10-K 1 tv508180-10k.htm FORM 10-K tv508180-10k - none - 11.1068718s
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018
OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            
Commission File Number: 001-37759
OUTLOOK THERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
38-3982704
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
7 Clarke Drive
Cranbury, New Jersey 08512
(609) 619-3990
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
The Nasdaq Capital Market
Series A warrants to purchase Common Stock
The Nasdaq Capital Market
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period than the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of  “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company ☒
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   ☒
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock, held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of March 30, 2018 (which is the last business day of registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) based upon the closing market price of such stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on that date, was approximately $15.6 million.
As of December 14, 2018, the registrant had outstanding 85,091,062 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
None.

OUTLOOK THERAPEUTICS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
   
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
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PART I
1
19
59
59
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PART II
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61
62
78
79
110
110
110
PART III
111
115
122
124
131
PART IV
132
136
In this report, unless otherwise stated or as the context otherwise requires, references to “Outlook Therapeutics,” “Outlook,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Outlook Therapeutics, Inc. (formerly known as Oncobiologics, Inc.) and its consolidated subsidiaries. The Outlook logo, Oncobiologics logo and other trademarks or service marks of Outlook Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in this report are the property of Outlook Therapeutics, Inc. This report also contains registered marks, trademarks and trade names of other companies. All other trademarks, registered marks and trade names appearing in this report are the property of their respective holders.
Convenience translations between Swiss Francs, or CHF, and U.S. dollars provided herein are based on the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in foreign currencies as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on September 28, 2018, or CHF 0.9813 = $1.00. We do not represent that CHF were, could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars at such rate or at any other rate.
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. All statements other than statements of historical facts are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of these provisions, including those relating to future events or our future financial performance and financial guidance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “project,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “intend,” “continue,” the negative of terms like these or other comparable terminology, in connection with any discussion of future operating or financial performance. These statements are only predictions. All forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. Any or all of our forward-looking statements in this document may turn out to be wrong. Actual events or results may differ materially. Our forward-looking statements can be affected by inaccurate assumptions we might make or by known or unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. We discuss many of these risks, uncertainties and other factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in greater detail under the heading “Item 1A — Risk Factors.” We caution investors that our business and financial performance are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K also contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.
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PART I
Item 1.   Business
Overview
We are a late clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing ONS-5010, a complex, technically challenging and commercially attractive monoclonal antibody, or mAb, for various ophthalmic indications. Our goal is to launch ONS-5010 as the first, and only, approved bevacizumab in the United States, Europe, Japan and other markets for the treatment of wet age related macular degeneration, or wet AMD, diabetic macular edema, or DME, and branch retinal vein occlusion, or BRVO.
ONS-5010 is an innovative mAb therapeutic product candidate currently enrolling patients in a clinical trial outside the United States designed to serve as the first of two adequate and well controlled studies evaluating ONS-5010 as a treatment for wet AMD. We plan to submit an investigational new drug, or IND, application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in the first quarter of calendar 2019. The U.S. portion of the second study is also expected to begin at that time. Our ONS-5010 wet AMD clinical program was reviewed at a successful end of Phase 2 meeting with the FDA conducted in 2018. If the program is successful, it will support our plans to submit for regulatory approval in multiple markets in 2020, including the United States, Europe and Japan. Because there are no approved bevacizumab products for the treatment of retinal diseases in such major markets, we are developing ONS-5010 as an innovative therapy and not using the biosimilar drug development pathway. If approved, we believe ONS-5010 has potential to mitigate risks associated with off-label compounding of Avastin or other drugs. Off-label compounding of Avastin is currently estimated to account for approximately 50% of all wet AMD prescriptions in the United States.
Separately, we have advanced two biosimilar product candidates through Phase 1 clinical trials and into preparations for Phase 3 clinical trials: ONS-3010, a biosimilar to adalimumab (Humira), and ONS-1045, a biosimilar to bevacizumab (Avastin). We only plan to further advance ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in major markets, including the United States, upon entering into a license or co-development agreement with a partner in the major markets. The emerging markets rights to these product candidates have been licensed to third parties for development in those markets. At this time, ONS-5010 is our only product candidate in active development.
Our Strategy
Our goal is to launch ONS-5010 as the first, and only, approved bevacizumab for ophthalmic use in the United States, Europe, Japan and other markets. In order to achieve this goal, we have adopted a streamlined clinical and regulatory strategy to quickly and efficiently complete the process required to submit a Biologics License Application, or BLA, with the FDA at the earliest opportunity. The key elements of our strategy include:

Leveraging the recently added ophthalmic drug development and commercialization expertise of our leadership team.   We recently appointed a Chief Operating Officer and a Chief Commercial Officer with extensive expertise in developing and commercializing treatments for retinal diseases, such as wet AMD. We intend to leverage their collective experience to further the development of, and develop an optimal commercial strategy for, ONS-5010.

Engaging with regulatory agencies to establish clear guidelines for potential approval.   We have continued our approach to work closely with regulatory authorities to develop and conduct clinical trials that we believe will appropriately support approval of our product candidates if our clinical trials are successful. We conducted a successful end of Phase 2 meeting with the FDA for ONS-5010, and expect to submit an IND in the first quarter of 2019. As an ophthalmic formulation of Avastin, we believe ONS-5010 has a well defined regulatory pathway.

Conducting and efficiently executing adequate and well-controlled clinical trials inside and outside of the United States to support potential approval.   We have designed our ONS-5010 clinical program
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to take advantage of reduced costs for clinical trials conducted outside of the United States. We intend to further this strategy, as appropriate, in a manner that will support a BLA submission in the United States at the earliest opportunity for ONS-5010.

Reducing and managing costs to minimize additional investment to complete our development programs.   We have made the strategic decision to outsource the commercial manufacturing and future clinical trial supply manufacturing for our product candidates. This decision is expected to significantly reduce future overhead costs not directly related to our ONS-5010 program.
Our Product Candidate Portfolio
Our product candidate portfolio includes our lead product candidate, ONS-5010, which we are actively developing, as well as our biosimilar product candidates, which we only plan to further advance, upon entering into a license or co-development agreement with a partner in the major markets. We refer to these legacy biosimilar product candidates as our inactive development portfolio.
Active Development Portfolio
ONS-5010 — Bevacizumab for Ophthalmic Use
ONS-5010 is a proprietary ophthalmic formulation of bevacizumab to be administered as an intravitreal, or IVT, injection for the treatment of wet AMD and other retina diseases. Bevacizumab is a full length humanized anti- vascular endothelial growth factor, or VEGF, antibody that inhibits VEGF and associated angiogenic activity. Our proprietary ophthalmic bevacizumab product candidate, ONS-5010, is an anti-VEGF recombinant humanized mAb formulated as a single use vial for IVT injection. By inhibiting the VEGF receptor from binding, bevacizumab prevents the growth of abnormal tumor blood vessels beneath the retina.
Previously, ONS-5010 was being developed by us as a biosimilar (ONS-1045) of the cancer drug Avastin for use in oncology indications. In the ONS-1045 program, our bevacizumab met the primary and secondary endpoints in a three-arm single-dose pharmacokinetic, or PK, Phase 1 clinical trial (see “— Inactive Development Portfolio — ONS-1045 — Bevacizumab (Avastin) Biosimilar”). All of the PK endpoints met the bioequivalency criteria of the geometric mean ratios within 90% confidence interval of 80-125% when compared to both U.S.- and E.U.-sourced Avastin reference products. We are developing ONS-5010 as an innovative therapy and not using the biosimilar drug development pathway. The following figure demonstrates the concentration-time profile of ONS-1045, U.S.-licensed Avastin, and E.U.-licensed Avastin as the mean. The vertical line at time zero denotes dosing. These results suggest a high degree of similarity among the three products.
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Comparative Potency of ONS-1045 versus Avastin (U.S. and E.U.)
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Market Opportunity
Age related macular degeneration, or AMD, is a common eye condition and a leading cause of vision loss among people age 50 and older. Wet AMD is a form of  “late stage” AMD, and is also called neovascular AMD. In wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels grow underneath the retina. These vessels can leak fluid and blood, which may lead to swelling and damage of the macula causing vision loss. With wet AMD, abnormally high levels of VEGF are secreted in the eyes. VEGF is a protein that promotes the growth of new abnormal blood vessels. Anti-VEGF injection therapy blocks this growth. Since the advent of anti-VEGF therapy, it has become the standard of care treatment option within the retina community, globally. Wet AMD is a significant disease worldwide, with an estimated prevalence of over 2.8 million patients diagnosed in the United States, top five European countries and Japan alone in 2018 (GlobalData). Annual revenue from anti-VEGFs (Avastin, Lucentis, Eylea and Macugen) is estimated to exceed $9.1 billion in wet AMD, DME and BRVO in 2018 (GlobalData). Although bevacizumab is not currently approved by the FDA for use in treating wet AMD, it is believed that bevacizumab currently accounts for approximately 50% of all wet AMD prescriptions in the United States. If approved, we believe ONS-5010 has potential to mitigate risks associated with off-label compounding of Avastin or other drugs. Off-label compounding of Avastin is currently estimated to account for approximately 50% of all wet AMD prescriptions in the United States. If approved, we anticipate seeking to promote use of ONS-5010 rather than compounded Avastin or other drugs.
DME is caused by a complication of diabetes called diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and the leading cause of irreversible blindness in working age Americans. Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes and is caused by ongoing damage to the small blood vessels of the retina. The leakage of fluid into the retina may lead to swelling of the surrounding tissue, including the macula. DME is the most common cause of vision loss in people with diabetic retinopathy. DME can occur at any stage of diabetic retinopathy, although it is more likely to occur in later stages of the disease. There were approximately 1.0 million patients with DME in the United States, top five European countries and Japan alone in 2018 (GlobalData).
In BRVO, retinal vein occlusions occur when there is a blockage of veins carrying blood with needed oxygen and nutrients away from the nerve cells in the retina. A blockage in the main vein of the retina is referred to as a central retinal vein occlusion, or CRVO, while a blockage in a smaller vein is called a branch retinal vein
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occlusion, or BRVO. Per the American Academy of Ophthalmology, retinal vein occlusions are the second most common retinal vascular disorder after diabetic retinopathy. There were an estimated 0.3 million patients with BRVO in the United States, top five European countries and Japan alone in 2018 (GlobalData).
Clinical Development Status
ONS-5010 is currently enrolling patients in an ex-U.S. clinical trial for wet AMD. This first clinical study for ONS-5010 is designed to serve as the first of two adequate and well controlled studies for wet AMD. The second adequate and well controlled study is currently being planned and is expected to begin enrolling patients in the United States in the first quarter of 2019 upon the submission of an IND application with the FDA. Our wet AMD clinical program was reviewed at a successful end of Phase 2 meeting held with the FDA earlier in 2018. If the program is successful, it will support our plans to submit for regulatory approval in multiple markets in 2020, including the United States, Europe and Japan. We currently expect to report top line data from the first study in the first quarter of 2020, and top line data from the second study in the third quarter of 2020, and submit a BLA in the fourth quarter of 2020.
In addition to the wet AMD clinical program for ONS-5010, we are also planning to begin enrolling patients in clinical trials for both DME and BRVO in the second half of 2019.
Inactive Development Portfolio
ONS-3010 — Adalimumab (Humira) Biosimilar
Humira, the reference product for ONS-3010, is a subcutaneous injectable mAb that binds to tumor necrosis factor alpha, or TNFα. TNFα belongs to a family of pro-inflammatory cytokines, or soluble protein mediators, that are key initiators of immune-mediated inflammation in many different diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several biologic agents, including Humira, have been developed to inhibit the inflammatory activity of TNFs in the context of these diseases and are collectively referred to as the anti-TNF class of therapeutics.
We have successfully completed a randomized, double-blind, single-dose and single-center Phase 1 clinical trial comparing ONS-3010 to Humira in 198 subjects receiving a 40 mg dose in three treatment arms: ONS-3010, U.S.-Humira and E.U.-Humira. This Phase 1 clinical trial was performed at the Center for Human Drug Research in Leiden, The Netherlands under the auspices of the Stichting Beoordeling Ethiek Biomedisch Onderzoek. In this trial, ONS-3010 met its primary and secondary endpoints, demonstrating a similar PK profile, as well as an immunogenicity profile equivalent to both U.S.- and E.U.-Humira across all three treatment arms. ONS-3010 was well tolerated and demonstrated a favorable safety profile, which was similar to the safety profile for both U.S.- and E.U.-Humira, and demonstrated a lower injection site reaction rate than both U.S.- and E.U.-Humira.
Regulatory Status and Development Plan
Prior to commencement of our Phase 1 clinical trial in 2014, we received feedback from both FDA and the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, which provided guidance for the design of the clinical trial and our similarity testing approach. Since completion of the Phase 1 clinical trial, we had additional regulatory meetings with the FDA and the EMA, as well as other national regulatory agencies such as the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, or MHRA, the Swedish Medical Products Agency, and the Canadian regulatory agency, Health Canada to obtain further guidance on the Phase 3 clinical trial design in plaque psoriasis and the general similarity development plan for registration. We have out-licensed all of the emerging markets development rights to third parties. Future development of ONS-3010 as a biosimilar for Humira in the United States and other developed markets will only occur if we secure a development partner or sell those development rights completely.
ONS-1045 — Bevacizumab (Avastin) Biosimilar
Avastin, the reference product for ONS-1045, is a mAb administered by infusion that interferes with tumor growth by binding to VEGF, a protein that stimulates the formation of new blood vessels and is approved for use in the United States, Europe and elsewhere for the treatment of various forms of cancer.
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We have completed a randomized, double-blind, single-dose and single-center Phase 1 clinical trial comparing ONS-1045 to U.S.-licensed Avastin and E.U.-licensed Avastin in 135 subjects. This Phase 1 trial was performed at the Center for Human Drug Research in Leiden, The Netherlands under the auspices of the Stichting Beoordeling Ethiek Biomedisch Onderzoek. PK data, safety and immunogenicity were collected for a total of 98 days after a single 2.0 mg/kg dose. In this trial, ONS-1045 met its primary and secondary endpoints demonstrating a similar PK profile, as well as an immunogenicity profile equivalent to both U.S.- and E.U.-Avastin. Safety was comparable across all three groups. Immunogenicity was low with only one subject in the E.U.-licensed Avastin arm developing an anti-drug antibody, or ADA, at day 98. No neutralizing antibodies were detected in any arm. The results of the Phase 1 trial (shown in the figure included under “— Active Development Portfolio — ONS-5010 — Bevacizumab for Ophthalmic Use”) suggest a high degree of similarity between the three products.
Regulatory Status and Development Plan
Prior to the commencement of the Phase 1 clinical trial in 2015, we received feedback from both the FDA and the EMA, which provided guidance for the clinical trial design and similarity testing approach. We have completed the next series of our regulatory interactions to obtain further guidance on our confirmatory trial design. Based on input from the FDA, EMA, MHRA and the Danish Health and Medicines Agency, we believe we have designed the appropriate confirmatory trial. We have out-licensed all of the emerging markets development rights to third parties. Future development of ONS-1045 as a biosimilar for Avastin in the United States and other developed markets will only occur if we secure a development partner or sell those development rights completely.
Commercialization, Sales and Marketing
We currently own all of the development and commercialization rights to ONS-5010. Our commercialization strategy is to maximize the revenue potential of ONS-5010, which could potentially include marketing it ourselves if approved, as well as seeking and securing licensing opportunities to fund its continued development. If approved, we believe that ONS-5010 will be entitled to 12 years marketing exclusivity against biosimilar competition.
To provide additional resources to fund the ONS-5010 program, we intend to continue to pursue potential strategic collaborations, and partnerships with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies in the United States and other regions for our clinical stage biosimilar assets, or even the outright sale of the development rights of those assets outside of the emerging markets territories previously licensed. Currently, we have a joint participation agreement in place for ONS-3010 with Zhejiang Huahai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., or Huahai, whereby we share post-Phase 1 development costs with Huahai, and proportionately share the revenues from commercialization of ONS-3010 in the United States, Canada, European Union, or E.U., Japan, Australia and New Zealand. We could also be required to form a joint venture to further develop and commercialize ONS-3010 with Huahai in the agreed countries, if so requested by Huahai. However, we do not have any other development and commercialization agreements for the United States or for major ex-U.S. markets, such as the E.U. and Japan.
For emerging markets opportunities, in 2012 and 2013, we established early country-specific partnerships for ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in China with Huahai, in India with IPCA Laboratories Limited, or IPCA, and in Mexico with Laboratories Liomont, S.A. de C.V., or Liomont, and in September 2017 we entered into an agreement with BioLexis Pte. Ltd., or BioLexis (formerly GMS Tenshi Holdings Pte. Limited), our controlling stockholder, providing for the license of rights to ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in emerging markets excluding China, India and Mexico. In each of these smaller ex-U.S. markets, we have identified potential synergies between our partner’s strategy to enter the biologics marketplace and access to our biosimilar development platform. For many of these emerging market opportunities, our partners may be able to take advantage of differing regulatory requirements that could allow us to begin generating sales as early as 2020, before we begin to generate commercial revenue in regions like the United States, the E.U. and Japan. To date, these agreements have collectively provided an aggregate of  $29.0 million in payments as of September 30, 2018.
Collaboration and License Agreements
We enter into collaboration and license agreements in the ordinary course of our business. We have in-licensed certain technology from Selexis SA, or Selexis, that we used to research and develop our product
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candidates. For product candidates developed using the Selexis technology, we enter into commercial license agreements with Selexis that give us rights to commercialize, file investigational new drugs, or INDs and enter into collaborative arrangements with third parties for the further development and commercialization of such biosimilar product candidates.
MTTR — Strategic Partnership Agreement (ONS-5010)
We entered into a strategic partnership agreement with MTTR, LLC, or MTTR, effective February 15, 2018, to advise on regulatory, clinical and commercial strategy and assist in obtaining approval of ONS-5010, our bevacizumab therapeutic product candidate for ophthalmic indications. Under the terms of the agreement, we currently pay MTTR a $58,333 monthly consulting fee. In March 2018, we amended the MTTR agreement and agreed to pay a one-time fee of  $268,553 to MTTR by September 2020 if certain regulatory milestones are achieved earlier than anticipated. Beginning January 2019, the monthly fee increases to $105,208 per month, and then, after launch of ONS-5010 in the United States, to $170,833 per month (the amount of which is reduced by 50% in the event net sales of ONS-5010 are below a certain threshold million per year). We also agreed to pay MTTR a tiered percentage of the net profits of ONS-5010 ranging in the low- to mid-teens, with the ability to credit monthly fees paid to MTTR. Unless earlier terminated, the MTTR Agreement expires, on a country-by-country basis, upon the later of expiration of any regulatory exclusivity in such country and, in certain major market countries, ten years after launch of ONS-5010 in such major market country, and in all other countries in the territory, ten years after launch of ONS-5010 in any country in the territory. Either party may terminate the MTTR Agreement upon the uncured material breach of the agreement by the other party or upon a bankruptcy or insolvency of the other party. Additionally, we are permitted to terminate the MTTR Agreement in the event of certain specified development or commercial failures of ONS-5010 and may terminate either the entire MTTR Agreement or with respect to certain consultants in the event that certain consultants are not able to perform their obligations under the MTTR Agreement and a suitable replacement consultant is not found. Additionally, in the event of a change of control of our company or sale of our rights to ONS-5010, MTTR will be entitled to additional consideration equal to its profit sharing percentage multiplied by the value of the applicable transaction that relates to ONS-5010 (subject to certain adjustments). Our recently appointed Chief Operating Officer has a 16.66% ownership interest in MTTR. For the year ended September 30, 2018, MTTR earned an aggregate of $602,629, which includes monthly consulting fees, expense reimbursement and an initial upfront payment of  $75,000.
Selexis — Humira (ONS-3010), Avastin (ONS-1045) and Herceptin (ONS-1050)
In October 2011, we entered into a research license agreement with Selexis pursuant to which we acquired a non-exclusive license to conduct research internally or in collaboration with third parties to develop recombinant proteins from mammalian cells lines created using the Selexis expression technology, or the Selexis Technology. The original research license had a three-year term, but on October 9, 2014, was extended for an additional three-year term through October 9, 2017. A limited scope license was extended for one more year through October 9, 2018, following which, the research license terminated. As such, we are no longer using the Selexis Technology in our research. We may sublicense our rights with Selexis’ prior written consent but are prohibited from making commercial use of the Selexis Technology or the resultant recombinant proteins comprising our biosimilars in humans, or from filing an IND, absent a commercial license agreement with Selexis covering the particular biosimilar product candidate developed under the research license.
In connection with the entry into the research license, we paid Selexis an initial fee of CHF 100,000 (approximately $0.1 million) and agreed to make additional annual maintenance payments of the same amount for each of the three years that the research license agreement term was extended. As of September 30, 2018, we have paid Selexis an aggregate of approximately $0.6 million under the research license agreement.
Selexis also granted us a non-transferrable option to obtain a perpetual, non-exclusive, worldwide commercial license under the Selexis Technology to manufacture, or have manufactured, a recombinant protein produced by a cell line developed using the Selexis Technology for clinical testing and commercial sale. We exercised this option in April 2013 and entered into three commercial license agreements as described more fully below.
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Commercial License Agreements
On April 11, 2013, following the exercise of our option to enter a commercial license under the Selexis research license, we entered into commercial license agreements with Selexis for each of the ONS-3010, ONS-1045 and ONS-1050 (a biosimilar to Herceptin that we are no longer developing) biosimilar product candidates that were developed under the research license (which agreements were subsequently amended on May 21, 2014). Under the terms of each commercial license agreement, we acquired a non-exclusive worldwide license under the Selexis Technology to use the cell lines developed under the research license and related materials, to manufacture and commercialize licensed and final products, with a limited right to sublicense.
We were required to pay an upfront licensing fee of CHF 65,000 (approximately $0.1 million) to Selexis for each commercial license and also agreed to pay up to CHF 365,000 (approximately $0.4 million) in milestone payments for each licensed product. In addition, we are required to pay a single-digit royalty on a final product-by-final product and country-by-country basis, based on worldwide net sales of such final products by us or any of our affiliates or sublicensees during the royalty term. The royalty term for each final product in each country is the period commencing from the first commercial sale of the applicable final product in the applicable country and ending on the expiration of the specified patent coverage. At any time during the term, we have the right to terminate our royalty payment obligation by providing written notice to Selexis and paying Selexis a royalty termination fee of CHF 1,750,000 (approximately $1.8 million). As of September 30, 2018, we have paid Selexis an aggregate of approximately $0.4 million under the commercial license agreements.
Each of our commercial agreements with Selexis will expire in its entirety upon the expiration of all applicable Selexis patent rights. The licensed patent rights consist of two patent families. The first patent family relates to methods of transferring cells, and is filed in the United States, Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and Singapore. This patent family will begin to expire worldwide in 2022. The second patent family claims DNA compositions of matter useful for having protein production increasing activity. This patent family is filed in the United States, Australia, Canada, China, Europe, Hong Kong, Israel, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Singapore and South Africa. This patent family will begin to expire worldwide in 2025. Either party may terminate the related agreement in the event of an uncured material breach by the other party or in the event the other party becomes subject to specified bankruptcy, winding up or similar circumstances.
Either party may also terminate the related agreement under designated circumstances if the Selexis Technology infringes third-party intellectual property rights. In addition, we have the right to terminate each of the commercial agreements at any time for our convenience; however, with respect to the agreements relating to ONS-3010 and ONS-1045, this right is subject to Liomont’s consent pursuant to a corresponding letter we executed in conjunction with the standby agreement entered into between Selexis and Liomont on November 11, 2014. The standby agreement permits Liomont to assume the license under the applicable commercial agreement for Mexico upon specified triggering events involving our bankruptcy, insolvency or similar circumstances.
Ex-U.S. Collaboration and License Agreements
Aside from our joint participation agreement in place for ONS-3010 with Huahai, whereby we agreed to share post-Phase 1 clinical development costs, and proportionately share the revenues from commercialization of ONS-3010 in the United States, Canada, E.U. and Japan, among other markets, and under which we could be required to form a joint venture with Huahai for ONS-3010 if so requested by Huahai, we do not have any commercial license or development agreements for the United States or for major ex-U.S. markets, such as the E.U. or Japan. We currently have collaboration and license agreements for smaller ex-U.S. markets and, collectively, such agreements have provided an aggregate of  $29.0 million in payments as of September 30, 2018 for our most advanced biosimilar product candidates. Our contracts include agreements with IPCA (for ONS-3010, ONS-1045 and ONS-1050 in India and other regional markets), Liomont (for ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in Mexico), Huahai (for ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in China) and BioLexis (for ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in emerging markets excluding China, India and Mexico). Our arrangements with these partners generally include a strategic license for a defined territory for agreed biosimilar product candidates, and may also include agreements to assist with research and
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development to assist our contract counterparty in establishing their own mAb research, development and manufacturing capabilities. Under our existing strategic licensing agreements, we generally received an upfront payment upon execution, and have the ability to earn additional regular milestone payments and the right to receive royalties (generally a mid-single digit to low-teens percentage rate) based on net sales in the agreed territory. Our existing agreements to assist with research and development also included an upfront payment upon execution, and we have the ability to earn additional regular milestone payments, and the right to receive royalties (generally a mid-single digit to low-teens percentage rate) based on net sales in the agreed territory.
Generally, our agreements expire on a product-by-product basis on the date of the expiration of the royalty revenue term for all products in the territory. The royalty revenue term is 10 years from the date of first commercial sale and any renewal is subject to good faith negotiation. The license term for the agreed territory is perpetual. Either party may terminate the agreement in its entirety or with respect to a particular product if the other party materially breaches the agreement, subject to specified notice and cure periods. In addition, we have the right to terminate the agreement in connection with any interference, opposition or challenge of our patent rights. If the agreement is terminated due to our breach, our contract counterparty is generally free to use all applicable technology and know-how that we have provided under the agreement.
As noted above, our collaboration agreements with Huahai also includes a joint participation agreement, which provides for the co-funding of development of ONS-3010 in the United States, Canada, E.U., Japan, Australia and New Zealand and the proportionate sharing of the revenues from commercialization of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries, and also provides for the formation of a joint venture with Huahai to further develop and commercialize ONS-3010 with Huahai in the agreed countries, if so requested by Huahai.
In the event Huahai funds its proportionate share of development costs incurred after completion of the “Phase-3 Ready Package,” Huahai would be entitled to retain its 51% value ownership, with us entitled to retain our 49% value ownership, of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries. Similarly, revenues from the commercialization of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries (including major markets such as the United States and the E.U., among others), would also be shared based on such proportional ownership interests. In the event that Huahai does not fund its proportionate share of such development costs, the joint participation agreement provides for a proportionate adjustment to our respective value ownership interests based on our respective investments in such development costs, which would increase our value ownership interest in ONS-3010.
Throughout the term of the joint participation agreement, we and our affiliates are prohibited from, directly or indirectly, conducting or having conducted or funding any discovery, research, development, regulatory, manufacturing or commercialization activity, alone or in collaboration with a third party, of any biosimilar product having the same reference product as the ONS-3010 compound or corresponding products, for use in the United States, Canada, E.U., Japan, Australia and New Zealand, other than ONS-3010 with Huahai pursuant to the joint participation agreement.
Unless terminated early upon mutual agreement of the parties, or due to a material breach of either party that is uncured, the joint participation agreement will terminate upon entry into a mutually acceptable collaboration agreement between us and Huahai for ongoing development and commercialization of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries, or we and Huahai enter into an agreed license with a third party for such ongoing development and commercialization of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries. If the joint participation agreement is terminated for cause due to our breach, we could be required to refund Huahai any amounts funded by Huahai to develop ONS-3010, as well as pay Huahai a 6% royalty on net sales made by us or an affiliate, as well as 25% of revenues we receive from a sublicensee for commercial sales of ONS-3010 until the aggregate of such payments is equal to 10 times the amount Huahai funded for the development of ONS-3010.
Furthermore, if we were to file a voluntary petition in bankruptcy, or have an involuntary petition filed that we could not dismiss within 120 days, then Huahai would be granted an exclusive license to continue the development and commercialization of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries.
As of September 30, 2018, we have received an aggregate of  $5.0 million of payments from IPCA under our various agreements, an aggregate of  $3.0 million of payments from Liomont under our various agreements,
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an aggregate of  $16.0 million of payments from Huahai under our various agreements, $10.0 million of which were pursuant to the joint participation agreement and an aggregate of  $5.0 million from BioLexis under our joint development and licensing agreement.
Competition
Competition in the area of pharmaceutical research and development is intense and significantly depends on scientific and technological factors. These factors include the availability of patent and other protection for technology and products, the ability to commercialize technological developments and the ability to obtain regulatory approval for testing, manufacturing and marketing. Our competitors include major pharmaceutical and specialized biotechnology companies, many of which have financial, technical and marketing resources significantly greater than ours. In addition, many biotechnology companies have formed collaborations with large, established companies to support research, development and commercialization of products that may be competitive with ours. Academic institutions, governmental agencies and other public and private research organizations are also conducting research activities and seeking patent protection and may commercialize products on their own or through joint ventures. We are aware of certain other products manufactured or under development by competitors that are used for the treatment of the health conditions that we have targeted for product development. We can provide no assurance that developments by others will not render our technology obsolete, noncompetitive or harm our development strategy, that we will be able to keep pace with new technological developments or that our technology will be able to supplant established products and methodologies in the therapeutic areas that are targeted by us. The foregoing factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. These companies, as well as academic institutions, governmental agencies and private research organizations, also compete with us in recruiting and retaining highly qualified scientific personnel and consultants.
We will encounter competition from existing firms that offer competitive solutions in ocular diseases. These competitive companies could develop products that are superior to, or have greater market acceptance, than the products being developed by us. We will have to compete against other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies with greater market recognition and greater financial, marketing and other resources.
Wet AMD Market
AMD is a medical condition that usually affects older adults and generally results in a loss of vision. AMD occurs in “dry” (non-exudative) and “wet” (exudative) forms. Wet AMD is the advanced form of macular degeneration that involves the formation of abnormal and leaky blood vessels in the back of the eye behind the retina, through a process known as choroidal neovascularization. While the wet form accounts for approximately 15% of all AMD cases, according to NEI, it is responsible for 90% of severe vision loss associated with AMD. NEI also claims that the prevalence of wet AMD among adults 40 years or older in the United States is estimated at approximately 1.75 million people. In addition, more than 200,000 new cases are diagnosed annually in North America.
Competitive Landscape in Wet AMD
The current FDA approved market leaders for the treatment of wet AMD are VEGF inhibitors, including Lucentis, Eylea and off-label Avastin. Annual revenue (worldwide) is estimated to be approximately $9.1 billion in 2018 for anti-VEGF therapeutics (GlobalData). Off-label use of Avastin is estimated to be approximately 50% of the overall market in the United States. Avastin, Lucentis, and Eylea are administered via frequent intravitreal injections directly into the eye. We are developing ONS-5010 as a replacement for the use of off-label Avastin in the treatment of wet AMD, as well as DME and BRVO.
In addition to the other treatments used in patients with wet AMD, there are various other companies with product candidates in Phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials for the treatment of wet AMD. Programs currently in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials include, but are not limited to:

Abicipar Pegol, a VEGF targeting DARPin molecule being developed by Allergan plc;

RTH258, an anti-VEGF agent being developed by Novartis International AG;
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X-82, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor being developed by Tyrogenex, Inc.;

ALG-1001, an integrin targeting peptide being developed by Allegro Ophthalmics LLC;

Zimura, a C-3 inhibitor being developed by Ophthotech Corporation;

RG7716, a bispecific antibody to both VEGF-A and Ang2 being developed by F. Hoffman-La Roche AG;

OPT-302, an inhibitor of VEGF-C and VEGF-D being developed by Opthea Limited; and

PAN-90806, a selective inhibitor of VEGF being developed by PanOptica Inc.
All of these product candidates in clinical development, with the exception of X-82 and PAN-90806, use an intravitreal route of administration much like the current standards of care. We believe that ONS-5010 has potential competitive advantages through the familiarity of patients and physicians in using off-label Avastin. We also believe we have reduced the risk in our clinical program by leveraging our prior work in developing a biosmilar drug product candidate for Avastin as a treatment for cancer. However, clinical trial data from other clinical programs may negatively impact our ability to garner future financing or business collaborations, combinations or transactions with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.
Intellectual Property
Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to avoid infringing the proprietary rights of third parties, our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our technologies where applicable and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. We seek to protect our proprietary technologies by, among other methods, evaluating relevant patents, establishing defensive positions, monitoring E.U. oppositions and pending intellectual property rights, preparing litigation strategies in view of the U.S. legislative framework and filing U.S. and international patent applications on technologies, inventions and improvements that are important to our business. As of September 30, 2018, we own eight pending U.S. non-provisional applications, and 51 pending international applications that were nationalized from eight Patent Cooperation Treaty, or PCT, applications, and one pending U.S. provisional application, which relate to formulations developed for ONS-3010, ONS-5010/ONS-1045 and ONS-1050, methods of antibody purification, methods for purifying antibodies to separate isoforms, methods of use, methods of reducing high molecular weight species, and modulating afucosylated species as well as efficiently determining the amino acid sequence of antibodies. Our first PCT application was nationalized in April 2016 in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Mexico and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these nine applications are expected to expire in 2034, absent any adjustments or extensions. Our second PCT application was nationalized in July 2017 in Europe and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these two applications are expected to expire in 2036, absent any adjustments or extensions. Our third PCT application was nationalized in June 2018 in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, Mexico and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these eight applications are expected to expire in 2036, absent any adjustments or extensions. Our fourth PCT application was nationalized in July 2018 in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, Mexico and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these eight applications are expected to expire in 2037, absent any adjustments or extensions. Our fifth PCT application was nationalized in July 2018 in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, Mexico and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these eight applications are expected to expire in 2037, absent any adjustments or extensions. Our sixth PCT application was nationalized in July 2018 in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, Mexico and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these eight applications are expected to expire in 2037, absent any adjustments or extensions. Our seventh PCT application was nationalized in August 2018 in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, Mexico and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these eight applications are expected to expire in 2037, absent any adjustments or extensions. Our eighth PCT application was nationalized in August 2018 in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, Mexico and the United States. If granted, patents issuing from these eight applications are expected to expire in 2037, absent any adjustments or extensions. Any patents that may eventually issue claiming priority to our provisional patent application are expected to expire in 2039. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our proprietary position.
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The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term of the patents in countries in which they are obtained. In most countries, including the United States, the patent term is generally 20 years from the earliest date of filing a non-provisional patent application in the applicable country. In the United States, a patent’s term may, in certain cases, be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the United States Patent and Trademark Office in examining and granting a patent or may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed over a commonly owned patent or a patent naming a common inventor and having an earlier expiration date.
Regulatory
Government Regulation and Product Approval
The FDA and other regulatory authorities at federal, state, and local levels, as well as in foreign countries, extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, import, export, safety, effectiveness, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, record keeping, approval, advertising, promotion, marketing, post-approval monitoring, and post-approval reporting of biologics such as those we are developing. We, along with third-party contractors, will be required to navigate the various preclinical, clinical and commercial approval requirements of the governing regulatory agencies of the countries in which we wish to conduct studies or seek approval or licensure of our product candidates.
The process required by the FDA before biologic product candidates may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

completion of preclinical laboratory tests and animal studies performed in accordance with the FDA’s current Good Laboratory Practices, or GLP, regulation;

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before clinical trials may begin and must be updated annually or when significant changes are made;

approval by an independent Institutional Review Board, or IRB, or ethics committee at each clinical site before the trial is commenced;

performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety, purity and potency of the proposed biologic product candidate for its intended purpose;

preparation of and submission to the FDA of a BLA after completion of all pivotal clinical trials;

satisfactory completion of an FDA Advisory Committee review, if applicable;

a determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of a BLA to file the application for review;

satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the proposed product is produced to assess compliance with cGMP and to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the biological product’s continued safety, purity and potency, and of selected clinical investigation sites to assess compliance with Good Clinical Practices, or GCP; and

FDA review and approval of the BLA to permit commercial marketing of the product for particular indications for use in the United States.
Preclinical and Clinical Development
Prior to beginning the first clinical trial with a product candidate in the United States, we must submit an IND to the FDA. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational new drug product to humans. The central focus of an IND submission is on the general investigational plan and the protocol(s) for clinical studies. The IND also includes results of animal and in vitro studies assessing the toxicology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the product; chemistry, manufacturing, and controls information; and any available human data or literature to support the use of the investigational product. An IND must become effective before human clinical trials may begin. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA,
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within the 30-day time period, raises safety concerns or questions about the proposed clinical trial. In such a case, the IND may be placed on clinical hold and the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns or questions before the clinical trial can begin. Submission of an IND therefore may or may not result in FDA authorization to begin a clinical trial.
Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with GCPs, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical study. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. A separate submission to the existing IND must be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development and for any subsequent protocol amendments. Furthermore, an independent IRB for each site proposing to conduct the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial and its informed consent form before the clinical trial begins at that site, and must monitor the study until completed. Regulatory authorities, the IRB or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk or that the trial is unlikely to meet its stated objectives. Some studies also include oversight by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical study sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board, which provides authorization for whether or not a study may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the study and may halt the clinical trial if it determines that there is an unacceptable safety risk for subjects or other grounds, such as no demonstration of efficacy. There are also requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical studies and clinical study results to public registries.
For purposes of BLA approval, human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap.

Phase 1 — The investigational product is initially introduced into healthy human subjects or patients with the target disease or condition. These studies are designed to test the safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism and distribution of the investigational product in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness.

Phase 2 — The investigational product is administered to a limited patient population with a specified disease or condition to evaluate the preliminary efficacy, optimal dosages and dosing schedule and to identify possible adverse side effects and safety risks. Multiple Phase 2 clinical trials may be conducted to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more expensive Phase 3 clinical trials.

Phase 3 — The investigational product is administered to an expanded patient population to further evaluate dosage, to provide statistically significant evidence of clinical efficacy and to further test for safety, generally at multiple geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. These clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit ratio of the investigational product and to provide an adequate basis for product approval.
In some cases, the FDA may require, or companies may voluntarily pursue, additional clinical trials after a product is approved to gain more information about the product. These so- called Phase 4 studies may be made a condition to approval of the BLA. Concurrent with clinical trials, companies may complete additional animal studies and develop additional information about the biological characteristics of the product candidate, and must finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final product, or for biologics, the safety, purity and potency. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.
BLA Submission and Review
Assuming successful completion of all required testing in accordance with all applicable regulatory requirements, the results of product development, nonclinical studies and clinical trials are submitted to the
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FDA as part of a BLA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. The BLA must include all relevant data available from pertinent preclinical and clinical studies, including negative or ambiguous results as well as positive findings, together with detailed information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacturing, controls, and proposed labeling, among other things. The submission of a BLA requires payment of a substantial application user fee to FDA, unless a waiver or exemption applies.
Once a BLA has been submitted, the FDA’s goal is to review standard applications within ten months after it accepts the application for filing, or, if the application qualifies for priority review, six months after the FDA accepts the application for filing. In both standard and priority reviews, the review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA reviews a BLA to determine, among other things, whether a product is safe, pure and potent and the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packed, or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued safety, purity and potency. The FDA may convene an advisory committee to provide clinical insight on application review questions. Before approving a BLA, the FDA will typically inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. Additionally, before approving a BLA, the FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical sites to assure compliance with GCP. If the FDA determines that the application, manufacturing process or manufacturing facilities are not acceptable, it will outline the deficiencies in the submission and often will request additional testing or information. Notwithstanding the submission of any requested additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.
After the FDA evaluates a BLA and conducts inspections of manufacturing facilities where the investigational product and/or its drug substance will be produced, the FDA may issue an approval letter or a Complete Response letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response letter will describe all of the deficiencies that the FDA has identified in the BLA, except that where the FDA determines that the data supporting the application are inadequate to support approval, the FDA may issue the Complete Response letter without first conducting required inspections, testing submitted product lots, and/or reviewing proposed labeling. In issuing the Complete Response letter, the FDA may recommend actions that the applicant might take to place the BLA in condition for approval, including requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA may delay or refuse approval of a BLA if applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied, require additional testing or information and/or require post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor safety or efficacy of a product.
If regulatory approval of a product is granted, such approval will be granted for particular indications and may entail limitations on the indicated uses for which such product may be marketed. For example, the FDA may approve the BLA with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, to ensure the benefits of the product outweigh its risks. A REMS is a safety strategy to manage a known or potential serious risk associated with a product and to enable patients to have continued access to such medicines by managing their safe use, and could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. The FDA also may condition approval on, among other things, changes to proposed labeling or the development of adequate controls and specifications. Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with pre- and post-marketing requirements is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace. The FDA may require one or more Phase 4 post-market trials and surveillance to further assess and monitor the product’s safety and effectiveness after commercialization, and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-marketing studies.
Post-Approval Requirements
Any products manufactured or distributed by us pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to record-keeping, reporting of adverse experiences, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, and advertising and promotion of the product. After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new
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indications or other labeling claims, are subject to prior FDA review and approval. There also are continuing user fee requirements, under which FDA assesses an annual program fee for each product identified in an approved BLA. Biologic manufacturers and their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP, which impose certain procedural and documentation requirements upon us and our third-party manufacturers. Changes to the manufacturing process are strictly regulated, and, depending on the significance of the change, may require prior FDA approval before being implemented. FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from cGMP and impose reporting requirements upon us and any third-party manufacturers that we may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain compliance with cGMP and other aspects of regulatory compliance.
The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical studies to assess new safety risks; or imposition of distribution restrictions or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of a product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;

fines, warning letters or holds on post-approval clinical studies;

refusal of the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, or suspension or revocation of existing product approvals;

product seizure or detention, or refusal of the FDA to permit the import or export of products; or

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.
The FDA closely regulates the marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of biologics. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy, purity and potency that are approved by the FDA and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in, among other things, adverse publicity, warning letters, corrective advertising and potential civil and criminal penalties. Physicians may prescribe legally available products for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested by us and approved by the FDA. Such off-label uses are common across medical specialties. Physicians may believe that such off-label uses are the best treatment for many patients in varied circumstances. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments. The FDA does, however, restrict manufacturer’s communications on the subject of off-label use of their products.
Biosimilars and Reference Product Exclusivity
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively, the ACA, signed into law in 2010, includes a subtitle called the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, which created an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-approved reference biological product. To date, a number of biosimilars have been licensed under the BPCIA, and numerous biosimilars have been approved in Europe. The FDA has issued several guidance documents outlining an approach to review and approval of biosimilars.
Biosimilarity, which requires that there be no clinically meaningful differences between the biological product and the reference product in terms of safety, purity, and potency, can be shown through analytical studies, animal studies, and a clinical study or studies. Interchangeability requires that a product is biosimilar to the reference product and the product must demonstrate that it can be expected to produce the same clinical results as the reference product in any given patient and, for products that are administered
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multiple times to an individual, the biologic and the reference biologic may be alternated or switched after one has been previously administered without increasing safety risks or risks of diminished efficacy relative to exclusive use of the reference biologic. Complexities associated with the larger, and often more complex, structures of biological products, as well as the processes by which such products are manufactured, pose significant hurdles to implementation of the abbreviated approval pathway that are still being worked out by the FDA.
Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product may not be submitted to the FDA until four years following the date that the reference product was first licensed by the FDA. In addition, the approval of a biosimilar product may not be made effective by the FDA until 12 years from the date on which the reference product was first licensed. During this 12-year period of exclusivity, another company may still market a competing version of the reference product if the FDA approves a full BLA for the competing product containing that applicant’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity and potency of its product. The BPCIA also created certain exclusivity periods for biosimilars approved as interchangeable products.
Other U.S. Healthcare Laws and Compliance Requirements
Although we currently do not have any products on the market, our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, principal investigators, consultants, customers and third-party payors expose us to broadly applicable healthcare regulation and enforcement by the federal government and the states and foreign governments in which we conduct our business. These laws include, without limitation, state and federal anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, privacy and security and physician sunshine laws and regulations.
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly and willfully offering, soliciting, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, either to induce or award the referral of an individual, for an item or service or the purchasing, recommending or ordering of a good or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute is subject to evolving interpretations. In the past, the government has enforced the federal Anti-Kickback Statute to reach large settlements with healthcare companies based on, in certain cases, sham consulting and other financial arrangements with physicians. Further, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively, the Affordable Care Act, among other things, amends the intent requirement of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the criminal statutes governing healthcare fraud. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of these statutes or specific intent to violate them in order to commit a violation. In addition, the Affordable Care Act provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act or federal civil monetary penalties statute.
Additionally, the federal false claims and civil monetary penalties laws, including the civil False Claims Act prohibit, among other things, knowingly presenting or causing the presentation of a false, fictitious or fraudulent claim for payment to the U.S. government, or making a false statement to avoid, decrease, or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Actions under the civil False Claims Act may be brought by the Attorney General or as a qui tam action by a private individual in the name of the government. The federal government has used the civil False Claims Act, and the accompanying threat of significant liability, in its investigation and prosecution of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies throughout the country, for example, in connection with the promotion of products for unapproved uses and other illegal sales and marketing practices.
The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.
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HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their implementing regulations, imposes requirements regarding the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information, including mandatory contractual terms, for covered entities, or certain healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, and their business associates that provide services to the covered entity that involve individually identifiable health information. HITECH also increased the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against covered entities and business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce HIPAA.
In addition, there has been a recent trend of increased federal and state regulation of payments made to physicians and other healthcare providers. The Affordable Care Act, among other things, via the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, imposes annual reporting requirements on certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics, and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, for payments made by them to physicians and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members.
Certain states also impose restrictions on pharmaceutical manufacturer marketing practices and/or require the tracking and reporting of gifts, compensation and other remuneration to physicians. Certain states and local governments require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives. Additionally, analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third party payors, including private insurers. State laws may also apply that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, as well as state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.
The shifting commercial compliance environment and the need to build and maintain robust systems to comply with different compliance and/or reporting requirements in multiple jurisdictions increase the possibility that a healthcare company may violate one or more of the requirements. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including, without limitation, civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs and individual imprisonment, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.
Healthcare Reform
The Affordable Care Act has had, and is expected to continue to have, a significant impact on the healthcare industry. The Affordable Care Act was designed to expand coverage for the uninsured while at the same time containing overall healthcare costs. With regard to pharmaceutical products, among other things, the Affordable Care Act expanded and increased industry rebates for drugs covered under Medicaid programs and made changes to the coverage requirements under the Medicare prescription drug benefit. There have been judicial, Congressional and executive branch challenges to certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act, and we expect there will be additional challenges and amendments to the Affordable Care Act in the future. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, it has enacted laws that modify certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act such as removing or delaying penalties, starting January 1, 2019, for not complying with the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate to carry health insurance, delaying the implementation of certain Affordable Care Act-mandated fees, and increasing the point-of-sale discount that is owed by pharmaceutical manufacturers who participate in Medicare Part D. We continue to evaluate the effect that the Affordable Care Act has on our business. Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. For example, through the process created by the Budget Control Act of 2011, there are automatic reductions of Medicare payments to providers up to 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in April 2013
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and, due to subsequent legislative amendments, will remain in effect through 2027 unless additional Congressional action is taken. In January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several providers. In addition, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which have resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. For example, the current presidential administration released a “Blueprint” to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contains additional proposals to increase manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products and reduce the out of pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers. Although a number of these, and other proposed measures will require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, Congress and the executive branch have each indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs. In the coming years, additional legislative and regulatory changes could be made to governmental health programs that could significantly impact pharmaceutical companies and the success of our product candidates. The Affordable Care Act, as well as other federal, state and foreign healthcare reform measures that have been and may be adopted in the future, could harm our future revenues.
International Regulation
In addition to regulations in the United States, foreign regulations also govern clinical trials, commercial sales and distribution of product candidates within their jurisdiction. The regulatory approval process varies from country to country and the time to approval may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. In the European Union, the approval of a biosimilar for marketing is based on an opinion issued by the European Medicines Agency and a decision issued by the European Commission. However, substitution of a biosimilar for the innovator is a decision that is made at the local (national) level on a country-by-country basis. Additionally, a number of European countries do not permit the automatic substitution of biosimilars for the reference product. Many countries also have published their own legislation outlining a regulatory pathway for the development and approval of biosimilars. In some cases, countries have either adopted European guidance or are following guidance issued by the World Health Organization. Although similarities are apparent across these various regulatory guidance, there is also the potential for additional country-specific requirements.
Pharmaceutical Coverage, Pricing and Reimbursement
In the United States and other countries, sales of any products for which we receive regulatory approval for commercial sale will depend in part on the availability of coverage and the adequacy of reimbursement from third-party payors, including government health administrative authorities, managed care organizations, private health insurers and other organizations. Third-party payors are increasingly examining the medical necessity and cost effectiveness of drug products and services in addition to safety and efficacy and, accordingly, significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly drug products. A payor’s decision to provide coverage for a drug product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Further, there is no uniform policy for coverage and reimbursement in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates, but also have their own methods and approval process apart from Medicare determinations. As such, one payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug product does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the drug product. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available to enable us to realize an appropriate return on our investment in product development. Obtaining and maintaining adequate reimbursement for our product candidates, once approved, may be difficult. We may be required to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to justify coverage and reimbursement or the level of reimbursement compared to existing approved biologics and other therapies. There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs in the United States, and coverage may be more limited than the indications for which the product is approved by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. In addition, the
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U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have continued implementing cost-containment programs, including price controls, restrictions on coverage and reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products. Adoption of price controls and cost-containment measures and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures could further limit our net revenue and results. Decreases in third-party reimbursement for our product candidates or a decision by a third-party payor to not cover our product candidates could reduce physician utilization of our products and have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations and financial condition.
Employees
As of November 30, 2018, we had 56 full-time employees, 37 of whom were primarily engaged in research and development activities and seven of whom had an M.D. or Ph.D. degree. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
Facilities
We occupy approximately 66,000 square feet of office, manufacturing and laboratory space in Cranbury, New Jersey, under a lease, as amended, that expires in February 2028. In September 2018, we terminated the lease for approximately 82,000 square feet of additional office and laboratory space in Cranbury, New Jersey, for approximately $5.8 million in the aggregate.
Corporate Information
We initially incorporated in January 2010 in New Jersey as Oncobiologics, Inc., and in October 2015, we reincorporated in Delaware by merging with and into a Delaware corporation. In November 2018, we changed our name to Outlook Therapeutics, Inc. Our headquarters are located at 7 Clarke Drive, Cranbury, New Jersey, 08512, and our telephone number at that location is (609) 619-3990. Our website address is www.outlooktherapeutics.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Item 1A.   Risk Factors
You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected. The risks described below are not the only risks facing the Company. Risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or prospects.
Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Capital Requirements
We have a limited operating history, have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations since our inception and expect to continue to incur significant losses and negative cash flows from operations for at least the next 12 months.
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history and we have incurred net losses in each year since our inception in January 5, 2010, including net losses of  $30.1 million and $38.8 million for the years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
We have devoted substantially all of our financial resources to identify, develop and manufacture our product candidates, including conducting, among other things, analytical characterization, process development and manufacture, formulation and clinical trials, regulatory filing and communication activities and providing general and administrative support for these operations. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities and debt financings, as well as to a limited degree, payments under our co-development and license agreements with Zhejiang Huahai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., or Huahai, Laboratorios Liomont, S.A. de C.V., or Liomont, IPCA Laboratories Limited, or IPCA, and BioLexis Pte. Ltd., or BioLexis (formerly GMS Tenshi Holdings Pte, Limited). The amount of our future net losses will depend, in part, on our ability to generate revenue from the rate of our future expenditures and our ability to obtain funding through equity or debt financing or strategic licensing or co-development collaborations.
We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for at least the next 12 months. We anticipate that our expenses may increase substantially if and as we:

continue the clinical development of our lead product candidate, ONS-5010;

advance ONS-5010 into additional clinical trials;

change or add contract manufacturing providers, clinical research service providers, testing laboratories, device suppliers, legal service providers or other vendors or suppliers;

seek regulatory and marketing approvals for ONS-5010 in the United States and other markets if we successfully complete clinical trials;

establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval;

seek to identify, assess, acquire or develop other product candidates that may be complementary to ONS-5010;

make upfront, milestone, royalty or other payments under any license agreements;

seek to create, maintain, protect and expand our intellectual property portfolio;

engage in litigation, including patent litigation, with respect to our product candidates;

seek to attract and retain skilled personnel;

create additional infrastructure to support our operations as a public company and any future commercialization efforts; and
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experience any delays or encounter issues with any of the above, including but not limited to failed clinical trials, conflicting results, safety issues or regulatory challenges that may require longer follow-up of existing studies, additional major studies or additional supportive studies in order to pursue marketing approval.
Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of the company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.
Our independent registered public accounting firm has expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
As described in their audit report, our auditors have included an explanatory paragraph that states that we have incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and have an accumulated deficit at September 30, 2018 of $216.3 million, $13.5 million of senior secured notes that may become due in fiscal 2019 and $4.6 million of unsecured indebtedness, $1.0 million of which is due on demand, and $3.6 million of which matures December 22, 2018. These matters raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. If we cannot continue as a viable entity, our securityholders may lose some or all of their investment in our company.
We have never generated any revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
Although we have received upfront and milestone payments from our license and collaboration agreements, we have no products approved for commercialization and have never generated any revenue from product sales. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends on our ability, alone or with strategic collaboration partners, to successfully complete the development of, and obtain the regulatory and marketing approvals necessary to commercialize, ONS-5010 for the treatment of wet age related macular degeneration, or wet AMD, and our other targeted indications, and as appropriate, any of our other product candidates. We cannot predict when we will begin generating revenue from product sales, as this depends heavily on our success in many areas, including but not limited to:

completing clinical development of ONS-5010 for the treatment of wet AMD and the other targeted indications, and any other product candidates we may develop in the future;

obtaining regulatory and marketing approvals for ONS-5010 and any other product candidates for which we or our partners complete clinical trials;

securing a manufacturing partner for ONS-5010 and any approved product candidates to support clinical development, regulatory requirements and the market demand for any such approved product candidates;

launching and commercializing ONS-5010 and any other product candidates for which we or our partners obtain regulatory and marketing approval;

obtaining third-party coverage and adequate reimbursements for our products;

obtaining market acceptance of ONS-5010 and any other product candidates for which we obtain regulatory and marketing approval as viable treatment options;

negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter;

maintaining, protecting and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how; and

attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.
Even if ONS-5010 or one or more of our other product candidates is approved for commercialization, we anticipate incurring significant costs to commercialize any such product. Our expenses could increase beyond our expectations if we are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, the
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European Medicines Agency, or the EMA, other regulatory agencies, domestic or foreign, or by any unfavorable outcomes in intellectual property litigation filed against us, to change our manufacturing processes or assays or to perform clinical, preclinical or other types of studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. In cases where we are successful in obtaining regulatory approvals to market one or more of our product candidates, our revenue will be dependent, in part, upon:

the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval;

the number of competitors in such markets;

the market acceptance of our products;

the accepted price for the product;

the ability to obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for the product;

the quality and performance of our products, including the relative safety and efficacy; and

whether we own, or have partnered, the commercial rights for that territory.
If the market for ONS-5010 or any other product candidates we may develop in the future, or our share of that market, is not as large as we expect, the number of indications approved by regulatory authorities is narrower than we expect or the target population for treatment is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenue from sales of such products to become profitable. If we are unable to successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for ONS-5010, our business will be harmed.
We will need to raise substantial additional funding to complete the development of our product candidate pipeline. This additional funding may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. Failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate our product development efforts or other operations.
Developing product candidates is an expensive, risky and lengthy process. We are currently advancing ONS-5010 through clinical development, but have decided to secure additional development partners before advancing our biosimilar product candidates into and through clinical trials. Our expenses may increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue the research and development of, continue and initiate clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for, ONS-5010.
As of September 30, 2018, our cash balance was $1.7 million. We expect that our current cash resources along with the additional funds from our November 2018 private placement and anticipated proceeds from the sale of New Jersey net operating losses, or NOLs and research and development credits, will be sufficient to fund our operations into June 2019, excluding any unscheduled repayment of debt. We will require substantial additional capital to complete the clinical development of, obtain regulatory approvals for, and commercialize ONS-5010. However, our operating plan may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned, through public or private equity or debt financings, third-party funding, marketing and distribution arrangements, as well as other collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements, or a combination of these approaches. Even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans, we may seek additional capital if market conditions are favorable or if we have specific strategic considerations.
Any additional fundraising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates. In addition, we cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Moreover, the terms of any financing may negatively impact the holdings or the rights of our stockholders, and the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by us or the possibility of such issuance may cause the market price of our securities to decline. The incurrence of indebtedness could result in increased fixed payment obligations and we may be required to agree to certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. For example, our senior secured notes issued between December 2016 and May 2017 include restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness and pay stockholder dividends, among
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other restrictions. We could also be required to seek funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or otherwise at an earlier stage than would be desirable and we may be required to relinquish rights to some of our technologies or product candidates or otherwise agree to terms unfavorable to us, any of which may harm our business, operating results and prospects. Even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans, we may seek additional capital if market conditions are favorable or for specific strategic considerations. If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we may be required to significantly curtail, delay or discontinue one or more of our development programs or the commercialization of any product candidates. We may also be unable to expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our securityholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity and debt financings, as well as selectively continuing to enter into collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements. We do not currently have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a securityholder. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends, and may be secured by all or a portion of our assets.
If we raise funds by selectively continuing to enter into collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish additional valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves. If we are unable to raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements, we may be required to terminate product development or future commercialization efforts or to cease operations altogether.
Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Our Product Candidates
We are highly dependent on the success of ONS-5010, our only product candidate in active development, and if ONS-5010 does not successfully complete clinical development or receive regulatory approval, or is not successfully commercialized, our business may be harmed.
We currently have no products that are approved for commercial sale and may never be able to develop marketable products. We expect that a substantial portion of our efforts and expenditures in the foreseeable future will be devoted to the advancement of ONS-5010, our only product candidate in active development, through clinical trials and the regulatory approval process, as well as the commercialization of ONS-5010 following regulatory approval, if received. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully complete the necessary clinical trials and/or obtain regulatory approval and develop sufficient commercial capabilities for ONS-5010. Accordingly, our business currently depends heavily on the successful completion of clinical development and subsequent regulatory approval and commercialization of ONS-5010.
We cannot be certain that ONS-5010 will receive regulatory approval, or be successfully commercialized even if we receive regulatory approval in our targeted markets. The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, approval, sale, marketing and distribution of products are, and will remain, subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and other countries that each have differing regulations. We are not permitted to market ONS-5010 in the United States until we receive approval from the FDA, or in any foreign country until we receive the requisite approvals from the appropriate authorities in such countries for marketing authorization.
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There can be no assurance that our ongoing clinical trial of ONS-5010 for wet AMD will produce results sufficient for us to receive regulatory approval. We have not submitted a biologics license application, or BLA, for any product candidate to the FDA or any comparable application to any other regulatory authority. Obtaining approval from the FDA or similar regulatory approval is an extensive, lengthy, expensive and inherently uncertain process, and the FDA or other foreign regulatory authorities may delay, limit or deny approval of ONS-5010 for many reasons, including:

we may not be able to demonstrate that ONS-5010 is effective as a treatment for any of our currently targeted indications to the satisfaction of the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities;

the relevant regulatory authorities may require additional pre-approval studies or clinical trials, which would increase our costs and prolong our development timelines;

the results of our clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required by the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities for marketing approval;

the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities may disagree with the number, design, size, conduct or implementation of our clinical trials;

the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities may not find the data from nonclinical studies or clinical trials sufficient to demonstrate that the clinical and other benefits of these products outweigh their safety risks;

the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data or significance of results from the nonclinical studies and clinical trials of ONS-5010 and any future product candidate, or may require that we conduct additional trials;

the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities may require development of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, or its equivalent, as a condition of approval;

the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities may require additional post-marketing studies, which would be costly;

the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities may identify deficiencies in the manufacturing processes or facilities of our third-party manufacturers; or

the FDA or other relevant regulatory authorities may change their approval policies or adopt new regulations.
Due to our limited resources and access to capital, we have, and will continue to need to, prioritize development of certain product candidates; and these decisions may prove to have been wrong and may harm our business.
Because we have limited resources and access to capital to fund our operations, we must decide which product candidates to pursue and the amount of resources to allocate to each. We are currently focusing only on one active development program, ONS-5010, and are no longer actively developing ONS-3010, ONS-1045 or the other biosimilar product candidates in our pipeline. We currently do not intend to actively develop such biosimilar product candidates absent additional development or licensing partners. Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular product candidates or therapeutic areas may not lead to the development of viable commercial products and may divert resources away from better opportunities. Similarly, our potential decisions to delay, terminate or collaborate with third parties in respect to certain product development programs may also prove not to be optimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. If we make incorrect determinations regarding the market potential of our product candidates or misread trends in the pharmaceutical industry, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
Clinical drug development is a lengthy and expensive process and we may encounter substantial delays in our clinical trials or may fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities.
ONS-5010, our only product candidate in active development, will require extensive clinical testing before we are prepared to submit an application for regulatory approval. Before obtaining marketing approval
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from regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidates, we and our collaboration partners must conduct clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product candidates in humans.
We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing, and our future clinical trials may not be successful. Events that may prevent successful or timely completion of clinical development include but are not limited to:

inability to generate sufficient preclinical, toxicology or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation of human clinical trials;

delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory agencies on study design;

delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and clinical trial sites;

delays in obtaining required IRB approval at each clinical trial site;

imposition of a clinical hold by regulatory agencies, after review of an investigational new drug, or IND, application or amendment or equivalent filing, or an inspection of our clinical trial operations or trial sites, or as a result of adverse events reported during a clinical trial;

delays in recruiting suitable patients to participate in our clinical trials;

difficulty collaborating with patient groups and investigators;

failure by our CROs, other third parties or us to adhere to clinical trial requirements;

failure to perform in accordance with the FDA’s good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements or applicable regulatory guidelines in other countries;

delays in having subjects complete participation in a study or return for post-treatment follow-up, or subjects dropping out of a study;

occurrence of adverse events associated with the product candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits;

changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols;

the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates being greater than we anticipate;

clinical trials of our product candidates producing negative or inconclusive results, which may result in us deciding or regulators requiring us to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs; and

delays in manufacturing, testing, releasing, validating or importing/exporting and/or distributing sufficient stable quantities of our product candidates for use in clinical trials or the inability to do any of the foregoing.
Any inability to successfully complete preclinical studies and clinical development could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenue. In addition, if we make manufacturing or formulation changes to our product candidates, we may need to conduct additional clinical trials to bridge our modified product candidates to earlier versions.
The results of previous clinical trials may not be predictive of future results, and the results of our current and planned clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA, EMA or other foreign regulatory agencies.
Clinical failure can occur at any stage of clinical development. Clinical trials may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we or any of our current and future collaborators may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical or preclinical testing. We will be required to demonstrate with substantial evidence through well controlled clinical trials that our product candidates are as safe and effective for use in a specific patient population before we can seek regulatory approvals for their
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commercial sale. Success in early clinical trials does not mean that future larger registration clinical trials will be successful because product candidates in later-stage clinical trials may fail to demonstrate equivalent safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory agencies despite having progressed through initial clinical trials. Product candidates that have shown promising results in early clinical trials may still fail in subsequent confirmatory clinical trials. Similarly, the outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical industry, including those with greater resources and experience than us, have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after obtaining promising results in earlier clinical trials.
In addition, the design of a clinical trial can determine whether its results will support approval of a product and flaws in the design of a clinical trial may not become apparent until the clinical trial is well advanced. We may be unable to design and execute a clinical trial to support regulatory approval. In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety or efficacy results between different trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including but not limited to changes in trial protocols, differences in size and type of the patient populations, adherence to the dosing regimen and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants.
Further, our product candidates may not be approved even if they achieve their primary endpoints in Phase 3 clinical trials or registration trials. The FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory agencies may disagree with our trial design and our interpretation of data from preclinical studies and clinical trials. In addition, any of these regulatory authorities may change the requirements for the approval of a product candidate even after reviewing and providing comments or advice on a protocol for a Phase 3 clinical trial that has the potential to result in FDA or other agencies’ approval. We initially intend to seek approval for ONS-5010 for the treatment of wet AMD. Any of the regulatory authorities may approve a product candidate for fewer indications than we request or may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials.
Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if granted.
As with most pharmaceutical products, use of our product candidates could be associated with side effects or adverse events, which can vary in severity and frequency. Side effects or adverse events associated with the use of our product candidates may be observed at any time, including in clinical trials or when a product is commercialized. Undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other foreign authorities. Results of our trials could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of side effects, toxicity or other safety issues, and could require us to perform additional studies or halt development or sale of these product candidates or expose us to product liability lawsuits that will harm our business. In such an event, we may be required by regulatory agencies to conduct additional animal or human studies regarding the safety and efficacy of our product candidates that we have not planned or anticipated or our studies could be suspended or terminated, and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of or deny or withdraw approval of our product candidates for any or all targeted indications. There can be no assurance that we will resolve any issues related to any product-related adverse events to the satisfaction of the FDA or any other regulatory agency in a timely manner, if ever, which could harm our business, prospects and financial condition.
Additionally, product quality characteristics have been shown to be sensitive to changes in process conditions, manufacturing techniques, equipment or sites and other related considerations, and as such, any manufacturing process changes we implement prior to or after regulatory approval could impact product safety.
Additionally, if one or more of our product candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including but not limited to:

regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such product;
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regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label;

we may be required to create a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy plan, which could include a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients, a communication plan for healthcare providers and/or other elements to assure safe use;

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

our reputation may suffer.
Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.
If we receive approval, regulatory agencies including the FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory agency regulations require that we report certain information about adverse medical events if those products may have caused or contributed to those adverse events. The timing of our obligation to report would be triggered by the date we become aware of the adverse event as well as the nature of the event. We may fail to report adverse events we become aware of within the prescribed timeframe. We may also fail to appreciate that we have become aware of a reportable adverse event, especially if it is not reported to us as an adverse event or if it is an adverse event that is unexpected or removed in time from the use of our products. If we fail to comply with our reporting obligations, the FDA, EMA or other foreign regulatory agencies could take action including but not limited to criminal prosecution, the imposition of civil monetary penalties, seizure of our products or delay in approval or clearance of future products.
If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our current or future product candidates, and our existing insurance coverage may not be sufficient to satisfy any liability that may arise.
Drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment for clinical trials, the ability of enrolled patients to complete our studies or result in potential product liability claims. We currently carry product liability insurance in the amount of $10.0 million per product candidate and we are required to maintain product liability insurance pursuant to certain of our license agreements. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could negatively impact our results of operations and business. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in impairment of our business reputation, withdrawal of clinical trial participants, costs due to related litigation, distraction of management’s attention from our primary business, initiation of investigations by regulators, substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants, the inability to commercialize our product candidates and decreased demand for our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale. Furthermore, we may also not be able to take advantage of limitations on product liability lawsuits that apply to generic drug products, which could increase our exposure to liability for products deemed to be dangerous or defective.
Failure to obtain regulatory approval in any targeted jurisdiction would prevent us from marketing our products to a larger patient population and reduce our commercial opportunities.
We and our collaboration partners have not initiated marketing efforts in any jurisdiction. In order to market our products in Europe, the United States and other jurisdictions, we and our collaboration partners must obtain separate regulatory approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The EMA is responsible for the regulation and recommendation for approval of human medicines in the E.U. This procedure results in a single marketing authorization that is valid in all E.U. countries, as well as in Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The time required to obtain approval abroad may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. The foreign regulatory approval process may include all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval and we may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. We or our collaboration partners may not be able to
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file for regulatory approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products within Europe, the United States or in other jurisdictions. Failure to obtain these approvals would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, our products will remain subject to regulatory scrutiny.
If ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may pursue, are approved, they will be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping, conduct of post-marketing studies and submission of safety, efficacy and other post-market information, including both federal and state requirements in the United States and requirements of comparable foreign regulatory authorities.
Manufacturers and manufacturing facilities are required to comply with extensive FDA, and comparable foreign regulatory authority, requirements, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, regulations. As such, our current and future manufacturing partners will be subject to continual review and inspections to assess compliance with cGMP and adherence to commitments made in any non-disclosure agreement, BLA or marketing authorization application. Accordingly, we and our collaborators and suppliers must continue to expend time, money and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production and quality control.
Any regulatory approvals that we or our collaboration partners receive for our product candidates may be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval or may contain requirements for potentially costly additional clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate. We will be required to report certain adverse reactions and production problems, if any, to the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Any new legislation addressing drug safety issues could result in delays in product development or commercialization or increased costs to assure compliance. We will have to comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for our products. Promotional communications with respect to prescription drugs are subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions and must be consistent with the information in the product’s approved label. As such, we are not allowed to promote our products for indications or uses for which they do not have approval. If our product candidates are approved, we must submit new or supplemental applications and obtain approval for certain changes to the approved products, product labeling or manufacturing process. We could also be asked to conduct post-marketing clinical trials to verify the safety and efficacy of our products in general or in specific patient subsets. An unsuccessful post-marketing study or failure to complete such a study could result in the withdrawal of marketing approval.
If a regulatory agency discovers previously unknown problems with an approved product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency or problems with our manufacturing facilities or disagrees with the promotion, marketing or labeling of a product, such regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product or us, including requiring withdrawal of the product from the market. If we fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency or enforcement authority may, among other things:

issue untitled and warning letters;

impose civil or criminal penalties;

suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;

suspend any of our ongoing clinical trials;

refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications submitted by us;

impose restrictions on our operations, including closing our manufacturing facilities; or

seize or detain products or require a product recall.
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Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response and could generate negative publicity. Any failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements may significantly and adversely affect our ability to commercialize and generate revenue from our products. If regulatory sanctions are applied or if regulatory approval is withdrawn, the value of our company and our operating results will be negatively impacted.
The development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products is subject to extensive regulation, and we may not obtain regulatory approvals for ONS-5010 in any of the indications for which we plan to develop it, or any future product candidates, on a timely basis or at all.
The clinical development, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, recordkeeping, advertising, promotion, export, import, marketing, distribution, adverse event reporting, including the submission of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, and other possible activities relating to ONS-5010, as well as any other product candidate that we may develop in the future, are subject to extensive regulation. Marketing approval of biologics in the United States requires the submission of a BLA to the FDA and we are not permitted to market any product candidate in the United States until we obtain approval from the FDA of the BLA for that product. A BLA must be supported by extensive clinical and preclinical data, as well as extensive information regarding pharmacology, chemistry, manufacturing and controls.
FDA approval of a BLA is not guaranteed, and the review and approval process is an expensive and uncertain process that may take several years. The FDA also has substantial discretion in the approval process. The number and types of preclinical studies and clinical trials that will be required for BLA approval varies depending on the product candidate, the disease or the condition that the product candidate is designed to treat and the regulations applicable to any particular product candidate. Despite the time and expense associated with preclinical studies and clinical trials, failure can occur at any stage. The results of preclinical and early clinical trials of ONS-5010 or any future product candidates may not be predictive of the results of our later-stage clinical trials.
Clinical trial failure may result from a multitude of factors including flaws in trial design, dose selection, placebo effect, patient enrollment criteria and failure to demonstrate favorable safety or efficacy traits, and failure in clinical trials can occur at any stage. Companies in the biopharmaceutical industry frequently suffer setbacks in the advancement of clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials. Based upon negative or inconclusive results, we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or preclinical studies. In addition, data obtained from clinical trials are susceptible to varying interpretations, and regulators may not interpret our data as favorably as we do, which may further delay, limit or prevent marketing approval.
The FDA could delay, limit or deny approval of a product candidate for many reasons, including because they:

may not deem our product candidate to be adequately safe and effective;

may not agree that the data collected from clinical trials are acceptable or sufficient to support the submission of a BLA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval, and may impose requirements for additional preclinical studies or clinical trials;

may determine that adverse events experienced by participants in our clinical trials represents an unacceptable level of risk;

may determine that population studied in the clinical trial may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure safety in the full population for which we seek approval;

may not accept clinical data from trials which are conducted at clinical facilities or in countries where the standard of care is potentially different from that of the United States;

may disagree regarding the formulation, labeling and/or the specifications;

may not approve the manufacturing processes or facilities associated with our product candidate;

may change approval policies or adopt new regulations; or
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may not accept a submission due to, among other reasons, the content or formatting of the submission.
Generally, public concern regarding the safety of pharmaceutical products could delay or limit our ability to obtain regulatory approval, result in the inclusion of unfavorable information in our labeling, or require us to undertake other activities that may entail additional costs. We have not obtained FDA approval for any product. This lack of experience may impede our ability to obtain FDA approval in a timely manner, if at all, for ONS-5010.
If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of ONS-5010, our commercial prospects will be harmed and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Any delays in the commencement or completion, or termination or suspension, of our planned or future clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects.
Any delays in the commencement or completion, or termination or suspension, of our planned or future clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects. Before we can initiate clinical trials of ONS-5010 in the United States in any distinct indication, we must submit the results of preclinical and/or other studies to the FDA along with other information, including information about ONS-5010 chemistry, manufacturing and controls and our proposed clinical trial protocol, as part of an IND or similar regulatory filing.
Before obtaining marketing approval from the FDA for the sale of ONS-5010 in any indication, we must conduct extensive clinical studies to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of ONS-5010. Clinical testing is expensive, time consuming and uncertain as to outcome. In addition, we expect to rely in part on preclinical, clinical and quality data generated by clinical research organizations, or CROs, and other third parties for regulatory submissions for ONS-5010. While we have or will have agreements governing these third parties’ services, we have limited influence over their actual performance. If these third parties do not make data available to us, or, if applicable, make regulatory submissions in a timely manner, in each case pursuant to our agreements with them, our development programs may be significantly delayed and we may need to conduct additional studies or collect additional data independently. In either case, our development costs would increase.
The FDA may require us to conduct additional studies for ONS-5010 or any future product candidate before it allows us to initiate clinical trials under any IND, which may lead to additional delays and increase the costs of our development programs. Any such delays in the commencement or completion of our planned or future clinical trials could significantly affect our product development costs. We do not know whether our planned trials will begin on time or be completed on schedule, if at all. The commencement and completion of clinical trials can be delayed for a number of reasons, including delays related to:

the FDA disagreeing as to the design or implementation of our clinical studies;

obtaining FDA authorizations to commence a trial or reaching a consensus with the FDA on trial design;

any failure or delay in reaching an agreement with CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

obtaining approval from one or more IRBs;

IRBs refusing to approve, suspending or terminating the trial at an investigational site, precluding enrollment of additional subjects, or withdrawing their approval of the trial;

changes to clinical trial protocol;

clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;

manufacturing sufficient quantities of product candidate or obtaining sufficient quantities of combination therapies for use in clinical trials;
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subjects failing to enroll or remain in our trial at the rate we expect, or failing to return for post-treatment follow-up;

subjects choosing an alternative treatment, or participating in competing clinical trials;

lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial;

subjects experiencing severe or unexpected drug-related adverse effects;

occurrence of serious adverse events in trials of the same class of agents conducted by other companies;

selection of clinical end points that require prolonged periods of clinical observation or analysis of the resulting data;

a facility manufacturing our product candidates or any of their components being ordered by the FDA to temporarily or permanently shut down due to violations of current good manufacturing practice, or cGMP, regulations or other applicable requirements, or infections or cross-contaminations of product candidates in the manufacturing process;

any changes to our manufacturing process that may be necessary or desired;

third-party clinical investigators losing the licenses or permits necessary to perform our clinical trials, not performing our clinical trials on our anticipated schedule or consistent with the clinical trial protocol, good clinical practices, or GCP, or other regulatory requirements;

third-party contractors not performing data collection or analysis in a timely or accurate manner; or

third-party contractors becoming debarred or suspended or otherwise penalized by the FDA or other government or regulatory authorities for violations of regulatory requirements, in which case we may need to find a substitute contractor, and we may not be able to use some or all of the data produced by such contractors in support of our marketing applications.
We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by a Data Safety Monitoring Board for such trial or by the FDA. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a pharmaceutical, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. In addition, changes in regulatory requirements and policies may occur, and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols to comply with these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit our clinical trial protocols to IRBs for reexamination, which may impact the costs, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial.
Any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues which may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.
If we experience delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our planned clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approval could be delayed or prevented.
We may not be able to initiate or continue our planned clinical trials for ONS-5010 if we are unable to identify and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA. Some of our competitors may have ongoing clinical trials for product candidates that would treat the same indications as ONS-5010, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials may instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ product candidates. Patient enrollment is also affected by other factors, including:

severity of the disease under investigation;

our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators of appropriate competencies and experience;
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invasive procedures required to obtain evidence of the product candidate’s performance during the clinical trial;

availability and efficacy of approved medications for the disease under investigation;

eligibility criteria defined in the protocol for the trial in question;

the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

perceived risks and benefits;

efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;

reluctance of physicians to encourage patient participation in clinical trials;

the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment;

our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents; and

proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.
Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs, which would cause the value of our company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.
Adverse side effects or other safety risks associated with ONS-5010 could delay or preclude approval, cause us to suspend or discontinue clinical trials, abandon further development, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.
As is the case with pharmaceuticals generally, it is likely that there may be side effects and adverse events associated with ONS-5010 in our planned clinical trials. Results of our clinical trials could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of side effects or unexpected characteristics. Undesirable side effects caused by ONS-5010 could result in the delay, suspension or termination of clinical trials by us or the FDA for a number of reasons. If we elect or are required to delay, suspend or terminate any clinical trial, the commercial prospects of ONS-5010 will be harmed and our ability to generate product revenues from this product candidate will be delayed or eliminated. Serious adverse events observed in clinical trials could hinder or prevent market acceptance of ONS-5010. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations significantly.
Moreover, if ONS-5010 is associated with undesirable side effects in clinical trials or have characteristics that are unexpected, we may elect to abandon or limit its development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective, which may limit the commercial expectations for ONS-5010, if approved. We may also be required to modify our study plans based on findings in our clinical trials. Many biologics that initially showed promise in early stage testing have later been found to cause side effects that prevented further development. In addition, regulatory authorities may draw different conclusions or require additional testing to confirm these determinations.
It is possible that as we test ONS-5010 in larger, longer and more extensive clinical trials including for additional indications, or as the use of ONS-5010 become more widespread if it receives regulatory approval, illnesses, injuries, discomforts and other adverse events that were observed in earlier trials, as well as conditions that did not occur or went undetected in previous trials, will be reported by patients. If such side effects become known later in development or upon approval, if any, such findings may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.
In addition, if ONS-5010 receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by ONS-5010, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

regulatory authorities may withdraw approval of ONS-5010;

we may be required to recall a product or change the way ONS-5010 is administered to patients;
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regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, such as a “black box” warning or a contraindication, or issue safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product;

we may be required to implement a REMS, or create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing or promotion of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component thereof;

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;

ONS-5010 could become less competitive; and

our reputation may suffer.
Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of ONS-5010, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Commercialization of Our Product Candidates
We face intense competition and rapid technological change and the possibility that our competitors may develop therapies that are similar, more advanced or more effective than ours. Other products may be approved and successfully commercialized before ours, which may adversely affect our financial condition and our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates.
We expect to enter highly competitive pharmaceutical markets. Successful competitors in the pharmaceutical markets have demonstrated the ability to effectively discover, obtain patents, develop, test and obtain regulatory approvals for products, as well as an ability to effectively commercialize, market and promote approved products. Numerous companies, universities and other research institutions are engaged in developing, patenting, manufacturing and marketing of products competitive with those that we are developing. Many of these potential competitors are large, experienced pharmaceutical companies that enjoy significant competitive advantages, such as substantially greater financial, research and development, manufacturing, personnel and marketing resources. These companies also have greater brand recognition and more experience in conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials of product candidates and obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals of products.
We have competitors both in the United States and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. Some of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies we expect to compete with include, for example, Novartis, which currently markets Lucentis and Regeneron, with their product Eylea, both of which have been approved for use in patients with wet AMD. Furthermore, the cancer drug Avastin, sold by Roche is used in wet AMD patients although it has not been approved for use in these patients. Our ONS-5010 is being developed to replace the use of off-label Avastin. In addition, these companies and other, smaller, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies are also developing new treatments for wet AMD and are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development.
Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and other resources, such as larger research and development staff and experienced marketing and manufacturing organizations. Additional mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industry may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. As a result, these companies may obtain regulatory approval more rapidly than we are able to and may be more effective in selling and marketing their products. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large, established companies. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing on an exclusive basis, products that are more effective or less costly than any product candidate that we may develop; they may also obtain patent protection that could block our products; and they may obtain regulatory approval, product commercialization and market penetration earlier than we do. Product candidates developed by our competitors may render ONS-5010 and any of our other potential product candidates uneconomical, less desirable or obsolete, and we may not be successful in marketing our product candidates against competitors.
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We expect additional companies to seek approval to manufacture and market anti-VEGF therapies for ophthalmic indications. If other anti-VEGF therapies are approved and successfully commercialized before ONS-5010, we may never achieve significant market share for this product, our revenue would be reduced and, as a result, our business, prospects and financial condition could be harmed.
The commercial success of any current or future product candidate will depend upon the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community.
Even with the requisite approvals from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, the commercial success of ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may pursue, will depend in part on the medical community, patients and third-party payors accepting our product candidates as medically useful, cost-effective and safe. Any product that we bring to the market may not gain market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. The degree of market acceptance of any of our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to:

the safety and efficacy of the product in clinical trials, and potential advantages over competing treatments;

the publication of unfavorable safety or efficacy data concerning our product by third-parties;

the prevalence and severity of any side effects, including any limitations or warnings contained in a product’s approved labeling;

the clinical indications for which approval is granted;

recognition and acceptance of our product candidates over our competitors’ products;

prevalence of the disease or condition for which the product is approved;

the cost of treatment, particularly in relation to competing treatments;

the willingness of the target patient population to try our therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;

the strength of marketing and distribution support and timing of market introduction of competitive products;

the extent to which the product is approved for inclusion on formularies of hospitals and managed care organizations;

publicity concerning our products or competing products and treatments;

the extent to which third-party payors provide coverage and adequate reimbursement for ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may pursue, if approved;

our ability to maintain compliance with regulatory requirements; and

labeling or naming imposed by FDA or other regulatory agencies.
Even if ONS-5010, or any other product candidate we may develop in the future, displays an equivalent or more favorable efficacy and safety profile in preclinical and clinical trials, market acceptance of the product candidate will not be fully known until after it is launched and may be negatively affected by a potential poor safety experience and the track record of other product candidates. Our efforts to educate the medical community and third-party payors on the benefits of our product candidates may require significant resources, may be under-resourced compared to large well-funded pharmaceutical entities and may never be successful. If ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may develop in the future, are approved but fail to achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community, we will not be able to generate sufficient revenue to become or remain profitable.
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Even if ONS-5010 is approved, off-label compounding of Avastin and other drugs may continue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
It is currently estimated that Avastin accounts for approximately 50% of wet AMD prescriptions in the United States, notwithstanding that such use is off-label and requires preparation at a compounding pharmacy. Even if ONS-5010 is approved for use as a treatment for wet AMD, there is no guarantee that we will be effective in reducing, or stopping, the off-label compounding of Avastin and other drugs in the United States or other major markets where we plan to seek regulatory approval and market ONS-5010 if approved. If we are not successful in replacing off-label compounding of Avastin or other drugs with ONS-5010, our business and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We currently have no marketing and sales organization. If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities in jurisdictions for which we choose to retain commercialization rights, we may be unable to generate any revenue.
We currently have no marketing or sales organization. We do not yet have any products approved for sale, and we, as a company, have no experience selling and marketing any pharmaceutical products. To successfully commercialize any products, we will need to develop these capabilities, either on our own or with others. If ONS-5010 receives regulatory approval, we may intend to establish a sales and marketing organization with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize our product candidates in major markets where we may choose to retain commercialization rights. Doing so will be expensive, difficult and time-consuming. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities would adversely impact the commercialization of our products. Further, given our lack of prior experience in marketing and selling our products, our initial estimate of the size of the required sales force may be materially more or less than the size of the sales force actually required to effectively commercialize our product candidates. As such, we may be required to hire substantially more sales representatives and medical support liaisons to adequately support the commercialization of ONS-5010 or we may incur excess costs as a result of hiring more sales representatives than necessary. With respect to certain geographical markets, we may enter into collaborations with other entities to utilize their local marketing and distribution capabilities, but we may be unable to enter into such agreements on favorable terms, if at all. If our future collaboration partners do not commit sufficient resources to commercialize our future products, if any, and we are unable to develop the necessary marketing capabilities on our own, we will be unable to generate sufficient product revenue to sustain our business. If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities for any approved product, whether on our own or through collaborations, our results of operations will be negatively impacted.
We may need to enter into alliances with other companies that can provide capabilities and funds for the development and commercialization of our product candidates. If we are unsuccessful in forming or maintaining these alliances on favorable terms, our business could be harmed.
Because we are a late clinical stage biopharmaceutical company, we have found it necessary to enter into alliances with other companies. For example, we entered into a strategic partnership agreement for consulting services for ONS-5010, pursuant to which we pay a monthly fee and may have to share a portion of net profits, if any. We have also entered into service agreements for clinical trials, and co-development and license agreements for our biosimilar product candidates. In the future, we may also find it necessary to form other alliances or joint ventures with major pharmaceutical companies to jointly develop and/or commercialize specific the inactive biosimilar product candidates in our pipeline and any other product candidates that we may develop. In such alliances, we would expect our collaboration partners to provide substantial capabilities in regulatory affairs, as well as sales and marketing. We may not be successful in entering into any such alliances. Even if we do succeed in securing such alliances, we may not be able to maintain them if, for example, development or approval of a product candidate is delayed or sales of an approved product are disappointing. If we are unable to secure or maintain such alliances we may not have the capabilities necessary to continue or complete development of our product candidates and bring them to market, which may have an adverse effect on our business.
In addition to commercialization capabilities, we may depend on our alliances with other companies to provide substantial additional funding for development and potential commercialization of our product candidates. We may not be able to obtain funding on favorable terms from these alliances, and if we are not
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successful in doing so, we may not have sufficient funds to develop a particular product candidate internally or to bring product candidates to market. Failure to bring ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may develop in the future, to market will prevent us from generating sales revenue, and this will substantially harm our business. Furthermore, any delay in entering into these alliances could delay the development and commercialization of our product candidates and reduce their competitiveness even if they reach the market. As a result, our business and operating results may be harmed.
The third-party coverage and reimbursement status of newly approved products is uncertain. Failure to obtain or maintain adequate coverage and reimbursement for new or current products could limit our ability to market those products and decrease our ability to generate revenue.
Pricing, coverage and reimbursement of ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may develop in the future,, if approved, may not be adequate to support our commercial infrastructure. Our per-patient prices may not be sufficient to recover our development costs and potentially achieve profitability. The availability of coverage and adequacy of reimbursement by governmental and private payors are essential for most patients to be able to afford expensive treatments such as ours, if approved. Accordingly, sales of our product candidates will depend substantially, both domestically and abroad, on the extent to which the costs of ONS-5010 and any of our other product candidates will be paid for by third-party payors such as health maintenance, managed care organizations, pharmacy benefit and similar healthcare management organizations private health insurers and other third-party payors. If coverage and reimbursement are not available, or are available only at insufficient levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our product candidates. Coverage decisions may depend upon clinical and economic standards that disfavor new drug products when more established or lower cost therapeutic alternatives are already available or subsequently become available. Even if coverage is provided, the approved reimbursement amount may not be adequate to allow us to realize a return on our investment.
There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, third-party payors play an important role in determining the extent to which new drugs and biologics will be covered and reimbursed. The Medicare program covers certain individuals aged 65 or older or those who are disabled or suffering from end-stage renal disease. The Medicaid program, which varies from state to state, covers certain individuals and families who have limited financial means and/or certain disabilities. The Medicare and Medicaid programs increasingly are used as models for how third-party payors develop their coverage and reimbursement policies for drugs and biologics. It is difficult to predict at this time what third-party payors will decide with respect to the coverage and reimbursement for our biosimilar product candidates, if approved. In addition, in the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for biologics exists among third-party payors. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for biologics can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the process for seeking favorable coverage determinations often is time-consuming and costly and may require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and profitable reimbursement rates from third-party payors for any approved products that we develop could have an adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.
Outside the United States, pharmaceutical businesses are generally subject to extensive governmental price controls and other market regulations. We believe the increasing emphasis on cost-containment initiatives in the E.U., Canada and other countries has and will continue to put pressure on the pricing and usage of our product candidates. In many countries, the prices of medical products are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for medical products, but monitor and control company profits. Additional foreign price controls or other changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we are able to charge for our product candidates. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for our products may be reduced compared with the United States and may be insufficient to generate commercially reasonable revenue and profits.
Moreover, increasing efforts by governmental and third-party payors in the United States and abroad to control healthcare costs may cause such organizations to limit both coverage and the level of reimbursement for new products approved and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate
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payment for ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may develop in the future,. We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of ONS-5010, or any other product candidates we may develop in the future, if approved, due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations and additional legislative changes.
Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties
We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical and clinical trials and perform other tasks for us. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or comply with regulatory requirements, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates and our business could be harmed.
We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon CROs to monitor and manage data for our ongoing clinical development programs. We rely on these parties for execution of our preclinical and clinical trials and we can only control certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific requirements and standards and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We and our CROs and other vendors are required to comply with cGMP, GCP, and Good Laboratory Practices, or GLP, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA, the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the EEA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for all of our product candidates in clinical development. Regulatory authorities enforce these regulations through periodic inspections of study sponsors, principal investigators, study sites and other contractors. If we, any of our CROs, service providers or investigators fail to comply with applicable regulations or GCPs, the data generated in our preclinical and clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional preclinical and clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with GCP requirements. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with products produced under cGMP regulations. Failure to comply by any of the participating parties or ourselves with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process. Moreover, our business may be implicated if our CROs or any other participating parties violate federal or state fraud and abuse or false claims laws and regulations or healthcare privacy and security laws.
If any of our relationships with any of these third-party CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or do so on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, our CROs are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such CROs, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our on-going preclinical and clinical programs. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates. CROs may also generate higher costs than anticipated. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenue could be delayed.
Changing or adding additional CROs involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays may occur, which can negatively impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. We may encounter challenges or delays in the future and these delays or challenges may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects.
Previously, we manufactured bulk drug substance for preclinical and clinical supplies of our product candidates in our in-house facility. Our business could be harmed if we are not able to find a suitable contract manufacturer or we otherwise fail to manufacture our product candidates at the necessary quantity or quality levels.
We no longer have the infrastructure or capability internally to manufacture supplies of ONS-5010, or any other product candidate, for use in clinical development, and we lack the resources and the capability to manufacture any product candidates on a clinical or commercial scale. If we are unable to manufacture or
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have manufactured sufficient supplies of ONS-5010 or any other product candidates, our development efforts would be delayed, which would adversely affect our business and prospects. We will rely on third-party manufacturers to manufacture and supply us with our product candidates for clinical development, as well as to establish commercial supplies of our product candidates. Successfully transferring complicated manufacturing techniques to contract manufacturing organizations and scaling up these techniques for commercial quantities is time consuming and we may not be able to achieve such transfer or do so in a timely manner. If our need for contract manufacturing services increases during a period of industry-wide production capacity shortage, we may not be able to produce our product candidates on a timely basis or on commercially viable terms. Any significant delay or discontinuation in the supply of a product candidate for an ongoing clinical trial due to the need to replace a third-party manufacturer could considerably delay completion of our clinical trials, product testing and potential regulatory approval of our product candidates, which could harm our business and results of operations.
Reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance and quality assurance, the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party and the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us. In addition, third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP or similar regulatory requirements outside the United States. Our failure or the failure of our third-party manufacturers to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could adversely affect supplies of ONS-5010 or any other product candidates that we may develop. Any failure or refusal to supply the components for our product candidates that we may develop could delay, prevent or impair our clinical development or commercialization efforts. If our contract manufacturers were to breach or terminate their manufacturing arrangements with us, the development or commercialization of the affected products or product candidates could be delayed, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any change in our manufacturers could be costly because the commercial terms of any new arrangement could be less favorable and because the expenses relating to the transfer of necessary technology and processes could be significant.
If ONS-5010 or any of our product candidates are approved, we will need to enter into agreements with a third party for contract manufacturing in order to produce the quantities necessary to meet anticipated market demand. If we are unable to build and stock our product candidates in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements for the launch of these candidates or to meet future demand, our revenue and gross margins could be adversely affected. Although we believe that we will not have any material supply issues, we cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain long-term supply arrangements for our product candidates or materials used to produce them on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to arrange for third-party manufacturing, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to complete development of our product candidates or market them.
Any adverse developments affecting the manufacture of ONS-5010 could substantially increase our costs and limit supply for such product candidate.
The process of manufacturing our ONS-5010 and our other mAb product candidates is complex, highly regulated and subject to several risks, including but not limited to:

failure to establish contracts with contract manufacturing organization, or CMOs, and device vendors where applicable;

product loss due to contamination, equipment failure or improper installation or operation of equipment or vendor or operator error;

infringing intellectual property rights of third parties relating to manufacturing and quality testing;

failure to achieve or maintain compliance with FDA’s requirements for acceptance of the applicable manufacturing facilities; and

labor shortages, natural disasters and power failures.
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Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes for any of our product candidates could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. In addition, if we require a change in CMO, this will add time along with financial and personnel resources to change manufacturing sites. If microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in our product candidates or in our manufacturing facilities, our facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination.
Any adverse developments affecting manufacturing operations for our product candidates may result in shipment delays, inventory shortages, lot failures, withdrawals or recalls or other interruptions in the supply of our product candidates. We may also have to take inventory write-offs and incur other charges and expenses for product candidates that fail to meet specifications, undertake costly remediation efforts or seek more costly manufacturing alternatives.
We may depend on third parties for the commercialization of ONS-5010, and failure to commercialize in those markets could harm our business and operating results.
We may need to identify third-parties and then negotiate the terms of the development and commercialization agreements for the United States and major ex-U.S. markets, such as the E.U. and Japan. We may not be successful in identifying contract counterparties, and we may not be able to reach agreements with such parties on terms that are as favorable to our company as we would anticipate. We do not have in place any licensing agreements for commercialization of ONS-5010. Our current arrangements are for our inactive biosimilar product candidates, and aside from one U.S. arrangement for ONS-3010, are for smaller ex-U.S. markets where we would not otherwise intend to commercialize our biosimilar product candidates, such as China, Mexico and India, among others. If any entity with whom we enter into a commercialization arrangement fails to exercise commercially reasonable efforts to market and sell our approved products in their respective licensed jurisdictions or are otherwise ineffective in doing so, our business will be harmed and we may not be able to adequately remedy the harm through negotiation, litigation, arbitration or termination of the license agreements.
Moreover, any disputes with our collaboration partners concerning the adequacy of their commercialization efforts will substantially divert the attention of our senior management from other business activities and will require us to incur substantial legal costs to fund litigation or arbitration proceedings.
In the event that any of our license agreements terminate, we may need to find another partner in those markets to commercialize and in certain instances, manufacture any product candidates. Further, upon any such termination, our contract counterparties may still have the right to commercialize these product candidates in such markets, which may affect our ability to commercialize in the same markets.
Our reliance on third parties requires us to share our trade secrets, which increases the possibility that a competitor will discover them or that our trade secrets will be misappropriated or disclosed.
Because we expect to rely on third parties to manufacture our current and any future product candidates, and we expect to continue to collaborate with third parties on the development of our current and any future product candidates, we must, at times, share trade secrets with them. We also conduct joint research and development programs that may require us to share trade secrets under the terms of our collaboration or similar agreements. For example, under our joint participation arrangement with Huahai, we are obligated to share with Huahai certain information relating to the development of ONS-3010, including reports from nonclinical studies and clinical trials. We seek to protect our proprietary technology in part by entering into confidentiality agreements and, if applicable, material transfer agreements, consulting agreements or other similar agreements with our advisors, employees, CROs, third-party contractors and consultants prior to beginning research or disclosing proprietary information. These agreements typically limit the rights of the third parties to use or disclose our confidential information, including our trade secrets. Despite the contractual provisions employed when working with third parties, the need to share trade secrets and other confidential information increases the risk that such trade secrets become known by our competitors, are inadvertently incorporated into the technology of others, or are disclosed or used in violation of these agreements. Any disclosure, either intentional or unintentional, by our employees, the employees of third parties with whom we share our facilities or third-party consultants and vendors that we
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engage to perform research, clinical trials or manufacturing activities, or misappropriation by third parties (such as through a cybersecurity breach) of our trade secrets or proprietary information could enable competitors to duplicate or surpass our technological achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market. Further, adequate remedies may not exist in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure. Given that our proprietary position is based, in part, on our know-how and trade secrets, a competitor’s discovery of our trade secrets or other unauthorized use or disclosure would impair our competitive position and may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In addition, these agreements typically restrict the ability of our advisors, employees, third-party contractors and consultants to publish data potentially relating to our trade secrets, although our agreements may contain certain limited publication rights. Policing unauthorized use of our or our licensors’ intellectual property is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and we may be unable to determine the extent of any unauthorized use. Moreover, enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. Despite our efforts to protect our trade secrets, our competitors may discover our trade secrets, either through breach of our agreements with third parties, independent development or publication of information by any of our third-party collaborators. A competitor’s discovery of our trade secrets would impair our competitive position and have an adverse impact on our business.
We are required to co-fund the development of, and proportionately share in the revenue from, the commercialization of ONS-3010 in the United States, Canada, E.U., Japan, Australia and New Zealand under a joint participation agreement with Huahai. We may also be required to form a joint venture to further co-develop and commercialize ONS-3010 with Huahai in the agreed countries, if so requested by Huahai.
We currently have a joint participation arrangement with Huahai that provides for the co-funding of the development of ONS-3010 in the United States, Canada, E.U., Japan, Australia and New Zealand and the proportionate sharing of the revenue from commercialization of ONS-3010 in such countries, in the event we were to restart the active development of this program. If so, we could also be required to further co-develop and commercialize ONS-3010 with Huahai in the agreed countries pursuant to a joint venture, if so requested by Huahai, as contemplated by our joint participation agreement. Under the joint participation agreement, assuming Huahai funds its proportionate share of development costs incurred after completion of the “Phase-3 Ready Package” for ONS-3010, we will have a 49% value ownership interest with Huahai having a 51% value ownership interest in ONS-3010. Accordingly, our share of any potential revenues from the successful commercialization of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries, including major markets such as the United States and E.U., would also be in proportion to such ownership interests. While we anticipate that we will each act in accordance with the terms of our agreement for the joint development and commercialization of ONS-3010, we cannot control Huahai, nor can we predict with any certainty that our interests will be aligned and that we will successfully collaborate.
We currently engage single source suppliers for clinical trial services and multiple source suppliers for fill-finish manufacturing and product testing of ONS-5010. The loss of any of these suppliers, or any future single source suppliers, could harm our business.
Our ONS-5010 product candidate is fill-finished by Ajinomoto Althea, Inc., or Althea. As such, we are heavily dependent on Althea for supplying us with sufficient supply of ONS-5010. Although we believe that there are alternate sources for this service, we cannot assure you that identifying and establishing new relationships would not result in significant delay in the development of ONS-5010. Additionally, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative vendors on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. A delay in the development of ONS-5010 or having to enter into a new agreement with a different third party on less favorable terms than we have with our current suppliers could negatively impact our business.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we infringe or are alleged to infringe intellectual property rights of third parties, our business could be harmed. Third-party claims of intellectual property infringement may prevent or delay our development and commercialization efforts.
Our commercial success depends in large part on avoiding infringement of the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. There have been many lawsuits and other proceedings involving patent and other
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intellectual property rights in the pharmaceutical industry, including patent infringement lawsuits, interferences, oppositions and reexamination proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, and corresponding foreign patent offices. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications, which are owned by third parties, exist in the fields in which we are developing product candidates. As the pharmaceutical industry expands and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our product candidates may be subject to claims of infringement of the patent rights of third parties.
Our research, development and commercialization activities may infringe or otherwise violate or be claimed to infringe or otherwise violate patents owned or controlled by other parties.
Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims to compositions, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our product candidates. We have conducted patent searches for third-party patents with respect to each of our lead product candidates, and are aware of third-party patent families with claims that, if valid and enforceable, could be construed to cover such product candidates or their respective methods of manufacture or use. Some of these patents have expiration dates that could extend reference product exclusivity past our anticipated product launch dates. We cannot guarantee that any of our analyses are complete and thorough, nor can we be sure that we have identified each and every patent and pending application in the United States and abroad that is relevant or necessary to the commercialization of our product candidates. Moreover, because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications that may later result in issued patents covering our product candidates. The existence of any patent with valid and enforceable claims covering one or more of our product candidates could cause substantial delays in our ability to introduce a candidate into the U.S. market if the term of such patent extends beyond our desired product launch date.
There may also be patent applications that have been filed but not published and if such applications issue as patents, they could be asserted against us. For example, in most cases, a patent filed today would not become known to industry participants for at least 18 months given patent rules applicable in most jurisdictions that do not require publication of patent applications until 18 months after filing. Moreover, we may face claims from non-practicing third-party entities that have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patent portfolio may have no deterrent effect. In addition, the scope of patent claims is subject to interpretation by the courts, and the interpretation is not always uniform. If we are sued for patent infringement, we would need to demonstrate that our product candidates, products or methods either do not infringe the asserted patent claims or that the claims are invalid and/or unenforceable, and we may not be successful.
Proving that a patent is invalid or unenforceable is difficult. For example, in the United States, proving invalidity requires a showing of clear and convincing evidence to overcome the presumption of validity enjoyed by issued patents. In proceedings before courts in the E.U., the burden of proving invalidity of a patent also usually rests on the party alleging invalidity. Even if we are successful in litigation, we may incur substantial costs and the time and attention of our management and scientific personnel could be diverted, which could harm our business. In addition, we may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion.
Third parties could bring claims against us that would cause us to incur substantial expenses and, if successful against us, could cause us to pay substantial monetary damages. The outcome of intellectual property litigation is subject to uncertainties that cannot be adequately quantified in advance. If a patent infringement suit were brought against us, we could be forced to stop or delay research, development, manufacturing or sales of the product or product candidate that is the subject of the suit. Ultimately, we could be prevented from commercializing a product or be forced to cease some aspect of our business operations if, as a result of actual or threatened patent infringement claims, we are unable to enter into licenses on commercially acceptable terms or at all. If, as a result of patent infringement claims or to avoid potential claims, we choose or are required to seek licenses from third parties, these licenses may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, the license may obligate us to pay substantial license fees or royalties or both, and the rights granted to us might be nonexclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property.
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Parties making claims against us may obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates. Defense of these claims, regardless of their merit, would likely involve substantial litigation expense and would likely be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may, in addition to being blocked from the market, have to pay substantial monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees for willful infringement, pay royalties, redesign our infringing products or obtain one or more licenses from third parties, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure.
In addition to infringement claims against us, we may become a party to other patent litigation and other proceedings, including interference, derivation or post-grant proceedings declared or granted by the USPTO and similar proceedings in foreign countries, regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our current or future products. An unfavorable outcome in any such proceedings could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party or could cause us to lose valuable intellectual property rights. Our business could be harmed if the prevailing party does not offer us a license on commercially reasonable terms, if any license is offered at all. Litigation or other proceedings may fail and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distract our management and other employees. We may also become involved in disputes with others regarding the ownership of intellectual property rights.
Third parties may submit applications for patent term extensions in the United States or other jurisdictions where similar extensions are available and/or Supplementary Protection Certificates in the E.U. states (including Switzerland) seeking to extend certain patent protection that, if approved, may interfere with or delay the launch of one or more of our product candidates.
The cost to us of any patent litigation or other proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. Patent litigation and other proceedings may fail, and even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distract our management and other employees. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could impair our ability to compete in the marketplace.
So called “submarine” patents may be granted to our competitors that may significantly alter our launch timing expectations, reduce our projected market size, cause us to modify our product or process or block us from the market altogether.
The term “submarine” patent has been used in the pharmaceutical industry and in other industries to denote a patent issuing from a U.S. application with an effective filing date prior to June 8, 1995 that was not published, publically known or available prior to its grant. Submarine patents add substantial risk and uncertainty to our business. Submarine patents may be issued to our competitors covering our product candidates and thereby cause significant market entry delay, defeat our ability to market our product candidates or cause us to abandon development and/or commercialization of a product candidate.
The issuance of one or more submarine patents may harm our business by causing substantial delays in our ability to introduce a candidate into the U.S. market.
We may not identify relevant patents or may incorrectly interpret the relevance, scope or expiration of a patent, which might adversely affect our ability to develop and market our products.
We cannot guarantee that any of our patent searches or analyses, including but not limited to the identification of relevant patents, the scope of patent claims or the expiration of relevant patents, are complete and thorough, nor can we be certain that we have identified each and every patent and pending application in the United States and abroad that is relevant to or necessary for the commercialization of our product candidates in any jurisdiction.
The scope of a patent claim is determined by an interpretation of the law, the written disclosure in a patent and the patent’s prosecution history. Our interpretation of the relevance or the scope of a patent or a pending application may be incorrect, which may negatively impact our ability to market our products or pipeline candidates. We may incorrectly determine that our products are not covered by a third party
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patent. Further, we may conclude that a well-informed court or other tribunal would find the claims of a relevant third-party patent to be invalid based on prior art, enablement, written description, or other ground, and that conclusion may be incorrect, which may negatively impact our ability to market our products or pipeline molecules.
Many patents may cover a marketed product, including but not limited to the composition of the product, methods of use, formulations, cell line constructs, vectors, growth media, production processes and purification processes. The identification of all patents and their expiration dates relevant to the production and sale of a reference product is extraordinarily complex and requires sophisticated legal knowledge in the relevant jurisdiction. It may be impossible to identify all patents in all jurisdictions relevant to a marketed product. We may not identify all relevant patents, or incorrectly determine their expiration dates, which may negatively impact our ability to develop and market our products.
Our failure to identify and correctly interpret relevant patents may negatively impact our ability to develop, market and commercialize our products.
We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce any future patents, which could be expensive, time-consuming and unsuccessful.
Although we have no issued patents, when and if we do obtain issued patents, we may discover that competitors are infringing those patents. Expensive and time-consuming litigation may be required to enforce our patents. If we or one of our collaboration partners were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering one of our product candidates, the defendant could counterclaim that the patent covering our product candidate is invalid and/or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity and/or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including but not limited to lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could include an allegation that someone involved in the prosecution of the patent withheld relevant or material information related to the patentability of the invention from the USPTO or made a misleading statement during prosecution. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable, and there is a risk that a court will decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, and that we do not have the right to stop the other party from using the invention at issue. There is also a risk that, even if the validity of such patents is upheld, the court will construe the patent’s claims narrowly and decide that we do not have the right to stop the other party from using the invention at issue on the grounds that our patent claims do not cover the invention. An adverse outcome in a litigation or proceeding involving our patents could limit our ability to assert our patents against those parties or other competitors, and may curtail or preclude our ability to exclude third parties from making and selling similar or competitive products. Any of these occurrences could adversely affect our competitive business position, business prospects and financial condition. Even if we establish infringement, the court may decide not to grant an injunction against further infringing activity and instead award only monetary damages, which may or may not be an adequate remedy.
Similarly, if we assert trademark infringement claims, a court may determine that the marks we have asserted are invalid or unenforceable, or that the party against whom we have asserted trademark infringement has superior rights to the marks in question. In this case, we could ultimately be forced to cease use of such trademarks.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during any litigation we initiate to enforce our patents. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a negative impact on the market price of our securities. Moreover, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient financial or other resources to file and pursue such infringement claims, which typically last for years before they are concluded. Even if we ultimately prevail in such claims, the monetary cost of such litigation and the diversion of the attention of our management and scientific personnel could outweigh any benefit we receive as a result of the proceedings.
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We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties or that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.
We employ individuals and retain independent contractors and consultants and members on our board of directors who were previously employed at universities or other pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. For example, our Chief Medical Officer, Kenneth M. Bahrt, M.D. is a former employee of Genentech, which is the reference product sponsor of bevacizumab (Avastin), for which we are developing our own bevacizumab, ONS-5010, for ophthalmic diseases, for which Avastin is currently widely used off label. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and independent contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us and we are not currently subject to any claims that they have done so, we may in the future be subject to such claims. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could adversely impact our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.
In addition, while we typically require our employees, consultants and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own, which may result in claims by or against us asserting ownership of such intellectual property. If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our senior management and scientific personnel.
We currently have no issued patents. If we are unable to obtain and maintain effective patent rights for our product candidates or any future product candidates, we may not be able to prevent competitors from using technologies we consider important in our successful development and commercialization of our product candidates, resulting in loss of any potential competitive advantage our patents may have otherwise afforded us.
While our principal focus in matters relating to intellectual property is to avoid infringing the valid and enforceable rights of third parties, we also rely upon a combination of patents, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect our own intellectual property related to our product candidates and development programs. Our ability to enjoy any competitive advantages afforded by our own intellectual property depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patents and other intellectual property protection in the United States and in other countries with respect to various proprietary elements of our product candidates, such as, for example, our product formulations and processes for manufacturing our products and our ability to maintain and control the confidentiality of our trade secrets and confidential information critical to our business.
We have sought to protect our proprietary position by filing patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our products that are important to our business. This process is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection. There is no guarantee that any patent application we file will result in an issued patent having claims that protect our products; and, as a result, we may not be able to effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive products. Additionally, while the basic requirements for patentability are similar across jurisdictions, each jurisdiction has its own specific requirements for patentability. We cannot guarantee that we will obtain identical or similar patent protection covering our products in all jurisdictions where we file patent applications.
The patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies generally are highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which legal principles remain unresolved. As a result, the patent applications that we own or license may fail to result in issued patents with claims that cover our product candidates in the United States or in other foreign countries for many reasons. There is no assurance that all potentially
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relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications has been found, considered or cited during patent prosecution, which can be used to invalidate a patent or prevent a patent from issuing from a pending patent application. Even if patents do successfully issue, and even if such patents cover our product candidates, third parties may challenge their validity, enforceability or scope, which may result in such patent claims being narrowed, found unenforceable or invalidated. Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our intellectual property, provide exclusivity for our product candidates or prevent others from designing around our claims. Any of these outcomes could impair our ability to prevent competitors from using the technologies claimed in any patents issued to us, which may have an adverse impact on our business.
Patents granted by the European Patent Office may be opposed by any person within nine months from the publication of their grant and, in addition, may be challenged before national courts at any time.
Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our intellectual property or prevent others from designing around our claims. If the breadth or strength of protection provided by the patents and patent applications we hold, license or pursue with respect to our product candidates is threatened, it could threaten our ability to prevent third parties from using the same technologies that we use in our product candidates. In addition, recent changes to the patent laws of the United States provide additional procedures for third parties to challenge the validity of issued patents based on patent applications filed after March 15, 2013. If the breadth or strength of protection provided by the patents and patent applications we hold or pursue with respect to our current or future product candidates is challenged, then it could threaten our ability to prevent competitive products from using our proprietary technology. Further, because patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time, typically for 18 months after filing, we cannot be certain that we were the first to either (i) file any patent application related to our product candidates or (ii) invent any of the inventions claimed in our patents or patent applications. Furthermore, for applications filed before March 16, 2013 or patents issuing from such applications, an interference proceeding can be provoked by a third party or instituted by the USPTO to determine who was the first to invent any of the subject matter covered by the patent claims of our applications and patents. If third parties have filed such applications after March 15, 2013, a derivation proceeding in the United States can be initiated by such third parties to determine whether our invention was derived from theirs.
We do not have any issued patents, but we have filed patent applications, which are currently pending, directed to various aspects of our product candidates. We cannot offer any assurances about which, if any, patents will be issued, the breadth of any such patent or whether any issued patents will be found invalid and unenforceable or will be threatened or infringed by third parties. Any successful actions by third parties to challenge the validity or enforceability of any patents that may be issued to us could deprive us of the ability to prevent others from using the technologies claimed in such issued patents.
Further, if we encounter delays in regulatory approvals, the period of time during which we could market a product candidate under patent protection could be reduced.
We have filed patent applications directed to our own proprietary formulations and processes for our product candidates when we have believed securing such patents may afford a competitive advantage. For example, the companies that originated Humira and Avastin (AbbVie and Genentech, respectively) own patents directed to formulations for these products. Rather than wait for the expiration of these formulation patents, we have developed our own proprietary formulations for these products that we believe are not covered by valid claims of third party patents, including AbbVie or Genentech’s formulation patents; and we have filed patent applications directed to our formulations. We cannot guarantee that our proprietary formulations will avoid infringement of third party patents. Moreover, because competitors may be able to develop their own proprietary product formulations, it is uncertain whether issuance of any of our pending patent applications directed to formulations of adalimumab (Humira) and bevacizumab (Avastin) would cover the formulations of any competitors. For example, we are aware that Sandoz is developing biosimilar versions of adalimumab (Humira) and has filed patent applications directed to formulations of adalimumab (Humira). We are also aware that Boehringer is developing a biosimilar version of adalimumab (Humira) and has filed a patent application directed to formulations of adalimumab (Humira). We have also filed patent applications, none of which have yet issued, directed to aspects of our downstream manufacturing
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processes for various biosimilars, including ONS-3010. In contrast to our patent applications directed to formulations of ONS-3010, the proprietary technologies embodied in our process-related patent filings, while directed to inventions we believe may provide us with competitive advantage, were not developed by us to avoid third-party patents. As in the case of our formulation patent filings, it is highly uncertain and we cannot predict whether our patent filings on process enhancements will afford us a competitive advantage against third parties.
Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural requirements, document submissions, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies. Our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other provisions during the patent process. In many cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules. However, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, competitors might be able to enter the market earlier than would otherwise have been the case.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.
Filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patents on product candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States can be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Further, licensing partners may choose not to file patent applications in certain jurisdictions in which we may obtain commercial rights, thereby precluding the possibility of later obtaining patent protection in these countries. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States or importing products made using our inventions into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and may also export infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but the ability to enforce our patents is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.
Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property protection, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions, whether or not successful, could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not being approved, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Governments of some foreign countries may force us to license our patents to third parties on terms that are not commercially reasonable or acceptable to us. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.
Changes in U.S. patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our product candidates.
As is the case with other biopharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biopharmaceutical industry involves both technological and legal complexity. Therefore, obtaining and enforcing biopharmaceutical patents is costly, time-consuming and inherently uncertain. In addition, the United States has recently enacted and is currently implementing wide-ranging patent reform legislation, including the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the America Invents Act, signed into law on September 16, 2011.
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As of March 16, 2013, the United States transitioned to a “first-to-file” system for deciding which party should be granted a patent when two or more patent applications claiming the same invention are filed by different parties. A third party that files a patent application in the USPTO before us could therefore be awarded a patent covering an invention of ours even if we had made the invention before it was made by the third party. The change to “first-to-file” from “first-to-invent” is one of the changes to the patent laws of the United States resulting from the America Invents Act. Among some of the other significant changes to the patent laws are changes that limit where a patentee may file a patent infringement suit and provide opportunities for third parties to challenge any issued patent in the USPTO via procedures including post-grant and inter partes review. These adversarial actions at the USPTO review patent claims without the presumption of validity afforded to U.S. patents in lawsuits in U.S. federal courts, and use a lower burden of proof than used in litigation in U.S. federal courts. Therefore, it is generally considered easier for a competitor or third party to have a patent invalidated in a Patent Office post-grant review or inter partes review proceeding than invalidated in a litigation in a U.S. federal court. If any of our patents are challenged by a third party in such a USPTO proceeding, there is no guarantee that we or our licensors or collaborators will be successful in defending the patent, which would result in a loss of the challenged patent right. It is not yet clear what, if any, impact the America Invents Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the America Invents Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of any issued patents, all of which could harm our business and financial condition.
Further, recent court rulings in cases such as Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. (Myriad I); BRCA1- & BRCA2-Based Hereditary Cancer Test Patent Litig., (Myriad II); and Promega Corp. v. Life Technologies Corp. have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations.
In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the value of patents, once obtained. Depending on future actions by the United States Congress, the Federal Courts and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future.
If we are unable to maintain effective proprietary rights for our product candidates or any future product candidates, we may not be able to compete effectively in our markets.
While we have filed patent applications to protect certain aspects of our own proprietary formulation and process developments, we also rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary scientific, business and technical information and know-how that is not or may not be patentable or that we elect not to patent. However, confidential information and trade secrets can be difficult to protect. Moreover, the information embodied in our trade secrets and confidential information may be independently and legitimately developed or discovered by third parties without any improper use of or reference to information or trade secrets. We seek to protect the scientific, technical and business information supporting our operations, as well as the confidential information relating specifically to our product candidates by entering into confidentiality agreements with parties to whom we need to disclose our confidential information, such as, our employees, consultants, board members, contractors, potential collaborators and financial investors. However we cannot be certain that such agreements have been entered into with all relevant parties. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems, but it is possible that these security measures could be breached. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, agreements or security measures may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. Our confidential information and trade secrets thus may become known by our competitors in ways we cannot prove or remedy.
Although we expect all of our employees and consultants to assign their inventions to us, and all of our employees, consultants, advisors and any third parties who have access to our proprietary know-how, information or technology to enter into confidentiality agreements, we cannot provide any assurances that all such agreements have been duly executed. We cannot guarantee that our trade secrets and other confidential proprietary information will not be disclosed or that competitors will not otherwise gain access
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to our trade secrets or independently develop substantially equivalent information and techniques. For example, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches.
Misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of our trade secrets could impair our competitive position and may harm our business. Additionally, if the steps taken to maintain our trade secrets are deemed inadequate, we may have insufficient recourse against third parties for misappropriating any trade secret. We cannot guarantee that our employees, former employees or consultants will not file patent applications claiming our inventions. Because of the “first-to-file” laws in the United States, such unauthorized patent application filings may defeat our attempts to obtain patents on our own inventions.
We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our patent filings and other intellectual property.
We may in the future be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our patent applications or patents we may be granted or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. For example, we may have inventorship or ownership disputes arise from conflicting obligations of consultants or others who are involved in developing our product candidates. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or ownership. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of or right to use valuable intellectual property. Such an outcome could harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.
If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property and other rights from third parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.
We are party to a non-exclusive worldwide commercial license agreements with Selexis SA, or Selexis, pertaining to clinical testing and sale of its cell line expression technology and we may enter into additional license agreements in the future. Our commercial license agreements with Selexis impose, and we expect that future license agreements will impose, various milestone payments, royalty payments and other obligations on us. If we fail to comply with our obligations under these agreements or if we are subject to a bankruptcy, we may be required to make certain payments to the licensor of our license or the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we would not be able to develop or market products covered by the license. Additionally, the milestone and other payments associated with these licenses will make it less profitable for us to develop our product candidates.
In the event we breach any of our obligations under these agreements, we may incur significant liability to our licensing partners. Disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a licensing agreement, including but not limited to:

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;

the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;

the sublicensing of patents and other rights;

our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;

the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our collaborators; and

the priority of invention of patented technology.
If disputes over intellectual property and other rights that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected product candidates and that could harm our business.
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We may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights to our product candidates through acquisitions and in-licenses.
We currently have rights to certain intellectual property through licenses from third parties, including Selexis, to develop ONS-5010/ONS-1045 and ONS-3010. Because we may find that our programs require the use of proprietary rights held by third parties, the growth of our business may depend in part on our ability to acquire, in-license or use these proprietary rights. We may be unable to acquire or in-license compositions, methods of use, processes or other third party intellectual property rights from third parties that we identify as necessary for our product candidates. The licensing and acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and a number of more established companies are also pursuing strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, financial resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment.
If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third party intellectual property rights or maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may have to abandon development of that program and our business and financial condition could suffer.
Risks Related to Our Business Operations
We may not be successful in our efforts to identify, develop or commercialize additional product candidates.
Although a substantial amount of our current effort will focus on the continued clinical testing, potential approval and commercialization of ONS-5010, the long term success of our business also depends upon our ability to identify, develop and commercialize additional product candidates. Research programs to identify new product candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources. We may focus our efforts and resources on potential programs or product candidates that ultimately prove to be unsuccessful. Our development efforts may fail to yield additional product candidates suitable for clinical development and commercialization for a number of reasons, including but not limited to the following:

we may not be successful in identifying potential product candidates that pass our strict screening criteria;

we may not be able to overcome technological hurdles to development or a product candidate may not be capable of producing commercial quantities at an acceptable cost, or at all;

we may not be able to assemble sufficient resources to acquire or discover additional product candidates;

our product candidates may not succeed in preclinical or clinical testing;

competitors may develop alternatives that render our product candidates obsolete or less attractive or the market for a product candidate may change such that a product candidate may not justify further development.
If any of these events occur, we may be forced to abandon our development efforts for a program or programs or we may not be able to identify, develop or commercialize additional product candidates, which would harm our business and could potentially cause us to cease operations.
We incur significant increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
As a public company, we expect to continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, or Nasdaq, have imposed various requirements on public companies. Although legislation permits “emerging growth companies” and “smaller reporting companies” such as our company to postpone compliance with certain
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requirements for a transition period or for so long as we remain a “smaller reporting company,” we cannot guarantee that we will not be required to implement these requirements sooner than budgeted or planned and thereby incur unexpected expenses. Stockholder activism, the current political environment and the current high level of government intervention and regulatory reform may lead to substantial new regulations and disclosure obligations, which may lead to additional compliance costs and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and add to our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal controls for financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we are required to perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report, on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Section 404. Our testing may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses. Our compliance with Section 404 requires us to incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. We currently do not have an internal audit group and rely on independent contractors for control monitoring and for the preparation and review of our consolidated financial statements. If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or if we identify or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.
New laws and regulations as well as changes to existing laws and regulations affecting public companies, including the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and rules adopted by the SEC and by Nasdaq, would likely result in increased costs to us as we respond to their requirements.
We are highly dependent on the services of our key executives and personnel, and if we are not able to retain these members of our management or recruit additional management, clinical and scientific personnel, our business will suffer.
We are highly dependent on the principal members of our management and scientific and technical staff. The loss of service of any of our management or key scientific and technical staff could harm our business. In addition, we are dependent on our continued ability to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified additional management, clinical and scientific personnel. If we are not able to retain our management and to attract, on acceptable terms, additional qualified personnel necessary for the continued development of our business, we may not be able to sustain our operations or grow.
We may not be able to attract or retain qualified personnel in the future due to the intense competition for qualified personnel among biotechnology, pharmaceutical and other businesses. Our industry has experienced a high rate of turnover of management personnel in recent years. If we are not able to attract, retain and motivate necessary personnel to accomplish our business objectives, we may experience constraints that will significantly impede the achievement of our development objectives, our ability to raise additional capital and our ability to implement our business strategy.
Our future performance will also depend, in part, on our ability to successfully integrate newly hired executive officers into our management team and our ability to develop an effective working relationship among senior management. Our failure to integrate these individuals and create effective working relationships among them and other members of management could result in inefficiencies in the development and commercialization of our product candidates, harming future regulatory approvals, sales of our product candidates and our results of operations. Additionally, we do not currently maintain “key person” life insurance on the lives of our executives or any of our employees.
Healthcare legislative reform measures may harm our business and results of operations.
In the United States, there have been and continue to be a number of legislative initiatives to improve the access to and quality of healthcare, and to contain healthcare costs. For example, in March 2010, the
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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or together, the Affordable Care Act, was passed, which substantially changes the way health care is financed by both governmental and private insurers and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The Affordable Care Act, among other things, imposes a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected, increases the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, extends the rebate program to individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, adds a provision to increase the Medicaid rebate for line extensions or reformulated drugs, establishes annual fees on manufacturers and importers of certain branded prescription drugs and biologic agents, and promotes a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program. The Affordable Care Act also expands eligibility for Medicaid programs and introduced a new Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research. There have been judicial, Congressional and executive branch challenges to certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act, and we expect there will be additional challenges and amendments to the Affordable Care Act in the future. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, it has enacted laws that modify certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act such as removing or delaying penalties, starting January 1, 2019, for not complying with the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate to carry health insurance, delaying the implementation of certain Affordable Care Act-mandated fees, and increasing the point-of-sale discount that is owed by pharmaceutical manufacturers who participate in Medicare Part D. We continue to evaluate the potential impact of the Affordable Care Act and its possible repeal or replacement on our business.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. For example, on August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2012 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers up to 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments, will stay in effect through 2027 unless additional Congressional action is taken. Additionally, on January 2, 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to certain providers, including physicians, hospitals and cancer treatment centers. In addition, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which have resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. For example, the current presidential administration released a “Blueprint” to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contains additional proposals to increase manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products and reduce the out of pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers. Although a number of these, and other proposed measures will require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, Congress and the executive branch have each indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug product costs.
We expect that the Affordable Care Act, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and lower reimbursement, and additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved product. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms could result in reduced demand for our product candidates or additional pricing pressures, and may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our drugs.
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We are subject, directly and indirectly, to federal and state healthcare laws and regulations, including fraud and abuse, false claims, physician payment transparency and health information privacy and security laws. If we are unable to comply or have not fully complied with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.
Our operations are directly and indirectly through our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, principal investigators, consultants, customers and third-party payors subject to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws, including without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the civil False Claims Act and physician sunshine laws and regulations. These laws may impact, among other things, our clinical research, proposed sales, marketing and education programs. In addition, we may be subject to patient data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The healthcare laws that may affect our ability to operate include but are not limited to:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce, reward, or in return for either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, recommendation, order or furnishing of an item or service reimbursable, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;

federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including the civil False Claims Act, which can be enforced by private individuals through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting or causing to be presented claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid or other government health programs that are false or fraudulent and which may apply to entities that provide coding and billing advice to customers;

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and their implementing regulations, which imposes certain requirements, including mandatory contractual terms, relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information on health plans, certain healthcare providers, and healthcare clearinghouses, known as covered entities, and their business associates that provide services to the covered entity that involve individually identifiable health information;

the federal legislation commonly referred to as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act under the Affordable Care Act, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services information related to payments and other transfers of value made by such manufacturers to physicians and teaching hospitals and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members and applicable group purchasing organizations; and

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws that may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.
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Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. In addition, recent healthcare reform legislation has strengthened these laws. For example, the Affordable Care Act, among other things, amends the intent requirement of the federal anti-kickback and criminal healthcare fraud statutes. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of these statutes or specific intent to violate them in order to commit a violation. Moreover, the Affordable Care Act provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act.
If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, individual imprisonment, disgorgement, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. Defending against any such actions can be costly, time-consuming and may require significant financial and personnel resources.
Therefore, even if we are successful in defending against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired.
The international aspects of our business expose us to business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks associated with doing business outside of the United States.
We currently have limited international operations of our own and have a number of international collaborations. Doing business internationally involves a number of risks, including but not limited to:

multiple, conflicting and changing laws and regulations such as privacy regulations, tax laws, export and import restrictions, employment laws, regulatory requirements and other governmental approvals, permits and licenses;

failure by us or our collaboration partners to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for the use of our products in various countries;

additional potentially relevant third-party patent rights;

complexities and difficulties in obtaining protection and enforcing our intellectual property;

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations by us or our collaboration partners;

complexities associated with managing multiple payor reimbursement regimes, government payors or patient self-pay systems by our collaboration partners;

limits in our or our collaboration partners’ ability to penetrate international markets;

financial risks, such as longer payment cycles, difficulty collecting accounts receivable, the impact of local and regional financial crises on demand and payment for our products and exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

natural disasters, political and economic instability, including wars, terrorism and political unrest, outbreak of disease, boycotts, curtailment of trade and other business restrictions;

certain expenses including, among others, expenses for travel, translation and insurance; and

regulatory and compliance risks that relate to maintaining accurate information and control over sales and activities that may fall within the purview of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, its books and records provisions or its anti-bribery provisions.
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If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could harm our business.
Our research, development and manufacturing activities and our third-party suppliers’ activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials, including the components of our product candidates and other hazardous compounds. We and our suppliers are subject to laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials. In some cases, these hazardous materials and various wastes resulting from their use are stored at our facilities pending their use and disposal. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination, which could cause an interruption of our commercialization efforts, research, development and manufacturing efforts and business operations, and environmental damage resulting in costly clean-up and liabilities under applicable laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling and disposal of these materials and specified waste products. Although we believe that the safety procedures utilized by us for handling and disposing of these materials generally comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot guarantee that this is the case or eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In such an event, we may be held liable for any resulting damages and such liability could exceed our resources and state or federal or other applicable authorities may curtail our use of certain materials and/or interrupt our business operations. Furthermore, environmental laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent. We cannot predict the impact of such changes and cannot be certain of our future compliance. We do not currently carry biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities
Our common stock may be delisted from the Nasdaq and begin trading in the over-the-counter markets if we are not successful in regaining compliance with the Nasdaq’s continued listing standards, which may negatively impact the price of our common stock and our ability to access the capital markets.
On October 24, 2018, we received written notification from Staff of the Listing Qualifications Department of Nasdaq, indicating that based upon our continued non-compliance with the minimum $1.00 bid price requirement for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market required to maintain continued listing under its rules and regulations, or the Nasdaq Rules, as of October 23, 2018, the Staff determined to delist our securities from Nasdaq unless we timely request a hearing before the Nasdaq Hearing Panel. We timely requested a hearing, which was held on December 6, 2018, at which we requested an extension within which to evidence compliance with all applicable requirements for continued listing on Nasdaq in accordance with Nasdaq Rules. On December 17, 2018, we received formal notification from The Nasdaq that the Nasdaq Hearings Panel had determined to grant our request to extend through April 22, 2019 the period within which we need to evidence compliance with all applicable requirements for continued listing on Nasdaq, including the applicable $1.00 minimum bid price for a period of at least ten consecutive days. We also intend to take definitive steps to evidence compliance with the Nasdaq Rules, including through the implementation of a reverse stock split if deemed advisable by our board of directors. Our securityholders approved the potential action at our 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which was held on September 21, 2018.
The closing bid price of our securities must be at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days to regain compliance. If we are not successful, or choose not to implement a reverse stock split we anticipate that our securities would begin trading on the over-the-counter market. Delisting from Nasdaq and trading on the over-the-counter market could adversely affect the liquidity of our securities and result in a deemed liquidation event under the terms of our Series A-1 Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, or Series A-1 Convertible. Securities traded on the over-the-counter market generally have limited trading volume and exhibit a wider spread between the bid/ask quotation, as compared to securities listed on a national securities exchange. Consequently, you may not be able to liquidate your investment in the event of an emergency or for any other reason.
If our securities are delisted from Nasdaq, we could face significant material adverse consequences, including:

the requirement to redeem the Series A-1 Convertible at (x) 600% of the stated value plus (y) 600% of any unpaid but accrued preferred dividends plus (z) any unpaid participating dividends;
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a limited availability of market quotations for our common stock;

a reduced amount of news and analyst coverage for us;

a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future;

reduced liquidity for our stockholders;

potential loss of confidence by partners and employees; and

loss of institutional investor interest and fewer business development opportunities.
The trading price of our securities is likely to be volatile, and purchasers of our securities could incur substantial losses.
The market price of our securities is likely to be volatile. The stock market in general and the market in which we operate have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their securities at a profit. The market price of our securities could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, including but not limited to:

the success of competitive services, products or technologies;

adverse results or delays in preclinical or clinical trials;

any inability to obtain additional funding;

any delay in filing an IND, BLA or other regulatory submission for ONS-5010, or any of our product candidates when planned, and any adverse development or perceived adverse development with respect to the applicable regulatory agency’s review of that IND, BLA or other regulatory submission;

the perception of limited market sizes or pricing for ONS-5010 or any of our other product candidates;

failure to successfully develop and commercialize ONS-5010 or any of our other product candidates;

post-marketing safety issues relating to our product candidates generally;

failure to maintain our existing strategic collaborations or enter into new collaborations;

failure by us or our licensors and strategic collaboration partners to prosecute, maintain or enforce our intellectual property rights;

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our products;

any inability to obtain adequate product supply for our product candidates or the inability to do so at acceptable prices;

adverse regulatory decisions;

introduction of new products, services or technologies by our competitors;

failure to meet or exceed financial projections we may provide to the public;

failure to meet or exceed the financial projections of the investment community;

the perception of the pharmaceutical industry by the public, legislatures, regulators and the investment community;

announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by us, our strategic collaboration partners or our competitors;

disputes or other developments relating to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;

additions or departures of key scientific or management personnel;

significant lawsuits, including stockholder litigation and litigation filed by us or filed against us pertaining to patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights;

the outcomes of any citizens petitions filed by parties seeking to restrict or limit the approval of our product candidates;
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if securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our stock;

changes in the market valuations of similar companies;

general economic, industry or market conditions;

sales of our securities by us or our stockholders in the future;

trading volume of our securities;

issuance of patents to third parties that could prevent our ability to commercialize our product candidates;

the loss of one or more employees constituting our leadership team;

changes in regulatory requirements that could make it more difficult for us to develop our product candidates; and

the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
In addition, biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our securities, regardless of our actual operating performance.
BioLexis has beneficial ownership of a significant percentage of our common stock, has the right to designate a majority of our board of directors, and is able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval, preventing new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.
As of November 30, 2018, BioLexis beneficially owns 99,269,168 shares of our common stock, which includes 9,101,717 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of 60,203 shares of Series A-1 Convertible and 37,262,820 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants outstanding. Accordingly, BioLexis currently beneficially owns approximately 78.1% of our common stock and controls 69.0% of our outstanding voting power. BioLexis has also agreed to acquire additional shares of our common stock under a November 2018 purchase agreement, which would further increase its ownership and control of our company. Under an investor rights agreement, as amended, with BioLexis, BioLexis also currently has the power to designate a majority of our board of directors, and four of our eight board members were designated by BioLexis. BioLexis’ interests may not coincide with the interests of other securityholders. BioLexis has the ability to influence our company through both its ownership position and control of our board of directors, which may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our capital stock that you may believe are in your best interest as one of our securityholders.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly or may fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, each of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are out of our control and may be difficult to predict, including but not limited to:

our ability to successfully develop, market and sell ONS-5010 and any other product candidates;

the cost of clinical development for ONS-5010 and any other product candidates;

the success of competitive products or technologies;

results of clinical trials of our product candidates or those of our competitors;

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

the level of expenses related to any of our product candidates or clinical development programs;

the results of our efforts to discover, develop, manufacture, acquire or in-license additional product candidates;

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
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variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

general economic, industry and market conditions; and

the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
If our quarterly operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of our securities could decline substantially. Furthermore, any quarterly fluctuations in our operating results may, in turn, cause the price of our securities to fluctuate substantially. We believe that quarterly comparisons of our financial results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish unfavorable research, about our business, the market price of our securities and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our securities will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business, our market and our competitors. We do not have any control over these analysts. If any analysts who cover us in the future downgrade our securities or change their opinion of our securities, the market price of our securities would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the market price of our securities or trading volume to decline.
We are an “emerging growth company” and, due to the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, certain investors may find investing in our securities less attractive.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years from our IPO, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of March 31 (the end of our second fiscal quarter) of any fiscal year before that time or if we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during any fiscal year before that time, in which cases we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following September 30 (the last day of our fiscal year) or, if we issue more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during any three-year period before that time, we would cease to be an emerging growth company immediately. We cannot predict if investors will find our securities less attractive because we may rely on this exemption. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the market price of our securities may be more volatile.
We have and will continue to incur significant costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with the laws and regulations affecting public companies in the United States, which may harm our operating results.
As a public company listed in the United States, we have and will continue to incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses. In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including regulations implemented by the SEC and Nasdaq, may increase legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, and as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in
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increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If, notwithstanding our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards, we fail to comply, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us, and our business may be harmed.
Further, failure to comply with these laws, regulations and standards might also make it more difficult for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we might be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, on committees of our board of directors or as members of senior management.
Due to the speculative nature of warrants, there is no guarantee that it will ever be profitable for holders of the Series A warrants to exercise such warrants.
The Series A warrants represent the right to acquire shares of our common stock at a fixed price for a limited period of time. If not exercised prior to their expiration dates, such warrants expire and have no further value. In the event the price of a share of our common stock price does not exceed the exercise price of the warrants, such warrants may not have any value. Moreover, the market value of the warrants is uncertain and there can be no assurance that the market value of the warrants will equal or exceed their initial public offering price. There can be no assurance that the market price of our common stock will ever equal or exceed the exercise price of the warrants, and, consequently, whether it will ever be profitable for holders of the Series A warrants to exercise such warrants.
Future sales and issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase securities, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, exercise of warrants or conversion of outstanding convertible preferred securities, could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the market price of our securities to fall.
We will need additional capital in the future to continue our planned operations. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. These sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders.
Pursuant to the 2015 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2015 Plan, our management is authorized to grant stock options and other equity-based awards to our employees, directors and consultants. Under the 2015 Plan, the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance as of September 30, 2018 was 5,558,678 shares. The number of shares available for future grant under the 2015 Plan will be increased by (i) the number of shares pursuant to outstanding awards under the 2015 Plan that are forfeited or lapse unexercised and which following the effective date are not issued under the 2015 Plan and (ii) an annual increase on January 1 (which began in 2017 and will end in 2025), equal to 3% of the shares of stock outstanding as of December 31st of the immediately preceding year, or such smaller number of shares as determined by our board of directors. Pursuant to the 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the ESPP, upon implementation of an offering under the ESPP, eligible employees will be able to acquire shares of our common stock at a discount to the prevailing market price, and an aggregate of 545,162 shares were available for issuance under the ESPP as of September 30, 2018. The number of shares available for issuance under the ESPP will automatically increase on the first day of each fiscal year beginning in 2016 and ending in 2025, equal to the lesser of  (i) 1% of the shares of common stock outstanding on December 31st of the immediately preceding calendar year, (ii) 510,145 shares of common stock, subject to adjustments as provided in the ESPP or (iii) such smaller number of shares as determined by our board of directors. If our board of directors does not elect to reduce the annual increases in the number of shares available for future grant under the 2015 Plan or the ESPP, our stockholders may experience additional dilution, which could cause the market price of our securities to fall.
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We also currently have issued and outstanding a number of warrants to purchase an aggregate of 45,292,494 shares of our common stock, at prices ranging from $0.01 to $6.60 per share, as well as shares of our convertible preferred stock, which are currently convertible into an aggregate 9,101,717 shares of our common stock.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
We have incurred substantial losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and we may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in its equity ownership by certain stockholders over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, and other pre-change tax attributes (such as research tax credits) to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. We may have experienced ownership changes in the past and may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership (some of which shifts are outside our control). As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-change NOLs to offset such taxable income will be subject to limitations. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply to limit our use of accumulated state tax attributes. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of NOLs is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed. As a result, even if we attain profitability, we may be unable to use a material portion of our NOLs and other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our future cash flows.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our capital stock, and as such any returns will be limited to the value of our securities.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to securityholders will therefore be limited to the appreciation of their securities. In addition, our senior secured notes issued December 2016 through May 2017 restrict our ability to pay dividends, and the terms of our Series A-1 Convertible may also act to limit our ability to pay dividends as we may not declare or pay any dividends on our common stock unless we also concurrently declare and set aside for payment or distribution, as applicable, participating dividends for our Series A-1 Convertible.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or increase the cost of acquiring us, even if doing so would benefit our securityholders or remove our current management.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws, as amended and Delaware law contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of us or changes in our management. Our charter documents also contain other provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect, such as:

establishing a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board of directors are elected at one time;

permitting the board of directors to establish the number of directors and fill any vacancies and newly created directorships;

providing that directors may only be removed for cause;

prohibiting cumulative voting for directors;

requiring super-majority voting to amend some provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws;

authorizing the issuance of  “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could use to implement a stockholder rights plan;

eliminating the ability of stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders; and
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prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, which requires all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay, deter or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our management.
In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits the ability of stockholders owning in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock to merge or combine with us.
Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws, as amended or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our securityholders to receive a premium for their securities and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our securities.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, as amended, provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, as amended, provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, as amended; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or in our amended and restated bylaws, as amended, to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business and financial condition.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 2.
Properties
Our headquarters are located in Cranbury, New Jersey where we occupy approximately 66,000 square feet of office, manufacturing and laboratory space under a lease that expires in February 2028. Additionally, in 2015, we leased approximately 82,000 square feet of unfinished office and laboratory space in Cranbury, New Jersey, with lease payments that commenced in March 2016 and expire in March 2026. However, in August 2018, we entered in to a lease termination agreement effective September 1, 2018, which terminated the 82,000 square feet lease for approximately $5.8 million in the aggregate.
We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current needs. When our lease expires, or if we need to hire more employees, we may exercise our renewal option or look for additional or alternate space for our operations and we believe that suitable additional or alternative space will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may become involved in litigation relating to claims arising from the ordinary course of business. Our management believes that there are currently no claims or actions pending against us, the ultimate disposition of which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. We are not currently party to any legal proceedings.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our units, which comprised one share of our common stock, one-half of a Series A warrant and one-half of a Series B warrant began trading under the symbol “ONSIU” on The Nasdaq Global Market on May 13, 2016 in connection with our initial public offering. Following separation of the units, on June 13, 2016, our shares of common stock and the Series A warrants and Series B warrants began trading under the symbols “ONS,” “ONSIW” and “ONSIZ,” respectively, and our units were delisted. On February 13, 2018, the listing of our common stock and the Series A Warrants was transferred to The Nasdaq Capital Market. On February 18, 2018, the Series B warrants expired and were delisted on May 16, 2018. Following our name change to “Outlook Therapeutics, Inc.,” effective December 4, 2018, our common stock and the Series A warrants began trading under the symbols “OTLK” and “OTLKW,” respectively. Prior to our initial public offering, there was no public market for our securities.
On December 14, 2018, the closing sale price of our common stock was $0.44, and of our Series A warrants was $0.12.
Common Stockholders
As of December 14, 2018, there were approximately 124 stockholders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders, and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.
Preferred Stockholders
As of December 14, 2018, there were 60,203 shares of our Series A-1 Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, or the Series A-1 Convertible, issued and outstanding, all of which were held by one record holder, BioLexis.
Series A Warrant Holders
As of December 14, 2018, there was one holder of record of our Series A warrants. The actual number of warrantholders is greater than this number of record holders, and includes warrantholders who are beneficial owners, but whose warrants are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include warrantholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant. Our outstanding senior secured notes issued in December 2016 restrict our ability to pay dividends. The terms of our Series A-1 Convertible may also act to limit our ability to pay dividends as we may not declare or pay any dividends on our common stock unless we also concurrently declare and set aside for payment or distribution, as applicable, participating dividends for our Series A-1 Convertible.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The information required by this Item regarding equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference to the information set forth in Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
We did not repurchase any of our equity securities during fiscal year ended September 30, 2018.
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Not applicable.
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Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the following sections, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. For a detailed discussion of these risks and uncertainties, see the “Risk Factors” section in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We caution the reader not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s analysis only as of the date of this Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to update forward-looking statements, which reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Form 10-K.
Overview
We are a late clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing ONS-5010, a complex, technically challenging and commercially attractive monoclonal antibody, or mAb, for various ophthalmic indications. Our goal is to launch ONS-5010 as the first, and only, approved bevacizumab in the United States, Europe, Japan and other markets for the treatment of wet age related macular degeneration, or wet AMD, diabetic macular edema, or DME, and branch retinal vein occlusion, or BRVO.
ONS-5010 is an innovative mAb therapeutic product candidate currently enrolling patients in a clinical trial outside the United States designed to serve as the first of two adequate and well controlled studies evaluating ONS-5010 for wet AMD. We plan to submit an investigational new drug, or IND, application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in the first quarter of calendar 2019. The U.S. portion of the second study is also expected to begin at that time. Our ONS-5010 wet AMD clinical program was reviewed at a successful end of Phase 2 meeting with the FDA conducted in 2018. If the program is successful, it will support our plans to submit for regulatory approval in multiple markets in 2020 including the United States, Europe and Japan. Because there are no approved bevacizumab products for the treatment of retinal diseases in such major markets, we are developing ONS-5010 as an innovative therapy and not using the biosimilar drug development pathway. If approved, we believe ONS-5010 has potential to mitigate risks associated with off-label compounding of Avastin or other drugs. Off label compounding of Avastin is currently estimated to account for approximately 50% of all wet AMD prescriptions in the United States.
Separately, we have advanced two biosimilar product candidates through Phase 1 clinical trials and into preparations for Phase 3 clinical trials: ONS-3010, a biosimilar to adalimumab (Humira), and ONS-1045, a biosimilar to bevacizumab (Avastin). We do not plan to further advance ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in major markets, including the United States, upon entering into a license or co-development agreement with a partner in one or more of the major markets. The emerging markets rights to these drug product candidates have been licensed to third parties for development in those markets. At this time, ONS-5010 is our only product candidate in active development.
Through September 30, 2018, we have funded substantially all of our operations with $195.3 million in proceeds from the sale and issuance of our equity and debt securities. We have also received $29.0 million pursuant to our collaboration and licensing agreements. In September 2017, we closed on the initial sale of 32,628 shares of our newly-created Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, or the Series A Convertible, to BioLexis Holdings Pte. Ltd., or BioLexis (formerly GMS Tenshi Holdings Pte. Limited), our controlling stockholder and strategic partner, for $3.3 million of cash, and entered into an investor rights agreement in connection therewith. In October 2017, following receipt of necessary stockholder approval, we issued an additional 217,372 shares of our Series A Convertible and warrants to acquire 16,750,000 shares of our common stock to BioLexis for $21.7 million of cash. Concurrent with such second closing, we also exchanged an aggregate $1.5 million of outstanding senior secured notes into 1,500,000 shares of our newly-created Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, or the Series B Convertible.
Additionally, as part of the BioLexis transaction, in September 2017, we entered into a joint development and licensing agreement for ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in all emerging market territories not previously licensed to other development partners.
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On May 11, 2018, we entered into a purchase agreement with BioLexis pursuant to which we agreed to sell to BioLexis, and BioLexis agreed to purchase, in a private placement, $15.0 million of our common stock and warrants to acquire that number of shares of common stock having an aggregate exercise price of approximately $20.0 million, to close in two tranches. On May 14, 2018, we closed the sale of the first tranche of the common stock and warrants for aggregate cash proceeds of  $7.5 million, issuing to BioLexis an aggregate of 6,377,383 shares of our common stock and warrants to acquire up to 10,256,410 additional shares of our common stock at an exercise price of  $0.975 per share, which warrants have a term of eight years from their issuance date. On June 8, 2018, we closed the sale of the second tranche of the common stock and warrants for aggregate cash proceeds of  $7.5 million, issuing to BioLexis an aggregate of 6,377,383 shares of our common stock and warrants to acquire up to 10,256,410 additional shares of our common stock at an exercise price of  $0.975 per share, which warrants have a term of eight years from their issuance date.
On June 20, 2018, BioLexis converted 208,836 shares of its Series A Convertible into 31,572,617 shares of our common stock. In connection therewith, we agreed in principle to exchange BioLexis’s remaining shares of Series A Convertible (along with accrued but unpaid dividends) into a newly created class of preferred stock that was intended to have the same conversion and dividend features as the Series A Convertible, but reflect an increased redemption premium and increased liquidation preference that provides BioLexis with similar redemption premium and liquidation preference as before the June 20, 2018 conversion into common stock. Accordingly, on July 18, 2018, we entered into an exchange agreement with BioLexis pursuant to which we exchanged an aggregate of 58,735 shares of Series A Convertible then held by BioLexis for 58,735 shares of our newly created voting Series A-1 Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, or the Series A-1 Convertible. Accordingly, all of the issued Series A Convertible have been retired and cancelled and may not be reissued as shares of such series in accordance with their terms.
The Series A-1 Convertible has the same conversion and dividend features as the Series A Convertible (10% per annum, compounded quarterly, payable quarterly at our option in cash or in kind in additional shares of Series A-1 Convertible), but reflects an increased redemption premium (110% to 550%) and increased liquidation preference (120% to 600%) that provides BioLexis with similar redemption premium and liquidation preference for its aggregate Series A Convertible holdings before the conversion.
On November 5, 2018, we entered into a purchase agreement with BioLexis providing for the private placement of  $20.0 million of shares of our common stock at $0.9327 per share. The closing of the sale of the first two tranches of this private placement for an aggregate of 12,865,867 shares of our common stock for aggregate cash proceeds of  $12.0 million occurred in November and December 2018. The remaining $8.0 million will be funded in two equal tranches on January 3, 2019 and February 1, 2019, subject to customary conditions and achieving certain funding milestones as set forth in the purchase agreement. We intend to use the net proceeds from the private placement primarily for clinical trials for our lead product candidate, ONS-5010, and for working capital and general corporate purposes, including the agreed repayments on the senior secured notes discussed below.
Also on November 5, 2018, we reached an agreement with the holders of our $13.5 million senior secured notes to extend the maturity of the senior secured notes, up to 12 months, or until December 22, 2019, in exchange for making several payments of principal and interest through August 31, 2019, subject to meeting additional capital raising commitments, with an initial payment of  $2.2 million paid on November 7, 2018. In addition, we agreed to make the senior secured notes convertible into common stock at a price of $1.11924 per share (120% of the price per share paid by BioLexis under the purchase agreement) and reduced the exercise price of the warrants held by such holders to $1.50 and extended the expiration of these warrants by three years. We also agreed to take such steps as reasonably necessary to amend the outstanding Series A warrants that were issued in our initial public offering, or IPO, to reduce the exercise price to $1.50 and extend the expiration of these warrants by three years.
On November 30, 2018, we received approval from the New Jersey Economic Development Authority’s Technology Business Tax Certificate Transfer Program to sell approximately $3.7 million of our unused New Jersey net operating losses, or NOLs, and research and development tax credits, or R&D credits. We expect to receive approximately $3.4 million of proceeds from the sale of the New Jersey NOLs and R&D credits.
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As described in their audit report included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our auditors have included an explanatory paragraph that states that we have incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and have an accumulated deficit at September 30, 2018 of $216.3 million, $13.5 million of senior secured notes that may become due in fiscal 2019; and $4.6 million of unsecured indebtedness, $1.0 million of which is due on demand, and $3.6 million of which matures December 22, 2018. We will need to raise substantial additional capital to fund our planned future operations, commence clinical trials, receive approval for and commercialize ONS-5010, reactivate the development of ONS-3010 and ONS-1045, or continue to develop our product candidates. We plan to finance our future operations with a combination of proceeds from the issuance of equity securities, and the issuance of additional debt, potential collaborations and revenues from potential future product sales, if any. There are no assurances that we will be successful in obtaining an adequate level of financing for the development and commercialization of ONS-5010 or any other current or future product candidates. If we are unable to secure adequate additional funding, our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected. These matters raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if we are unable to continue as a going concern.
Our current cash resources of  $1.7 million as of September 30, 2018, additional $20.0 million funding from our November BioLexis private placement and anticipated proceeds from the sale of New Jersey NOLs, are expected to fund our operations into June 2019, excluding any unscheduled repayment of debt. To provide additional working capital, we continue to engage in active discussions with global and regional pharmaceutical companies for licensing and/or co-development rights to our late- and early-stage pipeline product candidates. If we are not successful in raising additional capital or entering into one or more licensing and/or co-development rights agreements, we may be required to, among other things, make reductions in our workforce, discontinue our development programs, liquidate all or a portion of our assets, and/or seek protection under the provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.
We do not have any products approved for sale and we have only generated revenue from our collaboration agreements. We have incurred operating losses and negative operating cash flows since inception and there is no assurance that we will ever achieve profitable operations, and if achieved, that profitable operations will be sustained. Our net loss for the year ended September 30, 2018 was $30.1 million. We also had a net loss of  $38.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2017. In addition, development activities, clinical and preclinical testing and commercialization of our product candidates will require significant additional financing.
Collaboration and License Agreements
From time to time, we enter into collaboration and license agreements for the research and development, manufacture and/or commercialization of our products and/or product candidates. These agreements generally provide for non-refundable upfront license fees, development and commercial performance milestone payments, cost sharing, royalty payments and/or profit sharing.
MTTR, LLC — ONS 5010
In February 2018, we entered into a strategic partnership agreement with MTTR, LLC, or MTTR, to advise on regulatory, clinical and commercial strategy and assist in obtaining approval of ONS-5010, our bevacizumab therapeutic product candidate for ophthalmic indications. Under the terms of the agreement, we currently pay MTTR a $58,333 monthly consulting fee. In March 2018, we amended the MTTR agreement and agreed to pay a one-time fee of  $268,553 to MTTR by September 2020 if certain regulatory milestones are achieved earlier than anticipated. Beginning January 2019, the monthly fee increases to $105,208 per month, and then, after launch of ONS-5010 in the United States, to $170,833 per month (the amount of which is reduced by 50% in the event net sales of ONS-5010 are below a certain threshold million per year). We also agreed to pay MTTR a tiered percentage of the net profits of ONS-5010 ranging in the low- to mid-teens, with the ability to credit monthly fees paid to MTTR. For the year ended September 30, 2018, MTTR earned an aggregate of $602,629, which includes monthly consulting fees, expense reimbursement and an initial upfront payment of  $75,000.
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Selexis SA
In October 2011, we entered into a research license agreement with Selexis SA, or Selexis, whereby we acquired a non-exclusive license to conduct research internally or in collaboration with third parties to develop recombinant proteins from cell lines created in mammalian cells using the Selexis expression technology, or the Selexis Technology. The original research license had a three-year term, but on October 9, 2014, it was extended for an additional three-year term through October 9, 2017, and then a limited scope license was extended for one more year through October 9, 2018. We may sublicense our rights with Selexis’ prior written consent but are prohibited from making commercial use of the Selexis Technology or the resultant recombinant proteins comprising our product candidates in humans, or from filing an investigational new drug, absent a commercial license agreement with Selexis covering the particular product candidate developed under the research license. In connection with the entry into the research license, we paid Selexis an initial fee and agreed to make additional annual license maintenance payments of the same amount for each of the three years that the research license agreement term was extended and for a pro rata amount for the most current one-year license extension that expired on October 9, 2018. As such, we are no longer using the Selexis Technology in our research.
Selexis also granted us a non-transferrable option to obtain a perpetual, non-exclusive, worldwide commercial license under the Selexis Technology to manufacture, or have manufactured, a recombinant protein produced by a cell line developed using the Selexis Technology for clinical testing and commercial sale. We exercised this option in April 2013 and entered into three commercial license agreements with Selexis for our ONS-3010, ONS-1045 (which covers ONS-5010) and ONS-1050 product candidates. We paid an upfront licensing fee to Selexis for each commercial license and also agreed to pay a fixed milestone payment for each licensed product. In addition, we are required to pay a single-digit royalty on a final product-by-final product and country-by-country basis, based on worldwide net sales of such final products by us or any of our affiliates or sub-licensees during the royalty term. At any time during the term, we have the right to terminate our royalty payment obligation by providing written notice to Selexis and paying Selexis a royalty termination fee.
As of September 30, 2018, we have paid Selexis an aggregate of approximately $0.4 million under the commercial license agreements.
IPCA Laboratories Limited — Humira (ONS-3010), Avastin (ONS-1045) and Herceptin (ONS-1050)
In August 2013, we entered into a strategic license agreement with IPCA Laboratories Limited, or IPCA, under which we granted IPCA and its affiliates a license for the research, development, manufacture, use or sale of ONS-3010 and, by amendment in May 2014, ONS-1045. The license is exclusive with respect to India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and non-exclusive with respect to Nepal and Bhutan. Under the terms of the August 2013 agreement, we received an upfront payment from IPCA, and are eligible to earn additional regulatory milestone payments for each of ONS-3010 and ONS-1045. In addition, we are eligible to receive royalties at a low teens percentage rate of annual net sales of products by IPCA and its affiliates in the agreed territory.
In January 2014, we entered into an agreement with IPCA to assist IPCA in establishing its research, development and manufacturing capabilities for mAbs and biologics, including, in part, through collaborative development, manufacture and commercialization of ONS-1050 (our Herceptin biosimilar), in the agreed territory (as specified below). The agreed territory for ONS-1050 includes the Republics of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan, while the agreed territory for any product candidates developed independent of our involvement is global without geographical restriction. We also agreed to assist IPCA with its research and development program. Under the terms of the January 2014 agreement, we are eligible to receive development payments and commercialization fees. In addition, we are eligible to receive royalties from IPCA at a mid-single digit rate on annual net sales of ONS-1050 commercialized by IPCA and its affiliates in the agreed territory.
As of September 30, 2018, we have received an aggregate of  $5.0 million of payments from IPCA under our various agreements.
Liomont — Humira (ONS-3010) and Avastin (ONS-1045)
In June 2014, we entered into a strategic license agreement with Laboratories Liomont, S.A. de C.V., or Liomont, under which we granted Liomont and its affiliates an exclusive, sublicenseable license in Mexico
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for the research, development, manufacture, use or sale of the ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 biosimilar product candidates in Mexico. Under the terms of the agreement, we received an upfront payment from Liomont, and we are eligible to earn milestone payments for each of ONS-3010 and ONS-1045. In addition, we are eligible to receive tiered royalties at upper single-digit to low teens percentage rates of annual net sales of products by Liomont and its affiliates in Mexico. As of September 30, 2018, we have received an aggregate of  $3.0 million of upfront and milestone payments from Liomont.
Huahai — Humira (ONS-3010) and Avastin (ONS-1045)
In May 2013, we entered into a series of agreements with Zhejiang Huahai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., or Huahai, to form an alliance for the purpose of developing and obtaining regulatory approval for, and commercial launch and marketing of licensed products in an agreed territory, as described below. The agreements include a strategic alliance agreement, which sets out the governance framework for the relationship, along with a joint participation agreement regarding joint development and commercialization of ONS-3010, and a co-development and license agreement for each of ONS-3010 and ONS-1045. As of September 30, 2018, we have received an aggregate of  $16.0 million of upfront and milestone payments from Huahai.
As contemplated by the strategic alliance agreement, we entered into a joint participation agreement with Huahai where we agreed to co-fund the development and share the value ownership interest of ONS-3010 in the United States, Canada, European Union, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Under the agreement as amended, we are responsible for completing a defined “Phase-3 Ready Package” at our expense, for which the portion of the funds received from Huahai to date under this joint participation agreement was used.
In the event Huahai funds its proportionate share of development costs incurred after completion of the “Phase-3 Ready Packages,” Huahai would be entitled to retain its 51% value ownership, with us entitled to retain our 49% value ownership, of ONS-3010 in the agreed territories. Similarly, revenues from commercialization of ONS-3010 in the agreed countries (including major markets such as the United States and the European Union, among others), would also be shared based on such proportional ownership interests. In the event that Huahai does not fund its proportionate share of such development costs, the joint participation agreement provides for a proportionate adjustment to our respective value ownership interests based on our respective investments in such development costs, which would increase our value ownership interest in ONS-3010. Under the joint participation agreement, we could also be required to form a joint venture to further develop and commercialize ONS-3010 with Huahai in the agreed countries, if so requested by Huahai.
In conjunction with the strategic alliance agreement, we also entered into a co-development and license agreement with Huahai, under which we granted Huahai and its affiliates an exclusive license, in the territory (as specified below) for the research, development, manufacture, use or sale of ONS-3010 or ONS-1045 in China, including, the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. We will each bear our respective costs under the development plans. Huahai agreed to carry out all clinical, manufacturing and regulatory requirements necessary for approval of the products in the agreed territory. Under the terms of the agreement, we received an upfront payment from Huahai for ONS-3010, and have received regulatory milestone payments for each of ONS-3010 and ONS-1045.
BioLexis — Humira (ONS-3010) and Avastin (ONS-1045)
On September 7, 2017, in connection with the entry into the BioLexis purchase agreement for the Series A Convertible and warrants, we also entered into a joint development and license agreement providing for the license of rights to ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 in emerging markets, excluding China, India and Mexico, which superseded and replaced a previous strategic licensing agreement dated July 25, 2017. As of September 30, 2018, we have received an aggregate of  $5.0 million of payments from BioLexis under our joint development and license agreement.
Components of Our Results of Operations
Collaboration Revenue
To date, we have derived revenue only from activities pursuant to our collaboration and licensing agreements. We have not generated any revenue from commercial product sales. For the foreseeable future,
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we expect all of our revenue, if any, will be generated from our collaboration and licensing agreements. If any of our product candidates currently under development are approved for commercial sale, we may generate revenue from product sales, or alternatively, we may choose to select a collaborator to commercialize our product candidates.
Each of our collaboration and licensing agreements is considered to be a multiple-element arrangement for accounting purposes. We determined that there are two deliverables; specifically, the license to our product candidate and the related research and development services that we are obligated to provide. We concluded that these deliverables should be accounted for as a single unit of accounting. We determined that the upfront license payments received should be deferred and recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis through the estimated period of completion of our obligations under the agreement. We recognize revenues from the achievement of milestones if the milestone event is substantive and achievability of the milestone was not reasonably assured at the inception of the agreement. During the three months ended December 31, 2016, we revised our estimate of the period of completion from December 2019 to December 2021.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expense consists of expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and development of our product candidates. We expense research and development costs as incurred. These expenses include:

expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, or CROs, as well as investigative sites and consultants that conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

manufacturing scale-up expenses and the cost of acquiring and manufacturing preclinical and clinical trial materials and commercial materials, including manufacturing validation batches;

outsourced professional scientific development services;

employee-related expenses, which include salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation;

payments made under a third-party assignment agreement, under which we acquired intellectual property;

expenses relating to regulatory activities, including filing fees paid to regulatory agencies;

laboratory materials and supplies used to support our research activities; and

allocated expenses, utilities and other facility-related costs.
The successful development of our product candidates is highly uncertain. At this time, we cannot reasonably estimate or know the nature, timing and costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the remainder of the development of, or when, if ever, material net cash inflows may commence from any of our other product candidates. This uncertainty is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the duration and cost of clinical trials, which vary significantly over the life of a project as a result of many factors, including:

the number of clinical sites included in the trials;

the length of time required to enroll suitable patients;

the number of patients that ultimately participate in the trials;

the number of doses patients receive;

the duration of patient follow-up;

the results of our clinical trials;

the establishment of commercial manufacturing capabilities;

the receipt of marketing approvals; and

the commercialization of product candidates.
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Our expenditures are subject to additional uncertainties, including the terms and timing of regulatory approvals. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our biosimilar product candidates. We may obtain unexpected results from our clinical trials. We may elect to discontinue, delay or modify clinical trials of some product candidates or focus on others. A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. For example, if the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or other regulatory authorities were to require us to conduct clinical trials beyond those that we currently anticipate, or if we experience significant delays in enrollment in any of our clinical trials, we could be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development. Product commercialization will take several years and millions of dollars in development costs.
Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size, complexity and duration of later-stage clinical trials.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist principally of salaries and related costs for personnel in executive, administrative, finance and legal functions, including stock-based compensation, travel expenses and recruiting expenses. Other general and administrative expenses include facility related costs, patent filing and prosecution costs and professional fees for business development, legal, auditing and tax services and insurance costs.
We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase if and when we believe a regulatory approval of a product candidate appears likely, and we anticipate an increase in payroll and expense as a result of our preparation for commercial operations, particularly as it relates to the sales and marketing of our product.
Interest Expense
Interest expense consists of cash paid and non-cash interest expense related to our senior secured notes, former bank loans, and notes with current and former stockholders, equipment loans, capital lease and other finance obligations.
Income Taxes
During the year ended September 30, 2018, we sold New Jersey NOLs in the amount of $38.5 million resulting in the recognition of income tax benefits of  $3.2 million, recorded in our consolidated statement of operations.
Since inception, we have not recorded any U.S. federal or state income tax benefits (excluding the sale of New Jersey NOLs and research credits) for the net losses we have incurred in each year or on our earned research and development tax credits, due to our uncertainty of realizing a benefit from those items. As of September 30, 2018, we had federal and state NOL carryforwards of  $164.2 million and $67.6 million, respectively, that will begin to expire in 2030 and 2036, respectively. As of September 30, 2018, we had federal foreign tax credit carryforwards of  $2.4 million available to reduce future tax liabilities, which begin to expire starting in 2023. As of September 30, 2018, we also had federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of  $8.5 million that begin to expire in 2032.
In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs to offset future taxable income. We have not completed a study to assess whether an ownership change has occurred in the past. Our existing NOLs may be subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, and if we undergo an ownership change in connection with or after our IPO, our ability to utilize NOLs could be further limited by Section 382 of the Code. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. Our NOLs are also subject to international regulations, which could restrict our ability to utilize our NOLs.
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Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
We recorded a loss on the extinguishment of debt of  $1.3 million during the year ended September 30, 2018 related to the exchange of our senior secured notes for shares of our Series B Convertible.
Change in Fair Value of Warrant Liability
Warrants to purchase our common stock that have been issued in conjunction with our senior secured notes are classified as liabilities and recorded at fair value. The warrants are subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date and we recognize any change in fair value in our statements of operation.
Results of Operations
Comparison of Years Ended September 30, 2018 and 2017
Year ended September 30,
2018
2017
Change
Collaboration revenues
$ 3,087,560 $ 3,811,519 $ (723,959)
Operating expenses:
Research and development
18,504,035 23,809,749 (5,305,714)
General and administrative
14,227,828 15,882,033 (1,654,205)
32,731,863 39,691,782 (6,959,919)
Loss from operations
(29,644,303) (35,880,263) 6,235,960
Interest expense, net
3,891,250 5,625,833 (1,734,583)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
1,252,353 1,252,353
Change in fair value of warrant liability
(1,047,729) (3,158,469) 2,110,740
Loss before income taxes
(33,740,177) (38,347,627) 4,607,450
Income tax (benefit) expense
(3,648,216) 501,500 (4,149,716)
Net loss
$ (30,091,961) $ (38,849,127) $ 8,757,166
Collaboration Revenues
The following table sets forth a summary of revenue recognized from our collaboration and licensing agreements for the years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
Year ended September 30,
2018
2017
IPCA Collaboration
$ 261,072 $ 261,072
Liomont Collaboration
236,641 236,641
Huahai Collaboration
714,848 714,848
BioLexis 1,874,999 2,598,958
$ 3,087,560 $ 3,811,519
The following table summarizes the milestone payments and recognition of deferred revenues from our collaboration and licensing agreements during the years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
Year ended September 30,
2018
2017
Milestone payments
$ $ 2,500,000
Recognition of deferred revenues
3,087,560 1,311,519
$ 3,087,560 $ 3,811,519
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Collaboration revenues decreased $0.7 million for the year ended September 30, 2018 compared to the year ended September 30, 2017 due to a $2.5 million decrease in milestone payments offset by a $1.8 million increase in the amortization of deferred revenue as compared to the prior year. There were no milestone payments in 2018 compared to $2.5 million payments received in 2017 under our joint development and licensing agreement with BioLexis. The increase in deferred revenue recognized was primarily due to a full year of amortization of collaboration revenue from BioLexis.
Research and Development Expenses
The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by functional area for the years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
Year ended September 30,
2018
2017
Preclinical and clinical development
$ 7,403,015 $ 9,674,633
Settlement of clinical development contract
(3,228,613)
Compensation and related benefits
6,911,910 7,460,814
Stock-based compensation
19,450 1,001,022
Other research and development
7,398,273 5,673,280
Total research and development expenses
$ 18,504,035 $ 23,809,749
The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by compound for the years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
Year ended September 30,
2018
2017
ONS-3010
$ 573,518 $ 5,195,278
ONS-1045
348,596 2,931,414
ONS-5010 6,315,937
Early-stage compounds
164,964 1,547,941
Settlement of clinical development contract
(3,228,613)
Personnel related and stock-based compensation
6,931,360 8,461,836
Other research and development
7,398,273 5,673,280
Total research and development expenses
$ 18,504,035 $ 23,809,749
Research and development expenses for the year ended September 30, 2018 decreased by $5.3 million compared to the year ended September 30, 2017 due to reductions in preclinical and clinical development spending, a related contract settlement and lower personnel related costs as we shifted our focus from our biosimilar product candidates ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 to our innovative therapeutic, ONS-5010. Overall pre-clinical and clinical research and development expenses decreased due to the deprioritization of our biosimilar product candidate development program in favor of the ONS-5010 program. This resulted in a reduction in expenses for ONS-3010, ONS-1045 and our early stage development program of  $8.6 million, which was partially offset by $6.3 million in development costs incurred related to our ONS-5010 program as we prepared for the initiation of the ONS-5010 clinical programs in 2018. During the year ended September 30, 2018, we also terminated an agreement related to ONS-3010 and ONS-1045 and were able to favorably settle amounts previously owed under the contract resulting in a reduction to our research and development expenses of  $3.2 million. Additionally, we experienced a reduction of  $1.5 million in personnel related costs for the year ended September 30, 2018 due to a combination of lower salaries and benefits from reduced employee headcount in the current period as a result of attrition in late 2017 and lower stock-based compensation due to the related forfeitures of equity awards by departing employees and the completion of the vesting period of most pre-IPO equity grants earlier in fiscal 2018.
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General and Administrative Expenses
The following table summarizes our general and administrative expenses by type for the years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017:
Year ended September 30,
2018
2017
Professional fees
$ 3,155,658 $ 3,263,523
Compensation and related benefits
2,451,796 2,695,751
Stock-based compensation
1,966,420 7,570,635
Facilities, fees and other related costs
6,653,954 2,352,123
Total general and administrative expenses
$ 14,227,828 $ 15,882,033
General and administrative expenses for the year ended September 30, 2018 decreased by $1.7 million compared to the year ended September 30, 2017. The decrease was primarily a result of a decrease in stock-based compensation expenses of  $5.6 million related to the completion of the vesting period of most pre-IPO equity grants earlier in fiscal 2018 and a $0.2 million decrease in compensation and related benefits. This was partially offset by an increase in facilities, fees and related costs primarily due to a $4.2 million lease termination charge incurred during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018.
Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased by $1.7 million to $3.9 million for the year ended September 30, 2018 as compared to $5.6 million for the year ended September 30, 2017 primarily due a $2.4 million decrease in amortization of debt discount and interest expense on the senior secured notes issued December 2016 through May 2017 offset by a $0.8 million increase in interest expense from equipment loans, and capital lease obligations.
Change in Fair Value of Warrant Liability
During the year ended September 30, 2018, we recorded income of  $1.0 million related to the decrease in the fair value of our common stock warrant liability as a result of the decrease in the price of our common stock during the period. During the year ended September 30, 2017, we recorded income of  $3.2 million related to the decrease in the fair value of our common stock warrant liability as a result of the decrease in the price of our common stock during the period.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have not generated any revenue from product sales. Since inception, we have incurred net losses and negative cash flows from our operations. Through September 30, 2018, we have funded substantially all of our operations through the sale and issuance of  $195.3 million net proceeds of our equity securities, debt securities and borrowings under debt facilities. We have also received an aggregate of  $29.0 million pursuant to our collaboration and licensing agreements.
In September 2017, we closed on the initial sale of 32,628 shares of Series A Convertible to BioLexis for $3.3 million of cash, and entered into an investor rights agreement and joint development and licensing agreement. In October 2017, following receipt of stockholder approval, we issued an additional 217,372 shares of our Series A Convertible and warrants to acquire an aggregate of 16,750,000 shares of our common stock to BioLexis for $21.7 million of cash. All of the issued Series A Convertible was exchanged for Series A-1 Convertible in July 2018. We also converted $1.5 million aggregate principal amount of our senior secured notes into 1,500,000 shares of our Series B Convertible, all of which shares converted into an aggregate of 2,112,675 shares of our common stock in the quarter ended June 30, 2018.
In May 2018 and June 2018, we sold an aggregate of 12,754,766 shares of our common stock and warrants to acquire an aggregate of 20,512,820 shares of our common stock to BioLexis for aggregate cash proceeds of  $15.0 million. The warrants have an exercise price of  $0.975 per share and a term of eight years from their issuance date.
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In November and December 2018, we issued 12,865,872 shares of the common stock to BioLexis in a placement arrangement for an aggregate cash proceeds of  $12.0 million. We expect to receive an additional $8.0 in two equal tranches on January 3, 2019 and February 1, 2019, subject to customary closing conditions and meeting certain funding milestones. On November 5, 2018, we reached an agreement with the holders of our $13.5 million senior secured notes to extend the maturity of the senior secured notes, up to 12 months, or until December 22, 2019, in exchange for making several payments of principal and interest through August 31, 2019, subject to meeting additional capital raising commitments, with an initial payment of  $2.2 million paid on November 7, 2018.
On November 30, 2018, we received approval from the New Jersey Economic Development Authority’s Technology Business Tax Certificate Transfer Program to sell approximately $3.7 million of our unused New Jersey NOLs and R&D credits. We expect to receive approximately $3.4 million of proceeds from the sale of the New Jersey NOLs and R&D credits.
Our current cash resources of  $1.7 million as of September 30, 2018, additional $20.0 million funding from our November BioLexis private placement and anticipated proceeds from the sale of New Jersey NOLs and R&D credits are expected to fund our operations into June 2019, excluding any unscheduled repayment of debt. Alternatively, we will be required to, among other things, make reductions in our workforce, scale back our plans and place certain activities on hold, discontinue our development programs, liquidate all or a portion of our assets, and/or seek protection under the provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.
As of September 30, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of  $216.3 million and a cash balance of $1.7 million. In addition, we have $13.5 million of senior secured notes whose maturity was extended on November 5, 2018 up to 12 months, or until December 22, 2019, in exchange for making several payments of principal and interest through August 31, 2019, subject to customary conditions and achieving certain funding milestones, with an initial payment of  $2.2 million paid on November 7, 2018. We also have $4.6 million of unsecured indebtedness, $1.0 million of which is due on demand, and $3.6 million of which matures December 22, 2018. These matters raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments related to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. We anticipate incurring additional losses until such time, if ever, that we can generate significant sales of our product candidates currently in development or from receiving fees for contract development and manufacturing services that we plan to provide for other biopharmaceutical companies. We will need substantial additional financing to fund our operations and to commercially develop our product candidates. Management is currently evaluating various strategic opportunities to obtain the required funding for future operations. These strategies may include, but are not limited to private placements of equity and/or debt, payments from potential strategic research and development, licensing and/or marketing arrangements with pharmaceutical companies, and public offerings of equity and/or debt securities. Additionally, we continue to engage in active discussions with global and regional pharmaceutical companies for licensing and/or co-development rights to our late- and early-stage pipeline candidates. There can be no assurance that these future funding efforts will be successful.
Our future operations are highly dependent on a combination of factors, including (i) the timely and successful completion of additional financing discussed above, (ii) our ability to complete revenue-generating partnerships with pharmaceutical companies, (iii) the success of our research and development, (iv) the development of competitive therapies by other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, and, ultimately, (v) regulatory approval and market acceptance of our proposed future products.
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Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows for each of the years presented:
Year ended September 30,
2018
2017
Net cash used in operating activities
$ (33,039,523) $ (15,505,054)
Net cash used in investing activities
(2,781,125) (292,086)
Net cash provided by financing activities
34,352,520 16,630,772
Net (decrease) increase in cash
$ (1,468,128) $ 833,632
Operating Activities
During the year ended September 30, 2018, we used $33.0 million of cash in operating activities resulting primarily from our net loss of  $30.1 million, as well as an increase in cash outflows from working capital changes primarily due to payments of our outstanding accounts payable and accrued expenses from September 30, 2017 as well as the prepayment of certain research and development expenses. During the year ended September 30, 2017, we used $15.5 million of cash in operating activities, primarily resulting from our net loss of  $38.8 million. This use of cash was partially offset by changes in our operating assets and liabilities. Our cash flows are impacted by our underlying results from operations and related timing of cash receipts and cash disbursements.
Investing Activities
During the years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, we used cash of  $2.8 million and $0.3 million, respectively, in investing activities for the purchase of property and equipment.
Financing Activities
During the year ended September 30, 2018, net cash provided by financing activities was $34.4 million, primarily attributable to $20.6 million in net proceeds from our second closing of our Series A Convertible in October 2017 and $14.7 million in net proceeds from the sale of common stock and warrants to BioLexis in May and June 2018. We also had $0.9 million in debt payments.
During the year ended September 30, 2017, net cash provided by financing activities was $16.6 million, primarily attributable to $15.0 million in proceeds from the sale and issuance of our senior secured notes and warrants, $3.3 million from the initial sale and issuance of our Series A Convertible and $1.9 million from the sale and issuance of common stock and exercise of warrants, net of offering costs. These inflows were offset by $3.7 million in debt payments, $2.4 million of which was used to repay senior bank loans in December 2016.
Funding Requirements
We plan to focus in the near term on advancing ONS-5010 through clinical trials to support the filing of a BLA with the FDA to support the generation of commercial revenues. We anticipate we will incur net losses and negative cash flow from operations for the foreseeable future. We may not be able to complete the development and initiate commercialization of ONS-5010 if, among other things, our clinical trials are not successful or if the FDA does not approve our application arising out of our current clinical trials when we expect, or at all.
Our primary uses of capital are, and we expect will continue to be, compensation and related expenses, manufacturing and facility costs, external research and development services, laboratory and related supplies, legal and other regulatory expenses, and administrative and overhead costs. Our future funding requirements will be heavily determined by the resources needed to support development of our product candidates.
We believe our existing cash as of September 30, 2018, together with the $20.0 million proceeds from the sale and issuance of our common stock to BioLexis in November 2018 and anticipated proceeds from the sale of New Jersey NOLs and R&D credits will provide adequate financial resources to fund our operations
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into June 2019, excluding any unscheduled repayment of debt. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we expect. We will need to raise substantial additional capital in order to complete our planned ONS-5010 development program. We plan to finance our future operations with a combination of proceeds from the issuance of equity securities, the issuance of additional debt, potential strategic collaborations, sale of the development and commercial rights to our drug product candidates and revenues from potential future product sales, if any. If we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a holder of our common stock. There are no assurances that we will be successful in obtaining an adequate level of financing for the development and commercialization of ONS-5010 or any other current or future product candidates. If we are unable to secure adequate additional funding, our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with research, development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products, we are unable to estimate the exact amount of our working capital requirements. Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:

the number and characteristics of the product candidates we pursue;

the scope, progress, results and costs of researching and developing ONS-5010, and any other product candidates we pursue, and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials;

the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining regulatory approvals for ONS-5010, and any other product candidates we pursue;

the cost of manufacturing ONS-5010, and any other product candidates we pursue, and any products we successfully commercialize;

our ability to establish and maintain strategic collaborations, licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements;

the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation; and

the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or milestone payments related to, or royalties on, our current or future product candidates, if any.
See “Risk Factors” for additional risks associated with our substantial capital requirements.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Our future contractual obligations as of September 30, 2018 were as follows:
Payments Due by Period
Total
Less Than 1
Year
1 – 3
Years
3 – 5
Years
More Than
5 Years
Operating lease commitments(1)
$ 562,500 $ 180,000 $ 382,500 $ $
Debt obligations(2)
19,942,487 15,587,149 4,355,338
Capital leases(3)
15,389,496 1,947,199 3,088,359 3,073,538 7,280,400
Lease termination obligation(4)
5,275,750 425,750 4,850,000
Total(5)
$ 41,170,233 $ 18,140,098 $ 12,676,197 $ 3,073,538 $ 7,280,400
(1)
Operating lease commitments reflect our obligation to make payments in connection with a lease for our warehouse facility located in Monmouth, New Jersey. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements.
(2)
Debt obligations reflect outstanding principal and interest obligations due to investors on senior secured debt, stockholder notes payable and institutions and equipment loans.
(3)
Capital lease obligations reflect our outstanding principal and interest payment obligations in connection with our corporate offices and manufacturing facility and leased equipment used in our manufacturing facility.
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(4)
Lease termination obligation reflects our obligation for future lease termination payments.
(5)
This table does not include (a) any milestone payments that may become payable to third parties under license agreements as the timing and likelihood of such payments are not known with certainty, (b) any royalty payments to third parties as the amounts, timing and likelihood of such payments are not known, and (c) contracts that are entered into in the ordinary course of business that are not material in the aggregate in any period presented above.
Under our commercial license agreements with Selexis, we are obligated to pay milestone payments, as well as a royalty at a single-digit percentage of net sales of any covered product we successfully commercialize. Under our third-party agreement for ONS-5010, we are obligated to pay briefly describe royalty obligation.
We also have employment agreements with certain employees, which require the funding of a specific level of payments if certain events, such as a change in control or termination without cause, occur.
In addition, in the course of normal business operations, we have agreements with contract service providers to assist in the performance of our research and development and manufacturing activities. Expenditures to CROs represent a significant cost in clinical development. We can elect to discontinue the work under these agreements at any time. We could also enter into additional collaborative research and licensing, contract research, manufacturing, and supplier agreements in the future, which may require upfront payments and even long-term commitments of cash.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reported period. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.
While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K we believe that the following accounting policies are those most critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenue primarily through collaboration and licensing agreements that contain multiple deliverables, generally a license and research and development services. Revenue recognition for arrangements with multiple elements requires the determination of whether an arrangement involving multiple deliverables contains more than one unit of accounting. A delivered item within an arrangement is considered a separate unit of accounting only if both of the following criteria are met:

the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis; and

if the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item, delivery or performance of the undelivered item is considered probable and substantially in our control.
If both of the criteria above are not met, then separate accounting for the individual deliverables is not appropriate. Revenue recognition for arrangements with multiple deliverables constituting a single unit of accounting is recognized generally over the greater of the term of the arrangement or the expected period of performance, either on a straight-line basis or on a modified proportional performance method. We record amounts received prior to satisfying the revenue recognition criteria as deferred revenue on our balance
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sheet. We classify amounts expected to be recognized as revenue in the next twelve months following the balance sheet date as current liabilities. We recognize revenues from the achievement of milestones if the milestone event is substantive and achievability of the milestone was not reasonably assured at the inception of the agreement.
Research and Development Expenses
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our accrued research and development expenses. This process involves reviewing open contracts and purchase orders, communicating with our applicable personnel to identify services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of actual costs. The majority of our service providers require advance payments; however, some invoice us in arrears for services performed, on a pre-determined schedule or when contractual milestones are met. We make estimates of our accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date in the consolidated financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at that time. We periodically confirm the accuracy of the estimates with the service providers and makes adjustments if necessary. Examples of estimated accrued research and development expenses include fees paid to:

vendors in connection with preclinical development activities

the production of preclinical and clinical trial materials;

CROs in connection with clinical trials; and

investigative sites in connection with clinical trials.
We base our expenses related to preclinical studies and clinical trials on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to quotes and contracts with multiple research institutions and CROs that conduct and manage preclinical studies and clinical trials on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. There may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the expense. Payments under some of these contracts depend on factors such as the successful enrollment of patients and the completion of clinical trial milestones. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from the estimate, we adjust the accrual or prepaid accordingly. Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, our understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in reporting amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. To date, we have not made any material adjustments to our prior estimates of accrued research and development expenses.
JOBS Act Accounting Election
The JOBS Act permits an “emerging growth company” such as our company to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards when they are required to be adopted by public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASU 2014-09, and has subsequently issued a number of amendments to ASU 2014-09. The new standard, as amended, provides a single comprehensive model to be used in the accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The standard’s stated core principle is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or
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services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. To achieve this core principle, ASU 2014-09 includes provisions within a five-step model that includes identifying the contract with a customer, identifying the performance obligations in the contract, determining the transaction price, allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations, and recognizing revenue when, or as, an entity satisfies a performance obligation. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.
The new standard will be effective for us beginning October 1, 2018 and permits two methods of adoption: the full retrospective method, which requires the standard to be applied to each prior period presented, or the modified retrospective method, which requires the cumulative effect of adoption to be recognized as an adjustment to opening retained earnings in the period of adoption. We will adopt the standard using the modified retrospective method.
Our arrangements fall under Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 808, Collaborations, and ASC 808 does not address recognition or measurement matters but prescribes that entities look to other GAAP by analogy, namely ASU 2014-09. As such, we have completed an analysis of existing contracts with our collaboration partners and assessed the differences in accounting for such contracts under ASU 2014-09 compared with current revenue accounting standards. Based on our review of current contracts, we expect an adjustment to increase accumulated deficit related to substantive milestones that were previously recognized under current revenue guidance in the period the milestone was achieved. ASU 2014-09 prescribes that those milestones are a form of variable consideration and should be recognized when the performance obligation is satisfied. Although we are still finalizing the impact to the consolidated financial statements as of October 1, 2018, we expect the adjustment to be an increase to accumulated deficit of approximately $3.6 million.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, or ASC 842. The FASB issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance in July 2018 with ASU 2018-10 and in August 2018 with ASU 2018-11. ASC 842 supersedes the current accounting for leases. The new standard requires lessees to record a right of use asset and a related liability for the rights and obligations associated with a lease, regardless of lease classification, and eliminates the required use of bright-line tests in current U.S. GAAP for determining lease classification. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 (i.e., calendar periods beginning on January 1, 2019), and interim periods thereafter. Earlier application is permitted for all entities, however we do not plan to early adopt. The new standard must be adopted using either the modified retrospective approach, which requires application of the new guidance at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented or the optional alternative approach, which requires application of the new guidance at the beginning of the standard’s effective date. We have arrangements currently classified as operating leases, which will be recorded as a right of use asset and corresponding liability on the balance sheet and we are currently evaluating the impact these changes will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. This new ASU is intended provide clarity and reduce both the diversity in practice of and cost and complexity of applying the guidance in Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation, to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. This ASU provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. This ASU is effective for all entities for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. This ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, or Topic 718, which simplifies the accounting for nonemployee share-based payment transactions. The amendments specify that Topic 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which a grantor acquires goods or services to be used or consumed in a grantor’s own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. The standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, although early adoption is permitted (but no sooner than the adoption of Topic 606). This ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
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In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which removes and modifies some existing disclosure requirements and adds others. The ASU is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted for any eliminated or modified disclosures upon issuance of this ASU. We are currently evaluating when to adopt this standard.
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Not applicable.
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Item 8.   Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
OUTLOOK THERAPEUTICS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

INDEX TO AUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Page
80
81
82
83
84
85
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Outlook Therapeutics, Inc.:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Outlook Therapeutics, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of September 30, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of operations, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit), and cash flows for the years then ended and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of September 30, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
Going Concern
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations and has a stockholders’ deficit of $216.3 million, $13.5 million of senior secured notes that may become due in fiscal 2019 and $4.6 million of unsecured indebtedness, $1.0 million of which is due on demand, and $3.6 million of which matures December 22, 2018, that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ KPMG LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2015

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
December 18, 2018
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Outlook Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets
September 30,
2018
2017
Assets
Current assets:
Cash
$ 1,717,391 $ 3,185,519
Prepaid and other current assets
1,585,089 719,087
Total current assets
3,302,480 3,904,606
Property and equipment, net
18,489,976 16,088,902
Other assets
491,039 740,362
Total assets
$ 22,283,495 $ 20,733,870
Liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit)
Current liabilities:
Senior secured notes
$ 13,179,449 $
Current portion of long-term debt
66,480 52,600
Current portion of capital lease obligations
520,794 341,120
Stockholder notes
4,612,500 4,612,500
Accounts payable
3,609,607 10,954,358
Accrued expenses
6,458,471 7,337,469
Income taxes payable
1,856,129 2,352,129
Deferred revenue
1,738,603 3,087,561
Total current liabilities
32,042,033 28,737,737
Senior secured notes
13,231,700
Long-term debt
98,487 151,110
Capital lease obligations
3,453,256 28,067
Warrant liability
1,227,225 2,274,954
Deferred revenue
2,758,262 4,466,865
Other liabilities
3,514,738 2,569,971
Total liabilities
43,094,001 51,460,404
Commitments (Note 9)
Convertible preferred stock:
Series A convertible preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share: 1,000,000 shares
authorized, no shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and
32,628 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2017
2,924,441
Series A-1 convertible preferred stock, par value $100.00 per share: 200,000 shares authorized, 60,203 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and no shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2017
4,734,416
Total convertible preferred stock
4,734,416 2,924,441
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
Series A preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share: 10,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share; 200,000,000 shares authorized; 72,220,351 and 24,933,944 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively
722,204 249,339
Additional paid-in capital
190,040,237 152,315,088
Accumulated deficit
(216,307,363) (186,215,402)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(25,544,922) (33,650,975)
Total liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity
(deficit) 
$ 22,283,495 $ 20,733,870
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Outlook Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations
Year Ended September 30,
2018
2017
Collaboration revenues
$ 3,087,560 $ 3,811,519
Operating expenses:
Research and development
18,504,035 23,809,749
General and administrative
14,227,828 15,882,033
32,731,863 39,691,782
Loss from operations
(29,644,303) (35,880,263)
Interest expense, net
3,891,250 5,625,833
Loss on extinguishment of debt
1,252,353
Change in fair value of warrant liability
(1,047,729) (3,158,469)
Loss before income taxes
(33,740,177) (38,347,627)
Income tax (benefit) expense
(3,648,216) 501,500
Net loss
(30,091,961) (38,849,127)
Recognition of beneficial conversion feature upon issuance of Series A and A-1 convertible preferred stock
(16,022,963) (1,176,743)
Series A and A-1 convertible preferred stock dividends and related settlement
(1,903,930)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
$ (48,018,854) $ (40,025,870)
Per share information:
Net loss per share of common stock, basic
$ (1.22) $ (1.67)
Net loss per share of common stock, diluted
$ (1.22) $ (1.80)
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic
39,457,664 24,022,371
Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted
39,457,664 24,041,789
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Outlook Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Convertible Preferred Stock
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Series A
Series A-1
Series B Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common Stock
Additional
Paid-in Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
Shares
Amount
Shares
Amount
Shares
Amount
Shares
Amount
Balance at October 1, 2016
$ $ $ 22,802,778 $ 228,028 $ 141,965,342 $ (147,366,275) $ (5,172,905)
Proceeds from exercise of common stock warrants
787,018 7,869 305,616 313,485
Issuance of vested restricted stock units
483,913 4,840 (4,840)
Issuance of common stock in connection with equity facility
122,418 1,224 (1,224)
Sale of common stock, net of issuance costs
737,817 7,378 1,495,749 1,503,127
Sale of Series A convertible preferred, net of costs
32,628 2,924,441
Series A convertible preferred stock dividends
(16,985) (16,985)
Stock-based compensation expense
8,571,430 8,571,430
Net loss
(38,849,127) (38,849,127)
Balance at September 30, 2017
32,628 2,924,441 24,933,944 249,339 152,315,088 (186,215,402) (33,650,975)
Proceeds from exercise of common stock warrants
3,460 35 (35)
Issuance of vested restricted stock units
842,889 8,429 (8,429)
Private placement sale of common stock and common stock
warrants, net of costs
12,754,766 127,548 14,567,572 14,695,120
Sale of Series A convertible preferred stock and common stock warrants, net of costs
217,372 14,265,861 6,382,181 6,382,181
Series A convertible preferred stock dividends and related settlement
17,571 1,757,093 (1,740,108) (1,740,108)
Conversion of Series A convertible preferred stock into common stock
(208,836) (14,359,816) 31,572,617 315,726 14,044,090 14,359,816
Conversion of Series A convertible preferred stock into Series A-1 convertible preferred stock
(58,735) (4,587,579) 58,735 4,587,579
Series A-1 convertible preferred stock dividends and related
settlement
1,468 146,837 (146,837) (146,837)
Conversion of senior secured notes into Series B convertible
preferred stock
1,500,000 2,661,972 2,661,972
Conversion of Series B convertible preferred stock into common stock
(1,500,000) (2,661,972) 2,112,675 21,127 2,640,845
Stock-based compensation expense
1,985,870 1,985,870
Net loss
(30,091,961) (30,091,961)
Balance at September 30, 2018
$ 60,203 $ 4,734,416 $ 72,220,351 $ 722,204 $ 190,040,237 $ (216,307,363) $ (25,544,922)
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Outlook Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Year Ended September 30,
2018
2017
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net loss
$ (30,091,961) $ (38,849,127)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization
3,054,352 2,692,100
Loss on extinguishment of debt
1,252,353
Non-cash interest expense
1,315,861 4,014,633
Stock-based compensation
1,985,870 8,571,430
Change in fair value of warrant liability
(1,047,729) (3,158,469)
Loss on disposal of fixed assets
61,867
Loss on lease termination
4,173,682
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
(1,419,551) 2,607,520
Other assets
1,554 112,439
Accounts payable
(6,714,137) 5,727,136