10-Q 1 rytm-20170930x10q.htm 10-Q rytm_Current_Folio_10Q

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-Q


 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to         

Commission file number 001-38223


RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


 

 

Delaware

46‑2159271

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

 

500 Boylston Street

11th Floor

Boston, MA 02116

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(857) 264‑4280

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Unchanged

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No  .

 

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock as of November 10, 2017 was 27,284,140.

 

 

 


 

RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

FORM 10-Q

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Page No.

PART I 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Balance Sheets

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

19

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

30

 

 

 

 

PART II 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

79

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

79

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure

 

79

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. Other Information

 

79

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6. Exhibits

 

80

 

 

 

SIGNATURES 

 

82

 

2


 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.Financial Statements.

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

    

2017

    

2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

27,914

 

$

6,540

Short-term investments

 

 

2,501

 

 

3,997

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

1,621

 

 

638

Total current assets

 

 

32,036

 

 

11,175

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

 

845

 

 

930

Deferred issuance costs

 

 

1,698

 

 

 9

Restricted cash

 

 

225

 

 

225

Total assets

 

$

34,804

 

$

12,339

Liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

  

 

 

  

Current liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Accounts payable

 

$

2,271

 

$

1,895

Due to related party

 

 

 —

 

 

105

Deferred rent

 

 

81

 

 

76

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

3,108

 

 

2,655

Total current liabilities

 

 

5,460

 

 

4,731

Long-term liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Deferred rent

 

 

250

 

 

311

Total liabilities

 

 

5,710

 

 

5,042

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

  

 

 

  

Preferred stock:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, $1.00 par value: 80,950,000 shares authorized; 80,949,999 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2017 and 40,000,000 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2016; (aggregate liquidation preference of $88,864 and $44,129 at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 respectively)

 

 

80,950

 

 

40,000

Stockholders’ equity (deficit):

 

 

  

 

 

  

Common stock, $0.001 par value: 29,919,979 shares authorized; 1,770,302 and 10,196,292 shares issued and outstanding and September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively

 

 

 2

 

 

10

Series A-1 Convertible Junior Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value, 78,666,209 shares authorized; 78,666,209  and no shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively

 

 

79

 

 

 —

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

47,784

 

 

43,830

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(99,721)

 

 

(76,543)

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

(51,856)

 

 

(32,703)

Total liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

$

34,804

 

$

12,339

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

3


 

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three months ended September 30, 

 

Nine months ended September 30, 

 

    

2017

    

2016

 

2017

    

2016

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

5,971

 

$

5,419

 

$

16,241

 

$

13,963

General and administrative

 

 

2,315

 

 

982

 

 

5,188

 

 

3,567

Total operating expenses

 

 

8,286

 

 

6,401

 

 

21,429

 

 

17,530

Loss from operations

 

 

(8,286)

 

 

(6,401)

 

 

(21,429)

 

 

(17,530)

Other income (expense):

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Revaluation of  Series A Investor Instrument

 

 

(1,781)

 

 

 —

 

 

(1,863)

 

 

 —

Interest income, net

 

 

51

 

 

10

 

 

114

 

 

24

Total other income (expense):

 

 

(1,730)

 

 

10

 

 

(1,749)

 

 

24

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(10,016)

 

$

(6,391)

 

$

(23,178)

 

$

(17,506)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(11,429)

 

$

(7,191)

 

$

(26,963)

 

$

(19,902)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders per common share, basic and diluted

 

$

(1.78)

 

$

(0.71)

 

$

(3.02)

 

$

(1.95)

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

6,404,254

 

 

10,196,292

 

 

8,918,389

 

 

10,196,292

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

 

 

4


 

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Series A Convertible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A-1 Junior

 

 

Additional

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’

 

 

Preferred Stock

 

 

Common Stock

 

Preferred Stock

 

 

Paid-In

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Equity

 

    

Shares

    

Amount

  

  

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

 

Amount

    

 

Capital

    

 

Deficit

    

 

(Deficit)

Balance at December 31, 2015

 

40,000,000

 

$

40,000

  

  

10,196,292

 

$

10

 

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

42,662

 

$

(50,671)

 

$

(7,999)

Stock compensation expense

 

 —

 

 

 —

  

  

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

1,168

 

 

 —

 

 

1,168

Net loss

 

 —

 

 

 —

  

  

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(25,872)

 

 

(25,872)

Balance at December 31, 2016

 

40,000,000

 

 

40,000

  

  

10,196,292

 

 

10

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

43,830

 

 

(76,543)

 

 

(32,703)

Stock compensation expense

 

 —

 

 

 —

  

  

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

1,569

 

 

 —

 

 

1,569

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options

 

 —

 

 

 —

  

  

152,671

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

700

 

 

 —

 

 

700

Change in unrealized loss on marketable securities

 

 —

 

 

 —

  

  

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 1

 

 

 —

 

 

 1

Issuance of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

 

40,949,999

 

 

40,622

  

  

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(108)

 

 

 —

 

 

(108)

Settlement of Series A investor instrument

 

 —

 

 

328

  

  

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

1,863

 

 

 —

 

 

1,863

Exchange of common stock held by LLC entity for Series A-1 Junior Preferred Stock

 

 —

 

 

 —

  

  

(8,578,661)

 

 

(8)

 

78,666,209

 

 

79

 

 

(71)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Net loss

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(23,178)

 

 

(23,178)

Balance at  September 30, 2017(unaudited)

 

80,949,999

 

$

80,950

  

  

1,770,302

 

$

 2

 

78,666,209

 

$

79

 

$

47,784

 

$

(99,721)

 

$

(51,856)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

 

 

5


 

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30, 

 

    

2017

    

2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(23,178)

 

$

(17,506)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

1,569

 

 

859

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

163

 

 

89

Non-cash rent expense

 

 

(56)

 

 

29

Mark to market revaluation of Series A Investor Instrument

 

 

1,863

 

 

 —

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(972)

 

 

(272)

Deferred issuance costs

 

 

(1,689)

 

 

(348)

Tenant improvement allowance

 

 

 —

 

 

376

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

830

 

 

(335)

Deferred grant income

 

 

 —

 

 

(71)

Due to related parties

 

 

(105)

 

 

139

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(21,575)

 

 

(17,040)

Investing activities

 

 

  

 

 

  

Purchases of short-term investments

 

 

(13,021)

 

 

(11,211)

Maturities of short-term investments

 

 

14,506

 

 

7,054

Purchases of property, plant and equipment

 

 

(78)

 

 

(1,057)

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

 

1,407

 

 

(5,214)

Financing activities

 

 

  

 

 

  

Net proceeds from issuance of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

40,842

 

 

 —

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

 

 

700

 

 

 —

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

41,542

 

 

 —

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

21,374

 

 

(22,254)

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

 

6,540

 

 

34,869

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

$

27,914

 

$

12,615

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

6


 

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements

(In thousands, except share and per share information)

1. Nature of Business

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”), is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of peptide therapeutics for the treatment of genetic deficiencies that result in life‑threatening metabolic disorders. The Company's lead product candidate is setmelanotide (RM‑493), which is a potent, first‑in‑class, melanocortin‑4 receptor, or MC4R, agonist for the treatment of rare genetic disorders of obesity caused by MC4 pathway deficiencies. The Company is currently evaluating setmelanotide for the treatment of six genetic disorders of obesity: pro‑opiomelanocortin, or POMC, leptin receptor, or LepR, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, Alström syndrome, POMC heterozygous, and POMC epigenetic disorders.

Corporate Reorganization

The Company is a Delaware corporation organized in February 2013 under the name Rhythm Metabolic, Inc. Prior to the Company's organization and the Corporate Reorganization referred to below, the Company was part of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Predecessor Company”), a Delaware corporation which was organized in November 2008 and which commenced active operations in 2010.

In March 2013, the Predecessor Company underwent a corporate reorganization, (the “Corporate Reorganization”), pursuant to which all of the outstanding equity securities of the Predecessor Company were exchanged for units of Rhythm Holding Company, LLC, a newly‑organized limited liability company (the “LLC entity”). After the consummation of this exchange and as part of the Corporate Reorganization, the Predecessor Company contributed setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program to the Company and distributed to the LLC entity all of the then issued and outstanding shares of the Company's stock. The result of the Corporate Reorganization was that the Company and the Predecessor Company became wholly‑owned subsidiaries of the LLC entity and the two product candidates and related programs that were originally held by the Predecessor Company were separated, with relamorelin and the ghrelin agonist program being retained by the Predecessor Company and setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program being held by the Company. The Predecessor Company, after consummation of the Corporate Reorganization, is referred to within these Notes to Financial Statements as the Relamorelin Company and/or Motus.

On October 13, 2015, the Relamorelin Company changed its name to Motus Therapeutics, Inc. (“Motus”) and the Company changed its name to Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. On December 15, 2016, Motus was sold to a large pharmaceutical company. On August 21, 2017, the LLC entity distributed to its members all of its shares of the Company (see Note 6 for further discussion). Following this distribution, the LLC entity no longer owns any of the Company’s shares.

Liquidity

The Company has incurred losses since inception and negative cash flows from operating activities. As of September 30, 2017, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $99,721. The Company anticipates that it will continue to incur significant operating losses for the next several years as it continues to develop setmelanotide. The Company had cash and short-term investments of $30,415 as of September 30, 2017. In addition, the Company received additional funding in connection with its initial public offering subsequent to quarter-end (see Note 10, “Subsequent Events”).  The net proceeds from this offering were approximately $125.8 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses. In the future, the Company will be dependent on obtaining funding from third parties, such as proceeds from the issuance of debt, sale of equity, and funded research and development programs, to maintain the Company's operations and meet the Company's obligations. There is no guarantee that additional equity or other financings will be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. If the Company fails to obtain additional funding when needed, the Company would be forced to scale back, terminate its operations or seek to merge with or be acquired

7


 

by another company. Management believes that the Company's existing cash resources will be sufficient to fund the Company's operating plan into the first half of 2019.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The Company's unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). As permitted under these rules, certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by GAAP have been condensed or omitted.

The accompanying interim balance sheet as of September 30, 2017, the statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, the statement of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, and the statement of convertible preferred stock and stockholders' equity (deficit) for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and the related footnote disclosures are unaudited. In management's opinion, the unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements and include all adjustments, which include all normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the interim financial statements. The results for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full fiscal year.

The Company has historically existed and functioned as part of the consolidated businesses of the Predecessor Company. As noted above, the Predecessor Company's setmelanotide and MC4R agonist programs were transferred to the Company as part of the Corporate Reorganization on March 21, 2013. These financial statements include the results of operations of setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program from its inception. As part of the Corporate Reorganization, the Company also entered into a formal payroll services intercompany agreement with the Relamorelin Company. On November 16, 2016, the employees of the Relamorelin Company that were providing services to the Company, terminated their employment contracts with the Relamorelin Company and entered into new employment agreements with the Company. On December 15, 2016, the Relamorelin Company closed its sale to a large pharmaceutical company. At September 30, 2017, the Company had seventeen employees directly employed by the Company. During 2016, costs have been allocated to the Company for the purposes of preparing the financial statements based on a specific identification basis or, when specific identification is not practicable, a proportional cost allocation method which allocates expenses based upon the percentage of employee time and research and development effort expended on the Company's business as compared to total employee time and research and development effort of the combined Motus and Rhythm. The proportional use basis adopted to allocate shared costs is in accordance with the guidance of SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) Topic 1B, Allocation Of Expenses And Related Disclosure In Financial Statements Of Subsidiaries, Divisions Or Lesser Business Components Of Another Entity. Management has determined that the method of allocating costs to the Company is reasonable. Cost allocation was no longer required subsequent to the 2016 sale of the Relamorelin Company.

Management believes that the statements of operations include a reasonable allocation of costs and expenses incurred by the Relamorelin Company, which benefited the Company. However, such amounts may not be indicative of the actual level of costs and expenses that would have been incurred by the Company if it had operated as an independent company or of the costs and expenses expected to be incurred in the future. Management has not presented an estimate of what the expenses of the Company would have been on a standalone basis as it was not practicable to make a reasonable estimate. As such, the financial information herein may not necessarily reflect the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of the Company expected in the future or what it would have been had it been an independent company during the periods presented.

As described above, Relamorelin Company employee costs are allocated to the Company based on a proportional use method. For those employees who became employees of the Company on November 16, 2016, their full employment cost was $2,727 for the year ended December 31, 2016.

8


 

On September 22, 2017, the Company's board of directors approved a 1-for-9.17 reverse stock split of the Company's issued and outstanding shares of common stock. All share and per share amounts in the financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect of the reverse stock split. On September 29, 2017 the Company filed a third amended and restated certificate of incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to reflect the reverse stock split and authorize 29,919,979 of its shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share and 159,616,209 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. 

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and other market‑specific or other relevant assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. This process may result in actual results differing materially from those estimated amounts used in the preparation of the financial statements if these results differ from historical experience, or other assumptions do not turn out to be substantially accurate, even if such assumptions are reasonable when made. Significant estimates relied upon in preparing these financial statements include the allocation of costs from the Relamorelin Company in accordance with SAB Topic 1B, accrued expenses, stock‑based compensation expense, the valuation allowance on the Company's deferred tax assets, and the fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument (see Note 4).

Off‑Balance Sheet Risk and Concentrations of Credit Risk

Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to significant concentration of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments, which are maintained at two federally insured financial institutions. The deposits held at these two institutions are in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held. The Company has no off‑balance sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign hedging arrangements.

Segment Information

Operating segments are defined as components of an entity about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision‑making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment operating exclusively in the United States.

2017 Series A Investor Instrument

The Company has classified its 2017 Series A Investor Instrument (See Note 4) as a liability as it is a free‑standing financial instrument. The 2017 Series A Investor Instrument was recorded at fair value upon the issuance of the Company’s series A preferred stock in January 2017, and subsequently remeasured to fair value at each reporting period. Changes in fair value of the financial instrument is recognized as a component of other income (expense), net in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument is determined to be the sum of the fair values of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation and the 2017 Investor Call Option. The Company estimated the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation as the probability‑weighted present value of the expected benefit of the investment.

The Company used the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model, which incorporates assumptions and estimates, to value the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option and assessed these assumptions and estimates on a quarterly basis as additional information impacting the assumptions was obtained. Estimates and assumptions impacting the fair value measurement include the fair value per share of the underlying series A preferred stock, the expected term of the Series A Investor Call Option, risk‑free interest rate, expected dividend yield and expected volatility of the price of the underlying preferred stock. The Company determined the fair value per share of the underlying preferred stock by taking into consideration the most recent sale of our convertible preferred stock and the investors' right to invest in a subsequent

9


 

tranche. As the Company is a private company and lacks company‑specific historical and implied volatility information of our stock, it estimated its expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of publicly traded peer companies for a term comparable to the estimated term of the Series A Investor Call Options. The risk‑free interest rate was determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve for time periods approximately equal to the estimated term of the Series A Investor Call Option. A dividend yield of zero was assumed.

Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Common Shareholders

Basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Net loss attributable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting the net loss of the Company for cumulative preferred stock dividends. During periods of income, the Company allocates to participating securities a proportional share of income determined by dividing total weighted average participating securities by the sum of the total weighted average common shares and participating securities (the “two class method”). The Company's convertible preferred stock participates in any dividends declared by the Company and is therefore considered to be participating securities. Participating securities have the effect of diluting both basic and diluted earnings per share during periods of income. During periods of loss, the Company allocates no loss to participating securities because they have no contractual obligation to share in the losses of the Company. Diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury‑stock and if‑converted methods. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders calculation, convertible preferred stock and stock options are considered to be common stock equivalents but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, as their effect would be anti‑dilutive for all periods presented. Therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share were the same for all periods presented.

Basic and diluted earnings per share is calculated as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

September 30, 

 

September 30, 

 

    

2017

    

2016

 

2017

    

2016

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(10,016)

 

$

(6,391)

 

$

(23,178)

 

$

(17,506)

Cumulative dividends on convertible preferred shares

 

 

(1,413)

 

 

(800)

 

 

(3,785)

 

 

(2,396)

Loss attributable to common shares—basic and diluted

 

$

(11,429)

 

$

(7,191)

 

$

(26,963)

 

$

(19,902)

Denominator:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Weighted-average number of common shares—basic and diluted

 

 

6,404,254

 

 

10,196,292

 

 

8,918,389

 

 

10,196,292

Loss per common share—basic and diluted

 

$

(1.78)

 

$

(0.71)

 

$

(3.02)

 

$

(1.95)

 

Application of New or Revised Accounting Standards

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

In April 2012, the Jump‑Start Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) was signed into law. The JOBS Act contains provisions that, among other things, reduce certain reporting requirements for an “emerging growth company.” As an emerging growth company, the Company elected to not take advantage of the extended transition period afforded by the JOBS Act for the implementation of new or revised accounting standards, and as a result, will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non‑emerging growth companies.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016‑02 requires lessees to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for those leases classified as operating leases under previous GAAP. A lessee

10


 

should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right‑of‑use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. The recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee have not significantly changed from previous GAAP. There continues to be a differentiation between finance leases and operating leases. ASU 2016‑02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2016‑02 on its financial position and results of operations.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑09, Improvements to Employee Share‑Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718) that changes the accounting for certain aspects of share‑based payments to employees. The guidance requires the recognition of the income tax effects of awards in the income statement when the awards vest or are settled, thus eliminating additional paid in capital pools. The guidance also allows for the employer to repurchase more of an employee's shares for tax withholding purposes without triggering liability accounting. In addition, the guidance allows for a policy election to account for forfeitures as they occur rather than on an estimated basis. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods with early adoption permitted. Accordingly, the standard is effective for the Company on January 1, 2018. The Company adopted the standard as of January 1, 2017. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash that changes the presentation of restricted cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents will be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning‑of‑period and end‑of‑period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. This amendment is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted the standard as of January 1, 2017.  The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s statements of cash flows.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017‑09, Compensation‑Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. ASU 2017‑09 provides clarity and reduces both (1) diversity in practice and (2) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, to a change to the terms or conditions of a share‑based payment award. The amendments in ASU 2017‑09 should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. ASU 2017-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. The adoption of ASU 2017-09 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial position or results of operations.

In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017‑11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features; II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception. Part I of this update addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Down round features are features of certain equity‑linked instruments (or embedded features) that result in the strike price being reduced on the basis of the pricing of future equity offerings. Current accounting guidance creates cost and complexity for entities that issue financial instruments (such as warrants and convertible instruments) with down round features that require fair value measurement of the entire instrument or conversion option. Part II of this update addresses the difficulty of navigating Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, because of the existence of extensive pending content in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. This pending content is the result of the indefinite deferral of accounting requirements about mandatorily redeemable financial instruments of certain nonpublic entities and certain mandatorily redeemable noncontrolling interests. The amendments in Part II of this update do not have an accounting effect. ASU 2017-11 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently assessing the potential impact of adopting ASU 2017‑11 on its financial statements and related disclosures.

11


 

3. Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses consisted of the following:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

    

2017

    

2016

Research and development costs

 

$

2,005

 

$

2,049

Professional fees

 

 

371

 

 

182

Payroll related

 

 

625

 

 

344

Other

 

 

107

 

 

80

Accrued expenses

 

$

3,108

 

$

2,655

 

4. Preferred Stock

In January 2017, pursuant to the Series A preferred stock purchase agreement, by and among the Company and certain purchasers, and as part of an initial tranche closing, the Company issued 20,475,001 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a purchase price of $1.00 per share, resulting in net proceeds of $20,377 to the Company (the “January 2017 Initial Tranche Closing”). The Series A preferred stock purchase agreement provided for the delayed issuance by the Company of up to an additional 20,474,998 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock as part of a second tranche closing at a purchase price of $1.00 per share (the “2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation”). The second tranche is contingent upon: (1) the Company's cash, cash equivalents and short‑term investments balance, net of accounts payable and accrued liabilities, falling below $5.0 million and (2) the Company's satisfaction of contractual and customary representations and warranties. Unless otherwise mutually agreed upon in writing, the rights and obligations underlying the second tranche (if not previously executed) will terminate on the first to occur of the following dates: (1) the date (the “Roadshow Acceleration Date”) on which the Company files with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, the last pre‑effective amendment to the registration statement prior to the start of the Company's roadshow in connection with the Intial Public Offering, or IPO, provided, that such termination shall be contingent upon the consummation of the IPO pursuant to the same registration statement that was on file with the SEC on the Roadshow Acceleration Date, without withdrawal thereof or filing of a subsequent registration statement in replacement thereof; and (2) the date of the consummation of a Deemed Liquidation Event (as defined below). To the extent the closing of the second tranche has not already taken place, the investors in the first tranche also have a call right on the shares underlying the second tranche whereby such shares can be purchased for the same price as the second tranche (the “2017 Series A Investor Call Option”). The 2017 Series A Investor Call Option terminates upon the Roadshow Acceleration Date. The 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation and the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option have been evaluated and determined to be a free standing instrument, the 2017 Series A Investor Instrument. The 2017 Series A Investor Instrument is being accounted for as a liability (see Note 2).

In August 2017, the Series A Investors waived the $5.0 million cash balance requirement of the Series A Investor Right/Obligation and closed the second tranche of the series A preferred stock financing. The Company issued 20,474,998 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a purchase price of $1.00 per share, resulting in gross proceeds of $20,475 to the Company. The 2017 Series A Investor Call Option expired unexercised at that time.

Upon the closing of an initial public offering with a minimum price per share and gross proceeds of at least $1.00 and $50.0 million, respectively, the Series A convertible preferred stock will automatically convert into shares of common stock on a 9.17‑for‑1 basis.

The holders of the Series A convertible preferred stock have the following rights and preferences:

Voting Rights

The holders of Series A convertible preferred stock are entitled to vote, together with the holders of common stock, on all matters submitted to stockholders for a vote. Each preferred stockholder is entitled to the number of votes equal to the number of shares of common stock into which each preferred share is convertible at the time of such vote. In addition, pursuant to the Company's charter, the holders of record of the outstanding shares of Series A convertible

12


 

preferred stock are entitled to elect one director to serve as the Series A preferred director on the board of directors of the Company.

Dividends

The holders of Series A convertible preferred stock are entitled to receive dividends in preference to any dividend on common stock at the rate of 8.0% per year of the original issue price. Dividends shall accrue annually, whether or not declared, and shall be cumulative. The Company may not declare, pay or set aside any dividends on shares of any other class or series of capital stock of the Company unless the holders of Series A convertible preferred stock then outstanding shall first receive, or simultaneously receive, dividends on each outstanding share of Series A convertible preferred stock. Through September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, no dividends had been declared or paid by the Company. Accrued dividends, whether or not declared, shall also be payable upon any liquidation event. At September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, cumulative preference dividends amounted to $7,914, or $0.10 per share and $4,129, or $0.10 per share, respectively.

Liquidation

In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding‑up of the Company or a Deemed Liquidation Event (as defined below), the holders of Series A convertible preferred stock then outstanding shall be entitled to be paid out of the assets of the Company available for distribution to stockholders, and before any payment shall be made to holders of common stock, an amount per share equal to greater of (i) the original issue price per share, plus any accrued but unpaid dividends thereon, whether or not declared, plus any declared but unpaid dividends thereon, if any, or (ii) such amount per share as would have been payable had all shares of Series A convertible preferred stock been converted to common stock prior to such liquidation. If upon such event, the assets of the Company available for distribution are insufficient to permit payment in full to the holders of Series A convertible preferred stock, the proceeds will be ratably distributed among the holders of Series A convertible preferred stock in proportion to the respective amounts that they would have received if they were paid in full. After payments have been made in full to the holders of Series A convertible preferred stock, the remaining assets of the Company available for distribution will be distributed among the holders of Series A convertible preferred stock, the holders of the Series A-1 convertible junior preferred stock, and the holders of common stock as if the shares of Series A convertible preferred stock and Series A-1 convertible junior preferred stock were converted to common stock immediately prior to the liquidation event.

A merger, acquisition, sale of voting control or other transaction of the Company in which the stockholders of the Company do not own a majority of the outstanding shares of the surviving company shall be considered a Deemed Liquidation Event. A sale, exclusive license, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company shall also be considered a Deemed Liquidation Event. Each share of Series A convertible preferred stock may be redeemed at the option of the holder upon the occurrence of a deemed liquidation event. As of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the liquidation preference of the outstanding shares of Series A convertible preferred stock was approximately $88,864 and $44,129, respectively.

Conversion

Each share of Series A convertible preferred stock is convertible into common stock at the option of the stockholder at any time after the date of issuance. In addition, each share of Series A convertible preferred stock will be automatically converted into shares of common stock, at the applicable conversion ratio then in effect, upon the earlier of (i) a qualified public offering with gross proceeds of at least $50,000 and a price of not less than $1.00 per share, subject to appropriate adjustment for any stock dividend, stock split, combination or other similar recapitalization, and (ii) the date specified by vote or written consent of the holders of at least two‑thirds of the then outstanding shares of series A preferred stock. The shares of Series A convertible preferred stock will be converted to common stock, at par value, with the remainder recorded to additional paid‑in capital.

The conversion ratio of the Series A convertible preferred stock is determined by dividing the original issue price per share by the conversion price of $9.17 per share, subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of any stock dividend, stock split, combination or recapitalization affecting the Series A convertible preferred stock. As of September 30, 2017

13


 

and December 31, 2016, the outstanding shares of Series A convertible preferred stock were convertible into 8,827,692 and 4,362,050 shares of common stock, respectively.

5. Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liability

As of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments was $30,415 and $10,537, respectively, which approximates fair value. Cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments includes investments in money market funds that invest in U.S. government securities that are valued using quoted market prices. Accordingly, money market funds and government funds are categorized as Level 1 and had a total balance of $28,722 and $7,984 as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively.

A financial liability was recognized by the Company during the nine months ending September 30, 2017 related to the 2017 Series A Investor Instrument that was exercised in August 2017. The liability was valued based on significant inputs not observable in the market, which represents a Level 3 measurement within the fair value hierarchy. For the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company had no financial liabilities outstanding measured at fair value.

The following tables present information about the Company's financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicate the level of the fair value hierarchy utilized to determine such fair values:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value Measurements as of

 

 

September 30, 2017 using:

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Equivalents:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Government Funds

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

Money Market Funds

 

 

26,221

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

26,221

Marketable Securities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Government Funds

 

 

2,501

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

2,501

Total

 

$

28,722

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

28,722

Liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

2017 Series A Investor Instrument

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

Total

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value Measurements as of

 

 

December 31, 2016 using:

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Equivalents:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Government Funds

 

$

2,000

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

2,000

Money Market Funds

 

 

1,987

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

1,987

Marketable Securities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Government Funds

 

 

3,997

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

3,997

Total

 

$

7,984

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

7,984

 

14


 

Marketable Securities

The following tables summarize the Company's marketable securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

    

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Value

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Government Funds (due within 1 year)

 

$

2,502

 

$

 —

 

$

(1)

 

$

2,501

 

 

$

2,502

 

$

 —

 

$

(1)

 

$

2,501

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

    

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Value

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Government Funds (due within 1 year)

 

$

3,997

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

3,997

 

 

$

3,997

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

3,997

 

Below is a roll forward of the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Instrument for the nine months ended September 30, 2017:

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017 Series A Investor

 

    

Instrument

Fair value at December 31, 2016

 

$

 —

Fair value upon the January 2017 Initial Closing, net

 

 

328

Change in fair value through the date of settlement

 

 

1,863

Reclassification of liability upon August 2017 Second Tranche Closing

 

 

(2,191)

Fair value at September 30, 2017

 

$

 —

 

The fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument is the sum of the probability‑weighted fair value of the 2017 Investor Right/Obligation and the 2017 Series A Call Option.

The following assumptions and inputs were used in determining the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option valued using the Black‑ Scholes option pricing model:

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

August 2017 Second Tranche Closing

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock Exercise Price

 

$

1.00

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock Fair Value

 

$

1.33

 

Expected term

 

 

1.5 months

 

Expected volatility

 

 

64.0

%

Expected interest rate

 

 

0.95

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

 —

 

 

In August 2017, upon the closing of the second tranche of the series A preferred stock financing, the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option expired unexercised.

The Company estimated the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation as the probability‑weighted present value of the expected benefit of the investment. The expected benefit is the difference between the expected future value of shares issued upon the second tranche closing and the investment price for the second tranche closing. The expected future value is estimated as a weighted average of IPO and remain private scenarios, and the future value is converted to a present value assuming a closing date of October 15, 2017 and a nominal, risk‑free discount rate.

15


 

6. Common Stock

In March 2013, the Company issued 10,196,292 shares of common stock at a purchase price of $0.001 per share. As of December 31, 2016, the LLC entity owned all of these shares.

On August 21, 2017, the LLC entity exchanged 8,578,646 of its shares of the Company's common stock for 78,666,209 shares of the Company's series A‑1 junior preferred stock and the LLC entity distributed all of its shares of the Company's series A‑1 junior preferred stock to the holders of its preferred units and the remaining 1,617,646 shares of its common stock to the holders of its common units. Following this distribution, the LLC entity no longer owns any of the Company's shares. The series A‑1 junior preferred stock is not redeemable and does not have a stated dividend or liquidation preference. These shares will convert to common stock on a 9.17‑to‑1 basis upon the earlier of (i) a qualified public offering with gross proceeds of at least $50,000 and a price of not less than $1.00 per share, subject to appropriate adjustment for any stock dividend, stock split, combination or other similar recapitalization, and (ii) the date specified by vote or written consent of the holders of the requisite holders of series A preferred stock and series A‑1 junior preferred stock.

In September 2017, the Company's board of directors approved a 1-for-9.17 reverse stock split of the Company's issued and outstanding shares of common stock. All shares and per share amounts in the financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect of the reverse stock split.

7. Significant Agreements

License Agreements

The Predecessor Company entered into a license agreement on February 26, 2010 with Ipsen Pharma, S.A.S. (“Ipsen”) that granted full worldwide right for two programs that include the clinical candidates setmelanotide and relamorelin. As a result of the Corporate Reorganization described in Note 1, the Ipsen license was converted to separate license agreements for the setmelanotide program held by the Company and the relamorelin program held by the Relamorelin Company, respectively. Under the terms of the setmelanotide Ipsen license agreement, assuming that setmelanotide is successfully developed, receives regulatory approval and is commercialized, Ipsen may receive aggregate payments of up to $40,000 upon the achievement of certain development and commercial milestones and royalties on future product sales in the mid‑single digits. Substantially all of such aggregate payments of up to $40,000 are for milestones that may be achieved no earlier than first commercial sale of setmelanotide. In the event that the Company executes a sublicense agreement, it shall make payments to Ipsen, depending on the date of such sublicense agreement, ranging from 10% to 20% of all revenues actually received under such sublicense agreement.

In July 2017, the Company made a prepayment on the first milestone event associated with this license agreement. The first milestone relates to the initiation of a Phase 3 study for setmelanotide in a pivotal multi-center human clinical trial in a large number of patients. The prepayment associated with this milestone was $1,000.

In January 2016, the Company entered into a licensing agreement with Camurus AB, or Camurus, for the use of Camurus’ drug delivery technology. The contract includes a non‑refundable and non‑creditable signing fee of $500, which was paid during January 2016. The Camurus Agreement also includes up to $7,750 in one‑time, non‑refundable development milestones achievable upon certain regulatory successes. The Company is also required to pay to Camurus royalties, mid to mid‑high single digit, on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis of annual net sales, until the later of (i) 10 years after the date of first commercial sale of such product in such country; or (ii) the expiration of the last to expire valid claim of all licensed patent rights in such country covering such product. The Company is also required to pay one‑time, non‑refundable, non‑creditable sales milestones upon the achievement of certain sales levels for such product and cannot be in excess of $57,000.

In March 2017, the Company achieved the first milestone event associated with this license agreement. The Company completed the first manufactured batch using the Camurus drug delivery technology and filed an investigational new drug application with the FDA. The fee associated with this milestone was $250.

16


 

8. Related‑Party Transactions

The Company shared costs with the Relamorelin Company, its affiliate, including payroll, facilities, information technology and other research and development and general and administrative overhead costs. Additionally, the Relamorelin Company had paid certain Company expenses directly on behalf of the Company. Shared costs incurred by the Relamorelin Company and Company expenses paid by the Relamorelin Company on behalf of the Company are allocated from the Relamorelin Company to the Company as described in Note 1 and Note 2. The Relamorelin Company was sold to a large pharmaceutical company on December 15, 2016.

The LLC entity made payments on behalf of the Company totaling $105 related to allocated 2016 employee bonuses. Those costs are recorded as a payable due to the LLC entity from the Company at December 31, 2016 on the balance sheet.

Expenses paid directly by the Company to consultants considered to be related parties amounted to $294, $880, $184 and $386 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Outstanding payments due to these related parties as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 were $130 and $50, respectively, and were included within accounts payable on the balance sheet. Expenses paid by the Relamorelin Company to these related parties amounted to zero, zero, $173 and $622 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Employees of certain holders of series A and series B convertible preferred units of the LLC entity, have been retained as consultants supporting development activities of the Company and the Relamorelin Company for which the holders are paid cash compensation pursuant to consulting arrangements. Compensation payments related to these consultants totaled  $33, $77, $11 and $48 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

9. Income Taxes

In the Company's financial statements, income taxes, including deferred tax balances, have been calculated on a separate tax return basis. Certain of the Company's activities and costs have been included in the tax returns filed by the Relamorelin Company and the LLC entity. Prior to the Corporate Reorganization, the Company's operations were included in the tax returns filed by the Predecessor Company. The Company has filed tax returns on its own behalf since the Corporate Reorganization.

For the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company did not have a current or deferred income tax expense or benefit as the entity has incurred losses since inception and has provided a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets.

10. Subsequent Events

On October 5, 2017, the Company filed an amended and restated certificate of incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to increase its authorized number of shares of common stock to 120,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share.

On October 10, 2017 the Company completed its IPO of 8,107,500 shares of common stock at an offering price of $17.00 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 1,057,500 additional shares of common stock. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $137,828 or net proceeds of $125,780 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and estimated offering expenses. In connection with the IPO, the Company’s outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 17,406,338 shares of common stock. After the IPO, our outstanding common shares were 27,284,140. The financial statements as of September 30, 2017, including share and per share amounts, do not include the effects of the IPO.

On October 10, 2017 upon consummation of the Company’s IPO, the Company adopted the 2017 equity incentive plan (the “2017 plan”).  The 2017 plan serves as the successor to the 2015 equity incentive plan (the “2015 plan”), and no further awards will be made under the 2015 plan. All awards outstanding under the 2015 plan have been treated as outstanding under the 2017 plan.  The aggregate number of shares of the Company’s common stock which may be issued

17


 

under the 2017 plan or with respect to which awards may be granted may not exceed 4,018,538 shares.  The number of shares which may be issued under the 2017 plan includes shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2015 plan, including the portion of those shares subject to options outstanding on that date. The number of shares authorized under the 2017 plan will be increased each January 1, by an amount equal to 4% of the Company’s outstanding shares of stock as of the end of the immediately preceding fiscal year.

 

18


 

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our unaudited condensed financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited financial statements and the notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2016 included in our prospectus dated October 4, 2017 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our financial performance, including our expectations regarding our existing cash, operating losses, expenses and sources of future financing; statements regarding our plans to research, develop and commercialize setmelanotide, if approved; statements regarding the impact of changes in accounting standards; statements regarding our ability to hire and retain necessary personnel; statements regarding our ability to protect our intellectual property; statements regarding our ability to negotiate our collaboration agreements, if needed, and other statements identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “likely,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “seeks,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms include forward‑looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are not promises or guarantees of future performance, and are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and which could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated in such forward-looking statements. These factors include those set forth in Part II, Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Our actual results could differ materially from the results described in or implied by such forward‑looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof, and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements. 

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of peptide therapeutics for the treatment of rare genetic deficiencies that result in life‑threatening metabolic disorders. Our lead peptide product candidate is setmelanotide, a potent, first‑in‑class melanocortin-4 receptor, or MC4R, agonist for the treatment of rare genetic disorders of obesity. We believe setmelanotide, for which we have exclusive worldwide rights, has the potential to serve as replacement therapy for the treatment of melanocortin-4, or MC4, pathway deficiencies. MC4 pathway deficiencies result in the disruption of satiety signals and energy homeostasis in the body, which, in turn, leads to intense feelings of hunger and to obesity.  Our development efforts are initially focused on obesity related to six single gene-related, or monogenic, MC4 pathway deficiencies, pro-opiomelanocortin, or POMC, leptin receptor, or LepR, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, Alström syndrome, POMC heterozygous and POMC epigenetic disorders for which there are currently no effective or approved treatments. We believe that the MC4 pathway is a compelling target for treating these genetic disorders because of its critical role in regulating appetite and weight by promoting satiety and weight control, and that peptide therapeutics are uniquely suited for activating this target.

We have demonstrated proof of concept in Phase 2 clinical trials in POMC deficiency obesity, LepR deficiency obesity and Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, three genetic disorders of extreme and unrelenting appetite and obesity, in which setmelanotide dramatically reduced both weight and hunger.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, has acknowledged the importance of this preliminary clinical evidence by giving setmelanotide breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of obesity associated with genetic defects upstream of the MC4 receptor in the leptin-melanocortin pathway, which includes both POMC deficiency obesity and LepR deficiency obesity. Setmelanotide is currently in Phase 3 development for POMC deficiency obesity and LepR deficiency obesity. We are currently enrolling patients in our POMC deficiency obesity Phase 3 clinical trial. We expect to complete enrollment by the end of 2017 and to report Phase 3 data in the first half of 2019.  We expect to enroll the first patient in our LepR deficiency obesity Phase 3 trial in the fourth quarter of 2017, and to complete enrollment in 2018. We recently demonstrated preliminary proof of concept in our Phase 2 clinical trial in Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, indicating that this is also a setmelanotide‑responsive, upstream MC4 pathway disorder. We are continuing to enroll patients in this trial and expect to report preliminary Phase 2 results in the fourth quarter of 2017. We expect to initiate a Phase 3 clinical trial in Bardet‑Biedl syndrome in 2018. We have also initiated Phase 2 clinical trials in Alström syndrome, POMC heterozygous deficiency obesity and POMC epigenetic disorders and expect to enroll patients in these trials in the second half of 2017. We anticipate reporting preliminary results in these additional Phase 2 indications in the first half of 2018.

19


 

We have leveraged skilled experts, consultants, contract research organizations, or CROs, and contractors to manage our clinical operations under the leadership and direction of our management. We expect to expand our infrastructure to manage our clinical, finance and commercial operations with a higher proportion of full‑time employees. We have seventeen employees, five of whom hold Ph.D. or M.D. degrees. Of these employees, twelve are engaged in development and commercialization activities and five are engaged in support administration, including business development and finance. In the near‑term, we expect to significantly expand our clinical, commercial and finance personnel, in particular, and will incur increased expenses as a result.

Our operations to date have been limited primarily to conducting research and development activities for setmelanotide. To date, we have not generated any product revenue and have financed our operations primarily through capital contributions from the Predecessor Company, the Relamorelin Company and the LLC entity and, more recently, the private placement of equity securities to outside investors. On October 10, 2017 we completed our intial public offering, or IPO of 8,107,500 shares of common stock at an offering price of $17.00 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 1,057,500 additional shares of common stock. We received gross proceeds of approximately $137.8 million, before deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering related transaction costs. In connection with the IPO, the Company’s outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 17,406,338 shares of common stock. The financial statements as of September 30, 2017, including share and per share amounts, do not include the effects of the IPO. We will not generate revenue from product sales until we successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for setmelanotide, which we expect will take a number of years and is subject to significant uncertainty. We expect to continue to fund our operations through the sale of equity, debt financings or other sources. We intend to build our own marketing and commercial sales infrastructure and we may enter into collaborations with other parties for certain markets outside the United States. However, we may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. If we fail to raise capital or enter into such other arrangements as, and when, needed, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of setmelanotide.

As of September 30, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of $99.7 million. Our net losses were $10.0 million, $23.2 million, $6.4 million and $17.5 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses over the foreseeable future. We expect our expenses will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:

·

continue to conduct clinical trials for setmelanotide;

·

engage contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for the manufacture of setmelanotide for clinical trials;

·

seek regulatory approval for setmelanotide;

·

expand our clinical and financial operations and build a marketing and commercialization infrastructure; and

·

operate as a public company.

As of September 30, 2017, our existing cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments were approximately $30.4 million and after giving effect to the aggregate net proceeds from our IPO in October 2017, $156.2 million. We expect that the net proceeds of this offering will enable us to fund our operating expenses into the first half of 2019.

Corporate Background and Distribution

We are a Delaware corporation organized in February 2013 under the name Rhythm Metabolic, Inc., and as of October 2015, under the name Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Prior to our organization and the Corporate Reorganization referred to below, we were part of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation which was organized in November 2008 and which commenced active operations in 2010. We refer to this corporation as the Predecessor Company.

20


 

In March 2013, the Predecessor Company underwent a corporate reorganization, which we refer to as the Corporate Reorganization, pursuant to which all of the outstanding equity securities of the Predecessor Company were exchanged for units of Rhythm Holding Company, LLC, a newly‑organized limited liability company, which we refer to as the LLC entity. After the consummation of this exchange and as part of the Corporate Reorganization, the Predecessor Company contributed setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program to us and distributed to the LLC entity all of the then issued and outstanding shares of our stock. The result of the Corporate Reorganization was that we and the Predecessor Company became wholly‑owned subsidiaries of the LLC entity and the two product candidates and related programs that were originally held by the Predecessor Company were separated, with relamorelin and the ghrelin agonist program being retained by the Predecessor Company and setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program being held by us. We refer to the Predecessor Company after consummation of the Corporate Reorganization as the Relamorelin Company. The Predecessor Company filed the Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, for setmelanotide in October 2011 and conducted the setmelanotide clinical trials up until the Corporate Reorganization, after which all clinical trials have been conducted by us.

In October 2014, the LLC entity granted to Actavis plc, now owned by Allergan, Inc., or Allergan, an exclusive option to acquire the Relamorelin Company. The transaction was limited to the acquisition of the Relamorelin Company and did not include our company. In October 2016, the option to acquire the Relamorelin Company was exercised and the sale to Allergan closed on December 15, 2016.

In August 2015, December 2015, January 2017 and August 2017, we sold 25,000,000 shares, 15,000,000 shares, 20,475,001 shares and 20,474,998 shares, respectively, of our series A convertible preferred stock to certain investors. Following the closing of our series A convertible preferred stock financings, the LLC entity remained our largest stockholder, with the balance of our stock being owned by our series A investors. In August 2017, the LLC entity exchanged 8,578,646 of its shares of our common stock for 78,666,209 newly‑issued shares of our series A‑1 junior preferred stock and the LLC entity distributed all of its shares of our series A‑1 junior preferred stock to the holders of its preferred units and the remaining 1,617,646 shares of our common stock to the holders of its common units. We refer to the exchange and distribution as the Distribution. The series A‑1 junior preferred stock converted into shares of our common stock on a 9.17‑for‑1 basis upon the closing of our IPO. Following the Distribution, the LLC entity did not own any of our common stock.

In connection with our IPO, we effected a 1‑for‑9.17 reverse stock split of our outstanding common stock on September 29, 2017.  All share and per share amounts in the financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect of the reverse stock split.

On October 13, 2015, the Relamorelin Company changed its name to Motus Therapeutics, Inc. and we changed our name to Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

We shared certain costs with the Relamorelin Company and effective December 2016 in connection with the sale of the Relamorelin Company, we no longer share these costs.

Financial Operations Overview

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of setmelanotide for at least several years. We cannot predict if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of setmelanotide. Setmelanotide is currently our only product candidate, and we may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for setmelanotide or any other product candidate that we decide to pursue in the future.

21


 

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our drug discovery efforts, and the development of setmelanotide, which include:

·

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including CROs that conduct research and development and preclinical activities on our behalf, and the cost of consultants and CMOs that manufacture drug products for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

·

employee‑related expenses including salaries, benefits, and stock‑based compensation expense;

·

the cost of lab supplies and acquiring, developing, and manufacturing preclinical study materials; and

·

facilities, depreciation, and other expenses, which include rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and other operating costs.

We expense research and development costs to operations as incurred. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are recorded as prepaid expenses. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

The following table summarizes our current research and development program for setmelanotide.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

September 30, 

Research and Development Summary

    

    

2017

    

2016

    

2017

    

2016

 

 

 

(in thousands)

Setmelanotide Program

 

 

$

5,971

 

$

5,419

 

$

16,241

 

$

13,963

 

We are unable to predict the duration and costs of current or future clinical trials of setmelanotide. The duration, costs, and timing of clinical trials and development of setmelanotide will depend on a variety of factors, including:

·

the scope, rate of progress, and expense of our ongoing, as well as any additional, clinical trials and other research and development activities;

·

the rate of enrollment in clinical trials;

·

the safety and efficacy demonstrated by setmelanotide in future clinical trials;

·

changes in regulatory requirements;

·

changes in clinical trial design; and

·

the timing and receipt of any regulatory approvals.

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of setmelanotide would significantly change the costs and timing associated with its development and potential commercialization.

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later‑stage clinical trials. We expect research and development costs to increase significantly for the foreseeable future as our setmelanotide development program progresses. However, we do not believe that it is possible at this time to accurately project total program‑specific expenses to commercialization and there can be no guarantee that we can meet the funding needs associated with these expenses.

22


 

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock‑based compensation, relating to our full‑time employees and until December 2016, for personnel which have been allocated from the Relamorelin Company. Other significant costs include rent which previously had been allocated from the Relamorelin Company, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters and fees for accounting and consulting services.

The following table summarizes our current general and administrative expenses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

September 30, 

 

September 30, 

 

    

2017

    

2016

    

2017

    

2016

 

 

(in thousands)

General and administrative expense

 

$

2,315

 

$

982

 

$

5,188

 

$

3,567

 

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support continued and expanding development efforts, potential commercialization of setmelanotide and increased costs of operating as a public company. These increases will likely include increased costs related to the hiring of additional personnel and fees to outside consultants, lawyers and accountants, costs of compliance with exchange listing rules and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, rules, insurance and investor relations costs, among other expenses.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which we have prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those described in greater detail below. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.

Basis of Presentation

Presentation

We have historically existed and functioned as part of the consolidated businesses of the Predecessor Company. Our MC4 business was contributed to us from the Predecessor Company on March 21, 2013 as part of the Corporate Reorganization. At that time, we also entered into the Payroll Services Agreement. In December 2016, the shared employees terminated their existing employment agreements and entered into new agreements with us. Until December 2016, we shared costs with the Relamorelin Company, including finance, accounting, research and development and operations. These shared costs were allocated to us from the Relamorelin Company for the purposes of preparing the financial statements based on a specific identification basis or, when specific identification is not practicable, a proportional cost allocation method which allocates expenses based upon the percentage of employee time and research and development effort expended on our business as compared to total employee time and research and development effort. The proportional use basis adopted to allocate shared costs is in accordance with the guidance of Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 1B. Our management has determined that the proportional use method of allocating costs to us from the Relamorelin Company is reasonable.

23


 

Accrued research and development expenses

As part of the process of preparing our financial statements, we are required to estimate the value associated with goods and services received in the period in connection with research and development activities. This process involves reviewing quotations and contracts, identifying services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of the actual cost, or alternatively, the deferral of amounts paid for goods or services to be incurred in the future. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed or when contractual milestones are met. We make estimates of our accrued expenses or prepaid expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at the time those financial statements are prepared. We periodically confirm the accuracy of our estimates with the service providers and make adjustments if necessary. The significant estimates in our accrued research and development expenses include fees paid to CROs and CMOs in connection with research and development activities.

We accrue our expenses related to CROs and CMOs based on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to quotes and contracts with CROs and CMOs that conduct research and development and manufacturing on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. The allocation of CRO upfront expenses for both clinical trials and preclinical studies generally tracks actual work activity. However, there may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the research and development expense. In accruing service fees delivered over a period of time, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from our estimate, we adjust accrued or prepaid expense accordingly. Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, if our estimates of the status and timing of services performed differ from the actual status and timing of services performed, it could result in us reporting amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. To date, there have been no material differences between our estimates of such expenses and the amounts actually incurred.

2017 Series A Investor Instrument

We have classified our 2017 Series A Investor Instrument (See Note 4 to our financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q) as a liability as it is a free‑standing financial instrument. The 2017 Series A Investor Instrument was recorded at fair value upon the issuance of our series A preferred stock in January 2017, and subsequently remeasured to fair value at each reporting period. Changes in fair value of this financial instrument is recognized as a component of other income (expense), net in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument is determined to be the sum of the fair values of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation and the 2017 Investor Call Option. We estimated the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligations as the probability‑weighted present value of the expected benefit of the investment.

We used the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model, which incorporates assumptions and estimates, to value the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option and assessed these assumptions and estimates on a quarterly basis as additional information impacting the assumptions was obtained. Estimates and assumptions impacting the fair value measurement include the fair value per share of the underlying series A preferred stock, the expected term of the 2017 Series A Investor Call Options, risk‑free interest rate, expected dividend yield and expected volatility of the price of the underlying preferred stock. We determined the fair value per share of the underlying preferred stock by taking into consideration the most recent sale of our convertible preferred stock and the investors' right to invest in a subsequent tranche. As we are a private company and lack company‑specific historical and implied volatility information of our stock, we estimated our expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of publicly traded peer companies for a term comparable to the estimated term of the 2017 Series A Investor Call Options. The risk‑free interest rate was determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve for time periods approximately equal to the estimated term of the 2017 Series A Investor Call Options. A dividend yield of zero was assumed.

24


 

Stock-based compensation

Prior to August 2015, we did not have our own equity compensation plan. In August 2015, our Board of Directors and our stockholders approved and we adopted the 2015 equity incentive plan, as amended and in effect prior to the closing of our IPO, or the 2015 Plan, which we terminated upon consummation of our IPO and replaced with the 2017 equity incentive plan, or the 2017 Plan. The 2017 Plan provides for the grant of incentive and non-qualified stock options and restricted stock and stock grants to employees, consultants, advisors and directors, as determined by the Board of Directors. We have reserved 4,018,538 shares of common stock under the 2017 Plan. The first option grants issued by us under the 2015 Plan were issued in the fourth quarter of 2015. Shares of common stock issued upon exercise of stock options are generally issued from authorized but unissued shares. The 2015 Plan provides that the exercise price of incentive stock options cannot be less than 100% of the fair market value of the common stock on the date of the award for participants who own less than 10% of the total combined voting power of stock, and not less than 110% for participants who own more than 10% of the voting power. Options and restricted stock granted under the 2015 Plan will vest over periods as determined by our Compensation Committee and approved by our Board of Directors.

We estimate the fair value of our stock-based awards to employees and non-employees using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including (a) the expected volatility of our stock, (b) the expected term of the award, (c) the risk-free interest rate, and (d) expected dividends. Due to the lack of a public market for the trading of our common stock and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, we have based our estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in a similar stage of development as us and that are publicly traded. For these analyses, we have selected companies with comparable characteristics to ours including enterprise value, risk profiles and with historical share price information sufficient to meet the expected life of the stock-based awards. We compute the historical volatility data using the daily closing prices for the selected companies' shares during the equivalent period of the calculated expected term of our stock-based awards. We will continue to apply this process until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the volatility of our own stock price becomes available. We have estimated the expected life of our employee stock options using the "simplified" method, whereby, the expected life equals the average of the vesting term and the original contractual term of the option. The risk-free interest rates for periods within the expected life of the option are based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect during the period the options were granted. Upon adopting ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share‑Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718) on January 1, 2017, we have elected to account for forfeitures as they occur.

Income taxes

Income taxes have been calculated on a separate tax return basis. Certain of our activities and costs have been included in the tax returns filed by the Relamorelin Company and the LLC entity. Prior to the Corporate Reorganization, our operations were included in the tax returns filed by the Predecessor Company. We have filed tax returns on our own behalf since the Corporate Reorganization.

We account for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, or ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, we recognize the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. As of December 31, 2016, we do not have any uncertain tax positions.

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC 740, which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. We determine our deferred tax assets and liabilities based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, which are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

25


 

As of December 31, 2016, we had net operating loss carryforwards to reduce federal and state incomes taxes of approximately $46,934 and $24,432, respectively. If not utilized, these carryforwards begin to expire in 2033. At December 31, 2016, we also had available research and development tax credits for federal and state income tax purposes of approximately $971 and $369, respectively. The federal and state credits begin to expire in 2033 and 2028, respectively.

Utilization of the net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to ownership change limitations that have occurred previously or that could occur in the future, as provided by Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, or Section 382, as well as similar state provisions and other provisions of the Code. Ownership changes may limit the amount of net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income and tax, respectively. In general, an ownership change, as defined by Section 382, results from transactions that increase the ownership of 5.0% stockholders in the stock of a corporation by more than 50% in the aggregate over a three-year period.

Results of Operations

Comparison of three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

Change

 

 

    

2017

    

2016

    

$

    

%

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Statement of Operations Data: