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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 27, 2021.

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Toast, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   7389   45-4168768
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

401 Park Drive, Suite 801

Boston, MA 02215

Tel: (617) 297-1005

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Christopher P. Comparato

Chief Executive Officer

401 Park Drive, Suite 801

Boston, MA 02215

(617) 297-1005

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Mark T. Bettencourt, Esq.
Gregg L. Katz, Esq.
Andrew R. Pusar, Esq.
Goodwin Procter LLP
100 Northern Avenue
Boston, MA 02210
(617) 570-1000
  Brian R. Elworthy, Esq.
General Counsel
Toast, Inc.
401 Park Drive, Suite 801
Boston, MA 02215
(617) 297-1005
 

John L. Savva, Esq.
Sullivan & Cromwell LLP
1870 Embarcadero Road

Palo Alto, CA 94303

(650) 461-5600

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box:  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each Class of

Securities to be Registered

  

Proposed
Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price(1)(2)

  

Amount of

Registration Fee

Class A common stock, par value $0.000001 per share

   $100,000,000    $10,910.00

 

 

(1)

Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

(2)

Includes the aggregate offering price of additional shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase.

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion. Dated    , 2021.

Shares

 

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Toast, Inc.

Class A Common Stock

 

 

This is the initial public offering of shares of Class A common stock of Toast, Inc. All of the                shares of our Class A common stock are being sold by us.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our Class A common stock. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per share will be between $                and $                . We have applied to list our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “TOST.”

Following this offering, we will have two classes of common stock: Class A common stock and Class B common stock. The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting, conversion and transfer rights. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote. Each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes and is convertible at any time into one share of Class A common stock. All shares of our capital stock outstanding immediately prior to this offering, including all shares held by our executive officers, employees and directors, and their respective affiliates, will be reclassified into shares of our Class B common stock immediately prior to the consummation of this offering. The holders of our outstanding Class B common stock will hold approximately     % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following this offering.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced reporting requirements for this prospectus and may elect to do so in future filings.

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 27 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our Class A common stock.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

     Per Share      Total  

Initial public offering price

   $                    $                

Underwriting discount(1)

   $                    $                

Proceeds, before expenses, to Toast, Inc.

   $                    $                

 

(1)

See the section titled “Underwriting” for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.

To the extent that the underwriters sell more than                shares of Class A common stock, the underwriters have the option to purchase up to an additional                shares from Toast, Inc. at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount.

 

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Class A common stock against payment in New York, New York on                , 2021.

 

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC    Morgan Stanley    J.P. Morgan
KeyBanc Capital Markets    William Blair    Piper Sandler
Canaccord Genuity    Needham & Company    R. Seelaus & Co., LLC

 

 

Prospectus dated                , 2021.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus

 

     Page  

A Letter from our Founders

     i  

Prospectus Summary

     1  

Risk Factors

     27  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     80  

Market and Industry Data

     82  

Use of Proceeds

     84  

Dividend Policy

     85  

Capitalization

     86  

Dilution

     89  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     92  

Business

     132  

Management

     170  

Executive Compensation

     179  

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

     190  

Principal Stockholders

     194  

Description of Capital Stock

     198  

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

     207  

Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

     212  

Underwriting

     216  

Validity of Class A Common Stock

     225  

Experts

     225  

Additional Information

     225  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1  

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or contained in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. Neither we nor any of the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any other information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have prepared. Neither we nor any of the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of its date, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of our Class A common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since such date.

For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside of the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of our Class A common stock, and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.


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A LETTER FROM OUR FOUNDERS

Running a restaurant is tough. It takes guts and determination to be in this business. It takes a love of the rush, a commitment to the any-time shift, and a knack for making magic from the chaos of a dinner service.

We started Toast to make restaurant work a little easier. Back in 2011, we hoped to take our passion for small business and build a technology platform for an industry that wasn’t benefiting from the digital innovation other industries were experiencing.

Toast started as a simple idea conceived in a local restaurant over a shared meal: how do we build a mobile app that can streamline the payment experience at restaurants? We had seen the untapped potential for mobile payments to transform businesses, and we noticed how hard the owners of our favorite local spots were working to make up for the shortcomings of their existing technology.

Our first attempt at solving this problem failed miserably. It was too difficult to integrate with legacy systems, and we didn’t understand the immense challenges of running a restaurant. So we went door-to-door, listening to restaurant operators. Rocco, the owner of a popular downtown pizza place, explained how he worked from the back office until 1 a.m. every night running the day’s reports on a clunky point of sale system, because he couldn’t access the information from home. Chris, the new owner of a small cafe franchise, told us he signed up with more than ten different technology providers and was constantly stuck on the phone trying to get the systems to work together.

Working closely with owners, operators, and staff, we quickly learned how dissatisfied the restaurant industry was with existing on-premise point of sale systems and the vast ecosystem of disconnected point solutions. We realized the reason restaurants couldn’t innovate was because of the limitations of their technology and the lack of a true partner who understood them.

A Complex Industry Lacking a Technology Leader

We set out to change this dynamic with the same unrelenting enthusiasm it takes to start a restaurant. Our vision was to build a highly scalable, end-to-end, cloud-based restaurant management platform that would improve the odds of success for the hard-working people who fuel this community.

Along the way, we discovered the restaurant industry was lacking a true technology leader. Despite how large the industry is, restaurants often lag behind other industries in transitioning to modern, cloud-based platforms. Even today, many of our favorite restaurants run on a combination of legacy on-premise technology, commodity payment processors, phoned-in takeout orders, and a stack of paper invoices. And it’s not just technology that’s been slow to change: structural industry challenges like perpetually low profit margins, higher than average failure rates, and high employee turnover make running a restaurant even harder.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we’ve seen a big shift in dining behavior and an acceleration in technology adoption. Many restaurant operators have rebuilt their businesses to meet new guest expectations for ordering online, contactless payments, and digital hospitality. Through new Toast product offerings like contactless Order & Pay for indoor dining, curbside notifications for takeout, and flat-fee delivery via Toast Delivery Services, we’ve supported our customers through this transition.

But while this rapid shift toward technology has helped restaurants rebuild, the COVID-19 pandemic has worsened systemic challenges in the industry. The restaurant industry is faced with the task of rebuilding local communities as sources for positive change amidst massive social upheaval and providing a working environment that is fair, equitable, and welcoming to all. Restaurants should be

 

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able to earn a fair profit without high fees or commissions. They should have access to great technology, support, and financial services for a fair price. Restaurant workers should earn a living wage. We believe fundamental change and ongoing innovation is needed throughout the next decade and beyond, and there’s a lot of work to be done.

A Platform Built for Restaurants

We’ve been committed to this vision for nearly a decade. Our restaurant-specific platform is fully integrated across point of sale, operations, digital ordering and delivery, marketing and loyalty, team management, financial technology solutions, and platform services to provide restaurant operators everything they need to run their businesses successfully. In short, we’re democratizing technology so that restaurants of all sizes can compete on an even playing field.

As a company that serves such a large and multi-faceted industry, we’re determined to deliver world-class experiences for all stakeholders in the restaurant community, including operators, guests, employees, and suppliers. Our vision to connect an entire industry contributes to an important point of differentiation for Toast: our platform is exclusively focused on the restaurant industry, built by a team that has experience working within this community.

Since the beginning, we’ve hired from restaurants. Many of our first employees were former servers, bartenders, kitchen staff, and even general managers. In fact, approximately two-thirds of our employees have worked in restaurants. As a result, we’ve developed deep empathy and understanding for our customers that informs how we build solutions to serve their needs.

Our strength can also be found in our unrivaled commitment to the success of the approximately 48,000 restaurant locations using our platform. We believe we provide a level of service and support that sets the standard in our industry and that has built our brand and reputation as a partner, advocate, and invaluable resource for the restaurant community.

Our Commitment to Customer Success

This is only the beginning of our journey. Our goal to become the platform of choice for restaurants all over the world is broad and could take us in many directions. To build a leading technology company, we’ll invest in the long-term drivers of the restaurant industry. We’ll invest ahead to help the industry thrive while taking a highly analytical approach to how we allocate capital.

To capture our market opportunity, we use three principles to guide us.

 

   

We serve our customers with hospitality and obsess over their success.

 

   

We’re determined to build a remarkable platform, provide unique insights and education, offer a knowledgeable and available support team, and invest in local communities through initiatives like Toast.org.

 

   

We relentlessly pursue innovation for an underserved industry.

 

   

We strive to improve our reliability, functionality, usability, and affordability. To us, innovation means placing many bets, some of which will fail, and taking bold action that will drive customer value, market share, and investor returns over the long-term.

 

   

We build a world-class team driven by mission and values.

 

   

We believe the strength of a company’s mission and values correlates with company success. That’s why we invest in top talent who constantly set the bar for innovation and

 

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customer support, who are driven with purpose, and who expand our values that are centered around humility, hospitality, and inclusivity.

With these principles guiding us, we believe we’re uniquely positioned to help restaurants of all sizes navigate the new challenges and emerge as healthier and more successful businesses.

We’re excited about this milestone and the journey ahead. We thank our customers, who have guided, educated, and trusted us, and we look forward to our ongoing partnership. We thank our employees, who put the restaurant community first and live our values every day. And we thank our investors for believing the future of restaurants is bright and knowing we’ll honor our mission to empower the restaurant community to delight their guests, do what they love, and thrive.

Thank you,

Aman Narang, Steve Fredette, and Jonathan Grimm

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our Class A common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business,” and our financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to “Toast,” the “company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” or similar terms refer to Toast, Inc.

Our Mission

Our mission is to empower the restaurant community to delight their guests, do what they love, and thrive.

Overview

Toast is a cloud-based, end-to-end technology platform purpose-built for the entire restaurant community. Our platform provides a comprehensive suite of software as a service, or SaaS, products, financial technology solutions including integrated payment processing, restaurant-grade hardware, and a broad ecosystem of third-party partners. We serve as the restaurant operating system, connecting front of house and back of house operations across dine-in, takeout, and delivery channels. As of June 30, 2021, approximately 48,000 restaurant locations across approximately 29,000 customers, processing over $38 billion of gross payment volume in the trailing 12 months, partnered with Toast to optimize operations, increase sales, engage guests, and maintain happy employees.

The restaurant industry is one of the largest, most complex, and most competitive markets in the world, with an estimated 22 million restaurant locations globally generating greater than $2.6 trillion in annual sales in 2021.1 However, restaurants have lagged in technology adoption. Many restaurants still employ manual processes for critical tasks such as placing guest orders, coordinating kitchen operations, and managing employees. When technology is used, restaurants have historically relied on legacy systems and narrow point solutions that are not flexible, scalable, integrated, or built specifically for restaurants. These products often fail to meet evolving guest needs, which have continued to shift towards digital channels, and can be prohibitively expensive and complex for businesses with limited or no dedicated information technology staff. In addition, key data needed to optimize operations is often siloed, making it difficult to gain valuable insights.

We started Toast to address these pain points for restaurants. Since our founding, we have translated our love for restaurants into a commitment to innovation and digital transformation for the industry. Our success as a business is tightly aligned to the success of our customers. Our field-based sales team fosters relationships and generates deep local insights in their communities. In addition, our ongoing customer success efforts focus on meeting restaurants’ evolving needs through a combination of tailored onboarding, customer support, and intuitive product design.

By enabling these capabilities through a single, integrated platform, Toast improves experiences across the restaurant ecosystem:

 

   

Restaurant operators. We arm restaurants with a wide range of products and capabilities to address their specific needs regardless of size, location, or business model. As a result, restaurants using Toast often see higher sales and greater operational efficiency.

 

1

Euromonitor International Limited. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”


 

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Guests. We are laser focused on helping our customers deliver memorable guest experiences at scale. Guests can place orders easily, safely, and accurately across web, mobile, and in-person channels for dine-in, takeout, or delivery. In addition, our platform empowers restaurants to utilize their guest data to deliver targeted and personalized experiences with loyalty programs and marketing solutions. In June 2021, we saw an average of over 5.5 million guest orders per day on our platform.

 

   

Employees. Our easy-to-learn and easy-to-use technology improves the experience of up to 500,000 daily active restaurant employees across Toast customers. Employees are core to delivering great hospitality, and it is critical for restaurants to engage and retain employees in an increasingly competitive labor market. Our products enable new employees to learn quickly through guided workflows, facilitate faster table turns and safer, streamlined operations, and provide greater transparency around, and timely access to, employees’ wages.

The benefits to all stakeholders using the Toast platform create a powerful, virtuous cycle that amplifies our impact on restaurants. Guest satisfaction generates loyalty to restaurants, driving repeat sales, word-of-mouth referrals, and larger checks and tips. This promotes employee satisfaction, helping reduce turnover and motivating employees to continue to raise the bar on the guest experience. In addition, our integrated software and payments platform consolidates data on restaurant sales and operations, which enables our reporting and analytics as well as financial technology solutions, such as working capital loans, to further support our customers’ success.

We believe we are in the early stages of capturing our addressable market opportunity. Although we are a leading platform serving the restaurant industry,2 as of June 30, 2021, the locations on our platform represented only about 6% of the approximately 860,000 restaurant locations in the United States.3 Similarly, our Annualized Recurring Run-Rate, or ARR, as of June 30, 2021 was only about 3% of our near-term serviceable market opportunity of approximately $15 billion. We see a significant opportunity to increase sales to both new and existing customers, further expand the usage of our platform outside the United States, and address the diverse needs of new and existing restaurant industry stakeholders.

We have grown rapidly since our founding. As of June 30, 2021, we had 47,942 locations on our platform, increasing from 33,129 and 19,891 locations as of June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our gross payment volume, or GPV, grew 17% year-over-year from $21.8 billion in the year ended December 31, 2019 to $25.4 billion in the year ended December 31, 2020, and grew 125% period-over-period from $10.4 billion in the six months ended June 30, 2020 to $23.4 billion in the six months ended June 30, 2021. We generate revenue through four main revenue streams: subscription services, financial technology solutions, hardware, and professional services. Our revenue grew 24% year-over-year from $665 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 to $823 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 and 105% period-over-period from $344 million in the six months ended June 30, 2020 to $704 million in the six months ended June 30, 2021. Our ARR grew 77% year-over-year from $184 million as of December 31, 2019 to $326 million as of December 31, 2020 and 118% period-over-period from $227 million as of June 30, 2020 to $494 million as of June 30, 2021. During the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, we incurred net losses of $209 million and $248 million, respectively, and generated Adjusted EBITDA of $(172) million and $(94) million, respectively. During the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021, we incurred net losses of $125 million and

 

2

Toast is a leading platform serving the restaurant industry based on industry survey reports, such as G2’s Grid Reports for Fall 2020, Winter 2021, and Spring 2021. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

3

IBISWorld. Estimated 2021 U.S. restaurant locations includes single location full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, chain restaurants, coffee shops, bars & nightclubs, and caterers, and excludes food service contractors and street vendors. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”


 

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$235 million, respectively, and generated Adjusted EBITDA of $(86) million and $14 million, respectively. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for additional information on our key business metrics and our non-GAAP financial measures.

These results are driven by our distinctive team of over 2,200 Toasters who are passionate about our customers and driven with purpose. Approximately two-thirds of Toasters have worked in the restaurant industry previously, enabling us to embrace a hospitality mindset and deeply understand our customers’ challenges. Our founder-led, mission-driven management team and talented employee base are committed to empowering those that power our industry and serve our local communities.

Our Industry

The restaurant industry is the one of the largest employers in the United States, with an estimate of more than 11 million people4 employed across approximately 860,000 restaurant locations in 2021.5 According to the National Restaurant Association, the restaurant industry’s share of the dollars spent on food was over 50% in 2019. U.S. restaurants generated nearly $700 billion in sales in 2020,6 despite the significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, representing approximately 3% of U.S. gross domestic product, or GDP.7 Restaurant sales are expected to grow to more than $1.1 trillion by 2024.8

The approximately 860,000 restaurant locations in the United States are highly diverse, in everything from location to type of cuisine and format to number of employees and amount of revenue. Regardless of these differences, operating a restaurant is challenging and complex. In general, restaurants operate with low margins, high employee turnover, highly perishable products, and complex regulations. At the same time, the restaurant industry, like many other sectors, is undergoing foundational changes driven by changing guest preferences and the imperative to utilize technology and data to innovate. What was once primarily an on-site experience with antiquated solutions such as pen and paper is now becoming an omnichannel experience that employs technology to enable dining in a restaurant, picking up curbside, or ordering delivery.

Consumer preference towards omnichannel dining options has further accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the National Restaurant Association, in 2020, 53% of adults said that purchasing food for takeout or delivery is essential to the way they live, up from 29% a decade earlier. They also found that approximately 70% of restaurant operators across service categories plan to keep some of the changes that they made to their restaurant as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, even after the pandemic has subsided. In addition to the shift in how guests are interacting with restaurants, there has been a transformation in how guests purchase their food. Credit cards, mobile wallets, and other forms of digital payment solutions have increased in popularity among guests, who are continually seeking more efficient and seamless experiences. As the diversity of how guests order, where guests eat, and the means guests use to pay continues to grow, restaurants must constantly adapt to support these trends.

 

4

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Industries at a Glance, Food Services and Drinking Places, Workforce Statistics. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

5

IBISWorld. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

6

National Restaurant Association, 2021 State of the Restaurant Industry, January 2021 (“National Restaurant Association”). See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

7

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, “Gross Domestic Product (Third Estimate), GDP By Industry, and Corporate Profits, Fourth Quarter and Year 2020,” news release (March 25, 2021). See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

8

The Freedonia Group, a division of MarketResearch.com, Restaurants & Foodservice: United States, February 2020 (“Freedonia Group”). See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”


 

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While the demand for technology adoption in restaurants has increased over recent years, the industry is still considered a laggard with one of the lowest levels of digitization across all sectors.9 Restaurants in the United States spent an estimated $25 billion on technology in 2019, which was less than 3% of their total sales.10 We expect the spend on technology to increase to $55 billion by 2024, closing the gap with other industries whose median technology spend as a percent of sales is approximately 5%.11

Though technology has become a necessity to address the challenges facing restaurants today, it can also create further complexities. Many restaurants have adopted a complex web of disparate point solutions, each of which is meant to address narrow use cases. As a result of this fragmentation, restaurants are unable to fully realize the power of technology and their data. According to Hospitality Technology’s 2020 annual restaurant technology study, the top challenge facing technology teams, cited by 39% of respondents, was feeling held back by legacy hardware and software systems. In addition, 59% of respondents said that they plan to reduce the number of disparate technology systems to achieve their strategic objectives.

What it Takes to Thrive

 

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9

McKinsey Global Institute, Digital America: A Tale of the Haves and Have-Mores, December 2015. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

10

Hospitality Technology, 2020 Restaurant Technology Study, March 2020 (“Hospitality Technology”); Freedonia Group. $25 billion in restaurant spend on technology in 2019 is estimated by taking 2.7%, which is the average technology budget of restaurants as a percentage of revenue in 2019, and multiplying by $935 billion, which is the gross merchandise value of the U.S. restaurant and foodservice industry in 2019. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

11

Flexera, 2021 State of Tech Spend Report (January 2021) © 2021 Flexera. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”


 

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Restaurants are complex businesses. In order to thrive, restaurants must continually improve operational efficiency; deliver omnichannel experiences; personalize the guest experience; recruit, train, and retain talent; collect and leverage valuable data; and gain increased access to financial services.

 

   

Improve Operational Efficiency. Restaurants face a number of operational challenges, including high costs, hiring and training staff, attracting and retaining guests, and optimizing speed and efficiency, resulting in typical operating margins of 4-5%.12

A restaurant’s operations are made up of a number of distinct, complex processes that must work in unison for a restaurant to run efficiently. As the return on investment of technology products becomes increasingly apparent, more restaurants have turned to industry-specific software products to improve their operations. While these point solutions solve specific use cases, restaurants are left with a new problem: large inefficiencies from not having an integrated platform that connects all areas of the restaurant.

 

   

Deliver Omnichannel Experiences. Euromonitor projects that, in 2021, 40% of food service revenue in the United States will be from dine-in, 51% will be from takeout and drive-through, and 9% will be from home delivery.

With the proliferation of mobile devices, ordering platforms, and other new technologies, the number and variety of touchpoints between restaurants and guests continues to increase. Restaurants must take advantage of these additional touchpoints with guests to provide a seamless omnichannel experience that is economically sustainable over time.

 

   

Personalize the Guest Experience. According to a study conducted by Harvard Business Review, when an emotional connection exists between restaurants and their guests, guest value can increase as much as 27%.

Great restaurant experiences are rooted in providing memorable services to guests that exceed their expectations. Empowered by data and insights into guest preferences, restaurants can utilize technology to provide a more personal guest experience across all channels.

 

   

Recruit, Train, and Retain Talent. 51% of restaurant operators named hiring staff as a top challenge, according to our research.13

Employees are key to the guest experience. However, they often work long and intense hours, and restaurants struggle with high turnover. Employees can face high variability in the amount and timing of pay, and the focus on guest satisfaction can come at the expense of employee happiness. Similar to guest expectations, employee expectations have evolved. Employees now focus on flexible pay, access to benefits, and improved working conditions.

 

   

Collect and Leverage Valuable Data. According to a Boston Consulting Group study, data and analytics programs across top restaurants yield a 5-10% increase in revenue, a 10-15% reduction in store-level operating costs, and a 10-20% improvement in earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, or EBITDA.

Coupling a comprehensive technology platform with integrated payment processing provides a unified view of data across the mission-critical aspects of a restaurant’s operations, such as order details, credit card processing, accounts payable, guest insights, and employee timesheets, which can unlock powerful insights for the restaurant operator. For example, data can be used to help set menu prices, identify best-selling items, better understand guest preferences and employee effectiveness, implement and track effectiveness of new initiatives, and bring awareness to competitive advantages or areas of weakness compared to peers.

 

12

IBISWorld. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

13

Toast, Inc., 2019 Restaurant Success Report.


 

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Gain Increased Access to Financial Services. According to an April 2020 survey conducted by PYMNTS, “Main Street” small- and medium-sized businesses had an average of only 24 days of cash buffer in reserve.

Restaurants often operate with thin margins, resulting in a need for increased and expedited access to capital. The fundamental business model of a restaurant deals with perishable goods subject to ever-changing seasonal and consumer trends. Historically, restaurants have had limited access to financial services, such as purchase financing, short-term working capital, and long-term banking solutions. As omnichannel ordering becomes increasingly prevalent and guests continue to shift away from paying in cash, restaurants will benefit from fully-integrated software and payments products that can simplify and streamline access to their revenue and improve the availability of capital through underwriting algorithms that are tailored to restaurants’ financial needs.

Limitations of Existing Restaurant Technologies

Existing legacy and point technologies face a number of critical limitations:

 

   

Inflexible and difficult to scale. Many existing technologies have a large upfront cost and are not cloud-based, making them rigid and difficult to use and update. This lack of flexibility adds to the challenge of operating in dynamic environments, resulting in limited reliability, scalability, and extensibility.

 

   

Lacking end-to-end capabilities. Point offerings address specific use cases and may not integrate seamlessly with other applications or systems, which can create operational and data silos.

 

   

Not purpose-built for restaurants. Many existing offerings are industry-agnostic and lack the specific capabilities required by restaurant operators, such as menu configuration, guest customization and modifications, ingredient inputs, timing of orders, labor compliance, digital ordering, and complex course handling.

 

   

Lacking data-driven insights. With limited integration across different systems and applications used to manage their operations, restaurants struggle to reliably collect quality data or cross-reference data from multiple sources. As a result, they cannot easily or effectively analyze, synthesize, and leverage the data necessary to drive meaningful insights on guests and operations to improve performance.

 

   

Poor onboarding and costly customer support. Many technology vendors do not consistently offer omnichannel, tailored support from restaurant experts that customers need given the fast-paced environment in which they operate. Furthermore, vendors are often more focused on their largest customers, and smaller restaurants with more limited resources often fail to get the support they need.


 

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Our Platform

 

LOGO

Our platform is purpose-built to drive success for the entire restaurant community. We provide our customers with a single platform that gives them the tools and features they need to run their business across point of sale, or POS, restaurant operations, digital ordering and delivery, marketing and loyalty, and team management. This suite of software and hardware products is integrated with our financial technology solutions, which includes payment processing and other products such as those provided by Toast Capital. In addition, we provide platform services that include reporting and analytics and e-commerce capabilities for restaurants to access additional products in a self-service manner, as well as the Toast application programming interface, or API, and partner ecosystem, allowing our customers to seamlessly connect with other technology vendors.


 

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Better Together: The Toast Ecosystem

 

LOGO

Our platform benefits from powerful network effects, which we often highlight with the term “better together”. We believe this mantra manifests in the following ways, each driving the success of our stakeholders and, in turn, the Toast platform:

 

   

Our fully-integrated, end-to-end platform offers unique advantages. Rather than simply stringing together multiple point solutions, we integrate these products into a single platform. This tightly integrated platform has positive network effects for our customers. For example, a customer that purchases Toast Go handheld hardware may not only see faster table turns, improved sales, and greater tip volume for employees, but can also capture real-time guest feedback and gather email contacts through the adoption of digital receipts. These insights can then power guest marketing solutions that drive repeat sales and guest referrals.

 

   

We benefit the entire restaurant ecosystem. The benefits of Toast to each stakeholder in the restaurant ecosystem bolsters the success of all. The result is a virtuous cycle between restaurants and their stakeholders. Higher spend from happier guests is correlated with higher wages for employees, which in tandem with the wage and benefits access enabled by our products, drives happier employees, lower turnover, improved quality of service, and enhanced operational efficiency.

 

   

We grow as our customers grow. The success and engagement of the restaurants and communities we support lie at the heart of our business model. As restaurants become more successful, driving repeat guest visits and improved employee retention, we benefit from the growth in GPV and increased adoption of our products.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe the key ingredients to building a leading platform for the restaurant industry and driving our continued expansion in reach and impact within the restaurant ecosystem are the following:

 

   

Product depth and breadth. We founded Toast on the belief that restaurants are best served by a single platform that is purpose-built for the distinct demands of operating a restaurant.

 


 

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Culture of continuous innovation. We have a hunger for innovation and a long-standing track record of product launches that address continuously evolving restaurant needs. Our product roadmap is informed by our conversations with the restaurant community about their needs as well as by the visibility we have into the broader restaurant technology ecosystem through our data and third-party integrations.

 

   

Differentiated go-to-market strategy. We pair in-market sales teams that are closely aligned with their local restaurant community with an extensive thought leadership and content program that has powered Toast’s rapid growth in brand awareness and built Toast’s brand as an advocate and invaluable resource for the restaurant industry.

 

   

Unwavering commitment to restaurant success. Our customers’ success is bolstered by our combination of tailored onboarding services, differentiated customer support, and easy-to-use product design that supports intuitive in-product navigation and self-service by customers. Driven by our love of restaurants, we believe we are a true partner to the restaurant community and that our success is mutually reinforcing.

 

   

Modern, cloud-based platform approach. Toast’s platform pairs easy-to-use, intuitive user interfaces with a highly scalable modern cloud architecture. Our software infrastructure is cloud-hosted and mobile-first, providing a user experience that is flexible and configurable to diverse restaurant environments.

 

   

Unmatched data-driven insights. With unique visibility into restaurant, guest, and employee insights, we are able to provide advanced analytics for restaurant operators and make informed decisions on our product development pipeline.

 

   

Powerful partner ecosystem. In addition to our own products, our platform is augmented by our ecosystem of partners. This ecosystem includes large national food and beverage suppliers, technology partners across a broad spectrum of solutions, and local partners such as accountants, attorneys, and consultants, among others.

Why Our Stakeholders Win with Toast

Toast empowers restaurant operators to succeed in the digital age. To do so, restaurants must serve a wide range of stakeholders. We believe that when restaurant operators succeed, employees and guests also benefit, which in turn fuels rapid growth for restaurants.

 

   

We help restaurants streamline operations and drive sales. Through Toast’s integrated platform, customers spend less time managing disparate point solutions, enabling them to spend more time serving their guests, leading their teams, and growing their businesses.

 

   

We enable restaurants to drive off-premise sales and improve profit margins through first and third-party channels. Our commission-free online ordering software simplifies the digital ordering experience for guests, increases order accuracy, and allows restaurants to reduce reliance on third parties. We also enable restaurants to offer delivery services for their guests through their own fleet of drivers, through flat-fee Toast Delivery Services utilizing a partner network of delivery drivers, and through POS integrations with third-party delivery providers.

 

   

We provide access to insights, data, and tools to attract and retain guests through marketing, loyalty programs, and guest data. Through our platform, restaurants gain access to guest insights and advanced analytics that they can use to build direct relationships with their guests and drive repeat visits, increased loyalty, and higher sales.

 


 

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We save restaurants time onboarding and managing employees, while enabling improved productivity and higher pay for employees. Our platform enables reduced ticket times, higher sales and tips, and as a result, higher pay for the restaurant’s employees over time. Through our team management products, restaurants are able to manage payroll efficiently, leading to timely and accurate access to wages for employees. Moreover, our onboarding process, including training and ongoing support through our customer success team, makes adopting the Toast platform easy.

 

   

We provide hard-to-access capital via purchase financing and lending, while integrating payment processing to enable better data visibility and more efficient operations. Toast provides a fully-integrated software and payments platform that enables our customers to securely accept payments, while also providing valuable data-driven insights and driving our guest engagement programs. In addition, we provide financing solutions that minimize upfront costs for restaurants and offer working capital loans in a fast and flexible manner through Toast Capital.

 

   

We have their back. Driven by our mission, we invest heavily in ongoing customer success through a combination of tailored onboarding services, customer support, and easy-to-use product design that supports intuitive in-product navigation and self-service by customers. Our field-based go-to-market engine also generates deep local insights in our communities and helps us quickly address our customers’ questions and concerns, and we apply these insights to the research and development of new products to continue to meet the industry’s evolving needs.


 

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Our Opportunity

 

LOGO

The restaurant industry has lacked a clear technology category leader and has been categorized by fragmentation and historically slow adoption of technology. We are now seeing a shift in the use of technology alongside a preference for a single, integrated, digital-first technology platform, resulting in a significant opportunity for Toast. Restaurants in the United States spent an estimated $25 billion on technology in 2019, or less than 3% of their total sales.14 We expect the spend on technology to increase to $55 billion by 2024, as technology spend as a percent of restaurant sales closes the gap with other industry verticals. We believe our total addressable market, or TAM, is closely aligned with, and encompasses the vast majority of, this restaurant spend.

We estimate our current serviceable addressable market to be approximately $15 billion. We calculate this figure by adding the opportunities across our software and financial technology products. Our software addressable market is calculated by multiplying the average annual subscription revenue per location per product by the estimated number of restaurant locations in the United States. We determined the estimated number of restaurant locations in the United States to be approximately 860,000,15 which includes restaurants across all segments, given we serve restaurants of all types and sizes ranging from single-location restaurants to larger multi-location brands. The opportunity for payments recurring run-rate is calculated by multiplying the estimated non-cash restaurant sales in the United States for 2021 by our average take rate of approximately 55 basis points (measured as a percentage of GPV). Lastly, we estimate the Toast Capital opportunity by multiplying an estimated $29.5 billion of outstanding U.S. public banks’ restaurant loans as of March 31, 202016 by the average annual interest rate on small business loans of 1.4% to 7.2%.17

 

14

Hospitality Technology; Freedonia Group; and related explanation (footnote 10). See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

15

IBISWorld. Estimated 2021 U.S. restaurant locations includes single location full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, chain restaurants, coffee shops, bars & nightclubs, and caterers, and excludes food service contractors and street vendors. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

16

S&P Global Market Intelligence, US Banks Disclose Exposure to Restaurant Industry Hard-Hit by COVID-19, May 2020. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

17

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Small Business Lending Survey, June 2021. Average annual interest rate as of the first quarter of 2021. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”


 

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We expect our market opportunity will continue to expand as we develop new solutions that address the distinct and evolving needs of a diverse market. Additionally, our current TAM does not consider the substantial opportunity to provide our products and services to international locations, which we have not pursued to date. With an estimated 22 million restaurant locations globally with greater than $2.6 trillion in revenue,18 we estimate that our global TAM is at least twice as large as the domestic opportunity, given there is nearly four times as much global spend and even more opportunity in terms of location count.

Our Growth Strategy

Our strategy is to continue to invest in areas that align with our customers’ needs and our own growth objectives. Toast both drives and benefits from the success of our customers—when restaurants grow, Toast grows through higher payments volume and increased adoption of our full platform.

 

   

Fuel efficient location growth with both new and existing customers. We intend to invest in our field-based go-to-market engine, customer success through a combination of tailored onboarding services, customer support, and intuitive product design, as well as research and development of new products to continue to meet the industry’s evolving needs and grow our location footprint.

 

   

Increase adoption of our full suite of products. We plan to continue to sell additional products to our existing customers through a combination of sales and marketing efforts and product-led growth.

 

   

Invest in and expand our product platform. We intend to continue to invest in research and development to expand the functionality of our current platform and to broaden the subscription services and financial technology solutions we offer.

 

   

Further develop our partner ecosystem. Toast’s integrated SaaS platform currently connects customers to approximately 150 partners, providing them with the tools and features they need to run their business. We intend to continue expanding our technology and channel partnerships to deliver even more value to our customers and increase the strategic nature of our platform.

 

   

Selectively pursue inorganic growth. We intend to selectively explore inorganic product and technology growth opportunities to build out our portfolio and strengthen our ecosystem advantage.

 

   

Expand internationally. To date, we have not made any significant investments in growing our presence internationally. We intend to add international sales team members to address this market opportunity alongside targeted research and development efforts based on local market dynamics.

 

18

Euromonitor International Consumer Foodservice 2021 (Foodservice Value RSP, YoY ex rates, Current Prices). See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”


 

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Our Response to COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the restaurant industry. As a leading platform for the restaurant industry, Toast took immediate steps to help restaurants navigate the crisis.

During the course of the pandemic, and driven by our mission to help restaurants thrive, our team of passionate Toasters accomplished the following:

Rapid acceleration of product release

To help restaurants navigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we accelerated a number of planned product launches and introduced new product lines.

 

   

As a result of the pandemic, restaurants became highly dependent on off-premise dining. To help restaurants navigate this shift, save on third-party commissions, and build a direct relationship with their guests, we launched Toast Delivery Services, offering delivery through Toast Online Ordering and the Toast TakeOut app.

 

   

In addition, we launched Toast Now, a digital-only platform for restaurants of all sizes to quickly activate online ordering, delivery, gift card, and email marketing capabilities.

 

   

In response to greater guest sensitivity to health and safety in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, we launched a suite of contactless payment solutions including Order & Pay.

Advocacy for the entire restaurant industry

We also took steps during the pandemic to provide restaurants with much needed access to expense relief and operating capital, and built an advocacy program to encourage community and federal support.

 

   

We waived subscription fees of over $20 million for our entire customer base.

 

   

We launched a grassroots campaign, called Rally for Restaurants, that encouraged consumers to buy gift cards and order takeout to support the restaurant industry.

 

   

We also partnered with a coalition of Toast customers, partners, and lobbyists to call on Congress to act on behalf of the restaurant industry, leveraging proprietary data to support the need for focused relief. We believe our sustained actions throughout 2020 played a role in the eventual development and passing of the $28.6 billion Restaurant Revitalization Fund.

We recognize that the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on communities across the world, and we are fully committed, as we always have been, to investing in and supporting our restaurants, their employees, and the communities they serve.


 

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Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section titled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include the following:

 

   

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction, or adequately address competitive challenges.

 

   

If we do not attract new customers, retain existing customers, and increase our customers’ use of our platform, we may not be able to sustain our recent revenue growth in future periods and our business will suffer.

 

   

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted and may continue to adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

   

We have a limited operating history in an evolving industry, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.

 

   

We have a history of generating net losses, and if we are unable to achieve adequate revenue growth while our expenses increase, we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

 

   

Our operating results depend in significant part on our payment processing services, and the revenue and gross profit we derive from our payment processing activity in a particular period can vary due to a variety of factors.

 

   

We depend upon third parties to manufacture our products and to supply key components to our products. If these manufacturers or suppliers become unwilling or unable to provide an adequate supply of components, particularly of semiconductor chips, with respect to which there is a severe global shortage, we may not be able to find alternative sources in a timely manner and our business would be impacted.

 

   

Our future revenue will depend in part on our ability to expand the financial technology services we offer to our customers and increase adoption of those services.

 

   

We rely substantially on one third-party processor to facilitate payments made by guests and payments made on behalf of customers, and if we cannot manage risks related to our relationships with this third-party payment processor, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

   

The markets in which we participate are intensely competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected.

 

   

A majority of our customers are small- and medium-sized businesses, which can be more difficult and costly to retain than enterprise customers and may increase the impact of economic fluctuations on us.

 

   

We rely in part on revenue from subscription contracts, and because we recognize revenue from subscription contracts over the term of the relevant subscription period, downturns or upturns in sales are not immediately reflected in full in our results of operations.

 

   

We are responsible for transmitting a high volume of sensitive and personal information through our platform and our success depends upon the security of this platform. Any actual or perceived breach of our system that would result in disclosure of such information could materially impact our business.


 

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Interruptions or performance problems associated with our technology and infrastructure may adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

   

Our success depends upon our ability to continually enhance the performance, reliability, and features of our platform.

 

   

We are subject to additional risks relating to the financial products we make available to our customers, including relationships with partners, the ability of our customers to generate revenue to pay their obligations under these products, general macroeconomic conditions and the risk of fraud.

 

   

If we fail to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be impaired and we may lose valuable assets, generate reduced revenue, and become subject to costly litigation to protect our rights.

 

   

Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. laws and regulations, many of which are unsettled and still developing, and our or our customers’ failure to comply with such laws and regulations could subject us to claims or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

   

We identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.

 

   

The trading price of our Class A common stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

   

The dual-class structure of our common stock as contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation has the effect of concentrating voting control with those stockholders who held our capital stock prior to this offering, including our directors, executive officers and their respective affiliates. This ownership will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other major corporate transactions requiring stockholder approval, and that may adversely effect the trading price of our Class A common stock.

 

   

Our principal stockholders will continue to have significant influence over the election of our board of directors and approval of any significant corporate actions, including any sale of the company.

Channels for Disclosure of Information

Investors, the media, and others should note that, following the completion of this offering, we intend to announce material information to the public through filings with the SEC, the investor relations page on our website, press releases and public conference calls and webcasts.

The information disclosed by the foregoing channels could be deemed to be material information. As such, we encourage investors, the media, and others to follow the channels listed above and to review the information disclosed through such channels.

Any updates to the list of disclosure channels through which we will announce information will be posted on the investor relations page on our website.


 

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Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of Delaware in December 2011 under the name Opti Systems, Inc. We changed our name to Toast, Inc. in May 2012. Our principal executive offices are located at 401 Park Drive, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and our telephone number is (617) 297-1005. Our website address is www.toasttab.com. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website to be part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

“Toast,” our logo, and our other registered or common law trademarks, service marks, or trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of Toast, Inc. Other trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

 

   

only two years of audited financial statements in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;

 

   

reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements;

 

   

no non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements; and

 

   

exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting.

We may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company on the date that is the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of this offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these exemptions. We have taken advantage of reduced reporting requirements in this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different from the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock. Additionally, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to avail ourselves of this exemption and, therefore, while we are an emerging growth company we will not be subject to new or revised accounting standards at the same time that they become applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.


 

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See the section titled “Risk Factors—General Risk Factors—Risks Related to Operating as a Public Company—We are an emerging growth company and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.”


 

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THE OFFERING

 

Class A common stock offered

                shares

 

Class A common stock to be outstanding after this offering

                shares

 

Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering

                shares

 

Option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock

We have granted the underwriters an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an additional                 shares from us.

 

Total Class A common stock and Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering

                shares (or                 shares if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock is exercised in full).

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of shares of our Class A common stock in this offering will be approximately $                 million (or approximately $                 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full), based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

  The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization, increase our financial flexibility, create a public market for our Class A common stock, and enable access to the public equity markets for our stockholders and us. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. However, we currently intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. Additionally, we may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products, services, or technologies. However, we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments at this time. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.

 

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Directed Share Program

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to              shares of Class A common stock, or     % of the shares offered by this prospectus, for sale at the initial public offering price, to certain of our customers and to certain friends, directors, and advisors of the Company. The number of shares of Class A common stock available for sale to the general public will be reduced to the extent these individuals or entities purchase such reserved shares. Any reserved shares not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same basis as the other shares of Class A common stock offered by this prospectus. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC will administer our directed share program. See the section titled “Underwriting—Directed Share Program” for additional information.

 

Voting rights

We will have two classes of common stock: Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Shares of our Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share. Shares of our Class B common stock are entitled to ten votes per share. Holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock will generally vote together as a single class, unless otherwise required by law or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will become effective immediately prior to the closing of this offering. The holders of our outstanding Class B common stock will hold approximately     % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following the completion of this offering and will have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of our directors and the approval of any change in control transaction. See the sections titled “Principal Stockholders” and “Description of Capital Stock” for additional information.

 

Concentration of ownership

Upon the completion of this offering, our executive officers and directors, and their affiliates, will beneficially own, in the aggregate, approximately     % of our outstanding shares of common stock, representing approximately     % of the voting power of our outstanding shares of common stock.

 

Risk factors

See the section titled “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully


 

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consider before deciding to invest in shares of our Class A common stock.

 

Proposed New York Stock Exchange trading symbol

“TOST ”

The number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on no shares of Class A common stock and 95,518,710 shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and excludes:

 

   

12,385,001 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2021 under our Amended and Restated 2014 Stock Incentive Plan, or the 2014 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.59 per share;

 

   

157,250 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after June 30, 2021 through August 20, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $130.46 per share;

 

   

1,017,173 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units, or RSUs, outstanding as of June 30, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, for which the performance-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, but the service-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of June 30, 2021;

 

   

1,132,805 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding RSUs granted after June 30, 2021 through August 20, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, for which the performance-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering;

 

   

200,407 shares of Class B common stock, on an as-converted basis, issuable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase shares of convertible preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.69 per share;

 

   

1,622,717 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with an exercise price of $87.5168 per share;

 

   

4,204,607 shares of Class B common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Plan as of June 30, 2021, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2021 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, or the 2021 Plan, becomes effective;

 

   

            shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Plan which will become effective in connection with this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under our 2021 Plan; and

 

   

            shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, which will become effective in connection with this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our ESPP.

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes or gives effect to:

 

   

the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which will become effective immediately prior to the closing of this offering;


 

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the adoption of our second amended and restated bylaws, which will become effective upon the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part;

 

   

the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock into an equal number of shares of Class B common stock, or the Preferred Stock Conversion, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering;

 

   

the reclassification of all outstanding shares of our common stock into an equivalent number of shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering;

 

   

the automatic conversion and reclassification of outstanding warrants to purchase 149,225 shares of convertible preferred stock into warrants to purchase an equal number of shares of Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering;

 

   

the automatic exercise of warrants to purchase 51,182 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock at an exercise price of $1.9538 for such warrants and the subsequent conversion of such shares into shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur in connection with the closing of this offering;

 

   

no exercise of the outstanding stock options or warrants, or settlement of outstanding RSUs, except as described above; and

 

   

no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase up to an additional                shares of Class A common stock in this offering.


 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The following tables summarize our consolidated financial data as of and for the periods indicated. We have derived the summary consolidated statement of comprehensive loss data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021 and the balance sheet data as of June 30, 2021 are derived from our unaudited interim financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for the fair presentation of the unaudited interim financial statements. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected in the future, and the results for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year or any other period. The following summary consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

    Year ended December 31,     Six months ended June 30,  
    2019     2020             2020                     2021          
(in thousands, except share and per share data)                    

Revenue:

       

Subscription services

  $ 62,443   $ 101,374   $ 44,787   $ 68,041

Financial technology solutions

    531,751       644,372       262,070     579,475

Hardware

    54,999       63,968       30,187     48,954

Professional services

    15,836       13,420       6,798     7,278
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

    665,029       823,134       343,842     703,748
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

       

Subscription services

    24,923       39,730       18,817     23,028

Financial technology solutions

    452,786       508,816       212,457     451,876

Hardware

    82,096       85,013       41,422     51,412

Professional services

    41,215       45,558       24,373     20,691

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets

    1,660       3,604       1,787     1,967
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

    602,680       682,721       298,856     548,974
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    62,349       140,413       44,986     154,774
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

       

Sales and marketing

    129,066       139,325       72,110     73,858

Research and development

    63,967       108,574       44,384     73,278

General and administrative

    82,683       112,661       53,077     64,462
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    275,716       360,560       169,571     211,598
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

    (213,367     (220,147     (124,585     (56,824

Other income (expense):

       

Interest income

    2,106       842       682     53

Interest expense

    —         (12,651     (1,185     (12,156

Change in fair value of warrant liability

    (1,497     (8,218     262     (16,492

Change in fair value of derivative liability

    —         (7,282     —         (103,281

Loss on debt extinguishment

    —         —         —         (49,783

Other income (expense), net

    62       (486     221     81
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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    Year ended December 31,     Six months ended June 30,  
    2019     2020             2020                     2021          
(in thousands, except share and per share data)                    

Loss before benefit (provision) for income taxes

    (212,696     (247,942     (124,605     (238,402

Benefit (provision) for income taxes

    3,248       (261     58     3,752
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

  $ (209,448   $ (248,203   $ (124,547   $ (234,650
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Redemption of Series B Preferred

    —         (812     —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

  $ (209,448   $ (249,015   $ (124,547   $ (234,650
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

  $ (5.38   $ (6.23   $ (3.14   $ (5.67
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average shares used in computing net loss per share, basic and diluted

    38,964,029       39,996,593       39,723,440     41,418,256
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     As of June 30, 2021  
     Actual     Pro Forma(1)      Pro Forma
As
Adjusted(2)(3)
 
(in thousands)       

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

       

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 376,149     

Working capital(4)

     282,219     

Total assets

     696,160     

Warrant to purchase preferred stock

     27,988     

Total liabilities

     462,413     

Convertible preferred stock

     848,893     

Additional paid-in capital

     235,921     

Accumulated deficit

     (850,516     

Total stockholders’ deficit

     (615,146     

 

(1)

The pro forma column reflects (i) the Preferred Conversion; (ii) the reclassification of our outstanding shares of common stock into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering; (iii) the automatic exercise of warrants to purchase 51,182 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock at an exercise price of $1.9538 for such warrants, and the subsequent conversion of such shares into shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur in connection with the closing of this offering; and (iv) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in Delaware, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering.

(2)

The pro forma as adjusted column gives effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth above and (ii) the sale and issuance of                shares of our Class A common stock in this offering, based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(3)

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, our cash and cash equivalents, total assets, working capital, and total stockholders’ equity by approximately $                million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase or decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, our cash and cash equivalents, total assets, working capital, and total stockholders’ equity by approximately $                million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price of $                , which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(4)

Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities.


 

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Key Business Metrics

 

     Year ended
December 31,
           Six months ended
June 30, 2021,
        
(dollars in billions)    2019      2020      %
Growth
    2020      2021      %
Growth
 

Gross Payment Volume (GPV)

   $ 21.8      $ 25.4        17   $ 10.4      $ 23.4        125
     As of
December 31,
           As of
June 30, 2021,
        
(dollars in millions)    2019      2020      %
Growth
    2020      2021      %
Growth
 

Annualized Recurring Run-Rate (ARR)

   $ 184      $ 326        77   $ 227      $ 494        118

Gross Payment Volume (GPV)

GPV represents the sum of total dollars processed through the Toast payments platform across all restaurant locations in a given period. GPV is a key measure of the scale of our platform, which in turn drives our financial performance. As our customers generate more sales and therefore more GPV, we generally see higher financial technology solutions revenue.

Annualized Recurring Run-Rate (ARR)

We monitor ARR as a key operational measure of the scale of our subscription and payment processing services for both new and existing customers. To calculate this metric, we first calculate recurring run-rate on a monthly basis. Monthly Recurring Run-Rate, or MRR, is measured on the final day of each month for all restaurant locations live on our platform as the sum of (i) our monthly subscription services fees, which we refer to as the subscription component of MRR, and (ii) our in-month adjusted payments services fees, exclusive of estimated transaction-based costs, which we refer to as the payments component of MRR. MRR does not include fees derived from Toast Capital or related costs. MRR is also not burdened by the impact of SaaS credits offered, which we expect to be immaterial on an ongoing basis despite being larger in 2020 as we supported our customers through the COVID-19 pandemic.

ARR is determined by taking the sum of (i) twelve times the subscription component of MRR and (ii) four times the trailing-three-month cumulative payments component of MRR. We believe this approach provides an indication of our scale, while also controlling for short-term fluctuations in payments volume. Our ARR may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customers’ satisfaction with our platform, pricing, competitive offerings, economic conditions, or overall changes in our customers’ and their guests’ spending levels. ARR is an operational measure, does not reflect our revenue or gross profit determined in accordance with GAAP, and should be viewed independently of, and not combined with or substituted for, our revenue, gross profit, and other financial information determined in accordance with GAAP. Further, ARR is not a forecast of future revenue and investors should not place undue reliance on ARR as an indicator of our future or expected results.


 

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Non-GAAP Financial Measures

 

     Year ended
December 31,
    Six months ended
June 30,
 
(dollars in millions)    2019     2020     2020      2021  

Free Cash Flow

   $ (141.2   $ (160.7   $ (128.9)      $ 38.8  

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ (171.6   $ (93.8   $ (86.1)      $ 14.2  

Free Cash Flow

Free cash flow is defined as net cash used in operating activities reduced by purchases of property and equipment and capitalization of internal-use software costs. We believe that free cash flow is a meaningful indicator of liquidity that provides information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated from operations and used for purchases of property and equipment, capitalization of software costs, and investments in our business. Once our business needs and obligations are met, cash can be used to maintain a strong balance sheet and invest in future growth.

Free cash flow has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Other companies may calculate free cash flow or similarly titled non-GAAP measures differently, which could reduce the usefulness of free cash flow as a tool for comparison. In addition, free cash flow does not reflect mandatory debt service and other non-discretionary expenditures that are required to be made under contractual commitments and does not represent the total increase or decrease in our cash balance for any given period. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss), adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation expense and related payroll tax expense, depreciation and amortization expense, interest income, interest expense, other income (expense) net, acquisition expenses, fair value adjustments on warrant and derivative liabilities, expenses related to COVID-19 pandemic initiatives resulting from a reduction of workforce in 2020 and early termination of leases, loss on debt extinguishment, and income taxes. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

We believe Adjusted EBITDA is useful for investors to use in comparing our financial performance to other companies and from period to period. Adjusted EBITDA is widely used by investors and securities analysts to measure a company’s operating performance without regard to items such as depreciation and amortization, interest expense, and interest income, which can vary substantially from company to company depending on their financing and capital structures and the method by which their assets were acquired. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA eliminates the impact of certain items that may obscure trends in the underlying performance of our business. Adjusted EBITDA also has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider this measure in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. For example, although depreciation expense is a non-cash charge, the assets being depreciated may have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect cash capital expenditure requirements for such replacements or for new asset acquisitions. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA excludes stock-based compensation


 

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expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense for our business and an important part of our compensation strategy. Adjusted EBITDA also does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs; interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt, which reduces the cash available to us; or tax payments that may represent a reduction in cash available to us. The expenses and other items we exclude in our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA may differ from the expenses and other items that other companies may exclude from Adjusted EBITDA when they report their financial results.

See the sections titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Business Metrics” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for further information regarding GPV, ARR, Free Cash Flow, and Adjusted EBITDA.


 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock. The occurrence of any of the events described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, or prospects. In such an event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business.

Risks Related to Our Business and Business Development

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction, or adequately address competitive challenges.

We have experienced significant growth in recent periods, which puts a strain on our business, operations, and employees. We anticipate that our operations will continue to rapidly expand. To manage our current and anticipated future growth effectively, we must continue to maintain and enhance our finance and accounting systems and controls, as well as our information technology, or IT, and security infrastructure. For example, we expect we will need to invest in and seek to enhance our IT systems and capabilities, including with respect to internal information sharing and interconnectivity between various systems within our infrastructure.

We must also attract, train, and retain a significant number of qualified sales and marketing personnel, client support personnel, professional services personnel, software engineers, technical personnel, and management personnel, without undermining our corporate culture of rapid innovation, teamwork, and attention to customer success that has been central to our growth.

Failure to effectively manage our growth could also lead us to over-invest or under-invest in development and operations, result in weaknesses in our infrastructure, systems, or controls, give rise to operational mistakes, financial losses, loss of productivity or business opportunities, and result in loss of employees and reduced productivity of remaining employees. To support our growth, we expect to make significant sales and marketing expenditures to increase sales of our platform and increase awareness of our brand and significant research and development expenses to increase the functionality of our platform and to introduce additional related products and services. A significant portion of our investments in our sales and marketing and research and development activities will precede the benefits from such investments, and we cannot be sure that we will receive an adequate return on our investments. If our management is unable to effectively manage our growth, our expenses may increase more than expected, our revenue may not increase or may grow more slowly than expected, and we may be unable to implement our business strategy.

If we do not attract new customers, retain existing customers, and increase our customers’ use of our platform, our business will suffer.

We derive, and expect to continue to derive, a majority of our revenue and cash inflows from our integrated cloud-based restaurant management platform, which encompasses software, financial technology, and hardware components. As such, our ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers, and increase use of the platform by existing customers is critical to our success.

 

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Our future revenue will depend in large part on our success in attracting additional customers to our platform. Our ability to attract additional customers will depend on a number of factors, including the effectiveness of our sales team, the success of our marketing efforts, our levels of investment in expanding our sales and marketing teams, referrals by existing customers, and the availability of competitive restaurant technology platforms. We may not experience the same levels of success with respect to our customer acquisition strategies as seen in prior periods, and if the costs associated with acquiring new customers materially rises in the future, our expenses may rise significantly.

In addition, while a majority of our current customer base consists of small- and medium-sized businesses, or SMBs, we intend to pursue continued customer growth within the enterprise and mid-market segments of the restaurant market, as well as among smaller businesses. Each of those segments of the overall market poses different sales and marketing challenges, and has different requirements, and we cannot be sure that we will achieve the same success in those market segments as we have achieved to date in sales to SMBs.

Our business also depends on retaining our existing customers. Our business is subscription-based, and contract terms for our SaaS products generally range from 12 to 36 months. Customers are not obligated to, and may not, renew their subscriptions after their existing subscriptions expire. As a result, even though the number of customers using our platform has grown rapidly in recent years, there can be no assurance that we will be able to retain these customers or new customers that may enter into subscriptions. Renewals of subscriptions may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including dissatisfaction with our platform or support, the perception that a competitive platform, product or service presents a better or less expensive option, or our failure to successfully deploy sales and marketing efforts towards existing customers as they approach the expiration of their subscription term. In addition, we may terminate our relationships with customers for various reasons, such as heightened credit risk, excessive card chargebacks, unacceptable business practices, or contract breaches.

Further, if customers on our platform were to cease operations, temporarily or permanently, or face financial distress or other business disruption, our ability to retain customers would suffer. This risk is particularly pronounced with restaurants, as each year a meaningful percentage of restaurants go out of business, and this risk has become particularly acute as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In addition to attracting new customers and retaining existing customers, we seek to expand usage of our platform by broadening adoption by our customers of the various products included within our platform. Although in recent periods new customers have increasingly adopted our full suite of products, we cannot be certain that new customers will continue to adopt our full suite of products at existing rates or that we will be successful in increasing adoption of additional products by our existing customers. Further, while many of our customers deploy our platform to all of their restaurant locations, some of our customers initially deploy our platform to a subset of locations. For those customers, we seek to expand use of our platform to additional locations over time. Our ability to increase adoption of our products by our customers and to increase penetration of our existing customers’ locations will depend on a number of factors, including our customers’ satisfaction with our platform, competition, pricing, and our ability to demonstrate the value proposition of our products.

Our costs associated with renewals and generating sales of additional products to existing customers are substantially lower than our costs associated with entering into subscriptions with new customers. Accordingly, our business model relies to a significant extent on our ability to renew subscriptions and sell additional products to existing customers, and, if we are unable to retain revenue from existing customers or to increase revenue from existing customers, our operating results would be adversely impacted even if such lost revenue were offset by an increase in revenue from new customers.

 

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We may not be able to sustain our recent revenue growth in future periods.

We have grown rapidly over the last several years, and our recent revenue growth rate and financial performance should not be considered indicative of our future performance. In the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, our revenue was $665.0 million and $823.1 million, respectively, representing a 24% growth rate. In the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021, our revenue was $343.8 million and $703.7 million, respectively, representing a 105% growth rate. You should not rely on our revenue or key business metrics for any previous quarterly or annual period as indicative of our revenue, revenue growth, key business metrics, or key business metrics growth in future periods. In particular, our revenue growth rate has fluctuated in prior periods. We expect our revenue growth rate to fluctuate over the short and long term. We may experience declines in our revenue growth rate as a result of a number of factors, including slowing demand for our platform, insufficient growth in the number of customers and their guests that utilize our platform, increasing competition, changing customer and guest behaviors, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, our failure to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, the impact of regulatory requirements, and the maturation of our business, among others. In addition, SMBs comprise the majority of our customer base. If the demand for restaurant management platforms by SMBs does not continue to grow, or if we are unable to maintain our category share with SMBs, our revenue and other growth rates could be adversely affected.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted and may continue to adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected workforces, consumers, economies, and financial markets globally. The adverse impact of the pandemic has been and may continue to be particularly acute among SMBs, which comprise the majority of our customer base, and many of which have been required to cease or substantially diminish business operations for an indeterminate period of time. The pandemic also has disrupted, and may continue to disrupt, our supply chains and relationships with third-party partners. The pandemic has also had, and may continue to have, a variety of additional effects on our business and operations, including reducing the demand for our platform, restricting our operations and sales and marketing efforts, impeding our ability to conduct product development and other important business activities, and decreasing technology spending.

For example, since the COVID-19 pandemic began, we have:

 

   

furloughed approximately 12% of our employees and terminated approximately 48% of our employees in connection with a reduction in force in April 2020;

 

   

re-prioritized our capital projects;

 

   

instituted a temporary company-wide hiring freeze; and

 

   

reduced salaries for management across the organization.

In addition, while adversely impacting the restaurant industry and our business, the COVID-19 pandemic has also increased the focus by restaurants on the need for a digital technology platform that can address the need for safe, frictionless, contact-free experiences in restaurants and address off-premise dining. While we believe these trends may positively impact our business in the longer-term, we cannot predict the extent to which the increased focus on the need for digital solutions such as those offered by our platform will persist. For example, we cannot predict the manner and extent to which the reemergence of on-premise dining and other types of in-person activity will impact our business, including with respect to levels of payment processing activity through our platform and our commission and margin rates on such payments.

Due to the uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic, we will continue to assess the situation, including abiding by any government-imposed restrictions, market-by-market. We are unable to

 

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accurately predict the ultimate impact that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on our operations going forward due to uncertainties that will be dictated by the length of time that the disruptions resulting from the pandemic continue, which will, in turn, depend on the currently unknowable duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of governmental regulations that might be imposed in response to the pandemic, the effectiveness and wide-spread availability of the vaccine, the speed and extent to which normal economic and operating conditions will resume, and overall changes in consumer behavior. We also cannot accurately forecast the potential impact of additional outbreaks as government restrictions are relaxed, the impact of further shelter-in-place or other government restrictions that are implemented in response to such outbreaks, or the impact on our customers’ ability to remain in business, each of which could continue to have an adverse impact on our business.

To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as those relating to our liquidity, our indebtedness, and our ability to comply with the covenants contained in the agreements that govern our indebtedness.

We have a limited operating history in an evolving industry, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.

We launched our operations in 2013, have grown significantly in recent periods, and have a limited operating history, particularly at our current scale. In addition, we operate in an evolving industry and have frequently expanded our platform features and services and changed our pricing methodologies. This limited operating history and our evolving business make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter. These risks and challenges include, but are not limited to, our ability to:

 

   

accurately forecast our revenue and plan our operating expenses;

 

   

increase the number of and retain existing customers and their guests using our platform;

 

   

successfully compete with current and future competitors;

 

   

successfully expand our business in existing markets and enter new markets and geographies;

 

   

anticipate and respond to macroeconomic changes and changes in the markets in which we operate;

 

   

maintain and enhance the value of our reputation and brand;

 

   

comply with regulatory requirements in highly regulated markets;

 

   

adapt to rapidly evolving trends in the ways customers and their guests interact with technology;

 

   

avoid interruptions or disruptions in our service;

 

   

develop a scalable, high-performance technology infrastructure that can efficiently and reliably handle significant surges of usage by our customers and their guests as compared to historic levels and increased usage generally, as well as the deployment of new features and services;

 

   

maintain and effectively manage our internal infrastructure systems, such as information strategy and sharing and interconnectivity between systems;

 

   

hire, integrate, and retain talented technology, sales, customer service, and other personnel;

 

   

effectively manage rapid growth in our personnel and operations; and

 

   

effectively manage our costs.

 

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Further, because we have limited historical financial data relevant to our current scale and operations and operate in a rapidly evolving market, any predictions about our future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if we had a longer operating history or operated in a more predictable market. We have encountered in the past, and will encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies with limited operating histories in rapidly changing industries. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan and operate our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our platform includes our payment services, and our ability to attract new customers and retain existing customers depends in part on our ability to offer payment processing services with the desired functionality at an attractive price.

We sell subscriptions to our platform together with our payment services, and customers are unable subscribe to our platform without also subscribing to our payment services. While we believe that offering a complete end-to-end platform that includes payment processing functionality along with all the other functionality of our platform offers our customers significant advantages over separate point of sale solutions, some potential or existing customers may not desire to use our payment processing services or to switch from their existing payment processing vendors. Some of our potential customers for our platform may not be willing to switch payment processing vendors for a variety of reasons, such as transition costs, business disruption, and loss of accustomed functionality. There can be no assurance that our efforts to overcome these factors will be successful, and this resistance may adversely affect our growth.

The attractiveness of our payment processing services also depends on our ability to integrate emerging payment technologies, including crypto-currencies, other emerging or alternative payment methods, and credit card systems that we or our processing partners may not adequately support or for which we or they do not provide adequate processing rates. In the event such methods become popular among consumers, any failure to timely integrate emerging payment methods (e.g. ApplePay or Bitcoin) into our software, anticipate consumer behavior changes, or contract with processing partners that support such emerging payment technologies could reduce the attractiveness of our payment processing services and of our platform, and adversely affect our operating results.

Our operating results depend in significant part on our payment processing services, and the revenue and gross profit we derive from our payment processing activity in a particular period can vary due to a variety of factors.

Even if we succeed in increasing subscriptions to our platform and retaining subscription customers, the revenue we derive from payment processing services may vary from period to period depending on a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control and difficult to predict. Our revenue from payment processing services is generally calculated as a percentage of payment volume plus a per-transaction fee and, accordingly, varies depending on the total dollar amount processed through the Toast platform across all of our customers’ restaurant locations in a particular period. This amount may vary, depending on, among other things, the success of our customers’ restaurant locations, the proportion of our customers’ payment volumes processed through our platform, ticket size, consumer spending levels in general, and overall economic conditions. In addition, the revenue and gross profit derived from our payment processing services varies depending on the particular type of payment processed on our platform. For example, card-not-present transactions, which are transactions for which the credit card is not physically present at the merchant location at the time of the transaction, are generally associated with higher payment processing revenue and gross profit compared to card-present transactions, and debit card transactions are generally also associated with

 

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higher gross profit compared to credit card transactions. During the COVID-19 pandemic, card-not-present transactions and debit card transactions accounted for a larger proportion of the total payment transactions processed through our platform than before the COVID-19 pandemic, which contributed to higher gross margins on those transactions than in prior periods. We expect the relative percentage of credit card transactions, and transactions where the card is present to increase in future periods.

A majority of our customers are SMBs, which can be more difficult and costly to retain than enterprise customers, and may increase the impact of economic fluctuations on us.

A majority of our customers are SMBs and we expect they will continue to comprise a large portion of our customer base for the foreseeable future. We define SMBs in the context of our customer base as customers that have between one and ten restaurant locations. Selling to and retaining SMBs can be more difficult than retaining enterprise customers, as SMBs often have higher rates of business failure and more limited resources, may have decisions related to the choice of payment processor dictated by their affiliated parent entity and are more readily able to change their payment processors than larger organizations.

SMBs are also typically more susceptible to the adverse effects of economic fluctuations, including those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Adverse changes in the economic environment or business failures of our SMB customers may have a greater impact on us than on our competitors who do not focus on SMBs to the extent that we do.

We rely in part on revenue from subscription contracts, and because we recognize revenue from subscription contracts over the term of the relevant subscription period, downturns or upturns in sales are not immediately reflected in full in our results of operations.

Subscription services revenue accounts for a significant portion of our total revenue. Sales of new or renewal subscription contracts may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customers’ level of satisfaction with our platform, the prices of our subscriptions, the prices of subscriptions offered by our competitors, reductions in our customers’ spending levels, or other changes in consumer behavior. If our sales of new or renewal subscription contracts decline, our revenue and revenue growth may decline. We recognize subscription revenue ratably over the term of the relevant subscription period, which generally ranges from 12 to 36 months in duration. As a result, much of the subscription revenue we report each quarter is derived from subscription contracts that we sold in prior periods.

Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscription contracts in any one quarter will not be fully reflected in revenue in that quarter but will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewal sales of our subscriptions is not reflected in full in our results of operations in a given period. Also, it is difficult for us to rapidly increase our subscription revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new and renewal subscription contracts must be recognized ratably over the applicable subscription period. Furthermore, any increases in the average term of subscription contracts would result in revenue for those subscription contracts being recognized over longer periods of time.

Our future revenue will depend in part on our ability to expand the financial technology services we offer to our customers and increase adoption of those services.

We offer our customers a variety of financial technology products and services, and we intend to make available additional financial technology products and services to our customers in the future. A number of these services require that we enter into arrangements with financial institutions or other third parties. For example, our bank partner, which is a Utah-chartered and FDIC-insured industrial bank, offers qualified customers working capital loans, which we service. In order to provide these and

 

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future financial technology products and services, we may need to establish additional partnerships with third parties, comply with a variety of regulatory requirements, and introduce internal processes and procedures to comply with applicable law and the requirements of our partners, all of which may involve significant cost, require substantial management attention, and expose us to new business and compliance risks. We cannot be sure that our current or future financial technology services will be widely adopted by our customers or that the revenue we derive from such services will justify our investments in developing and introducing these services.

Failure to maintain and enhance our brand recognition in a cost-effective manner could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand identity and reputation is critical to our relationships with, and ability to attract, new customers, partners and employees. Accordingly, we have invested, and expect to continue to invest, increasing amounts of money in and greater resources to branding and other marketing initiatives, which may not be successful or cost effective. If we do not successfully maintain and enhance our brand and reputation in a cost-effective manner, our business may not grow, we may have reduced pricing power relative to competitors with stronger brands or reputations, and we could lose customers or partners, all of which would harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In addition, any negative publicity about our company or our management, including about the quality, stability, and reliability of our platform or services, changes to our products and services, our privacy and security practices, litigation, regulatory enforcement, and other actions involving us, as well as the perception of us and our products by our customers and their guests, even if inaccurate, could cause a loss of confidence in us and adversely affect our brand.

We depend on the experience and expertise of our senior management team and key technical employees, and the loss of any key employee could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our success depends upon the continued service of our senior management team and key technical employees. Each of these employees could terminate his or her relationship with us at any time. Further, our competitors may be successful in recruiting and hiring members of our management team or other key employees, and it may be difficult for us to find suitable replacements on a timely basis, on competitive terms, or at all.

The loss of any member of our senior management team or key technical employees might significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives and could harm our business and our customer relationships.

Our ability to recruit, retain, and develop qualified personnel is critical to our success and growth.

All our businesses function at the intersection of rapidly changing technological, social, economic, and regulatory environments that require a wide range of expertise and intellectual capital. For us to successfully compete and grow, we must recruit, retain, and develop personnel who can provide the necessary expertise across a broad spectrum of disciplines. In addition, we must develop, maintain and, as necessary, implement appropriate succession plans to ensure we have the necessary human resources capable of maintaining continuity in our business.

The market for qualified personnel is competitive, and we may not succeed in recruiting additional personnel or may fail to effectively replace current personnel who depart with qualified or effective

 

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successors. Our effort to retain and develop personnel may also result in significant additional expenses, which could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. The trading price of our Class A common stock following this offering is likely to be volatile, could be subject to fluctuations in response to various factors and may not appreciate. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines for these or other reasons, it may adversely affect our ability to attract and retain highly qualified employees. Certain of our employees have received significant proceeds from sales of our equity in private transactions and many of our employees may receive significant proceeds from sales of our equity in the public markets following this offering, which may reduce their motivation to continue to work for us.

We are also substantially dependent on our direct sales force to obtain new customers and increase sales to existing customers. There is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, and retaining a sufficient number of sales personnel to support our growth. If we are unable to hire, train, and retain a sufficient number of qualified and successful sales personnel, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.

From time to time we are subject to various legal proceedings that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

From time to time we are or may become involved in claims, lawsuits (whether class actions or individual lawsuits), arbitration proceedings, government investigations, and other legal or regulatory proceedings involving commercial, corporate and securities matters; privacy, marketing and communications practices; labor and employment matters; alleged infringement of third-party patents and other intellectual property rights; and other matters. The results of any such claims, lawsuits, arbitration proceedings, government investigations, or other legal or regulatory proceedings cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation, require significant management attention, and divert significant resources. Determining reserves for our pending litigation is a complex and fact-intensive process that requires significant subjective judgment and speculation. It is possible that a resolution of one or more such proceedings could result in substantial damages, settlement costs, fines, and penalties. These proceedings could also result in harm to our reputation and brand, sanctions, consent decrees, injunctions, or other orders requiring a change in our business practices. Any of these consequences could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Further, under certain circumstances, we have contractual and other legal obligations to indemnify and to incur legal expenses on behalf of our business, customers, and commercial partners and current and former directors and officers. In addition, certain litigation or the resolution of certain litigation may affect the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured, and adversely impact our ability to attract directors and officers.

Notwithstanding the terms of our agreements with our customers, it is possible that a default on such obligations by one or more of our customers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. For example, if a customer defaults on its obligations under a customer agreement or terminates a customer agreement prior to the contractual termination date, we may be required to assert a claim to acquire the amount in full due under the customer agreement, which we may choose not to pursue. However, if we choose to pursue any such claim, we may incur substantial costs to resolve claims or enter into litigation or arbitration, and even if we were to prevail in the event of claims, litigation or arbitration, such claims, litigation, or arbitration could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and other employees from our business operations.

 

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We also include arbitration and class action waiver provisions in our terms of service with the customers that utilize our platform and certain agreements with our employees. These provisions are intended to streamline the litigation process for all parties involved, as they can in some cases be faster and less costly than litigating disputes in state or federal court. However, arbitration can nevertheless be costly and burdensome, and the use of arbitration and class action waiver provisions subjects us to certain risks to our reputation and brand, as these provisions have been the subject of increasing public scrutiny. In order to minimize these risks to our reputation and brand, we may limit our use of arbitration and class action waiver provisions, or we may be required to do so in any particular legal or regulatory proceeding, either of which could cause an increase in our litigation costs and exposure. Additionally, we permit certain customers and other users of our platform to opt out of such provisions, which could cause an increase in our litigation costs and exposure.

Further, with the potential for conflicting rules regarding the scope and enforceability of arbitration and class action waivers on a state-by-state basis, as well as between state and federal law, there is a risk that some or all of our arbitration and class action waiver provisions could be subject to challenge or may need to be revised to exempt certain categories of protection. If these provisions were found to be unenforceable, in whole or in part, or specific claims are required to be exempted, we could experience an increase in our costs to litigate disputes and in the time involved in resolving such disputes, and we could face increased exposure to potentially costly lawsuits, each of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We have closed two acquisitions and may acquire or invest in other companies or technologies in the future, which could divert management’s attention, fail to meet our expectations, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, increase expenses, disrupt our operations, or harm our operating results.

We closed our acquisition of StratEx Holdings LLC, or StratEx, a provider of human resources and payroll software for restaurants, in July 2019, and our acquisition of xtra CHEF, Inc., or xtraCHEF, a provider of restaurant-specific invoice management software that helps restaurants track and record expenses, in June 2021. These were our first two acquisitions, and we may in the future acquire or invest in businesses, products, or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform, enhance our technical capabilities, or otherwise offer growth opportunities. We may not be able to fully realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisition of StratEx, xtraCHEF, or any future acquisitions. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses related to identifying, investigating, and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated. Further, we may have to pay cash, incur debt, or issue securities, including equity-based securities, to pay for acquisitions, joint ventures, or strategic investments, each of which could affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock or result in dilution to our existing shareholders.

There are inherent risks in integrating and managing acquisitions. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to assimilate or integrate the acquired personnel, operations, and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including but not limited to: unanticipated costs associated with the acquisition; the inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition costs; the inability to maintain relationships with customers and partners of the acquired business; the difficulty of incorporating acquired technology into our platform and of maintaining quality and security standards consistent with our brand; harm to our existing business relationships as a result of the acquisition; and the potential loss of key employees. Acquisitions also increase the risk of unforeseen legal liability arising from prior or ongoing acts or omissions by the acquired businesses which are not discovered by due diligence during the acquisition process or that prove to have a greater than anticipated adverse impact. We have previously acquired

 

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and continue to evaluate companies that operate in highly regulated markets. There is no assurance that acquired businesses will have invested sufficient efforts in their own regulatory compliance, and we may need to invest in and seek to improve the regulatory compliance controls and systems of such businesses. Generally, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, or if we are unable to establish effective regulatory compliance controls with respect to an acquired business, our operating results, business, and financial condition may suffer.

In addition, to the extent we pursue acquisitions wholly or partially outside of the United States, these potential acquisitions often involve additional or increased risks including:

 

   

managing geographically separate organizations, systems and facilities;

 

   

integrating personnel with diverse business backgrounds and organizational cultures;

 

   

complying with non-U.S. regulatory and other legal requirements;

 

   

addressing financial and other impacts to our business resulting from fluctuations in currency exchange rates and unit economics across multiple jurisdictions;

 

   

enforcing intellectual property rights outside of the United States;

 

   

difficulty entering new non-U.S. markets due to, among other things, difficulties in achieving consumer acceptance of our platform in new markets and more limited business knowledge of these markets; and

 

   

general economic and political conditions.

The diversion of management’s attention and any delays or difficulties encountered in connection with acquisitions and their integration could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

We do not have sufficient history with our subscription or pricing models to accurately predict optimal pricing strategies necessary to attract new customers and retain existing customers.

We have limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for our platform and services and we expect to make further changes to our pricing model from time to time. As the market for our platform matures, or as competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours, we may be unable to attract new customers at the same price or based on the same pricing models that we have used historically. Moreover, while SMBs comprise the majority of our customer base, we have and will continue to seek subscriptions from enterprise customers, which may be more likely to demand substantial price concessions. As a result, in the future, we may be required to reduce our prices, which could adversely affect our revenue, gross margin, profitability, financial position, and cash flow.

Our business is exposed to risks associated with the handling of customer funds.

Our business handles payroll processing administration for certain of our customers. Consequently, at any given time, we may be holding or directing funds of customers, while payroll payments are being processed. This function creates a risk of loss arising from, among other things, fraud by employees or third parties, execution of unauthorized transactions, or errors relating to transaction processing. We are also potentially at risk if the financial institution in which we hold these funds suffers any kind of insolvency or liquidity event or fails, for any reason, to deliver their services in a timely manner. The occurrence of any of these types of events could cause us financial loss and reputational harm.

 

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Any failure to offer high-quality customer support may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In deploying and using our platform, our customers depend on our 24/7 support team to resolve complex technical and operational issues, including ensuring that our platform is implemented in a manner that integrates with a variety of third-party platforms. We also rely on third parties to provide some support services, and our ability to provide effective support is partially dependent on our ability to attract and retain qualified and capable third-party service providers. As we continue to grow our business and improve our offerings, we will face challenges related to providing high-quality support services at scale. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in demand for customer support or to modify the nature, scope, and delivery of our customer support to compete with changes in customer support services provided by our competitors. Increased demand for customer support, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and adversely affect our operating results. Our sales are highly dependent on our business reputation and on positive recommendations from our existing customers. Any failure to maintain high-quality customer support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality customer support, could adversely affect our reputation and brand, our ability to benefit from referrals by existing customers, our ability to sell our platform to existing and prospective customers, and our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

The long-term potential of our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to expand our business successfully into international markets.

Although we currently do not derive significant revenue from customers located outside the United States, and we do not derive any revenue from customers outside of North America, the long-term potential of our business will depend in part on our ability to expand our business into international markets. However, we have limited experience with international customers or in selling our platform internationally. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that our business model will be successful, or that our platform will achieve commercial acceptance, outside the United States. If we seek to expand internationally, we will face a wide variety of new business, sales and marketing, operational and regulatory challenges in markets outside the United States, including the presence of more established competitors, our lack of experience in those markets, and a wide variety of new regulatory requirements to which we would become subject. Expanding our business internationally would require significant additional investment in our platform, operations, infrastructure, compliance efforts, and sales and marketing organization, and any such investments may not be successful or generate an adequate return on our investment.

Risks Related to Our Technology and Privacy

We are responsible for transmitting a high volume of sensitive and personal information through our platform and our success depends upon the security of this platform. Any actual or perceived breach of our system that would result in disclosure of such information could materially impact our business.

We, our customers, our partners, and other third parties, including third-party vendors, cloud service providers, and payment processors that we use, obtain and process large amounts of sensitive and personal information, including information related to our customers, their guests, and their transactions. We face risks, including to our reputation as a trusted brand, in the handling and protection of this information, and these risks will increase as our business continues to expand to include new products and technologies. Our operations involve the storage, transmission, and processing of our customers’ proprietary information and sensitive and personal information of our customers and their guests and employees, including contact information, payment card numbers and

 

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expiration dates, purchase histories, lending information, and payroll information. Cyber incidents have been increasing in sophistication and frequency and can include third parties gaining access to employee or guest information using stolen or inferred credentials, computer malware, viruses, spamming, phishing attacks, ransomware, card skimming code, and other deliberate attacks and attempts to gain unauthorized access. In addition, these incidents can originate on our vendors’ websites or systems, which can then be leveraged to access our website or systems, further preventing our ability to successfully identify and mitigate the attack. As a result, unauthorized access to, security breaches of, or denial-of-service attacks against our platform could result in the unauthorized access to or use of, and/or loss of, such data, as well as loss of intellectual property, guest information, employee data, trade secrets, or other confidential or proprietary information.

We have administrative, technical, and physical security measures in place and proactively employ multiple security measures at different layers of our systems to defend against intrusion and attack and to protect our information. However, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures that will be sufficient to counter all current and emerging technology threats. In addition, any security breaches that occur may remain undetected for extended periods of time. While we also have and will continue to make significant efforts to address any IT security issues with respect to acquisitions we make, we may still inherit such risks when we integrate these companies.

We also have policies and procedures in place to contractually require third parties to which we transfer data to implement and maintain appropriate security measures. Sensitive and personal information is processed and stored by our customers, software and financial institution partners and third-party service providers to whom we outsource certain functions. Threats to third-party systems can originate from human error, fraud, or malice on the part of employees or third parties, or simply from accidental technological failure, and/or computer viruses and other malware that can be distributed and infiltrate systems of third parties on whom we rely. While we select third parties to which we transfer data carefully, we do not control their actions, and these third parties may experience security breaches that result in unauthorized access of data and information stored with them despite these contractual requirements and the security measures these third parties employ.

If any security breach involving our systems or the systems of third parties that store or process our data or significant denial-of-service or other cyber-attack occurs or is believed to have occurred, our reputation and brand could be damaged, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by such actual or perceived breaches or attacks and remediate our systems. In addition, we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation, or regulatory action and possible liability, some or all of which may not be covered by insurance, and our ability to operate our business may be impaired. Unauthorized parties have in the past gained access, and may in the future gain access, to systems or facilities used in our business through various means, including gaining unauthorized access into our systems or facilities or those of customers and their guests, attempting to fraudulently induce our employees, customers, their guests, or others into disclosing user names, passwords, payment card information, or other sensitive or personal information, which may in turn be used to access our IT systems or fraudulently transfer funds to bad actors.

If new or existing customers believe that our platform does not provide adequate security for the storage of personal or sensitive information or its transmission over the Internet, they may not adopt our platform or may choose not to renew their subscriptions to our platform, which could harm our business. Additionally, actual, potential, or anticipated attacks may cause us to incur increasing costs, including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees, and engage third-party experts and consultants. Our errors and omissions insurance policies covering certain security and privacy damages and claim expenses may not be sufficient to compensate for all potential liability. Although we maintain cyber liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our

 

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coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all.

Further, because data security is a critical competitive factor in our industry, we may make statements in our privacy statements and notices and in our marketing materials describing the security of our platform, including descriptions of certain security measures we employ or security features embedded within our products. Should any of these statements be untrue, become untrue, or be perceived to be untrue, even if through circumstances beyond our reasonable control, we may face claims, including claims of unfair or deceptive trade practices, brought by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, state, local, or foreign regulators (e.g., a European Union-based data protection agency), or private litigants.

Interruptions or performance problems associated with our technology and infrastructure may adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our continued growth depends in part on the ability of our existing and potential customers to access our platform at any time and within an acceptable amount of time. Our platform is proprietary, and we rely on the expertise of members of our engineering, operations, and software development teams for our platform’s continued performance. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions, outages, and other performance problems related to our platform due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, introductions of new functionality, human or software errors, delays in scaling our technical infrastructure if we do not maintain enough excess capacity and accurately predict our infrastructure requirements, capacity constraints due to an overwhelming number of users accessing our platform simultaneously, denial-of-service attacks, human error, actions or inactions attributable to third parties, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks and other geopolitical unrest, computer viruses, ransomware, malware, or other events. Our systems also may be subject to break-ins, sabotage, theft, and intentional acts of vandalism, including by our own employees. Some of our systems are not fully redundant and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Further, our business and/or network interruption insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our losses that may result from interruptions in our service as a result of systems failures and similar events.

From time to time we may experience limited periods of server downtime due to server failure or other technical difficulties. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our performance, especially during peak usage times and as our platform becomes more complex and our user traffic increases. If our platform is unavailable or if our users are unable to access our platform within a reasonable amount of time, or at all, our business would be adversely affected and our brand could be harmed. In the event of any of the factors described above, or certain other failures of our infrastructure, customer or guest data may be permanently lost. Moreover, a limited number of our agreements with customers may provide for limited service level commitments from time to time.

If we experience significant periods of service downtime in the future, we may be subject to claims by our customers against these service level commitments. These events have resulted in losses in revenue, though such losses have not been material to date. System failures in the future could result in significant losses of revenue.

Moreover, we provided credits in an aggregate amount of approximately $3.5 million across 2019 and 2020 to our customers to compensate them for the inconvenience caused by a system failure or similar event. We may voluntarily provide similar such credits in the future, in addition to those credits we have provided to support our customers and for the benefit of the restaurant community as part of

 

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our ongoing goodwill efforts. To the extent that we do not effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed, and continually develop our technology and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business and operating results may be adversely affected.

Our success depends upon our ability to continually enhance the performance, reliability, and features of our platform.

The markets in which we compete are characterized by constant change and innovation, and we expect them to continue to evolve rapidly. Our success has been based on our ability to identify and anticipate the needs of our customers and their guests and design and maintain a platform that provides them with the tools they need to operate their businesses successfully. Our ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers, and increase sales to both new and existing customers will depend in large part on our ability to continue to improve and enhance the performance, reliability, and features of our platform. To grow our business, we must develop products and services that reflect the changing nature of restaurant management software and expand beyond our core functionalities to other areas of managing relationships with our customers, as well as their relationships with their guests. Competitors may introduce new offerings embodying new technologies, or new industry standards and practices could emerge, that render our existing technology, services, website, hardware, and mobile applications obsolete. Accordingly, our future success will depend in part on our ability to respond to new product offerings by competitors, technological advances, and emerging industry standards and practices in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to retain existing customers and attract new customers. Furthermore, as the number of our customers with higher volume sales increases, so does the need for us to offer increased functionality, scalability, and support, which requires us to devote additional resources to such efforts.

The success of these and any other enhancements to our platform depends on several factors, including timely completion, adequate quality testing and sufficient demand, and the accuracy of our estimates regarding the total addressable market for new products and/or enhancements and the portion of such total addressable market that we expect to capture for such new products and/or enhancements. Any new product or service that we develop may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner, may contain defects, may not have an adequate total addressable market, or market demand or may not achieve the market acceptance necessary to generate meaningful revenue.

We have scaled our business rapidly, and significant new platform features and services have in the past resulted in, and in the future may continue to result in, operational challenges affecting our business. Developing and launching enhancements to our platform and new services on our platform may involve significant technical risks and upfront capital investments that may not generate return on investment. For example, we may use new technologies ineffectively, or we may fail to adapt to emerging industry standards. We may experience difficulties with software development that could delay or prevent the development, introduction or implementation of new products and enhancements. Software development involves a significant amount of time, as it can take our developers months to update, code, and test new and upgraded products and integrate them into our platform. The continual improvement and enhancement of our platform requires significant investment, and we may not have the resources to make such investment.

If we are unable to successfully develop new products or services, enhance the functionality, performance, reliability, design, security, and scalability of our platform in a manner that responds to our customers’ and their guests’ evolving needs, or gain market acceptance or our new products and services, or if our estimates regarding the total addressable market and the portion of such total addressable market which we expect to capture for new products and/or enhancements prove inaccurate, our business and operating results will be harmed.

 

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Defects, errors, or vulnerabilities in our applications, backend systems, hardware, or other technology systems and those of third-party technology providers could harm our reputation and brand and adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The software underlying our platform is highly complex and may contain undetected errors or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. Our practice is to effect frequent releases of software updates. Third-party software that we incorporate into our platform and our backend systems, hardware, or other technology systems, or those of third-party technology providers, may also be subject to defects, errors, or vulnerabilities. Any such defects, errors, or vulnerabilities could result in negative publicity, a loss of customers or loss of revenue, and access or other performance issues. Such vulnerabilities could also be exploited by bad actors and result in exposure of customer or guest data, or otherwise result in a security breach or other security incident. We may need to expend significant financial and development resources to analyze, correct, eliminate, or work around errors or defects or to address and eliminate vulnerabilities. Any failure to timely and effectively resolve any such errors, defects, or vulnerabilities could adversely affect our business, reputation, brand, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our risk management strategies may not be fully effective in mitigating our risk exposure in all market environments or against all types of risk.

We operate in a rapidly changing industry. Accordingly, our risk management strategies may not be fully effective to identify, monitor, and manage all risks that our business encounters. In addition, when we introduce new services, focus on expanding relationships with new types of customers, or begin to operate in new markets, we may be less able to forecast risk levels and reserve accurately for potential losses, as a result of fraud or otherwise. If our strategies are not fully effective or we are not successful in identifying and mitigating all risks to which we are or may be exposed, we may suffer uninsured liability or harm to our reputation, or be subject to litigation or regulatory actions, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Capital Requirements

We have a history of generating net losses, and if we are unable to achieve adequate revenue growth while our expenses increase, we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We have incurred a net loss in each year since our inception and have a significant accumulated deficit. We incurred net losses of $209.4 million, $248.2 million, and $234.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. As of June 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $850.5 million. These losses and our accumulated deficit are a result of the substantial investments we have made to grow our business. We expect our costs will increase over time and our losses to continue as we expect to continue to invest significant additional funds in expanding our business, sales, and marketing activities, research and development as we continue to build software and hardware designed specifically for the restaurant industry, and maintaining high levels of customer support, each of which we consider critical to our continued success. We also expect to incur additional general and administrative expenses as a result of our growth and expect our costs to increase to support our operations as a public company. In addition, to support the continued growth of our business and to meet the demands of continuously changing security and operational requirements, we plan to continue investing in our technology infrastructure. Historically, our costs have increased over the years due to these factors, and we expect to continue to incur increasing costs to support our anticipated future growth. If we are unable to generate adequate revenue growth and manage our expenses, we may continue to incur significant losses and may not achieve or maintain profitability.

Following the completion of this offering, the stock-based compensation expense related to our RSUs and other outstanding equity awards will result in increases in our expenses in future periods, in

 

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particular in the quarter in which this offering is completed. Additionally, we may expend substantial funds in connection with the tax withholding and remittance obligations that arise upon the initial settlement of certain of our RSUs.

Further, we may make decisions that would adversely affect our short-term operating results if we believe those decisions will improve the experiences of our customers and their guests and if we believe such decisions will improve our operating results over the long term. These decisions may not be consistent with the expectations of investors and may not produce the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Unfavorable conditions in the restaurant industry or the global economy could limit our ability to grow our business and materially impact our financial performance.

Our operating results may vary based on the impact of changes in the restaurant industry or the global economy on us or our customers and their guests. Our revenue growth and potential profitability depend on demand for business management software and platforms serving the restaurant industry. Historically, during economic downturns, there have been reductions in spending on IT as well as pressure for extended billing terms and other financial concessions. The adverse impact of economic downturns may be particularly acute among SMBs, which comprise the majority of our customer base. If economic conditions deteriorate, our current and prospective customers may elect to decrease their IT budgets, which would limit our ability to grow our business and adversely affect our operating results.

A deterioration in general economic conditions (including distress in financial markets and turmoil in specific economies around the world) may adversely affect our financial performance by causing a reduction in locations through restaurant closures or a reduction in gross payment volume. A reduction in the amount of consumer spending or credit card transactions could result in a decrease of our revenue and profits. Adverse economic factors may accelerate the timing, or increase the impact of, risks to our financial performance. These factors could include:

 

   

declining economies and the pace of economic recovery which can change consumer spending behaviors;

 

   

low levels of consumer and business confidence typically associated with recessionary environments;

 

   

high unemployment levels, which may result in decreased spending by consumers;

 

   

budgetary concerns in the United States and other countries around the world, which could impact consumer confidence and spending;

 

   

restrictions on credit lines to consumers or limitations on the issuance of new credit cards;

 

   

uncertainty and volatility in the performance of our customers’ businesses, particularly SMBs;

 

   

customers or consumers decreasing spending for value-added services we market and sell; and

 

   

government actions, including the effect of laws and regulations and any related government stimulus.

We are subject to additional risks relating to the financial products we make available to our customers, including relationships with partners, the ability of our customers to generate revenue to pay their obligations under these products, general macroeconomic conditions and the risk of fraud.

Current and any future financial products offered by Toast, Toast Capital, or through either party’s bank partners, subject us to additional risks. If we cannot source capital or partner with financial

 

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institutions to fund financial solutions for our customers, we might have to reduce the availability of these services, or cease offering them altogether.

Toast Capital’s bank partner offers qualified Toast customers working capital loans in accordance with credit policies established by our bank partner. Toast Capital markets the loans and acts as servicer of the loans and receives a servicing fee based on the outstanding balance of loans being serviced as well as a fee that varies depending on the credit performance of the loans extended under the program. We do not currently have similar partnerships with other financial institutions and are solely reliant on our bank partner to support this program. If our bank partner were to terminate its relationship with us, we would be unable to make working capital loans available to our customers, at least in the short-term, until we are able to enter into a relationship with another financial institution to offer similar loans. In addition, our bank partner may not expand its lending under this program to support future demand for such loans from our customers. There can be no assurance that we would be able into a similar relationship with another financial institution to make working capital loans available to our customers on terms our customers would find attractive, or at all.

Under our agreement with our bank partner, on a monthly basis, we are obligated to purchase loans made in a particular quarter that have been (or are scheduled to be) charged off, are otherwise non-performing, or do not satisfy our bank partner’s credit policy, unless such purchase would cause the principal amount of such purchased loans to exceed 15% (or 30% in the case of a limited program offered during the winter of 2020-2021 related to the COVID-19 pandemic) of the original principal amount of loans made in the applicable quarter. As a result of this potential repurchase obligation, and our servicing fee and credit performance fee, we are subject to credit risk on the loans extended by our partner bank under this program. Accordingly, if we fail to accurately predict the likelihood of default or timely repayment of loans, our business may be materially and adversely affected. For example, if more of our customers cease operations, experience a decline in their revenue, or engage in fraudulent behavior and are not able to repay their loans, our business may be materially and adversely affected. A decline in macroeconomic conditions could increase the risk of non-payment or fraud and could also lead to a decrease in the number of customers eligible for loans or financing. In addition, although our bank partner acts as the lender with respect to these working capital loans, we are subject to numerous contractual and regulatory requirements in connection with our marketing and servicing activities in connection with these loans. If we were to fail to comply with these requirements, we could be subject to liability, regulatory sanctions, or claims by our customers or our bank partner, and our bank partner could terminate its relationship with us.

We intend to continue to explore other financial solutions to offer to our customers. Some of those solutions may require, or be deemed to require, additional procedures, partnerships, licenses, regulatory approvals and requirements, or capabilities. Should we fail to address these requirements, or should these new solutions, or new regulations or interpretations of existing regulations, impose requirements on us that are impractical or that we cannot satisfy, the future growth and success of our financial business may be materially and adversely affected. Further, we have and may continue to have obligations to share in certain losses incurred in offering these financial solutions to our customers, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

If we are unable to properly manage the risks of offering financial solutions, either ourselves or through partner financial institutions, our business may be materially and adversely affected. If we are unable to maintain third-party insurance coverage to mitigate these risks, such as errors and omissions insurance, our exposure to losses would increase, which could have an adverse impact on our results. If laws and regulations change, or are interpreted by courts or regulators as subjecting us to licensing or other compliance requirements, we may be subject to government supervision and enforcement actions, litigation, and related liabilities, our ability to offer financial solutions may be negatively impacted, our costs associated with existing financial solutions, including Toast Capital, may increase

 

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or we may decide to discontinue offering financial solutions altogether, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be negatively impacted.

Our failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our financial condition.

Historically, we have funded our operations, capital expenditures, and acquisitions primarily through the issuance of convertible preferred stock and convertible notes as well as through payments received for the delivery of our services. We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges. Although we currently anticipate that our existing cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, and amounts available under our revolving credit facility will be sufficient to meet our cash needs for at least the next twelve months, our future capital requirements and the adequacy of available funds will depend on many factors. We may require additional financing, and we may not be able to obtain debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of debt, equity, or other securities convertible into equity, including convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests, and any new securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our Class A common stock.

We have outstanding debt obligations, including our revolving credit facility, that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness and requires us to maintain specified minimum liquidity amounts, among other restrictive covenants. The terms of any additional debt financing may be similar or more restrictive.

If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to, among other things:

 

   

develop and enhance our platform and product offerings and operating infrastructure;

 

   

continue to expand our technology development, sales, and marketing organizations;

 

   

hire, train, and retain employees;

 

   

respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated working capital requirements; or

 

   

acquire complementary businesses and technologies.

Our inability to do any of the foregoing could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.

Our revolving credit facility provides our lenders with a first-priority lien against substantially all of our assets, and contains financial covenants and other restrictions on our actions that may limit our operational flexibility or otherwise adversely affect our results of operations.

We are party to a revolving credit and guaranty agreement which contains a number of covenants that restrict our and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, create or incur liens, merge or consolidate with other companies, sell substantially all of our assets, liquidate or dissolve, make distributions to equity holders, pay dividends, make redemptions and repurchases of stock, or engage in transactions with affiliates. We are also required to maintain a minimum liquidity balance. The terms of our outstanding debt may restrict our current and future operations and could adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs or to execute business strategies in the manner desired. In addition, complying with these covenants may make it more difficult for us to successfully execute our business strategy, invest in our growth strategy, and compete against companies who are not subject to such restrictions.

 

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A failure by us to comply with these covenants or payment requirements specified in the revolving credit and guaranty agreement could result in an event of default under the agreement, which would give the lenders the right to terminate their commitments to provide additional loans and extensions of credit and to declare any and all debt outstanding, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable. In addition, the lenders would have the right to proceed against the collateral in which we granted a security interest to them, which consists of substantially all our assets. If our outstanding debt were to be accelerated, we may not have sufficient cash or be able to borrow sufficient funds to refinance the debt or sell sufficient assets to repay the debt, which could materially and adversely affect our cash flows, business, results of operations, and financial condition. Further, the terms of any new or additional financing may be on terms that are more restrictive or less desirable to us.

Our results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in foreign currency exchange rates.

Our operations and customer base are currently concentrated in the United States. Therefore, we currently have limited foreign currency diversification and exposure. However, our foreign currency diversification and exposure may increase as international sales of our products and services increase over time. As a result, our revenue and profits generated by any non-U.S. operations may fluctuate from period to period as a result of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, we may become subject to exchange control regulations that restrict or prohibit the conversion of our other revenue currencies into U.S. dollars. Any of these factors could decrease the value of revenue and profits we derive from our non-U.S. operations and adversely affect our business.

We may also seek to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates through the use of hedging arrangements. To the extent that we hedge our foreign currency exchange rate exposure, we forgo the benefits we would otherwise experience if foreign currency exchange rates changed in our favor. No strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with such fluctuations and our currency exchange rate risk management activities could expose us to substantial losses if such rates move materially differently from our expectations.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2020, we had accumulated $444.0 million and $497.2 million of federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, respectively, available to reduce future taxable income. Of the federal NOLs, $361.2 million have an indefinite carryforward period, and $82.8 million will expire at various dates through 2037. Of the state NOLs, the majority will begin to expire in 2034. It is possible that we will not generate taxable income in time to use NOLs before their expiration, or at all. Under Section 382 and Section 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOLs and other tax attributes, including R&D tax credits, to offset its post-change income may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” will occur if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “5 percent stockholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. Our ability to use NOLs and other tax attributes to reduce future taxable income and liabilities may be subject to annual limitations as a result of prior ownership changes and ownership changes that may occur in the future, including as a result of this offering.

Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, as amended by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or the CARES Act, NOLs arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2021 may be carried back to each of the five taxable years preceding the tax year of such loss, but NOLs arising in taxable years beginning after December 31,

 

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2020 may not be carried back. Additionally, under the Tax Act, as modified by the CARES Act, NOLs from tax years that began after December 31, 2017 may offset no more than 80% of current taxable income annually for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, but the 80% limitation on the use of NOLs from tax years that began after December 31, 2017 does not apply for taxable income in tax years beginning before January 1, 2021. NOLs arising in tax years ending after December 31, 2017 can be carried forward indefinitely, but NOLs generated in tax years ending before January 1, 2018 will continue to have a two-year carryback and twenty-year carryforward period. As we maintain a full valuation allowance against our U.S. NOLs, these changes will not impact our balance sheet as of December 31, 2020. However, in future years, if and when a net deferred tax asset is recognized related to our NOLs, the changes in the carryforward and carryback periods as well as the limitation on use of NOLs may significantly impact our valuation allowance assessments for NOLs generated after December 31, 2020.

There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs and tax credits by certain jurisdictions, including in order to raise additional revenue to help counter the fiscal impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly with retroactive effect, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs and tax credits could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. A temporary suspension of the use of certain NOLs and tax credits has been enacted in California, and other states may enact suspensions as well. For these reasons, we may not be able to realize a tax benefit from the use of our NOLs and tax credits.

We experience elements of seasonal fluctuations in our financial results, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.

Our business is highly dependent on the behavior patterns of our customers and their guests. We experience seasonality in our financial technology revenue which is largely driven by the level of GPV processed through our platform. For example, our average customers typically have greater sales during the warmer months, though this effect varies regionally. As a result, our financial technology revenue per location has historically been stronger in the second and third quarters. As a result, seasonality may cause fluctuations in our financial results, and other trends that develop may similarly impact our results of operations.

We rely primarily on third-party insurance policies to insure our operations-related risks. If our insurance coverage is insufficient for the needs of our business or our insurance providers are unable to meet their obligations, we may not be able to mitigate the risks facing our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We procure third-party insurance policies to cover various operations-related risks including employment practices liability, workers’ compensation, business interruptions, cybersecurity and data breaches, crime, directors’ and officers’ liability, and general business liabilities. For certain types of operations-related risks or future risks related to our new and evolving services, we may not be able to, or may choose not to, acquire insurance. In addition, we may not obtain enough insurance to adequately mitigate such operations-related risks or risks related to our new and evolving services, and we may have to pay high premiums, self-insured retentions, or deductibles for the coverage we do obtain. Additionally, if any of our insurance providers becomes insolvent, it would be unable to pay any operations-related claims that we make. Further, some of our agreements with customers may require that we procure certain types of insurance, and if we are unable to obtain and maintain such insurance, we would be in violation of the terms of these customer agreements.

If the amount of one or more operations-related claims were to exceed our applicable aggregate coverage limits, we would bear the excess, in addition to amounts already incurred in connection with deductibles, or self-insured retentions. Insurance providers have raised premiums and deductibles for

 

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many businesses and may do so in the future. As a result, our insurance and claims expense could increase, or we may decide to raise our deductibles or self-insured retentions when our policies are renewed or replaced. Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected if the cost per claim, premiums, or the number of claims significantly exceeds our historical experience and coverage limits; we experience a claim in excess of our coverage limits; our insurance providers fail to pay on our insurance claims; we experience a claim for which coverage is not provided; or the number of claims under our deductibles or self-insured retentions differs from historical averages.

Risks Related to Competition, Sales, and Marketing

The markets in which we participate are intensely competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected.

The overall market for restaurant management software is rapidly evolving and subject to changing technology, shifting customer and guest needs, and frequent introductions of new applications. Our competitors vary in size and in the breadth and scope of the products and services they offer. In addition, there are a number of companies that are not currently direct competitors but that could in the future shift their focus to the restaurant industry and offer competing products and services, which could compete directly in our entire customer community or in a certain segment within the restaurant industry. There is also a risk that certain of our current customers and business partners could terminate their relationships with us and use the insights they have gained from partnering with us to introduce their own competing products.

Our current and future competitors may enjoy competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, greater category share in certain markets, market-specific knowledge, established relationships with restaurants, larger existing user bases in certain markets, more successful marketing capabilities, more integrated products and/or platforms, and substantially greater financial, technical, sales, and marketing, and other resources than we have. Additionally, some potential customers in the restaurant industry, particularly large organizations, have elected, and may in the future elect, to develop their own business management and point of sale software and platforms. Certain of our competitors have partnered with, or have acquired or been acquired by, and may in the future partner with or acquire, or be acquired by, other competitors, thereby leveraging their collective competitive positions and making it more difficult to compete with them. We believe that there are significant opportunities to further increase our revenue by expanding internationally. As we expand our business by selling subscriptions to our platform in international markets, we will also face competition from local incumbents in these markets.

Additionally, many of our competitors are well capitalized and offer discounted services, lower customer processing rates and fees, customer discounts and promotions, innovative platforms and offerings, and alternative pay models, any of which may be more attractive than those that we offer. Such competitive pressures may lead us to maintain or lower our processing rates and fees or maintain or increase our incentives, discounts, and promotions in order to remain competitive, particularly in markets where we do not have a leading position. Such efforts have negatively affected, and may continue to negatively affect, our financial performance, and there is no guarantee that such efforts will be successful. Further, the markets in which we compete have attracted significant investments from a wide range of funding sources, and we anticipate that many of our competitors will continue to be highly capitalized. These investments, along with the other competitive advantages discussed above, may allow our competitors to continue to lower their prices and fees, or increase the incentives, discounts, and promotions they offer and thereby compete more effectively against us.

Some of our competitors offer specific point solutions addressing particular needs in the restaurant industry, including subscriptions to software products without the requirement to use related

 

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payment processing services. While we believe that our integrated software and payments platform offers significant advantages over such point solutions, customers who have specific needs that are addressed by these point solutions, and customers who do not want to change from an existing payment processing relationship to use our payment processing services, may believe that products and services offered by competitors better address their needs.

Additionally, our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than us to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements. With the introduction of new technologies and new market entrants, we expect competition to intensify in the future. For example, our competitors may adopt certain of our platform features or may adopt innovations that customers value more highly than ours, which would render our platform less attractive and reduce our ability to differentiate our platform. Pricing pressures and increased competition generally could result in reduced sales, reduced margins, increased churn, reduced customer retention, losses, or the failure of our platform to achieve or maintain more widespread market acceptance. For all of these reasons, we may fail to compete successfully against our current and future competitors. If we fail to compete successfully, our business will be harmed.

Potential changes in competitive landscape, including disintermediation from other participants in the payments chain, could harm our business.

We expect the competitive landscape in the restaurant technology industry will continue to change in a variety of ways, including:

 

   

rapid and significant changes in technology, resulting in new and innovative payment methods and programs, that could place us at a competitive disadvantage and reduce the use of our platform and services;

 

   

competitors, including third-party processors and integrated payment providers, customers, governments, and/or other industry participants may develop products and services that compete with or replace our platform and services, including products and services that enable payment networks and banks to transact with consumers directly;

 

   

competitors may also elect to focus exclusively on one segment of the restaurant industry and develop product offerings uniquely tailored to that segment, which could impact our addressable market and reduce the use of our platform and services;

 

   

participants in the financial services, payments, and payment technology industries may merge, create joint ventures, or form other business alliances that may strengthen their existing business services or create new payment services that compete with our platform and services; and

 

   

new services and technologies that we develop may be impacted by industry-wide solutions and standards related to migration to Europay, Mastercard, and Visa standards, including chip technology, tokenization, and other safety and security technologies.

Certain competitors could use strong or dominant positions in one or more markets to gain a competitive advantage against us, such as by integrating competing platforms or features into products they control, including search engines, web browsers, mobile device operating systems, or social networks; by making acquisitions; or by making access to our platform more difficult. Failure to compete effectively against any of these or other competitive threats could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

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We expend significant resources pursuing sales opportunities, and if we fail to close sales after expending significant time and resources to do so, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

The initial installation and set-up of many of our services often involve significant resource commitments by our customers, particularly those with larger operational scale. Potential customers generally commit significant resources to an evaluation of available services and may require us to expend substantial time, effort, and money educating them as to the value of our services. Our sales cycle may be extended due to our customers’ budgetary constraints or for other reasons. In addition, as we seek to sell subscriptions to our platform to additional enterprise customers, we anticipate that the sales cycle associated with those potential customers will be longer than the typical sales cycle for SMB customers, and that sales to enterprise customers will require us to expend greater sales and marketing and management resources. If we are unsuccessful in closing sales after expending significant funds and management resources, or we experience delays or incur greater than anticipated costs, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Partners and Other Third Parties

We depend upon third parties to manufacture our products and to supply key components necessary to manufacture our products. We do not have long-term agreements with all of our manufacturers and suppliers, and if these manufacturers or suppliers become unwilling or unable to provide an adequate supply of components, particularly of semiconductor chips, with respect to which there is a severe global shortage, we may not be able to find alternative sources in a timely manner and our business would be impacted.

Many of the key components used to manufacture our products, such as our customer-facing displays, come from limited or single sources of supply, and therefore a disruption with one manufacturer in our supply chain may have an adverse effect on other aspects of our supply chain and may disrupt our ability to effectively and timely deliver our hardware products. In addition, in some cases, we rely only on one hardware manufacturer to fabricate, test, and assemble our products. In general, our contract manufacturers fabricate or procure components on our behalf, subject to certain approved procedures or supplier lists, and we do not have firm commitments from all of these manufacturers to provide all components, or to provide them in quantities and on timelines that we may require. Due to our reliance on the components or products produced by suppliers such as these, we are subject to the risk of shortages and long lead times in the supply of certain components or products. We are still in the process of identifying alternative manufacturers for the assembly of our products and for many of the single-sourced components used in our products. In the case of off-the-shelf components, we are subject to the risk that our suppliers may discontinue or modify them, or that the components may cease to be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. We have in the past experienced, and may in the future experience, component shortages, or delays or other problems in product assembly, and the availability and cost of these components or products may be difficult to predict. For example, our manufacturers may experience temporary or permanent disruptions in their manufacturing operations due to equipment breakdowns, labor strikes or shortages, natural disasters, component or material shortages, cost increases, acquisitions, insolvency, changes in legal or regulatory requirements, or other similar problems.

In particular, increased demand for semiconductor chips in 2020, due in part to the COVID-19 pandemic and an increased use of laptop computers, 5G phones, gaming systems, and other IT equipment that use these chips, has resulted in a severe global shortage of chips in early 2021. As a result, our ability to source semiconductor chips used in our hardware products has been adversely affected. This shortage may result in increased component delivery lead times, delays in the production of our hardware products, and increased costs to source available semiconductor chips. To

 

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the extent this semiconductor chip shortage continues, and we are unable to mitigate the effects of this shortage, our ability to deliver sufficient quantities of our hardware products to support our existing customers and to support our growth through sales to new customers may be adversely affected.

As the scale of our hardware production increases, we will also need to accurately forecast, purchase, warehouse, and transport components at high volumes to our manufacturing facilities and servicing locations. If we are unable to accurately match the timing and quantities of component purchases to our actual needs or successfully implement automation, inventory management, and other systems to accommodate the increased complexity in our supply chain and parts management, we may incur unexpected production disruption, storage, transportation, and write-off costs, which may harm our business and operating results.

In the event of a shortage or supply interruption from suppliers of components used in our hardware products, we may not be able to develop alternate sources quickly, cost-effectively, or at all. This could harm our relationships with our customers, prevent us from acquiring new customers, and materially and adversely affect our business.

Additionally, various sources of supply-chain risk, including strikes or shutdowns at delivery ports or loss of or damage to our products while they are in transit or storage, intellectual property theft, losses due to tampering, third-party vendor issues with quality or sourcing control, failure by our suppliers to comply with applicable laws and regulation, potential tariffs (including those applicable to our relationships with vendors in China) or other trade restrictions, or other similar problems could limit or delay the supply of our products, or harm our reputation.

We also rely on certain suppliers located internationally as part of our supply chain, and the supply risks described above may similarly apply to or be more pronounced in respect of those international suppliers. For example, we have several long-term contracts with companies based in China and other parts of Asia. A violation of these contracts may require us to bring a claim in China or another jurisdiction in Asia and which may be difficult to enforce. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts in these international jurisdictions would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts. Any litigation in international jurisdictions, including in China or other parts of Asia, may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

We rely substantially on one third-party payment processor to facilitate payments made by guests and payments made to customers, and payments made on behalf of customers, and if we cannot manage risks related to our relationships with this payment processor or any future third-party payment processors, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We currently substantially rely on Worldpay, Inc., or Worldpay, as our third-party payment processor to facilitate payments made by guests and payments made to customers on our platform. While we are seeking to develop payment processing relationships with other payment processors, we expect to continue to rely on a limited number of payment processors for the foreseeable future. Under the terms of our contract with Worldpay, or the Worldpay contract, we pay Worldpay volume-based transaction fees on each transaction processed on our platform, as well as a fee-for-service for any additional functionality. In May 2021, the Worldpay contract was renewed for a new three-year term, and may be further renewed for a subsequent three-year term subject to either party’s right to elect not to renew. Worldpay may terminate the Worldpay contract if we fail to maintain a prescribed threshold for transaction volume, and upon certain customary events of default, including, among others, our failure to make payments when due, our uncured breaches of the Worldpay contract, a material deterioration in our financial condition, certain change of control transactions, or our bankruptcy. We have in the past experienced interrupted operations with respect to payments processed through Worldpay, which in some cases resulted in the temporary inability of our customers to collect payments from their guests through our platform. In the event that Worldpay or any additional third-party payment

 

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processors in the future fail to maintain adequate levels of support, experience interrupted operations, do not provide high quality service, increase the fees they charge us, discontinue their lines of business, terminate their contractual arrangements with us, or cease or reduce operations, we may suffer additional costs and be required to pursue new third-party relationships, which could materially disrupt our operations and our ability to provide our products and services, and could divert management’s time and resources. In addition, such incidents could result in periods of time during which our platform cannot function properly, and therefore cannot collect payments from customers and their guests, which could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and our business, reputation, brand, financial condition, and results of operations. It would be difficult to replace third-party processors, including Worldpay, in a timely manner if they were unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future, and our business and operations could be adversely affected. If these services fail or are of poor quality, our business, reputation, and operating results could be harmed.

Further, our contract with Worldpay requires us to bear risk for compliance with the operating rules, or the Payment Network Rules, of Visa, Mastercard, and other payment networks, or collectively, the Payment Networks, with whom we are registered as a payment facilitator or certified service provider, and applicable law, and the risk of fraud. In the event Worldpay or any additional third-party payment processors in the future are subjected to losses, including any fines for reversals, chargebacks, or fraud assessed by the Payment Networks, that are caused by us or our customers due to failure to comply with the Payment Network Rules or applicable law, our third-party payment processor may impose penalties on us, increase our transaction fees, or restrict our ability to process transactions through the Payment Networks, and we may lose our ability to process payments through one or more Payment Networks. Thus, in the event of a significant loss by Worldpay or any future third-party payment processor, we may be required to expend a large amount of cash promptly upon notification of the occurrence of such an event. A contractual dispute with our processing partner could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

We are also dependent upon various large banks and regulators to execute electronic payments and wire transfers as part of our client payroll, tax, and other money movement services. Termination of any such banking relationship, a bank’s refusal or inability to provide services on which we rely, outages, delays, or systemic shutdown of the banking industry would impede our ability to process funds on behalf of our payroll, tax, and other money movement services clients and could have an adverse impact on our financial results and liquidity.

If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of payment networks, they could seek to fine us, suspend us, or terminate our registrations. If our customers incur fines or penalties that we cannot collect from them, we may have to bear the cost of such fines or penalties.

In order to provide our transaction processing services, we are registered as a payment facilitator or certified service provider with the Payment Networks. We and our customers must comply with the Payment Network Rules. The Payment Network Rules require us to also comply with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or the Security Standard, which is a set of rules and standards designed to ensure that all companies that process, store, or transmit payment card information maintain a secure environment to protect cardholder data.

If we fail to, or are alleged to have failed to, comply with the Payment Network Rules or the Security Standard, we may be subject to fines, penalties, or restrictions, including, but not limited to, higher transaction fees that may be levied by the Payment Networks for failure to comply with the Payment Network Rules. If a customer fails or is alleged to have failed to comply with the Payment Network Rules, we could also be subject to a variety of fines or penalties that may be levied by the Payment Networks. If we cannot collect such amounts from the applicable customer, we may have to bear the cost of the fines or penalties, and we may also be unable to continue processing payments for that customer. This may result in lower earnings for us. In addition to these fines and penalties, if we or

 

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our customers do not comply with the Payment Network Rules or the Security Standard, we may lose our status as a payment facilitator or certified service provider. Our failure to comply with such rules and standards could mean that we may no longer be able to provide certain of our services as they are currently offered, and that existing customers, sales partners, or other third parties may cease using or referring our services. Prospective merchant customers, financial institutions, sales partners, or other third parties may choose to terminate negotiations with us or delay or choose not to consider us for their processing needs. In each of these instances, our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be adversely affected.

In addition, as our business continues to develop and expand, and we create new product offerings, we may become subject to additional rules, regulations, and industry standards. We may not always accurately interpret or predict the scope or applicability of certain regulations and standards, including the Security Standard, to our business, particularly as we expand into new product offerings, which could lead us to fall out of compliance with the Security Standard or other rules. Further, the Payment Networks could adopt new operating rules or interpret or re-interpret existing rules in ways that might prohibit us from providing certain services to some users, be costly to implement, or be difficult to follow. Any changes in the Payment Network Rules or the Security Standard, including our interpretation and implementation of the Payment Network Rules or the Security Standard to our existing or future business offerings, or additional contractual obligations imposed on us by our customers relating to privacy, data protection, or information security, may increase our cost of doing business, require us to modify our data processing practices or policies, or increase our potential liability in connection with breaches or incidents relating to privacy, data protection, and information security, including resulting in termination of our registrations with the Payment Networks. The termination of our registrations, or any changes in the Payment Network Rules that would impair our registrations, could require us to stop providing payment facilitation services relating to the affected Payment Network, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

The Payment Network Rules, including rules related to the assessment of interchange and other fees, may be influenced by our competitors. Increases in Payment Network fees or new regulations could negatively affect our earnings.

The Payment Network Rules are set by their boards, which may be influenced by card issuers, and some of those issuers are our competitors with respect to these processing services. Many banks directly or indirectly sell processing services to customers in direct competition with us. These banks could attempt, by virtue of their influence on the Payment Networks, to alter the Payment Networks’ rules or policies to the detriment of other members and non-members including certain of our businesses.

We pay interchange, assessment, transaction, and other fees set by the Payment Networks to such networks and, in some cases, to the card issuing financial institutions for each transaction we process. From time to time, the Payment Networks increase the fees that they charge members or certified service providers. We could attempt to pass these increases along to our customers and their guests, but this strategy might result in the loss of customers to our competitors that do not pass along the increases. If competitive practices prevent us from passing along the higher fees to our customers and their guests in the future, we may have to absorb all or a portion of such increases, which may increase our operating costs and reduce our earnings.

In addition, regulators are subjecting interchange and other fees to increased scrutiny, and new regulations or interpretations of existing regulations could require greater pricing transparency of the breakdown in fees or fee limitations, which could lead to increased price-based competition, lower margins, and higher rates of customer attrition, and affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

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We rely on customers on our platform for many aspects of our business, and any failure by them to maintain their service levels or any changes to their operating costs could adversely affect our business.

We rely on customers on our platform to provide quality foods, beverages, and service and experience to their guests. Further, an increase in customer operating costs could cause customers on our platform to raise prices, cease operations, or renegotiate processing rates, which could in turn adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Many of the factors affecting customer operating costs, including the cost of offering off-premise dining, are beyond the control of customers and include inflation, costs associated with the goods provided, labor and employee benefit costs, costs associated with third-party delivery services, rent costs, and energy costs. Additionally, if customers try to pass along increased operating costs by raising prices for their guests, order volume may decline, which we expect would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We primarily rely on Amazon Web Services to deliver our services to customers on our platform, and any disruption of or interference with our use of Amazon Web Services could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We currently host our platform and support our operations on multiple data centers provided by Amazon Web Services, or AWS, a third-party provider of cloud infrastructure services. We do not have control over the operations of the facilities of AWS that we use. AWS’ facilities could be subject to damage or interruption from natural disasters, cybersecurity attacks, terrorist attacks, power outages, and similar events or acts of misconduct. The occurrence of any of the above circumstances or events and the resulting impact on our platform may harm our reputation and brand, reduce the availability or usage of our platform, lead to a significant short-term loss of revenue, increase our costs, and impair our ability to retain existing customers or attract new customers, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Even though our platform is hosted in the cloud solely by AWS, we believe that we could transition to one or more alternative cloud infrastructure providers on commercially reasonable terms. In the event that our agreement with AWS is terminated or we add additional cloud infrastructure service providers, we may experience significant costs or downtime for a short period in connection with the transfer to, or the addition of, new cloud infrastructure service providers. However, we do not believe that such transfer to, or the addition of, new cloud infrastructure service providers would cause substantial harm to our business, financial condition, or results of operations over the longer term.

We depend on the interoperability of our platform across third-party applications and services that we do not control.

We have integrations with various third parties, both within and outside the restaurant ecosystem. Third-party applications, products, and services are constantly evolving, and we may not be able to maintain or modify our platform to ensure its compatibility with third-party offerings. In addition, some of our competitors or customers on our platform may take actions that disrupt the interoperability of our platform with their own products or services, or they may exert strong business influence on our ability to, and the terms on which we operate and distribute our platform. As our platform evolves, we expect the types and levels of competition we face to increase. Should any of our competitors or customers on our platform modify their technologies, standards, or terms of use in a manner that degrades the functionality or performance of our platform or is otherwise unsatisfactory to us or gives preferential treatment to our competitors’ products or services, our platform, business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

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Certain estimates and information contained in this prospectus are based on information from third-party sources, and we do not independently verify the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in such sources or the methodologies for collecting such data. Any real or perceived inaccuracies in such estimates or information may harm our reputation and adversely affect your ability to evaluate our business.

Certain estimates and information contained in this prospectus, including general expectations concerning our industry and the market in which we operate, our market opportunity, and our market size, are based to some extent on information provided by third parties. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and, although we believe the information from such third-party sources is reliable, we have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in such third-party sources or the methodologies for collecting such information or developing such estimates. If there are any limitations or errors with respect to such information, or if such estimates are inaccurate, your ability to evaluate our business and prospects could be impaired and our reputation with investors could suffer.

For example, market opportunity estimates and market growth forecasts included in this prospectus are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. Not every customer included in our market opportunity estimates will necessarily purchase subscriptions to our platform or similar products and services, and some or many of those potential customers may choose to use products or services offered by our competitors. We cannot be certain that any particular number or percentage of the potential customers included in our calculation of our market opportunity will generate any particular level of revenue for us. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecasts in this prospectus, our business could fail to grow for a variety of reasons, including competition, customer preferences and the other risks described in this prospectus. Accordingly, the estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus should not be taken as necessarily indicative of our future growth.

Our partnerships with third parties are an important source of new business for us, and, if those third parties were to reduce their referral of customers to us, our ability to increase our revenue would be adversely affected.

We have partnerships with third parties that are an important source of new business. If any of our third-party partners, such as our partners in the online food marketplace that provide referrals, were to switch to providing marketing support for another payment processor, terminate their relationship with us, merge with or be acquired by one of our competitors, or shut down or become insolvent, we may no longer receive the benefits associated with that relationship, such as new customer referrals, and we also risk losing existing customers and the related payment processing that were originally referred to us by such third party. Any of these events could adversely affect our ability to increase our revenue.

Risks Related to Government Regulation and Other Compliance Requirements

Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. laws and regulations, many of which are unsettled and still developing, and our or our customers’ failure to comply with such laws and regulations could subject us to claims or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

The restaurant technology industry and the offering of financial products therein is relatively nascent and rapidly evolving. We are subject to a variety of U.S. laws and regulations. Laws, regulations, and standards governing issues such as worker classification, labor and employment,

 

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anti-discrimination, online credit card payments, payment and payroll processing, financial services, gratuities, pricing and commissions, text messaging, subscription services, intellectual property, data retention, privacy, data security, consumer protection, background checks, website and mobile application accessibility, wages, and tax are often complex and subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity. The scope and interpretation of existing and new laws, and whether they are applicable to us, is often uncertain and may be conflicting, including varying standards and interpretations between state and federal law, between individual states, and even at the city and municipality level. As a result, their application in practice may change or develop over time through judicial decisions or as new guidance or interpretations are provided by regulatory and governing bodies, such as federal, state, and local administrative agencies.

It is also likely that if our business grows and evolves and our services are used in a greater number of geographies, we would become subject to laws and regulations in additional jurisdictions. It is difficult to predict how existing laws would be applied to our business and the new laws to which it may become subject.

We may not be able to respond quickly or effectively to regulatory, legislative, and other developments, and these changes may in turn impair our ability to offer our existing or planned features, products, and services, and/or increase our cost of doing business. While we have and will need to continue to invest in the development of policies and procedures in order to comply with the requirements of the evolving, highly regulated regulatory regimes applicable to our business and those of our customers, our compliance programs are relatively nascent and we cannot assure that our compliance programs will prevent the violation of one or more laws or regulations. If we are not able to comply with these laws or regulations or if we become liable under these laws or regulations, including any future laws or obligations that we may not be able to anticipate at this time, we could be adversely affected, and we may be forced to implement new measures to reduce our exposure to this liability. This may require us to expend substantial resources, discontinue certain services or platform features, limit our customer base, or find ways to limit our offerings in particular jurisdictions, which would adversely affect our business. Any failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could also subject us to claims and other legal and regulatory proceedings, fines, or other penalties, criminal and civil proceedings, forfeiture of significant assets, and other enforcement actions. In addition, the increased attention focused upon liability issues as a result of lawsuits and legislative proposals could adversely affect our reputation or otherwise impact the growth of our business.

Further, from time to time, we may leverage third parties to help conduct our businesses in the United States or abroad. We may be held liable for any corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party partners and intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, channel partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. While we have policies and procedures to address compliance with such laws, we cannot assure you that our employees and agents will not take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible.

Illegal or improper activities of customers or customer noncompliance with laws and regulations governing, among other things, online credit card payments, financial services, gratuities, pricing and commissions, data retention, privacy, data security, consumer protection, wages, and tax could expose us to liability and adversely affect our business, brand, financial condition, and results of operations. While we have implemented various measures intended to anticipate, identify, and address the risk of these types of activities, these measures may not adequately address or prevent all illegal or improper activities by these parties from occurring and such conduct could expose us to liability, including through litigation, or adversely affect our brand or reputation.

 

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We are subject to extensive and complex rules and regulations, licensing, and examination by various federal, state and local government authorities, and a failure to comply with the laws and regulations applicable to us could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to extensive and complex rules and regulations, licensing, and examination by various federal, state and local government authorities designed to protect our customers and guests of our customers when using our financial technology solutions. In connection with our financial technology solutions, we must comply with a number of federal, state and local laws and regulations, including state and federal unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts and practices laws, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, and the Dodd Frank Act. We must also comply with laws related to money laundering, money transfers, and advertising, as well as privacy and information security, laws, including the California Consumer Privacy Act, or the CCPA. Additionally, we are or may become subject to a wide range of complex laws and regulations concerning the withholding, filing, and remittance of income and payroll taxes in connection with our payroll processing business. We may, in the future, offer additional financial technology solutions to guests of our customers that may be subject to additional laws and regulations or be subject to the abovementioned laws and regulations in novel ways.

Lending facilitated through the Toast Capital platform must comply with anti-discrimination statutes such as the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and state law equivalents that prohibit creditors from discriminating against loan applicants and borrowers based on certain characteristics, such as race, religion and national origin. In addition to reputational harm, violations of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act can result in actual damages, punitive damages, injunctive or equitable relief, attorneys’ fees, and civil money penalties.

In addition, federal and state financial services regulators are aggressively enforcing existing laws, regulations, and rules and enhancing their supervisory expectations regarding the management of legal and regulatory compliance risks. This shift in government enforcement policies and priorities may increase the risk that we will be subject to penalties and other materially adverse consequences through government enforcement actions. A finding that we failed to comply with applicable federal, state, and local law could result in actions that make our platform less convenient and attractive to, and potentially unsuitable for, customers and their guests or that have other materially adverse effects on our operations or financial condition.

Our subsidiary, Toast Processing Services LLC, or TPS, holds or is in the process of obtaining money transmitter licenses or similar authorizations in multiple states where they may be required in order for us to offer our payroll processing products. Each of the issuers of these licenses has the authority to supervise and examine our activities. Licensing determinations are matters of regulatory interpretation and could change over time. For example, certain states may have a more expansive view than others of what activities qualify as money transmission and require a license. Government authorities could disagree with our licensing position or our reliance on certain exemptions from licensing requirements or determine that TPS or another Toast subsidiary or affiliate should have applied for licenses sooner, and they could require us to obtain such licenses, fine us for unlicensed activity, require us to enter into a consent agreement, or subject us to other investigations and enforcement actions. They could also require us to cease conducting certain aspects of our business until we are properly licensed. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain any such licenses, and, even if we are able to do so, we could be required to make products and services changes in order to obtain and maintain such licenses, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business. As we obtain such licenses, we are and will become subject to many additional requirements and limitations, including those with respect to the custody of customer funds, maintenance of capital or permissible investments, disclosures, anti-money laundering, reporting, bonding, and examination by government authorities. The cost of obtaining and maintaining licenses is material.

 

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Our relationship with our bank partner that makes loans to our customers may subject us to regulation as a service provider.

The working capital loans that we market to our customers are made by our bank partner. We are a service provider of this bank, providing marketing and loan administration services. Our contract with our bank partner requires us to comply with state and federal lending and servicing-related laws and regulations. In the future, we may enter into similar partner arrangements with other state or federally chartered financial institutions that may require us to comply with the laws to which such third parties are subject. As a service provider to financial institutions, such as banks, we are or may become subject to regulatory oversight and examination by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, an interagency body of the Federal Reserve, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, or the OCC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the FDIC, and various other federal and state regulatory authorities. We also may be subject to similar review by state agencies that regulate our partner financial institutions.

We may be considered a “bank service provider” to our bank partner, and therefore be subject to supervision and regulation by the FDIC in connection with its supervision of the bank. On July 29, 2016, the board of directors of the FDIC released examination guidance relating to third-party lending as part of a package of materials designed to “improve the transparency and clarity of the FDIC’s supervisory policies and practices” and consumer compliance measures that FDIC-supervised institutions should follow when lending through a business relationship with a third party. The proposed guidance would cover relationships for originating loans on behalf of, through or jointly with third parties, or using platforms developed by third parties. If adopted as proposed, the guidance would result in increased supervisory attention to institutions that engage in significant lending activities through third parties. The guidance would require at least one examination every 12 months, and it would include supervisory expectations for third-party lending risk management programs and third-party lending policies that contain certain minimum requirements, such as self-imposed limits as a percentage of total capital for each third-party lending relationship and for the overall loan program, relative to origination volumes, credit exposures (including pipeline risk), growth, loan types, and acceptable credit quality. The future formal adoption of this guidance could impose increased operating costs on us. It could also have a material negative impact on our partner financial institutions by making bank service provider arrangements more costly. As a result, we may have increased difficulty in establishing or maintaining such arrangements, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

These and other potential changes to laws and regulations and enhanced regulatory oversight of our partner financial institutions may require us to divert more resources to our compliance programs and maintaining our relationships with our partner financial institutions, terminate or modify our relationships with our partner financial institutions, or otherwise limit the manner in which we conduct our business. If we are unable to adapt our products and services to conform to the new laws and regulations, or if these laws and regulations have a negative impact on our clients, we may experience client losses or increased operating costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

If loans made by our bank partner were found to violate the laws of one or more states, whether at origination or after sale by our bank partner, loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform may be unenforceable or otherwise impaired, we may be subject to, among other things, fines and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.

When establishing the factor rate and payment structures that are charged to borrowers on loans we market and service, our bank partner relies on certain authority under federal law to export the

 

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interest requirements of the state where the bank is located to borrowers in all other states. Further, we rely on the ability of subsequent holders to continue charging such factor rate and payment structures and to enforce other contractual terms of the loans that are permissible under federal banking laws following the acquisition of the loans. In some states, the factor rate of some loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform, if considered interest, would exceed the maximum interest rate permitted for loans made by non-bank lenders to borrowers residing in, or that have nexus to, such states. In addition, the rate structures for some loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform may not be permissible in all states for non-bank lenders and/or the amounts charged in connection with loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform may not be permissible in all states for non-bank lenders.

Usury, fee, and disclosure related claims involving loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform may be raised in multiple ways. We and our bank partner may face litigation, government enforcement, or other challenge, for example, based on claims that the bank did not establish loan terms that were permissible in the state in which it is located or did not correctly identify the home or host state in which it is located for purposes of interest exportation authority under federal law.

If a borrower or any state agency were to successfully bring a claim against us or our bank partner for a state usury law violation and the rate at issue on the loan was deemed impermissible under applicable state law, we and our bank partner may face various commercial and legal repercussions, including not receiving the total amount of payments expected, and in some cases, the loans could be deemed void, voidable, rescindable, or otherwise impaired or we or our bank partner may be subject to monetary, injunctive or criminal penalties. Were such repercussions to apply to us, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations; and were such repercussions to apply to our bank partner, it could be discouraged from making loans to our customers. We may also be subject to the payment of damages in situations where we agreed to provide indemnification to our bank partner, as well as fines and penalties assessed by state and federal regulatory agencies.

If loans facilitated through our platform were subject to successful challenge that our bank partner was not the “true lender,” such loans may be unenforceable, subject to rescission, or otherwise impaired, we and our bank partner may be subject to penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Loans facilitated by Toast Capital are made by our bank partner in reliance on the position that the bank is the “true lender” for such loans. That true lender status determines various elements of the structure of the loan program, including that we do not hold licenses required solely for being the party that makes loans to our customers, and loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform may involve pricing and payment structures permissible at origination because the lender is a bank, and/or the disclosures provided to borrowers are accurate and compliant in reliance of the status of the lender as a bank. Because the loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform are made by our bank partner, many state financial regulatory requirements, including usury restrictions (other than the restrictions of the state in which our bank partner made a particular loan is located) and many licensing requirements and substantive requirements under state lender licensing laws, are treated as inapplicable based on principles of federal preemption or express exemptions provided in relevant state laws for certain types of financial institutions or loans they make.

Certain recent litigation and regulatory enforcement has challenged, or is currently challenging, the characterization of bank partners as the “true lender” in connection with programs involving marketing, processing, and/or servicing relationships between a bank partner and non-bank lending platforms. In addition, the House Committee on Financial Services has issued statements and held a hearing in response to concerns that bank partner arrangements undermine consumer safeguards, including state usury laws, and encouraged federal regulators to intervene.

 

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We and our bank partners could also become subject to challenges regarding “true lender” status and, if so, we could face penalties and/or loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform may be or become void, voidable, or otherwise impaired in a manner that may have adverse effects on our operations (either directly or as a result of an adverse impact on our relationship with our bank partner).

There have been no formal proceedings against us or indications of any proceedings against us to date, but there can be no assurance that state agencies or regulators will not make assertions with respect to the loans facilitated by our platform in the future. If a court or a state or federal enforcement agency were to deem Toast or Toast Capital, rather than our bank partner, the “true lender” for loans facilitated through our platform, and if for this reason (or any other reason) the loans were deemed subject to and in violation of certain state lender licensing and usury laws, we could be subject to fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas), and other penalties or consequences, and the loans could be rendered void or unenforceable in whole or in part, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business (directly, or as a result of adverse impact on our relationships with our bank partner).

Changes in legislative and regulatory policy affecting payment processing or small business lending, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We provide our financial technology solutions in a constantly changing legal and regulatory environment. New laws or regulations, or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations, affecting our financial technology solutions could have a materially adverse impact on our ability to operate as currently intended and cause us to incur significant expense in order to ensure compliance. For example, government agencies may impose new or additional rules that (i) prohibit, restrict, and/or impose taxes or fees on payment processing transactions in, to or from certain countries or with certain governments, individuals, and entities; (ii) impose additional client identification and client due diligence requirements; (iii) impose additional reporting or recordkeeping requirements, or require enhanced transaction monitoring; (iv) limit the types of entities capable of providing payment processing services, or impose additional licensing or registration requirements; (v) impose minimum capital or other financial requirements; (vi) require enhanced disclosures to our payment processing clients; (vii) cause loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform, or any of the underlying terms of those loans, to be unenforceable against the relevant borrowers; (viii) limit the number or principal amount of payment processing transactions that may be sent to or from a jurisdiction, whether by an individual or in the aggregate; and (ix) restrict or limit our ability to facilitate processing transactions using centralized databases. These regulatory changes and uncertainties make our business planning more difficult. They could require us to invest significant resources and devote significant management attention to pursuing new business activities, change certain of our business practices or our business model, or expose us to additional costs (including increased compliance costs and/or customer remediation), any of which could adversely impact our results of operations. If we fail to comply with new laws or regulations, or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations, our ability to operate our business, our relationships with our customers, our brand, and our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Further, proposals to change the statutes affecting working capital loans facilitated through the Toast Capital platform may periodically be introduced in Congress and state legislatures. If enacted, those proposals could affect Toast Capital’s operating environment in substantial and unpredictable ways. For example, California and New York have enacted laws that will soon regulate non-bank commercial financing providers. Although neither law has taken effect, these new laws may impose new compliance requirements on previously unregulated aspects of our business, including but not limited to requirements for new, consumer-style disclosures for certain financial products that we offer or facilitate.

 

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As we consider expanding our presence internationally, we may become subject to the laws, regulations, licensing schemes, industry standards, and payment card networks rules applicable in such jurisdictions, which may require us to invest additional resources to adopt appropriate compliance policies and measures. If we are unable to timely comply with the rules or laws of new jurisdictions in which we conduct business, our business or reputation may be adversely affected.

NACHA Rules and related oversight are material to our transaction processing business and our failure to comply could materially harm our business.

Our transaction processing services are subject to the National Automated Clearing House Association Rules, or NACHA Rules. Any changes in the NACHA Rules that increase our cost of doing business or limit our ability to provide processing services to our customers will adversely affect the operation of our business. If we or our customers fail to comply with the NACHA Rules or if our processing of customer transactions is materially or routinely delayed or otherwise disrupted, our partner financial institutions could suspend or terminate our access to NACHA’s clearing and settlement network, which would make it impossible for us to conduct our business on its current scale.

Additionally, we periodically conduct audits and self-assessments to verify our compliance with NACHA Rules. If an audit or self-assessment under NACHA Rules identifies any deficiencies that we need to remediate, the remediation efforts may distract our management team and other staff and be expensive and time consuming. NACHA may update its operating rules and guidelines at any time, which could require us to take more costly compliance measures or to develop more complex monitoring systems. Our partner financial institutions could also change their interpretation of NACHA requirements, similarly requiring costly remediation efforts and potentially preventing us from continuing to provide services through such partner financial institutions until we have remediated such issues to their satisfaction.

Failure to comply with anti-money laundering, economic and trade sanctions regulations, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, and similar laws could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

TPS is registered with the Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, or FinCEN, as a money services business, or MSB. Registration as an MSB subjects us to the regulatory and supervisory jurisdiction of FinCEN, the anti-money laundering provisions of the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, or the BSA, and its implementing regulations applicable to MSBs. FinCEN may also interpret the BSA and its regulations as requiring registration of our parent company or other subsidiaries as MSBs. State regulators often impose similar requirements on licensed money transmitters. In addition, our contracts with financial institution partners and other third parties may contractually require us to maintain an anti-money laundering program. We are also subject to economic and trade sanctions programs administered by the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, which prohibit or restrict transactions to or from or dealings with specified countries, their governments, and in certain circumstances, their nationals, and with individuals and entities that are specially-designated nationals of those countries, narcotics traffickers, terrorists or terrorist organizations, and other sanctioned persons and entities.

We may in the future operate our business in foreign countries where companies often engage in business practices that are prohibited by U.S. and other regulations applicable to us. We are subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations, including the FCPA and other laws that prohibit the making or offering of improper payments to foreign government officials and political figures, including anti-bribery provisions enforced by the Department of Justice and accounting provisions enforced by the SEC. These laws prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by the United States and other business entities for the purpose of obtaining or

 

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retaining business. We have implemented policies, procedures, systems, and controls designed to identify and address potentially impermissible transactions under such laws and regulations; however, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, consultants, and agents, including those that may be based in or from countries where practices that violate U.S. or other laws may be customary, will not take actions in violation of our policies, for which we may be ultimately responsible.

Our failure to comply with anti-money laundering, economic, and trade sanctions regulations, the FCPA, and similar laws could subject us to substantial civil and criminal penalties, or result in the loss or restriction of our federal MSB registration and state money transmitter licenses (or the inability to obtain new licenses necessary to operate in certain jurisdictions). We may also face liability under our contracts with third parties, which may significantly affect our ability to conduct some aspects of our business. Additionally, changes in this regulatory environment may significantly affect or change the manner in which we currently conduct some aspects of our business. For example, bank regulators are imposing additional and stricter requirements on banks to ensure they are meeting their BSA obligations, and banks are increasingly viewing money services businesses, as a class, to be higher risk customers for money laundering. As a result, our bank partners may limit the scope of services they provide to us or may impose additional requirements on us. These regulatory restrictions on banks and changes to banks’ internal risk-based policies and procedures may result in a decrease in the number of banks that may do business with us, may require us to change the manner in which we conduct some aspects of our business, may decrease our revenue and earnings and could have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

Our involvement in our payroll and transaction processing services could be subject to federal and state money service business or money transmitter registration and licensing requirements that could result in substantial compliance costs, and our business could be adversely affected if we fail to predict how a particular law or regulation should be applied to our business.

In jurisdictions where we are involved in providing payroll processing services, including as a result of our 2019 acquisition of StratEx, we may be required to apply for a state money transmitter or similar license or registration. StratEx had not historically obtained state money transmitter licenses in connection with its payroll services based on the position that it has the benefit of various state exemptions relating, among other things, to the nature of the payroll and other services that it provides. Nevertheless, governmental authorities in various states may determine that such exemptions were not available and that StratEx was required to comply with state money transmitter licensing requirements. We are applying for state money transmitter licenses for TPS, which will be administering our payroll processing services after such licenses are obtained. In the course of such license applications, or otherwise, one or more state governmental authorities may determine that the activities conducted by StratEx required a money transmitter or similar license and assess fines related to the activities that StratEx engaged in on an unlicensed basis.

In addition, while we believe we have defensible arguments in support of our positions that our involvement in our transaction processing services is not subject to federal MSB registration and state money transmitter licensing, we have not expressly obtained confirmation of such positions from FinCEN or the state regulators that administer the state money transmission laws. It is possible that certain state regulators may determine that our activities are subject to licensing. Any determination that we are in fact required to be licensed may require substantial expenditures of time and money and could lead to liability in the nature of penalties or fines, costs, legal fees, reputational damage, or other negative consequences as well as cause us to be required to cease operations in some of the states we service, which would result have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and reputation. In the past, certain competitors have been found to violate laws and regulations related to money transmission, and they have been subject to fines and other penalties by regulatory authorities. Regulators and third-party auditors have also identified gaps in how similar

 

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businesses have implemented anti-money laundering programs. The adoption of new money transmitter or money services business laws in jurisdictions, or changes in regulators’ interpretation of existing state and federal money transmitter or money services business laws or regulations, could subject us to new registration or licensing requirements. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or maintain any such licenses in all of states where we offer transaction processing services, and, even if we were able to do so, there could be substantial costs and potential product changes involved in maintaining such licenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, there are substantial costs and potential product changes involved in maintaining and renewing such licenses, and we could be subject to fines or other enforcement action if we are found to violate disclosure, reporting, anti-money laundering, capitalization, corporate governance, or other requirements of such licenses. These factors could impose substantial additional costs, involve considerable delay in the development or provision of our products or services, require significant and costly operational changes, or prevent us from providing our products or services in any given market.

Our platform regularly collects and stores personal information and, as a result, both domestic and international privacy and data security laws apply. As these laws are enhanced or new laws are introduced, our business could incur additional costs and liabilities and our ability to perform our services and generate revenue could be impacted.

As we seek to build a trusted and secure platform for and to expand our network of customers and facilitate their transactions and interactions with their guests, we will increasingly be subject to laws and regulations relating to the collection, use, retention, privacy, security, and transfer of information, including the personal information of their employees and guests. As with the other laws and regulations noted above, these laws and regulations may change or be interpreted and applied differently over time and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and it is possible they will be interpreted and applied in ways that will materially and adversely affect our business.

In addition, many states in which we operate have laws that protect the privacy and security of sensitive and personal information. Certain state laws may be more stringent or broader in scope, or offer greater individual rights, with respect to sensitive and personal information than federal or other state laws, and such laws may differ from each other, which may complicate compliance efforts. For example, California enacted the CCPA, which went into effect in January 2020 and became enforceable by the California Attorney General in July 2020, and which, among other things, requires companies covered by the legislation to provide new disclosures to California consumers and afford such consumers new rights with respect to their personal information, including the right to request deletion of their personal information, the right to receive the personal information on record for them, the right to know what categories of personal information generally are maintained about them, as well as the right to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that result in the loss of personal information. This private right of action may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated with, data breach litigation.

Additionally, a new California ballot initiative, the California Privacy Rights Act, or the CPRA, was passed in November 2020. Effective on January 1, 2023, the CPRA imposes additional obligations on companies covered by the legislation and will significantly modify the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive personal information. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. The effects of the CCPA and the CPRA are potentially significant and may require us to modify our data collection or processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply and increase our potential exposure to regulatory enforcement and/or litigation.

Certain other state laws impose similar privacy obligations and we also anticipate that more states may enact legislation similar to the CCPA, which provides consumers with new privacy rights

 

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and increases the privacy and security obligations of entities handling certain personal information of such consumers. The CCPA has prompted a number of proposals for new federal and state-level privacy legislation. Such proposed legislation, if enacted, may add additional complexity, variation in requirements, restrictions and potential legal risk, require additional investment of resources in compliance programs, impact strategies, and the availability of previously useful data, and could result in increased compliance costs and/or changes in business practices and policies.

The regulatory framework governing the collection, processing, storage, use, and sharing of certain information, particularly financial and other personal information, is rapidly evolving and is likely to continue to be subject to uncertainty and varying interpretations. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our services and platform capabilities. Any failure or perceived failure by us, or any third parties with which we do business, to comply with our posted privacy statements or notices, changing consumer expectations, evolving laws, rules and regulations, industry standards, or contractual obligations to which we or such third parties are or may become subject, may result in actions or other claims against us by governmental entities or private actors, the expenditure of substantial costs, time, and other resources or the incurrence of significant fines, penalties, or other liabilities. In addition, any such action, particularly to the extent we were found to have engaged in violations or otherwise liable for damages, would damage our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We cannot yet fully determine the impact these or future laws, rules, regulations, and industry standards may have on our business or operations. Any such laws, rules, regulations, and industry standards may be inconsistent among different jurisdictions, subject to differing interpretations or may conflict with our current or future practices. Additionally, our partners and our customers and their guests may be subject to differing privacy laws, rules, and legislation, which may mean that our partners or customers require us to be bound by varying contractual requirements applicable to certain other jurisdictions. If our customers fail to comply with such privacy laws, rules, or legislation, we could be exposed to liability and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and brand could be adversely affected. Adherence to contractual requirements imposed by our partners or customers may impact our collection, use, processing, storage, sharing, and disclosure of various types of information including financial information and other personal information, and may mean we become bound by, or voluntarily comply with, self-regulatory or other industry standards relating to these matters that may further change as laws, rules, and regulations evolve. Complying with these requirements and changing our policies and practices may be onerous and costly, and we may not be able to respond quickly or effectively to regulatory, legislative, and other developments. These changes may in turn impair our ability to offer our existing or planned features, products, and services, and/or increase our cost of doing business. As we expand our partnerships and our customer base, these requirements may vary from customer to customer, and from guest to guest, further increasing the cost of compliance and doing business.

We publicly post documentation regarding our practices concerning the collection, processing, use, and disclosure of information. Although we endeavor to comply with our published statements, notices, and documentation, we may at times fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy statements, notices, or any applicable privacy, security, or data protection, information security, or consumer-protection related laws, regulations, orders, or industry standards could expose us to costly litigation, significant awards, fines or judgments, civil and/or criminal penalties, or negative publicity, and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The publication of our privacy statements, notices, and other documentation that provide promises and assurances about privacy and security can subject us to potential state and federal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair, or

 

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misrepresentative of our actual practices, which could, individually or in the aggregate, materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We have incurred, and may continue to incur, significant expenses to comply with evolving mandatory privacy and security standards and protocols imposed by law, regulation, industry standards, shifting customer and guest expectations, or contractual obligations. We post on our website our privacy statement and practices concerning the collection, use, and disclosure of information. In particular, with laws and regulations such as the CCPA and the forthcoming CPRA in the United States imposing new and relatively burdensome obligations, and with substantial uncertainty over the interpretation and application of these and other laws and regulations, we may face challenges in addressing their requirements and making necessary changes to our policies and practices, and may incur significant costs and expenses in an effort to do so. Any failure, real or perceived, by us to comply with our posted privacy statements or notices, changing customer and guest expectations, or with any evolving regulatory requirements, interpretations, or orders, other local, state, federal, or international privacy, data protection, information security, or consumer protection-related laws and regulations, industry standards, or contractual obligations could cause our customers to reduce their use of our products and services, disrupt our supply chain or third-party vendor or developer partnerships, and materially and adversely affect our business.

Changes in tax law may adversely affect us or our investors.

The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state, and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, and the U.S. Treasury Department. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect us or holders of our Class A common stock. In recent years, many such changes have been made and changes are likely to continue to occur in the future. It cannot be predicted whether, when, in what form or with what effective dates tax laws, regulations, and rulings may be enacted, promulgated or issued, which could result in an increase in our or our shareholders’ tax liability or require changes in the manner in which we operate in order to minimize or mitigate any adverse effects of changes in tax law. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential consequences of changes in tax law on our business and on the ownership and disposition of our Class A common stock.

Government regulation of the Internet, mobile devices, and e-commerce is evolving, and unfavorable changes could substantially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are subject to general business regulations and laws as well as federal and state regulations and laws specifically governing the Internet, mobile devices, and e-commerce that are constantly evolving. Existing and future laws and regulations, or changes thereto, may impede the growth of the Internet, mobile devices, e-commerce, or other online services, increase the cost of providing online services, require us to change our business practices, or raise compliance costs or other costs of doing business. These evolving regulations and laws may cover taxation, tariffs, user privacy, data protection, pricing and commissions, content, copyrights, distribution, social media marketing, advertising practices, sweepstakes, mobile, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, and the characteristics and quality of our services. It is not clear how existing laws governing issues such as property ownership, sales, use, and other taxes, and personal privacy apply to the Internet and e-commerce. In addition, in the future, it is possible that foreign government entities in jurisdictions in which we seek to expand our business may seek to or may even attempt to block access to our mobile applications and website. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with any of these laws or regulations could result in damage to our reputation and brand, a loss in business, and proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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We are developing new products and services that may be subject to the authority of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

We are constantly developing new products and services to make it easier for our customers to operate their businesses. These new products and services may include features that are subject to the authority of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or the CFPB. The 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, created the CFPB to assume responsibility for implementing and enforcing most federal consumer financial protection laws and a prohibition on unfair, deceptive, and abusive acts and practices. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFPB can take action against companies that have violated the Dodd-Frank Act, the federal consumer financial protection laws, or CFPB regulations. Should our business change to include products and services that are subject to the CFPB’s authority, we would face increased scrutiny that could result in regulatory or enforcement actions that adversely affect the operation of our business by increasing our costs or otherwise limiting our ability to provide such products and services.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we fail to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be impaired and we may lose valuable assets, generate reduced revenue and become subject to costly litigation to protect our rights.

Our success is dependent, in part, upon protecting our intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patents, copyrights, trademarks, service marks, trade secret laws, and contractual restrictions to establish and protect our intellectual property rights in our products and services. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may be inadequate. We will not be able to protect our intellectual property if we are unable to enforce our rights or if we do not detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property. Despite our precautions, it may be possible for unauthorized third parties to copy our products and use information that we regard as proprietary to create products and services that compete with ours. Some provisions in our licenses of our technology to customers and other third parties protecting against unauthorized use, copying, transfer, and disclosure of our products may be unenforceable under the laws of certain jurisdictions and foreign countries. Further, the laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. To the extent we expand our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our products and proprietary information may increase.

Our issued patents and any patents issued in the future may not provide us with any competitive advantages, and our patent applications may never be granted. Additionally, the process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time consuming, and we may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications, or we may not be able to do so at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. Even if issued, these patents may not adequately protect our intellectual property, as the legal standards relating to the infringement, validity, enforceability, and scope of protection of patent and other intellectual property rights are complex and often uncertain.

Additionally, we have registered, among other trademarks, the name “Toast” in the United States and other jurisdictions. Competitors have and may continue to adopt service names similar to ours, thereby harming our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to user confusion. There could also be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other trademarks that are similar to our trademarks. Litigation or proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or other governmental authorities and administrative bodies in the United States and abroad may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Further, we may not timely or successfully register our trademarks or otherwise secure our intellectual property.

 

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We enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and enter into confidentiality agreements with the parties with whom we have strategic relationships and business alliances. These agreements may not be effective in preventing unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential information or controlling access to and distribution of our products or other proprietary information. Further, these agreements do not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our products.

In order to protect our intellectual property rights, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect these rights. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time consuming, and distracting to management, and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our existing products, impair the functionality of our products, delay introductions of new products, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our products, or harm our reputation or brand. In addition, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop and market new products, and we may not be able to license that technology on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our inability to license this technology could harm our ability to compete.

We have been, and may in the future be, subject to intellectual property rights claims by third parties, which are extremely costly to defend, could require us to pay significant damages and could limit our ability to use certain technologies.

Companies in the software and technology industries, including some of our current and potential competitors, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, many of these companies have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them than we do. Any intellectual property litigation in which we become involved may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners that have no relevant product revenue and against which our patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence. From time to time, third parties have asserted and may assert patent, copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property rights against us, our partners, or our customers. We have received, and may in the future receive, notices that claim we have misappropriated, misused or infringed other parties’ intellectual property rights and, to the extent we gain greater market visibility, especially by becoming a public company, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims, which is not uncommon with respect to the restaurant technology market. In addition, our agreements with customers include indemnification provisions, under which we agree to indemnify them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement and, in some cases, for damages caused by us to property or persons or other third-party claims. Large indemnity payments could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The outcome of intellectual property claims, with or without merit, could be very time consuming, could be expensive to settle or litigate and could divert our management’s attention and other resources. These claims could also subject us to significant liability for damages, potentially including treble damages if we are found to have willfully infringed patents or copyrights. These claims could also result in our having to stop using technology found to be in violation of a third-party’s rights. We might be required to seek a license for the intellectual property, which may not be available on

 

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reasonable terms or at all. Even if a license were available, we could be required to pay significant royalties, which would increase our operating expenses. As a result, we may be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of certain products or services and may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these results could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our platform makes use of open source software components, and a failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could negatively affect our ability to sell our products and subject us to possible litigation.

Our products incorporate and are dependent to a significant extent upon the use of open source software, and we intend to continue our use of open source software in the future. Such open source software is generally licensed by its authors or other third parties under open source licenses and is typically freely accessible, usable, and modifiable. Pursuant to such open source licenses, we may be subject to certain conditions, including requirements, depending on how the licensed software is used or modified, that we offer our proprietary software that incorporates the open source software for little or no cost, that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon incorporating or using the open source software and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of the particular open source license. This could enable our competitors to create similar offerings with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of our competitive advantage. Further, if an author or other third party that uses or distributes such open source software were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our products that contained or are dependent upon the open source software, and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of some of our products. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, negatively affect our operating results and financial condition or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our platform. The terms of many open source licenses to which we are subject have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to provide or distribute our platform. As there is little or no legal precedent governing the interpretation of many of the terms of certain of these licenses, the potential impact of these terms on our business is uncertain and may result in unanticipated obligations regarding our products and technologies. Any requirement that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon incorporating or using open source software or that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of open source licenses, could be harmful to our business, financial condition, or results of operations, and could help our competitors develop products and services that are similar to or better than ours. In addition, to the extent that we have failed to comply with our obligations under particular licenses for open source software, we may lose the right to continue to use and exploit such open source software in connection with our operations and products, which could disrupt and adversely affect our business.

In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage, and distribution of open source software can lead to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification, controls on the origin or development of the software, remedies against the licensors or other contractual provisions regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated and could adversely affect our business.

Although we have established procedures to monitor the use of open source software, we rely on multiple software programmers to design our proprietary software and we cannot be certain that our

 

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programmers have never, directly or indirectly, incorporated open source software into, or otherwise used open source software in connection with, our proprietary software of which, or in a manner in which, we are not aware, or that they will not do so in the future. It is also possible that we may not be aware of all of our corresponding obligations under open source licenses. We cannot guarantee that we have incorporated open source software in our software in a manner that will not subject us to liability or in a manner that is consistent with our current policies and procedures.

We may be unable to continue to use the domain names that we use in our business or prevent third parties from acquiring and using domain names that infringe on, are similar to, or otherwise decrease the value of our brand, trademarks, or service marks.

We have registered domain names that we use in, or are related to, our business, most importantly www.toasttab.com. If we lose the ability to use a domain name, whether due to trademark claims, failure to renew the applicable registration, or any other cause, we may be forced to market our offerings under a new domain name, which could cause us substantial harm, or to incur significant expense in order to purchase rights to the domain name in question. We may not be able to obtain preferred domain names outside the United States for a variety of reasons. In addition, our competitors and others could attempt to capitalize on our brand recognition by using domain names similar to ours. We may be unable to prevent third parties from acquiring and using domain names that infringe on, are similar to, or otherwise decrease the value of our brand or our trademarks or service marks. Protecting, maintaining, and enforcing our rights in our domain names may require litigation, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, which could in turn adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Risks Related to Operating as a Public Company

As a public reporting company, we will be subject to rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC and PCAOB regarding our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or report them in a timely manner.

Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public reporting company subject to the rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB). These rules and regulations will require, among other things, that we establish and periodically evaluate procedures with respect to our internal control over financial reporting. Reporting obligations as a public company are likely to place a considerable strain on our financial and management systems, processes, and controls, as well as on our personnel.

In addition, as a public company we will be required to document and test our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act so that our management can certify as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting by the time our second annual report is filed with the SEC and thereafter, which will require us to document and make significant changes to our internal control over financial reporting. Likewise, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at such time as we cease to be an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we become an accelerated or large accelerated filer, although we could potentially qualify as an “emerging growth company” until as late as the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we will file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods

 

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specified in SEC rules and forms and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal control over financial reporting, which includes hiring additional accounting and financial personnel to implement such processes and controls.

We expect to incur costs related to implementing an internal audit and compliance function in the upcoming years to further improve our internal control environment. If we identify future deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting or if we are unable to comply with the demands that will be placed upon us as a public company, including the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, in a timely manner, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results, or report them within the timeframes required by the SEC. We also could become subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. In addition, if we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting when required, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, we may face restricted access to the capital markets and our stock price may be adversely affected.

Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may also become inadequate because of changes in our business, and weaknesses in our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods, undermine investor confidence in us, and adversely affect the trading price of our Class A common stock. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, we may not be able to remain listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

We identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. We have experienced rapid growth, and this growth has placed considerable strain on our accounting systems, financial close and reporting process, and personnel. As a result, we identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. These material weaknesses relate to the controls for the financial statement close process and the controls related to unusual and infrequent transactions (including accounting for complicated stock transactions and the adoption of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers or ASC 606). As a result, we made immaterial revisions of our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019, an immaterial audit adjustment to our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and for the year then ended and a correction of errors relating to the financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 in our financial statements for the first and second quarters of 2021.

We are taking steps to remediate these material weaknesses through the development and implementation of systems, processes and controls over the financial close and reporting process. In addition, we have begun to enhance our overall control environment through hiring additional qualified accounting and financial reporting personnel and engaging external consultants with appropriate expertise for more challenging technical accounting issues which will add to the depth of our skilled

 

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and managerial resources and allow us to scale our accounting processes to match growth and changes in the business and operations. We will also continue to evaluate our IT systems and related processes to optimize automation to enhance our financial statement close process, reduce the number of manual journal entries and facilitate review controls related to our significant classes of transactions.

While we are designing and implementing new controls and measures to remediate these material weaknesses, we cannot assure you that the measures we are taking will be sufficient to remediate the material weaknesses or avoid the identification of additional material weaknesses in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our consolidated financial statements that could result in a restatement of our financial statements and could cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations, any of which could diminish investor confidence in us and cause a decline in the price of our common stock.

We are an emerging growth company and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.

For so long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, exemptions from the requirements to hold a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and obtain stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (A) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (B) in which we have total annual revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (C) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, with at least $700 million of equity securities, which includes Class A common stock and Class B common stock, held by non-affiliates as of the prior June 30th, the end of our second fiscal quarter, and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates. While we have not made such an irrevocable election, we have not delayed the adoption of any applicable accounting standards.

As a result of the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to us, investor confidence in our company and the market price of our Class A common stock may be adversely affected. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A common stock less attractive, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile.

 

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We will incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company.

Prior to this offering, we operated on a private basis. After this offering, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the listing requirements of the New York Stock Exchange and other applicable securities laws and regulations. The expenses incurred by public companies generally for reporting and corporate governance purposes are greater than those for private companies. For example, the Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Compliance with these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs, and increase demand on our systems, particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company. In addition, as a public company, we may be subject to stockholder activism, which can lead to additional substantial costs, distract management, and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate. As a result of disclosure of information in this prospectus and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, and costly, although we are currently unable to estimate these costs with any degree of certainty.

We also expect that being a public company and being subject to new rules and regulations will make it more expensive for us to obtain directors and officers liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These laws and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as our executive officers. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to delisting of our Class A common stock, fines, sanctions, and other regulatory action and potentially civil litigation. These factors may therefore strain our resources, divert management’s attention, and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members and executive officers.

Our senior management team has limited experience managing a public company, and regulatory compliance obligations may divert its attention from the day-to-day management of our business.

The individuals who now constitute our senior management team have limited experience managing a publicly-traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our senior management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock

The trading price of our Class A common stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

We cannot predict the prices at which our Class A common stock will trade. The initial public offering price of our Class A common stock will be determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters and may not bear any relationship to the market price at which our Class A common stock will trade after this offering. The market price of our Class A common stock following this offering may fluctuate substantially and may be lower

 

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than the initial public offering price. The market price of our Class A common stock following this offering will depend on a number of factors, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section, many of which are beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance. In addition, the limited public float of our Class A common stock following this offering will tend to increase the volatility of the trading price of our Class A common stock. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our Class A common stock, because you might not be able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid in this offering. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the trading price of our Class A common stock include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

actual or anticipated changes or fluctuations in our results of operations;

 

   

the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections, or our failure to meet these projections;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of new products or new or terminated significant contracts, commercial relationships, or capital commitments;

 

   

industry or financial analyst or investor reaction to our press releases, other public announcements, and filings with the SEC;

 

   

rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;

 

   

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

 

   

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;

 

   

the expiration of market stand-off or contractual lock-up agreements and sales of shares of our Class A common stock by us or our stockholders;

 

   

failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

   

whether investors or securities analysts view our stock structure unfavorably, particularly our dual-class structure and the significant voting control of our executive officers, directors and their affiliates;

 

   

actual or anticipated developments in our business, or our competitors’ businesses, or the competitive landscape generally;

 

   

litigation involving us, our industry, or both, or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;

 

   

actual or perceived privacy or security breaches or other incidents;

 

   

developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property rights, our products, or third-party proprietary rights;

 

   

announced or completed acquisitions of businesses or technologies by us or our competitors;

 

   

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;

 

   

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations, or principles;

 

   

any significant changes in our management or our board of directors;

 

   

general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets;

 

   

our anticipated uses of net proceeds from this offering; and

 

   

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, natural disasters, public health concerns or epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, or responses to these events.

 

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In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for technology companies in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. Securities litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources from our business. This could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

The dual-class structure of our common stock as contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation has the effect of concentrating voting control with those stockholders who held our capital stock prior to this offering, including our directors, executive officers and their respective affiliates. This ownership will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other major corporate transactions requiring stockholder approval, and that may adversely affect the trading price of our Class A common stock.

Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share, and our Class A common stock, which is the stock we are selling in this offering, has one vote per share. Following this offering, our existing stockholders, all of which hold shares of Class B common stock, will collectively own shares representing approximately     % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following this offering, and our directors, executive officers and their affiliates, will beneficially own in the aggregate     % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following this offering. Even if such individuals are no longer employed with us, they will continue to have the same influence over matters requiring stockholder approval. In addition, because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B and Class A common stock, the holders of our Class B common stock collectively could continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval until (i) the date the holders of two-thirds of our outstanding Class B common stock elect to convert the Class B common stock to Class A common stock, or (ii) the seventh anniversary of the date of the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in Delaware, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering. This concentrated control may limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other major corporate transactions requiring stockholder approval. In addition, this concentrated control may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our capital stock that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our stockholders. As a result, such concentrated control may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.

Future transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions as specified in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, such as transfers to family members and certain transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term. As a result, it is possible that one or more of the persons or entities holding our Class B common stock could gain significant voting control as other holders of Class B common stock sell or otherwise convert their shares into Class A common stock.

 

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We cannot predict the effect our dual-class structure may have on the market price of our Class A common stock.

We cannot predict whether our dual-class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class A common stock, adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced and implemented restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indices. In July 2017, FTSE Russell announced that it would require new constituents of its indices to have greater than 5% of the company’s voting rights in the hands of public stockholders, and S&P Dow Jones announced that it would no longer admit companies with multiple-class share structures to certain of its indices. Affected indices include the Russell 2000 and the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400 and S&P SmallCap 600, which together make up the S&P Composite 1500. Also in 2017, MSCI, a leading stock index provider, opened public consultations on its treatment of no-vote and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. Under such announced and implemented policies, the dual-class structure of our common stock would make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices and, as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track those indices would not invest in our Class A common stock. These policies are relatively new and it is unclear what effect, if any, they will have on the valuations of publicly-traded companies excluded from such indices, but it is possible that they may adversely affect valuations, as compared to similar companies that are included. Due to the dual-class structure of our common stock, we will likely be excluded from certain indices and we cannot assure you that other stock indices will not take similar actions. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indices, exclusion from certain stock indices would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.

Our principal stockholders will continue to have significant influence over the election of our board of directors and approval of any significant corporate actions, including any sale of the company.

Our founders, executive officers, directors, and other principal stockholders, in the aggregate, beneficially own a majority of our outstanding stock. These stockholders currently have, and likely will continue to have, significant influence with respect to the election of our board of directors and approval or disapproval of all significant corporate actions. The concentrated voting power of these stockholders could have the effect of delaying or preventing an initial public offering of our Class A common stock, an acquisition of the company or another significant corporate transaction.

No market currently exists for our Class A common stock, and an active, liquid trading market for our Class A common stock may not develop, which may cause our Class A common stock to trade at a discount from the initial offering price and make it difficult for you to sell the Class A common stock you purchase.

Prior to this offering, there has not been a public market for our Class A common stock, but there has been some trading of our securities in private trades. These trades were speculative, and the trading price of our securities in these trades was privately negotiated. We cannot assure you that the price of our Class A common stock will equal or exceed the price at which our securities have traded prior to this offering. We cannot predict the extent to which investor interest in us will lead to the development of a trading market or how active and liquid that market may become. If an active and liquid trading market does not develop or continue, you may have difficulty selling any of our Class A common stock at a price above the price you purchase it or at all. The initial public offering price for the shares was determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters and may not be indicative of

 

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prices that will prevail in the open market following this offering. If an active market for our Class A common stock does not develop, or is not sustained, our ability raise capital to fund our operations by selling shares and our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration will suffer.

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our existing stockholders in the public market following this offering, such as when our lock-up or market standoff restrictions are released, could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.

After this offering, sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur in large quantities, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Class A common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.

Upon consummation of this offering, we will have outstanding a total of                  shares of Class A common stock and                  shares of Class B common stock. Of the outstanding shares, the                  shares of Class A common stock sold in this offering (or                shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares) will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, other than any shares held by our affiliates. Any shares of common stock held by our affiliates will be eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act, subject to the volume, manner of sale, holding period and other limitations of Rule 144.

All of our directors, executive officers and certain other holders that together represent approximately     % of our common stock and securities exercisable for or convertible into shares of our common stock outstanding immediately prior to the closing of this offering have agreed, or will agree, with the underwriters that our securities held by them will be restricted from resale as a result of lock-up agreements. See the section titled “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for additional information. These securities may not be sold during the period from the date of this prospectus continuing through the date that is 180 days after the date of this prospectus subject to earlier release of our holders from the restrictions contained in such agreements, including that:

 

  (1)

up to 15% of the shares of common stock (including shares underlying vested securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock) held as of October 15, 2021, or the Holdings Measurement Date, by “Service Providers,” who are defined as employees and consultants that are individuals and former employees and consultants that are individuals (but excluding directors and executive officers), or held by an “Estate Planning Transferee,” who is defined as a trust for the direct or indirect benefit of a Service Provider or an immediate family member of a Service Provider, may be sold beginning at the commencement of trading on the second trading day after the date that we publicly announce our earnings for the third quarter of 2021, or the earnings release date;

 

  (2)

up to 15% of the shares of common stock (including shares underlying vested securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock) held as of the Holdings Measurement Date by directors, executive officers, or any holder that is not a director, executive officer, Service Provider or Estate Planning Transferee, may be sold beginning at the opening of trading on the second trading day, after the Applicable Final Testing Date, provided that the closing price per share of our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange is at least 25% greater than the initial public offering price per share of the Class A common stock set forth on the cover of this prospectus (a) on at least 10 trading days in any 15 consecutive trading day period ending on or after the earnings release date

 

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  but not later than the fifteenth trading day following the earnings release date (any such period during which such condition is first satisfied, is referred to as the “measurement period”) and (b) on the Applicable Final Testing Date. The “Applicable Final Testing Date” is (i) the first trading day after the measurement period, if the last day of the measurement period is the earnings release date, or (ii) the last day of the measurement period, if the last day of the measurement period is after the earnings release date; and

 

  (3)

the restricted period will terminate on the earlier of (i) the commencement of the second trading day immediately after we announce earnings for the year ending December 31, 2021, and (ii) 180 days after the date of this prospectus.

In addition, substantially all of the remaining approximately % of our common stock and securities exercisable for or convertible into shares of our common stock outstanding immediately prior to the closing of this offering comprised of equity awards under our stock incentive plans are subject to market standoff agreements with us that restrict certain transfers of such securities during the restricted period. Such equity plan securities will also be subject to the same early release terms as set forth the lock-up agreements. Notwithstanding the terms of such market standoff agreements, our stock trading policy prohibits hedging by all of our current directors, officers and employees.

Upon the expiration of the restricted period described above, substantially all of the securities subject to such lock-up and market standoff restrictions will become eligible for sale, subject to compliance with applicable securities laws.

The market price of our Class A common stock could drop significantly if our stockholders sell, or are perceived as intending to sell, shares of our Class A common stock. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through future offerings of our shares of Class A common stock or other securities.

If you purchase shares of Class A common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution, and you may incur dilution following this offering as a result of future equity issuances.

The assumed initial public offering price of our Class A common stock is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our Class A common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our Class A common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our pro forma net tangible book value per share after this offering. You will experience immediate dilution of $    per share, representing the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the initial public offering price. In addition, investors who purchase Class A common stock from us in this offering will have contributed                % of the aggregate price paid by all purchasers of our Class A common stock but will own only approximately                % of the economic interests in our outstanding equity after this offering. See the section titled “Dilution” for more detail, including the calculation of the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our Class A common stock.

In addition, following this offering, any common stock that we issue under our existing equity incentive plans or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors who purchase shares of our Class A common stock in this offering. Also, in the future, we may also issue securities in connection with investments, acquisitions, or capital raising activities. In particular, the number of shares of our Class A common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition, or to raise additional equity capital, could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of our Class A common stock. Any such issuance of additional securities in the future may result in additional dilution to you or may adversely impact the price of our Class A common stock.

 

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We have broad discretion over the use of proceeds we receive in this offering and may not apply the proceeds in ways that increase the value of your investment.

We cannot specify with any certainty the particular uses of the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. Additionally, we may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products, services, or technologies. As of the date of this prospectus, however, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering, and we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments. Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and, as a result, you will have to rely upon the judgment of our management with respect to the use of these proceeds. Our management may spend a portion or all of the net proceeds in ways that not all shareholders approve of or that may not yield a favorable return. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business.

Certain provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove members of our board of directors or current management and may adversely affect our stock price.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which will become effective in connection with the completion of this offering, will contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control. These provisions could also make it difficult for stockholders to elect directors that are not nominated by the current members of our board of directors or take other corporate actions, including effecting changes in our management. These provisions include:

 

   

a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

   

the denial of any right of our stockholders to remove members of our board of directors except for cause and, in addition to any other vote required by law, upon the approval of not less than two-thirds of the total voting power of all our outstanding voting stock then entitled to vote in the election of directors;

 

   

the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;

 

   

the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

   

provide for a dual-class common stock structure in which holders of our Class B common stock have the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even if they own significantly less than a majority of the outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets;

 

   

a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;

 

   

the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the chairperson of our board of directors, chief executive officer, or by the board of directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors, which could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;

 

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certain amendments to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will require the approval of two-thirds of the then-outstanding voting power of our capital stock; and

 

   

advance notice procedures with which stockholders must comply to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

These provisions may discourage proxy contests and delay or prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our board of directors and to cause us to take corporate actions they desire. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which, subject to certain exceptions generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with an “interested stockholder” for a specified period of time. Any of these provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws, and Delaware law could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay for shares of our Class A common stock and deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you would receive a premium for your shares of Class A common stock in an acquisition. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock—Anti-Takeover Provisions” and “Description of Capital Stock—Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.”

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock and do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate declaring or paying any dividends to holders of our capital stock in the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their Class A common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.

Our amended and restated bylaws will designate certain specified courts as the sole and exclusive forums for certain disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

Our amended and restated bylaws, which will become effective in connection with the completion of this offering, will provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or the Chancery Court, will be the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of, or a claim based on, a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, (iv) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or (v) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, or the Delaware Forum Provision. The Delaware Forum Provision does not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Our amended and restated bylaws will further provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, or the Federal Forum Provision. Our amended and restated bylaws will provide that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision; provided, however, that stockholders cannot and will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

 

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The Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision may impose additional litigation costs on stockholders in pursuing the claims identified above, particularly if the stockholders do not reside in or near the State of Delaware. Additionally, the Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits. While the Delaware Supreme Court ruled in March 2020 that federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are “facially valid” under Delaware law, there is uncertainty as to whether other courts will enforce our Federal Forum Provision. If the Federal Forum Provision is found to be unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such an action. The Federal Forum Provision may also impose additional litigation costs on stockholders who assert that the provision is not enforceable or invalid. The Chancery Court or the federal district courts of the United States of America may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than our stockholders.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, if they downgrade our stock or our sector or of our financial results do not meet or exceed the guidance we provide to the public, our stock price could decline.

The trading market for our Class A common stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts and the analysts’ estimates are based upon their own opinions and are often different from our estimates or expectations. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on our company. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of our company, the trading price of our shares would likely be negatively impacted. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrade our stock or our industry, or the stock of any of our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts stops covering us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

In addition, the stock prices of many companies in the technology industry have declined significantly after those companies failed to meet the financial guidance publicly announced by the companies or the expectations of analysts, and stock prices have even declined significantly after such companies exceeded, or even significantly exceeded, such guidance or expectations. If our financial results fail to meet our announced guidance or the expectations of analysts or public investors, or even if our financial results exceed, or even significantly exceed, such guidance or expectations, or if we reduce our guidance for future periods, our stock price may decline.

In making your investment decision, you should understand that we and the underwriters have not authorized any other party to provide you with information concerning us or this offering.

You should carefully evaluate all the information in this prospectus. We have in the past received, and may continue to receive, a high degree of media coverage, including coverage that is not directly attributable to statements made by our officers and employees, that incorrectly reports on statements made by our officers or employees, or that is misleading as a result of omitting information provided by us, our officers, or employees. We and the underwriters have not authorized any other party to provide you with information concerning us or this offering.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations, financial condition, business strategy, plans and objectives of management for future operations, our market opportunity and the potential growth of that market, our liquidity and capital needs and other similar matters, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” or “would,” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations and assumptions about future events, which are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks, and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

 

   

our future financial performance, including our revenue, cost of revenue or expenses, or other operating results;

 

   

our ability to successfully execute our business and growth strategy;

 

   

the sufficiency of our cash, cash equivalents and investments to meet our liquidity needs;

 

   

anticipated trends and growth rates in our business and in the markets in which we operate;

 

   

our ability to maintain the security and availability of our platform;

 

   

our ability to increase the number of customers using our platform;

 

   

our ability to retain, and to sell additional products and services to, our existing customers;

 

   

our ability to successfully expand in our existing markets and into new markets;

 

   

our expectations concerning relationships with third parties;

 

   

our ability to effectively manage our growth and future expenses;

 

   

our estimated total addressable market;

 

   

our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property;

 

   

our ability to comply with modified or new laws and regulations applying to our business;

 

   

the attraction and retention of qualified employees and key personnel;

 

   

our anticipated investments in sales and marketing and research and development;

 

   

our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us;

 

   

the increased expenses associated with being a public company;

 

   

our use of the net proceeds from this offering;

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and industry;

 

   

our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; and

 

   

our ability to integrate companies and assets that we have or may acquire.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business,

 

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financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may make.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. And while we believe such information provides a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

Unless otherwise indicated, statistical data, forecasts, estimates, and information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the market in which we operate, including our general expectations, market position, market opportunity, and market size, are based on industry publications and reports generated by third-party providers, other publicly available studies, and our internal sources and estimates. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. We have compiled, extracted, and reproduced industry data from various industry publications and other third-party sources. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this prospectus and we believe the information from such industry publications and other third-party sources included in this prospectus is reliable and based on reasonable assumptions, we have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in such sources. The content of, or accessibility through, the below sources, except to the extent specifically set forth in this prospectus, does not constitute a portion of this prospectus and is not incorporated herein and any websites are an inactive textual reference only.

The source of certain statistical data, estimates, and forecasts contained in this prospectus are the following independent industry publications or reports:

 

   

The Boston Consulting Group, Inc., Feeding the Algorithm, How Restaurants Use Data to Capture Competitive Advantage, November 2018;

 

   

Euromonitor International Consumer Foodservice 2021, Foodservice Value RSP, YoY, ex rates, Current Prices, February 2021;

 

   

Euromonitor International Limited, Consumer Foodservice 2021, March 2021;

 

   

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Small Business Lending Survey, June 2021;

 

   

Flexera, 2021 State of Tech Spend Report, January 2021, © 2021 Flexera. All rights reserved. This work by Flexera is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License;

 

   

The Freedonia Group, a division of MarketResearch.com, Restaurants & Foodservice: United States, February 2020;

 

   

G2.com, Inc., Grid Reports for Restaurant POS, Fall 2020, Winter 2021, Spring 2021;

 

   

Harvard Business Review, The New Science of Customer Emotions, November 2015;

 

   

Hospitality Technology, 2020 Restaurant Technology Study, March 2020;

 

   

IBISWorld, U.S. Industry (NAICS) Report 72211a: Chain Restaurants in the U.S. – September 2020; IBISWorld, U.S. Industry (NAICS) Report 72232: Caterers in the U.S. – January 2021; IBISWorld, U.S. Industry (NAICS) Report 72241: Bars & Nightclubs in the U.S. – December 2020; IBISWorld, U.S. Industry (NAICS) Report 72221b: Coffee & Snack Shops in the U.S. – September 2020; IBISWorld, U.S. Industry (NAICS) Report 72221a: Fast Food Restaurants in the U.S. – April 2021; IBISWorld, U.S. Industry (NAICS) Report 72211b: Single Location Full-Service Restaurants in the U.S. – February 2021;

 

   

McKinsey Global Institute, Digital America: A Tale of the Haves and Have-Mores, December 2015;

 

   

National Restaurant Association, 2010 Restaurant Industry Forecast, January 2010;

 

   

National Restaurant Association, 2019 Restaurant Industry Factbook, April 2019;

 

   

National Restaurant Association, 2021 State of the Restaurant Industry, January 2021;

 

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PYMNTS, Airlines and Restaurants Grapple with the Capacity and Cash Burn Challenges, April 2020;

 

   

Restaurant Technology News, New Study Surveys Financial Impact of COVID-19 on Restaurant IT Spending, July 2020;

 

   

S&P Global Market Intelligence, US Banks Disclose Exposure to Restaurant Industry Hard-Hit by COVID-19, May 2020;

 

   

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, “Gross Domestic Product, (Third Estimate) GDP By Industry, and Corporate Profits, Fourth Quarter and Year 2020,” March 2021;

 

   

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Industries at a Glance, Food Services and Drinking Places, Workforce Statistics, June 2021; and

 

   

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, 2019.

Certain information included in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets we serve, including our market share, are also based on our good-faith estimates derived from management’s knowledge of the industry and other information currently available to us.

None of the industry publications referred to in this prospectus were prepared on our or on our affiliates’ behalf or at our expense. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of shares of our Class A common stock in this offering will be approximately $                million, based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock is exercised in full, we estimate that our net proceeds would be approximately $                million, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $                million, assuming that the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase or decrease of 1.0 million in the number of shares of our Class A common stock offered by us would increase or decrease the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $                million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization, increase our financial flexibility, create a public market for our Class A common stock, and enable access to the public equity markets for our stockholders and us. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. However, we currently intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. Additionally, we may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products, services, or technologies. However, we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments at this time.

We will have broad discretion over how to use the net proceeds to us from this offering. Pending the use of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds from the offering in investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock, and we cannot provide any assurance that we will declare or pay cash dividends on our capital stock in the future. We currently anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of future cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of the board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, the requirements of current or then-existing debt instruments, and other factors the board of directors deems relevant.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, as well as our capitalization, as of June 30, 2021 as follows:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on a pro forma basis, giving effect to (i) the Preferred Stock Conversion, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering; (ii) the reclassification of our outstanding shares of common stock into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering; (iii) the automatic exercise of warrants to purchase 51,182 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock at an exercise price of $1.9538 for such warrants and the subsequent conversion of such shares into shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur in connection with the closing of this offering; and (iv) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in Delaware, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering; and

 

   

on a pro forma as adjusted basis, giving effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth above; and (ii) the sale and issuance of                shares of our Class A common stock offered by us in this offering, based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The pro forma as adjusted information set forth in the table below is illustrative only, and our capitalization following the closing of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other final terms of this offering. You should read this table together with our financial statements and related notes, and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     As of June 30, 2021  
     Actual      Pro
Forma
     Pro Forma as
Adjusted
 
(in thousands, except share and per share data)       

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 376,149      $                $                
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Warrants to purchase preferred stock

   $ 27,988      $        $    

Convertible preferred stock, $0.000001 par value; 51,449,136 shares authorized, 50,766,405 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

     848,893        

Stockholders’ equity (deficit):

        

Preferred stock, $0.000001 par value; no shares authorized or issued and outstanding, actual;                  shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

     —          

Common stock, $0.000001 par value; 114,000,000 shares authorized, 44,752,305 shares issued and outstanding, actual;                  shares authorized,                  shares issued and outstanding, pro forma                  shares authorized,                  shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

     —          

Class A common stock, $0.000001 par value: no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual;                  shares authorized, no                  shares issued and outstanding, pro forma; and                  shares authorized, shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

        

 

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     As of June 30, 2021  
     Actual     Pro
Forma
     Pro Forma as
Adjusted
 
(in thousands, except share and per share data)       

Class B common stock, $0.000001 par value: no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual;                  shares authorized,                  shares issued and outstanding, pro forma;                  shares authorized,                  shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

       

Treasury stock

     (665     

Additional paid-in capital

     235,921       

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     114       
       

Accumulated deficit

     (850,516     
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

     (615,146     
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 261,735     $                    $                
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, our pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit) and total capitalization by approximately $                 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase or decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of our Class A common stock offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, our pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit) and total capitalization by approximately $                 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on no shares of Class A common stock and 95,518,710 shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and excludes:

 

   

12,385,001 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.59 per share;

 

   

157,250 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after June 30, 2021 through August 20, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $130.46 per share;

 

   

1,017,173 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of RSUs outstanding as of June 30, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, for which the performance-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, but the service-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of June 30, 2021;

 

   

1,132,805 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding RSUs granted after June 30, 2021 through August 20, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, for which the performance-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering;

 

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200,407 shares of Class B common stock, on an as-converted basis, issuable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase shares of convertible preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.69 per share;

 

   

1,622,717 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with an exercise price of $87.5168 per share;

 

   

4,204,607 shares of Class B common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Plan as of June 30, 2021, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2021 Plan becomes effective;

 

   

            shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under our 2021 Plan; and

 

   

            shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under our ESPP, which will become effective in connection with this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our ESPP.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our Class A common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share immediately after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) as of June 30, 2021 was $                million, or $                per share of Class A common stock. Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) per share represents our total tangible assets less our total liabilities and convertible preferred stock (which is not included within stockholders’ deficit), divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021.

Our pro forma net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 was                , or                per share. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities, divided by the number of our shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, after giving effect to (i) the Preferred Stock Conversion, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering; (ii) the reclassification of our outstanding shares of common stock into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering; (iii) the automatic exercise of warrants to purchase 51,182 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock at an exercise price of $1.9538 for such warrants and the subsequent conversion of such shares into shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur in connection with the closing of this offering; and (iv) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in Delaware, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering.

After giving effect to the sale by us of                shares of Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 would have been $                million, or $                per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $                per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $                per share to new investors purchasing shares of Class A common stock in this offering. We determine dilution by subtracting the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the amount of cash that a new investor paid for a share of Class A common stock. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed initial public offering price per share

      $                

Historical net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of June 30, 2021

   $                   

Increase per share attributable to the pro forma adjustments described above

     
  

 

 

    

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2021, before giving effect to this offering

     

Increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

     
  

 

 

    

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

     
     

 

 

 

Dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering

      $    
     

 

 

 

The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and may change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering. Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as

 

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applicable, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors by $                , and would increase or decrease, as applicable, dilution per share to new investors in this offering by $                , in each case assuming that the number of shares of our Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Similarly, each 1.0 million share increase or decrease in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering by $                per share and increase or decrease, as applicable, the dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering by $                per share, in each case assuming that the assumed initial public offering price per share of $                , which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock in full, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our Class A common stock immediately after this offering would be $                 per share, and the dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering would be $                 per share.

The following table summarizes, as of June 30, 2021, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as described above, the number of shares of our Class B common stock, the total consideration and the average price per share (1) paid to us by existing stockholders and (2) to be paid by new investors acquiring our common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, before deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

     Shares Purchased     Total Consideration        Average Price   
Per Share
 
        Number            Percent           Amount            Percent     

Existing stockholders

          $                        $                

New investors

                                $    
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

 

Totals

                 100.0   $          100.0  
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, the total consideration paid by new investors and total consideration paid by all stockholders by $                , in each case assuming that the number of shares of our Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase or decrease of 1.0 million in the number of shares of our Class A common stock offered by us would increase or decrease the total consideration paid by new investors and total consideration paid by all stockholders by $                , in each case assuming the assumed initial public offering price remains the same and before deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Except as otherwise indicated, the above discussion and tables assume no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock from us in full, our existing stockholders would own    % and our new investors would own    % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding upon the completion of this offering.

 

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The number of shares of Class A common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on no shares of Class A common stock and 95,518,710 shares of Class B common stock (after giving effect to the Preferred Stock Conversion) outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and excludes:

 

   

12,385,001 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.59 per share;

 

   

157,250 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after June 30, 2021 through August 20, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $130.46 per share;

 

   

1,017,173 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of RSUs outstanding as of June 30, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, for which the performance-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, but the service-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of June 30, 2021;

 

   

1,132,805 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding RSUs granted after June 30, 2021 through August 20, 2021 under our 2014 Plan, for which the performance-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering;

 

   

200,407 shares of Class B common stock, on an as-converted basis, issuable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase shares of convertible preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.69 per share;

 

   

1,622,717 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with an exercise price of $87.5168 per share;

 

   

4,204,607 shares of Class B common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Plan as of June 30, 2021, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2021 Plan becomes effective;

 

   

            shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under our 2021 Plan; and

 

   

            shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under our ESPP, which will become effective in connection with this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our ESPP.

To the extent that any of our outstanding options or warrants to purchase shares of our Class B common stock are exercised, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this prospectus, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. You should read the “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” sections of this prospectus for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Overview

Toast is a cloud-based, end-to-end technology platform purpose-built for the entire restaurant community. Our platform provides a comprehensive suite of SaaS products, financial technology solutions including integrated payment processing, restaurant-grade hardware, and a broad ecosystem of third-party partners. We serve as the restaurant operating system, connecting front of house and back of house operations across dine-in, takeout, and delivery channels. As of June 30, 2021, approximately 48,000 restaurant locations across approximately 29,000 customers, processing over $38 billion of gross payment volume in the trailing 12 months, partnered with Toast to optimize operations, increase sales, engage guests, and maintain happy employees.

By enabling these capabilities through a single, integrated platform, Toast improves experiences across the restaurant ecosystem:

 

   

Restaurant operators. We arm restaurants with a wide range of products and capabilities to address their specific needs regardless of size, location, or business model. As a result, restaurants using Toast often see higher sales and greater operational efficiency.

 

   

Guests. We are laser focused on helping our customers deliver memorable guest experiences at scale. Guests can place orders easily, safely, and accurately across web, mobile, and in-person channels for dine-in, takeout, or delivery. In addition, our platform empowers restaurants to utilize their guest data to deliver targeted and personalized experiences with loyalty programs and marketing solutions. In June 2021, we saw an average of over 5.5 million guest orders per day on our platform.

 

   

Employees. Our easy-to-learn and easy-to-use technology improves the experience of up to 500,000 daily active restaurant employees across Toast customers. Employees are core to delivering great hospitality, and it is critical for restaurants to engage and retain employees in an increasingly competitive labor market. Our products enable new employees to learn quickly through guided workflows, facilitate faster table turns and safer, streamlined operations, and provide greater transparency around, and timely access to, employees’ wages.

The benefits to all stakeholders using the Toast platform create a powerful, virtuous cycle that amplifies our impact on restaurants. Guest satisfaction generates loyalty to restaurants, driving repeat sales, word-of-mouth referrals, and larger checks and tips. This promotes employee satisfaction, helping reduce turnover and motivating employees to continue to raise the bar on the guest experience. In addition, our integrated software and payments platform consolidates data on restaurant sales and operations, which enables our reporting and analytics as well as financial technology solutions, such as working capital loans, to further support our customers’ success.

 

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Since our founding, we have translated our love for restaurants into a commitment to innovation and digital transformation for the restaurant industry. As we have expanded our platform, launched new products, and added new partners over time, we have rapidly grown the number of restaurant locations on the Toast platform.

Our Revenue Model

Our revenue is driven by our ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers, increase sales from both new and existing customers, and ultimately help our customers grow their businesses. Unless otherwise specified, we define a customer as a restaurant organization, which may have multiple locations, with at least one location live on the Toast platform. A single organization with multiple divisions, segments, or subsidiaries is generally counted as a single customer, even though we may enter into agreements with multiple parties within that organization. We serve restaurants of all sizes, ranging from single-location, family-owned operations to large, multi-location brands with hundreds of locations, across all dining types such as fast casual, fine dining establishments, bars and lounges, and everything in between. As of June 30, 2021, we had 47,942 locations on our platform, increasing from 33,129 and 19,891 locations as of June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

We generate revenue through four main revenue streams: subscription services, financial technology solutions, hardware, and professional services.

Subscription services revenue is generated from fees charged to customers for access to our SaaS products, such as POS, kitchen display system, invoice management, digital ordering and delivery, marketing and loyalty, and team management. Contract terms for our SaaS products generally range from 12 to 36 months. Our subscription services pricing is primarily based on a rate per location, which varies depending on the number of SaaS products purchased, hardware configuration, and employee count. We offer a variety of subscription plans to customers depending on the features and functionality they require.

Financial technology solutions revenue consists primarily of fees paid by our customers to facilitate their payment transactions. The transaction fee is generally calculated as a percentage of the total transaction amount processed, plus a fixed per-transaction fee. The transaction fees collected are recognized as revenue on a gross basis inclusive of all fees and costs paid to issuers and card networks as well as other related fees associated with third-party payment processors and fraud management.

Financial technology solutions revenue also includes fees earned from marketing and servicing working capital loans to our customers through Toast Capital that are originated by a third-party bank and that range from $5,000 to $100,000. Toast Capital is uniquely qualified to underwrite and price loans by using our patented systems for loan origination that incorporate data science models, historical POS data, and payment processing volume. In these arrangements, Toast Capital’s bank partner originates all loans, and Toast Capital subsequently services the loans using Toast’s payments infrastructure to remit a fixed percentage of daily sales until the loan is paid back. Toast Capital earns a servicing fee as well as a credit performance fee that is tied to the loan portfolio performance. Toast Capital is not a material component of our financial technology solutions revenue, representing less than 1% of revenue for all periods presented.

Hardware revenue is primarily derived from the sale of terminals, tablets, handhelds, and related devices and accessories. We also generate professional services revenue from installation and configuration services for new locations joining the Toast platform and new products added by existing locations. These services can be delivered on-site, remotely, or on a self-guided basis. We utilize our

 

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hardware and related onboarding professional services as customer acquisition tools and price them competitively in order to lower barriers to entry for new restaurants.

Key Business Metrics

 

     Year ended
December 31,
           Six months ended
June 30,
        
(dollars in billions)    2019      2020      % Growth     2020      2021      % Growth  

Gross Payment Volume (GPV)

   $ 21.8    $ 25.4      17   $ 10.4    $ 23.4      125
     As of

December 31,
           As of

June 30,
        
(dollars in millions)    2019      2020      % Growth     2020      2021      % Growth  

Annualized Recurring Run-Rate (ARR)

   $ 184    $ 326      77   $ 227    $ 494      118

Gross Payment Volume (GPV)19

 

LOGO

Gross Payment Volume represents the sum of total dollars processed through the Toast payments platform across all restaurant locations in a given period. GPV is a key measure of the scale of our platform, which in turn drives our financial performance. As our customers generate more sales and therefore more GPV, we generally see higher financial technology solutions revenue.

 

19

Please note that numbers may not tie due to rounding to the nearest hundred million.

 

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Annualized Recurring Run-Rate (ARR)

 

LOGO

We monitor Annualized Recurring Run-Rate as a key operational measure of the scale of our subscription and payment processing services for both new and existing customers. To calculate this metric, we first calculate recurring run-rate on a monthly basis. Monthly Recurring Run-Rate, or MRR, is measured on the final day of each month for all restaurant locations live on our platform as the sum of (i) our monthly subscription services fees, which we refer to as the subscription component of MRR, and (ii) our in-month adjusted payments services fees, exclusive of estimated transaction-based costs, which we refer to as the payments component of MRR. MRR does not include fees derived from Toast Capital or related costs. MRR is also not burdened by the impact of SaaS credits offered, which we expect to be immaterial on an ongoing basis despite being larger in 2020 as we supported our customers through the COVID-19 pandemic.

ARR is determined by taking the sum of (i) twelve times the subscription component of MRR and (ii) four times the trailing-three-month cumulative payments component of MRR. We believe this approach provides an indication of our scale, while also controlling for short-term fluctuations in payments volume. Our ARR may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customers’ satisfaction with our platform, pricing, competitive offerings, economic conditions, or overall changes in our customers’ and their guests’ spending levels. ARR is an operational measure, does not reflect our revenue or gross profit determined in accordance with GAAP, and should be viewed independently of, and not combined with or substituted for, our revenue, gross profit, and other financial information determined in accordance with GAAP. Further, ARR is not a forecast of future revenue and investors should not place undue reliance on ARR as an indicator of our future or expected results.

 

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Our Business Model

We grow our customer base through a diverse array of marketing and sales channels. As of June 30, 2021, approximately two-thirds of new locations added to the Toast platform in the last twelve months came inbound across our organic, paid, field, and referral channels. Our in-market sales team integrates deeply into the local restaurant community, enabling us to spend significant time with our customers and prospects and helping us retain existing customers and onboard new customers. While we have meaningfully grown the size of our sales team over time, we have also continued to increase its efficiency.

We utilize our hardware and related professional services as customer acquisition tools and price them competitively to lower barriers to entry for new locations. As a result, the variable cost associated with manufacturing and configuring the hardware and providing the professional services has historically exceeded the related revenue we collect, resulting in negative gross profit for each. We consider these net costs of hardware and professional services, in addition to our sales and marketing expenses, to be the core components of our customer acquisition costs, or CAC.

For a given cohort of new locations and product upsells that go live on the Toast platform in a given month, we calculate the CAC as the in-month hardware and professional services gross profit plus the sales and marketing expense incurred two months prior, which is based on the median time between when a location is signed and when it goes live on our platform.20 To evaluate payback period, we compare our CAC to the estimated contribution profit from the same cohort of live locations and upsells, which is defined as (i) the subscription component of MRR for the cohort, less the estimated costs to service these fees, plus (ii) the average payments component of MRR in each new location’s first three full months live on our platform, less the estimated support costs to service these fees.

Since the third quarter of 2020, we have had sustained payback periods of under 15 months, bolstered by our investments in, and launch of, multiple new products such as Order & Pay and Toast Delivery Services, by the gradual reopening and recovery of the restaurant industry, and by heightened restaurant demand for cloud-based, innovative, end-to-end technologies. Efficiencies realized across our hardware and professional services teams, such as the launch of the Toast Flex and other proprietary hardware as well as the continued shift towards remote and self-guided installations, further helped us improve our CAC. Historically, we had payback periods that were typically around 18 months, though in late 2019 we accelerated our investment in go-to-market based on our strong unit economics and the massive opportunity ahead. This, in tandem with the unprecedented challenges that the COVID-19 pandemic caused for the restaurant industry, caused our payback periods to approach 30 months in the first quarter of 2020. Although we believe our recent payback periods of under 15 months are reflective of the efficiencies we are able to derive from our current go-to-market approach, our payback periods may change from period to period and may increase in future periods due to dependencies on factors such as our global supply chain as well as decisions we may make from time to time to invest more heavily in location acquisition to serve our longer-term strategic objectives. There is no assurance that these cohorts will be representative of any future group of locations or periods.

Net Retention Rate (NRR)

To calculate our Net Retention Rate, or NRR, we first identify a cohort of customers, or the Base Customers, in a particular month, or the Base Month. For this purpose, we do not consider a customer

 

20

CAC and the related cost of revenue and expense estimates do not include the impact of stock-based compensation expense. The stock-based compensation expense for Hardware and Services was $240, $4,633, and $767, respectively, for 2019, 2020, and the six months ended June 30, 2021. It was $4,941 for the twelve months ended June 30, 2021.

 

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as a Base Customer unless there is at least one location live on the Toast platform for the entirety of the Base Month. We then divide MRR for the Base Customers in the same month of the subsequent year, or the Comparison Month, by MRR in the Base Month to derive a monthly NRR. MRR in the Comparison Month includes the impact of any churn or contraction of the Base Customers, and by definition does not include any customers added to the Toast platform between the Base Month and Comparison Month. We measure the annual NRR by taking a weighted average of the monthly NRR over the trailing twelve months. For each year since 2015, our annual NRR has been above 110%. Specifically, our annual NRR in the base years of 2015 through 2019 (with the corresponding comparison years of 2016 through 2020) was, in chronological order starting with the base year of 2015: 119%; 122%; 114%; 110%; and 114%.

Impact of COVID-19

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic rapidly impacted market and economic conditions globally. In an attempt to limit the spread of the virus, various governmental restrictions have been implemented, including business activity and travel restrictions as well as “shelter-at-home” orders. These restrictions impacted restaurants in various ways, including limiting service to takeout orders for a period of time or reducing capacity to accommodate social distancing recommendations.

Due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, our GPV declined by 24% in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the second quarter of 2019. With the gradual reopening of restaurants in the second half of 2020, alongside our continued location growth, our GPV recovered over time, ultimately growing 17% year-over-year for 2020 as compared to 2019. While in-store dining saw a material decline during the COVID-19 pandemic, we saw a significant increase in orders placed by guests through takeout and delivery channels.

As of June 30, 2021, same-store sales were over 8% greater than the corresponding period in 2019 prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, driven by consumer demand and relaxed dining restrictions. Though the exact long-term circumstances are difficult to predict, we believe that the COVID-19 pandemic will result in a lasting shift in consumer demand towards omnichannel consumption and increased guest demand for digital solutions such as Order & Pay. Depending on the extent to which the prevalence of takeout and delivery orders persists, our financial results may be impacted in a number of ways. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic we saw a relative increase in card-not-present transactions related to takeout and delivery orders. Card-not-present transactions typically generate higher payment processing revenue and gross margins for us than card-present transactions. As a result, the increase in the proportion of card-not-present transactions contributed to an increase in our financial technology solutions revenue and gross margins during 2020. To the extent that this trend reverses as the effects of the pandemic subside, our payment processing revenue and gross margins may be impacted.

We also completed a significant reduction in workforce in April 2020 to reduce operating expenses and have taken other measures to reduce discretionary spending while conditions remain uncertain for the restaurant industry. In addition, we contributed towards customers’ dedicated recovery efforts by providing over $20 million in direct SaaS relief credits as well as additional access to loans through Toast Capital.

In light of the evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainty it has produced around the world, it is not possible to predict the cumulative and ultimate impact of the pandemic on our future business operations, results of operations, financial position, liquidity, and cash flows. The extent of the impact of the pandemic on our business and financial results will depend largely on future developments, including the duration of the spread of the pandemic both globally and within the United States, the impact on capital, foreign currency exchange, and financial markets, the impact of

 

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governmental or regulatory orders that impact our business, and the effect on global supply chains, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. For example, increased demand for semiconductor chips in 2020, due in part to the COVID-19 pandemic and increased use of personal electronics, has created a global shortfall of microchip supply, and it is yet unknown how and the extent to which we may be impacted. We will continue to actively monitor the impacts of and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and its related risks.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

Acquisition of new locations

We believe there is a substantial opportunity to continue to grow our restaurant locations across the United States. As of June 30, 2021, our presence in 47,942 locations represented only about 6% of the approximately 860,000 restaurant locations in the United States.21 We intend to continue to drive new location growth through our differentiated go-to-market strategy, including through sales representatives who are deeply integrated in their local restaurant communities. In addition, we will continue to invest in marketing efforts in key U.S. cities to grow our brand awareness. Our ability to acquire new locations will depend on a number of factors, including the effectiveness and growth of our sales team, the success of our marketing efforts, and the continued satisfaction of, and word-of-mouth referrals generated by, our existing customers. We expect our absolute investment in sales and marketing and other customer acquisition costs related to our hardware and professional services to increase as we continue to grow.

Retention and expansion within our existing customer base

Our ability to retain and increase revenue from our existing customer base is a key driver of our business growth. We expand within our existing customer base by selling additional products, adding more locations, and helping restaurants generate greater sales per location.

Adoption of additional products

We believe there is an opportunity to increase adoption of more of our products by existing customers through a combination of customer relationship management investments, product-led growth, and the introduction of new products. We believe that we provide the most value when our customers have multiple touchpoints across our platform. We also believe that adoption of additional products will drive profitability improvements for our customers, allowing them to reinvest in their success. Our ability to increase adoption of our products will depend on a number of factors, including our customers’ satisfaction with our platform, competition, pricing, and our ability to demonstrate the value proposition of our products.

Expansion of locations per customer

As our customers grow their businesses and open new locations, we expect to see a corresponding increase in locations on our platform. To that end, we work closely with restaurants across our customer-facing teams to support their expansion efforts. We believe that we are well-positioned to extend our reach to and onboard these new locations based on our customers’ desire to use a single, integrated platform across all locations.

 

21

IBISWorld. Estimated 2021 U.S. restaurant locations includes single location full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, chain restaurants, coffee shops, bars & nightclubs, and caterers, and excludes food service contractors and street vendors. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”

 

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Support of our customers’ revenue growth

We believe our long-term revenue growth is correlated with the growth of our existing customers’ businesses, and we strive to support their success. Our revenue grows with that of our customers – as our customers generate more sales and therefore more GPV, we generally see higher financial technology solutions revenue. We have a demonstrated track record of partnering with restaurants to help grow their revenue, and will continue to invest in our customer success team and in new products that help customers thrive.

Innovation and development of new products

We have a culture of continuous innovation evidenced by our history of consistent and timely product launches and refinements. We intend to continue to invest in research and development to expand and improve the functionality of our current platform and broaden our capabilities to address new market opportunities. As a result, we expect our total operating expenses will increase over time and, in some cases, have short-term negative impacts on our operating margin. Our continued growth is dependent, in part, on our ability to successfully develop, market, and sell new products to our customers.

Investments in customer experience

We will continue to invest in our customer acquisition and customer success efforts to capture the market opportunity ahead of us. We intend to continue prioritizing efficient growth that balances the cost of acquiring customers with efforts focused on increasing the lifetime value, or LTV, of our customers. To improve customer LTV, we will continue to invest in our customer support team that helps drive restaurant success after initial onboarding, and expect that these investments will continue to impact our subscription gross margin.

Seasonality

We experience seasonality in our financial technology solutions revenue, which is largely driven by the level of GPV processed through our platform. For example, customers typically have greater sales during the warmer months, though this effect varies regionally. As a result, our financial technology solutions revenue per location has historically been stronger in the second and third quarters. We believe that financial technology solutions revenue from both existing and potential future products will continue to represent a significant proportion of our overall revenue mix, and seasonality will continue to impact our results of operations.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

To supplement our consolidated financial statements, which are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP, we use certain non-GAAP financial measures, as described below, to understand and evaluate our core operating performance. These non-GAAP financial measures, which may be different than similarly-titled measures used by other companies, are presented to enhance investors’ overall understanding of our financial performance and should not be considered substitutes for, or superior to, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP.

We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information about our financial performance, enhance the overall understanding of our past performance and future prospects, and allow for greater transparency with respect to important metrics used by our

 

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management for financial and operational decision-making. We are presenting these non-GAAP metrics to assist investors in seeing our financial performance using a management view. We believe that these measures provide an additional tool for investors to use in comparing our core financial performance over multiple periods with other companies in our industry.

 

     Year ended
December 31,
    Six months ended
June 30,
 
(in millions)    2019     2020     2020     2021  

Free Cash Flow

   $ (141.2   $ (160.7   $ (128.9   $ 38.8

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ (171.6   $ (93.8   $ (86.1   $ 14.2

Free Cash Flow

Free cash flow is defined as net cash used in operating activities reduced by purchases of property and equipment and capitalization of internal-use software costs. We believe that free cash flow is a meaningful indicator of liquidity that provides information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated from operations and used for purchases of property and equipment, capitalization of software costs, and investments in our business. Once our business needs and obligations are met, cash can be used to maintain a strong balance sheet and invest in future growth.

Free cash flow has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Other companies may calculate free cash flow or similarly titled non-GAAP measures differently, which could reduce the usefulness of free cash flow as a tool for comparison. In addition, free cash flow does not reflect mandatory debt service and other non-discretionary expenditures that are required to be made under contractual commitments and does not represent the total increase or decrease in our cash balance for any given period.

The following table presents a reconciliation of free cash flow to the net cash provided by (used in) operating activities for each of the periods presented:

 

     Year ended December 31,     Six months ended June 30,  
(in thousands)    2019     2020     2020     2021  

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities

   $ (126,483   $ (124,633   $ (97,819   $ 51,218

Purchase of property and equipment

     (9,131     (27,557     (26,574     (8,320

Capitalized software

     (5,601     (8,515     (4,502     (4,087
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Free cash flow

   $ (141,215   $ (160,705   $ (128,895   $ 38,811
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss), adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation expense and related payroll tax expense, depreciation and amortization expense, interest income, interest expense, other income (expense) net, acquisition expenses, fair value adjustments on warrant and derivative liabilities, expenses related to COVID-19 pandemic initiatives resulting from a reduction of workforce in 2020 and early termination of leases, loss on debt extinguishment, and income taxes. We have provided below a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

We believe Adjusted EBITDA is useful for investors to use in comparing our financial performance to other companies and from period to period. Adjusted EBITDA is widely used by investors and securities analysts to measure a company’s operating performance without regard to

 

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items such as depreciation and amortization, interest expense, and interest income, which can vary substantially from company to company depending on their financing and capital structures and the method by which their assets were acquired. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA eliminates the impact of certain items that may obscure trends in the underlying performance of our business. Adjusted EBITDA also has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider this measure in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. For example, although depreciation expense is a non-cash charge, the assets being depreciated may have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect cash capital expenditure requirements for such replacements or for new asset acquisitions. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA excludes stock-based compensation expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense for our business and an important part of our compensation strategy. Adjusted EBITDA also does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs; interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt, which reduces the cash available to us; or tax payments that may represent a reduction in cash available to us. The expenses and other items we exclude in our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA may differ from the expenses and other items that other companies may exclude from Adjusted EBITDA when they report their financial results.

The following table reflects the reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA for each of the periods presented:

 

     Year ended December 31,     Six months ended June 30,  
(in thousands)    2019     2020     2020     2021  

Net loss

   $ (209,448   $ (248,203   $ (124,547   $ (234,650

Stock-based compensation expense and related payroll tax

     33,709     86,359     22,156     60,987

Depreciation and amortization

     6,842     27,067     6,380     8,944

Interest income

     (2,106     (842     (682     (53

Interest expense

     —         12,651     1,185     12,156

Other (income) expense, net

     (62     486     (221     (81

Acquisition expenses

     1,251     —         —         1,113

Change in fair value of warrant liability

     1,497     8,218     (262     16,492

Change in fair value of derivative liability

     —         7,282     —         103,281

Reduction of workforce

     —         10,127     9,973     —    

Termination of leases

     —         2,766     —         —    

Loss on debt extinguishment

     —         —         —         49,783

(Benefit) provision for income taxes

     (3,248     261     (58     (3,752
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ (171,565   $ (93,828   $ (86,076   $ 14,220
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

We generate revenue from four main sources that are further described below: (1) subscription services, (2) financial technology solutions, (3) hardware, and (4) professional services.

Our total revenue consists of the following:

Subscription services. We generate subscription services revenue from fees charged to customers for access to our software applications, generally over a term ranging from 12 to 36 months. Our subscription services revenue is primarily based on a rate per location, and this rate varies

 

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depending on the number of software products purchased, hardware configuration, and employee count at such location.

Financial technology solutions. Revenue from financial technology solutions consists primarily of transaction-based fees paid by customers to facilitate their payment transactions, which are generally calculated as a percentage of the total transaction amount processed plus a per-transaction fee. The transaction fees collected are recognized as revenue on a gross basis inclusive of all fees and costs paid to issuers and card networks as well as other related fees associated with third-party payment processors and fraud management. Financial technology solutions revenue also includes fees earned from marketing and servicing working capital loans to our customers through Toast Capital that are originated by a third-party bank. In these arrangements, Toast Capital’s bank partner originates all loans, and Toast Capital then services the loans using Toast’s payments infrastructure to remit a fixed percentage of daily sales until the loan is paid back. Toast Capital revenue is recognized net of expected defaults, and Toast Capital is responsible for purchasing from our bank partner loans in default (or that have been or are scheduled to be charged off) until the aggregate principal amount of such purchased loans equals 15% (or 30% in the case of a limited program offered during the winter of 2020-2021 related to the COVID-19 pandemic) of the total originated amount for each quarterly loan cohort. Toast Capital earns a servicing fee as well as a credit performance fee that is tied to the portfolio performance.

Hardware. We generate hardware revenue from the sale of terminals, tablets, handhelds, and related devices and accessories, net of estimated returns.

Professional services. We primarily generate professional services revenue from fees charged to customers for installation services, including business process mapping, configuration, and training. These services can be delivered on-site, remotely, or on a self-guided basis.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists of expenses that are directly related or closely correlated to revenue generation, including, but not limited to, employee-related costs for customer support and certain operations roles as well as allocated overhead. Employee-related costs consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation. Allocated overhead includes certain facilities costs, depreciation expense, and amortization costs associated with internally developed software. Below are descriptions of the types of costs classified within each component of cost of revenue:

Subscription services. Subscription services costs primarily consist of customer support and associated employee-related costs, hosting costs, professional services costs, other software costs to support our cloud-based platform, and amortization costs associated with internally developed software.

Financial technology solutions. Financial technology solutions costs primarily consist of transaction-based costs, which are primarily fees and costs paid to issuers and card networks as well as other related fees associated with third-party payment processors and fraud management.

Hardware. Hardware costs primarily consist of raw materials and the cost to manufacture and ship hardware sold to customers, including terminals, tablets, handhelds, card readers, printers, and other accessories. Included in the manufacturing and shipping costs are employee-related costs, professional services costs, and allocated overhead associated with our supply chain and fulfillment teams.

Professional services. Professional services costs primarily consist of employee-related costs and allocated overhead associated with our onboarding team, along with fees paid to third-party service providers engaged to perform installations and other services.

 

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Amortization of acquired technology. Amortization of acquired technology costs consist of amortization related to technologies acquired through acquisitions that have the capability of producing revenue.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses consist of the following:

Sales and marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs incurred to acquire new customers and increase product adoption across our existing customer base. Marketing expenses also include fees incurred to generate demand through various advertising channels. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we also incurred one-time costs, including severance, in connection with a reduction in workforce resulting from changes to our operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We expect that sales and marketing expenses will increase on an absolute dollar basis as we invest to grow our field-based sales team, increase demand generation, and enhance our brand awareness. We expect sales and marketing expenses as a percentage of revenue will vary from period-to-period over the short-term and decrease over the long-term.

Research and development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs associated with improvements to our platform and the development of new product offerings, as well as allocated overhead and expenses associated with the use of third-party software directly related to development of our products and services. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we also incurred one-time costs, including severance, in connection with a reduction in workforce resulting from changes to our operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We plan to continue to hire employees to support our research and development efforts to expand the capabilities and scope of our platform and related products and services. As a result, we expect that research and development expenses will increase on an absolute dollar basis as we continue to invest to support these activities and innovate over the long-term.

General and administrative. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of expenses related to operations, finance, legal, human resources, information technology, and administrative personnel. General and administrative expenses also include costs related to fees paid for certain professional services, including legal, information technology, tax and accounting services, and bad debt expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we also incurred one-time costs, including severance, lease exit costs, and impairment of property and equipment in connection with a reduction in workforce resulting from changes to our operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We expect that general and administrative expenses will increase on an absolute dollar basis as we add personnel and enhance our systems, processes, and controls to support the growth of our business as well as our increased compliance and reporting requirements as a public company. We expect general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue will vary from period-to-period over the short-term and decrease over the long-term.

Other Income (Expense)

Our other income and expenses consist of the following:

Interest income. Interest income consists primarily of interest earned from cash held in money market accounts.

 

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Interest expense. Interest expense represents primarily interest incurred on our convertible notes, which were issued in June 2020 and repaid in June 2021.

Change in fair value of warrant liability. This represents the change in fair value of warrant liability related to warrants issued to purchase shares of our convertible preferred stock and our common stock. The warrant liability is remeasured at fair value at each reporting date which could have a significant effect on other income (expense) and our results of operations during each period.

Change in fair value of derivative liability. This represents the change in fair value of derivative liability related to the conversion option provided for in the convertible notes.

Loss on debt extinguishment. This represents the loss on settlement of our convertible notes.

Other income (expense), net. This represents certain reserves recorded on certain municipal grants we received in previous years and foreign currency gains and losses.

Income Tax Benefit (Expense)

Income tax benefit (expense) primarily consists of U.S. federal and state income tax, as well as international taxes in Ireland. Income tax benefit (expense) for the year ended December 31, 2019 and the six months ended June 30, 2021 also includes the deferred tax benefit related to our acquisitions of StratEx and xtraCHEF, Inc, respectively.

 

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Results of Operations

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2020

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
(dollars in thousands)    2019     2020  

Revenue:

    

Subscription services

   $ 62,443   $ 101,374

Financial technology solutions

     531,751     644,372

Hardware

     54,999     63,968

Professional services

     15,836     13,420
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

     665,029     823,134
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

    

Subscription services

     24,923     39,730

Financial technology solutions

     452,786     508,816

Hardware

     82,096     85,013

Professional services

     41,215     45,558

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets

     1,660     3,604
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue(1)

     602,680     682,721
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     62,349     140,413
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

    

Sales and marketing(1)

     129,066     139,325

Research and development(1)

     63,967     108,574

General and administrative(1)

     82,683     112,661
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     275,716     360,560
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (213,367     (220,147
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income (expense):

    

Interest income

     2,106     842

Interest expense

     —         (12,651

Change in fair value of warrant liability

     (1,497     (8,218

Change in fair value of derivative liability

     —         (7,282

Other income (expense), net

     62     (486
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

     (212,696     (247,942

Benefit (provision) for income taxes

     3,248     (261
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (209,448   $ (248,203
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Includes stock-based compensation expense recognized for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 as follows:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
(in thousands)    2019      2020  

Cost of revenue

   $ 462    $ 7,299

Sales and marketing

     1,166        16,296  

Research and development

     3,368        30,000  

General and administrative

     28,713        32,764  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

   $ 33,709    $ 86,359
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Revenue

 

     Year ended
December 31,
              
(dollars in thousands)    2019      2020      $ Change     % Change  

Subscription services

   $ 62,443    $ 101,374    $ 38,931     62

Financial technology solutions

     531,751      644,372      112,621     21

Hardware

     54,999      63,968      8,969     16

Professional services

     15,836      13,420      (2,416     (15 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

Total revenue

   $ 665,029    $ 823,134    $ 158,105     24
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

Total revenue increased 24% to $823.1 million for 2020, as compared to $665.0 million for 2019.

Revenue from subscription services increased 62% to $101.4 million for 2020, as compared to $62.4 million for 2019. The increase was attributable to growth in restaurant locations on the Toast platform and the continued upsell of products to existing customers, partially offset by COVID-related SaaS credits and refunded fees.

Revenue from financial technology solutions increased 21% to $644.4 million for 2020, as compared to $531.8 million for 2019. The increase was generally reflective of our 17% increase in GPV for the same period, with slightly faster growth in revenue due to a greater mix of card-not-present transactions as restaurants shifted their business to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall increase in GPV and financial technology solutions revenue was primarily attributable to, and affected by, the following events and factors:

 

   

In the first quarter of 2020, we saw a year-over-year increase in GPV as we benefited from a greater number of restaurant locations compared to 2019 as well as from the growth in payment volume per location in January and February of 2020. This was slightly offset by the sudden decline in GPV due to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in the second half of March 2020.

 

   

In the second quarter of 2020, we saw a year-over-year decline in GPV as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent shelter-in-place restrictions, which was only partially offset by continued growth in restaurant locations.

 

   

In the third and fourth quarters of 2020, we saw year-over-year increases in GPV as the restaurant industry recovery continued, and as we continued to grow the number of locations live on the Toast platform as compared to 2019.

Revenue from hardware increased 16% to $64.0 million for 2020, as compared to $55.0 million for 2019. The increase was primarily driven by the growth of our customer base, which saw an increase in new locations going live as well as higher upsell volume following initial installation.

Revenue from professional services decreased 15% to $13.4 million for 2020, as compared to $15.8 million for 2019 primarily due to targeted promotions and a shift towards remote and self-guided installations, which are more favorably priced for customers.

 

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Cost of Revenue

 

     Year ended
December 31,
               
(dollars in thousands)    2019      2020      $ Change      % Change  

Subscription services

   $ 24,923    $ 39,730    $ 14,807      59

Financial technology solutions

     452,786      508,816      56,030      12

Hardware

     82,096      85,013      2,917      4

Professional services

     41,215      45,558      4,343      11

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets

     1,660      3,604      1,944      117
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

   $ 602,680    $ 682,721    $ 80,041      13
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Cost of revenue increased 13% to $682.7 million for 2020, as compared to $602.7 million for 2019. Included in this was an increase in stock-based compensation expense, which contributed $7.3 million towards cost of revenue in 2020, as compared to $0.5 million in 2019. The $6.8 million increase in stock-based compensation expense was largely attributable to a third-party tender offer and certain secondary sale transactions conducted in 2020, resulting in $5.7 million of stock-based compensation expense. For more information regarding the tender offer, see the section titled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Tender Offer.”

Subscription services costs increased 59% to $39.7 million for 2020, as compared to $24.9 million for 2019. The $14.8 million increase was primarily attributable to the increase in support costs necessary to support a larger number of customers on our platform, inclusive of a $10.2 million increase in employee-related, professional services, and related overhead costs.

Financial technology solutions costs increased 12% to $508.8 million for 2020, as compared to $452.8 million for 2019. The $56.0 million increase was generally reflective of our increase in GPV over the same period, with slightly slower growth in costs primarily due to a greater mix of debit card transactions as compared to credit card transactions, which lowered the average cost as a percentage of GPV.

Hardware costs increased 4% to $85.0 million for 2020, as compared to $82.1 million for 2019, primarily due to a $2.2 million increase in employee-related, professional services, and related overhead costs required to service the increase in hardware demand and revenue.

Professional services costs increased 11% to $45.6 million for 2020, as compared to $41.2 million for 2019, largely due to stock-based compensation expense, which accounted for $4.0 million of the increase.

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets increased 117% to $3.6 million for 2020, as compared to $1.7 million for 2019 due to the mid-year timing of the StratEx acquisition impacting a partial year in 2019 versus a full year of 2020.

Operating Expenses

As with cost of revenue, we saw a meaningful increase in stock-based compensation expense within operating expenses, increasing to $79.1 million in 2020 compared to $33.3 in 2019. This was primarily attributable to a third-party tender offer and certain secondary sale transactions conducted in 2020, which contributed $37.1 million of the $45.8 million increase from 2019 to 2020.

 

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Sales and Marketing

 

     Year ended December 31,                
(dollars in thousands)    2019      2020      $ Change      % Change  

Sales and marketing

   $ 129,066    $ 139,325    $ 10,259      8

Sales and marketing expenses increased 8% to $139.3 million for 2020, as compared to $129.1 million for 2019. Employee-related costs, less commissions, increased $17.9 million, of which $15.1 million was due to stock-based compensation expense. This was partially offset by a $5.8 million reduction in commissions expense due to the adoption of ASC 606 and a $3.9 million decrease in travel-related expense driven by changes to our operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Research and Development

 

     Year ended December 31,                
(dollars in thousands)            2019                      2020              $ Change      % Change  

Research and development

   $ 63,967      $ 108,574      $ 44,607        70

Research and development expenses increased 70% to $108.6 million for 2020, as compared to $64.0 million for 2019. The increase resulted primarily from an increase of $40.4 million in employee-related costs, $26.6 million of which was related to stock-based compensation expense.

General and Administrative

 

     Year ended December 31,                
(dollars in thousands)            2019                      2020              $ Change      % Change  

General and administrative

   $ 82,683    $ 112,661    $ 29,978      36

General and administrative expenses increased 36% to $112.7 million for 2020, as compared to $82.7 million for 2019. The increase resulted primarily from a $22.1 million increase in allocated facilities and depreciation expense, mostly related to one-time lease buy-out transactions, and a $8.6 million increase in employee-related costs, $4.1 million of which was related to increases in stock-based compensation expense.

Interest Income

 

     Year ended December 31,               
(dollars in thousands)            2019                      2020              $ Change     % Change  

Interest income

   $ 2,106    $ 842    $ (1,264     (60 )% 

Interest income decreased 60% to $0.8 million for 2020, compared to $2.1 million for 2019. The decrease in interest income was primarily due to a lower average interest rate on invested balances.

Interest Expense

 

     Year ended December 31,              
(dollars in thousands)            2019                      2020             $ Change     % Change  

Interest expense

   $    $ (12,651   $ (12,651     —  

Interest expense increased to $12.7 million for 2020, as compared to no interest expense for 2019. Interest expense in 2020 was primarily related to the issuance of convertible notes in June 2020.

 

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Change in fair value of warrant liability

 

     Year ended December 31,              
(dollars in thousands)            2019                     2020             $ Change     % Change  

Change in fair value of warrant liability

   $ (1,497   $ (8,218   $ (6,721     449

Change in fair value of warrant liability increased to $8.2 million for 2020, as compared to $1.5 million for 2019. The change was due to an increase in the value of the convertible preferred stock underlying outstanding warrants.

Change in fair value of derivative liability

 

     Year ended December 31,              
(dollars in thousands)            2019                      2020             $ Change     % Change  

Change in fair value of derivative liability

   $ —      $ (7,282   $ (7,282     —  

Change in fair value of derivative liability was $7.3 million for 2020, as compared to no derivative liability in 2019, related to the derivative liability associated with the issuance of the convertible notes in June 2020.

Other income (expense), net

 

     Year ended December 31,              
(dollars in thousands)            2019                      2020             $ Change     % Change  

Other income (expense), net

   $ 62    $ (486   $ (548     (884 )% 

Other expense, net was an expense of $0.5 million for 2020 and was primarily due to reserves recorded on certain municipal grants we received in previous years and to a lesser extent foreign currency gains and losses.

Income tax benefit (provision)

 

     Year ended December 31,              
(dollars in thousands)            2019                      2020             $ Change     % Change  

Benefit (provision) for income taxes

   $ 3,248    $ (261   $ (3,509     (108 )% 

Income tax benefit (expense) was an expense of $0.3 million for 2020, as compared to a benefit of $3.2 million for 2019. The change was primarily due to the impact of a deferred tax benefit generated in 2019 as a result of our acquisition of StratEx.

 

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Comparison of the Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2021

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021:

 

     Six months ended
June 30,
 
(dollars in thousands)    2020     2021  

Revenue:

    

Subscription services

   $ 44,787   $ 68,041

Financial technology solutions

     262,070     579,475

Hardware

     30,187     48,954

Professional services

     6,798     7,278
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

     343,842     703,748
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

    

Subscription services

     18,817     23,028

Financial technology solutions

     212,457     451,876

Hardware

     41,422     51,412

Professional services

     24,373     20,691

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets

     1,787     1,967
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue(1)

     298,856     548,974
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     44,986     154,774
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

    

Sales and marketing(1)

     72,110     73,858

Research and development(1)

     44,384     73,278

General and administrative(1)

     53,077     64,462
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     169,571     211,598
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (124,585     (56,824
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income (expense):

    

Interest income

     682     53

Interest expense

     (1,185     (12,156

Change in fair value of warrant liability

     262     (16,492

Change in fair value of derivative liability

     —         (103,281

Loss on debt extinguishment

     —         (49,783

Other income (expense), net

     221     81
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

     (124,605     (238,402

Benefit for income taxes

     58     3,752
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (124,547   $ (234,650
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Includes stock-based compensation expense recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021 as follows:

 

     Six months ended June 30,  
(in thousands)        2020                      2021          

Cost of revenue

   $ 919    $ 1,253

Sales and marketing

     1,649      2,939

Research and development

     2,200      26,511

General and administrative

     17,388      30,166
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

   $ 22,156    $ 60,869
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Revenue

 

     Six months ended June 30,                
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021              $ Change      % Change  

Subscription services

   $ 44,787    $ 68,041    $ 23,254      52

Financial technology solutions

     262,070      579,475      317,405      121

Hardware

     30,187      48,954      18,767      62

Professional services

     6,798      7,278      480      7
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenue

   $ 343,842    $ 703,748    $ 359,906      105
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenue increased 105% to $703.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $343.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020.

Revenue from subscription services increased 52% to $68.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $44.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to growth in restaurant locations on the Toast platform combined with the continued upsell of products to existing customers.

Revenue from financial technology solutions increased 121% to $579.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $262.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The increase was generally reflective of our 125% increase in GPV for the same period, which was driven both by the continued increase in the number of restaurant locations live on the Toast platform and the increase in GPV per restaurant location.

Revenue from hardware increased 62% to $49.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $30.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by greater hardware demand in the six months ended June 30, 2021, resulting from both increased locations going live and greater hardware upsells to existing locations.

Revenue from professional services increased 7% to $7.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $6.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020 primarily due to the increase in the number of locations going live on the Toast platform, partially offset by lowered upfront services pricing.

Cost of Revenue

 

     Six months ended June 30,               
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021              $ Change     % Change  

Subscription services

   $ 18,817    $ 23,028    $ 4,211     22

Financial technology solutions

     212,457      451,876      239,419     113

Hardware

     41,422      51,412      9,990     24

Professional services

     24,373      20,691      (3,682     (15 )% 

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets

     1,787      1,967      180     10
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

   $ 298,856    $ 548,974    $ 250,118     84
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue increased 84% to $549.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $298.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020.

Subscription services costs increased 22% to $23.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $18.8 million for six months ended June 30, 2020. The $4.2 million increase was

 

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primarily attributable to a $3.4 million increase in hosting and other infrastructure costs necessary to support a larger number of customers on our platform and a $1.7 million increase in professional services costs, mostly offset by a $0.8 million decrease in employee-related and overhead costs.

Financial technology solutions costs increased 113% to $451.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $212.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The $239.4 million increase was generally reflective of our increase in GPV over the same period, with slightly slower growth in costs primarily due to an increase in average transaction value.

Hardware costs increased 24% to $51.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $41.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The growth was largely due to increased shipment volume, partially offset by lower costs per shipment as a result of the continued increase in the mix towards Toast proprietary hardware such as the Toast Flex.

Professional services costs decreased 15% to $20.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $24.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020, which was primarily driven by a $6.0 million decrease in employee-related and overhead costs, partially offset by an increase of $2.3 million in third-party contractor costs as we shifted the mix of services resourcing.

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets increased 10% to $2.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $1.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020, primarily due to newly acquired intangible assets as a result of the xtraCHEF acquisition.

Operating Expenses

Sales and Marketing

 

     Six months ended June 30,                
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021              $ Change      % Change  

Sales and marketing

   $ 72,110    $ 73,858    $ 1,748      2

Sales and marketing expenses increased 2% to $73.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $72.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to a $5.0 million increase in commissions, $2.6 million increase in advertising and related costs, and $2.5 million increase in professional services, including reseller and referral fees. This was partially offset by a $6.6 million decrease in employee-related and overhead costs and a $1.7 million decrease in travel-related expenses driven by changes to our operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Research and Development

 

     Six months ended June 30,                
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021              $ Change      % Change  

Research and development

   $ 44,384    $ 73,278    $ 28,894      65

Research and development expenses increased 65% to $73.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $44.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The increase resulted primarily from a $28.7 million increase in employee-related costs, $24.3 million of which was related to stock-based compensation expense.

 

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General and Administrative

 

     Six months ended June 30,                
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021              $ Change      % Change  

General and administrative

   $ 53,077    $ 64,462    $ 11,385      21

General and administrative expenses increased 21% to $64.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $53.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The increase resulted primarily from a $13.4 million increase in employee-related and overhead costs, $12.8 million of which was related to stock-based compensation expense, and a $2.8 million increase in professional services expense, partially offset by a $5.3 million decrease in bad debt expense as a result of a more favorable outcome on collection activities than estimated.

Interest Income

 

     Six months ended June 30,               
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021              $ Change     % Change  

Interest income

   $ 682    $ 53    $ (629     (92 )% 

Interest income decreased 92% to $0.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $0.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The decrease was primarily due to a lower average interest rate on invested balances.

Interest Expense

 

     Six months ended June 30,              
(dollars in thousands)            2020                     2021             $ Change     % Change  

Interest expense

   $ (1,185   $ (12,156   $ (10,971     926

Interest expense increased 926% to $12.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $1.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020, primarily due to the issuance of convertible notes in June 2020.

Change in fair value of warrant liability

 

     Six months ended June 30,              
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021             $ Change     % Change  

Change in fair value of warrant liability

   $ 262    $ (16,492   $ (16,754     (6395 )% 

Change in fair value of warrant liability was an expense of $16.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to a gain of $0.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. This was due to an increase in the value of the convertible preferred stock underlying outstanding warrants.

Change in fair value of derivative liability

 

     Six months ended June 30,              
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021             $ Change     % Change  

Change in fair value of derivative liability

   $ —      $ (103,281   $ (103,281    

Change in fair value of derivative liability was an expense of $103.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 due to the issuance of convertible notes in June 2020. The notes were fully

 

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repaid on June 21, 2021. The derivative liability was adjusted to its fair value during each reporting period and on the convertible notes’ settlement date. There was no gain or loss on a change in fair value of derivative liability during the six months ended June 30, 2020.

Loss on debt extinguishment

 

     Six months ended June 30,              
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021             $ Change     % Change  

Loss on debt extinguishment

   $ —      $ (49,783   $ (49,783    

Loss on debt extinguishment was $49,783 for the six months ended June 30, 2021 due to the settlement of our convertible notes.

Income tax benefit

 

     Six months ended June 30,                
(dollars in thousands)            2020                      2021              $ Change      % Change  

Benefit for income taxes

   $ 58    $ 3,752    $ 3,694      6369

Income tax benefit was $3.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to $0.1 million during the six months ended June 30, 2020. The change was primarily due to the impact of a deferred tax benefit generated during the six months ended June 30, 2021 as a result of our acquisition of xtraCHEF.

Quarterly Results of Operations

The following table sets forth selected unaudited quarterly consolidated statements of operations data for each of the quarters indicated. The information for each of these quarters has been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal, recurring adjustments that are necessary for a fair presentation of this information. These quarterly operating results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for a full year or any other fiscal period. This information should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in the prospectus.

 

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Quarterly Results of Operations

 

    Three months ended,  
    Mar. 31,
2019
    June 30,
2019
    Sept. 30,
2019
    Dec. 31,
2019
    Mar. 31,
2020
    June 30,
2020
    Sept. 30,
2020
    Dec. 31,
2020
    Mar. 31,
2021
    June 30,
2021
 
(in thousands)                                      

Revenue:

                   

Subscription services

  $ 11,205     $ 12,454     $ 18,038     $ 20,746     $ 22,009     $ 22,778     $ 27,406     $ 29,181     $ 30,442     $ 37,599  

Financial technology solutions

    93,693       125,733       148,213       164,112       156,380       105,690       188,195       194,107       225,873       353,602  

Hardware

    11,446       14,577       14,104       14,872       16,336       13,851       18,148       15,633       19,802       29,152  

Professional services

    3,081       3,970       4,011       4,774       3,924       2,874       3,008       3,614       2,898       4,380  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

    119,425       156,734       184,366       204,504       198,649       145,193       236,757       242,535       279,015       424,733  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

                   

Subscription services

    4,626       5,231       6,752       8,314       9,561       9,256       10,388       10,525       10,331       12,697  

Financial technology solutions

    78,547       107,225       126,668       140,346       133,524       78,933       145,945       150,414       171,525       280,351  

Hardware

    16,423       20,161       20,690       24,822       22,531       18,891       21,914       21,677       20,740       30,672  

Professional services

    7,057       8,812       11,572       13,774       14,652       9,721       9,282       11,903       9,124       11,567  

Amortization of acquired technology and customer assets

    —         —         796       864       879       908       908       909       908       1,059  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue (1)

    106,653       141,429       166,478       188,120       181,147       117,709       188,437       195,428       212,628       336,346  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    12,772       15,305       17,888       16,384       17,502       27,484       48,320       47,107       66,387       88,387  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

                   

Sales and marketing (1)

    20,933       29,377       36,280       42,476       43,106       29,004       32,216       34,999       32,203       41,655  

Research and development (1)

    11,701       13,907       18,591       19,768       24,170       20,214