations or redemptions, the Funds may impose transaction fees that generally are higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. For more information, see the section below titled “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations.”

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

There can be no assurance that a Fund, once listed, will continue to meet the requirements of its respective Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of its Shares. An Exchange may, but is not required to, remove Shares from listing if: (i) following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of a Fund, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the Shares of a Fund (for each Cboe-listed Fund, there must be fewer than 50 beneficial owners for at least 30 consecutive trading days); (ii) the value of a Fund’s Underlying Index no longer is calculated or available; (iii) a Fund’s Underlying Index fails to meet certain continued listing standards of the Exchange; (iv) the “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) of a Fund is no longer calculated or available; or (v) such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on such Exchange inadvisable. An Exchange will remove the Shares from listing and trading upon termination of a Fund.

As in the case of other stocks traded on an Exchange, brokers’ commissions on transactions will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.

The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of Shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of a Fund.

 

1


In order to provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares of the Funds, an Exchange or a market data vendor will disseminate every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association or other widely disseminated means, an updated IIV for a Fund, as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust is not involved in, or responsible for any aspect of, the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs.

The Funds are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchanges. The Exchanges make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares of the Funds or any member of the public regarding the ability of a Fund to track the total return performance of an Underlying Index or the ability of an Underlying Index to track stock market performance. The Exchanges are not responsible for, nor have they participated in, the determination of the compilation or the calculation of an Underlying Index, nor in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of Shares of the Funds to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares are redeemable. The Exchanges have no obligation or liability to owners of the Shares of the Funds in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of the Shares of the Funds.

The Exchanges do not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of an Underlying Index or the data included therein. An Exchange makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Trust on behalf of the Funds, owners of the Shares, or any other person or entity from the use of an Underlying Index or the data included therein. The Exchanges make no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaim all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to an Underlying Index or the data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchanges have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

Each Fund has adopted as fundamental policies the investment restrictions numbered (1) through (7) below. Except as otherwise noted below, each Fund, as a fundamental policy, may not:

(1)  Invest more than 25% of the value of its net assets in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries, except to the extent that the underlying index that the Fund replicates concentrates in an industry or group of industries. This restriction does not apply to obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.

(2)  Borrow money, except the Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, (ii) the rules and regulations promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the 1940 Act, or (iii) an exemption or other relief applicable to the Fund from the provisions of the 1940 Act.

(3)  Act as an underwriter of another issuer’s securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) in connection with the purchase and sale of portfolio securities.

(4)  Make loans to other persons, except through (i) the purchase of debt securities permissible under the Fund’s investment policies, (ii) repurchase agreements or (iii) the lending of portfolio securities, provided that no such loan of portfolio securities may be made by the Fund if, as a result, the aggregate of such loans would exceed 331/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets.

(5)  Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the Fund (i) from purchasing or selling options, futures contracts or other derivative instruments, or (ii) from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities).

(6)  Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prohibit the Fund from purchasing or selling securities or other instruments backed by real estate or of issuers engaged in real estate activities).

(7)  Issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act.

 

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Except for restrictions (2), (4)(iii), and (7), if a Fund adheres to a percentage restriction at the time of investment, a later increase in percentage resulting from a change in market value of the investment or the total assets, or the sale of a security out of its portfolio, will not constitute a violation of that restriction. With respect to restrictions (2), (4) (iii), and (7), in the event that a Fund’s borrowings, repurchase agreements and loans of portfolio securities at any time exceed 331/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed and the collateral received) less the Fund’s liabilities (other than borrowings or loans) due to subsequent changes in the value of the Fund’s assets or otherwise, within three days (excluding Sundays and holidays), the Fund will take corrective action to reduce the amount of its borrowings, repurchase agreements and loans of portfolio securities to an extent that such borrowings, repurchase agreements and loans of portfolio securities will not exceed 331/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed and the collateral received) less the Fund’s liabilities (other than borrowings or loans).

The foregoing fundamental investment policies cannot be changed as to a Fund without approval by holders of a “majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities.” As defined in the 1940 Act, this means the vote of (i) 67% or more of the Fund’s Shares present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund’s Shares are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the Fund’s Shares, whichever is less.

In addition to the foregoing fundamental investment policies, each Fund also is subject to the following non-fundamental investment restrictions and policies, which may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Trust (the “Board”) without shareholder approval. Each Fund may not:

(1)  Sell securities short, unless the Fund owns or has the right to obtain securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short at no added cost, and provided that transactions in options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts or other derivative instruments are not deemed to constitute selling securities short.

(2)  Purchase securities on margin, except that the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of transactions; and provided that margin deposits in connection with futures contracts, options on futures contracts or other derivative instruments shall not constitute purchasing securities on margin.

(3)  Purchase securities of open-end or closed-end investment companies except in compliance with the 1940 Act, although the Fund may not acquire any securities of registered open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Sections 12(d)(1)(F) and 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.

(4)  Invest in direct interests in oil, gas or other mineral exploration programs or leases; however, the Fund may invest in the securities of issuers that engage in these activities.

(5)  Invest in illiquid securities if, as a result of such investment, more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be invested in illiquid securities.

Each Fund’s investment objective is a non-fundamental policy that the Board may change without approval by shareholders upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders.

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS

Investment Strategies

Each Fund’s investment objective is to seek to track the investment results, before fees and expenses, of its respective Underlying Index. Each Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing primarily in securities that comprise its Underlying Index. Each Fund operates as an index fund and will not be actively managed.

Each Fund generally invests in all of the securities comprising its Underlying Index in proportion to their weightings in the Underlying Index, although such Fund may use sampling techniques for the purpose of complying with regulatory or investment restrictions or when sampling is deemed appropriate to track an Underlying Index.

 

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Investment Risks

A discussion of the principal risks associated with an investment in the Funds is contained in the Funds’ Prospectus in the “Summary Information—Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund,” “Additional Information About the Funds’ Strategies and Risks—Principal Risks of Investing in the Funds” and “—Additional Risks of Investing in the Funds” sections. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, these sections.

An investment in a Fund should be made with an understanding that the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities may fluctuate in accordance with changes in the financial condition of the issuers of the portfolio securities, the value of securities in general and other factors that affect the market.

An investment in a Fund also should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the securities market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the portfolio securities and thus in the value of Shares). Securities are susceptible to general securities market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence and perceptions of the companies issuing the securities change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies, inflation and interest rates, economic expansion or contraction, and global or regional political, economic or banking crises.

The Funds are not actively managed, and therefore the adverse financial condition of any one issuer will not result in the elimination of its securities from a Fund’s portfolio unless the index provider removes the securities of such issuer from the Underlying Index.

Correlation and Tracking Error.  Correlation measures the degree of association between the returns of a Fund and its Underlying Index. Each Fund seeks a correlation over time of 0.95 or better between the Fund’s performance and the performance of the Underlying Index; a figure of 1.00 would indicate perfect correlation. Correlation is calculated at each Fund’s fiscal year-end by comparing the Fund’s average monthly total returns, before fees and expenses, to its Underlying Index’s average monthly total returns over the prior one-year period or since inception if the Fund has been in existence for less than one year. Another means of evaluating the degree of correlation between the returns of a Fund and its Underlying Index is to assess the “tracking error” between the two. Tracking error means the variation between each Fund’s annual return and the return of its Underlying Index, expressed in terms of standard deviation. Each Fund seeks to have a tracking error of less than 5%, measured on a monthly basis over a one-year period by taking the standard deviation of the difference in the Fund’s returns versus the Underlying Index’s returns.

An investment in each Fund should be made with an understanding that the Fund will not be able to replicate exactly the performance of its Underlying Index, because the total return that the securities generate will be reduced by transaction costs incurred in adjusting the actual balance of the securities and other Fund expenses, whereas such transaction costs and expenses are not included in the calculation of its Underlying Index. To the extent that a Fund were to issue and redeem Creation Units principally for cash, it will incur higher costs in buying and selling securities than if they issued and redeemed Creation Units principally in-kind.

In addition, the use of a representative sampling approach (which may arise for a number of reasons, including a large number of securities within an Underlying Index, or the limited assets of a Fund) may cause a Fund not to be as well correlated with the return of its Underlying Index as would be the case if the Fund purchased all of the securities in its Underlying Index in the proportions represented in such Underlying Index. It also is possible that, for short periods of time, a Fund may not replicate fully the performance of its Underlying Index due to the temporary unavailability of certain Underlying Index securities in the secondary market or due to other extraordinary circumstances. Such events are unlikely to continue for an extended period of time because each Fund is required to correct such imbalances by means of adjusting the composition of its portfolio holdings. It also is possible that the composition of a Fund may not replicate exactly the composition of its respective Underlying Index if the Fund has to adjust its portfolio holdings to continue to qualify as a “regulated investment company” (a “RIC”) under Subchapter M of Chapter 1 of Subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).

 

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Common Stocks and Other Equity Securities.  Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors, or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks. Unlike debt securities, which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, is subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks, which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity.

Lending Portfolio Securities.  From time to time, the Funds (as the Adviser shall so determine) may lend their portfolio securities (principally to brokers, dealers or other financial institutions) to generate additional income. Such loans are callable at any time and are secured continuously by segregated cash collateral equal to at least 102% (105% for international funds) of the market value, determined daily, of the loaned securities. Each Fund may lend portfolio securities to the extent of one-third of its total assets. A Fund will loan its securities only to parties that the Adviser has determined are in good standing and when, in the adviser’s judgment, the potential income earned would justify the risks.

A Fund will not have the right to vote securities while they are on loan, but it will recall securities on loan if the Adviser determines that the shareholder meeting is called for purposes of voting on material events that could have a material impact on the Fund’s loaned securities and for which the vote could be material to the Fund. A Fund would receive income in lieu of dividends on loaned securities and may, at the same time, generate income on the loan collateral or on the investment of any cash collateral.

Securities lending involves a risk of loss because the borrower may fail to return the securities in a timely manner or at all. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities loaned because of insolvency or other reasons, a Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering securities loaned or gaining access to the collateral. If a Fund is not able to recover the securities loaned, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement security in the market. Lending securities entails a risk of loss to a Fund if, and to the extent that, the market value of the loaned securities increases and the collateral is not increased accordingly. Securities lending also involves exposure to operational risk (the risk of loss resulting from errors in the settlement and accounting process) and “gap risk” (the risk that the return on cash collateral reinvestments will be less than the fees paid to the borrower).

Any cash received as collateral for loaned securities will be invested, in accordance with a Fund’s investment guidelines, in an affiliated money market fund. Investing this cash subjects that investment to market appreciation or depreciation. For purposes of determining whether a Fund is complying with its investment policies, strategies and restrictions, the Fund or the Adviser will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Fund, but will not consider any collateral received as a Fund asset. A Fund will bear any loss on the investment of cash collateral. A Fund may have to pay the borrower a fee based on the amount of cash collateral.

For a discussion of the federal income tax considerations relating to lending portfolio securities, see “Taxes.”

Repurchase Agreements.  Each Fund may enter into repurchase agreements, which are agreements pursuant to which a Fund acquires securities from a third party with the understanding that the seller will repurchase them at a fixed price on an agreed date. These agreements may be made with respect to any of the portfolio securities in which the Fund is authorized to invest. Repurchase agreements may be characterized as loans secured by the underlying securities. Each Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with (i) member banks of the Federal Reserve System having total assets in excess of $500 million and (ii) securities dealers (“Qualified Institutions”). The Adviser for a Fund will monitor the continued creditworthiness of Qualified Institutions.

The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the seller of securities under a repurchase agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying securities, as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Fund will seek to dispose of such securities, which action could involve costs or delays. If the seller becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under applicable bankruptcy or other laws, the Fund’s ability to dispose of the underlying securities may be restricted. Finally, it is possible that the Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying securities. To minimize this risk, the

 

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custodian will hold the securities underlying the repurchase agreement at all times in an amount at least equal to the repurchase price, including accrued interest. If the seller fails to repurchase the securities, the Fund may suffer a loss to the extent proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities are less than the repurchase prices.

The resale price reflects the purchase price plus an agreed upon market rate of interest. The collateral is marked-to-market daily.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements.  Reverse repurchase agreements involve the sale of securities with an agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon price, date and interest payment and have the characteristics of borrowing. The securities purchased with the funds obtained from the agreement and securities collateralizing the agreement will have maturity dates no later than the repayment date. Generally, the effect of such transactions is that a Fund can recover all or most of the cash invested in the portfolio securities involved during the term of the reverse repurchase agreement, while in many cases the Fund is able to keep some of the interest income associated with those securities. Such transactions are only advantageous if a Fund has an opportunity to earn a greater rate of return on the cash derived from these transactions than the interest cost of obtaining the same amount of cash. Opportunities to realize earnings from the use of the proceeds equal to or greater than the interest required to be paid may not always be available and the Funds intend to use the reverse repurchase technique only when the Adviser believes it will be advantageous to a Fund. The use of reverse repurchase agreements may exaggerate any interim increase or decrease in the value of a Fund’s assets. The custodian bank will maintain a separate account for a Fund with securities having a value equal to or greater than such commitments. Under the 1940 Act, reverse repurchase agreements are considered borrowings.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”).  REITs pool investors’ funds for investments primarily in real estate properties, to the extent allowed by law. Investment in REITs may be the most practical available means for a Fund to invest in the real estate industry. As a shareholder in a REIT, a Fund would bear its ratable share of the REIT’s expenses, including its advisory and administration fees. At the same time, a Fund would continue to pay its own investment advisory fees and other expenses, as a result of which the Fund and its shareholders in effect would be absorbing duplicate levels of fees with respect to investments in REITs. A REIT may focus on particular projects, such as apartment complexes, or geographic regions, such as the southeastern United States, or both.

REITs generally can be classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs and hybrid REITs. Equity REITs generally invest a majority of their assets in income-producing real estate properties to generate cash flow from rental income and gradual asset appreciation. The income-producing real estate properties in which equity REITs invest typically include properties such as office, retail, industrial, hotel and apartment buildings, self-storage, specialty and diversified and healthcare facilities. Equity REITs can realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive their income primarily from interest payments on the mortgages. Hybrid REITs combine the characteristics of both equity REITs and mortgage REITs.

REITs can be listed and traded on national securities exchanges or can be traded privately between individual owners. A Fund may invest in both publicly and privately traded REITs.

A Fund conceivably could own real estate directly as a result of a default on the securities it owns. Therefore, a Fund may be subject to certain risks associated with the direct ownership of real estate, including difficulties in valuing and trading real estate, declines in the values of real estate, risks related to general and local economic conditions, adverse changes in the climate for real estate, environmental liability risks, increases in property taxes and operated expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, limitations on rents, changes in neighborhood values, the appeal of properties to tenants and increases in interest rates.

In addition to the risks described above, equity REITs may be affected by any changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Equity and mortgage REITs depend upon management skill, are not diversified and therefore are subject to the risk of financing single or a limited number of projects. REITs also are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation and the possibility of failing to qualify for conduit income

 

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tax treatment under the Code and/or failing to maintain an exemption from the 1940 Act. Changes in interest rates also may affect the value of debt securities held by the Funds. By investing in REITs indirectly through the Funds, a shareholder will bear not only his/her proportionate share of the expenses of a Fund, but also, indirectly, similar expenses of the REITs.

Money Market Instruments.  Each Fund may invest a portion of its assets in high-quality money market instruments on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity. The instruments in which a Fund may invest include: (i) short-term obligations issued by the U.S. Government; (ii) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), fixed time deposits and bankers’ acceptances of U.S. and foreign banks and similar institutions; (iii) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” by Moody’s or “A-1+” or “A-1” by S&P or, if unrated, of comparable quality, as the Adviser determines; (iv) repurchase agreements; and (v) money market mutual funds, including affiliated money market funds. CDs are short-term negotiable obligations of commercial banks. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Banker’s acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.

U.S. Government Obligations.  The Funds may invest in short-term U.S. Government obligations. U.S. Government obligations are a type of bond and include securities issued or guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities. These include bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury, as well as “stripped” or “zero coupon” U.S. Treasury obligations representing future interest or principal payments on U.S. Treasury notes or bonds.

Stripped securities are created when the issuer separates the interest and principal components of an instrument and sells them as separate securities. In general, one security is entitled to receive the interest payments on the underlying assets (the interest only or “IO” security) and the other to receive the principal payments (the principal only or “PO” security). Some stripped securities may receive a combination of interest and principal payments. The yields to maturity on IOs and POs are sensitive to the expected or anticipated rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying assets, and principal payments may have a material effect on yield to maturity. If the underlying assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may not fully recoup its initial investment in IOs. Conversely, if the underlying assets experience less than anticipated prepayments of principal, the yield on POs could be adversely affected. Stripped securities may be highly sensitive to changes in interest rates and rates of prepayment.

Short-term obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; others, such as those of the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; others, such as those of the former Student Loan Marketing Association (“SLMA”), are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the agency’s obligations; still others, although issued by an instrumentality chartered by the U.S. Government, like the Federal Farm Credit Bureau (“FFCB”), are support only by the credit of the instrumentality.

In 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) into conservatorship. Since that time, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have received significant capital support through U.S. Treasury preferred stock purchases as well as U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage-backed securities. While the purchase programs for mortgage-backed securities ended in 2010, the U.S. Treasury continued its support for the entities’ capital as necessary to prevent a negative net worth. However, no assurance can be given that the Federal Reserve, U.S. Treasury, or FHFA initiatives discussed above will ensure that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities they issue. In addition, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are also the subject of several continuing class action lawsuits and investigations by federal regulators, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may adversely affect the guaranteeing entities. Importantly, the future of the entities is in serious question as the U.S. Government is considering multiple options, ranging from significant reform, nationalization, privatization, consolidation, or abolishment of the entities.

 

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The FHFA and the U.S. Treasury (through its agreements to purchase preferred stock of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) also have imposed strict limits on the size of the mortgage portfolios of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In August 2012, the U.S. Treasury amended its preferred stock purchase agreements to provide that the portfolios of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will be wound down at an annual rate of 15 percent (up from the previously agreed annual rate of 10 percent), requiring Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to reach the $250 billion target four years earlier than previously planned. Further, when a ratings agency downgraded long-term U.S. Government debt in August 2011, the agency also downgraded the bond ratings of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, from AAA to AA+, based on their direct reliance on the U.S. Government (although that rating did not directly relate to their mortgage-backed securities). The U.S. Government’s commitment to ensure that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have sufficient capital to meet their obligations was, however, unaffected by the downgrade.

The U.S. Treasury has put in place a set of financing agreements to help ensure that these entities continue to meet their obligations to holders of bonds they have issued or guaranteed. The U.S. Government may choose not to provide financial support to U.S. Government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities if it is not legally obligated to do so, in which case, if the issuer were to default, the Fund holding securities of such issuer might not be able to recover their investment from the U.S. Government.

Other Investment Companies.  Each Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), non-exchange traded U.S. registered open-end investment companies (mutual funds), closed-end investment companies, or non-U.S. investment companies traded on foreign exchanges beyond the limits permitted under the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to an affiliate of the Trust in 2012 pursuant to Section 12(d)(2)(J) of the 1940 Act (the “2012 Order”). Absent such exemptive relief, each Fund’s investments in investment companies would be limited to, subject to certain exceptions, (i) 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of any one investment company, (ii) 5% of the Fund’s total assets with respect to any one investment company and (iii) 10% of the Fund’s total assets of investment companies in the aggregate. However, as a non-fundamental restriction, no Fund may acquire any securities of registered open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Sections 12(d)(1)(F) and 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.

Under the pertinent terms of the 2012 Order, each Fund may invest in registered investment companies in excess of the 3% limitations imposed by Sections 12(d)(1)(A) and 12(d)(1)(C) of the 1940 Act. The total amount of securities held by a Fund, both individually and when aggregated with all other shares of the acquired fund held by other registered investment companies or private investment pools advised by the Adviser or its affiliates (as well as shares held by the Adviser and its affiliates) cannot exceed 25% of the outstanding voting securities of the acquired investment company, and none of these entities (including the Funds) may individually or collectively exert a controlling influence over the acquired investment company. Each Fund may not rely on the 2012 Order to acquire an investment company that itself has ownership of investment company shares in excess of the limitations contained in Section 12(d)(1)(A) of the 1940 Act. To the extent necessary to comply with the provisions of the 1940 Act or the 2012 Order, on any matter upon which an underlying investment company’s shareholders are solicited to vote, the Adviser will vote the underlying investment company shares in the same general proportion as shares held by other shareholders of the underlying investment company.

In addition, an affiliate of the Trust previously obtained exemptive relief in 2007 (which extends to the Trust) that allows other investment companies to acquire shares of the Funds in excess of the limitations imposed by Section 12(d)(1)(A) (the “2007 Order”). This relief is conditioned on those acquiring funds obtaining a participation agreement signed by both the acquiring fund and the Fund that it wishes to acquire in excess of the 12(d)(1)(A) limitations. If a Fund relies on the 2012 Order, it will not enter into a participation agreement pursuant to the 2007 Order, and if a Fund has a signed participation agreement in effect pursuant to the 2007 Order, it will not rely on the 2012 Order.

Illiquid Securities.  Each Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities (calculated at the time of investment). Illiquid securities include securities subject to contractual or other restrictions on resale and other instruments that lack readily available markets, as determined in accordance with SEC staff guidance. Each Fund will monitor its portfolio liquidity on an ongoing basis to determine

 

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whether, in light of current circumstances, an adequate level of liquidity is being maintained, and will consider taking appropriate steps in order to maintain adequate liquidity if, through a change in values, net assets, or other circumstances, more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets are held in illiquid securities or other illiquid assets. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that dealers will make or maintain a market or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of a Fund’s Shares will be adversely affected if trading markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities are limited or absent, or if bid/ask spreads are wide.

Borrowing.  Each Fund may borrow money up to the limits set forth in the section “Investment Restrictions” to meet shareholder redemptions, for temporary or emergency purposes and for other lawful purposes. Borrowed money will cost a Fund interest expense and/or other fees. The costs of borrowing may reduce a Fund’s return. Borrowing also may cause a Fund to liquidate positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its obligations to repay borrowed monies. To the extent that a Fund has outstanding borrowings, it will be leveraged. Leveraging generally exaggerates the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of a Fund’s portfolio securities.

Cybersecurity Risk.  The Funds, like all companies, may be susceptible to operational and information security risks. Cybersecurity failures or breaches of the Funds or their service providers or the issuers of securities in which the Funds invest, have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Funds and their shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

Convertible Securities.  A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, right, warrant or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock or other security of the same or a different issuer or into cash within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt securities or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities generally have characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities. As with other equity securities, the value of a convertible security tends to increase as the price of the underlying stock goes up, and to decrease as the price of the underlying stock goes down. Declining common stock values therefore also may cause the value of a Fund’s investments to decline. Like a debt security, a convertible security provides a fixed income stream with generally higher yields than those of common stock of the same or similar issuers, which tends to decrease in value when interest rates rise.

Convertible securities generally rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure but are usually subordinated to comparable nonconvertible securities. Convertible securities generally do not participate directly in any dividend increases or decreases of the underlying securities although the market prices of convertible securities may be affected by any dividend changes or other changes in the underlying securities. Many convertible securities have credit ratings that are below investment grade and are subject to the same risks as lower-rated debt securities.

Structured Notes.  A structured note is a derivative security for which the amount of principal repayment and/or interest payments is based on the movement of one or more “factors.” These factors include, but are not limited to, currency exchange rates, interest rates (such as the prime lending rate or LIBOR), referenced bonds and stock indices. Some of these factors may or may not correlate to the total rate of return on one or more underlying instruments referenced in such notes. Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Depending on the factor(s) used and the use of multipliers or deflators, changes in interest rates and movement of such factor(s) may cause significant price fluctuations. Structured notes may be less liquid than other types of securities and more volatile than the reference factor underlying the note. This means that the Funds may lose money if the issuer of the note defaults, as the Funds may not be able to readily close out its investment in such notes without incurring losses.

 

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Derivatives Risk.  The Funds may invest in derivatives. Derivatives are financial instruments that derive their performance from an underlying asset, index, interest rate or currency exchange rate. Derivatives are subject to a number of risks including credit risk, interest rate risk, and market risk. They also involve the risk that changes in the value of the derivative may not correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate or index. The counterparty to a derivative contract might default on its obligations. Derivatives can be volatile and may be less liquid than other securities. As a result, the value of an investment in a Fund that invests in derivatives may change quickly and without warning.

For some derivatives, it is possible to lose more than the amount invested in the derivative. Derivatives may be used to create synthetic exposure to an underlying asset or to hedge a portfolio risk. If a Fund uses derivatives to “hedge” a portfolio risk, it is possible that the hedge may not succeed. This may happen for various reasons, including unexpected changes in the value of the rest of the portfolio of a Fund. Over-the-counter derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party to the contract will not fulfill its contractual obligation to complete the transaction with a Fund.

Leverage Risk.  The use of derivatives may give rise to a form of leverage. Leverage may cause the portfolios of the Funds to be more volatile than if a portfolio had not been leveraged because leverage can exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of securities held by a Fund.

Futures and Options.  Each Fund may enter into U.S. futures contracts, options and options on futures contracts. These futures contracts and options will be used to simulate full investment in the Underlying Index, to facilitate trading or to reduce transaction costs. Each Fund will only enter into futures contracts and options on futures contracts that are traded on a U.S. exchange. The Funds will not use futures or options for speculative purposes.

A call option gives a holder the right to purchase a specific security or an index at a specified price (“exercise price”) within a specified period of time. A put option gives a holder the right to sell a specific security or an index at a specified price within a specified period of time. The initial purchaser of a call option pays the “writer,” i.e., the party selling the option, a premium which is paid at the time of purchase and is retained by the writer whether or not such option is exercised. Each Fund may purchase put options to hedge its portfolio against the risk of a decline in the market value of securities held and may purchase call options to hedge against an increase in the price of securities it is committed to purchase. Each Fund may write put and call options along with a long position in options to increase its ability to hedge against a change in the market value of the securities it holds or is committed to purchase.

Futures contracts provide for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific instrument or index at a specified future time and at a specified price. Stock index contracts are based on indices that reflect the market value of common stock of the firms included in the indices. Each Fund may enter into futures contracts to purchase security indices when the Adviser anticipates purchasing the underlying securities and believes prices will rise before the purchase will be made. The custodian will segregate assets committed to futures contracts to the extent required by law.

An option on a futures contract, as contrasted with the direct investment in such a contract, gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in the underlying futures contract at a specified exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option. Upon exercise of an option, the delivery of the futures position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer’s futures margin account that represents the amount by which the market price of the futures contract exceeds (in the case of a call) or is less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option on the futures contract. The potential for loss related to the purchase of an option on a futures contract is limited to the premium paid for the option plus transaction costs. Because the value of the option is fixed at the point of purchase, there are no daily cash payments by the purchaser to reflect changes in the value of the underlying contract; however, the value of the option changes daily and that change would be reflected in the NAV of a Fund. The potential for loss related to writing call options on equity securities or indices is unlimited. The potential for loss related to writing put options is limited only by the aggregate strike price of the put option less the premium received.

 

10


Each Fund may purchase and write put and call options on futures contracts that are traded on a U.S. exchange as a hedge against changes in value of its portfolio securities, or in anticipation of the purchase of securities, and may enter into closing transactions with respect to such options to terminate existing positions. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be affected.

Upon entering into a futures contract, a Fund will be required to deposit with the broker an amount of cash or cash equivalents in the range of approximately 5% to 7% of the contract amount (this amount is subject to change by the exchange on which the contract is traded). This amount, known as “initial margin,” is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the contract and is returned to a Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, known as “variation margin,” to and from the broker will be made daily as the price of the index underlying the futures contract fluctuates, making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking-to-market.” At any time prior to expiration of a futures contract, a Fund may elect to close the position by taking an opposite position, which will operate to terminate the existing position in the contract.

Risks of Futures and Options Transactions.  There are several risks accompanying the utilization of futures contracts and options on futures contracts. First, there is no guarantee that a liquid market will exist for a futures contract at a specified time. The Funds would utilize futures contracts only if an active market exists for such contracts.

Furthermore, because, by definition, futures contracts project price levels in the future and not current levels of valuation, market circumstances may result in a discrepancy between the price of the future and the movement in the Funds’ Underlying Indexes. In the event of adverse price movements, a Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. In such situations, if a Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, a Fund may be required to deliver the instruments underlying futures contracts it has sold.

The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered stock index futures contracts) potentially is unlimited. No Fund plans to use futures and options contracts in this way. The risk of a futures position may still be large as traditionally measured due to the low margin deposits required. In many cases, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss or gain to the investor relative to the size of a required margin deposit. The Funds, however, intend to utilize futures and options in a manner designed to limit their risk exposure to levels comparable to direct investment in stocks.

Utilization of futures and options on futures by the Funds involves the risk of imperfect or even negative correlation to an Underlying Index if the index underlying the futures contract differs from the Underlying Indexes of the Funds.

There also is the risk of loss of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom the Funds have an open position in the futures contract or option; however, this risk substantially is minimized because (a) of the regulatory requirement that the broker has to “segregate” customer funds from its corporate funds, and (b) in the case of regulated exchanges in the United States, the clearing corporation stands behind the broker to make good losses in such a situation. The purchase of put or call options could be based upon predictions by the Adviser of the Funds as to anticipated trends, which could prove to be incorrect and a part or all of the premium paid therefore could be lost.

Because the futures market imposes less burdensome margin requirements than the securities market, an increased amount of participation by speculators in the futures market could result in price fluctuations. Certain financial futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount by which the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. It is possible that futures contract prices could move to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with

 

11


little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and subjecting the Funds to substantial losses. In the event of adverse price movements, the Funds would be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin.

Although the Funds intend to enter into futures contracts only if there is an active market for such contracts, there is no assurance that an active market will exist for the contracts at any particular time.

Swap Agreements.  Each Fund may enter into swap agreements, including, but not limited to, total return swaps, index swaps, interest rate swaps, municipal market data rate locks and credit default swaps. A Fund may utilize swap agreements in an attempt to gain exposure to the securities in a market without actually purchasing those securities, or to hedge a position. Swap agreements are contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a day to more than one-year and may be negotiated bilaterally and traded over-the-counter (“OTC”) between two parties or, in some instances, must be transacted through a futures commission merchant and cleared through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a “basket” of securities or ETFs. Forms of swap agreements include (i) interest rate caps, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or “cap,” (ii) interest rate floors, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified level, or “floor,” and (iii) interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.

Another form of swap agreement is a credit default swap. A credit default swap enables a Fund to buy or sell protection against a defined credit event of an issuer or a basket of securities or ETFs. Generally, the seller of credit protection against an issuer or basket of securities receives a periodic payment to compensate against potential default events. If a default event occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value of the reference obligation in exchange for the reference obligation. If no default occurs, the counterparty will pay the stream of payments and have no further obligations to the Fund selling the credit protection.

In contrast, the buyer of a credit default swap would have the right to deliver a referenced debt obligation and receive the par (or other agreed-upon) value of such debt obligation from the counterparty in the event of a default or other credit event (such as a credit downgrade) by the reference issuer, such as a U.S. or foreign corporation, with respect to its debt obligations. In return, the buyer of the credit protection would pay the counterparty a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no event of default has occurred. If no default occurs, the counterparty would keep the stream of payments and would have no further obligations to the Fund purchasing the credit protection.

Each Fund also may enhance income by selling credit protection or attempt to mitigate credit risk by buying protection. Credit default swaps could result in losses if the creditworthiness of an issuer or a basket of securities is not accurately evaluated.

Most swap agreements (but generally not credit default swaps) that a Fund might enter into require the parties to calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Swap agreements may not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets. Consequently, a Fund’s obligations (or rights) and risk of loss under such a swap agreement would generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). Other swap agreements, such as credit default swaps, may require initial premium (discount) payments as well as periodic payments (receipts) related to the interest leg of the swap or to the default of a reference obligation.

Each Fund is required to cover its swaps positions in a manner consistent with the 1940 Act or the rules and SEC interpretations thereunder in order to limit the risk associated with the use of leverage and other related risks. A Fund’s obligations under a swap agreement (other than a collateral default swap (“CDS”) for which a

 

12


Fund is the seller) would be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owing to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty would be covered by segregating assets determined to be liquid. Obligations under swap agreements so covered would not be construed to be “senior securities” for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities and, accordingly, would not treat them as subject to a Fund’s borrowing restrictions. For swaps that are not cash settled, each Fund will earmark or segregate cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the full notional amount of the swaps (minus any amounts owed to the Fund) or enter into offsetting transactions. For swaps that are cash settled, each Fund may designate or segregate on its records cash or liquid assets equal to the Fund’s next daily marked-to-market net obligations under the swaps, if any, rather than the full notional amount. Such segregation will ensure that a Fund has assets available to satisfy its obligations with respect to the transaction and will limit any potential leveraging of a Fund’s portfolio. By earmarking or designating assets equal to only its net obligation under cash-settled swaps, a Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if a Fund were required to earmark or segregate assets equal to the full notional amount of such swaps.

Because they may be two party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid for a Fund’s illiquid investment limitations. A Fund would not enter into any swap agreement unless the Adviser believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty, or in the case of a credit default swap in which a Fund is selling credit protection, the default of a third party issuer.

Each Fund may enter into swap agreements to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of the underlying securities in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. The counterparty to any swap agreement would typically be a bank, investment banking firm or broker-dealer or, in the case of a cleared swap, the clearinghouse. The counterparty would generally agree to pay a Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the swap agreement would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks, plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. The Fund would agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the swap agreement plus the amount, if any, by which the notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stocks. Therefore, the return to a Fund on any swap agreement should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stocks less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount.

Swap agreements typically are settled on a net basis (but generally not credit default swaps), which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with a Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Payments may be made at the conclusion of a swap agreement or periodically during its term.

Other swap agreements, such as credit default swaps, may require initial premium (discount) payments as well as periodic payments (receipts) related to the interest leg of the swap or to the default of a reference obligation. A Fund would earmark and reserve assets necessary to meet any accrued payment obligations when it is the buyer of a credit default swap. In cases where a Fund is the seller of a credit default swap, if the credit default swap provides for physical settlement, the Fund would be required to earmark and reserve the full notional amount of the credit default swap.

A Fund may also enter into swaps on an index, including credit default index swaps (“CDX”), which are swaps on an index of credit default swaps. For example, a commercial mortgage-backed index (“CMBX”) is a type of CDX made up of 25 tranches of commercial mortgage-backed securities rather than CDS. Unlike other CDX contracts where credit events are intended to capture an event of default, CMBX involves a pay-as-you-go settlement process designed to capture non-default events that affect the cash flow of the reference obligation. Pay-as-you-go settlement involves ongoing, two-way payments over the life of a contract between the buyer and the seller of protection and is designed to closely mirror the cash flow of a portfolio of cash commercial mortgage-backed securities.

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the

 

13


swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments that are traded in the OTC market. The Adviser under the supervision of the Board, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of Fund transactions in swap agreements.

Certain standardized swaps are subject to mandatory central clearing. Central clearing is expected to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but central clearing does not make swap transactions risk-free. The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory developments will ultimately require the clearing and exchange-trading of many OTC derivative instruments that the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and SEC recently defined as “swaps.” Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant and CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing. The Adviser will continue to monitor developments in this area, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect the ability of the Funds to enter into swap agreements. Depending on a Fund’s size and other factors, the margin required under the rules of the clearinghouse and by the clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by a Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. However, regulators are expected to adopt rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps in the near future, which could change this comparison. Regulators are in the process of developing rules that would require trading and execution of most liquid swaps on trading facilities. Moving trading to an exchange-type system may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require a Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps. Rules adopted in 2012 also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, but may subject a Fund to additional administrative burdens and the safeguards established to protect trader anonymity may not function as expected. Swaps traded in the over-the-counter market are subject to margin requirements which, once implemented, may increase the cost to the Fund of engaging in such transactions.

The use of swap agreements, including credit default swaps, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the swap would likely decline. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a Fund could eliminate its exposure under an outstanding swap agreement by entering into an offsetting swap agreement with the same or another party.

Restrictions on the Use of Futures Contracts, Options on Futures Contracts and Swaps.  Rule 4.5 of the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) significantly limits the ability of certain regulated entities, including registered investment companies such as the Trust, to rely on an exclusion that would not require its investment adviser to register with the CFTC as a commodity pool operator (“CPO”). However, under Rule 4.5, the investment adviser of a registered investment company may claim exclusion from registration as a CPO only if the registered investment company that it advises uses futures contracts solely for “bona fide hedging purposes” or limits its use of futures contracts for non-bona fide hedging purposes such that (i) the aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish non-bona fide hedging positions with respect to futures contracts do not exceed 5% of the liquidation value of the registered investment company’s portfolio, or (ii) the aggregate “notional value” of the non-bona fide hedging commodity interests do not exceed 100% of the liquidation value of the registered investment company’s portfolio (taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions). The Adviser has claimed exclusion on behalf of each Fund under Rule 4.5, which effectively limits the Funds’ use of futures, options on futures, swaps, or other commodity interests. Each Fund currently intends to comply with the terms of Rule 4.5 so as to avoid regulation as a commodity pool, and as a result, the ability of each Fund to utilize futures, options on futures, swaps, or other commodity interests may be limited in accordance with the terms of the rule, as well as any limits set forth in the Funds’ Prospectus and this SAI. Each Fund therefore is not subject to CFTC registration or regulation as a commodity pool. In addition, the Adviser is relying upon a related exclusion exempting it from being required to register as a “commodity trading advisor” under the CEA and the rules of the CFTC with respect to each Fund.

The terms of the CPO exclusion require each Fund, among other things, to adhere to certain limits on its investments in “commodity interests.” Commodity interests include commodity futures, commodity options and swaps, which in turn include non-deliverable forwards. Each Fund is permitted to invest in these instruments as described in this SAI. However, the Funds are not intended as a vehicle for trading in the commodity futures,

 

14


commodity options or swaps markets. The CFTC has neither reviewed nor approved the Adviser’s reliance on these exclusions, or the Funds, their investment strategies or the Prospectus.

While not anticipated, should a Fund invest in futures contracts for purposes that are not solely for “bona fide hedging” in excess of the limitations imposed by Rule 4.5, such Fund may be subject to regulation under the CEA and CFTC Rules as a commodity pool. Registration as a commodity pool may have negative effects on the ability of a Fund to engage in its planned investment program, while registration as a CPO imposes additional laws, regulations and enforcement policies, which could increase compliance costs and may affect the operations and financial performance of the Fund.

Warrants and Rights.  The Funds may invest in warrants or rights (other than those acquired in units or attached to other securities), which entitle the purchaser to buy equity securities at a specific price for a specific period of time. Warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

Each Fund calculates its portfolio turnover rate by dividing the value of the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities for the fiscal period by the monthly average of the value of portfolio securities owned by the Fund during the fiscal period. A 100% portfolio turnover rate would occur, for example, if all of the portfolio securities (other than short-term securities) were replaced once during the fiscal period. Portfolio turnover rates will vary from year to year, depending on market conditions and the nature of the Fund’s holdings.

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

Quarterly Portfolio Schedule.  The Trust is required to disclose, after its first and third fiscal quarters, the complete schedule of each Fund’s portfolio holdings with the SEC on Form N-Q (or any successor Form). The Trust also discloses a complete schedule of each Fund’s portfolio holdings with the SEC on Form N-CSR after its second and fourth fiscal quarters.

The Trust’s Forms N-Q (or any successor Forms) and Forms N-CSR on behalf of each Fund will be available on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. The Trust’s Forms N-Q (or any successor Forms) and Forms N-CSR will be available without charge, upon request, by calling 1-800-983-0903 or by writing to the Trust at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515.

Portfolio Holdings Policy.  The Trust has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Trust’s portfolio holdings. The Board must approve all material amendments to this policy.

The Funds’ portfolio holdings are disseminated publicly each day that the Funds are open for business through financial reporting and news services, including publicly accessible Internet websites. In addition, for in-kind creations, a basket composition file, which includes the security names and share quantities to deliver in exchange for Shares, together with estimates and actual cash components, is disseminated publicly each day prior to the opening of the Exchange via www.invesco.com/capitalmarkets and the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”). The basket represents one Creation Unit of each Fund. The Trust, the Adviser and The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNYM” or the “Administrator”) will not disseminate non-public information concerning the Trust.

Access to information concerning the Funds’ portfolio holdings may be permitted at other times to personnel of third-party service providers, including the Funds’ custodian, transfer agent, auditors and counsel, as may be necessary to conduct business in the ordinary course in a manner consistent with such service providers’ agreements with the Trust on behalf of the Funds.

 

15


MANAGEMENT

The primary responsibility of the Board is to represent the interests of the Funds and to provide oversight of the management of the Funds. The Trust currently has seven Trustees. Six Trustees are not “interested,” as that term is defined under the 1940 Act, and have no affiliation or business connection with the Adviser or any of its affiliated persons and do not own any stock or other securities issued by the Adviser (the “Independent Trustees”). The remaining Trustee (the “Interested Trustee”) is affiliated with the Adviser.

The Independent Trustees of the Trust, their term of office and length of time served, their principal business occupations during at least the past five years, the number of portfolios in the Fund Complex (defined below) that they oversee and other directorships, if any, that they hold are shown below. The “Fund Complex” includes all open and closed-end funds (including all of their portfolios) advised by the Adviser and any affiliated person of the Adviser. As of the date of this SAI, the “Fund Family” consists of the Trust and five other ETF trusts advised by the Adviser.

 

Name, Address and Year of
Birth of Independent Trustees

  

Position(s) Held
with Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served*

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in
Fund
Complex**
Overseen by
Independent
Trustees

  

Other Directorships
Held by
Independent Trustees
During the Past 5 Years

Ronn R. Bagge—1958
c/o Invesco Capital
Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Vice Chairman of the Board; Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee and Trustee    Vice Chairman since 2018; Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee and Trustee since 2016    Founder and Principal, YQA Capital Management LLC (1998-Present); formerly, Owner/CEO of Electronic Dynamic Balancing Co., Inc. (high-speed rotating equipment service provider).    241   

Trustee and Investment Oversight Committee member, Mission Aviation

Fellowship (2017-Present)

Todd J. Barre—1957
c/o Invesco Capital Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700
Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Trustee    Since 2016    Assistant Professor of Business, Trinity Christian College (2010-2016); formerly, Vice President and Senior Investment Strategist (2001-2008), Director of Open Architecture and Trading (2007-2008), Head of Fundamental Research (2004-2007) and Vice President and Senior Fixed Income Strategist (1994-2001), BMO Financial Group/Harris Private Bank.    241    None
Marc M. Kole—1960
c/o Invesco Capital Management LLC
3500 Lacey Road,
Suite 700
Downers Grove, IL 60515
   Chairman of the Audit Committee and Trustee    Chairman of the Audit Committee and Trustee since 2016    Senior Director of Finance, By The Hand Club For Kids (2015-Present); formerly, Chief Financial Officer, Hope Network (social services) (2008-2012); Assistant Vice President and Controller, Priority Health (health insurance) (2005-2008); Regional Chief Financial Officer, United Healthcare (2005); Chief Accounting Officer, Senior Vice President of Finance, Oxford Health Plans (2000-2004); Audit Partner, Arthur Andersen LLP (1996-2000).    241    None

 

16


Name, Address and Year of
Birth of Independent Trustees

  

Position(s) Held
with Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served*

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in
Fund
Complex**
Overseen by
Independent
Trustees

  

Other Directorships
Held by
Independent Trustees
During the Past 5 Years

Yung Bong Lim—1964
c/o Invesco Capital Management LLC
3500 Lacey Road,
Suite 700
Downers Grove, IL 60515
   Chairman of the Investment Oversight Committee and Trustee    Chairman of the Investment Oversight Committee and Trustee since 2016    Managing Partner, RDG Funds LLC (2008-Present); formerly, Managing Director, Citadel LLC (1999-2007).    241    Advisory Board Member of Performance Trust Capital Partners (2008-Present); Board Director of Beacon Power Services (2019-Present); Trustee of Princeton Internships in Civic Service (2017-Present); Advisory Board Member of Princeton Faith & Work Initiative (2018-Present); Advisory Board Member of Chicago Fellowship (2004-Present); Financial Review Committee Member of Tau Beta Pi (2019-Present).

Gary R. Wicker—1961
c/o Invesco Capital Management LLC
3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700
Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Trustee    Since 2016    Senior Vice President of Global Finance and Chief Financial Officer at RBC Ministries (publishing company) (2013-Present); formerly, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Zondervan Publishing (a division of Harper Collins/NewsCorp) (2007-2012); Senior Vice President and Group Controller (2005-2006), Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2003-2004), Chief Financial Officer (2001-2003), Vice President, Finance and Controller (1999-2001) and Assistant Controller (1997-1999), divisions of The Thomson Corporation (information services provider).    241    None

 

17


Name, Address and Year of
Birth of Independent Trustees

  

Position(s) Held
with Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served*

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in
Fund
Complex**
Overseen by
Independent
Trustees

  

Other Directorships
Held by
Independent Trustees
During the Past 5 Years

Donald H. Wilson—1959
c/o Invesco Capital Management LLC
3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700
Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Chairman of the Board and Trustee    Chairman and Trustee since 2016    Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, McHenry Bancorp Inc. and McHenry Savings Bank (subsidiary) (2018-Present); Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Stone Pillar Advisors, Ltd. (2010-Present); formerly, President and Chief Executive Officer, Stone Pillar Investments, Ltd. (2016-2018); Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Community Financial Shares, Inc. and Community Bank—Wheaton/Glen Ellyn (subsidiary) (2013-2015); Chief Operating Officer, AMCORE Financial, Inc. (bank holding company) (2007-2009); Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, AMCORE Financial, Inc. (2006-2007); Senior Vice President and Treasurer, Marshall & Ilsley Corp. (bank holding company) (1995-2006).    241    None
Kevin M. Carome—1956
Invesco Ltd.
Two Peachtree Pointe,
1555 Peachtree St., N.E.,
Suite 1800
Atlanta, GA 30309
   Trustee    Since 2015    Invesco North American Holdings, Inc.; Executive Vice President (2008-Present), Invesco Investments (Bermuda) Ltd.; Manager, Horizon Flight Works LLC, and Director, Invesco Finance PLC (2011-Present); Director and Secretary (2012-Present), Invesco Services (Bahamas) Private Limited; and Director and Executive Vice President (2014-Present), INVESCO Asset Management (Bermuda) Ltd.; formerly, Director (2006-2018) and Executive Vice President (2008-2018), Invesco Group Services, Inc., Invesco Holding Company (US), Inc.; Director,    241    None

 

18


Name, Address and Year of
Birth of Independent Trustees

  

Position(s) Held
with Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served*

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in
Fund
Complex**
Overseen by
Independent
Trustees

  

Other Directorships
Held by
Independent Trustees
During the Past 5 Years

         Invesco Holding Company Limited (2007-2018); Director and Executive Vice President, Invesco Finance, Inc. and Director and Chairman, INVESCO Funds Group, Inc., Senior Vice President, Secretary and General Counsel, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (2003-2006); Director, Invesco Investments (Bermuda) Ltd. (2008-2016); Senior Vice President and General Counsel, Liberty Financial Companies, Inc. (2000-2001); General Counsel of certain investment management subsidiaries of Liberty Financial Companies, Inc. (1998-2000); Associate General Counsel, Liberty Financial Companies, Inc. (1993-1998); Associate, Ropes & Gray LLP.      

 

*

This is the date the Interested Trustee began serving the Trust. The Interested Trustee serves an indefinite term, until his successor is elected.

**

Fund Complex includes all open- and closed-end funds (including all of their portfolios) advised by the Adviser and any affiliated person of the Adviser.

 

Name, Address and Year of
Birth of Executive Officers

   Position(s) Held
with Trust
   Length of
Time Served*
  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Daniel E. Draper—1968

Invesco Capital Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   President and
Principal

Executive
Officer

   Since 2016    Chief Executive Officer, Manager and Principal Executive Officer, Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (2018-Present); President and Principal Executive Officer, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2015-Present) and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2016-Present); Chief Executive Officer and Principal Executive Officer (2016-Present) and Managing Director (2013-Present), Invesco Capital Management LLC; Senior Vice President, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (2014-Present); formerly, Vice President, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2013-2015) and Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2014-2015); Managing Director, Credit Suisse Asset Management (2010-2013) and Lyxor Asset Management/Societe Generale (2007-2010).

 

19


Name, Address and Year of
Birth of Executive Officers

   Position(s) Held
with Trust
   Length of
Time Served*
  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Kelli Gallegos—1970

Invesco Capital

Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Vice President
and Treasurer
   Since 2018    Assistant Treasurer, Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (2018-Present); Vice President and Treasurer, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2018-Present); Principal Financial and Accounting Officer-Pooled Investments, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2018-Present); Vice President, Principal Financial Officer (2016-Present) and Assistant Treasurer (2008-Present), The Invesco Funds; formerly, Assistant Treasurer, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2012-2018), Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2014-2018) and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2016-2018); Assistant Treasurer, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2013-2018); and Assistant Vice President, The Invesco Funds (2008-2016).

Peter Hubbard—1981

Invesco Capital

Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Vice President    Since 2016    Vice President, Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (2018-Present); Vice President, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2009-Present), Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2014-Present) and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2016-Present); Vice President and Director of Portfolio Management, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2010-Present); formerly, Vice President of Portfolio Management, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2008-2010); Portfolio Manager, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2007-2008); Research Analyst, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2005-2007); Research Analyst and Trader, Ritchie Capital, a hedge fund operator (2003-2005).

Sheri Morris—1964

Invesco Capital Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Vice President    Since 2016    President and Principal Executive Officer, The Invesco Funds (2016-Present); Treasurer, The Invesco Funds (2008-Present); Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.) (registered investment adviser) (2009-Present) and Vice President, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2012-Present), Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2014-Present) and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2016-Present); formerly, Vice President and Principal Financial Officer, The Invesco Funds (2008-2016); Treasurer, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2011-2013); Vice President, Invesco Aim Advisers, Inc., Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc. and Invesco Aim Private Asset Management, Inc.; Assistant Vice President and Assistant Treasurer, The Invesco Funds and Assistant Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc., Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc. and Invesco Aim Private Asset Management, Inc.

Anna Paglia—1974

Invesco Capital

Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Secretary    Since 2016    Secretary, Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (2018-Present); Secretary, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2011-Present), Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2014-Present) and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2015-Present); Head of Legal (2010-Present) and Secretary (2015-Present), Invesco Capital Management LLC; Manager and Assistant Secretary, Invesco Indexing LLC (2017-Present); formerly, Partner, K&L Gates LLP (formerly, Bell Boyd & Lloyd LLP) (2007-2010); Associate Counsel at Barclays Global Investors Ltd. (2004-2006).

 

20


Name, Address and Year of
Birth of Executive Officers

   Position(s) Held
with Trust
   Length of
Time Served*
  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Rudolf E. Reitmann—1971

Invesco Capital

Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Vice President    Since 2016    Head of Global Exchange Traded Funds Services, Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (2018-Present); Vice President, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2013-Present), Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2014-Present) and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2016-Present); Head of Global Exchange Traded Funds Services, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2013-Present); Vice President, Invesco Capital Markets, Inc. (2018-Present).

David Warren—1957

Invesco Canada Ltd.

5140 Yonge Street,

Suite 800

Toronto, Ontario M2N 6X7

   Vice President    Since 2016    Manager, Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (2018-Present); Vice President, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, and Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (2009-Present), Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust (2014-Present) and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2016-Present); Managing Director—Chief Administrative Officer, Americas, Invesco Capital Management LLC; Senior Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (2009-Present); Director, Invesco Inc. (2009-Present); Director, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Invesco Canada Ltd. (formerly, Invesco Trimark Ltd.) (2011-Present); Chief Administrative Officer, North American Retail, Invesco Ltd. (2007-Present); Director, Invesco Corporate Class Inc. (2014-Present); Director, Invesco Global Direct Real Estate Feeder GP Ltd. (2015-Present); Director, Invesco Canada Holdings Inc. (2002-Present); Director, Invesco Financial Services Ltd. / Services Financiers Invesco Ltée and Trimark Investments Ltd./Placements Trimark Ltée (2014-Present); Director, Invesco IP Holdings (Canada) Ltd. (2016-Present); Director, Invesco Global Direct Real Estate GP Ltd. (2015-Present); formerly, Senior Vice President, Invesco Management Group, Inc. (2007-2018); Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Invesco Inc. (2009-2015); Director, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Invesco Canada Ltd. (formerly, Invesco Trimark Ltd.) (2000-2011).

Melanie Zimdars—1976

Invesco Capital Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road,

Suite 700

Downers Grove, IL 60515

   Chief
Compliance
Officer
   Since 2017    Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (2018-Present); Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Capital Management LLC (2017-Present); Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust (2017-Present); formerly, Vice President and Deputy Chief Compliance Officer at ALPS Holding, Inc. (2009-2017); Mutual Fund Treasurer/Chief Financial Officer at Wasatch Advisors, Inc. (2005-2008); Compliance Officer, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2001-2005).

 

*

This is the date each Officer began serving the Trust. Each Officer serves an indefinite term, until his or her successor is elected.

Each Fund is newly established. As of the date of this SAI, none of the Trustees held equity securities in the Funds. As of December 31, 2018, each Trustee held in the aggregate over $100,000 in equity securities in all of the registered investment companies overseen by the Trustees in the Fund Family. Share information for Mr. Lim includes shares of certain funds in which Mr. Lim is deemed to be invested pursuant to the Trust’s deferred compensation plan (“DC Plan”), which is described below.

As of the date of this SAI, as to each Independent Trustee and his immediate family members, no person owned beneficially or of record securities in an investment adviser or principal underwriter of the Funds, or a person (other than a registered investment company) directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by or under common control with an investment adviser or principal underwriter of the Funds.

Board and Committee Structure.  As noted above, the Board is responsible for oversight of the Funds, including oversight of the duties performed by the Adviser for the Funds under the investment advisory

 

21


agreement between the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, and the Adviser (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”). The Board generally meets in regularly scheduled meetings five times a year, and may meet more often as required. During the Trust’s fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, the Board held nine meetings.

The Board has three standing committees, the Audit Committee, the Investment Oversight Committee and the Nominating and Governance Committee, and has delegated certain responsibilities to those Committees.

Messrs. Kole (Chair), Wicker and Wilson currently serve as members of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee has the responsibility, among other things, to: (i) approve and recommend to the Board the selection of the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm, (ii) review the scope of the independent registered public accounting firm’s audit activity, (iii) review the audited financial statements and (iv) review with such independent registered public accounting firm the adequacy and the effectiveness of the Trust’s internal controls over financial reporting. During the Trust’s fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, the Audit Committee held six meetings.

Messrs. Bagge, Barre and Lim (Chair) currently serve as members of the Investment Oversight Committee. The Investment Oversight Committee has the responsibility, among other things, (i) to review fund investment performance, including tracking error and correlation to its underlying index, (ii) to review any proposed changes to a fund’s investment policies, comparative benchmark indices or underlying index, and (iii) to review a fund’s market trading activities and portfolio transactions. During the Trust’s fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, the Investment Oversight Committee held four meetings.

Messrs. Bagge (Chair), Barre, Kole, Lim, Wicker and Wilson currently serve as members of the Nominating and Governance Committee. The Nominating and Governance Committee has the responsibility, among other things, to identify and recommend individuals for Board membership and evaluate candidates for Board membership. The Board will consider recommendations for trustees from shareholders. Nominations from shareholders should be in writing and sent to the Secretary of the Trust to the attention of the Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee, as described below under the caption “Shareholder Communications.” During the Trust’s fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, the Nominating and Governance Committee held four meetings.

Mr. Wilson, one of the Independent Trustees, serves as the chair of the Board (the “Independent Chair”). The Independent Chair, among other things, chairs the Board meetings, participates in the preparation of the Board agendas and serves as a liaison between, and facilitates communication among, the other Independent Trustees, the full Board, the Adviser and other service providers with respect to Board matters. Mr. Bagge, as Chair of the Nominating and Governance Committee, serves as vice chair of the Board (the “Vice Chair”). In the absence of the Independent Chair, the Vice Chair is responsible for all of the Independent Chair’s duties and may exercise any of the Independent Chair’s powers. The Chairs of each Committee also serve as liaisons between the Adviser and other service providers and the other Independent Trustees for matters pertaining to the respective Committee. The Board believes that its current leadership structure is appropriate taking into account the assets and number of funds overseen by the Trustees, the size of the Board and the nature of the funds’ business, as the Interested Trustee and officers of the Trust provide the Board with insight as to the daily management of the funds while the Independent Chair promotes independent oversight of the funds by the Board.

Risk Oversight.   Each Fund is subject to a number of risks, including operational, investment and compliance risks. The Board, directly and through its Committees, as part of its oversight responsibilities, oversees the services provided by the Adviser and the Trust’s other service providers in connection with the management and operations of the Funds, as well as their associated risks. Under the oversight of the Board, the Trust, the Adviser and other service providers have adopted policies, procedures and controls to address these risks. The Board, directly and through its Committees, receives and reviews information from the Adviser, other service providers, the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm, Trust counsel and counsel to the Independent Trustees to assist it in its oversight responsibilities. This information includes, but is not limited to, reports regarding the Funds’ investments, including Fund performance and investment practices, valuation of Fund portfolio securities, and compliance. The Board also reviews, and must approve any proposed changes to, the Funds’ investment objective, policies and restrictions, and reviews any areas of non-compliance with the

 

22


Funds’ investment policies and restrictions. The Audit Committee monitors the Trust’s accounting policies, financial reporting and internal control system and reviews any internal audit reports impacting the Trust. As part of its compliance oversight, the Board reviews the annual compliance report issued by the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer on the policies and procedures of the Trust and its service providers, proposed changes to those policies and procedures and quarterly reports on any material compliance issues that arose during the period.

Experience, Qualifications and Attributes.   As noted above, the Nominating and Governance Committee is responsible for identifying, evaluating and recommending trustee candidates. The Nominating and Governance Committee reviews the background and the educational, business and professional experience of trustee candidates and the candidates’ expected contributions to the Board. Trustees selected to serve on the Board are expected to possess relevant skills and experience, time availability and the ability to work well with the other Trustees. In addition to these qualities and based on each Trustee’s experience, qualifications and attributes and the Trustees’ combined contributions to the Board, following is a brief summary of the information that led to the conclusion that each Board member should serve as a Trustee.

Mr. Bagge has served as a trustee and Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee with the Fund Family since 2003 and Vice Chair with the Fund Family since 2018. He founded YQA Capital Management, LLC in 1998 and has since served as a principal. Mr. Bagge serves as a Trustee and a member of the Investment Oversight Committee of Mission Aviation Fellowship. Previously, Mr. Bagge was the owner and CEO of Electronic Dynamic Balancing Company from 1988 to 2001. He began his career as a securities analyst for institutional investors, including CT&T Asset Management and J.C. Bradford & Co. The Board considered that Mr. Bagge has served as a board member or advisor for several privately held businesses and charitable organizations and the executive, investment and operations experience that Mr. Bagge has gained over the course of his career and through his financial industry experience.

Mr. Barre has served as a trustee with the Fund Family since 2010. He served as Assistant Professor of Business at Trinity Christian College from 2010 to 2016. Previously, he served in various positions with BMO Financial Group/Harris Private Bank, including Vice President and Senior Investment Strategist (2001-2008), Director of Open Architecture and Trading (2007-2008), Head of Fundamental Research (2004-2007) and Vice President and Senior Fixed Income Strategist (1994-2001). From 1983 to 1994, Mr. Barre was with the Office of the Manager of Investments at Commonwealth Edison Co. He also was a staff accountant at Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co. from 1981 to 1983. The Board considered the executive, financial and investment experience that Mr. Barre has gained over the course of his career and through his financial industry experience.

Mr. Carome has served as a trustee with the Fund Family since 2010. He has served as the Senior Managing Director and General Counsel of Invesco Ltd. since 2006, and has held various senior executive positions with Invesco Ltd. since 2003. Previously, he served in various positions with Liberty Financial Companies, Inc., including Senior Vice President and General Counsel (2000-2001), General Counsel of certain investment management subsidiaries (1998-2000) and Associate General Counsel (1993-1998). Prior to his employment with Liberty Financial Companies, Inc., Mr. Carome was an associate with Ropes & Gray LLP. The Board considered Mr. Carome’s senior executive position with Invesco Ltd.

Mr. Kole has served as a trustee with the Fund Family since 2006 and Chairman of the Audit Committee with the Fund Family since 2008. He has been the Senior Director of Finance of By The Hand Club for Kids since 2015. Previously, he was the Chief Financial Officer of Hope Network from 2008 to 2012. He also was the Assistant Vice President and Controller at Priority Health from 2005 to 2008, Senior Vice President of Finance of United Healthcare from 2004 to 2005, Chief Accounting Officer and Senior Vice President of Finance of Oxford Health Plans from 2000 to 2004 and Audit Partner, Arthur Andersen LLP from 1996-2000. The Board has determined that Mr. Kole is an “audit committee financial expert” as defined by the SEC. The Board considered the executive, financial and operations experience that Mr. Kole has gained over the course of his career and through his financial industry experience.

Mr. Lim has served as a trustee with the Fund Family since 2013 and Chairman of the Investment Oversight Committee of the Fund Family since 2014. He has been a Managing Partner of RDG Funds LLC since 2008.

 

23


Previously, he was a Managing Director and the Head of the Securitized Products Group of Citadel LLC (1999-2007). Prior to his employment with Citadel LLC, he was a Managing Director with Salomon Brothers Inc. The Board considered the executive, financial and operations experience that Mr. Lim has gained over the course of his career and through his financial industry experience.

Mr. Wicker has served as a trustee with the Fund Family since 2013. He has served as Senior Vice President of Global Finance and Chief Financial Officer at RBC Ministries since 2013. Previously, he was the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Zondervan Publishing from 2007 to 2012. Prior to his employment with Zondervan Publishing, he held various positions with divisions of The Thomson Corporation, including Senior Vice President and Group Controller (2005-2006), Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2003-2004), Chief Financial Officer (2001-2003), Vice President, Finance and Controller (1999-2001) and Assistant Controller (1997-1999). Prior to that, Mr. Wicker was Senior Manager in the Audit and Business Advisory Services Group of Price Waterhouse (1994-1996). The Board has determined that Mr. Wicker is an “audit committee financial expert” as defined by the SEC. The Board considered the executive, financial and operations experience that Mr. Wicker has gained over the course of his career and through his financial industry experience.

Mr. Wilson has served as a trustee with the Fund Family since 2006 and as the Independent Chair with the Fund Family since 2012. He also served as lead Independent Trustee in 2011. He has served as the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of McHenry Bancorp Inc. and McHenry Savings Bank since 2018. He has served as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Stone Pillar Advisors, Ltd. since 2010 and as President and Chief Executive Officer of Stone Pillar Investments, Ltd. since 2016. Previously, he was the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Community Financial Shares, Inc. and its subsidiary, Community Bank—Wheaton/Glen Ellyn (2013-2015). He also was the Chief Operating Officer (2007-2009) and Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2006-2007) of AMCORE Financial, Inc. Mr. Wilson also served as Senior Vice President and Treasurer of Marshall & Ilsley Corp. from 1995 to 2006. He started his career with the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, serving in several roles in the bank examination division and the economic research division. The Board has determined that Mr. Wilson is an “audit committee financial expert” as defined by the SEC. The Board considered the executive, financial and operations experience that Mr. Wilson has gained over the course of his career and through his financial industry experience.

This disclosure is not intended to hold out any Trustee as having any special expertise and shall not impose greater duties, obligations or liabilities on the Trustees. The Trustees’ principal occupations during at least the past five years are shown in the above tables.

Effective January 1, 2019, for his services as a Trustee of the Trust and other trusts in the Fund Family, each Independent Trustee receives an annual retainer of $320,000 (the “Retainer”). The Retainer for the Independent Trustees is allocated half pro rata among all the funds in the Fund Family and the other half is allocated among all of the funds in the Fund Family based on average net assets. Mr. Wilson receives an additional $120,000 per year for his service as the Independent Chair, allocated in the same manner as the Retainer. The chair of the Audit Committee receives an additional fee of $35,000 per year and the chairs of the Investment Oversight Committee, and the Nominating and Governance Committee each receive an additional fee of $20,000 per year, each allocated in the same manner as the Retainer. Prior to January 1, 2019, the Retainer was $290,000, the additional fee for the Independent Chair was $100,000, the additional fee for the Audit Committee Chair was $28,000 and the additional fee for the chairs of the Investment Oversight Committee and the Nominating and Governance Committee was $17,000 per year. Each Trustee also is reimbursed for travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in attending Board and committee meetings.

The Trust’s DC Plan allows each Independent Trustee to defer payment of all or a portion of the fees that the Trustee receives for serving on the Board throughout the year. Each eligible Trustee generally may elect to have deferred amounts credited with a return equal to the total return of one or more registered investment companies within the Fund Family that are offered as investment options under the DC Plan. At the Trustee’s election, distributions are either in one lump sum payment, or in the form of equal annual installments over a period of years designated by the Trustee. The rights of an eligible Trustee and the beneficiaries to the amounts

 

24


held under the DC Plan are unsecured, and such amounts are subject to the claims of the creditors of the Funds. The Independent Trustees are not eligible for any pension or profit sharing plan in their capacity as Trustees.

The following sets forth the fees paid to each Trustee for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018.

 

Name of Trustee

   Aggregate
Compensation from
Trust (1)
     Pension or Retirement
Benefits Accrued as Part of
Fund Expenses
     Total Compensation Paid
from Fund Complex (2)
 
Independent Trustees         
Ronn R. Bagge      $7,030        N/A        $307,000  
Todd J. Barre      $6,640        N/A        $290,000  
Marc M. Kole      $7,282        N/A        $318,000  
Yung Bong Lim      $7,030        N/A        $307,000  
Gary R. Wicker      $6,640        N/A        $290,000  
Donald H. Wilson      $8,930        N/A        $390,000  
Unaffiliated Trustee (3)         
Philip M. Nussbaum (4)      $6,640        N/A        $290,000  
Interested Trustee         
Kevin M. Carome      N/A        N/A        N/A  

 

(1)

Because the Funds had not commenced operations as of June 30, 2018, the Funds did not pay any portion of the amounts shown in this table.

(2)

The amounts shown in this column represent the aggregate compensation paid by all funds of the trusts in the Fund Family (except as noted in the prior footnote) for the twelve months ended June 30, 2018 before deferral by the Trustee under the DC Plan. During the twelve months ended June 30, 2018, Mr. Lim deferred 100% of his compensation, which amounts are reflected in the above table.

(3)

The Unaffiliated Trustee is an officer of a company that engaged in securities transactions with clients advised by a sub-adviser to one or more funds in the Fund Family, which clients do not include any of the Funds, but was not an affiliated person of the Adviser.

(4)

The Adviser paid Mr. Nussbaum $6,640 and $290,000 on behalf of the Trust and the Fund Complex, respectively, for the twelve months ended June 30, 2018. Mr. Nussbaum resigned from the Board effective September 19, 2018.

Each Fund is new and, prior to the date of this SAI, the Trustees and officers, as a group, owned none of each Fund’s outstanding Shares.

Principal Holders and Control Persons.  Each Fund is new and, prior to the date of this SAI, no person owned of record more than 5% of the outstanding Shares.

Shareholder Communications.  Shareholders may send communications to the Trust’s Board by addressing the communications directly to the Board (or individual Board members) and/or otherwise clearly indicating in the salutation that the communication is for the Board (or individual Board members). Shareholders may send the communication to either the Trust’s office or directly to such Board members at the address specified for each Trustee. Management will review and generally respond to other shareholder communications the Trust receives that are not directly addressed and sent to the Board. Such communications will be forwarded to the Board at management’s discretion based on the matters contained therein.

Investment Adviser.  The Adviser provides investment tools and portfolios for advisers and investors. The Adviser is committed to theoretically sound portfolio construction and empirically verifiable investment management approaches. Its asset management philosophy and investment discipline is rooted deeply in the application of intuitive factor analysis and model implementation to enhance investment decisions.

The Adviser acts as investment adviser for, and manages the investment and reinvestment of, the assets of the Funds. The Adviser also administers the Trust’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services, and permits any of its officers or employees to serve without compensation as Trustees or officers of the Trust if elected to such positions.

 

25


Invesco Capital Management LLC, organized February 7, 2003, is located at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515. Invesco Ltd. is the parent company of Invesco Capital Management LLC and is located at Two Peachtree Pointe, 1555 Peachtree Street, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30309. Invesco Ltd. and its subsidiaries are an independent global investment management group.

Portfolio Managers.  The Adviser uses a team of portfolio managers (the “Portfolio Managers”), investment strategists and other investment specialists. This team approach brings together many disciplines and leverages the Adviser’s extensive resources. Peter Hubbard oversees all research, portfolio management and trading operations of the Adviser. In this capacity, he oversees a team of the Portfolio Managers responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds. Mr. Hubbard receives management assistance from Michael Jeanette and Tony Seisser.

As of October 31, 2018, Mr. Hubbard managed 224 registered investment companies with a total of approximately $109.3 billion in assets, 93 other pooled investment vehicles with approximately $94.2 billion in assets and no other accounts.

As of October 31, 2018, Mr. Jeanette managed 172 registered investment companies with a total of approximately $72.6 billion in assets, 21 other pooled investment vehicles with approximately $70.4 billion in assets and no other accounts.

As of October 31, 2018, Mr. Seisser managed 168 registered investment companies with a total of approximately $72.6 billion in assets, 21 other pooled investment vehicles with approximately $70.4 billion in assets and no other accounts.

To the extent that any of these registered investment companies, other pooled investment vehicles or other accounts pay advisory fees that are based on performance (“performance-based fees”), information on those accounts is specifically broken out.

Because the portfolio managers of the Adviser may manage assets for other investment companies, pooled investment vehicles and/or other accounts (including institutional clients, pension plans and certain high net worth individuals), there may be an incentive to favor one client over another, resulting in conflicts of interest. For instance, the Adviser may receive fees from certain accounts that are higher than the fee it receives from the Funds, or it may receive a performance-based fee on certain accounts. In those instances, the portfolio managers may have an incentive to favor the higher and/or performance-based fee accounts over the Funds. In addition, a conflict of interest could exist to the extent that the Adviser has proprietary investments in certain accounts, where portfolio managers have personal investments in certain accounts or when certain accounts are investment options in the Adviser’s employee benefits and/or deferred compensation plans. The portfolio manager may have an incentive to favor these accounts over others. If the Adviser manages accounts that engage in short sales of securities of the type in which the Fund invests, the Adviser could be seen as harming the performance of the Fund for the benefit of the accounts engaging in short sales if the short sales cause the market value of the securities to fall. The Adviser has adopted trade allocation and other policies and procedures that it believes are reasonably designed to address these and other conflicts of interest.

Description of Compensation Structure.  The Portfolio Managers are compensated with a fixed salary amount by the Adviser. The Portfolio Managers are eligible, along with other senior employees of the Adviser, to participate in a year-end discretionary bonus pool. The Compensation Committee of the Adviser will review management bonuses and, depending upon the size, the Compensation Committee may approve the bonus in advance. There is no policy regarding, or agreement with, the Portfolio Managers or any other senior executive of the Adviser to receive bonuses or any other compensation in connection with the performance of any of the accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers.

Portfolio Holdings.  Each Fund is new and, prior to the date of this SAI, none of the Portfolio Managers beneficially owned any Shares.

Investment Advisory Agreement.  Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement between the Adviser and the Trust, the Adviser is responsible for all expenses of the Funds, including the costs of transfer agency,

 

26


custody, fund administration, legal, audit and other services, except for advisory fees, distribution fees, if any, brokerage expenses, taxes, interest, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, if any, litigation expenses and other extraordinary expenses (as set forth under the Investment Advisory Agreement). For the Adviser’s services, each Fund has agreed to pay an annual unitary management fee equal to a percentage of its average daily net assets set forth in the chart below (the “Advisory Fee”).

 

Fund

  

Advisory Fee

Invesco ESG Revenue ETF    0.40%
Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF    0.29%
Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF    0.39%

The Adviser has agreed to waive a portion of its unitary management fee to the extent necessary to prevent each Fund’s operating expenses (excluding advisory fees, distribution fees, if any, brokerage expenses, taxes, interest, litigation expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, if any, and other extraordinary expenses (as set forth in the Investment Advisory Agreement)) from exceeding the management fee for at least two years following each Fund’s acquisition of its corresponding Predecessor Fund.

Each Fund may invest in money market funds that are managed by affiliates of the Adviser. The indirect portion of the management fee that a Fund incurs through such investments is in addition to the Adviser’s unitary management fee. Therefore, the Adviser has agreed to waive the management fees that it receives in an amount equal to the indirect management fees that a Fund incurs through its investments in affiliated money market funds through at least two years following each Fund’s acquisition of its corresponding Predecessor Fund. There is no guarantee that the Adviser will extend the waiver of these fees past that date.

The Funds were created as part of the reorganization of the Predecessor Funds into the respective Funds. Prior to the reorganization, the Predecessor Funds were managed by OFI Advisors, LLC. The aggregate amount of the Advisory Fees paid by each Predecessor Fund to OFI Advisors, LLC for each Fund during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2017 and 2018 are set forth in the chart below.

 

    June 30, 2018   June 30, 2017
     Net
Expenses
Reimbursed
  Advisory Fees
Paid (Before
Reimbursements)3
  Net
Expenses

Reimbursed
  Advisory Fees
Paid (Before
Reimbursements)3
ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund1   $17,508   $93,960   $56,411   $58,139
Russell 1000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund2   $0   $48,124    
Russell 2000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund2   $0   $32,892    

 

1

ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund commenced investment operations on October 31, 2016.

2

Russell 1000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund and Russell 2000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund commenced investment operations on November 8, 2017.

3

Fees Waived and/or Expenses Reimbursed apply to fees paid before September 30, 2017, after which Predecessor Fund fees were paid by OFI Advisors, LLC under a unitary fee structure, subject to certain exclusions.

Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Adviser will not be liable for any error of judgment or mistake of law or for any loss suffered by a Fund in connection with the performance of the Investment Advisory Agreement, except a loss resulting from willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Adviser in the performance of its duties or from reckless disregard of its duties and obligations thereunder. For each Fund, the Investment Advisory Agreement continues in effect only if approved annually by the Board, including a majority of the Independent Trustees. The Investment Advisory Agreement terminates automatically upon assignment and is terminable at any time without penalty as to a Fund by the Board, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, or by vote of the holders of a majority of that Fund’s outstanding voting securities on 60 days’ written notice to the Adviser, or by the Adviser on 60 days’ written notice to the Fund.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries.  The Adviser, the Distributor and/or their affiliates may enter into contractual arrangements with certain broker-dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (each, an “Intermediary” and together, the “Intermediaries”) that the Adviser, the Distributor and/or their affiliates believe

 

27


may benefit the Funds. Pursuant to such arrangements, the Adviser, the Distributor and/or their affiliates may provide cash payments or non-cash compensation, from their own assets and not from the assets of the Funds, to Intermediaries for certain activities that are designed to make registered representatives and other professionals more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including each Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, presentations, educational training programs, conferences, data collection and provision, technology support, the development of technology platforms and reporting systems and providing their customers with access to the Funds via online platforms.

Any payments made pursuant to such arrangements may vary in any year and may be different for different Intermediaries. In certain cases, the payments described here may be subject to certain minimum payment levels. Although a portion of the Adviser’s revenue comes directly or indirectly in part from fees paid by the Funds, payments to Intermediaries are not financed by the Funds and therefore do not increase the price paid by investors for the purchase of shares of, or the cost of owning, a Fund or reduce the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of Shares. As a result, such payments are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of the Funds’ Prospectus.

The Adviser periodically assesses the advisability of continuing to make these payments. Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to that Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend the Funds over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professionals if he or she receives similar payments from his or her intermediary firm.

As of the date of this SAI, as amended or supplemented from time to time, the Intermediaries receiving such payments include Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., E*TRADE Savings Bank, Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC, Pershing LLC, Premier Issuer Program offered by CLS Investments, LLC, Raymond James Financial Services, Inc., TD Ameritrade Exchange-Traded Fund Market Center Program and Trust Company of America.

Please contact your salesperson, adviser, broker or other investment professional for more information regarding any such payments or financial incentives his or her intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made, or financial incentives offered, by the Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates to an Intermediary may create the Incentive for the intermediary to encourage customers to buy Shares.

Administrator.  BNYM serves as administrator for the Funds. Its principal address is 240 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10286.

BNYM serves as Administrator for the Funds pursuant to a fund administration and accounting agreement (the “Administrative Services Agreement”) with the Trust. Under the Administrative Services Agreement, BNYM is obligated, on a continuous basis, to provide such administrative services as the Board reasonably deems necessary for the proper administration of the Trust and the Funds. BNYM generally will assist in many aspects of the Trust’s and the Funds’ operations, including accounting, bookkeeping and record keeping services (including, without limitation, the maintenance of such books and records as are required under the 1940 Act and the rules thereunder, except as maintained by other service providers), assist in preparing reports to shareholders or investors; assist in the preparation and filing of tax returns; supply financial information and supporting data for reports to and filings with the SEC and various state Blue Sky authorities; and supply supporting documentation for meetings of the Board.

Pursuant to the Administrative Services Agreement, the Trust has agreed to indemnify the Administrator for certain liabilities, including certain liabilities arising under the federal securities laws, unless such loss or liability results from negligence or willful misconduct in the performance of its duties.

 

28


Administration fees paid to BNYM by the Predecessor Funds during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2017 and 2018 were as follows:

 

    

June 30,
20182

  

June 30,
2017

ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund1   $4,550    $14,066

 

1

ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund commenced investment operations on October 31, 2016.

2

Reflects fees paid before September 30, 2017, after which all administrative service fees were paid by OFI Advisors, LLC.

The fees for administrative services provided to the Russell 1000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund and Russell 2000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund were paid solely by such Predecessor Funds’ investment adviser from the unitary management fee.

Custodian, Transfer Agent and Fund Accounting Agent.  BNYM, (the “Custodian” or “Transfer Agent”), located at 240 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10286, also serves as custodian for the Funds pursuant to a custodian agreement (the “Custodian Agreement”). As Custodian, BNYM holds the Funds’ assets, calculates the NAV of Shares and calculates net income and realized capital gains or losses. BNYM also serves as transfer agent for the Funds pursuant to a transfer agency agreement (the “Transfer Agency Agreement”). Further, BNYM serves as Fund accounting agent pursuant to the fund accounting agreement (the “Fund Accounting Agreement”). As compensation for the foregoing services, BNYM may be reimbursed for its out-of-pocket costs and receive transaction fees and asset-based fees, which are accrued daily and paid monthly by the Adviser from the Advisory Fee.

Distributor.  Invesco Distributors, Inc. (previously defined as the “Distributor”) is the distributor of the Funds’ Shares. The Distributor’s principal address is 11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173. The Distributor has entered into a distribution agreement (the “Distribution Agreement”) with the Trust pursuant to which it distributes the Funds’ Shares. Each Fund continuously offers Shares for sale through the Distributor only in Creation Unit Aggregations, as described in the Prospectus and below under the heading “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations.”

The Distribution Agreement for the Funds provides that it may be terminated as to a Fund at any time, without the payment of any penalty, on at least 60 days’ written notice by the Trust to the Distributor (i) by vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees or (ii) by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act).

Aggregations.  The Distributor does not distribute Shares in less than Creation Unit Aggregations. The Distributor will deliver a Prospectus (or a Summary Prospectus) and, upon request, this SAI to persons purchasing Creation Unit Aggregations and will maintain records of both orders placed with it and confirmations of acceptance furnished by it. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”).

The Distributor also may enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Unit Aggregations of the Shares. Such Soliciting Dealers also may be Participating Parties (as defined in “Procedures for Creation of Creation Unit Aggregations” below) and DTC Participants (as defined in “DTC Acts as Securities Depository for Shares” below).

Securities Lending Arrangement.  The Funds may participate in a securities lending program (the “Program”) pursuant to a securities lending agreement that establishes the terms of the loan, including collateral requirements. While collateral may consist of cash, U.S. Government securities, letters of credit, or such other collateral as may be permitted under such Funds’ investment policies, the Adviser currently accepts only cash collateral under the Program. Funds participating in the Program may lend securities to securities brokers and other borrowers. The Adviser renders certain administrative services to Funds that engage in securities lending activities, which includes: (a) overseeing participation in the Program to ensure compliance with all applicable

 

29


regulatory and investment guidelines; (b) assisting the securities lending agent or principal (the agent) in determining which specific securities are available for loan; (c) monitoring the agent to ensure that securities loans are effected in accordance with the Adviser’s instructions and with procedures adopted by the Board; (d) monitoring the creditworthiness of the agent and borrowers to ensure that securities loans are effected in accordance with the Adviser’s risk policies; (e) preparing appropriate periodic Board reports with respect to securities lending activities; (f) responding to agent inquiries; and (g) performing such other duties as may be necessary.

BNYM serves as the securities lending agent for the Program and provides the following services for the Funds in connection with securities lending activities: (i) entering into loans with approved entities subject to guidelines or restrictions provided by the Funds; (ii) receiving and holding collateral from borrowers, and facilitating the investment and reinvestment of cash collateral; (iii) monitoring daily the value of the loaned securities and collateral, including receiving and delivering additional collateral as necessary from/to borrowers; (iv) negotiating loan terms; (v) selecting securities to be loaned subject to guidelines or restrictions provided by the Funds; (vi) recordkeeping and account servicing; (vii) monitoring dividend/distribution activity and material proxy votes relating to loaned securities; and (viii) arranging for return of loaned securities to the Funds at loan termination.

The Predecessor Funds’ securities lending agent was responsible for the administration and management of each Predecessor Fund’s securities lending program, including (i) selecting securities to be loaned; (ii) locating borrowers previously approved by the Predecessor Funds’ board; (iii) negotiating loan terms; (iv) monitoring daily the value of the loaned securities and collateral; (v) requiring additional collateral as necessary; (vi) investing cash collateral in accordance with a Predecessor Fund’s instructions; (vii) marking to market non-cash collateral; (viii) maintaining custody of non-cash collateral; (ix) recordkeeping and account servicing; (x) monitoring dividend activity and material proxy votes relating to loaned securities; (xi) transferring loaned securities; (xii) recalling loaned securities in accordance with a Predecessor Fund’s instructions; and (xiii) arranging for return of loaned securities to a Predecessor Fund at loan termination. Based on publicly available filings, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, the income earned by the Predecessor Funds, as well as the fees and/or compensation paid by the Predecessor Funds (in dollars) were as follows:

 

     Gross
income
from
securities
lending
activities1
  Fees paid to
Securities
Lending
Agent from
a revenue
split2
  Fees paid for
any cash collateral
management service
(including fees
deducted from a

pooled cash collateral
reinvestment vehicle)
not included in

the revenue
split3
  Administrative
fees not
included in the
revenue split)
  Indemnification
fees not
included in the
revenue split
  Rebate
(paid to
borrower)
  Rebate
(due from
borrower)
  Other
fees not
included
in the
revenue
split
  Aggregate
fees/
compensation
for securities
lending
activities
  Net
income
from
securities
lending
activities
ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund*   $1,223   $(158)         $(528)   $0     $(686)   $537

 

*

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018.

1

Gross income includes income from the reinvestment of cash collateral.

2

Revenue split represents the share of revenue generated by the securities lending program and paid to The Bank of New York Mellon, the Predecessor Funds’ securities lending agent.

3

Cash collateral management fees include the contractual management fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle that are not included in the revenue split.

Amounts shown above may differ from amounts disclosed in the Predecessor Fund’s Annual Report as a result of timing differences, reconciliations, and certain other adjustments.

Index Providers.  Invesco Indexing LLC (“Invesco Indexing”) is the index provider for the Underlying Index of Invesco ESG Revenue ETF. In addition, since Invesco Indexing provides certain data to Frank Russell Company, the index provider to the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF, Invesco Indexing may be deemed a creator and sponsor of the Underlying Indexes for each of the Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF.

 

30


S&P Dow Jones Indices calculates the Underlying Index of Invesco ESG Revenue ETF and is not affiliated with the Fund, the Adviser, the Distributor or Invesco Indexing.

Frank Russell Company is the index provider for the Underlying Index for each of Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF and Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF. Frank Russell Company is not affiliated with the Funds, the Adviser, the Distributor or Invesco Indexing.

The Adviser has entered into a license agreement with each index provider to use each Underlying Index. The Adviser, in turn, has entered into a sub-licensing arrangement with each Fund to permit each Fund to use its respective Underlying Index. Each Fund does not pay a fee for the use of its respective Underlying Index.

Set forth below is a list of each Fund and the Underlying Index upon which it is based.

 

Fund

 

Underlying Index

Invesco ESG Revenue ETF   OFI Revenue Weighted ESG Index™ (to be renamed the Invesco Revenue Weighted ESG Index™ as soon as practicable following the Fund’s acquisition of the Oppenheimer ESG Revenue ETF)
Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   Russell 1000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index (to be renamed the Russell 1000® Invesco Dynamic Multifactor Index as soon as practicable following the Fund’s acquisition of the Oppenheimer Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF)
Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF   Russell 2000® OFI Dynamic Multifactor Index (to be renamed the Russell 2000® Invesco Dynamic Multifactor Index as soon as practicable following the Fund’s acquisition of the Oppenheimer Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF)

Invesco Indexing is affiliated with the Adviser and the Distributor. The Adviser has in place a code of ethics designed to prevent misuse of non-public index information, and the Adviser and Invesco Indexing have each implemented significant information barriers to prevent impermissible sharing of non-public information.

BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS AND COMMISSIONS ON AFFILIATED TRANSACTIONS

The policy of the Adviser regarding purchases and sales of securities is to give primary consideration to obtaining the most favorable prices and efficient executions of transactions under the circumstances. Consistent with this policy, when securities transactions are effected on a stock exchange, the Adviser’s policy is to pay commissions that are considered fair and reasonable without necessarily determining that the lowest possible commissions are paid in all circumstances. In seeking to determine the reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid in any transaction, the Adviser relies upon its experience and knowledge regarding commissions various brokers generally charge. The sale of Shares by a broker-dealer is not a factor in the selection of broker-dealers.

In seeking to implement its policies, the Adviser effects transactions with those brokers and dealers that the Adviser believes provide the most favorable prices and are capable of providing efficient executions. The Adviser currently does not participate in soft dollar transactions.

The Adviser assumes general supervision over placing orders on behalf of the Funds for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities. If purchases or sales of portfolio securities by the Funds and one or more other investment companies or clients supervised by the Adviser are considered at or about the same time, the Adviser allocates transactions in such securities among the Funds, the several investment companies and clients in a manner deemed equitable to all. In some cases, this procedure could have a detrimental effect on the price or volume of the security as far as the Funds are concerned. However, in other cases, it is possible that the ability to participate in volume transactions and to negotiate lower brokerage commissions will be beneficial to the Funds. The primary consideration is prompt execution of orders at the most favorable net price under the circumstances.

 

31


When a Fund purchases a newly issued security at a fixed price, the Adviser may designate certain members of the underwriting syndicate to receive compensation associated with that transaction. Certain dealers have agreed to rebate a portion of such compensation directly to the Fund to offset the Fund’s management expenses.

The aggregate brokerage commissions paid by each Predecessor Fund during the Fund’s fiscal years ended June 30, 2017 and 2018 are set forth in the chart below.

 

     June 30,
2018
   June 30,
2017
ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund1   $3,151    $4,881
Russell 1000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund2   $15,245   
Russell 2000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund2   $16,632   

 

1

ESG Revenue Predecessor Fund commenced investment operations on October 31, 2016.

2

Russell 1000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund and Russell 2000 Dynamic Multifactor Predecessor Fund commenced investment operations on November 8, 2017.

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, the Predecessor Funds and OFI Advisors, LLC did not direct the Predecessor Funds’ brokerage transactions to a broker because of research services provided.

Affiliated Transactions.  The Adviser may place trades with Invesco Capital Markets, Inc. (“ICMI”) a broker-dealer with whom it is affiliated, provided the Adviser determines that ICMI’s trade execution abilities and costs are at least comparable to those of non-affiliated brokerage firms with which the Adviser could otherwise place similar trades. ICMI receives brokerage commissions in connection with effecting trades for the Funds and, therefore, use of ICMI presents a conflict of interest for the Adviser. Trades placed through ICMI, including the brokerage commissions paid to ICMI, are subject to procedures adopted by the Board.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE TRUST

The Trust is an open-end management investment company registered under the 1940 Act. The Trust was organized as a Delaware Statutory trust on October 30, 2015 pursuant to a Declaration of Trust (the “Declaration”).

The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares in one or more series or “funds.” The Board has the right to establish additional series in the future, to determine the preferences, voting powers, rights and privileges thereof and to modify such preferences, voting powers, rights and privileges, without shareholder approval. The Declaration provides that the assets associates solely with any series shall be held and accounted for separately from the assets of the Trust generally or of any other series, and that liabilities belonging to a particular series shall be enforceable only against the assets belonging to that series and not against the assets of the Trust generally or against the assets belonging to any other series.

Each Share issued by a Fund has a pro rata interest in the assets of the Fund. Shares have no preemptive, exchange, subscription or conversion rights and are freely transferable. Each Share is entitled to participate equally in dividends and other distributions declared by the Board with respect to the Fund and in the net distributable assets of the Fund on liquidation.

Each Share has one vote with respect to matters upon which a shareholder vote is required consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder. Shares of all funds of the Trust vote together as a single class except as otherwise required by the 1940 Act, or if the matter being voted on affects only a particular fund, and, if a matter affects a particular fund differently from other funds, the shares of that fund will vote separately on such matter.

The Declaration provides that by becoming a shareholder of a Fund, each shareholder shall be held expressly to have agreed to be bound by the provisions of the Declaration. The Trustees may, except in limited circumstances, amend or supplement the Declaration of Trust without shareholder vote. The holders of Shares are required to disclose information on direct or indirect ownership of Shares as may be required to comply with

 

32


various laws applicable to the Funds, and ownership of Shares may be disclosed by the Funds if so required by law or regulation.

The Trust is not required and does not intend to hold annual meetings of shareholders. Shareholders owning more than 331/3% of the outstanding Shares of the Trust have the right to call a special meeting to remove one or more Trustees or for any other purpose by written request provided that (1) such request shall state the purposes of such meeting and the matters proposed to be acted on, and (2) the shareholders requesting such meeting shall have paid to the Trust the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and mailing the notice thereof, which the Secretary shall determine and specify to such shareholders.

The Trust’s bylaws require that to the fullest extent permitted by law, including Section 3804(e) of the Delaware Statutory Trust Act, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, any other court in the State of Delaware with subject matter jurisdiction, shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any shareholder (including a beneficial owner of shares) to bring derivatively or directly (i) any claim, suit, action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Trust, (ii) any claim, suit, action or proceeding asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any Trustee, officer or employee, if any, of the Trust to the Trust or the Trust’s shareholders, (iii) any claim, suit, action or proceeding asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, arising pursuant to any provision of Delaware statutory or common law, or any federal or state securities law, in each case as amended from time to time, or the Trust’s Declaration of Trust or bylaws; or (iv) any claim, suit, action or proceeding asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

The Trust does not have information concerning the beneficial ownership of Shares held by DTC Participants (as defined below).

Shareholders may make inquiries by writing to the Trust, c/o the Distributor, Invesco Distributors, Inc., 11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173.

Book Entry Only System.  The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Book Entry.”

DTC Acts as Securities Depository for Shares.  Shares are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC.

DTC, a limited purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants (the “DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is owned by a number of DTC Participants and by the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (“NYSE”) and FINRA. Access to the DTC system also is available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).

Beneficial ownership of Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records DTC maintains (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase and sale of Shares.

Conveyance of all notices, statements and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and DTC, DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the Shares held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding

 

33


Shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such DTC Participant may transmit such notice, statement or communication, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

Fund distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Shares. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall immediately credit DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in Shares as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such Shares, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

DTC may decide to discontinue providing its service with respect to Shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost.

Proxy Voting.  The Board has delegated responsibility for decisions regarding proxy voting for securities held by a Fund to the Adviser. The Adviser will vote such proxies in accordance with its proxy policies and procedures, which are summarized in Appendix A to this SAI. The Board periodically will review each Fund’s proxy voting record.

The Trust is required to disclose annually the Funds’ complete proxy voting record on Form N-PX covering the period July 1 through June 30 and file it with the SEC no later than August 31. Form N-PX for the Funds also will be available at no charge upon request by calling 1-800-983-0903 or by writing to Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trust at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515. The Trust’s Form N-PX will also be available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

Codes of Ethics.  Pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act, the Board has adopted a Code of Ethics for the Trust and approved Codes of Ethics adopted by the Adviser and the Distributor (collectively the “Ethics Codes”). The Ethics Codes are intended to ensure that the interests of shareholders and other clients are placed ahead of any personal interest, that no undue personal benefit is obtained from the person’s employment activities and that actual and potential conflicts of interest are avoided.

The Ethics Codes apply to the personal investing activities of Trustees and officers of the Trust, the Adviser and the Distributor (“Access Persons”). Rule 17j-1 and the Ethics Codes are designed to prevent unlawful practices in connection with the purchase or sale of securities by Access Persons. Under the Ethics Codes, Access Persons may engage in personal securities transactions, but must report their personal securities transactions for monitoring purposes. The Ethics Codes permit personnel subject to the Ethics Codes to invest in securities subject to certain limitations, including securities that a Fund may purchase or sell. In addition, certain Access Persons must obtain approval before investing in initial public offerings or private placements. The Ethics Codes are on file with the SEC and are on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at www.sec.gov. The Ethics Codes may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by e-mail at publicinfo@sec.gov.

Additional Information Concerning Invesco Indexing.  Invesco Indexing is an affiliated person of the Adviser. As is the case with any use of an affiliated index provider by any ETF, this relationship poses potential conflicts. For example, a conflict exists that an affiliated person of Invesco Indexing or the Adviser could attempt

 

34


to influence the index security selection process for an Underlying Index to the benefit or detriment of a Fund. Additionally, potential conflicts could arise with respect to the personal trading activity of personnel of the affiliated person who may have access to or knowledge of changes to an Underlying Index’s composition methodology or the constituent securities in an Underlying Index prior to the time that information is publicly disseminated. The Adviser believes that existing protections under the 1940 Act and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”) help mitigate these potential conflicts of interest, as discussed below.

The Adviser has adopted written policies and procedures reasonably designed to prevent violations of the Advisers Act and the rules thereunder, pursuant to Rule 206(4)-7 under the Advisers Act. These include policies and procedures that are designed to minimize potential conflicts of interest among the Funds and any other client accounts managed by the Adviser, and include cross trading policies, as well as policies designed to ensure the equitable allocation of portfolio transactions and brokerage commissions. In addition, the Adviser has adopted policies and procedures as required under Section 204A of the Advisers Act, which are reasonably designed in light of the nature of its business to prevent the misuse, in violation of the Advisers Act or the Exchange Act or the rules thereunder, of material non-public information by the Adviser or associated persons (“Inside Information Policy”). In accordance with the Adviser’s Code of Ethics (discussed below) and the Inside Information Policy, personnel of the Adviser and Invesco Indexing with knowledge about the operation of a Fund (which would include information about its Underlying Index) are prohibited from disclosing such information to any other person, except as authorized in the course of their employment, until such information is made public. Furthermore, the Adviser and Invesco Indexing have also adopted informational barrier policies designed to restrict the flow of information in a manner that minimizes the potential for the misuse of information regarding changes to an Underlying Index’s composition, methodology, or the constituent securities in an Underlying Index prior to the time that information is publicly disseminated.

The portfolio managers responsible for day-to-day portfolio management of the Funds are employees of the Adviser. As noted above, the Adviser has also adopted a Code of Ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 204A-1 under the Advisers Act, which contains provisions reasonably necessary to prevent “Access Persons” (as such term is defined in Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act) from engaging in any conduct prohibited in Rule 17j-1 (generally, fraudulent and manipulative activity with respect to a Fund). Finally, both the Adviser and the affiliated index provider have adopted information barrier policies preventing the communication of index-level data prior to its public dissemination.

Finally, each Fund will be fully “transparent,” meaning that each Fund will post on the Funds’ website on each day the Fund is open for business (before commencement of trading of Shares on an Exchange), the identities and quantities of the portfolio holdings that will form the basis for the Fund’s calculation of NAV at the end of the business day. This practice is intended, among other reasons, to reduce the likelihood of any attempts at “front - running” (where other persons would trade ahead of a Fund and the investors assembling the Deposit Securities for purchases of Creation Units), which is a risk of any pooled investment vehicle, including the Funds.

CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNIT AGGREGATIONS

General

The Trust issues and sells Shares of each Fund only in Creation Unit Aggregations on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at the Fund’s NAV next determined after receipt of an order in “proper form” (as defined below) on any Business Day. A “Business Day” is any day on which the Exchange is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the Exchange is closed in observance of the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Washington’s Birthday, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. On days when the Exchange closes earlier than normal, a Fund may require orders to be placed earlier in the day.

The number of Shares of a Fund that constitute a Creation Unit Aggregation for such Fund is set forth in the Fund’s Prospectus. In its discretion, the Trust reserves the right to increase or decrease the number of Shares that constitutes a Creation Unit Aggregation for a Fund.

 

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Role of the Authorized Participant

A Fund only may issue Creation Units to, or redeem Creation Units from, an authorized participant, referred to herein as an “AP.” To be eligible to place orders to create a Creation Unit of a Fund, an AP must have executed an agreement with the Distributor (“Participant Agreement”) and must be a broker-dealer registered with the SEC and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), or otherwise be exempt from or not required to be licensed as a broker-dealer or a member of FINRA. In addition, an AP must be either (i) a “Participating Party,” i.e., a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process of the Continuous Net Settlement System (the “Clearing Process”) of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC, or (ii) a “DTC Participant,” i.e., eligible to utilize the Fed Book Entry System and/or DTC. A Participating Party and DTC Participant are collectively referred to herein as an AP. All Shares of a Fund, however created, will be entered on the records of DTC in the name of Cede & Co. for the account of a DTC Participant.

All orders to purchase or redeem Creation Units must be placed by an AP. An AP may place orders for the creation or redemption of Creation Units through the Clearing Process, the Fed Book-Entry System and/or DTC or Euroclear, subject to the procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement. Transfers of securities settling through Euroclear or other foreign depositories may require AP access to such facilities.

Pursuant to the terms of its Participant Agreement, an AP will agree, and on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including that the AP will make available in advance of each purchase of Shares an amount of cash sufficient to pay the Cash Component, together with the transaction fees described below. An AP acting on behalf of an investor may require the investor to enter into an agreement with such AP with respect to certain matters, including payment of the Cash Component. Investors who are not APs make appropriate arrangements with an AP to submit orders to purchase or redeem Creation Units of a Fund. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not be a DTC Participant or may not have executed a Participant Agreement and that, therefore, orders to purchase Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an AP. In such cases, there may be additional charges to such investor. At any given time, there may be only a limited number of APs. A list of current APs may be obtained from the Distributor. In addition, the Distributor may be appointed as the proxy of the AP and may be granted a power of attorney under the Participant Agreement.

Creations

Portfolio Deposit.  The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit of a Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a portfolio of securities constituting a substantial replication of the securities included in the relevant Underlying Index (the “Deposit Securities”) and an amount of cash denominated in U.S. dollars (the “Cash Component”) computed as described below, plus any applicable administrative or other transaction fees, also as discussed below. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Portfolio Deposit,” which represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit Aggregation of any Fund.

The “Cash Component” is an amount equal to the difference between the aggregate NAV of the Shares per Creation Unit and the “Deposit Amount,” which is an amount equal to the total aggregate market value (per Creation Unit) of the Deposit Securities. The Cash Component, which is sometimes called the “Balancing Amount,” serves to compensate for any differences between the NAV per Creation Unit and the Deposit Amount. Payment of any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Securities are the sole responsibility of the AP purchasing the Creation Unit.

Each Fund, through the NSCC, makes available on each Business Day, immediately prior to the opening of business on the applicable Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern time), the list of the names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security and/or the amount of the applicable Cash Component to be included in the current Portfolio Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for each Fund. Such Portfolio Deposit is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, to effect purchases of Creation Units of a Fund until such time as the next-announced Portfolio Deposit is made available.

 

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The Adviser expects that the Deposit Securities will generally correspond pro rata to the securities held by the Fund at the time, except for: (a) for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (b) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; (c) to be announced (“TBA”) Transactions, short positions, derivatives and other positions that cannot be transferred in kind will be excluded from the Deposit Securities; (d) instances in which the Fund uses a representative sampling of the Fund’s portfolio; or (e) for temporary periods, to effect changes in the Fund’s portfolio as a result of the rebalancing of its Underlying Index. However, the identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities required for a Portfolio Deposit will change as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected within the affected Fund from time to time by the Adviser, as applicable, with a view to the investment objective of the Fund. The composition of the Deposit Securities also may change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the securities of the relevant Underlying Index. Such adjustments will reflect changes known to the Adviser by the time of determination of the Deposit Securities in the composition of the relevant Underlying Index or resulting from stock splits and other corporate actions.

Additionally, the Trust reserves the right to permit or require an order containing the substitution of an amount of cash—i.e., a “cash in lieu” amount—to be added, at its discretion, to the Cash Component to replace one or more Deposit Securities. For example, a cash substitution may be permitted or required for any Deposit Security that (i) may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery, (ii) may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process (discussed below), (iii) might not be eligible for trading by an AP or the investor on whose behalf the AP is acting, (iv) a non-U.S. investment that is not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances, or (v) a non-U.S. investment that would be subject to unfavorable income tax treatment if the holder receives redemption proceeds in kind. A Fund also may permit or require the consideration for Creation Unit Aggregations to consist solely of cash (see “—Cash Creations” below).

Cash Creations.  If a Fund permits or requires partial or full cash creations, such purchases shall be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases. In the case of a cash creation, the AP must pay the same Cash Component required to be paid by an in-kind purchaser, plus the Deposit Amount (i.e., the cash equivalent of the Deposit Securities it would otherwise be required to provide through an in-kind purchase, as described in the subsection “—Portfolio Deposit” above).

Trading costs, operational processing costs and brokerage commissions associated with using cash to purchase requisite Deposit Securities will be incurred by a Fund and will affect the value of the Shares; therefore, such Funds may require APs to pay transaction fees to offset brokerage and other costs associated with using cash to purchase the requisite Deposit Securities (see “Creation and Redemption Transaction Fees” below).

Creation Orders

Procedures for Creation of Creation Unit Aggregations.  Orders must be transmitted by an AP, in such form and by such transmission method acceptable to the Transfer Agent or Distributor, pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement, and such procedures may change from time to time. APs purchasing Creation Units of Funds that invest in domestic equity securities (“Domestic Equity Funds”) may transfer Deposit Securities in one of two ways: (i) through the Clearing Process (see “Placing Creation Orders Using the Clearing Process”), or (ii) with a Fund “outside” the Clearing Process through the facilities of DTC (see “Placing Creation Orders Outside the Clearing Process”). The Clearing Process is not currently available for purchases or redemptions of Creation Units of Funds that invest in foreign securities (“International Equity Funds”). Accordingly, APs submitting creation orders for such Funds must effect those transactions outside the Clearing Process, as described further below.

All orders to purchase Creation Units, whether through or outside the Clearing Process, must be received by the Transfer Agent and/or Distributor no later than the order cut-off time designated in the Participant Agreement (“Order Cut-Off Time”) on the relevant Business Day in order for the creation of Creation Units to be effected based on the NAV of Shares of a Fund as determined on such date. With certain exceptions, the Order Cut-Off Time for the Funds, as set forth in the Participant Agreement, usually is the closing time of the regular trading

 

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session on the NYSE—i.e., ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern time. In the case of Cash in Lieu Orders, the Order Cut-Off Time is no later than 3:00 p.m., Eastern time. Additionally, on days when the NYSE, an Exchange or the bond markets close earlier than normal, the Trust may require creation orders to be placed earlier in the day. The Business Day on which an order is placed and deemed received is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.”

Orders must be transmitted by an AP by telephone, online portal or other transmission method acceptable to the Transfer Agent and the Distributor. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede the ability to reach the Transfer Agent, the Distributor or an AP. APs placing creation orders should afford sufficient time to permit proper submission of the order. Orders effected outside the Clearing Process likely will require transmittal by the DTC Participant earlier on the Transmittal Date than orders effected through the Clearing Process. APs placing orders outside the Clearing Process should ascertain all deadlines applicable to DTC and the Federal Reserve Bank wire system. Additional transaction fees may be imposed with respect to transactions effected outside the Clearing Process (see “Creation and Redemption Transaction Fees” below).

A creation order is considered to be in “proper form” if: (i) a properly completed irrevocable purchase order has been submitted by the AP (either on its own or another investor’s behalf) not later than the Fund’s specified Order Cut-Off Time on the Transmittal Date, and (ii) arrangements satisfactory to the applicable Fund are in place for payment of the Cash Component and any other cash amounts which may be due, and (iii) all other procedures regarding placement of a creation order set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed.

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities to be delivered, and the validity, form, eligibility (including time of receipt) and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by each Fund, and such Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

Placing Creation Orders Using the Clearing Process.  The Clearing Process is the process of creating or redeeming Creation Unit Aggregations through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC. Portfolio Deposits made through the Clearing Process must be delivered through a Participating Party that has executed a Participant Agreement. The Participant Agreement authorizes the Transfer Agent to transmit, on behalf of the Participating Party, such trade instructions to the NSCC as are necessary to effect the Participating Party’s creation order. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Participating Party agrees to deliver the Portfolio Deposit to the Transfer Agent, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor.

Placing Creation Orders Outside the Clearing Process.  Portfolio Deposits made outside the Clearing Process must be delivered through a DTC Participant that has executed a Participant Agreement. A DTC Participant who wishes to place a creation order outside the Clearing Process need not be a Participating Party, but such orders must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the creation instead will be effected through a transfer of securities and cash directly through DTC.

APs purchasing Creation Units of Shares of International Equity Funds must have international trading capabilities. Once the Custodian has been notified of an order to purchase Creation Units of an International Equity Fund, it will provide such information to the relevant sub-custodian(s) of each such Fund. The Custodian shall then cause the sub-custodian(s) of each such Fund to maintain an account into which the AP shall deliver, on behalf of itself or the party on whose behalf it is acting, the Portfolio Deposit. Deposit Securities must be maintained by the applicable local sub-custodian(s).

Acceptance of Creation Orders.  The Transfer Agent will deliver to the AP a confirmation of acceptance of a creation order within 15 minutes of the receipt of a submission received in proper form. A creation order is deemed to be irrevocable upon the delivery of the confirmation of acceptance, subject to the conditions below.

The Trust reserves the absolute right to reject a creation order transmitted to it by the Distributor in respect of a Fund if: (i) the order is not in proper form; (ii) the investor(s), upon obtaining the Shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding Shares of that Fund; (iii) the Deposit Securities delivered are not as designated for that date by the Custodian; (iv) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (v) acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (vi) acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust, the Adviser,

 

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have an adverse effect on the Trust or the rights of Beneficial Owners; or (vii) there exist circumstances outside the control of the Trust that make it impossible to process creation orders for all practical purposes. Examples of such circumstances include acts of God; public service or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the Trust, the Adviser, the Distributor, DTC, NSCC, the Federal Reserve, the Transfer Agent, a sub-custodian or any other participant in the creation process, and similar extraordinary events. The Transfer Agent shall notify a prospective purchaser of a Creation Unit (and/or the AP acting on its behalf) of the rejection of such creation order. The Trust, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Portfolio Deposits, nor shall any of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

Issuance of a Creation Unit

Except as provided herein, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the applicable Fund of the Deposit Securities and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a Fund may issue Creation Units to an AP, notwithstanding the fact that the corresponding Portfolio Deposit has not been delivered in part or in whole, in reliance on the undertaking of the AP to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible. To secure such undertaking, the AP must deposit and maintain cash collateral in an amount equal to the sum of (i) the Cash Component, plus (ii) at least 105% of the market value of the undelivered Deposit Securities. In such circumstances, the creation order shall be deemed to be received on the Transmittal Date, provided that (i) such order is placed in proper form prior to the Order Cut-Off Time, and (ii) requisite federal funds in an appropriate amount are delivered by certain deadlines on the contractual settlement date, as set forth in such Participant Agreement (typically, 11:00 a.m., Eastern time on such date for equity Funds and 2:00 p.m., Eastern time on such date for fixed income Funds). If such order is not placed in proper form prior to the Order Cut-Off Time, and/or all other deadlines and conditions set forth in the Participant Agreement relating to such additional deposits are not met, then the order may be deemed to be canceled, and the AP shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. The Trust may use such collateral at any time to buy Deposit Securities for the Funds, and the AP agrees to accept liability for any shortfall between the cost to the Trust of purchasing such Deposit Securities and the value of the collateral, which may be sold by the Trust at such time, and in such manner, as the Trust may determine in its sole discretion.

Using the Clearing Process.  An AP that is a Participating Party is required to transfer to the Transfer Agent: (i) the requisite Deposit Securities expected to be delivered through NSCC, and (ii) the Cash Component, if any, to the Transfer Agent by means of the Trust’s Clearing Process. In each case, the delivery must occur by the “regular way” settlement date—i.e., generally, the second Business Day following the Transmittal Date (“T+2”). At that time, the Transfer Agent shall initiate procedures to transfer the requisite Shares and the Cash Component, if any, through the Clearing Process so as to be received no later than on the “regular way” settlement date (i.e., T+2).

Outside the Clearing Process—Domestic Equity Funds.  An AP that is a DTC Participant that orders a creation outside the Clearing Process is required to transfer to the Transfer Agent: (i) the requisite Deposit Securities through DTC, and (ii) the Cash Component, if any, through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system. Such Deposit Securities must be received by the Transfer Agent by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time on the “regular way” settlement date (i.e., T+2), while the Cash Component must be received by 2:00 p.m., Eastern time on that same date. Otherwise, the creation order shall be canceled. For creation units issued principally for cash (see “—Cash Creations” above), the DTC Participant shall be required to transfer the Cash Component through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system to be received by 2:00 p.m., Eastern time on the Contractual Settlement Date (as defined below). At that time, the Transfer Agent shall initiate procedures to transfer the requisite Shares through DTC and the Cash Component, if any, through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system so as to be received by the purchaser no later than T+2 (except as otherwise set forth in the Participant Agreement).

 

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Outside the Clearing Process—International Equity Funds.  Deposit Securities must be delivered to an account maintained at the applicable local sub-custodian on or before 11 a.m., Eastern time, on the Contractual Settlement Date. The “Contractual Settlement Date” is the earlier of (i) the date upon which all of the required Deposit Securities, the Cash Component and any other cash amounts which may be due are delivered to the Trust and (ii) the latest day for settlement on the customary settlement cycle in the jurisdiction where any of the securities of the relevant Fund are customarily traded. The AP also must make available by the Contractual Settlement Date funds estimated by the Trust to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component, if any. For Creation Units issued principally for cash, the DTC Participant shall be required to transfer the Cash Component through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system to be received by 2:00 p.m., Eastern time on the Contractual Settlement Date. When the sub-custodian confirms to the Custodian that the required securities included in the Portfolio Deposit (or, when permitted in the sole discretion of the Trust, the cash value thereof) have been delivered to the account of the relevant sub-custodian, the Custodian shall notify the Distributor and Transfer Agent, and the Trust will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit of Shares via DTC so as to be received by the purchaser no later than T+2.

Outside the Clearing Process—Fixed Income Funds.  An AP that is a DTC Participant that orders a creation outside the Clearing Process is required to transfer to the Transfer Agent: (i) the requisite Deposit Securities through Euroclear, DTC and/or Fed Book-Entry, and (ii) the Cash Component, if any, through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system. Such Deposit Securities and Cash Component must each be received by the Transfer Agent by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time on the Contractual Settlement Date. Otherwise, the creation order shall be canceled. At that time, the Transfer Agent shall initiate procedures to transfer the Creation Unit of Shares through DTC and the Cash Component, if any, through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system so as to be received by the purchaser later than T+2.

Creation and Redemption Transaction Fees

Creation and redemption transactions for each Fund are subject to an administrative fee, payable to BNYM, in the amount listed in the table below, irrespective of the size of the order. As shown in the table below, the administrative fee has a base amount for each Fund; however, BNYM may increase the administrative fee to a maximum of four times the base amount for administration and settlement of non-standard orders requiring additional administrative processing by BNYM. These fees may be changed by the Trust

 

Fund

   Base Administrative Fee
(Payable to BNYM)
     Maximum Administrative Fee
(Payable to BNYM)
 
Invesco ESG Revenue ETF      $500        $2,000  
Invesco Russell 1000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF      $1,500        $6,000  
Invesco Russell 2000® Dynamic Multifactor ETF      $2,500        $10,000  

Additionally, the Adviser may charge an additional, variable fee (sometimes referred to as a “cash-in-lieu” fee) to the extent a Fund permits APs to create or redeem Creation Units for cash, or otherwise substitute cash for any Deposit Security. Such cash-in-lieu fees are payable to a Fund and are charged to defray the transaction cost to a Fund of buying (or selling) Deposit Securities, to cover spreads and slippage costs and to protect existing shareholders. The cash-in-lieu fees will be negotiated between the Adviser and the AP and may be different for any given transaction, Business Day or AP; however in no instance will such cash-in-lieu fees exceed 2% of the value of a Creation Unit. From time to time, the Adviser, in its sole discretion, may adjust a Fund’s cash-in-lieu fees or reimburse APs for all or a portion of the creation or redemption transaction fees.

Redemptions

Shares may be redeemed only by APs at their NAV per Share next determined after receipt by the Distributor of a redemption request in proper form. A Fund will not redeem Shares in amounts less than a Creation Unit. Beneficial Owners of Shares may sell their Shares in the secondary market, but they must accumulate enough Shares to constitute a Creation Unit to redeem those Shares with a Fund. There can be no assurance that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit.

 

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Fund Securities.  The redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit generally consist of a portfolio of securities (the “Fund Securities”), plus or minus an amount of cash denominated in U.S. dollars (the “Cash Redemption Amount”), representing an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of the Shares being redeemed, as next determined after receipt of a request in proper form, and the total aggregate market value of the Fund Securities, less any applicable administrative or other transaction fees, as discussed above. The Cash Redemption Amount is calculated in the same manner as the Balancing Amount. To the extent that the Fund Securities have a value greater than the NAV of the Shares being redeemed, a Cash Redemption Amount payment equal to the differential is required to be paid by the redeeming shareholder.

Each Fund, through the NSCC, makes available on each Business Day, immediately prior to the opening of business on the applicable Exchange, the Fund Securities that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form (as defined below) on that day, as well as the Cash Redemption Amount. Such Fund Securities and the corresponding Cash Redemption Amount are applicable to effect redemptions of Creation Units of a Fund until such time as the next-announced composition of the Fund Securities and Cash Redemption Amount is made available.

The Adviser expects that the Fund Securities will generally correspond pro rata to the securities held by the Fund at that time, except for: (a) for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (b) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; (c) TBA Transactions, short positions, derivatives and other positions that cannot be transferred in kind will be excluded from the Deposit Securities; (d) instances in which the Fund uses a representative sampling of the Fund’s portfolio; or (e) for temporary periods, to effect changes in the Fund’s portfolio as a result of the rebalancing of its Underlying Index. Moreover, Fund Securities received on redemption will generally be identical to Deposit Securities that are applicable to creations of Creation Unit Aggregations, except in instances when the Fund is rebalancing.

If it is not possible to effect deliveries of the Fund Securities, the Trust may in its discretion exercise its option to redeem such Shares in cash, and the redeeming Beneficial Owner will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash. When cash redemptions are permitted or required, Creation Units of a Fund will be redeemed for cash in an amount equal to the NAV of its Shares next determined after a redemption request is received (minus any redemption transaction fees imposed, as specified above) (the “Cash Redemption Amount”) (see “—Cash Redemptions” below).

Cash Redemptions.  Redemptions of Creation Units may be made in whole or in part on a cash basis, rather than in kind, solely under the following circumstances: (a) to the extent there is a Cash Component, as described above; (b) if, on a given business day, the Fund announces before the open of trading that all redemptions or all purchases and redemptions on that day will be made entirely in cash; (c) if, upon receiving a redemption order from an AP, the Fund determines to require the redemption to be made entirely in cash; (d) if, on a given business day, the Fund requires all APs redeeming Shares on that day to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities, solely because: (i) such instruments are not eligible for transfer either through the NSCC or DTC; or (ii) a Fund holding non-U.S. investments, such instruments are not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances; or (e) if the Fund permits an AP to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities solely because (i) such instruments are not eligible for trading by an AP or the investor on whose behalf the AP is acting; or (ii) a holder of Shares of a Fund holding non-U.S. investments would be subject to unfavorable income tax treatment if the holder receives redemption proceeds in kind.

Redemptions of Shares will be subject to compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws and each Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Unit Aggregations for cash to the extent that the Trust could not lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or could not do so without first registering the Fund Securities under such laws. An AP that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive Fund Securities that are restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144. The AP may request the

 

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redeeming beneficial owner of the Shares to complete an order form or to enter into agreements with respect to such matters as compensating cash payment.

Redemption Requests

Procedures for Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations.  Orders must be transmitted by an AP, in such form and by such transmission method acceptable to the Transfer Agent or Distributor, pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement, and such procedures may change from time to time. APs seeking to redeem Shares of Domestic Equity Funds may transfer Creation Units through the Clearing Process (see “Placing Redemption Requests Using the Clearing Process”) or outside the Clearing Process through the facilities of DTC (see “Placing Redemption Requests Outside the Clearing Process”). As noted above, the Clearing Process is not currently available for redemptions of Creation Units of International Equity Funds; accordingly, APs seeking to redeem Shares of such Funds must effect such transactions outside the Clearing Process.

All requests to redeem Creation Units, whether through the Clearing Process, or outside the Clearing Process through DTC or otherwise, must be received by the Distributor no later than the Order Cut-Off Time on the relevant Business Day. On days when the Exchange or the bond market closes earlier than normal, the Funds may require orders to redeem Creation Units to be placed earlier in the day.

A redemption request will be considered to be in “proper form” if (i) a duly completed request form is received by the Distributor from the AP on behalf of itself or another redeeming investor at the specified Order Cut-Off Time, and (ii) arrangements satisfactory to the Fund are in place for the AP to transfer or cause to be transferred to the Fund the Creation Unit of such Fund being redeemed on or before contractual settlement of the redemption request.

As discussed herein, a redeeming investor will pay a transaction fee to offset the Fund’s trading costs, operational processing costs, brokerage commissions and other similar costs incurred in transferring the Fund Securities from its account to the account of the redeeming investor. An entity redeeming Shares in Creation Units outside the Clearing Process may be required to pay a higher transaction fee than would have been charged had the redemption been effected through the Clearing Process. A redeeming investor receiving cash in lieu of one or more Fund Securities may also be assessed a higher transaction fee on the cash in lieu portion. This higher transaction fee will be assessed in the same manner as the transaction fee incurred in purchasing Creation Units.

Placing Redemption Requests Using the Clearing Process.  Requests to redeem Creation Units through the Clearing Process must be delivered through a Participating Party that has executed a Participant Agreement, in such form and by such transmission method acceptable to the Transfer Agent or Distributor, pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement.

Placing Redemption Requests Outside the Clearing Process.  Orders to redeem Creation Units outside the Clearing Process must be delivered through a DTC Participant that has executed a Participant Agreement. A DTC Participant who wishes to place a redemption order outside the Clearing Process need not be a Participating Party, but such orders must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that redemption instead will be effected through a transfer of Fund Shares directly through DTC.

In the case of Shares of International Equity Funds, upon redemption of Creation Units and taking delivery of the Fund Securities into the account of the redeeming shareholder or an AP acting on behalf of such investor, such person must maintain appropriate custody arrangements with a broker-dealer, bank or other custody provider in each jurisdiction in which any of such Fund Securities are customarily traded.

Acceptance of Redemption Requests.  The Transfer Agent will deliver to the AP a confirmation of acceptance of a request to redeem Shares in Creation Units within 15 minutes of the receipt of a submission received in proper form. A redemption order is deemed to be irrevocable upon the delivery of the confirmation of acceptance.

The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result

 

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of which disposal of the Shares of a Fund or determination of a Fund’s NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstances as is permitted by the SEC.

Issuance of Fund Securities

To the extent contemplated by a Participant Agreement, in the event an AP has submitted a redemption request in proper form but is unable to transfer all or part of the Creation Unit to be redeemed to the Distributor, on behalf of the Fund, by the closing time of the regular trading session on the Exchange on the date such redemption request is submitted, the Distributor will nonetheless accept the redemption request in reliance on the undertaking by the AP to deliver the missing Shares as soon as possible, which undertaking shall be secured by the AP’s delivery and maintenance of collateral consisting of cash having a value at least equal to 105% of the value of the missing Shares. The Trust may use such collateral at any time to purchase the missing Shares, and will subject the AP to liability for any shortfall between the cost of the Fund acquiring such Shares and the value of the collateral, which may be sold by the Trust at such time, and in such manner, as the Trust may determine in its sole discretion.

Using the Clearing Process.  An AP that is a Participating Party is required to transfer to the Transfer Agent: (i) the requisite Shares, and (ii) the Cash Redemption Amount, if any, to the Transfer Agent by means of the Trust’s Clearing Process. In each case, the delivery must occur by the “regular way” settlement date (i.e., T+2). At that time, the Transfer Agent shall initiate procedures to transfer the requisite Fund Securities and the Cash Redemption Amount, if any, through the Clearing Process so as to be received no later than on the “regular way” settlement date (i.e., T+2).

Outside the Clearing Process—Domestic Equity Funds.  An AP that is a DTC Participant making a redemption request outside the Clearing Process is required to transfer to the Transfer Agent: (i) the requisite Shares through DTC, and (ii) the Cash Redemption Amount, if any, through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system. Such Shares and Cash Redemption Amount must be received by the Transfer Agent by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time on the Contractual Settlement Date. At that time, the Transfer Agent shall initiate procedures to transfer the requisite Fund Securities through DTC and the Cash Redemption Amount, if any, through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system so as to be received no later than T+2 (except as otherwise set forth in the Participant Agreement).

Outside the Clearing Process—International Equity Funds.  A redeeming AP must maintain appropriate securities broker-dealer, bank or other custody arrangements to which account such in-kind redemption proceeds will be delivered. If neither the redeeming beneficial owner nor the AP acting on its behalf has appropriate arrangements to take delivery of the Fund Securities in the applicable jurisdiction and it is not possible to make other such arrangements, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of the Fund Securities in such jurisdiction, the beneficial owner will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash.

Arrangements satisfactory to the Trust must be in place for the AP to transfer Creation Units through DTC on or before the settlement date. At that time, the Transfer Agent shall initiate procedures to transfer the requisite Fund Securities through DTC and the global sub-custodian network and the Cash Redemption Amount, if any, through the Federal Reserve Bank wire system so as to be received no later than T+2. However, the schedule of holidays in certain countries may cause the delivery of in-kind redemption proceeds to take longer than T+2. In such cases, the local market settlement procedures will not commence until the end of the local holiday periods. (For more information, see “Regular Holidays” in Appendix B to this SAI.)

Regular Holidays

A Fund may effect deliveries of Creation Units and Fund Securities on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate local holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates or under certain other circumstances. The ability of the Trust to effect in-kind creations and redemptions on a T+2 basis is subject, among other things, to the condition that, in the time between the order date and the delivery date, there are no days that are holidays in an applicable foreign market. For every occurrence of one or more such intervening holidays that are not holidays observed in the U.S., the redemption settlement cycle will be extended by the number of such intervening holidays. In addition to

 

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holidays, other unforeseeable closings in a foreign market due to emergencies also may prevent a Fund from delivering securities within the normal settlement period.

The securities delivery cycles currently practicable for transferring Fund Securities to redeeming investors, coupled with foreign market holiday schedules, will require a delivery process longer than seven calendar days for some Funds in certain circumstances. Such foreign holidays are listed in Appendix B to this SAI, as are instances where more than seven days will be needed to deliver redemption proceeds. Although certain holidays may occur on different dates in subsequent years, the number of days required to deliver redemption proceeds in any given year is not expected to exceed the maximum number of days listed in Appendix B for a Fund. The proclamation of new holidays, the treatment by market participants of certain days as “informal holidays” (e.g., days on which no or limited securities transactions occur, as a result of substantially shortened trading hours), the elimination of existing holidays or changes in local securities delivery practices could affect the information set forth in Appendix B at some time in the future. Please see Appendix B for the dates in calendar year 2019 (the only dates which are available as of the date of this SAI) of the regular holidays affecting the securities markets of various countries, as well as the dates of the regular holidays in calendar year 2019 that may cause settlement periods to be greater than seven days, including the potential worst-case settlement dates.

TAXES

The following is a summary of certain additional tax considerations generally affecting a Fund (sometimes referred to as “the Fund”) and its shareholders that are not described in the Prospectus. No attempt is made to present a detailed explanation of the tax treatment of a Fund or its shareholders, and the discussion here and in the Prospectus is not intended as a substitute for careful tax planning.

This section is based on the Code and applicable regulations in effect on the date of this SAI. Future legislative, regulatory or administrative changes including provisions of current law that sunset and thereafter no longer apply, or court decisions may significantly change the tax rules applicable to a Fund and its shareholders. Any of these changes or court decisions may have a retroactive effect.

The following is for general information only and is not tax advice. All investors should consult their own tax advisors as to the federal, state, local and foreign tax provisions applicable to them.

Taxation of the Funds

Each Fund has elected and intends to qualify each year as a “regulated investment company” (sometimes referred to as a regulated investment company, RIC or Fund) under Subchapter M of the Code. If a Fund qualifies, the Fund will not be subject to federal income tax on the portion of its investment company taxable income (i.e., generally, taxable interest, dividends, net short-term capital gains and other taxable ordinary income net of expenses without regard to the deduction for dividends paid) and net capital gain (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that it distributes.

Qualification as a RIC.  In order to qualify for treatment as a RIC, a Fund must satisfy the following requirements:

 

   

Distribution Requirement—the Fund must distribute an amount equal to the sum of at least 90% of its investment company taxable income and 90% of its net tax-exempt income, if any, for the tax year (certain distributions made by the Fund after the close of its tax year are considered distributions attributable to the previous tax year for purposes of satisfying this requirement).

 

   

Income Requirement—the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income from dividends, interest, certain payments with respect to securities loans, and gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including, but not limited to, gains from options, futures or forward contracts) derived from its business of investing in such stock, securities or currencies and net income derived from qualified publicly traded partnerships (QPTPs).

 

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Asset Diversification Test—the Fund must satisfy the following asset diversification test at the close of each quarter of the Fund’s tax year: (1) at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets must consist of cash and cash items, U.S. Government Securities, securities of other regulated investment companies, and securities of other issuers (as to which the Fund has not invested more than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets in securities of an issuer and as to which the Fund does not hold more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer); and (2) no more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets may be invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government Securities or securities of other regulated investment companies) or of two or more issuers which the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same or similar trades or businesses, or, collectively, in the securities of QPTPs.

In some circumstances, the character and timing of income realized by a Fund for purposes of the Income Requirement or the identification of the issuer for purposes of the Asset Diversification Test is uncertain under current law with respect to a particular investment, and an adverse determination or future guidance by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) with respect to such type of investment may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to satisfy these requirements. See, “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions” below with respect to the application of these requirements to certain types of investments. In other circumstances, a Fund may be required to sell portfolio holdings in order to meet the Income Requirement, Distribution Requirement, or Asset Diversification Test, which may have a negative impact on the Fund’s income and performance. In lieu of potential disqualification, each Fund is permitted to pay a tax for certain failures to satisfy the Asset Diversification Test or Income Requirement, which, in general, are limited to those due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect.

Each Fund may use “equalization accounting” (in lieu of making some cash distributions) in determining the portion of its income and gains that has been distributed. If a Fund uses equalization accounting, it will allocate a portion of its undistributed investment company taxable income and net capital gain to redemptions of Shares and will correspondingly reduce the amount of such income and gains that it distributes in cash. However, each Fund intends to make cash distributions for each taxable year in an aggregate amount that is sufficient to satisfy the Distribution Requirement without taking into account its use of equalization accounting. If the IRS determines that a Fund’s allocation is improper and that the Fund has under-distributed its income and gain for any taxable year, the Fund may be liable for federal income and/or excise tax.

If for any taxable year a Fund does not qualify as a regulated investment company, all of its taxable income (including its net capital gain) would be subject to tax at the applicable corporate income tax rate without any deduction for dividends paid to shareholders, and the dividends would be taxable to the shareholders as ordinary income (or possibly as qualified dividend income) to the extent of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Failure to qualify as a regulated investment company thus would have a negative impact on a Fund’s income and performance. Subject to savings provisions for certain inadvertent failures to satisfy the Income Requirement or Asset Diversification Test which, in general, are limited to those due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, it is possible that a Fund will not qualify as a RIC in any given tax year. Even if such savings provisions apply, a Fund may be subject to a monetary sanction of $50,000 or more. Moreover, the Board reserves the right not to maintain the qualification of a Fund as a regulated investment company if it determines such a course of action to be beneficial to shareholders.

Portfolio turnover.  For investors that hold their Shares in a taxable account, a high portfolio turnover rate may result in higher taxes. This is because a fund with a high turnover rate may accelerate the recognition of capital gains and more of such gains are likely to be taxable as short-term rather than long-term capital gains in contrast to a comparable fund with a low turnover rate. Any such higher taxes would reduce the Fund’s after-tax performance. See “Taxation of Fund Distributions—Capital gain dividends” below. For non- U.S. investors, any such acceleration of the recognition of capital gains that results in more short-term and less long-term capital gains being recognized by a Fund may cause such investors to be subject to increased U.S. withholding taxes. See “Foreign Shareholders—U.S. withholding tax at the source” below. ETFs, such as the Funds, may be less likely to sell securities in order to generate cash for redeeming shareholders, which a mutual fund might do. This

 

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provides a greater opportunity for ETFs to defer the recognition of gain on appreciated securities which it may hold thereby reducing the distribution of capital gains to its shareholders.

Capital loss carryovers.  The capital losses of a Fund, if any, do not flow through to shareholders. Rather, a Fund may use its capital losses, subject to applicable limitations, to offset its capital gains without being required to pay taxes on or distribute to shareholders such gains that are offset by the losses. If a Fund has a “net capital loss” (that is, capital losses in excess of capital gains), the excess (if any) of the Fund’s net short-term capital losses over its net long-term capital gains is treated as a short-term capital loss arising on the first day of the Fund’s next taxable year, and the excess (if any) of the Fund’s net long-term capital losses over its net short-term capital gains is treated as a long-term capital loss arising on the first day of the Fund’s next taxable year. Any such net capital losses of a Fund that are not used to offset capital gains may be carried forward indefinitely to reduce any future capital gains realized by the Fund in succeeding taxable years. The amount of capital losses that can be carried forward and used in any single year is subject to an annual limitation if there is a more than 50% “change in ownership” of a Fund. An ownership change generally results when shareholders owning 5% or more of a Fund increase their aggregate holdings by more than 50% over a three-year look-back period. An ownership change could result in capital loss carryovers being used at a slower rate, thereby reducing a Fund’s ability to offset capital gains with those losses. An increase in the amount of taxable gains distributed to a Fund’s shareholders could result from an ownership change. Each Fund undertakes no obligation to avoid or prevent an ownership change, which can occur in the normal course of shareholder purchases and redemptions or as a result of engaging in a tax-free reorganization with another fund. Moreover, because of circumstances beyond a Fund’s control, there can be no assurance that the Fund will not experience, or has not already experienced, an ownership change.

Deferral of late year losses.  Each Fund may elect to treat part or all of any “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in determining the Fund’s taxable income, net capital gain, net short-term capital gain, and earnings and profits. The effect of this election is to treat any such “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year, which may change the timing, amount, or characterization of Fund distributions (see “Taxation of Fund Distributions—Capital gain dividends” below). A “qualified late year loss” includes:

(i)  any net capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year, or, if there is no such loss, any net long-term capital loss or any net short-term capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year (post-October capital losses), and

(ii)  the sum of (1) the excess, if any, of (a) specified losses incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year, over (b) specified gains incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year and (2) the excess, if any, of (a) ordinary losses incurred after December 31 of the current taxable year, over (b) the ordinary income incurred after December 31 of the current taxable year.

The terms “specified losses” and “specified gains” mean ordinary losses and gains from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property (including the termination of a position with respect to such property), foreign currency losses and gains, and losses and gains resulting from holding stock in a passive foreign investment company (PFIC) for which a mark-to-market election is in effect. The terms “ordinary losses” and “ordinary income” mean other ordinary losses and income that are not described in the preceding sentence.

Undistributed capital gains.  Each Fund may retain or distribute to shareholders its net capital gain for each taxable year. Each Fund currently intends to distribute net capital gains. If a Fund elects to retain its net capital gain, the Fund will be taxed thereon (except to the extent of any available capital loss carryovers) at the applicable corporate income tax rate. If a Fund elects to retain its net capital gain, it is expected that the Fund also will elect to have shareholders treated as if each received a distribution of its pro rata share of such gain, with the result that each shareholder will be required to report its pro rata share of such gain on its tax return as long-term capital gain, will receive a refundable tax credit for its pro rata share of tax paid by the Fund on the gain and will increase the tax basis for its Shares by an amount equal to the deemed distribution less the tax credit.

 

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Federal excise tax.  To avoid a 4% non-deductible excise tax, a Fund must distribute by December 31 of each year an amount equal to at least: (1) 98% of its ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 98.2% of capital gain net income (the excess of the gains from sales or exchanges of capital assets over the losses from such sales or exchanges) for the one-year period ended on October 31 of such calendar year, and (3) any prior year undistributed ordinary income and capital gain net income. Each Fund may elect to defer to the following year any net ordinary loss incurred for the portion of the calendar year which is after the beginning of the Fund’s taxable year. Also, each Fund will defer any “specified gain” or “specified loss” which would be properly taken into account for the portion of the calendar after October 31. Any net ordinary loss, specified gain, or specified loss deferred shall be treated as arising on January 1 of the following calendar year. Generally, each Fund may make sufficient distributions to avoid liability for federal income and excise tax, but can give no assurances that all or a portion of such liability will be avoided. In addition, under certain circumstances temporary timing or permanent differences in the realization of income and expense for book and tax purposes can result in a Fund having to pay an excise tax.

Purchase of Shares.  As a result of tax requirements, the Trust on behalf of a Fund has the right to reject an order to purchase Shares if the purchaser (or group of purchasers acting in concert with each other) would, upon obtaining the Shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares of the Fund and if, pursuant to Sections 351 and 362 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the Deposit Securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial Share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination.

Foreign income tax.  Investment income received by a Fund from sources within foreign countries may be subject to foreign income tax withheld at the source, and the amount of tax withheld generally will be treated as an expense of the Fund. The United States has entered into tax treaties with many foreign countries that entitle a Fund to a reduced rate of, or exemption from, tax on such income. Some countries require the filing of a tax reclaim or other forms to receive the benefit of the reduced tax rate; whether or when a Fund will receive the tax reclaim is within the control of the individual country. Information required on these forms may not be available such as shareholder information; therefore, a Fund may not receive the reduced treaty rates or potential reclaims. Other countries have conflicting and changing instructions and restrictive timing requirements which may cause a Fund not to receive the reduced treaty rates or potential reclaims. Other countries may subject capital gains realized by a Fund on sale or disposition of securities of that country to taxation. It is impossible to determine the effective rate of foreign tax in advance since the amount of a Fund’s assets to be invested in various countries is not known. Under certain circumstances, a Fund may elect to pass-through foreign taxes paid by the Fund to shareholders, although it reserves the right not to do so. If a Fund makes such an election and obtains a refund of foreign taxes paid by the Fund in a prior year, the Fund may be eligible to reduce the amount of foreign taxes reported to its shareholders, generally by the amount of the foreign taxes refunded, for the year in which the refund is received.

Taxation of Fund Distributions.  Each Fund anticipates distributing substantially all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain for each taxable year. Distributions by each Fund will be treated in the manner described below regardless of whether such distributions are paid in cash or reinvested in additional Shares (or of another Fund). You will receive information annually as to the federal income tax consequences of distributions made (or deemed made) during the year.

Distributions of ordinary income.  Each Fund receives income generally in the form of dividends and/or interest on its investments. The Fund may also recognize ordinary income from other sources, including, but not limited to, certain gains on foreign currency-related transactions. This income, less expenses incurred in the operation of a Fund, constitutes the Fund’s net investment income from which dividends may be paid to you. If you are a taxable investor, distributions of net investment income generally are taxable as ordinary income to the extent of a Fund’s earnings and profits. In the case of a Fund whose strategy includes investing in stocks of corporations, a portion of the income dividends paid to you may be qualified dividends eligible to be taxed at reduced rates.

 

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Capital gain dividends.  Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long a Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. In general, a Fund will recognize long-term capital gain or loss on the sale or other disposition of assets it has owned for more than one year, and short-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for one year or less. Distributions of net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) that are properly reported to Fund shareholders as capital gain dividends generally will be taxable to a shareholder receiving such distributions as long-term capital gain. Long-term capital gain rates applicable to individuals are 0%, 15%, 20% or 25% depending on the nature of the capital gain and the individual’s taxable income. Distributions of net short-term capital gains for a taxable year in excess of net long-term capital losses for such taxable year generally will be taxable to a shareholder receiving such distributions as ordinary income.

Qualified dividend income for individuals.  Ordinary income dividends reported as derived from qualified dividend income will be taxed in the hands of individuals and other noncorporate shareholders at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain. Qualified dividend income means dividends paid to a Fund (a) by domestic corporations, (b) by foreign corporations that are either (i) incorporated in a possession of the United States, or (ii) are eligible for benefits under certain income tax treaties with the United States that include an exchange of information program, or (c) with respect to stock of a foreign corporation that is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. Both the Funds and the investor must meet certain holding period requirements to qualify Fund dividends for this treatment. Income derived from investments in derivatives, fixed-income securities, U.S. REITs, PFICs, and income received “in lieu of” dividends in a securities lending transaction generally is not eligible for treatment as qualified dividend income. If the qualifying dividend income received by a Fund is equal to 95% (or a greater percentage) of the Fund’s gross income (exclusive of net capital gain) in any taxable year, all of the ordinary income dividends paid by the Fund will be qualifying dividend income.

Qualified REIT dividends.  Under 2017 legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act “qualified REIT dividends” (i.e., ordinary REIT dividends other than capital gain dividends and portions of REIT dividends designated as qualified dividend income) are treated as eligible for a 20% deduction by noncorporate taxpayers. This deduction, if allowed in full, equates to a maximum effective tax rate of 29.6% (37% top rate applied to income after 20% deduction). The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act does not contain a provision permitting a RIC, such as the Funds, to pass the special character of this income through to its shareholders. Currently, direct investors in REITs will enjoy the deduction and thus the lower federal income tax rate, but investors in a RIC, such as the Funds, that invest in such REITs will not. It is uncertain whether a future technical corrections bill or regulations issued by the IRS will address this issue to enable the Funds to pass through the special character of “qualified REIT dividends” to its shareholders.

Corporate dividends-received deduction.  Ordinary income dividends reported to Fund shareholders as derived from qualified dividends from domestic corporations will qualify for the 50% dividends-received deduction generally available to corporations. The availability of the dividends-received deduction is subject to certain holding period and debt financing restrictions imposed under the Code on the corporation claiming the deduction. Income derived by a Fund from investments in derivatives, fixed-income and foreign securities generally is not eligible for this treatment.

Return of capital distributions.  Distributions by a Fund that are not paid from earnings and profits will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of (and in reduction of) the shareholder’s tax basis in his Shares; any excess will be treated as gain from the sale of his Shares. Thus, the portion of a distribution that constitutes a return of capital will decrease the shareholder’s tax basis in his Shares (but not below zero), and will result in an increase in the amount of gain (or decrease in the amount of loss) that will be recognized by the shareholder for tax purposes on the later sale of such Shares. Return of capital distributions can occur for a number of reasons including, among others, the Fund overestimates the income to be received from certain investments such as those classified as partnerships or equity REITs. See “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions—Investments in U.S. REITs.”

Impact of realized but undistributed income and gains, and net unrealized appreciation of portfolio securities.  At the time of your purchase of Shares, the price of the Shares may reflect undistributed income,

 

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undistributed capital gains, or net unrealized appreciation of portfolio securities held by a Fund. A subsequent distribution to you of such amounts, although constituting a return of your investment, would be taxable and would be taxed as either ordinary income (some portion of which may be taxed as qualified dividend income) or capital gain unless you are investing through a tax-advantaged arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. A Fund may be able to reduce the amount of such distributions by utilizing its capital loss carryovers, if any.

Pass-through of foreign tax credits.  If more than 50% of the value of a Fund’s total assets at the end of a fiscal year is invested in foreign securities, or if the Fund is a qualified fund of funds (i.e., a fund at least 50 percent of the value of the total assets of which, at the close of each quarter of the taxable year, is represented by interests in other RICs), the Fund may elect to “pass-through” the amount of foreign income tax paid by the Fund (the Foreign Tax Election) in lieu of deducting such amount in determining its investment company taxable income. Pursuant to the Foreign Tax Election, shareholders will be required: (i) to include in gross income, even though not actually received, their respective pro-rata shares of the foreign income tax paid by a Fund that are attributable to any distributions they receive; and (ii) either to deduct their pro-rata share of foreign tax in computing their taxable income or to use it (subject to various Code limitations) as a foreign tax credit against federal income tax (but not both). No deduction for foreign tax may be claimed by a noncorporate shareholder who does not itemize deductions or who is subject to the alternative minimum tax. Shareholders may be unable to claim a credit for the full amount of their proportionate shares of the foreign income tax paid by the Fund due to certain limitations that may apply. Each Fund reserves the right not to pass-through the amount of foreign income taxes paid by the Fund. Additionally, any foreign tax withheld on payments made “in lieu of” dividends or interest will not qualify for the pass-through of foreign tax credits. See “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions—Securities lending” below.

Tax credit bonds.  If a Fund holds, directly or indirectly, one or more “tax credit bonds” (including build America bonds, clean renewable energy bonds and qualified tax credit bonds) on one or more applicable dates during a taxable year, the Fund may elect to permit its shareholders to claim a tax credit on their income tax returns equal to each shareholder’s proportionate share of tax credits from the applicable bonds that otherwise would be allowed to the Fund. In such a case, shareholders must include in gross income (as interest) their proportionate share of the income attributable to their proportionate share of those offsetting tax credits. A shareholder’s ability to claim a tax credit associated with one or more tax credit bonds may be subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code. (Under 2017 legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the build America bonds, clean renewable energy bonds and certain other qualified bonds may no longer be issued after December 31, 2017.) Even if a Fund is eligible to pass-through tax credits, the Fund may choose not to do so.

U.S. Government interest.  Income earned on certain U.S. Government obligations is exempt from state and local personal income taxes if earned directly by you. States also grant tax-free status to dividends paid to you from interest earned on direct obligations of the U.S. Government, subject in some states to minimum investment or reporting requirements that must be met by a Fund. Income on investments by a Fund in certain other obligations, such as repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government obligations, commercial paper and federal agency-backed obligations (e.g., GNMA or FNMA obligations), generally does not qualify for tax-free treatment. The rules on exclusion of this income are different for corporations.

Dividends declared in December and paid in January.  Ordinarily, shareholders are required to take distributions by a Fund into account in the year in which the distributions are made. However, dividends declared in October, November or December of any year and payable to shareholders of record on a specified date in such a month will be deemed to have been received by the shareholders (and made by a Fund) on December 31 of such calendar year if such dividends are actually paid in January of the following year. Shareholders will be advised annually as to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of distributions made (or deemed made) during the year in accordance with the guidance that has been provided by the IRS.

Medicare tax.  A 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on net investment income earned by certain individuals, estates and trusts. “Net investment income,” for these purposes, means investment income, including ordinary

 

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dividends and capital gain distributions received from a Fund and net gains from taxable dispositions of Shares, reduced by the deductions properly allocable to such income. In the case of an individual, the tax will be imposed on the lesser of (1) the shareholder’s net investment income or (2) the amount by which the shareholder’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds $250,000 (if the shareholder is married and filing jointly or a surviving spouse), $125,000 (if the shareholder is married and filing separately) or $200,000 (in any other case). This Medicare tax, if applicable, is reported by you on, and paid with, your federal income tax return.

Sale of Fund Shares.  A sale of Shares is a taxable transaction for federal and state income tax purposes. If you sell your Shares, the IRS requires you to report any gain or loss on your sale. If you held your Shares as a capital asset, the gain or loss that you realize will be a capital gain or loss and will be long-term or short-term, generally depending on how long you have held your Shares. Capital losses in any year are deductible only to the extent of capital gains plus, in the case of a noncorporate taxpayer, $3,000 of ordinary income.

Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units.  An AP who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of purchase (plus any cash received by the AP as part of the issue) and the AP’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered (plus any cash paid by the AP as part of the issue). An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the AP’s basis in the Creation Units (plus any cash paid by the AP as part of the redemption) and the aggregate market value of the securities received (plus any cash received by the AP as part of the redemption). The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

Under current federal tax laws, any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less.

If a Fund redeems Creation Units in cash, it may recognize more capital gains than it will if it redeems Creation Units in-kind.

Tax Basis Information.  A shareholder’s cost basis information will be provided on the sale of any of the shareholder’s Shares, subject to certain exceptions for exempt recipients. Please contact the broker (or other nominee) that holds your Shares with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

Wash Sales.  All or a portion of any loss that you realize on a sale of your Shares will be disallowed to the extent that you buy other Shares (through reinvestment of dividends or otherwise) within 30 days before or after your Share sale. Any loss disallowed under these rules will be added to your tax basis in the new Shares.

Sales at a Loss Within Six Months of Purchase.  Any loss incurred on a sale of Shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any long-term capital gain distributed to you by a Fund on those Shares.

Reportable transactions.  Under Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss with respect to Shares of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder (or certain greater amounts over a combination of years), the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on Form 8886. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions.  Set forth below is a general description of the tax treatment of certain types of securities, investment techniques and transactions that may apply to a Fund. This section should be read in conjunction with the discussion above under “Investment Strategies and Restrictions” and “Investment Policies and Risks” for a detailed description of the various types of securities and investment techniques that apply to the Fund.

 

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In general.  In general, gain or loss recognized by a fund on the sale or other disposition of portfolio investments will be a capital gain or loss. Such capital gain and loss may be long-term or short-term depending, in general, upon the length of time a particular investment position is maintained and, in some cases, upon the nature of the transaction. Property held for more than one year generally will be eligible for long-term capital gain or loss treatment. The application of certain rules described below may serve to alter the manner in which the holding period for a security is determined or may otherwise affect the characterization as long-term or short-term, and also the timing of the realization and/or character, of certain gains or losses.

Certain fixed-income investments.  Gain recognized on the disposition of a debt obligation purchased by a fund at a market discount (generally, at a price less than its principal amount) will be treated as ordinary income to the extent of the portion of the market discount that accrued during the period of time the fund held the debt obligation unless the fund made a current inclusion election to accrue market discount into income as it accrues. If a fund purchases a debt obligation (such as a zero coupon security or pay-in-kind security) that was originally issued at a discount, the fund generally is required to include in gross income each year the portion of the original issue discount that accrues during such year. Therefore, a fund’s investment in such securities may cause the fund to recognize income and make distributions to shareholders before it receives any cash payments on the securities. To generate cash to satisfy those distribution requirements, a fund may have to sell portfolio securities that it otherwise might have continued to hold or to use cash flows from other sources such as the sale of Shares.

Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of or in default present tax issues for a fund.  Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as whether and to what extent a fund should recognize market discount on a debt obligation, when a fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount or market discount, when and to what extent a fund may take deductions for bad debts or worthless securities and how a fund should allocate payments received on obligations in default between principal and income. These and other related issues will be addressed by a fund in order to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its status as a regulated investment company.

Options, futures, forward contracts, swap agreements and hedging transactions.  In general, option premiums received by a fund are not immediately included in the income of the fund. Instead, the premiums are recognized when the option contract expires, the option is exercised by the holder, or the fund transfers or otherwise terminates the option (e.g., through a closing transaction). If an option written by a fund is exercised and the fund sells or delivers the underlying stock, the fund generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to (a) the sum of the strike price and the option premium received by the fund minus (b) the fund’s basis in the stock. Such gain or loss generally will be short-term or long-term depending upon the holding period of the underlying stock. If securities are purchased by a fund pursuant to the exercise of a put option written by it, the fund generally will subtract the premium received from its cost basis in the securities purchased. The gain or loss with respect to any termination of a fund’s obligation under an option other than through the exercise of the option and related sale or delivery of the underlying stock generally will be short-term gain or loss depending on whether the premium income received by the fund is greater or less than the amount paid by the fund (if any) in terminating the transaction. Thus, for example, if an option written by a fund expires unexercised, the fund generally will recognize short-term gain equal to the premium received.

The tax treatment of certain futures contracts entered into by a fund as well as listed non-equity options written or purchased by the fund on U.S. exchanges (including options on futures contracts, broad-based equity indices and debt securities) may be governed by section 1256 of the Code (section 1256 contracts). Gains or losses on section 1256 contracts generally are considered 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gains or losses (60/40), although certain foreign currency gains and losses from such contracts may be treated as ordinary in character. Also, any section 1256 contracts held by a fund at the end of each taxable year (and, for purposes of the 4% excise tax, on certain other dates as prescribed under the Code) are “marked-to-market” with the result that unrealized gains or losses are treated as though they were realized and the resulting gain or loss is treated as ordinary or 60/40 gain or loss, as applicable. Section 1256 contracts do not include any interest rate swap, currency swap, basis swap, interest rate cap, interest rate floor, commodity swap, equity swap, equity index swap, credit default swap, or similar agreement.

 

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In addition to the special rules described above in respect of options and futures transactions, a fund’s transactions in other derivative instruments (including options, forward contracts and swap agreements) as well as its other hedging, short sale, or similar transactions, may be subject to one or more special tax rules (including the constructive sale, notional principal contract, straddle, wash sale and short sale rules). These rules may affect whether gains and losses recognized by a fund are treated as ordinary or capital or as short-term or long-term, accelerate the recognition of income or gains to the fund, defer losses to the fund, and cause adjustments in the holding periods of the fund’s securities. These rules, therefore, could affect the amount, timing and/or character of distributions to shareholders. Moreover, because the tax rules applicable to derivative financial instruments are in some cases uncertain under current law, an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to these rules (which determination or guidance could be retroactive) may affect whether a fund has made sufficient distributions and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid a fund-level tax.

Certain of a fund’s investments in derivatives and foreign currency-denominated instruments, and the fund’s transactions in foreign currencies and hedging activities, may produce a difference between its book income and its taxable income. If a fund’s book income is less than the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income (if any), the fund could be required to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a regulated investment company. If a fund’s book income exceeds the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income (if any), the distribution of any such excess will be treated as (i) a dividend to the extent of the fund’s remaining earnings and profits (including current earnings and profits arising from tax-exempt income, reduced by related deductions), (ii) thereafter, as a return of capital to the extent of the recipient’s basis in the shares, and (iii) thereafter, as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset.

Foreign currency transactions.  A fund’s transactions in foreign currencies, foreign currency-denominated debt obligations and certain foreign currency options, futures contracts and forward contracts (and similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned. This treatment could increase or decrease a fund’s ordinary income distributions to you, and may cause some or all of the fund’s previously distributed income to be classified as a return of capital. In certain cases, a fund may make an election to treat such gain or loss as capital.

PFIC investments.  A fund may invest in securities of foreign companies that may be classified under the Code as PFICs. In general, a foreign company is classified as a PFIC if at least one-half of its assets constitute investment-type assets or 75% or more of its gross income is investment-type income. When investing in PFIC securities, a fund intends to mark-to-market these securities under certain provisions of the Code and recognize any unrealized gains as ordinary income at the end of the fund’s fiscal and excise tax years. Deductions for losses are allowable only to the extent of any current or previously recognized gains. These gains (reduced by allowable losses) are treated as ordinary income that a fund is required to distribute, even though it has not sold or received dividends from these securities. You should also be aware that the designation of a foreign security as a PFIC security will cause its income dividends to fall outside of the definition of qualified foreign corporation dividends. These dividends generally will not qualify for the reduced rate of taxation on qualified dividends when distributed to you by a fund. Foreign companies are not required to identify themselves as PFICs. Due to various complexities in identifying PFICs, a fund can give no assurances that it will be able to identify portfolio securities in foreign corporations that are PFICs in time for the fund to make a mark-to-market election. If a fund is unable to identify an investment as a PFIC and thus does not make a mark-to-market election, the fund may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of such shares even if such income is distributed as a taxable dividend by the fund to its shareholders. Additional charges in the nature of interest may be imposed on a fund in respect of deferred taxes arising from such distributions or gains.

Investments in non-U.S. REITs.  While non-U.S. REITs often use complex acquisition structures that seek to minimize taxation in the source country, an investment by a fund in a non-U.S. REIT may subject the fund, directly or indirectly, to corporate taxes, withholding taxes, transfer taxes and other indirect taxes in the country in which the real estate acquired by the non-U.S. REIT is located. The fund’s pro rata share of any such taxes will reduce the fund’s return on its investment. A fund’s investment in a non-U.S.

 

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REIT may be considered an investment in a PFIC, as discussed above in “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions—PFIC investments.” Additionally, foreign withholding taxes on distributions from the non-U.S. REIT may be reduced or eliminated under certain tax treaties, as discussed above in “Taxation of the Fund—Foreign income tax.” Also, the fund in certain limited circumstances may be required to file an income tax return in the source country and pay tax on any gain realized from its investment in the non-U.S. REIT under rules similar to those in the United States which tax foreign persons on gain realized from dispositions of interests in U.S. real estate.

Investments in U.S. REITs.  A U.S. REIT is not subject to federal income tax on the income and gains it distributes to shareholders. Dividends paid by a U.S. REIT, other than capital gain distributions, will be taxable as ordinary income up to the amount of the U.S. REIT’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Capital gain dividends paid by a U.S. REIT to a fund will be treated as long-term capital gains by the fund and, in turn, may be distributed by the fund to its shareholders as a capital gain distribution. Because of certain noncash expenses, such as property depreciation, an equity U.S. REIT’s cash flow may exceed its taxable income. The equity U.S. REIT, and in turn a fund, may distribute this excess cash to shareholders in the form of a return of capital distribution. However, if a U.S. REIT is operated in a manner that fails to qualify as a REIT, an investment in the U.S. REIT would become subject to double taxation, meaning the taxable income of the U.S. REIT would be subject to federal income tax at the applicable corporate income tax rate without any deduction for dividends paid to shareholders and the dividends would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income (or possibly as qualified dividend income) to the extent of the U.S. REIT’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Also, see “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions—Investment in taxable mortgage pools (excess inclusion income)” and “Foreign Shareholders—U.S. withholding tax at the source” with respect to certain other tax aspects of investing in U.S. REITs.

Investment in taxable mortgage pools (excess inclusion income).  Under a Notice issued by the IRS, the Code and Treasury regulations to be issued, a portion of a fund’s income from a U.S. REIT that is attributable to the REIT’s residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit (REMIC) or equity interests in a “taxable mortgage pool” (referred to in the Code as an excess inclusion) will be subject to federal income tax in all events. The excess inclusion income of a regulated investment company, such as a fund, will be allocated to shareholders of the regulated investment company in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related REMIC residual interest or, if applicable, taxable mortgage pool directly. In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (i) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions), (ii) will constitute unrelated business taxable income (UBTI) to entities (including qualified pension plans, individual retirement accounts, 401(k) plans, Keogh plans or other tax-exempt entities) subject to tax on UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity that is allocated excess inclusion income, and otherwise might not be required to file a tax return, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income, and (iii) in the case of a foreign stockholder, will not qualify for any reduction in U.S. federal withholding tax. In addition, if at any time during any taxable year a “disqualified organization” (which generally includes certain cooperatives, governmental entities, and tax-exempt organizations not subject to UBTI) is a record holder of a share in a regulated investment company, then the regulated investment company will be subject to a tax equal to that portion of its excess inclusion income for the taxable year that is allocable to the disqualified organization, multiplied by the applicable corporate income tax rate. The Notice imposes certain reporting requirements upon regulated investment companies that have excess inclusion income. There can be no assurance that a fund will not allocate to shareholders excess inclusion income.

These rules are potentially applicable to a fund with respect to any income it receives from the equity interests of certain mortgage pooling vehicles, either directly or, as is more likely, through an investment in a U.S. REIT. It is unlikely that these rules will apply to a fund that has a non-REIT strategy.

Investments in partnerships and QPTPs.  For purposes of the Income Requirement, income derived by a fund from a partnership that is not a QPTP will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership that would be qualifying income if realized directly by the fund. While the rules are not entirely clear with respect to a fund investing in a partnership outside a master-feeder

 

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structure, for purposes of testing whether a fund satisfies the Asset Diversification Test, the fund generally is treated as owning a pro rata share of the underlying assets of a partnership. See “Taxation of the Fund— Qualification as a regulated investment company.” In contrast, different rules apply to a partnership that is a QPTP. A QPTP is a partnership (a) the interests in which are traded on an established securities market, (b) that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, and (c) that derives less than 90% of its income from sources that satisfy the Income Requirement (e.g., because it invests in commodities). All of the net income derived by a fund from an interest in a QPTP will be treated as qualifying income but the fund may not invest more than 25% of its total assets in one or more QPTPs. However, there can be no assurance that a partnership classified as a QPTP in one year will qualify as a QPTP in the next year. Any such failure to annually qualify as a QPTP might, in turn, cause a fund to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company. Although, in general, the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to RICs, such rules do apply to a fund with respect to items attributable to an interest in a QPTP. Fund investments in partnerships, including in QPTPs, may result in the fund being subject to state, local or foreign income, franchise or withholding tax liabilities.

If an MLP is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes (whether or not a QPTP), all or portion of the dividends received by a fund from the MLP likely will be treated as a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of accelerated deductions available with respect to the activities of such MLPs. Further, because of these accelerated deductions, on the disposition of interests in such an MLP, a fund likely will realize taxable income in excess of economic gain with respect to those MLP interests (or if the fund does not dispose of the MLP, the fund could realize taxable income in excess of cash flow with respect to the MLP in a later period), and the fund must take such income into account in determining whether the fund has satisfied its Distribution Requirement. A fund may have to borrow or liquidate securities to satisfy its Distribution Requirement and to meet its redemption requests, even though investment considerations might otherwise make it undesirable for the fund to sell securities or borrow money at such time. In addition, any gain recognized, either upon the sale of a fund’s MLP interest or sale by the MLP of property held by it, including in excess of economic gain thereon, treated as so-called “recapture income,” will be treated as ordinary income. Therefore, to the extent a fund invests in MLPs, fund shareholders might receive greater amounts of distributions from the fund taxable as ordinary income than they otherwise would in the absence of such MLP investments.

Although MLPs are generally expected to be treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes, some MLPs may be treated as PFICs or “regular” corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The treatment of particular MLPs for U.S. federal income tax purposes will affect the extent to which a fund can invest in MLPs and will impact the amount, character, and timing of income recognized by the Fund.

Investments in convertible securities.  Convertible debt is ordinarily treated as a “single property” consisting of a pure debt interest until conversion, after which the investment becomes an equity interest. If the security is issued at premium (i.e., for cash in excess of the face amount payable on retirement), the creditor-holder may amortize the premium over the life of the bond. If the security is issued for cash at a price below its face amount, the creditor-holder must accrue original issue discount in income over the life of the debt. The creditor-holder’s exercise of the conversion privilege is treated as a nontaxable event. Mandatorily convertible debt (e.g., an exchange-traded note or ETN issued in the form of an unsecured obligation that pays a return based on the performance of a specified market index, exchange currency, or commodity) is often, but not always, treated as a contract to buy or sell the reference property rather than debt. Similarly, convertible preferred stock with a mandatory conversion feature is ordinarily, but not always, treated as equity rather than debt. Dividends received generally are qualified dividend income and eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction. In general, conversion of preferred stock for common stock of the same corporation is tax-free. Conversion of preferred stock for cash is a taxable redemption. Any redemption premium for preferred stock that is redeemable by the issuing company might be required to be amortized under original issue discount principles. A change in the conversion ratio or conversion price of a convertible security on account of a dividend paid to the issuer’s other shareholders may result in a deemed distribution of stock to the holders of the convertible security equal to the value of their increased interest in the equity of the issuer.

 

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Thus, an increase in the conversion ratio of a convertible security can be treated as a taxable distribution of stock to a holder of the convertible security (without a corresponding receipt of cash by the holder) before the holder has converted the security.

Securities Lending.  While securities are loaned out by a Fund, the Fund generally will receive from the borrower amounts equal to any dividends or interest paid on the borrowed securities. For federal income tax purposes, payments made “in lieu of” dividends are not considered dividend income. These distributions will neither qualify for the reduced rate of federal income taxation for individuals on qualified dividends income, if otherwise available, nor the 50% dividends received deduction for corporations. Also, any foreign tax withheld on payments made “in lieu of” dividends or interest may not qualify for the passthrough of foreign tax credits to shareholders.

Tax Certification and Backup Withholding.  Tax certification and backup withholding tax laws may require that you certify your tax information when you become an investor in the Fund. For U.S. citizens and resident aliens, this certification is made on IRS Form W-9. Under these laws, the Fund must withhold a portion of your taxable distributions and sales proceeds unless you:

 

   

provide your correct Social Security or taxpayer identification number;

 

   

certify that this number is correct;

 

   

certify that you are not subject to backup withholding; and

 

   

certify that you are a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien).

Withholding also is imposed if the IRS requires it. When withholding is required, the amount will be 24% of any distributions or proceeds paid. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the appropriate information is furnished to the IRS. Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding and information reporting.

Non-U.S. investors have special U.S. tax certification requirements. See “Foreign Shareholders—Tax certification and backup withholding.”

Foreign Shareholders.  Shareholders who, as to the United States, are nonresident alien individuals, foreign trusts or estates, foreign corporations, or foreign partnerships (foreign shareholder), may be subject to U.S. withholding and estate tax and are subject to special U.S. tax certification requirements.

Taxation of a foreign shareholder depends on whether the income from the Fund is “effectively connected” with a U.S. trade or business carried on by such shareholder.

U.S. withholding tax at the source.  If the income from the Fund is not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business carried on by a foreign shareholder, distributions to such shareholder will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or lower treaty rate) upon the gross amount of the distribution, subject to certain exemptions including those for dividends reported as:

 

   

exempt-interest dividends paid by the Fund from its net interest income earned on municipal securities;

 

   

capital gain dividends paid by the Fund from its net long-term capital gains (other than those from disposition of a U.S. real property interest), unless you are a nonresident alien present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the calendar year; and

 

   

interest-related dividends paid by the Fund from its qualified net interest income from U.S. sources and short-term capital gain dividends.

The Fund may report interest-related dividends or short-term capital gain dividends, but reserves the right not to do so. Additionally, the Fund’s reporting of interest-related dividends or short-term capital gain dividends may not be passed through to shareholders by intermediaries who have assumed tax reporting responsibilities for this income in managed or omnibus accounts due to systems limitations or operational constraints. Moreover,

 

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notwithstanding such exemptions from U.S. withholding at the source, any dividends and distributions of income and capital gains, including the proceeds from the sale of your Shares, will be subject to backup withholding at a rate of 24% if you fail to properly certify that you are not a U.S. person.

Foreign shareholders may be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a rate of 30% on the income resulting from an election to pass-through foreign tax credits to shareholders, but may not be able to claim a credit or deduction with respect to the withholding tax for the foreign tax treated as having been paid by them.

Amounts reported as capital gain dividends (a) that are attributable to certain capital gain dividends received from a qualified investment entity (“QIE”) (generally defined as either (i) a U.S. REIT or (ii) a RIC classified as a “U.S. real property holding corporation” or which would be if the exceptions for holding 5% or less of a class of publicly traded shares or an interest in a domestically controlled QIE did not apply), or (b) that are realized by a Fund on the sale of a “U.S. real property interest” (including gain realized on the sale of shares in a QIE other than one that is domestically controlled), will not be exempt from U.S. federal income tax and may be subject to U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or lower treaty rate) if the Fund by reason of having a REIT strategy is classified as a QIE. If a Fund is so classified, foreign shareholders owning more than 5% of the Fund’s shares may be treated as realizing gain from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, causing Fund distributions to be subject to U.S. withholding tax at the applicable corporate income tax rate, and requiring the filing of a nonresident U.S. income tax return. In addition, if a Fund is classified as a QIE, anti-avoidance rules apply to certain wash sale transactions. Namely, if a Fund is a domestically-controlled QIE and a foreign shareholder disposes of the Fund’s shares prior to the Fund paying a distribution attributable to the disposition of a U.S. real property interest and the foreign shareholder later acquires an identical stock interest in a wash sale transaction, the foreign shareholder may still be required to pay U.S. tax on the Fund’s distribution. Also, the sale of shares of a Fund, if classified as a “U.S. real property holding corporation,” could also be considered a sale of a U.S. real property interest with any resulting gain from such sale being subject to U.S. tax as income “effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business.”

Income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business.  If the income from a Fund is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business carried on by a foreign shareholder, then ordinary income dividends, capital gain dividends and any gains realized upon the sale of Shares will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. citizens or domestic corporations and require the filing of a nonresident U.S. income tax return.

Tax certification and backup withholding.  Foreign shareholders may have special U.S. tax certification requirements to avoid backup withholding (at a rate of 24%) and, if applicable, to obtain the benefit of any income tax treaty between the foreign shareholder’s country of residence and the United States. To claim these tax benefits, the foreign shareholder must provide a properly completed Form W- 8BEN (or other Form W-8, where applicable, or their substitute forms) to establish his or her status as a non-U.S. investor, to claim beneficial ownership over the assets in the account, and to claim, if applicable, a reduced rate of or exemption from withholding tax under the applicable treaty. A Form W-8BEN provided without a U.S. taxpayer identification number remains in effect for a period of three years beginning on the date that it is signed and ending on the last day of the third succeeding calendar year unless an earlier change of circumstances makes the information given on the form incorrect, and the shareholder must then provide a new W-8BEN to avoid the prospective application of backup withholding. Forms W-8BEN with U.S. taxpayer identification numbers remain valid indefinitely, or until the investor has a change of circumstances that renders the form incorrect and necessitates a new form and tax certification. Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA).  Under FATCA, a 30% withholding tax is imposed on income dividends made by a Fund to certain foreign entities, referred to as foreign financial institutions (“FFI”) or non-financial foreign entities (“NFFE”). After December 31, 2018, FATCA withholding also would have applied to certain capital gain distributions, return of capital distributions and the proceeds arising from the sale of Shares; however, based on proposed regulations recently issued by the IRS on which the Fund may rely, such withholding is no longer required unless final regulations provide otherwise (which is not expected). The FATCA withholding tax generally can be avoided: (a) by an FFI, if it reports certain direct and indirect

 

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ownership of foreign financial accounts held by U.S. persons with the FFI and (b) by an NFFE, if it: (i) certifies that it has no substantial U.S. persons as owners or (ii) if it does have such owners, reporting information relating to them. The U.S. Treasury has negotiated intergovernmental agreements (IGAs) with certain countries and is in various stages of negotiations with a number of other foreign countries with respect to one or more alternative approaches to implement FATCA.

An FFI can avoid FATCA withholding if it is deemed compliant or by becoming a “participating FFI,” which requires the FFI to enter into a U.S. tax compliance agreement with the IRS under section 1471(b) of the Code (FFI agreement) under which it agrees to verify, report and disclose certain of its U.S. accountholders and meet certain other specified requirements.

The FFI will either report the specified information about the U.S. accounts to the IRS, or, to the government of the FFI’s country of residence (pursuant to the terms and conditions of applicable law and an applicable IGA entered into between the U.S. and the FFI’s country of residence), which will, in turn, report the specified information to the IRS. An FFI that is resident in a country that has entered into an IGA with the U.S. to implement FATCA will be exempt from FATCA withholding provided that the FFI shareholder and the applicable foreign government comply with the terms of such agreement.

An NFFE that is the beneficial owner of a payment from a Fund can avoid the FATCA withholding tax generally by certifying that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or by providing the name, address and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner. The NFFE will report the information to the applicable withholding agent, which will, in turn, report the information to the IRS.

Such foreign shareholders also may fall into certain exempt, excepted or deemed compliant categories as established by U.S. Treasury regulations, IGAs, and other guidance regarding FATCA. An FFI or NFFE that invests in a Fund will need to provide documentation properly certifying the entity’s status under FATCA in order to avoid FATCA withholding. Non-U.S. investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the impact of these requirements on their investment in a Fund. The requirements imposed by FATCA are different from, and in addition to, the U.S. tax certification rules to avoid backup withholding described above. Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these requirements to their own situation.

U.S. estate tax.  Transfers by gift of Shares of a Fund by a foreign shareholder who is a nonresident alien individual will not be subject to U.S. federal gift tax. An individual who, at the time of death, is a foreign shareholder will nevertheless be subject to U.S. federal estate tax with respect to Shares at the graduated rates applicable to U.S. citizens and residents, unless a treaty exemption applies. If a treaty exemption is available, a decedent’s estate may nonetheless need to file a U.S. estate tax return to claim the exemption in order to obtain a U.S. federal transfer certificate. The transfer certificate will identify the property (i.e., Fund Shares) as to which the U.S. federal estate tax lien has been released. In the absence of a treaty, there is a $13,000 statutory estate tax credit (equivalent to an estate with assets of $60,000).

Local Tax Considerations.  Rules of state and local taxation of ordinary income, qualified dividend income and capital gain dividends may differ from the rules for U.S. federal income taxation described above. Distributions may also be subject to additional state, local and foreign taxes depending on each shareholder’s particular situation.

DETERMINATION OF NAV

The following information should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Net Asset Value.” Additional information regarding the current NAV per share of each Fund can be found at www.invesco.com/ETFs.

The Custodian calculates and determines the NAV per Share as of the close of the regular trading session of the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) on each day that such exchange is open. NAV is calculated by deducting all of a Fund’s liabilities from the total value of its assets and dividing the result by the number of Shares outstanding, rounding to the nearest cent. All valuations are subject to review by the Board or its delegate.

 

 

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In determining NAV, expenses are accrued and applied daily, and securities and other assets for which market quotations are available are valued at market value. Securities listed or traded on an exchange generally are valued at the last sales price or official closing price of the exchange where the security primarily is traded. Investment companies are valued using such company’s NAV per share, unless the shares are exchange-traded, in which case they will be valued at the last sale or official closing price on the exchanges on which they primarily trade. Debt and securities not listed on an exchange normally are valued on the basis of prices provided by independent pricing services. Pricing services generally value debt securities assuming orderly transactions of institutional round lot size, but a Fund may hold or transact in the same securities in smaller, odd lot sizes. Odd lots often trade at lower prices than institutional round lots. The Adviser may use various pricing services or discontinue the use of any pricing service at any time. Deposits, other obligations of U.S. and non-U.S. banks and financial institutions, and cash equivalents are valued at their daily account value. Options generally are valued at the closing price (and, if no closing price is available, at the mean of the last bid/ask quotations), generally from the exchange where such instruments principally trade. Futures contracts generally are valued based on quotations from a pricing vendor or market makers. Swaps generally are valued using pricing provided from independent pricing services.

If a security’s market price is not readily available, the security will be valued in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board.

Even when market quotations are available for portfolio securities, they may be stale or unreliable because the security is not traded frequently, trading on the security ceased before the close of the trading market or issuer specific events occurred after the security ceased trading or because of the passage of time between the close of the market on which the security trades and the close of the NYSE and when a Fund calculates its NAV. Events that may cause the last market quotation to be unreliable include a merger or insolvency, events which affect a geographical area or an industry segment, such as political events or natural disasters, or market events, such as a significant movement in the U.S. market. Where market quotations are not readily available, including where the Adviser determines that the closing price of the security is unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value as determined in good faith following procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments, and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security. With respect to securities that primarily are listed on foreign exchanges, the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell your Shares.

Intraday Indicative Value.  The trading prices of the Shares in the secondary market generally differ from a Fund’s daily NAV and are affected by market forces such as the supply of and demand for Shares and underlying securities held by a Fund, economic conditions and other factors. Information regarding the IIV of the Shares is disseminated every 15 seconds throughout each trading day by the Exchange or by market data vendors or other information providers. However, the IIV should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of a Fund’s NAV. The IIV is based on the current market value of the published basket of portfolio securities and/or cash required to be deposited in exchange for a Creation Unit and does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of a Fund’s actual portfolio at a particular point in time. Moreover, the IIV is generally determined by using current market quotations and/or price quotations obtained from broker-dealers and other market intermediaries and valuations based on current market rates. The IIV may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which (i) is computed only once a day, (ii) unlike the calculation of the IIV, takes into account Funds’ expenses, and (iii) may be subject, in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act, to fair valuation at different prices than those used in the calculations of the IIV. Therefore, the IIV may not reflect the best possible valuation of a Fund’s current portfolio. Additionally, the quotations and/or valuations of certain of the Funds’ holdings may not be updated during U.S. trading hours if such holdings do not trade in the United States, which could affect premiums and discounts between the IIV and the market price of the Shares. The Funds, the Adviser and their affiliates are not involved in, or responsible for, any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIV, and the Funds, the Adviser and their affiliates do not make any warranty as to the accuracy of these calculations.

 

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DIVIDENDS AND OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS

The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Dividends, Other Distributions and Taxes.”

General Policies.  Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid quarterly by each Fund.

Distributions of net realized securities gains, if any, generally are declared and paid once a year, but the Trust may make distributions on a more frequent basis. The Trust reserves the right to declare special distributions if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the status of each Fund as a RIC or to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.

Dividends and other distributions on Shares are distributed, as described below, on a pro rata basis to Beneficial Owners of the Shares. Dividend payments are made through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners then of record with proceeds received from each Fund.

Dividend Reinvestment Service.  No reinvestment service is provided by the Trust. Broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by Beneficial Owners of Shares for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Beneficial Owners should contact their broker to determine the availability and costs of the service and the details of participation therein. Brokers may require Beneficial Owners to adhere to specific procedures and timetables.

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Counsel.  Stradley Ronon Stevens & Young, LLP, located at 191 North Wacker Drive, Suite 1601, Chicago, Illinois 60606, and 1250 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 500, Washington, D.C. 20036, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.  PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, located at One North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60606, serves as the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP has been retained to audit the Funds’ annual financial statements and performs other related audit services.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Each Fund is new and has no performance history as of the date of this SAI. Financial information therefore is not yet available. The audited financial statements, including the financial highlights pertaining thereto, appearing in each Predecessor Fund’s Annual Report to shareholders for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, and filed electronically with the SEC, are incorporated by reference and made a part of this SAI. In addition, the unaudited financial statements, including the financial highlights pertaining thereto, appearing in each Predecessor Fund’s Semi-Annual Report to shareholders for the fiscal period ended December 31, 2018, and filed electronically with the SEC, are incorporated by reference and made a part of this SAI. You may request a copy of each Predecessor Fund’s Annual Report and Semi-Annual Report at no charge by calling 1-800-983-0903 during normal business hours.

PwC informed the Audit Committee that it has identified an issue related to its independence under Rule 2-01(c)(1)(ii)(A) of Regulation S-X (referred to as the “Loan Rule”). The Loan Rule prohibits accounting firms, such as PwC, from being deemed independent if they have certain financial relationships with their audit clients or certain affiliates of those clients. The Registrant is required under various securities laws to have its financial statements audited by an independent accounting firm. The Loan Rule specifically provides that an accounting firm would not be independent if it receives, or certain affiliates and covered persons receives, a loan from a lender that is a record or beneficial owner of more than ten percent of an audit client’s equity securities (referred to as a “more than ten percent owner”). For purposes of the Loan Rule, audit clients include the Registrant as well as all registered investment companies advised by the Adviser and its affiliates, including other subsidiaries of the Adviser’s parent company, Invesco Ltd. (collectively, the Invesco Fund Complex). PwC

 

59


informed the Audit Committee that it has, and that certain affiliates and covered persons, have relationships with lenders who hold, as record owner, more than ten percent of the shares of certain funds within the Invesco Fund Complex. These relationships call into question PwC’s independence under the Loan Rule with respect to those funds, as well as all other funds in the Invesco Fund Complex which may implicate the Loan Rule.

On June 20, 2016, the SEC Staff issued a “no-action” letter to another mutual fund complex (see Fidelity Management & Research Company et al., No-Action Letter) related to the audit independence issue described above. In that letter, the SEC confirmed that it would not recommend enforcement action against a fund that relied on audit services performed by an audit firm that was not in compliance with the Loan Rule in certain specified circumstances. On May 2, 2018, the SEC proposed amendments to the Loan Rule that, if adopted as proposed, would address many of the issues that led to issuance of the no-action letter.

In an August 18, 2016 letter to the audit committees of the other trusts in the Fund Family, composed of the same individuals that make up the Audit Committee (which was not established until December 14, 2016), and in subsequent communications, PwC affirmed to the Audit Committee that, as of the date of the letter and the subsequent communications, respectively, PwC is an independent accountant with respect to the Registrant, within the meaning of PCAOB Rule 3520. In its letter and in its subsequent communications, PwC also informed the Audit Committee that, after evaluating the facts and circumstances and the applicable independence rules, PwC has concluded that with regard to its compliance with the independence criteria set forth in the rules and regulations of the SEC related to the Loan Rule, it believes that it remains objective and impartial despite matters that may ultimately be determined to be inconsistent with these criteria and therefore it can continue to serve as the Registrant’s registered public accounting firm. PwC has advised the Audit Committee that this conclusion is based in part on the following considerations: (1) the lenders to PwC have no influence over any fund, or other entity within the Invesco Fund Complex, or its investment adviser; (2) none of the officers or trustees of the Invesco Fund Complex whose shares are owned by PwC lenders are associated with those lenders; (3) PwC understands that the shares held by PwC lenders are held for the benefit of and on behalf of its policy owners/end investors; (4) investments in funds such as the Invesco Fund Complex funds are passive; (5) the PwC lenders are part of various syndicates of unrelated lenders; (6) there have been no changes to the loans in question since the origination of each respective note; (7) the debts are in good standing and no lender has the right to take action against PwC, as borrower, in connection with the financings; (8) the debt balances with each lender are immaterial to PwC and to each lender; and (9) the PwC audit engagement team has no involvement in PwC’s treasury function and PwC’s treasury function has no oversight of or ability to influence the PwC audit engagement team. In addition, PwC has communicated that the lending relationships appear to be consistent with the lending relationships described in the no-action letter and that they are not aware of other relationships that would be implicated by the Loan Rule. In addition to relying on PwC’s August 18, 2016 letter and subsequent communications regarding its independence, the Trust intends to rely upon the no-action letter.

If in the future the independence of PwC is called into question under the Loan Rule by circumstances that are not addressed in the SEC’s no-action letter, a Registrant may need to take other action in order for the Registrant’s filings with the SEC containing financial statements to be deemed compliant with applicable securities laws. Such additional actions could result in additional costs, impair the ability of the Registrant to issue new shares or have other material adverse effects on the Registrant. The SEC no-action relief was initially set to expire 18 months from issuance, but has been extended by the SEC without an expiration date, except that the no-action letter will be withdrawn upon the effectiveness of any amendments to the Loan Rule designed to address the concerns expressed in the letter.

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APPENDIX A

LOGO

PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES

 

Applicable to

  All funds advised by Invesco Capital Management LLC (“ICM” or the “Adviser”) for which it has been delegated proxy voting authority.

Risk Addressed by Policy

  Breach of fiduciary duty to clients under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 by placing Invesco’s interests ahead of clients’ best interests in voting proxies

Relevant Law and Other Sources

  Investment Advisers Act of 1940

Effective Date

  June 24, 2014

Last Amended Date

  January 7, 2019

 

I.

GENERAL POLICY

ICM has adopted proxy voting policies with respect to securities owned by series for which it serves as investment adviser and has been delegated the authority to vote proxies. ICM’s proxy voting policies are designed to provide that proxies are voted in the best interests of shareholders.

Invesco Ltd. (“Invesco”), the parent to the Adviser, has adopted a global policy statement on corporate governance and proxy voting (the “Global Invesco Policy”) (see Exhibit A), which details Invesco’s views on governance matters and describes the proxy administration and governance approach. The Adviser will approach proxy constraints according to the Invesco global statement on corporate governance and proxy voting. The Adviser will approach conflicts of interest in accordance with Invesco’s global policy statement on corporate governance and proxy voting. The Adviser votes proxies by utilizing the procedures and mechanisms outlined in the Global Invesco Policy, while maintaining specific guidelines for products advised by the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser (“Affiliated Funds”), as set forth below:

Overlapping Securities

In instances where both an Affiliated Fund advised by the Adviser and an Affiliated Fund advised by an Invesco Ltd. entity hold an equity security (“Overlapping Securities”), the Adviser will vote proxies in accordance with the recommendation of an Invesco Ltd. adviser based on the comprehensive proxy review and under the Global Invesco Policy. The Global Invesco Policy is overseen by the Invesco Proxy Advisory Committee (“IPAC”), which also orchestrates the review and analysis of the top twenty-five proxy voting matters, measured by overall size of holdings by funds within the Invesco family. The Adviser consults with the IPAC on specific proxy votes and general proxy voting matters as it deems necessary. In addition, as part of the Global Invesco Proxy Voting Process, the IPAC oversees instances when possible conflicts of interest arise among funds. (Please see the Global Invesco Policy for the detailed conflicts of interest approach.)

In instances where the global proxy administration team does not receive a recommendation in a timely manner, the proxy administration team will automatically vote such ballots in accordance with Invesco’s custom guidelines established in Invesco’s global proxy voting policy and US guidelines.

Non-Overlapping Securities

In instances where securities are held only by an Affiliated Fund advised by the Adviser and not also by an Invesco Ltd. active equity entity fund, the Adviser will instruct the proxy administration team to vote proxies in accordance with said Invesco custom guidelines implemented by ISS, Invesco’s vote execution agent.

 

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Under this Policy, the Adviser retains the power to vote contrary to the recommendation of the Invesco Voting Process (for Overlapping Securities) or Invesco’s custom guidelines (for Non-Overlapping Securities) at its discretion, so long as the reasons for doing so are well documented.

 

II.

SPECIAL POLICY

Certain Affiliated Funds pursue their investment objectives by investing in other registered investment companies pursuant to an exemptive order granted by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The relief granted by that order is conditioned upon complying with a number of undertakings, some of which require such Affiliated Fund to vote its shares in an acquired investment company in the same proportion as other holders of the acquired fund’s shares. In instances in which an Affiliated Fund is required to vote in this manner to rely on the exemptive order, the Adviser will vote shares of these acquired investment companies in compliance with the voting mechanism required by the order.

 

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Exhibit A

 

LOGO

Invesco’s Policy Statement on Global Corporate Governance and Proxy Voting

 

I.

Guiding Principles and Philosophy

Public companies hold shareholder meetings, attended by the company’s executives, directors, and shareholders, during which important issues, such as appointments to the company’s board of directors, executive compensation, and auditors, are addressed and where applicable, voted on. Proxy voting gives shareholders the opportunity to vote on issues that impact the company’s operations and policies without being present at the meetings.

Invesco views proxy voting as an integral part of its investment management responsibilities and believes that the right to vote proxies should be managed with the same high standards of care and fiduciary duty to its clients as all other elements of the investment process. Invesco’s proxy voting philosophy, governance structure and process are designed to ensure that proxy votes are cast in accordance with clients’ best interests, which Invesco interprets to mean clients’ best economic interests, this Policy and the operating guidelines and procedures of Invesco’s regional investment centers.

Invesco investment teams vote proxies on behalf of Invesco-sponsored funds and non-fund advisory clients that have explicitly granted Invesco authority in writing to vote proxies on their behalf.

The proxy voting process at Invesco, which is driven by investment professionals, focuses on maximizing long-term value for our clients, protecting clients’ rights and promoting governance structures and practices that reinforce the accountability of corporate management and boards of directors to shareholders. Invesco takes a nuanced approach to voting and, therefore, many matters to be voted upon are reviewed on a case by case basis.

Votes in favor of board or management proposals should not be interpreted as an indication of insufficient consideration by Invesco fund managers. Such votes may reflect the outcome of past or ongoing engagement and active ownership by Invesco with representatives of the companies in which we invest.

 

II.

Applicability of this Policy

This Policy sets forth the framework of Invesco’s corporate governance approach, broad philosophy and guiding principles that inform the proxy voting practices of Invesco’s investment teams around the world. Given the different nature of these teams and their respective investment processes, as well as the significant differences in regulatory regimes and market practices across jurisdictions, not all aspects of this Policy may apply to all Invesco investment teams at all times. In the case of a conflict between this Policy and the operating guidelines and procedures of a regional investment center the latter will control.

 

III.

Proxy Voting for Certain Fixed Income, Money Market Accounts and Index

For proxies held by certain client accounts managed in accordance with fixed income, money market and index strategies (including exchange traded funds), Invesco will typically vote in line with the majority holder of the active-equity shares held by Invesco outside of those strategies (“Majority Voting”). In this manner Invesco seeks to leverage the active-equity expertise and comprehensive proxy voting reviews conducted by teams employing active-equity strategies, which typically incorporate analysis of proxy issues as a core component of the investment process. Portfolio managers for accounts employing Majority Voting still retain full discretion to override Majority Voting and to vote the shares as they determine to be in the best interest of those accounts, absent certain types of conflicts of interest, which are discussed elsewhere in this Policy.

 

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IV.

Conflicts of Interest

There may be occasions where voting proxies may present a real or perceived conflict of interest between Invesco, as investment manager, and one or more of Invesco’s clients or vendors. Under Invesco’s Code of Conduct, Invesco entities and individuals are strictly prohibited from putting personal benefit, whether tangible or intangible, before the interests of clients. “Personal benefit” includes any intended benefit for Invesco, oneself or any other individual, company, group or organization of any kind whatsoever, except a benefit for the relevant Invesco client.

Firm-level Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest may exist if Invesco has a material business relationship with, or is actively soliciting business from, either the company soliciting a proxy or a third party that has a material interest in the outcome of a proxy vote or that is actively lobbying for a particular outcome of a proxy vote (e.g., issuers that are distributors of Invesco’s products, or issuers that employ Invesco to manage portions of their retirement plans or treasury accounts). Invesco’s proxy governance team maintains a list of all such issuers for which a conflict of interest exists.

If the proposal that gives rise to the potential conflict is specifically addressed by this Policy or the operating guidelines and procedures of the relevant regional investment center, Invesco generally will vote the proxy in accordance therewith. Otherwise, based on a majority vote of its members, the Global IPAC (as described below) will vote the proxy.

Because this Policy and the operating guidelines and procedures of each regional investment center are pre-determined and crafted to be in the best economic interest of clients, applying them to vote client proxies should, in most instances, adequately resolve any potential conflict of interest. As an additional safeguard, persons from Invesco’s marketing, distribution and other customer-facing functions may not serve on the Global IPAC. For the avoidance of doubt, Invesco may not consider Invesco Ltd.’s pecuniary interest when voting proxies on behalf of clients.

Personal Conflicts of Interest

A conflict also may exist where an Invesco employee has a known personal relationship with other proponents of proxy proposals, participants in proxy contests, corporate directors, or candidates for directorships.

All Invesco personnel with proxy voting responsibilities are required to report any known personal conflicts of interest regarding proxy issues with which they are involved. In such instances, the individual(s) with the conflict will be excluded from the decision-making process relating to such issues.

Other Conflicts of Interest

In order to avoid any appearance of a conflict of interest, Invesco will not vote proxies issued by, or related to matters involving, Invesco Ltd. that may be held in client accounts from time to time.1 Shares of an Invesco-sponsored fund held by other Invesco funds will be voted in the same proportion as the votes of external shareholders of the underlying fund.

 

V.

Use of Third-Party Proxy Advisory Services

Invesco may supplement its internal research with information from third-parties, such as proxy advisory firms. However, Invesco generally retains full and independent discretion with respect to proxy voting decisions.

As part of its fiduciary obligation to clients, Invesco performs extensive initial and ongoing due diligence on the proxy advisory firms it engages. This includes reviews of information regarding the capabilities of their research staffs and internal controls, policies and procedures, including those relating to possible conflicts of

 

1

Generally speaking, Invesco does not invest for its clients in the shares of Invesco Ltd., however, limited exceptions apply in the case of funds or accounts designed to track an index that includes Invesco Ltd. as a component.

 

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interest. In addition, Invesco regularly monitors and communicates with these firms and monitors their compliance with Invesco’s performance and policy standards.

 

VI.

Global Proxy Voting Platform and Administration

Guided by its philosophy that investment teams should manage proxy voting, Invesco has created the Global Invesco Proxy Advisory Committee (“Global IPAC”). The Global IPAC is a global investments-driven committee comprised of representatives from various investment management teams and Invesco’s Global Head of Proxy Governance and Responsible Investment (“Head of Proxy Governance”). The Global IPAC provides a forum for investment teams to monitor, understand and discuss key proxy issues and voting trends within the Invesco complex. Absent a conflict of interest, the Global IPAC representatives, in consultation with the respective investment team, are responsible for voting proxies for the securities the team manages (unless such responsibility is explicitly delegated to the portfolio managers of the securities in question) In addition to the Global IPAC, for some clients, third parties (e.g., U.S. mutual fund boards) provide oversight of the proxy process. The Global IPAC and Invesco’s proxy administration and governance team, compliance and legal teams regularly communicate and review this Policy and the operating guidelines and procedures of each regional investment center to ensure that they remain consistent with clients’ best interests, regulatory requirements, governance trends and industry best practices.

Invesco maintains a proprietary global proxy administration platform, known as the “fund manager portal” and supported by the Head of Proxy Governance and a dedicated team of internal proxy specialists. The platform streamlines the proxy voting and ballot reconciliation processes, as well as related functions, such as share blocking and managing conflicts of interest issuers. Managing these processes internally, as opposed to relying on third parties, gives Invesco greater quality control, oversight and independence in the proxy administration process.

The platform also includes advanced global reporting and record-keeping capabilities regarding proxy matters that enable Invesco to satisfy client, regulatory and management requirements. Historical proxy voting information, including commentary by investment professionals regarding the votes they cast, where applicable, is stored to build institutional knowledge across the Invesco complex with respect to individual companies and proxy issues. Certain investment teams also use the platform to access third-party proxy research.

 

VII.

Non-Votes

In the great majority of instances, Invesco is able to vote proxies successfully. However, in certain circumstances Invesco may refrain from voting where the economic or other opportunity costs of voting exceeds any anticipated benefits of that proxy proposal. In addition, there may be instances in which Invesco is unable to vote all of its clients’ proxies despite using commercially reasonable efforts to do so. For example:

 

   

Invesco may not receive proxy materials from the relevant fund or client custodian with sufficient time and information to make an informed independent voting decision. In such cases, Invesco may choose not to vote, to abstain from voting, to vote in line with management or to vote in accordance with proxy advisor recommendations. These matters are left to the discretion of the fund manager.

 

   

If the security in question is on loan as part of a securities lending program, Invesco may determine that the benefit to the client of voting a particular proxy is outweighed by the revenue that would be lost by terminating the loan and recalling the securities.

 

   

In some countries the exercise of voting rights imposes temporary transfer restrictions on the related securities (“share blocking”). Invesco generally refrains from voting proxies in share-blocking countries unless Invesco determines that the benefit to the client(s) of voting a specific proxy outweighs the client’s temporary inability to sell the security.

 

   

Some companies require a representative to attend meetings in person in order to vote a proxy. In such cases, Invesco may determine that the costs of sending a representative or signing a power-of-attorney outweigh the benefit of voting a particular proxy.

 

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VIII.

Proxy Voting Guidelines

The following guidelines describe Invesco’s general positions on various common proxy voting issues. This list is not intended to be exhaustive or prescriptive. As noted above, Invesco’s proxy process is investor-driven, and each fund manager retains ultimate discretion to vote proxies in the manner they deem most appropriate, consistent with Invesco’s proxy voting principles and philosophy discussed in Sections I through IV. Individual proxy votes therefore will differ from these guidelines from time to time.

 

A.

Shareholder Access and Treatment of Shareholder Proposals

Invesco reviews on a case by case basis but generally votes in favor of proposals that would increase shareholders’ opportunities to express their views to boards of directors, proposals that would lower barriers to shareholder action, and proposals to promote the adoption of generally accepted best practices in corporate governance, provided that such proposals would not require a disproportionate amount of management attention or corporate resources or otherwise that may inappropriately disrupt the company’s business and main purpose, usually set out in their reporting disclosures and business model. Likewise, Invesco reviews on a case by case basis but generally votes for shareholder proposals that are designed to protect shareholder rights if a company’s corporate governance standards indicate that such additional protections are warranted (for example, where minority shareholders’ rights are not adequately protected).

 

B.

Environmental, Social and Corporate Responsibility Issues

Invesco believes that a company’s long-term response to environmental, social and corporate responsibility issues can significantly affect its long-term shareholder value. We recognize that to manage a corporation effectively, directors and management may consider not only the interests of shareholders, but also the interests of employees, customers, suppliers, creditors and the local community, among others. While Invesco generally affords management discretion with respect to the operation of a company’s business, Invesco will evaluate such proposals on a case by case basis and will vote proposals relating to these issues in a manner intended to maximize long-term shareholder value.

 

C.

Capitalization Structure Issues

 

i.

Stock Issuances

Invesco generally supports a board’s decisions about the need for additional capital stock to meet ongoing corporate needs, except where the request could adversely affect Invesco clients’ ownership stakes or voting rights. Some capitalization proposals, such as those to authorize common or preferred stock with special voting rights or to issue additional stock in connection with an acquisition, may require additional analysis. Invesco generally opposes proposals to authorize classes of preferred stock with unspecified voting, conversion, dividend or other rights (“blank check” stock) when they appear to be intended as an anti-takeover mechanism; such issuances may be supported when used for general financing purposes.

 

ii.

Stock Splits

Invesco generally supports a board’s proposal to increase common share authorization for a stock split, provided that the increase in authorized shares would not result in excessive dilution given the company’s industry and performance in terms of shareholder returns.

 

iii.

Share Repurchases

Invesco generally supports a board’s proposal to institute open-market share repurchase plans only if all shareholders participate on an equal basis.

 

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D.

Corporate Governance Issues

 

i.

Board of Directors

1. Director Nominees in Uncontested Elections

Subject to the other considerations described below, in an uncontested director election for a company without a controlling shareholder, Invesco generally votes in favor of the director slate if it is comprised of at least a majority of independent directors and if the board’s key committees are fully independent, effective and balanced. Key committees include the audit, compensation/remuneration and governance/nominating committees. Invesco’s standard of independence excludes directors who, in addition to the directorship, have any material business or family relationships with the companies they serve.

2. Director Nominees in Contested Elections

Invesco recognizes that short-term investment sentiments influence the corporate governance landscape and may influence companies in Invesco clients’ portfolios and more broadly across the market. Invesco recognizes that short-term investment sentiment may conflict with long-term value creation and as such looks at each proxy contest matter on a case by case basis, considering factors such as:

 

   

Long-term financial performance of the company relative to its industry,

 

   

Management’s track record,

 

   

Background to the proxy contest,

 

   

Qualifications of director nominees (both slates),

 

   

Evaluation of what each side is offering shareholders as well as the likelihood that the proposed objectives and goals can be met, and

 

   

Stock ownership positions in the company.

3. Director Accountability

Invesco generally withholds votes from directors who exhibit a lack of accountability to shareholders. Examples include, without limitation, poor attendance (less than 75%, absent extenuating circumstances) at meetings, failing to implement shareholder proposals that have received a majority of votes and/or by adopting or approving egregious corporate-governance or other policies. In cases of material financial restatements, accounting fraud, habitually late filings, adopting shareholder rights plan (“poison pills”) without shareholder approval, or other areas of poor performance, Invesco may withhold votes from some or all of a company’s directors. In situations where directors’ performance is a concern, Invesco may also support shareholder proposals to take corrective actions such as so-called “clawback” provisions.

4. Director Independence

Invesco generally supports proposals to require a majority of directors to be independent unless particular circumstances make this not feasible or in the best interests of shareholders. We generally vote for proposals that would require the board’s audit, compensation/remuneration, and/or governance/nominating committees to be composed exclusively of independent directors since this minimizes the potential for conflicts of interest.

5. Director Indemnification

Invesco recognizes that individuals may be reluctant to serve as corporate directors if they are personally liable for all related lawsuits and legal costs. As a result, reasonable limitations on directors’ liability can benefit a company and its shareholders by helping to attract and retain qualified directors while preserving recourse for shareholders in the event of misconduct by directors. Invesco, therefore, generally supports proposals to limit directors’ liability and provide indemnification and/or exculpation, provided that the arrangements are limited to

 

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the director acting honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company and, in criminal matters, are limited to the director having reasonable grounds for believing the conduct was lawful.

6. Separate Chairperson and CEO

Invesco evaluates these proposals on a case by case basis, recognizing that good governance requires either an independent chair or a qualified, proactive, and lead independent director.

Voting decisions may take into account, among other factors, the presence or absence of:

 

   

a designated lead director, appointed from the ranks of the independent board members, with an established term of office and clearly delineated powers and duties;

 

   

a majority of independent directors;

 

   

completely independent key committees;

 

   

committee chairpersons nominated by the independent directors;

 

   

CEO performance reviewed annually by a committee of independent directors; and

 

   

established governance guidelines.

7. Majority/Supermajority/Cumulative Voting for Directors

The right to elect directors is the single most important mechanism shareholders have to promote accountability. Invesco generally votes in favor of proposals to elect directors by a majority vote. Except in cases where required by law in the jurisdiction of incorporation or when a company has adopted formal governance principles that present a meaningful alternative to the majority voting standard, Invesco generally votes against actions that would impose any supermajority voting requirement, and generally supports actions to dismantle existing supermajority requirements.

The practice of cumulative voting can enable minority shareholders to have representation on a company’s board. Invesco generally opposes such proposals as unnecessary where the company has adopted a majority voting standard. However, Invesco generally supports proposals to institute the practice of cumulative voting at companies whose overall corporate-governance standards indicate a particular need to protect the interests of minority shareholders.

8. Staggered Boards/Annual Election of Directors

Invesco generally supports proposals to elect each director annually rather than electing directors to staggered multi-year terms because annual elections increase a board’s level of accountability to its shareholders.

9. Board Size

Invesco believes that the number of directors is an important factor to consider when evaluating the board’s ability to maximize long-term shareholder value. Invesco approaches proxies relating to board size on a case by case basis but generally will defer to the board with respect to determining the optimal number of board members, provided that the proposed board size is sufficiently large to represent shareholder interests and sufficiently limited to remain effective.

10. Term Limits for Directors

Invesco believes it is important for a board of directors to examine its membership regularly with a view to ensuring that the company continues to benefit from a diversity of director viewpoints and experience. We generally believe that an individual board’s nominating committee is best positioned to determine whether director term limits would be an appropriate measure to help achieve these goals and, if so, the nature of such limits.

 

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ii.

Audit Committees and Auditors

1. Qualifications of Audit Committee and Auditors

Invesco believes a company’s Audit Committee has a high degree of responsibility to shareholders in matters of financial disclosure, integrity of the financial statements and effectiveness of a company’s internal controls. Independence, experience and financial expertise are critical elements of a well-functioning Audit Committee. When electing directors who are members of a company’s Audit Committee, or when ratifying a company’s auditors, Invesco considers the past performance of the Audit Committee and holds its members accountable for the quality of the company’s financial statements and reports.

2. Auditor Indemnifications

A company’s independent auditors play a critical role in ensuring and attesting to the integrity of the company’s financial statements. It is therefore essential that they perform their work in accordance with the highest standards. Invesco generally opposes proposals that would limit the liability of or indemnify auditors because doing so could serve to undermine this obligation.

3. Adequate Disclosure of Auditor Fees

Understanding the fees earned by the auditors is important for assessing auditor independence. Invesco’s support for the re-appointment of the auditors will take into consideration the availability of adequate disclosure concerning the amount and nature of audit versus non-audit fees. Invesco generally will support proposals that call for this disclosure if it is not already being made.

 

E.

Remuneration and Incentives

Invesco believes properly constructed compensation plans that include equity ownership are effective in creating incentives that induce management and employees of portfolio companies to create greater shareholder wealth. Invesco generally supports equity compensation plans that promote the proper alignment of incentives with shareholders’ long-term interests, and generally votes against plans that are overly dilutive to existing shareholders, plans that contain objectionable structural features, and plans that appear likely to reduce the value of the client’s investment.

 

i.

Independent Compensation/Remuneration Committee

Invesco believes that an independent, experienced and well-informed compensation/remuneration committee is critical to ensuring that a company’s remuneration practices align with shareholders’ interests and, therefore, generally supports proposals calling for a compensation/remuneration committee to be comprised solely of independent directors.

 

ii.

Advisory Votes on Executive Compensation

Invesco believes that an independent compensation/remuneration committee of the board, with input from management, is generally best positioned to determine the appropriate components and levels of executive compensation, as well as the appropriate frequency of related shareholder advisory votes. This is particularly the case where shareholders have the ability to express their views on remuneration matters through annual votes for or against the election of the individual directors who comprise the compensation/remuneration committee. Invesco, therefore, generally will support management’s recommendations with regard to the components and levels of executive compensation and the frequency of shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation. However, Invesco will vote against such recommendations where Invesco determines that a company’s executive remuneration policies are not properly aligned with shareholder interests or may create inappropriate incentives for management.

 

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iii.

Equity Based Compensation Plans

Invesco generally votes against plans that contain structural features that would impair the alignment of incentives between shareholders and management. Such features include, without limitation, the ability to reprice or reload options without shareholder approval, the ability to issue options below the stock’s current market price, or the ability to replenish shares automatically without shareholder approval.

 

iv.

Severance Arrangements

Invesco considers proposed severance arrangements (sometimes known as “golden parachute” arrangements) on a case-by-case basis due to the wide variety among their terms. Invesco acknowledges that in some cases such arrangements, if reasonable, may be in shareholders’ best interests as a method of attracting and retaining high quality executive talent. Invesco generally votes in favor of proposals requiring advisory shareholder ratification of senior executives’ severance agreements while generally opposing proposals that require such agreements to be ratified by shareholders in advance of their adoption.

 

v.

Claw Back” Provisions

Invesco generally supports so called “claw back” policies intended to recoup remuneration paid to senior executives based upon materially inaccurate financial reporting (as evidenced by later restatements) or fraudulent accounting or business practices.

 

vi.

Employee Stock Purchase Plans

Invesco generally supports employee stock purchase plans that are reasonably designed to provide proper incentives to a broad base of employees, provided that the price at which employees may acquire stock represents a reasonable discount from the market price.

 

F.

Anti-Takeover Defenses; Reincorporation

Measures designed to protect a company from unsolicited bids can adversely affect shareholder value and voting rights, and they have the potential to create conflicts of interests among directors, management and shareholders. Such measures include adopting or renewing shareholder rights plans (“poison pills”), requiring supermajority voting on certain corporate actions, classifying the election of directors instead of electing each director to an annual term, or creating separate classes of common or preferred stock with special voting rights. In determining whether to support a proposal to add, eliminate or restrict anti-takeover measures, Invesco will examine the particular elements of the proposal to assess the degree to which it would adversely affect shareholder rights of adopted. Invesco generally supports shareholder proposals directing companies to subject their anti-takeover provisions to a shareholder vote. Invesco generally opposes payments by companies to minority shareholders intended to dissuade such shareholders from pursuing a takeover or other changes (sometimes known as “greenmail”) because these payments result in preferential treatment of some shareholders over others.

Reincorporation involves re-establishing the company in a different legal jurisdiction. Invesco generally will vote for proposals to reincorporate a company provided that the board and management have demonstrated sound financial or business reasons for the move. Invesco generally will oppose proposals to reincorporate if they are solely part of an anti-takeover defense or intended to limit directors’ liability.

 

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APPENDIX B

Regular Holidays for Various Securities Markets and Settlement Periods Greater than Seven Days for Calendar Year 2019

The dates in the calendar year 2019 (the only dates which are available as of this SAI) of the regular holidays affecting the securities markets of various countries (including those days where markets close early or open late), as well as the dates of the regular holidays in calendar year 2019 that may cause settlement periods to be greater than seven days including the potential worse-case settlement dates, are as follows. Holidays are subject to change without further notice.

 

Country

  JAN     FEB     MAR     APR     MAY     JUN     JUL     AUG     SEP     OCT     NOV     DEC  
Albania     1,2         14,22       22,29       1       5*       12*     5         28,29       9,25  
Argentina     1         4,5       18,19       1       20         19         14       6,18       25  
Australia     1,28         4,11       19,22,23,25       6,27       3,10         5,14       30       7       5       24-26,31  
Austria     1           19,22       1       10                 24-26,31  
Bahrain**     1             1       4*-6*       11*-13*     8*,9*         16,17  
Bangladesh       21       17,26       14,21       1       2*,4*-6*     1