10-Q 1 goog10-qq22017.htm FORM 10-Q Document



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
________________________________________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ý
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2017
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______ to _______
Commission file number: 001-37580
________________________________________________________________________________________
Alphabet Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
________________________________________________________________________________________
Delaware
61-1767919
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(650) 253-0000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) 
________________________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
ý
  
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
¨
 
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes ¨    No ý
As of July 17, 2017, there were 298,044,925 shares of Alphabet’s Class A common stock outstanding, 47,100,911 shares of Alphabet's Class B common stock outstanding, and 347,733,652 shares of Alphabet's Class C capital stock outstanding.




Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc.
Form 10-Q
For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page No.
 
Item 1
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
 
 
 
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 2
Item 6
 
 

i

Alphabet Inc.

NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include, among other things, statements regarding:
the growth of our business and revenues and our expectations about the factors that influence our success and trends in our business;
our plans to continue to invest in new businesses, products, services and technologies, systems, facilities, and infrastructure, to continue to hire aggressively and provide competitive compensation programs, as well as to continue to invest in acquisitions;
seasonal fluctuations in internet usage and advertiser expenditures, underlying business trends such as traditional retail seasonality, and macroeconomic conditions, which are likely to cause fluctuations in our quarterly results;
the potential for declines in our revenue growth rate;
our expectation that we will continue to take steps to improve the relevance of the ads we deliver and to reduce the number of accidental clicks;
fluctuations in the rate of change in revenue and revenue growth, as well as the rate of change in paid clicks and average cost-per-click and various factors contributing to such fluctuations;
our expectation that our foreign exchange risk management program will not fully offset our net exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
the expected variability of costs related to hedging activities under our foreign exchange risk management program;
our expectation that our cost of revenues, research and development expenses, sales and marketing expenses, and general and administrative expenses will increase in dollars and may increase as a percentage of revenues;
our potential exposure in connection with pending investigations, proceedings, and other contingencies;
our expectation that our monetization trends will fluctuate, which could affect our revenues and margins in the future;
our expectation that our traffic acquisition costs will increase in the future;
our expectation that our results will be impacted by our performance in international markets as users in developing economies increasingly come online;
our expectation that the portion of our revenues that we derive from non-advertising revenues will continue to increase;
our expectation that our other income (loss), net, will fluctuate in the future as it is largely driven by market dynamics;
estimates of our future compensation expenses;
fluctuations in our effective tax rate;
the sufficiency of our sources of funding;
our payment terms to certain advertisers, which may increase our working capital requirements;
fluctuations in our capital expenditures;
our expectations related to the operating structure implemented pursuant to the Alphabet holding company reorganization;
the expected timing and amount of Alphabet Inc.'s stock repurchases;
as well as other statements regarding our future operations, financial condition and prospects, and business strategies. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report and other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including without limitation, the following sections: Part I, Item 2, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, as may be updated in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "predicts," "projects," "will be," "will continue," "may," "could," "will likely result," and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and in particular, the risks discussed in Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, and those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.

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Alphabet Inc.

As used herein, "Alphabet," "the company," "we," "us," "our," and similar terms include Alphabet Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
"Alphabet," "Google," and other trademarks of ours appearing in this report are our property. This report contains additional trade names and trademarks of other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other companies' trade names or trademarks to imply an endorsement or sponsorship of us by such companies, or any relationship with any of these companies.

2

Alphabet Inc.

PART I.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Alphabet Inc.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except share amounts which are reflected in thousands,
and par value per share amounts)
 
As of
December 31, 2016
 
As of
June 30, 2017
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
12,918

 
$
15,711

Marketable securities
73,415

 
79,002

Total cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities
86,333

 
94,713

Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $467 and $546
14,137

 
14,003

Income taxes receivable, net
95

 
874

Inventory
268

 
398

Prepaid revenue share, expenses and other assets
4,575

 
2,398

Total current assets
105,408

 
112,386

Prepaid revenue share, expenses and other assets, non-current
1,819

 
2,004

Non-marketable investments
5,878

 
6,642

Deferred income taxes
383

 
376

Property and equipment, net
34,234

 
37,676

Intangible assets, net
3,307

 
2,933

Goodwill
16,468

 
16,604

Total assets
$
167,497

 
$
178,621

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
2,041

 
$
2,488

Accrued compensation and benefits
3,976

 
3,271

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
6,144

 
8,560

Accrued revenue share
2,942

 
3,007

Deferred revenue
1,099

 
1,226

Income taxes payable, net
554

 
133

Total current liabilities
16,756

 
18,685

Long-term debt
3,935

 
3,955

Deferred revenue, non-current
202

 
345

Income taxes payable, non-current
4,677

 
4,128

Deferred income taxes
226

 
369

Other long-term liabilities
2,665

 
2,853

Total liabilities
28,461

 
30,335

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 11)

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share, 100,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding
0

 
0

Class A and Class B common stock, and Class C capital stock and additional paid-in capital, $0.001 par value per share: 15,000,000 shares authorized (Class A 9,000,000, Class B 3,000,000, Class C 3,000,000); 691,293 (Class A 296,992, Class B 47,437, Class C 346,864) and 692,876 (Class A 298,043, Class B 47,101, Class C 347,732) shares issued and outstanding
36,307

 
38,509

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(2,402
)
 
(1,728
)
Retained earnings
105,131

 
111,505

Total stockholders’ equity
139,036

 
148,286

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
167,497

 
$
178,621

See accompanying notes.

3

Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(in millions, except per share amounts; unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Revenues
$
21,500

 
$
26,010

 
$
41,757

 
$
50,760

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenues
8,130

 
10,373

 
15,778

 
20,168

Research and development
3,363

 
4,172

 
6,730

 
8,114

Sales and marketing
2,415

 
2,897

 
4,802

 
5,541

General and administrative
1,624

 
1,700

 
3,137

 
3,501

European Commission fine
0

 
2,736

 
0

 
2,736

Total costs and expenses
15,532

 
21,878

 
30,447

 
40,060

Income from operations
5,968

 
4,132

 
11,310

 
10,700

Other income (expense), net
151

 
245

 
(62
)
 
496

Income before income taxes
6,119

 
4,377

 
11,248

 
11,196

Provision for income taxes
1,242

 
853

 
2,164

 
2,246

Net income
$
4,877

 
$
3,524

 
$
9,084

 
$
8,950

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic net income per share of Class A and B common stock and Class C capital stock
$
7.11

 
$
5.09

 
$
13.23

 
$
12.94

Diluted net income per share of Class A and B common stock and Class C capital stock
$
7.00

 
$
5.01

 
$
13.01

 
$
12.74

See accompanying notes.

4

Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in millions; unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Net income
$
4,877

 
$
3,524

 
$
9,084

 
$
8,950

Other comprehensive income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in foreign currency translation adjustment
(119
)
 
565

 
37

 
1,016

Available-for-sale investments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in net unrealized gains (losses)
200

 
86

 
556

 
225

Less: reclassification adjustment for net (gains) losses included in net income
14

 
26

 
183

 
51

Net change (net of tax effect of $79, $0, $198, and $0)
214

 
112

 
739

 
276

Cash flow hedges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in net unrealized gains (losses)
100

 
(230
)
 
116

 
(459
)
Less: reclassification adjustment for net (gains) losses included in net income
(52
)
 
(6
)
 
(169
)
 
(159
)
Net change (net of tax effect of $28, $143, $9, and $292)
48

 
(236
)
 
(53
)
 
(618
)
Other comprehensive income
143

 
441

 
723

 
674

Comprehensive income
$
5,020

 
$
3,965

 
$
9,807

 
$
9,624

See accompanying notes.

5

Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in millions; unaudited)
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
2016
 
2017
Operating activities
 
 
 
Net income
$
9,084

 
$
8,950

Adjustments:
 
 
 
Depreciation and impairment of property and equipment
2,426

 
2,711

Amortization and impairment of intangible assets
435

 
417

Stock-based compensation expense
2,997

 
4,012

Deferred income taxes
364

 
538

Loss on marketable and non-marketable investments, net
294

 
84

Other
91

 
34

Changes in assets and liabilities, net of effects of acquisitions:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(17
)
 
431

Income taxes, net
1,680

 
(1,779
)
Prepaid revenue share, expenses and other assets
161

 
(454
)
Accounts payable
(221
)
 
119

Accrued expenses and other liabilities
(471
)
 
1,687

Accrued revenue share
(48
)
 
6

Deferred revenue
3

 
195

Net cash provided by operating activities
16,778

 
16,951

Investing activities
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment
(4,580
)
 
(5,339
)
Proceeds from disposals of property and equipment
29

 
54

Purchases of marketable securities
(45,588
)
 
(39,676
)
Maturities and sales of marketable securities
37,789

 
34,238

Purchases of non-marketable investments
(681
)
 
(694
)
Maturities and sales of non-marketable investments
98

 
118

Cash collateral related to securities lending
(363
)
 
0

Investments in reverse repurchase agreements
(50
)
 
0

Acquisitions, net of cash acquired, and purchases of intangible assets
(72
)
 
(143
)
Proceeds from collection of notes receivable
0

 
1,419

Net cash used in investing activities
(13,418
)
 
(10,023
)
Financing activities
 
 
 
Net payments related to stock-based award activities
(1,610
)
 
(2,093
)
Repurchases of capital stock
(3,693
)
 
(2,745
)
Proceeds from issuance of debt, net of costs
5,753

 
0

Repayments of debt
(6,801
)
 
(56
)
Proceeds from sale of subsidiary shares
0

 
480

Net cash used in financing activities
(6,351
)
 
(4,414
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
69

 
279

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
(2,922
)
 
2,793

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
16,549

 
12,918

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
13,627

 
$
15,711

See accompanying notes.

6

Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Note 1. Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations
Google Inc. (Google) was incorporated in California in 1998 and re-incorporated in Delaware in 2003. In 2015, we implemented a holding company reorganization, and as a result, Alphabet Inc. (Alphabet) became the successor issuer to Google. We generate revenues primarily by delivering relevant, cost-effective online advertising.
Basis of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements of Alphabet include the accounts of Alphabet and all wholly-owned subsidiaries as well as all variable interest entities where we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet as of June 30, 2017, the Consolidated Statements of Income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, and the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 are unaudited. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP). In our opinion, the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature necessary for the fair presentation of our financial position as of June 30, 2017, our results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, and our cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2017.
These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on February 2, 2017.
Use of Estimates
Preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to accounts receivable and sales allowances, fair values of financial instruments, intangible assets and goodwill, useful lives of intangible assets and property and equipment, income taxes, and contingent liabilities, among others. We base our estimates on assumptions, both historical and forward looking, that are believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Our financial assets and financial liabilities including cash equivalents, marketable securities, foreign currency and interest rate derivative contracts, and non-marketable debt securities are measured and recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. We measure certain financial assets at fair value for disclosure purposes, as well as on a nonrecurring basis when they are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired. Our other current financial assets and our other current financial liabilities have fair values that approximate their carrying value.
Fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that is determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability. Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value are measured and classified in accordance with a three-tier fair value hierarchy based on the observability of the inputs available in the market used to measure fair value:
Level 1 - Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
Level 2 - Include other inputs that are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant inputs are observable in the market or can be derived from observable market data. Where

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Alphabet Inc.

applicable, these models project future cash flows and discount the future amounts to a present value using market-based observable inputs including interest rate curves, foreign exchange rates, and credit ratings.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activities.
The fair value hierarchy requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In January 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-01 (ASU 2016-01) "Financial Instruments-Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities." ASU 2016-01 amends various aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 is effective for annual reporting periods and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2017. The most significant impact to our consolidated financial statements relates to the recognition and measurement of equity investments at fair value in our consolidated statement of income. We expect to elect the measurement alternative, defined as cost, less impairments, adjusted by observable price changes. We anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016-01 will increase the volatility of our other income (expense), net, as a result of the remeasurement of our equity securities upon the occurrence of observable price changes and impairments.
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02 (Topic 842) "Leases." Topic 842 supersedes the lease recognition requirements in Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 840, "Leases." Under Topic 842, lessees are required to recognize assets and liabilities on the balance sheet for most leases and provide enhanced disclosures. Leases will continue to be classified as either finance or operating. Topic 842 is effective for annual reporting periods and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption by public entities is permitted. Entities are required to use a modified retrospective approach for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements, and there are certain optional practical expedients that an entity may elect to apply. Full retrospective application is prohibited. We anticipate that the adoption of Topic 842 will materially affect our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We are in the process of implementing changes to our systems and processes in conjunction with our review of existing lease agreements. We plan to adopt Topic 842 effective January 1, 2019 and we are evaluating the use of the optional practical expedients.
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13 (ASU 2016-13) "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss methodology, which will result in more timely recognition of credit losses. ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2019. We are currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-13 on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-04 (ASU 2017-04) “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment.” ASU 2017-04 eliminates step two of the goodwill impairment test and specifies that goodwill impairment should be measured by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. Additionally, the amount of goodwill allocated to each reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount of net assets should be disclosed. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests performed in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019; early adoption is permitted. We currently anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2017-04 will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09 (Topic 606) "Revenue from Contracts with Customers." Topic 606 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605 “Revenue Recognition” (Topic 605), and requires entities to recognize revenue when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. We adopted Topic 606 as of January 1, 2017 using the modified retrospective transition method. See Note 2 for further details.
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-01 (ASU 2017-01) “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business.” ASU 2017-01 provides guidance to evaluate whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. If substantially all of the

8

Alphabet Inc.

fair value of the gross assets acquired (or disposed of) is concentrated in a single asset or a group of similar assets, the assets acquired (or disposed of) are not considered a business. We adopted ASU 2017-01 as of January 1, 2017 on a prospective basis.
Prior Period Reclassifications
Certain amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with current period presentation.
Note 2. Revenues
Adoption of ASC Topic 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers"
On January 1, 2017, we adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2017. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2017 are presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under Topic 605.
We recorded a net reduction to opening retained earnings of $15 million as of January 1, 2017 due to the cumulative impact of adopting Topic 606, with the impact primarily related to our non-advertising revenues. The impact to revenues as a result of applying Topic 606 was an increase of $8 million and $22 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively.
Revenue Recognition
Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by revenue source (in millions, unaudited). Sales and usage-based taxes are excluded from revenues.
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
 
2016(1)
 
2017
 
2016(1)
 
2017
Google properties
$
15,400

 
$
18,425

 
$
29,728

 
$
35,828

Google Network Members' properties
3,743

 
4,247

 
7,435

 
8,255

Google advertising revenues
19,143

 
22,672

 
37,163

 
44,083

Google other revenues
2,172

 
3,090

 
4,244

 
6,185

Other Bets revenues
185

 
248

 
350

 
492

Total revenues(2)
$
21,500

 
$
26,010

 
$
41,757

 
$
50,760

(1) 
As noted above, prior period amounts have not been adjusted under the modified retrospective method.
(2) 
Revenues include hedging gains of $78 million and $3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and $247 million and $220 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, which do not represent revenues recognized from contracts with customers.
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by geography, based on the billing addresses of our customers (in millions, unaudited):
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
United States
$
10,035

 
$
12,322

 
$
19,416

 
$
24,091

EMEA(1)
7,485

 
8,545

 
14,615

 
16,636

APAC(1)
2,904

 
3,730

 
5,703

 
7,349

Other Americas(1)
1,076

 
1,413

 
2,023

 
2,684

Total revenues(2)
$
21,500

 
$
26,010

 
$
41,757

 
$
50,760

(1) 
Regions represent Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA); Asia-Pacific (APAC); and Canada and Latin America (Other Americas).
(2) 
Revenues include hedging gains for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017.

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Alphabet Inc.

Advertising Revenues
We generate revenues primarily by delivering advertising on Google properties and Google Network Members’ properties.
Google properties revenues consist primarily of advertising revenues generated on Google.com, the Google app, YouTube, and other Google owned and operated properties like Gmail, Google Maps, and Google Play.
Google Network Members’ properties revenues consist primarily of advertising revenues generated from placing ads on Google Network Members’ properties.
Our customers generally purchase advertising inventory through AdWords, DoubleClick Bid Manager, and DoubleClick AdExchange, among others.
Most of our customers pay us on a cost-per-click basis (CPC), which means that an advertiser pays us only when a user clicks on an ad on Google properties or Google Network Members' properties or views certain YouTube ad formats like TrueView. For these customers, we recognize revenue each time a user clicks on the ad or when a user views the ad for a specified period of time.
We also offer advertising on other bases such as cost-per-impression (CPM), which means an advertiser pays us based on the number of times their ads are displayed on Google properties or Google Network Members’ properties. For these customers, we recognize revenue each time an ad is displayed.
Certain customers may receive cash-based incentives or credits, which are accounted for as variable consideration. We estimate these amounts based on the expected amount to be provided to customers and reduce revenues recognized. We believe that there will not be significant changes to our estimates of variable consideration.
For ads placed on Google Network Members’ properties, we evaluate whether we are the principal (i.e., report revenues on a gross basis) or agent (i.e., report revenues on a net basis). Generally, we report advertising revenues for ads placed on Google Network Members’ properties on a gross basis, that is, the amounts billed to our customers are recorded as revenues, and amounts paid to publishers are recorded as cost of revenues. We are the principal because we control the advertising inventory before it is transferred to our customers. Our control is evidenced by our sole ability to monetize the advertising inventory, being primarily responsible to our customers, having discretion in establishing pricing, or a combination of these.
Other Revenues
Google other revenues and Other Bets revenues consist primarily of revenues from:
Apps, in-app purchases, and digital content in the Google Play store;
Google Cloud offerings;
Hardware; and
Other miscellaneous products and services.
As it relates to Google other revenues, the most significant judgment is determining whether we are the principal or agent for app sales and in-app purchases through the Google Play store. We report revenues from these transactions on a net basis because our performance obligation is to facilitate a transaction between app developers and end users, for which we earn a commission. Consequently, the portion of the gross amount billed to end users that is remitted to app developers is not reflected as revenues.
Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations
Our contracts with customers may include multiple performance obligations. For such arrangements, we allocate revenue to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. We generally determine standalone selling prices based on the prices charged to customers or using expected cost plus margin.
Deferred Revenues
We record deferred revenues when cash payments are received or due in advance of our performance, including amounts which are refundable. The increase in the deferred revenue balance for the six months ended June 30, 2017 is primarily driven by cash payments received or due in advance of satisfying our performance obligations, offset by $637 million of revenues recognized that were included in the deferred revenue balance as of December 31, 2016.
Our payment terms vary by the type and location of our customer and the products or services offered. The term between invoicing and when payment is due is not significant. For certain products or services and customer types, we require payment before the products or services are delivered to the customer.
Practical Expedients and Exemptions

10

Alphabet Inc.

We generally expense sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs are recorded within sales and marketing expenses.
We do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.
Note 3. Financial Instruments
We classify our cash equivalents and marketable securities within Level 1 or Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy because we use quoted market prices or alternative pricing sources and models utilizing market observable inputs to determine their fair value. We classify our foreign currency and interest rate derivative contracts primarily within Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy as the valuation inputs are based on quoted prices and market observable data of similar instruments.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Marketable Securities
 The following tables summarize our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities by significant investment categories as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017 (in millions):
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
Adjusted
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Fair
Value
 
Cash and
Cash
Equivalents
 
Marketable
Securities
Cash
$
7,078

 
$
0

 
$
0

 
$
7,078

 
$
7,078

 
$
0

Level 1:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market and other funds
4,783

 
0

 
0

 
4,783

 
4,783

 
0

U.S. government notes
38,454

 
46

 
(215
)
 
38,285

 
613

 
37,672

Marketable equity securities
160

 
133

 
0

 
293

 
0

 
293

 
43,397

 
179

 
(215
)
 
43,361

 
5,396

 
37,965

Level 2:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Time deposits(1)
142

 
0

 
0

 
142

 
140

 
2

Mutual funds(2)
204

 
7

 
0

 
211

 
0

 
211

U.S. government agencies
1,826

 
0

 
(11
)
 
1,815

 
300

 
1,515

Foreign government bonds
2,345

 
18

 
(7
)
 
2,356

 
0

 
2,356

Municipal securities
4,757

 
15

 
(65
)
 
4,707

 
2

 
4,705

Corporate debt securities
12,993

 
114

 
(116
)
 
12,991

 
2

 
12,989

Agency mortgage-backed securities
12,006

 
26

 
(216
)
 
11,816

 
0

 
11,816

Asset-backed securities
1,855

 
2

 
(1
)
 
1,856

 
0

 
1,856

 
36,128

 
182

 
(416
)
 
35,894

 
444

 
35,450

Total
$
86,603

 
$
361

 
$
(631
)
 
$
86,333

 
$
12,918

 
$
73,415


11

Alphabet Inc.

 
As of June 30, 2017
 
Adjusted
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Fair
Value
 
Cash and
Cash
Equivalents
 
Marketable
Securities
 
(unaudited)
Cash
$
7,385

 
$
0

 
$
0

 
$
7,385

 
$
7,385

 
$
0

Level 1:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market and other funds
2,781

 
0

 
0

 
2,781

 
2,781

 
0

U.S. government notes
49,502

 
14

 
(176
)
 
49,340

 
4,502

 
44,838

Marketable equity securities
226

 
121

 
0

 
347

 
0

 
347

 
52,509

 
135

 
(176
)
 
52,468

 
7,283

 
45,185

Level 2:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Time deposits(1)
108

 
0

 
0

 
108

 
106

 
2

Mutual funds(2)
232

 
13

 
0

 
245

 
0

 
245

U.S. government agencies
2,540

 
0

 
(6
)
 
2,534

 
799

 
1,735

Foreign government bonds
2,422

 
10

 
(11
)
 
2,421

 
0

 
2,421

Municipal securities
5,856

 
14

 
(10
)
 
5,860

 
8

 
5,852

Corporate debt securities
12,608

 
48

 
(22
)
 
12,634

 
130

 
12,504

Agency mortgage-backed securities
7,695

 
14

 
(133
)
 
7,576

 
0

 
7,576

Asset-backed securities
3,479

 
5

 
(2
)
 
3,482

 
0

 
3,482

 
34,940

 
104

 
(184
)
 
34,860

 
1,043

 
33,817

Total
$
94,834

 
$
239

 
$
(360
)
 
$
94,713

 
$
15,711

 
$
79,002

(1) 
The majority of our time deposits are foreign deposits.
(2) 
The fair value option was elected for mutual funds with gains (losses) recognized in other income (expense), net.
We determine realized gains or losses on the sale of marketable securities on a specific identification method. We recognized gross realized gains of $91 million and $24 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and $159 million and $172 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. We recognized gross realized losses of $100 million and $39 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and $335 million and $209 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. We reflect these gains and losses as a component of other income (expense), net, in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income.
The following table summarizes the estimated fair value of our investments in marketable debt securities, accounted for as available-for-sale securities and classified by the contractual maturity date of the securities (in millions, unaudited):
 
As of
June 30, 2017
Due in 1 year
$
29,827

Due in 1 year through 5 years
38,652

Due in 5 years through 10 years
1,281

Due after 10 years
8,650

Total
$
78,410


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Alphabet Inc.

Impairment Considerations for Marketable Investments
The following tables present gross unrealized losses and fair values for those investments that were in an unrealized loss position as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, aggregated by investment category and the length of time that individual securities have been in a continuous loss position (in millions):
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
Less than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Greater
 
Total
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Loss
U.S. government notes
$
26,411

 
$
(215
)
 
$
0

 
$
0

 
$
26,411

 
$
(215
)
U.S. government agencies
1,014

 
(11
)
 
0

 
0

 
1,014

 
(11
)
Foreign government bonds
956

 
(7
)
 
0

 
0

 
956

 
(7
)
Municipal securities
3,461

 
(63
)
 
46

 
(2
)
 
3,507

 
(65
)
Corporate debt securities
6,184

 
(111
)
 
166

 
(5
)
 
6,350

 
(116
)
Agency mortgage-backed securities
10,184

 
(206
)
 
259

 
(10
)
 
10,443

 
(216
)
Asset-backed securities
391

 
(1
)
 
0

 
0

 
391

 
(1
)
Total
$
48,601

 
$
(614
)
 
$
471

 
$
(17
)
 
$
49,072

 
$
(631
)
 
As of June 30, 2017
 
Less than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Greater
 
Total
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Loss
 
(unaudited)
U.S. government notes
$
37,169

 
$
(174
)
 
$
508

 
$
(2
)
 
$
37,677

 
$
(176
)
U.S. government agencies
1,608

 
(6
)
 
0

 
0

 
1,608

 
(6
)
Foreign government bonds
1,448

 
(11
)
 
0

 
0

 
1,448

 
(11
)
Municipal securities
2,088

 
(8
)
 
54

 
(2
)
 
2,142

 
(10
)
Corporate debt securities
5,157

 
(21
)
 
77

 
(1
)
 
5,234

 
(22
)
Agency mortgage-backed securities
6,623

 
(123
)
 
267

 
(10
)
 
6,890

 
(133
)
Asset-backed securities
1,232

 
(2
)
 
0

 
0

 
1,232

 
(2
)
Total
$
55,325

 
$
(345
)
 
$
906

 
$
(15
)
 
$
56,231

 
$
(360
)
During the three months ended June 30, 2016 and the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, we did not recognize any other-than-temporary impairment losses. During the six months ended June 30, 2016, we recognized $87 million of other-than-temporary impairment losses related to our marketable equity securities. Those losses are included in loss on marketable securities, net, as a component of other income (expense), net, in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income. See Note 6 for further details on other income (expense), net.
Derivative Financial Instruments
We recognize derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. We record changes in the fair value (i.e., gains or losses) of the derivatives in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income as other income (expense), net, revenues, or accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets, as discussed below.
We enter into foreign currency contracts with financial institutions to reduce the risk that our cash flows and earnings will be adversely affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. We use certain interest rate derivative contracts to hedge interest rate exposures on our fixed income securities and debt issuances. Our program is not used for trading or speculative purposes.
We enter into master netting arrangements, which reduce credit risk by permitting net settlement of transactions with the same counterparty. To further reduce credit risk, we enter into collateral security arrangements under which the counterparty is required to provide collateral when the net fair value of certain financial instruments fluctuates from contractually established thresholds. We can take possession of the collateral in the event of counterparty default. As of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, we received cash collateral related to the derivative instruments under our collateral security arrangements of $362 million and $54 million, respectively.

13

Alphabet Inc.

Cash Flow Hedges
We use foreign currency forwards and option contracts, including collars (an option strategy comprised of a combination of purchased and written options), designated as cash flow hedges to hedge certain forecasted revenue transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and at times we use interest rate swaps to effectively lock interest rates on anticipated debt issuances. These transactions are designated as cash flow hedges. The notional principal of these contracts was approximately $10.7 billion and $11.0 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, respectively. These contracts have maturities of 24 months or less.
We reflect gain or loss on the effective portion of a cash flow hedge as a component of AOCI and subsequently reclassify cumulative gains and losses to revenues or interest expense when the hedged transactions are recorded. If the hedged transactions become probable of not occurring, the corresponding amounts in AOCI are immediately reclassified to other income (expense), net. For foreign currency collars, we include the change in time value in our assessment of hedge effectiveness. For forwards and all other option contracts, we exclude the change in the forward points and time value from our assessment of hedge effectiveness. We recognize changes of the excluded components in other income (expense), net.
As of June 30, 2017, the effective portion of our cash flow hedges before tax effect was a net accumulated loss of $306 million, of which a net loss of $339 million is expected to be reclassified from AOCI into earnings within the next 12 months.
Fair Value Hedges
We use forward contracts designated as fair value hedges to hedge foreign currency risks for our investments denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We exclude changes in forward points for the forward contracts from the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The notional principal of these contracts was $2.4 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017.
Gains and losses on these forward contracts are recognized in other income (expense), net, along with the offsetting gains and losses of the related hedged items.
Other Derivatives
Other derivatives not designated as hedging instruments consist of foreign currency forward contracts that we use to hedge intercompany transactions and other monetary assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the local currency of a subsidiary. We recognize gains and losses on these contracts, as well as the related costs in other income (expense), net, along with the foreign currency gains and losses on monetary assets and liabilities. The notional principal of the outstanding foreign exchange contracts was $7.9 billion and $7.5 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, respectively.
The fair values of our outstanding derivative instruments were as follows (in millions):
 
 
 
As of December 31, 2016
  
Balance Sheet Location
 
Fair Value of
Derivatives
Designated as
Hedging Instruments
 
Fair Value of
Derivatives Not
Designated as
Hedging Instruments
 
Total Fair
Value
Derivative Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Level 2:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign exchange contracts
Prepaid revenue share, expenses and other assets, current and non-current
 
$
539

 
$
57

 
$
596

Total
 
 
$
539

 
$
57

 
$
596

Derivative Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Level 2:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign exchange contracts
Accrued expenses and other liabilities, current and non-current
 
$
4

 
$
9

 
$
13

Total
 
 
$
4

 
$
9

 
$
13


14

Alphabet Inc.

 
 
 
As of June 30, 2017
  
Balance Sheet Location
 
Fair Value of
Derivatives
Designated as
Hedging Instruments
 
Fair Value of
Derivatives Not
Designated as
Hedging Instruments
 
Total Fair
Value
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Derivative Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Level 2:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign exchange contracts
Prepaid revenue share, expenses and other assets, current and non-current
 
$
35

 
$
23

 
$
58

Total
 
 
$
35

 
$
23

 
$
58

Derivative Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Level 2:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign exchange contracts
Accrued expenses and other liabilities, current and non-current
 
$
365

 
$
36

 
$
401

Total
 
 
$
365

 
$
36

 
$
401

The effect of derivative instruments in cash flow hedging relationships on income and other comprehensive income (OCI) is summarized below (in millions, unaudited):
 
Gains (Losses) Recognized in OCI on Derivatives Before Tax Effect (Effective Portion)
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
Derivatives in Cash Flow Hedging Relationship
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Foreign exchange contracts
$
155

 
$
(374
)
 
$
188

 
$
(687
)
 
 
Gains (Losses) Reclassified from AOCI into Income (Effective Portion)
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
Derivatives in Cash Flow Hedging Relationship
Location
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Foreign exchange contracts
Revenues
 
$
78

 
$
3

 
$
247

 
$
220

Interest rate contracts
Other income (expense), net
 
2

 
2

 
3

 
3

Total
 
 
$
80

 
$
5

 
$
250

 
$
223

 
Gains (Losses) Recognized in Income on Derivatives
(Amount Excluded from  Effectiveness Testing and Ineffective Portion) 
(1)
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
Derivatives in Cash Flow Hedging Relationship
Location
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Foreign exchange contracts
Other income (expense), net
 
$
(120
)
 
$
20

 
$
(259
)
 
$
46

 
(1) 
Gains (losses) related to the ineffective portion of the hedges were not material in all periods presented.

15

Alphabet Inc.

The effect of derivative instruments in fair value hedging relationships on income is summarized below (in millions, unaudited):
 
Gains (Losses) Recognized in Income on Derivatives(2)
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
Derivatives in Fair Value Hedging Relationship
Location
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Foreign Exchange Hedges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign exchange contracts
Other income (expense), net
 
$
53

 
$
(80
)
 
$
25

 
$
(127
)
Hedged item
Other income (expense), net
 
(53
)
 
85

 
(25
)
 
136

Total
 
 
$
0

 
$
5

 
$
0

 
$
9

(2) 
Amounts excluded from effectiveness testing and the ineffective portion of the fair value hedging relationships were not material in all periods presented.
The effect of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments on income is summarized below (in millions, unaudited):
 
Gains (Losses) Recognized in Income on Derivatives
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
Derivatives Not Designated As Hedging Instruments
Location
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Foreign exchange contracts
Other income (expense), net
 
$
(6
)
 
$
(22
)
 
$
(80
)
 
$
(224
)
Offsetting of Derivatives
We present our forwards and purchased options at gross fair values in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. For foreign currency collars, we present at net fair values where both purchased and written options are with the same counterparty. Our master netting and other similar arrangements allow net settlements under certain conditions. As of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, information related to these offsetting arrangements were as follows (in millions):
Offsetting of Assets
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, but Have Legal Rights to Offset
 
 
Description
Gross Amounts of Recognized Assets
 
Gross Amounts Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Presented in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Financial Instruments
 
 Cash Collateral Received
 
Non-Cash Collateral Received
 
Net Assets Exposed
Derivatives
$
596

 
$
0

 
$
596

 
$
(11
)
(1) 
$
(337
)
 
$
(73
)
 
$
175

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of June 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, but Have Legal Rights to Offset
 
 
Description
Gross Amounts of Recognized Assets
 
Gross Amounts Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Presented in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Financial Instruments
 
Cash Collateral Received
 
Non-Cash Collateral Received
 
Net Assets Exposed
 
(unaudited)
Derivatives
$
66

 
$
(8
)
 
$
58

 
$
(26
)
(1) 
$
(18
)
 
$
(1
)
 
$
13

(1) 
The balances as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017 were related to derivative liabilities which are allowed to be net settled against derivative assets in accordance with our master netting agreements.

16

Alphabet Inc.

Offsetting of Liabilities
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, but Have Legal Rights to Offset
 
 
Description
Gross Amounts of Recognized Liabilities
 
Gross Amounts Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Presented in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Financial Instruments
 
 Cash Collateral Pledged
 
Non-Cash Collateral Pledged
 
Net Liabilities
Derivatives
$
13

 
$
0

 
$
13

 
$
(11
)
(2) 
$
0

 
$
0

 
$
2

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of June 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, but Have Legal Rights to Offset
 
Description
Gross Amounts of Recognized Liabilities
 
Gross Amounts Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Presented in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Financial Instruments
 
 Cash Collateral Pledged
 
Non-Cash Collateral Pledged
 
Net Liabilities
 
(unaudited)
Derivatives
$
409

 
$
(8
)
 
$
401

 
$
(26
)
(2) 
$
0

 
$
0

 
$
375

(2) 
The balances as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017 were related to derivative assets which are allowed to be net settled against derivative liabilities in accordance with our master netting agreements.
Note 4. Non-Marketable Investments
Our non-marketable investments include non-marketable equity investments and non-marketable debt securities.
Non-Marketable Equity Investments
Our non-marketable equity investments are investments we have made in privately-held companies accounted for under the equity or cost method and are not required to be consolidated under the variable interest or voting models. As of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, investments accounted for under the equity method had a carrying value of approximately $1.7 billion and $1.8 billion, respectively. Our share of gains and losses in equity method investments including impairment was a net loss of approximately $43 million and $13 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and a net loss of $148 million and $62 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. As of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, investments accounted for under the cost method had a carrying value of $3.0 billion and $3.5 billion, respectively, and a fair value of approximately $8.1 billion and $8.6 billion, respectively. The fair value of the cost method investments are primarily determined from data leveraging private-market transactions and are classified within Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy. We reflect our share of equity method investee earnings and losses and impairments of non-marketable equity investments as a component of other income (expense), net, in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income.
Certain renewable energy investments included in our non-marketable equity investments accounted for under the equity method are variable interest entities (VIE). These entities' activities involve power generation using renewable sources. We have determined that the governance structures of these entities do not allow us to direct the activities that would significantly impact the VIE's economic performance such as setting operating budgets. Therefore, we do not consolidate these VIEs in our financial statements. The carrying value and maximum exposure of these VIEs were $1.2 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017. The maximum exposure is based on current investments to date.  We have determined the single source of our exposure to these VIEs is our capital investment in these entities. We periodically reassess whether we are the primary beneficiary of a VIE. The reassessment process considers whether we have acquired the power to direct the most significant activities of the VIE through changes in governing documents or other circumstances. We also reconsider whether entities previously determined not to be VIEs have become VIEs, and vice versa, based on changes in facts and circumstances including changes in contractual arrangements and capital structure.
Non-Marketable Debt Securities
Our non-marketable debt securities are primarily preferred stock that are redeemable at our option and convertible notes issued by private companies. The cost of these securities were $1.1 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017. These debt securities do not have readily determinable market values and are categorized accordingly as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy. To estimate the fair value of these securities, we use a combination of valuation methodologies, including market and income approaches based on prior transaction prices; estimated timing, probability, and amount of cash flows; and illiquidity considerations. Financial information of private companies may

17

Alphabet Inc.

not be available and consequently we will estimate the value based on the best available information at the measurement date. No significant impairments were recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017.
The following table presents a reconciliation for our non-marketable debt securities measured and recorded at fair value on a recurring basis, using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) (in millions, unaudited):
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
2016
 
2017
Beginning balance
$
1,024

 
$
1,165

Total net gains (losses)
 
 
 
Included in earnings
0

 
(5
)
Included in other comprehensive income
90

 
126

Purchases
76

 
70

Sales
(6
)
 
(1
)
Settlements
(14
)
 
(3
)
Ending balance
$
1,170

 
$
1,352

Note 5. Debt
Short-Term Debt
We have a debt financing program of up to $5.0 billion through the issuance of commercial paper. Net proceeds from this program are used for general corporate purposes. We had no commercial paper outstanding as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017.
Long-Term Debt
Google issued $3.0 billion of senior unsecured notes in three tranches (collectively, 2011 Notes) in May 2011, due in 2014, 2016, and 2021, as well as $1.0 billion of senior unsecured notes (2014 Notes) in February 2014 due 2024.
In April 2016, we completed an exchange offer with eligible holders of Google’s 2011 Notes due 2021 and 2014 Notes due 2024 (collectively, the Google Notes). An aggregate principal amount of approximately $1.7 billion of the Google Notes was exchanged for approximately $1.7 billion of Alphabet notes with identical interest rate and maturity. Because the exchange was between a parent and the subsidiary company and for substantially identical notes, the change was treated as a debt modification for accounting purposes with no gain or loss recognized.
In August 2016, Alphabet issued $2.0 billion of senior unsecured notes (2016 Notes) due 2026. The net proceeds from the issuance of the 2016 Notes were used for general corporate purposes, including the repayment of outstanding commercial paper. The Alphabet notes due in 2021, 2024, and 2026 rank equally with each other and are structurally subordinated to the outstanding Google Notes.
The total outstanding long-term debt is summarized below (in millions):
 
As of
December 31, 2016
 
As of
June 30, 2017
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Long-term debt
 
 
 
3.625% Notes due on May 19, 2021
$
1,000

 
$
1,000

3.375% Notes due on February 25, 2024
1,000

 
1,000

1.998% Notes due on August 15, 2026
2,000

 
2,000

Unamortized discount for the Notes above
(65
)
 
(61
)
Subtotal(1)
$
3,935

 
$
3,939

Capital lease obligation
0

 
16

Total long-term debt
$
3,935

 
$
3,955

(1) 
Includes the outstanding (and unexchanged) Google Notes issued in 2011 and 2014 and the Alphabet notes exchanged in 2016.

18

Alphabet Inc.

The effective interest yields based on proceeds received from the outstanding notes due in 2021, 2024, and 2026 were 3.734%, 3.377%, and 2.231%, respectively, with interest payable semi-annually. We may redeem these notes at any time in whole or in part at specified redemption prices. The total estimated fair value of all outstanding notes was approximately $3.9 billion as of December 31, 2016 and $4.0 billion as of June 30, 2017. The fair value was determined based on observable market prices of identical instruments in less active markets and is categorized accordingly as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
The effective rate of the capital lease obligation approximates the market rate. The estimated fair value of the capital lease obligation approximated its carrying value as of June 30, 2017.
Credit Facility
We have a $4.0 billion revolving credit facility which expires in February 2021. The interest rate for the credit facility is determined based on a formula using certain market rates. No amounts were outstanding under the credit facility as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017.
Note 6. Supplemental Financial Statement Information
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net, consisted of the following (in millions):
 
As of
December 31, 2016
 
As of
June 30, 2017
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Land and buildings
$
19,804

 
$
21,508

Information technology assets
16,084

 
18,529

Construction in progress
8,166

 
9,221

Leasehold improvements
3,415

 
4,035

Furniture and fixtures
58

 
48

Property and equipment, gross
47,527

 
53,341

Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization
(13,293
)
 
(15,665
)
Property and equipment, net
$
34,234

 
$
37,676

As of June 30, 2017, assets under capital lease with a cost basis of $350 million were included in property and equipment.
Note Receivable
In connection with the sale of our Motorola Mobile business to Lenovo Group Limited (Lenovo) on October 29, 2014, we received an interest-free, three-year prepayable promissory note (Note Receivable) due October 2017. The Note Receivable was included on our Consolidated Balance Sheets in prepaid revenue share, expenses, and other assets. Based on the general market conditions and the credit quality of Lenovo at the time of the sale, we discounted the Note Receivable at an effective interest rate of 4.5%. The Note Receivable was fully repaid as of June 30, 2017. The outstanding balances are shown in the table below (in millions):
 
As of
December 31, 2016
 
As of
June 30, 2017
 
 
 
(unaudited)
Principal of the Note Receivable
$
1,448

 
$
0

Less: unamortized discount for the Note Receivable
(51
)
 
0

Total
$
1,397

 
$
0

As of December 31, 2016, we did not recognize a valuation allowance on the Note Receivable.

19

Alphabet Inc.

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following (in millions):
 
As of
December 31, 2016
 
As of
June 30, 2017
 
 
 
(unaudited)
European Commission fine(1)
$
0

 
$
2,755

Accrued customer liabilities
1,256

 
1,131

Other accrued expenses and current liabilities
4,888

 
4,674

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
$
6,144

 
$
8,560

(1) 
Includes the effects of foreign exchange.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The components of AOCI, net of tax, were as follows (in millions, unaudited):
 
Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments
 
Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Available-for-Sale Investments
 
Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Cash Flow Hedges
 
Total
Balance as of December 31, 2015
$
(2,047
)
 
$
(86
)
 
$
259

 
$
(1,874
)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications
37

 
556

 
116

 
709

Amounts reclassified from AOCI
0

 
183

 
(169
)
 
14

Other comprehensive income (loss)
37

 
739

 
(53
)
 
723

Balance as of June 30, 2016
$
(2,010
)
 
$
653

 
$
206

 
$
(1,151
)
 
Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments
 
Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Available-for-Sale Investments
 
Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Cash Flow Hedges
 
Total
Balance as of December 31, 2016
$
(2,646
)
 
$
(179
)
 
$
423

 
$
(2,402
)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications
1,016

 
225

 
(459
)
 
782

Amounts reclassified from AOCI
0

 
51

 
(159
)
 
(108
)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
1,016

 
276

 
(618
)
 
674

Balance as of June 30, 2017
$
(1,630
)
 
$
97

 
$
(195
)
 
$
(1,728
)

20

Alphabet Inc.

The effects on net income of amounts reclassified from AOCI were as follows (in millions, unaudited):
 
 
 
 
Gains (Losses) Reclassified from AOCI to the Consolidated Statement of Income
 
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
 
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
 AOCI Components
 
Location
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale investments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense), net
 
$
(14
)
 
$
(26
)
 
$
(183
)
 
$
(51
)
 
 
Provision for income taxes
 
0

 
0

 
0

 
0

 
 
Net of tax
 
$
(14
)
 
$
(26
)
 
$
(183
)
 
$
(51
)
Unrealized gains (losses) on cash flow hedges
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign exchange contracts
 
Revenue
 
$
78

 
$
3

 
$
247

 
$
220

Interest rate contracts
 
Other income (expense), net
 
2

 
2

 
3

 
3

 
 
Benefit (provision) for income taxes
 
(28
)
 
1

 
(81
)
 
(64
)
 
 
Net of tax
 
$
52

 
$
6

 
$
169

 
$
159

Total amount reclassified, net of tax
 
$
38

 
$
(20
)
 
$
(14
)
 
$
108

Other Income (Expense), Net
The components of other income (expense), net, were as follows (in millions, unaudited):
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30,
 
June 30,
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
Interest income
$
307

 
$
294

 
$
577

 
$
606

Interest expense
(32
)
 
(21
)
 
(62
)
 
(46
)
Foreign currency exchange losses, net
(128
)
 
(46
)
 
(314
)
 
(48
)
Loss on marketable securities, net
(9
)
 
(15
)
 
(176
)
 
(37
)
Loss on non-marketable investments, net
(5
)
 
(1
)
 
(118
)
 
(47
)
Other
18

 
34

 
31

 
68

Other income (expense), net
$
151

 
$
245

 
$
(62
)
 
$
496

Interest expense in the preceding table is net of interest capitalized of $0 million and $12 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and $0 million and $19 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively.
Note 7. Acquisitions
During the six months ended June 30, 2017, we completed various acquisitions and purchases of intangible assets for total consideration of approximately $163 million. In aggregate, $10 million was cash acquired, $59 million was attributed to intangible assets, $106 million was attributed to goodwill, and $12 million was attributed to net liabilities assumed. These acquisitions generally enhance the breadth and depth of our offerings and expand our expertise in engineering and other functional areas. The amount of goodwill expected to be deductible for tax purposes is approximately $21 million.
Pro forma results of operations for these acquisitions have not been presented because they are not material to the consolidated results of operations, either individually or in aggregate.
For all intangible assets acquired and purchased during the six months ended June 30, 2017, patents and developed technology have a weighted-average useful life of 4.0 years, customer relationships have a weighted-average useful life of 4.0 years, and trade names and other have a weighted-average useful life of 8.8 years.
Note 8. Calico
In September 2013, we announced the formation of Calico, a life science company with a mission to harness advanced technologies to increase our understanding of the biology that controls lifespan. As of June 30, 2017, we have contributed $240 million to Calico in exchange for Calico convertible preferred units and are committed to fund an additional $490 million on an as-needed basis.
Calico is a VIE and its results of operations and statement of financial position are included in our consolidated financial statements as we have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact its economic performance.
In September 2014, AbbVie Inc. (AbbVie) and Calico announced a research and development collaboration agreement intended to help both companies discover, develop, and bring to market new therapies for patients with age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration and cancer. As of June 30, 2017, AbbVie has contributed $750 million to fund the collaboration pursuant to the agreement, which reflects its total commitment. As of June 30, 2017, Calico has contributed $250 million and committed up to an additional $500 million.
Calico has used its scientific expertise to establish a world-class research and development facility, with a focus on drug discovery and early drug development; and AbbVie provides scientific and clinical development support and its commercial expertise to bring new discoveries to market. Both companies share costs and profits equally. AbbVie's contribution has been recorded as a liability on Calico's financial statements, which is reduced and reflected as a reduction to research and development expense as eligible research and development costs are incurred by Calico over the next few years.
Note 9. Verily
Verily is a life science company with a mission to make the world's health data useful so that people enjoy healthier lives. Verily is a VIE and its results of operations and statement of financial position are included in our consolidated financial statements as we have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact its economic performance.

21

Alphabet Inc.

In January 2017, Temasek, a Singapore-based investment company, signed a binding commitment to purchase a noncontrolling interest in Verily for an aggregate of $800 million in cash. In the first quarter of 2017, the first tranche of the investment closed and we received $480 million. The transaction is accounted for as an equity transaction and no gain or loss was recognized. Of the $480 million received, $15 million was recorded as noncontrolling interest, based on Temasek’s share of the net assets of Verily, and $465 million was recorded as additional paid-in capital. Noncontrolling interest and net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest were not separately presented on our consolidated financial statements as of and for the quarter ended June 30, 2017 as the amounts were not material.
The second and final tranche of the investment closed in July 2017 and we received the remaining $320 million upon close.
Note 10. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill
The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill allocated to our disclosed segments for the six months ended June 30, 2017 were as follows (in millions, unaudited):
 
Google
 
Other Bets
 
Total Consolidated
Balance as of December 31, 2016
$
16,027

 
$
441

 
$
16,468

Acquisitions
98

 
8

 
106

Foreign currency translation and other adjustments
30

 
0

 
30

Balance as of June 30, 2017
$
16,155

 
$
449

 
$
16,604

Other Intangible Assets
Information regarding purchased intangible assets were as follows (in millions):
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
Gross
Carrying
Amount
 
Accumulated
Amortization
 
Net
Carrying
Amount
Patents and developed technology
$
5,542

 
$
2,710

 
$
2,832

Customer relationships
352

 
197

 
155

Trade names and other
463

 
143

 
320

Total
$
6,357

 
$
3,050

 
$
3,307

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of June 30, 2017
 
Gross
Carrying
Amount
 
Accumulated
Amortization