0001649749-21-000065.txt : 20210312 0001649749-21-000065.hdr.sgml : 20210312 20210311210740 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001649749-21-000065 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 170 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20201231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20210312 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20210311 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: FB Financial Corp CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001649749 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: STATE COMMERCIAL BANKS [6022] IRS NUMBER: 621216058 STATE OF INCORPORATION: TN FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-37875 FILM NUMBER: 21735127 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 211 COMMERCE STREET STREET 2: SUITE 300 CITY: NASHVILLE STATE: TN ZIP: 37201 BUSINESS PHONE: 615-313-0080 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 211 COMMERCE STREET STREET 2: SUITE 300 CITY: NASHVILLE STATE: TN ZIP: 37201 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: First South Bancorp, Inc. DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 20150731 10-K 1 fbk-20201231.htm 10-K fbk-20201231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
______________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-37875
_____________________________________________________________
FB FINANCIAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)
______________________________________________________________
Tennessee62-1216058
( State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
211 Commerce Street, Suite 300
Nashville, Tennessee
37201
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (615564-1212
____________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol  Name of each exchange on which registered 
Common Stock, Par Value $1.00 Per Share FBK  New York Stock Exchange 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES ☐ No ý
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YES ☐ No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer   Small reporting company 
Emerging growth company     
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No ☒
As of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the Registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $445.7 million, based on the closing sales price of $24.77 per share as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of March 5, 2021 was 47,307,688.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which will be filed within 120 days after December 31, 2019, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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In this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report”), references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “FB Financial,” or “the Company” refer to FB Financial Corporation, a Tennessee corporation, and our wholly owned banking subsidiary, FirstBank, a Tennessee state chartered bank, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires. References to “Bank” or “FirstBank” refer to FirstBank, our wholly owned banking subsidiary.
Cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements
This Annual Report contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are intended to be covered by the safe harbor for "forward-looking statements" provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can find many of these statements by looking for words such as "anticipates," "expects," "believes," "estimates," "intends" and "forecast" and words or phrases of similar meaning. We make forward-looking statements regarding our liquidity position; projected sources of funds; the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken in response thereto; our securities portfolio; loan sales; adequacy of our allowance for loan and lease losses and reserve for unfunded commitments; impaired loans and future losses; litigation; dividends; fair values of certain assets and liabilities, including mortgage servicing rights values; tax rates; the effect of accounting pronouncements; and strategic initiatives and the timing, benefits, costs and synergies of future acquisition, disposition and other growth opportunities.
These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based upon current expectations, estimates and/or projections about our industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. The inclusion of these forward-looking statements should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that such expectations, estimates and/or projections will be achieved. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and that are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date of this Annual Report, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:
current and future economic conditions, including the effects of declines in housing and commercial real estate prices, high unemployment rates, and a continued slowdown in economic growth in the local or regional economies in which we operate and/or the U.S. economy generally;
the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the magnitude and duration of the pandemic and its impact on general economic and financial market conditions and on our business and our customers' business, results of operations, asset quality and financial condition, as well as the efficacy, distribution, and public adoption of vaccines;
changes in government interest rate policies and its impact on our business, net interest margin, and mortgage operations;
our ability to effectively manage problem credits;
the risk that the cost savings and any revenue synergies from the merger with Franklin Financial Network, Inc. (the “merger”) or another acquisition may not be realized or may take longer than anticipated to be realized;
disruption from the merger with customer, supplier, or employee relationships;
the risks related to the integrations of the combined businesses following the merger;
the diversion of management time on issues related to the merger;
the ability of FB Financial to effectively manage the larger and more complex operations of the combined company following the merger;
the risks associated with FB Financial’s pursuit of future acquisitions;
reputational risk and the reaction of the parties’ respective customers to the merger;
FB Financial’s ability to successfully execute its various business strategies;
the impact of the recent change in the U.S. presidential administration and Congress and any resulting impact on economic policy, capital markets, federal regulation, and the response to the COVD-19 pandemic; and
general competitive, economic, political, and market conditions.
The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the sections entitled “Risk factors” and “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” included in this Annual Report. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from our forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of this Annual Report, and we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by law. New risks and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict their occurrence or how they will affect us.
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PART I
ITEM - 1. Business
In this annual report, the terms "we," "our," "ours," "us," "FB Financial," and "the Company" refer to FB Financial Corporation, a Tennessee corporation, and our consolidated banking subsidiary, FirstBank, a Tennessee state chartered bank, unless the context indicates that we refer only to the parent company, FB Financial Corporation. The terms "FirstBank" or "the Bank" refer to our wholly owned subsidiary and Tennessee banking corporation.
Overview
FB Financial Corporation is a bank holding company designated as a financial holding company. We are headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. Our wholly owned bank subsidiary, FirstBank, is the third largest Tennessee-headquartered bank, based on total assets. FirstBank provides a comprehensive suite of commercial and consumer banking services to clients in select markets primarily in Tennessee, North Alabama, Southern Kentucky, and North Georgia. As of December 31, 2020, our footprint included 81 full-service bank branches and several other limited service banking, ATM and mortgage loan production locations serving the Tennessee metropolitan markets of Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, and Jackson in addition to the metropolitan markets of Huntsville and Florence, Alabama and Bowling Green, Kentucky. The Bank also operates in 16 community markets. The Company also provides mortgage banking services utilizing its bank branch network and mortgage banking offices located throughout the southeastern United States in addition to its national internet delivery channel. As of December 31, 2020, we had total assets of $11.21 billion, loans held for investment of $7.08 billion, total deposits of $9.46 billion, and total shareholders’ equity of $1.29 billion.
Throughout our history, we have steadfastly maintained a community banking approach of personalized relationship-based service, which is delivered locally through experienced bankers in each market. As we have grown, maintaining this relationship-based approach utilizing local, talented and experienced bankers in each market has been an integral component of our success. Our bankers utilize their local knowledge and relationships to deliver timely solutions to our clients. We empower these bankers by giving them local decision making authority supplemented by appropriate risk management. In our experience, business owners and operators prefer to deal with decision makers, and our banking model is built to place the decision maker as close to the client as possible. We have designed our operations, technology, and centralized risk oversight processes to specifically support our operating model. We deploy this operating model universally in each of our markets, regardless of size. We believe we have a competitive advantage in our markets versus both smaller community banks and larger regional and national banks. Our robust offering of products, services and capabilities differentiate us from community banks and our significant local market knowledge, client service level and the speed with which we are able to make decisions and deliver our services to customers differentiate us from larger regional and national banks.
We seek to leverage our operating model by focusing on profitable growth opportunities across our footprint, focused primarily on both high-growth metropolitan markets and stable community markets. As a result, we are able to strategically deploy our capital across our markets to take advantage of those opportunities that we believe provide the greatest certainty of profitable growth and highest returns.
Our operating model is executed by a talented management team lead by our Chief Executive Officer, Christopher T. Holmes. Mr. Holmes, a 30-year banking veteran originally from Lexington, Tennessee, joined the Bank in 2010 as Chief Banking Officer and was appointed Chief Executive Officer and President in 2013. Mr. Holmes has an extensive background in both metropolitan and community banking gained from his time at community banks and larger public financial institutions. Mr. Holmes has assembled a highly effective management team, blending members that have a long history with FirstBank and members that have significant banking experience at other in-market banks.
Our history
Originally chartered in 1906, we are one of the longest continually operating banks in Tennessee. While our deep community roots go back over 100 years, our growth trajectory changed in 1984 when Tennessee businessman James W. Ayers, our Vice Chairman and Founder, acquired Farmers State Bank with an associate. In 1988, we purchased the assets of First National Bank of Lexington, Tennessee and changed our name to FirstBank, forming the foundation of our current franchise. In 1990, Mr. Ayers became our sole shareholder and remained our sole shareholder until our initial public offering in September 2016. Under Mr. Ayers’ ownership, we grew from a community bank with only $14 million in assets in 1984 to the third largest bank headquartered in Tennessee, based on total assets of $11.21 billion at December 31, 2020.
 
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From 1984 to 2001, we operated as a community bank growing organically and through small acquisitions in community markets in West Tennessee. In 2001, our strategy evolved from serving purely community markets to include a modest presence in metropolitan markets, expanding our reach and enhancing our growth. We entered Nashville and Memphis in 2001 by opening a branch in each of those markets. In 2004 and 2008, we opened our first branches in Knoxville and Chattanooga, respectively. Although we experienced some growth in each metropolitan market, it did not become a major strategic focus until we implemented our current strategy in the Nashville metropolitan statistical area (“MSA”) in 2012. The successful implementation of this strategy, along with strategic key acquisitions, resulted in growing Nashville into our largest market with 50% of our total deposits as of June 30, 2020. Additionally, we expanded into the Huntsville, Alabama MSA in 2014 by opening a branch in Huntsville and loan production office in Florence, Alabama, which was converted to a full service branch in 2019. During 2020, we expanded into the Bowling Green, Kentucky MSA with our acquisition of FNB Financial Corp. in addition to increasing our Nashville MSA market share through our acquisition of Franklin Financial Network, Inc. As a result of this evolution and focus on continuous organic growth, we operate a balanced business model that serves a diverse customer base in both metropolitan and community markets.
Mergers and acquisitions
On September 18, 2015, the Bank completed its acquisition of Northwest Georgia Bank (“NWGB”), a bank headquartered in Ringgold, Georgia, pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger dated April 27, 2015 by and between the Bank and NWGB. The Company acquired NWGB in a $1.5 million cash purchase. NWGB was merged with and into the Bank, with the Bank as the surviving entity. As of September 18, 2015, the estimated fair value of loans acquired and deposits assumed as a result of the merger was $78.6 million and $246.2 million, respectively.
On July 31, 2017, the Bank completed its merger with Clayton Bank and Trust (“CBT”) and American City Bank (“ACB” and together with CBT, the “Clayton Banks”), pursuant to the Stock Purchase Agreement with Clayton HC, Inc., a Tennessee corporation (“Seller”), and James L. Clayton, the majority shareholder of Seller, dated February 8, 2017, as amended on May 26, 2017, with a purchase price of approximately $236.5 million. The Company issued 1,521,200 shares of common stock and paid cash of $184.2 million to purchase all of the outstanding shares of the Clayton Banks. At closing, the Clayton Banks merged with and into FirstBank, with FirstBank continuing as the surviving banking entity. As of July 31, 2017, the estimated fair value of loans acquired and deposits assumed as a result of the merger was $1,059.7 million and $979.5 million, respectively.
On April 5, 2019, the Bank acquired 11 Tennessee and three Georgia branch locations from Atlantic Capital Bank, N.A., further increasing market share in existing markets and expanding the Company's footprint into new locations. Under the terms of the agreement, the Bank assumed $588.9 million in deposits for a premium of 6.25% and acquired $374.4 million in loans at 99.32% of principal outstanding.
On February 14, 2020, the Company acquired FNB Financial Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Farmers National Bank of Scottsville (collectively, "Farmers National"). Following the acquisition, Farmers National was merged into the Company with FB Financial Corporation continuing as the surviving entity. The transaction added four branches and expanded the Company's footprint into Kentucky. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company acquired total assets of $258.2 million, loans of $182.2 million and assumed total deposits of $209.5 million. Farmers National shareholders received 954,797 shares of the Company's common stock as consideration in connection with the merger, in addition to $15.0 million in cash consideration.
On August 15, 2020, the Company completed its largest merger to date with Franklin Financial Network, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, with FB Financial Corporation continuing as the surviving entity. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company acquired total assets of $3.63 billion, loans of $2.79 billion and assumed total deposits of $3.12 billion in a transaction valued at $477.8 million, which included the issuance of 15,058,181 shares of the Company's common stock. The transaction added a new subsidiary to the Company, FirstBank Risk Management ("FBRM"), which provides risk management services to the Company in the form of enhanced insurance coverages. It also added a new subsidiary to the Bank, FirstBank Investments of Tennessee, Inc. ("FBIT"), which provides investment services to the Bank. FBIT has a wholly owned subsidiary, FirstBank Investments of Nevada, Inc. ("FBIN") to provide investment services to FBIT. FBIN has a controlling interest in a subsidiary, FirstBank Preferred Capital, Inc. ("FBPC"), which serves as a real estate investment trust ("REIT"), to allow the Bank to sell real estate loans to the REIT to obtain a tax benefit.
See Note 2, “Mergers and acquisitions” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further details regarding the terms and conditions of these acquisitions.
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Our markets
Our market footprint is the southeastern United States, centered around Tennessee, and includes portions of North Alabama, North Georgia and Kentucky.
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Top Metropolitan Markets
Top Community Markets1
MarketMarket RankBranches (#)Deposits ($mm)Deposit Market SharePercent of Total DepositsMarketMarket RankBranches (#)Deposits ($mm)Deposit Market SharePercent of Total Deposits
Nashville24 4,766 5.9 %50.4 %Lexington332 53.8 %3.7 %
Chattanooga740 6.1 %7.8 %Parsons155 45.7 %1.7 %
Knoxville526 2.6 %5.6 %Tullahoma151 13.4 %1.7 %
Jackson450 12.2 %4.8 %Huntingdon142 24.2 %1.6 %
Bowling Green226 6.3 %2.4 %Paris129 16.4 %1.4 %
Memphis30 183 0.5 %1.9 %Camden117 17.4 %1.3 %
Huntsville20 63 0.6 %0.7 %Smithville112 24.1 %1.2 %
Note: Market data as of June 30, 2020 and is presented on a pro forma basis for pending and completed acquisitions as of January 15, 2021. Size of bubble represents size of company deposits in a given market.
Source: Company data and S&P Global Market Intelligence; 1Statistics based on county data.
Market characteristics and mix.
Metropolitan markets.     Our metropolitan markets are generally characterized by attractive demographics and strong economies and offer substantial opportunity for future growth. We compete in these markets with national and regional banks that currently have the largest market share positions and with community banks primarily focused only on a particular geographic area or business niche. We believe we are well positioned to grow our market penetration among our target clients of small to medium sized businesses as well as large corporate businesses and the consumer base working and living in these metropolitan markets. In our experience, such clients demand the product sophistication of a larger bank, but prefer the customer service, relationship focus and local connectivity of a community bank. We believe that our size, product suite and operating model offer us a competitive advantage in these markets versus our smaller competitors, many of which are focused only on specific counties or industries. Our operating model driven by local talent with strong community ties and local authority serves as a key competitive advantage over our larger competitors. We believe that, as a result, we are well positioned to leverage our existing franchise to expand our market share in our markets.
Community markets.    Our community markets tend to be more stable throughout various economic cycles, with primarily retail and small business customer opportunities and more limited competition. We believe this leads to an attractive profitability profile and more granular loan and deposit portfolios. Our community markets are standalone markets and not suburbs of larger markets. We primarily compete in these markets with community banks that generally have less than $1 billion in total assets. Our strategy is to compete against these smaller community banks by providing a broader and more sophisticated set of products and capabilities while still maintaining our local service model. We believe these markets are
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being deemphasized by national and regional banks which provides us with opportunities to hire talented bankers in these communities and maintain or grow market share in these community markets.
Our core client profile across our footprint includes small businesses, corporate clients and owners, and investors of commercial real estate. We target business clients with substantial operating history that have annual revenues of up to $250 million. Our typical business client would keep business deposit accounts with us, and we would look to provide banking services to the owners and employees of the business as well. We also have an active consumer lending business that includes deposit products, mortgages, home equity lines and small consumer finance loans. We continuously strive to build deeper relationships by actively cross-selling incremental products to meet the banking needs of our clients.
 
The following tables show our deposit market share ranking among banks in Tennessee as of June 30, 2020 (the most recent date where such information is publicly available). Of the 10 largest banks in the state based on total deposits, five are national or regional banks, which we believe provides us with significant opportunities to gain market share from these banks.
Top 10 banks in Tennessee:
RankCompany nameHeadquartersBranches
(#)
Total
deposits
($bn)
Deposit
market
share
(%)
1First Horizon National Corp. (TN)Memphis, TN164 31.2 16.2 
2Regions Financial Corp. (AL)Birmingham, AL210 22.2 11.5 
3Pinnacle Financial Partners (TN)Nashville, TN50 18.6 9.7 
4Truist Financial Corp. (NC)Charlotte, NC145 16.9 8.8 
5Bank of America Corporation (NC)Charlotte, NC59 16.8 8.7 
6FB Financial Corp (TN)Nashville, TN77 8.3 4.3 
7U.S. Bancorp (MN)Minneapolis, MN69 4.0 2.1 
8Fifth Third Bancorp (OH)Cincinnati, OH39 4.0 2.1 
9Wilson Bank Holding Co. (TN)Lebanon, TN28 2.8 1.4 
10CapStar Financial Hlgs Inc. (TN)Nashville, TN22 2.6 1.3 
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence and Company reports as of June 30, 2020; total assets as of December 31, 2020, adjusted for pending and completed acquisitions as of January 15, 2021.
Our business strategy
Our overall business strategy is comprised of the following core strategies.
Enhance market penetration in metropolitan markets.    In recent years, we have successfully grown our franchise in the Nashville MSA by executing our community bank growth strategy. The strategy is centered on the following: recruiting the best bankers and empowering them with local authority; developing branch density; building brand awareness and growing our business and consumer banking presence; and expanding our product offering and capabilities. These strategies coupled with our personalized, relationship-based client service have contributed significantly to our success. Additionally, we believe that our scale, resources and sophisticated range of products provides us with a competitive advantage over the smaller community banks in the Nashville MSA and our other MSAs. As a result of these competitive advantages and growth strategies, the Nashville MSA has become our largest market. With approximately 5.9% market share, based on pro forma deposits as of June 30, 2020, we intend to continue to efficiently increase our market penetration through organic growth and strategic acquisitions.  
Based on market and competitive similarities, we believe our growth strategies are transferable to our other metropolitan markets. We implemented these strategies with a focus on the Chattanooga and Knoxville MSAs. Our acquisitions of Northwest Georgia Bank, the Clayton Banks, and the branches from Atlantic Capital Bank have accelerated our growth and profitability in the Chattanooga and Knoxville MSAs, and we have continued to build momentum in these markets.
Pursue opportunistic acquisitions.    While most of our growth has been organic, we have completed 13 acquisitions in the past 25 years. We pursue acquisitions that enhance market penetration, possess strong core deposits, are accretive to earnings per share while minimizing tangible book value dilution, and meet our internal return targets. We believe that numerous small to mid-sized banks or branch networks will be available for acquisition throughout our footprint as well as in attractive contiguous markets in the coming years due to industry trends, such as compliance and operational challenges, regulatory pressure, management succession issues and shareholder liquidity needs. In Tennessee alone, there are approximately 125 banks with total assets of less than $5 billion, and in the contiguous states of Alabama,
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Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia, there are over 475 banks under $5 billion in assets. We believe that we are positioned as a natural consolidator because of our financial strength, reputation and operating model.
Improve efficiency by leveraging technology and consolidating operations.    We have invested significantly in our bankers, infrastructure and technology in recent years, which we believe has created a scalable platform that will support future growth across all of our markets. Our bankers and branches, especially in the metropolitan markets, continue to scale in size, and we believe there is capacity to grow our business without adding significantly to our branch network. We plan to continue to invest, as needed, in our technology and business infrastructure to support our future growth and increase operating efficiencies. We intend to leverage these investments to consolidate and centralize our operations and support functions while protecting our decentralized client service model.
Seize opportunities to expand noninterest income.    While our primary focus is on capturing opportunities in our core banking business, we have successfully seized opportunities to grow our noninterest income. We have a strong mortgage platform with both a traditional retail delivery channel as well as an online Consumer Direct channel. Additionally, we have successfully expanded our fee-based business to include more robust treasury management, trust and investment services and capital markets revenue streams. We intend to continue emphasizing these business lines which we believe serve as strong customer acquisition channels and provide us with a range of cross-selling opportunities, while making our business stronger and more profitable.
Risk management
General
Our operating model demands a strong risk culture built to address multiple areas of risk, including credit risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, price risk, compliance risk, information security/ cyber risk, third-party risk, operational risk, strategic risk and reputational risk. Our risk culture is supported by investments in the right people and technologies to protect our business. Our board of directors, through its risk committee, is ultimately responsible for overseeing risk management of the Company. We have a Chief Risk Officer who oversees risk management across our business (including the Bank). Our board, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Risk Officer are supported by the heads of other functional areas at the Bank, including credit, legal, IT, audit, compliance, capital markets, credit review, information security and physical security. Our comprehensive risk management framework is designed to complement our core strategy of empowering our experienced, local bankers with local-decision making to better serve our clients.
Our credit policies support our goal of maintaining sound credit quality standards while achieving balance sheet growth, earnings growth, appropriate liquidity and other key objectives. We maintain a risk management infrastructure that includes local authority, centralized policymaking and a strong system of checks and balances under the direction of our Chief Credit Officer. The fundamental principles of our credit policy and procedures are to maintain credit quality standards, which enhance our long-term value to our clients, associates, shareholders and communities. Our loan policies provide our bankers with a sufficient degree of flexibility to permit them to deliver responsive and effective lending solutions to our clients while maintaining appropriate credit quality. Furthermore, our bankers and associates are hired for the long-term and they are incented to focus on long-term credit quality. Since lending represents credit risk exposure, the board of directors and its duly appointed committees seek to ensure that the Bank maintains appropriate credit quality standards. We have established management oversight committees to administer the loan portfolio and monitor credit risk. These committees include our audit committee and credit committee, and they meet at least quarterly to review the lending activities.
Credit concentration
Diversification of risk is a key factor in prudent asset management. Our loan portfolio is balanced between our metropolitan and community markets and by type, thereby diversifying our loan concentration. Our granular loan portfolio reflects a balanced mix of consumer and commercial clients across these markets that we think provides a natural hedge to industry and market cycles. In addition, risk from concentration is actively managed by management and reviewed by the board of directors of the Bank, and exposures relating to borrower, industry and commercial real estate categories are tracked and measured against policy limits. These limits are reviewed as part of our periodic review of the credit policy. Loan concentration levels are monitored by the Chief Credit Officer and reported to the board of directors.
Loan approval process
The loan approval process at the Bank is characterized by local authority supported by a risk control environment that provides for prompt and thorough underwriting of loans. Our localized decision making is reinforced through a centralized review process supported by technology that monitors credits to ensure compliance with our credit policies. Our loan approval method is based on a hierarchy of individual lending authorities for new credits and renewals granted to our individual bankers, market presidents, credit officers, senior management and credit committee. The board of directors establishes the maximum lending limits at each level and our senior management team sets individual authorities within these maximum limits to each individual based on demonstrated experience and expertise, and are periodically reviewed
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and updated. We believe that the ability to have individual loan authority up to specified levels based on experience and track record coupled with appropriate approval limits for our market presidents and credit officers allows us to provide prompt and appropriate responses to our clients while still allowing for the appropriate level of oversight.
As a relationship-oriented lender, rather than transaction-oriented lender, substantially all of our loans are made to borrowers or relationships located or operating in our market area. This provides us with a better understanding of their business, creditworthiness and the economic conditions in their market and industry. Furthermore, our associates are held accountable for all of their decisions, which effectively aligns their incentives to reflect appropriate risk management.
In considering loans, we follow the underwriting principles set forth in our credit policy with a primary focus on the following factors:
A relationship with our clients that provides us with a thorough understanding of their financial condition and ability to repay the loan;
verification that the primary and secondary sources of repayment are adequate in relation to the amount of the loan;
adherence to appropriate loan to value guidelines for real estate secured loans;
targeted levels of diversification for the loan portfolio, both as to type of borrower and type of collateral; and
proper documentation of loans, including perfected liens on collateral.
As part of the approval process for any given loan, we seek to minimize risk in a variety of ways, including the following:
analysis of the borrower's and/or guarantor's financial condition, cash flow, liquidity, and leverage;
assessment of the project's operating history, operating projections, location and condition;
review of appraisals, title commitment and environmental reports;
consideration of the management's experience and financial strength of the principals of the borrower; and
understanding economic trends and industry conditions.
The board of directors reviews and approves any amendments to the credit policy, monitors loan portfolio trends and credit trends, and reviews and approves loan transactions that exceed management thresholds as set forth in our credit policy. Loan pricing is established in conjunction with the loan approval process based on pricing guidelines for loans that are set by the Bank’s senior management. We believe that our loan approval process provides for thorough internal controls, underwriting, and decision making.
Lending limits
The Bank is limited in the amount it can loan in the aggregate to a single borrower or related borrowers by the amount of our regulatory capital. Tennessee’s legal lending limit is a safety and soundness measure intended to prevent one person or a relatively small and economically related group of persons from borrowing an unduly large amount of bank funds. It is also intended to safeguard bank’s depositors by diversifying the risk of loan losses among a relatively large number of creditworthy borrowers engaged in various types of businesses. Generally, under Tennessee law, loans and extensions of credit to a borrower may not exceed 15% of our bank’s Tier 1 capital, plus an additional 10% of the bank’s Tier 1 capital, with approval of the bank’s board. Further, the Bank may elect to conform to similar standards applicable to national banks under federal law, in lieu of Tennessee law. Because the federal law and Tennessee state law standards are determined as a percentage of the Bank’s capital, these state and federal limits both increase or decrease as the Bank’s capital increases or decreases. Based upon the capitalization of the Bank at December 31, 2020, the Bank’s legal lending limits were approximately $171.4 million (15%) and $285.6 million (25%). The Bank may seek to sell participations in our larger loans to other financial institutions, which will allow us to manage the risk involved in these loans and to meet the lending needs of our clients requiring extensions of credit in excess of these limits.
In addition to these legally imposed lending limits, we also employ appropriate limits on our overall loan portfolio and requirements with respect to certain types of lending and individual lending relationships. For example, we have lending limits related to maximum borrower, industry and certain types of commercial real estate exposures.
Enterprise risk management
We maintain an enterprise risk management program that helps us to identify, manage, monitor and control potential risks that may affect us, including credit risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, price risk, compliance risk, operational risk, information security/ cyber risk, third-party risk, strategic risk and reputational risk. Our operating model demands a strong risk culture built to address the multiple areas of risk we face, and our risk management strategy is supported by significant investments in the right people and technologies to protect the organization.
Our comprehensive risk management framework and risk identification is a continuous process and occurs at both the transaction level and the portfolio level. While our local bankers and associates support our day-to-day risk practices,
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management seeks to identify interdependencies and correlations across portfolios and lines of business that may amplify risk exposure through a thorough centralized review process. Risk measurement helps us to control and monitor risk levels and is based on the sophistication of the risk measurement tools used to reflect the complexity and levels of assumed risk. We monitor risks and ensure compliance with our risk policies by timely reviewing risk positions and exceptions, investing in the technology to monitor credits, requiring senior management authority sign-off on larger credit requests and granting credit authority to bankers and officers based on demonstrated experience and expertise. This monitoring process ensures that management’s decisions are implemented for all geographies, products and legal entities.
We control risks through limits that are communicated through policies, standards, procedures and processes that define responsibility and authority. Such limits serve as a means to control exposures to the various risks associated with our activities, and are meaningful management tools that can be adjusted if conditions or risk tolerances change. In addition, we maintain a process to authorize exceptions or changes to risk limits when warranted. These risk management practices help to ensure effective reporting, compliance with all laws, rules and regulations, avoid damage to our reputation and related consequences, and attain our strategic goals while avoiding pitfalls and surprises along the way.
The board of directors approves policies that set operational standards and risk limits, and any changes require approval by the Bank’s board of directors. Management is responsible for the implementation, integrity and maintenance of our risk management systems ensuring the directives are implemented and administered in compliance with the approved policy. Our Chief Risk Officer supervises the overall management of our risk management program, reports to management and yet also retains independent access to the board of directors.
Credit risk management
Credit risk management is a key component of our risk management program. We employ consistent analysis and underwriting to examine credit information and prepare underwriting documentation. We monitor and approve exceptions to our credit policies as required, and we also track and address technical exceptions.
Each loan officer has the primary responsibility for appropriately risk rating each commercial loan that is made. In addition, our credit administration department is responsible for the ongoing monitoring of loan portfolio performance through the review of ongoing financial reports, loan officer reports, audit reviews and exception reporting and concentration analysis. This monitoring process also includes an ongoing review of loan risk ratings and management of our allowance for credit losses. We have a Chief Credit Officer responsible for maintaining the integrity of our portfolio within the parameters of the credit policy. We utilize a risk grading system that enables management to differentiate individual loan quality and forecast future profitability and portfolio loss potential.
We assign a credit risk rating at the time a commercial loan is made and adjust it as conditions warrant. Portfolio monitoring systems allow management to proactively assess risk and make decisions that will minimize the impact of negative developments. Successful credit management is achieved by lenders consistently meeting with clients and reviewing their financial conditions regularly. This enables both the recognition of future opportunities and potential weaknesses early.
The board of directors supports a strong loan review program and is committed to its effectiveness as part of the independent process of assessing our lending activities. We have communicated to our credit and lending staff that the identification of emerging problem loans begins with the lending personnel knowing their client and, supported by credit personnel, actively monitoring their client relationships. The loan review process is meant to augment this active management of client relationships and to provide an independent and broad-based look into our lending activities. We believe that our strong client relationships support our ability to identify potential deterioration of our credits at an early stage enabling us to address these issues early on to minimize potential losses.
We maintain a robust loan review function by utilizing an internal loan review team as well as third-party loan review firms. All reports from internal and external loan review are made available directly to the board of directors or designated board committee to ensure independence and objectivity. The examinations performed by the loan review department are based on risk assessments of individual loan commitments within our loan portfolio over a period of time. At the conclusion of each review, the loan review department provides management and the board of directors with a report that summarizes the findings of the review. At a minimum, the report addresses risk rating accuracy, compliance with regulations and policies, loan documentation accuracy, the timely receipt of financial statements, and any additional material issues.
 
We monitor the levels of such delinquencies for any negative or adverse trends. From time to time, we may modify loans to extend the term or make other concessions to help a borrower with a deteriorating financial condition stay current on their loan and to avoid foreclosure. We generally do not forgive principal or interest on loans or modify the interest rates on loans to rates that are below market rates. We believe that we are well reserved for losses resulting from our non-performing assets.
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Liquidity and interest rate risk management
Our liquidity planning framework is focused on ensuring the lowest cost of funding available and planning for unpredictable funding circumstances. To achieve these objectives, we utilize a simple funding and capital structure consisting primarily of deposits and common equity. We remain continually focused on growing our noninterest-bearing and other low-cost core deposits while replacing higher cost funding sources, including wholesale time deposits and other borrowed debt, to fund our balance sheet growth. The following chart shows our overall funding structure as of December 31, 2020.
Funding structure as of December 31, 2020  
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In addition, we monitor our liquidity risk by adopting policies to define potential liquidity problems, reviewing and maintaining an updated liquidity contingency plan and providing a prudent capital structure consistent with our credit standing and plans for strategic growth.
Our interest rate risk management system is overseen by our board of directors, who has the authority to approve acceptable rate risk levels. Our board of directors has established the Asset/Liability Committee to ensure appropriate risk appetite by requiring:
quarterly testing of interest rate risk exposure;
proactive risk identification and measurement;
quarterly risk presentations by senior management; and
independent review of the risk management process.
Competition
We conduct our core banking operations primarily in Tennessee and compete in the commercial banking industry solely through our wholly owned banking subsidiary, FirstBank. The banking industry is highly competitive, and we experience competition in our market areas from many other financial institutions. We compete with commercial banks, credit unions, savings institutions, mortgage banking firms, online mortgage lenders, online deposit banks, digital banking platforms, consumer finance companies, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market funds and other mutual funds, as well as super-regional, national and international financial institutions that operate offices in our market areas and elsewhere. In addition, a number of out-of-state financial intermediaries have opened production offices, or otherwise solicit deposits, in our market areas. Increased competition in our markets may result in reduced loans and deposits, as well as reduced net interest margin and profitability. Furthermore, the Tennessee market has grown increasingly competitive in recent years with a number of banks entering this market, with a primary focus on the state’s metropolitan markets. We believe this trend will continue as banks look to gain a foothold in these growing markets. This trend will result in greater competition primarily in our metropolitan markets. However, we firmly believe that our market position and client-focused operating model enhances our ability to attract and retain clients.
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See “Our markets” in this section above for a further discussion of the markets we compete in and the competitive landscape in these markets.
Human capital
At FB Financial, we value our associates, because our associates are FirstBank. They do the work; they serve our communities and they build relationships with our customers. As of December 31, 2020, we had 1,852 full-time equivalent employees with an average tenure of over 6.26 years of service. We pride ourselves on our culture, which is underpinned by our mission of "Helping People Build a Better Future." At FirstBank, our vision is to:
Deliver trusted solutions to our customers
Provide a great place to work for our associates
Invest in our communities
Provide superior long-term returns for our shareholders
We pride ourselves in our values, which we aspire to live by every day:
One Team, One Bank
Do The Right Thing
Commitment to Excellence
Exist For the Customer
Treat People With Respect
Enjoy Life
Providing a great place to work includes our commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion. In 2020, we chartered an internal Diversity Council to begin work in 2021 and nearly 20% of our newly hired associates were representative of minority groups. FirstBank was recognized by the Mortgage Bankers Association with the 2020 Diversity and Inclusion Residential Leadership Award.
In 2020, FirstBank was once again awarded as one of Tennessee’s top workplaces by The Tennessean. FirstBank meets high standards for a healthy workplace culture as ranked by its own employees. We have also been named as one of the Best Banks to Work For in America by American Banker Magazine.
We are committed to attracting and retaining the best talent in our markets. We provide competitive compensation and benefits that meet the needs of our employees, including market-competitive pay, healthcare benefits, equity incentives, and an employee stock purchase plan. We also provide meaningful training and development opportunities designed to train our next generation of leaders and provide them opportunities for advancement within the Company.
The COVID-19 pandemic allowed us the opportunity to demonstrate our commitment to the health and safety of our associates, customers, and communities. The pandemic presented challenges in protecting customers and associates while remaining available to serve customer needs. FirstBank rose to the occasion through insight, communication and swift action. The Company's Emergency Management Committee (EMC) is a board-appointed committee comprised of senior managers charged with making critical decisions during emergencies or disasters.
Throughout the lockdown period, our CEO sent daily communication to all associates to inform them on the Company’s actions and provide transparency and encouragement. We adjusted our branch lobby hours and usage and encouraged associates to work remotely where possible during the pandemic. We are proud to say there were no job eliminations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and we implemented a special pay code to maintain full pay for associates unable to work due to possible exposure.
Information technology systems
In 2020, significant technology efforts were undertaken to ensure the company could continue to operate with a large remote workforce in response to the pandemic. Hundreds of additional laptop computers were deployed, and systems supporting secure remote access were enhanced to support this unprecedented requirement. Also, investments were made in technology to support the PPP program, allowing the bank to make over 3,000 loans, protecting pay for over 37,000 of our customers' employees.
Significant technology investments were made in 2020 to support the conversion of the two acquired banks to our operating systems, allowing us to onboard over 61,000 Customers with over 100,000 Accounts, 300 Associates, and 14 branches. Also, in support of enhanced Customer Experience, a major conversion effort was completed to implement a new personal online and mobile banking platform, supporting over 65,000 retail customers. We implemented a robust contact center solution, to provide resilient, scalable support for all banking customers, and launched new customer-facing online mortgage origination platforms in both our online and traditional retail mortgage channels, while continuing to refine systems and processes to support the record activity from all lines of business.
Looking forward, we plan to continue making investments in our technology platforms to further enhance our scalability, resiliency, and efficiency and customer experience. In addition to continuing to enhance our network infrastructure and underlying support technologies, expansion of data warehouse reporting capabilities, and implementation of workflow and process automation technologies are planned to support more streamlined and consistent business processes, all of which support our continued growth.
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Supervision and regulation
The following is a general summary of the material aspects of certain statutes and regulations applicable to us and the Bank. These summary descriptions are not complete, and you should refer to the full text of the statutes, regulations, and corresponding guidance for more information. These statutes and regulations are subject to change, and additional statutes, regulations, and corresponding guidance may be adopted. We are unable to predict these future changes or the effects, if any, that these changes could have on our business, revenues, and financial results.
General
As a registered bank holding company, we are subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or Federal Reserve, under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”). In addition, as a Tennessee state-chartered bank that is not a member of the Federal Reserve System, the Bank is subject to primary regulation, supervision, and examination by the FDIC and the Bank’s state banking regulator, the Tennessee Department of Financial Institutions, or TDFI. Supervision, regulation, and examination of the Bank by the bank regulatory agencies are intended primarily for the protection of consumers, bank depositors and the Deposit Insurance Fund of the FDIC, rather than holders of our capital stock.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 ("COVID-19") and related relief programs
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security ("CARES") Act, enacted on March 27, 2020, by the US Government to counteract the sudden economic hardship caused by the COVID-19 health pandemic included the creation of the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”). The PPP, a nearly $670 billion program, as amended, was designed to aid small- and medium-sized businesses through federally guaranteed loans distributed through banks, for which the Company participated as a lender. These loans were intended to provide for payroll and other operating costs, helping recipient businesses remain viable and retain employees.
On December 27, 2020, the President signed into law omnibus federal spending and economic stimulus legislation titled the Consolidated Appropriations Act ("CAA") that included the Economic Aid to Hard-Hit Small Businesses, Nonprofits, and Venues Act (the “HHSB Act”). Among other things, the HHSB Act renewed the PPP, allocating $284.45 billion for both new first time PPP loans under the existing PPP and the expansion of existing PPP loans for certain qualified, existing PPP borrowers. In addition to extending and amending the PPP, the HHSB Act also creates a new grant program for “shuttered venue operators.” As a participating lender in the PPP, the Company continues to monitor legislative, regulatory, and supervisory developments related thereto, including the most recent changes implemented by the HHSB Act.
On March 22, 2020, a statement was issued by our banking regulators and titled the “Interagency Statement on Loan
Modifications and Reporting for Financial Institutions Working with Customers Affected by the Coronavirus” (the “Interagency Statement”) that encourages financial institutions to work prudently with borrowers who are or may be unable to meet their contractual payment obligations due to the effects of COVID-19. Additionally, Section 4013 of the CARES Act further stipulated that a qualified loan modification was exempt by law from classification as a troubled debt restructuring (“TDR”), from the period beginning March 1, 2020 until the earlier of December 31, 2020, or the date that is 60 days after the date on which the national emergency concerning the COVID-19 pandemic is terminated. Section 541 of the CAA extends this relief to the earlier of January 1, 2022 or 60 days after the national emergency termination date. The Interagency Statement was subsequently revised in April 2020 to clarify the interaction of the original guidance with Section 4013 of the CARES Act, as well as setting forth the banking regulators’ views on consumer protection considerations. We have remained steadfast in working with customers impacted the pandemic,offering assistance including offering short-term deferrals of principal and interest payments to borrowers who are not otherwise past due.
Temporary Regulatory Capital Relief Related to Impact of CECL
Concurrent with enactment of the CARES Act, in March 2020, the OCC, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the FDIC published an interim final rule to delay the estimated impact on regulatory capital stemming from the implementation of CECL, the provisions of which became final on September 30, 2020. The final rule maintains the three-year transition option in the previous rule and provides banks the option to delay for two years an estimate of CECL’s effect on regulatory capital, relative to the incurred loss methodology’s effect on regulatory capital, followed by a three-year transition period (five-year transition option). The Company has adopted the capital transition relief over the permissible five-year period.
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The Dodd-Frank Act
As a result of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, or Dodd-Frank Act, the regulatory framework under which the Company operates has changed. The Dodd-Frank Act brought about a significant overhaul of many aspects of the regulation of the financial services industry, addressing issues including, among others, systemic risk, capital adequacy, deposit insurance assessments, consumer financial protection, interchange fees, lending limits, mortgage lending practices, registration of investment advisers and changes among the bank regulatory agencies. In particular, portions of the Dodd-Frank Act that affected us and the Bank include, but are not limited to:
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"). The CFPB is a federal regulatory body with broad authority to regulate the offering and provision of consumer financial products and services and supervisory authority over banks with more than $10 billion in assets. Any new regulatory requirements promulgated by the CFPB or modifications in the interpretations of existing regulations could require changes to FirstBank's business. The Dodd-Frank Act also gives the CFPB broad data collecting powers for fair lending for both small business and mortgage loans, as well as extensive authority to prevent unfair, deceptive, and abusive practices. The Company passed $10 billion in asset size during the year ended December 31, 2020 and as such, we anticipate an increase to our overall regulatory compliance costs.
Mortgage lending activities. The Dodd-Frank Act imposed new duties on mortgage lenders, including a duty to determine the borrower's ability to repay the loan, and imposed a requirement on mortgage securitizers to retain a minimum level of economic interest in securitized pools of certain mortgage types.
Executive compensation and corporate governance. The Dodd-Frank Act requires public companies to include, at least once every three years, a separate non-binding “say on pay” vote in their proxy statement by which shareholders may vote on the compensation of the public company’s named executive officers. In addition, if such public companies are involved in a merger, acquisition, or consolidation, or if they propose to sell or dispose of all or substantially all of their assets, shareholders have a right to an advisory vote on any golden parachute arrangements in connection with such transaction (frequently referred to as “say-on-golden parachute” vote). Beginning in 2021, we will be subject to the say-on-pay and say-on-golden-parachute requirements and other corporate governance rules, such as the requirement for an independent compensation committee and the requirement for all exchange-traded companies to adopt clawback policies for incentive compensation paid to executive officers in the event of accounting restatements based on material non-compliance with financial reporting requirements.
Interchange Fees. The Dodd-Frank Act included provisions (known as the "Durbin Amendment"), which restrict interchange fees to those which are "reasonable and proportionate" for certain debit card issuers and limits the ability of networks and issuers to restrict debit card transaction routing. In the final rules, interchange fees for debit card transactions were capped at $0.21 plus five basis points (plus $0.01 for fraud loss) in order to be eligible for a safe harbor such that the fee is conclusively determined to be reasonable and proportionate. The interchange fee restrictions contained in the Durbin Amendment, and the rules promulgated thereunder, only apply to debit card issuers with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets. On December 2, 2020, the Federal Register issued "Temporary Asset Thresholds" interim final rule, giving relief to institutions that may have experienced temporary balance sheet growth above one or more regulatory thresholds. FirstBank has been granted relief under this rule and as such, will not be subject to the interchange fee restrictions during 2021.
Holding company regulation
As a regulated bank holding company, we are subject to various laws and regulations that affect our business. These laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, limit transactions with affiliates, impose limitations on the business activities in which we can engage, limit the dividend or distributions that the Bank can pay to us, restrict the ability of institutions to guarantee our debt, and impose certain specific accounting requirements on us that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than generally accepted accounting principles, among other things.
Financial holding company status
FB Financial has elected to be treated as a financial holding company, which allows us to engage in a broader range of activities than would otherwise be permissible for a bank holding company, including activities such as securities underwriting, insurance underwriting, and merchant banking. To qualify as a financial holding company, a bank holding company must be well-capitalized and well-managed, as those terms are used by the Federal Reserve. In addition, each subsidiary bank of a bank holding company must also be well-capitalized and well-managed and be rated at least "satisfactory" under the CRA. A bank holding company that does not qualify, or has not chosen, to become a financial holding company must limit its activities to traditional banking activities and those non-banking activities the Federal Reserve has deemed to be permissible because they are closely related to the business of banking.
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Permitted activities
Under the BHCA, as amended, a bank holding company is generally permitted to engage in, or acquire direct or indirect control of more than five percent of any class of the voting shares of any company that is not a bank or bank holding company and that is engaged in, the following activities (in each case, subject to certain conditions and restrictions and prior approval of the Federal Reserve):
banking or managing or controlling banks:
furnishing services to or performing services for our subsidiaries:
any activity that the Federal Reserve determines by regulation or order to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident to the business of banking, including:
factoring accounts receivable;
making, acquiring, brokering or servicing loans and related activities;
leasing personal or real property;
operating a nonbank depository institution, such as a savings association;
performing trust company functions;
conducting financial and investment advisory activities;
underwriting and dealing in government obligations and money market instruments;
providing specified management consulting and counseling activities;
performing selected data processing services and support services;
acting as agent or broker in selling credit life insurance and other types of insurance in connection with credit transactions;
performing selected insurance underwriting activities;
providing certain community development activities (such as making investments in projects designed primarily to promote community welfare); and
issuing and selling money orders and similar consumer-type payment instruments.
While the Federal Reserve has found these activities in the past acceptable for other bank holding companies, the Federal Reserve may not allow us to conduct any or all of these activities, which are reviewed by the Federal Reserve on a case by case basis upon application by a bank holding company.
The Federal Reserve has the authority to order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any of these activities or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when it has reasonable cause to believe that the bank holding company’s continued ownership, activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of it or any of its bank subsidiaries.
Acquisitions subject to prior regulatory approval
The BHCA requires the prior approval of the Federal Reserve for a bank holding company to acquire substantially all the assets of a bank or to acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of any class of the voting shares of any bank, bank holding company, savings and loan holding company or savings association, or to increase any such non-majority ownership or control of any bank, bank holding company, savings and loan holding company or savings association, or to merge or consolidate with any bank holding company.
Under the BHCA, if “well capitalized” and “well managed”, as defined under the BHCA and implementing regulations, we or any other bank holding company located in Tennessee may purchase a bank located outside of Tennessee. Conversely, a well-capitalized and well-managed bank holding company located outside of Tennessee may purchase a bank located inside Tennessee. In each case, however, restrictions may be placed on the acquisition of a bank that has only been in existence for a limited amount of time or will result in concentrations of deposits exceeding limits specified by statute. For example, Tennessee law currently prohibits a bank holding company from acquiring control of a Tennessee-based financial institution until the target financial institution has been in operation for at least three years.
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Bank holding company obligations to bank subsidiaries
Under current law and Federal Reserve policy, a bank holding company is expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its depository institution subsidiaries and to maintain resources adequate to support such subsidiaries, which could require us to commit resources to support the Bank in situations where additional investments in a bank may not otherwise be warranted. These situations include guaranteeing the compliance of an “undercapitalized” bank with its obligations under a capital restoration plan, as described further under “Bank regulation: Capitalization levels and prompt corrective action” below. As a result of these obligations, a bank holding company may be required to contribute additional capital to its subsidiaries in the form of capital notes or other instruments that qualify as capital under regulatory rules. Any such loan from a holding company to a subsidiary bank is likely to be unsecured and subordinated to the bank’s depositors and perhaps to other creditors of the bank. If we were to enter bankruptcy or become subject to the orderly liquidation process established by the Dodd-Frank Act, any commitment by us to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of the Bank would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee or the FDIC, as appropriate, and entitled to a priority of payment.
Restrictions on bank holding company dividends.
The Federal Reserve’s policy regarding dividends is that a bank holding company should not declare or pay a cash dividend that would impose undue pressure on the capital of any bank subsidiary or would be funded only through borrowing or other arrangements that might adversely affect a bank holding company’s financial position. As a general matter, the Federal Reserve has indicated that the board of directors of a bank holding company should consult with the Federal Reserve and eliminate, defer or significantly reduce the bank holding company’s dividends if:
its net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends;
its prospective rate of earnings retention is not consistent with its capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition; or
it will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios.
Should an insured depository institution controlled by a bank holding company be “significantly undercapitalized” under the applicable federal bank capital ratios, or if the bank subsidiary is “undercapitalized” and has failed to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan or has materially failed to implement such a plan, federal banking regulators (in the case of the Bank, the FDIC) may choose to require prior Federal Reserve approval for any capital distribution by the bank holding company. For more information, see “Bank regulation: Capitalization levels and prompt corrective action.”
In addition, since our legal entity is separate and distinct from the Bank and does not conduct stand-alone operations, our ability to pay dividends depends on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to us, which is also subject to regulatory restrictions as described below in “Bank regulation: Bank dividends.”
Under Tennessee law, we are not permitted to pay cash dividends if, after giving effect to such payment, we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities plus any amounts needed to satisfy any preferential rights if we were dissolving. In addition, in deciding whether or not to declare a dividend of any particular size, our board of directors must consider our current and prospective capital, liquidity, and other needs.
U.S. Basel III capital rules
In July 2013, federal banking regulators, including the Federal Reserve and the FDIC, adopted the U.S. Basel Capital Rules implementing many aspects of the Basel III Capital Standards. The requirements in the U.S. Basel III Capital Rules were fully phased-in as of January 1, 2019. Specifically, the rules impose the following minimum capital requirements applicable to us and the Bank:
a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 4.5%;
a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6%;
a total risk-based capital ratio of 8%;
a leverage ratio of 4%; and
a supplementary leverage ratio of 3%, resulting in a leverage ratio requirement of 7%.
Under the U.S. Basel III Capital Rules, Tier 1 Capital is defined to include two components: common equity Tier 1 Capital and additional Tier 1 Capital. The highest form of capital, Common Equity Tier 1 Capital ("CET1 Capital"), consists solely of common stock plus related surplus, retained earnings, accumulated other comprehensive income, minority interests in the equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries and noncumulative perpetual preferred stock (and related surplus).
The rules permit bank holding companies with less than $15.0 billion in total consolidated assets, to continue to include trust-preferred securities and cumulative perpetual preferred stock issued before May 19, 2010, in Tier 1 Capital, but not in
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CET1 Capital, subject to certain restrictions. Tier 2 Capital consists of instruments that currently qualify in Tier 2 Capital plus instruments that the rule has disqualified from Tier 1 Capital treatment.
In addition, in order to avoid restrictions on capital distributions or discretionary bonus payments to executives, a covered banking organization must maintain a capital conservation buffer on top of its minimum risk-based capital requirements. This buffer must consist solely of Tier 1 Common Equity, but the buffer applies to all three risk-based measurements (CET1 Capital, Tier 1 Capital and total capital). The capital conservation buffer consists of an additional amount of common equity equal to 2.5% of risk-weighted assets.
The U.S. Basel III Capital Standards require certain deductions from or adjustments to capital. As a result, deductions from CET1 Capital are required for goodwill (net of associated deferred tax liabilities); intangible assets such as non-mortgage servicing assets and purchased credit card relationships (net of associated deferred tax liabilities); deferred tax assets that arise from net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards (net of any related valuation allowances and net of deferred tax liabilities); any gain on sale in connection with a securitization exposure; any defined benefit pension fund net asset (net of any associated deferred tax liabilities) held by a bank holding company; the aggregate amount of outstanding equity investments (including retained earnings) in financial subsidiaries; and identified losses. Other deductions are required from different levels of capital. The U.S. Basel III Capital Rules also increase the risk weight for certain assets, meaning that more capital must be held against such assets. For example, commercial real estate loans that do not meet certain underwriting requirements must be risk-weighted at 150% rather than the current 100%.
Additionally, the U.S. Basel III Capital Standards provide for the deduction of three categories of assets: (i) deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences that cannot be realized through net operating loss carrybacks (net of related valuation allowances and of deferred tax liabilities), (ii) mortgage servicing assets (net of associated deferred tax liabilities) and (iii) investments in more than 10% of the issued and outstanding common stock of unconsolidated financial institutions (net of associated deferred tax liabilities). The joint agencies issued the Regulatory Capital: Simplifications to the Capital Rule Pursuant to the Economic Growth and Regulatory Paperwork Reduction Act of 1996 (Capital Simplifications Final Rule) on July 22, 2019. Under the Capital Simplifications Final Rule, non-advanced approaches banking organizations are subject to simpler regulatory capital requirements for the three categories of assets discussed above. There is a 25% CET1 Capital deduction threshold for all three categories combined.
Accumulated other comprehensive income, or AOCI, is presumptively included in CET1 Capital and often would operate to reduce this category of capital. The U.S. Basel III Capital Rules provided a one-time opportunity at the end of the first quarter of 2015 for covered banking organizations to opt out of much of this treatment of AOCI, which we elected. The rules also have the effect of increasing capital requirements by increasing the risk weights on certain assets, including high volatility commercial real estate, mortgage servicing rights not includable in CET1 Capital, equity exposures, and claims on securities firms, which are used in the denominator of the three risk-based capital ratios.
The U.S. Basel III Capital Rules also make important changes to the “prompt corrective action” framework discussed below in “Bank regulation: Capitalization levels and prompt corrective action.”
Restrictions on affiliate transactions
See “Bank regulation: Restrictions on transactions with affiliates” below.
Change in control
We are a bank holding company regulated by the Federal Reserve. Subject to certain exceptions, the Change in Bank Control Act, or (“CIBCA”), and its implementing regulations require that any individual or company acquiring “control” of a bank or bank holding company, either directly or indirectly, give the Federal Reserve 60 days’ prior written notice of the proposed acquisition. If within that time period the Federal Reserve has not issued a notice disapproving the proposed acquisition, extended the period for an additional period up to 90 days or requested additional information, the acquisition may proceed. An acquisition may be made before expiration of the disapproval period if the Federal Reserve issues written notice that it intends not to disapprove the acquisition. Acquisition of 25 percent or more of any class of voting securities constitutes control, and it is generally presumed for purposes of the CIBCA that the acquisition of 10 percent or more of any class of voting securities would constitute the acquisition of control, although such a presumption of control may be rebutted.
Also, under the CIBCA, the shareholdings of individuals and companies that are deemed to be “acting in concert” would be aggregated for purposes of determining whether such holders “control” a bank or bank holding company. “Acting in concert” under the CIBCA generally means knowing participation in a joint activity or parallel action towards the common goal of acquiring control of a bank or a bank holding company, whether or not pursuant to an express agreement. The manner in which this definition is applied in individual circumstances can vary and cannot always be predicted with certainty. Many factors can lead to a rebuttable presumption of acting in concert, including where: (i) the shareholders are commonly controlled or managed; (ii) the shareholders are parties to an oral or written agreement or understanding
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regarding the acquisition, voting or transfer of control of voting securities of a bank or bank holding company; (iii) the shareholders are immediate family members; or (iv) both a shareholder and a controlling shareholder, partner, trustee or management official of such shareholder own equity in the bank or bank holding company.
Furthermore, under the BHCA and its implementing regulations, and subject to certain exceptions, any company would be required to obtain Federal Reserve approval prior to obtaining control of a bank or bank holding company. The Federal Reserve issued a final rule in 2019, effective April 1, 2020, which established tiered presumptions of control as detailed in the table below. The final rule provides clarity for circumstances where a company acquires less than 25% of any class of voting securities; control continues to exist in circumstances where a company directly or indirectly owns, controls or has power to vote 25% or more of any class of voting securities or control in any manner the election of a majority of the directors or trustees of the other company. There is a presumption of non-control for any holder of less than 5% of any class of voting securities, assuming none of the generally applicable presumptions are triggered.
Summary of Tiered Presumptions
(Presumption triggered if any relationship exceeds the amount on the table)
Less than 5% voting securities5-9.99% voting securities10-14.99% voting securities15-24.99% voting securities
Directors serving on both boardsLess than halfLess than a quarterLess than a quarterLess than a quarter
Director service as Board ChairNANANANo director representative is chair of the board
Director service on Board CommitteesNANAA quarter or less of a committee with power to bind the companyA quarter or less of a committee with power to bind the company
Business RelationshipsNAFirst company accounts for less than 10% of revenue or expenses of second companyFirst company accounts for less than 5% of revenue or expenses of second companyFirst company accounts for less than 2% of revenue or expenses of second company
Business termsNANAMarket termsMarket terms
Officer/employee interlocksNANo more than 1 interlock, never CEONo more than 1 interlock, never CEONo interlocks
Contractual PowersNo management agreementsNo rights that significantly restrict discretionNo rights that significantly restrict discretionNo rights that significantly restrict discretion
Proxy contests (directors)NANANo soliciting proxies to replace more than a quarter of total directors of second companyNo soliciting proxies to replace more than a quarter of total directors of second company
Total equityLess than one third of the second companyLess than one third of the second companyLess than one third of the second companyLess than one quarter of the second company

In addition, in 2008 the Federal Reserve issued a policy statement on equity investments in banks and bank holding companies, which sets out circumstances under which a minority investor would not be deemed to control a bank or bank holding company for purposes of the BHCA. Among other things, the 2008 policy statement permits a minority investor to hold up to 24.9% (or 33.3% under certain circumstances) of the total equity (voting and non-voting combined) and have at least one representative on the company’s board of directors (with two directors permitted under certain circumstances). This policy statement remains in effect to the extent not superseded by the final rule.

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Compensation and risk management
In 2010, the federal banking agencies issued guidance to regulated banks and bank holding companies intended to ensure that incentive compensation arrangements at financial organizations take into account risk and are consistent with safe and sound practices. The guidance is based on three “key principles” calling for incentive compensation plans to: appropriately balance risks and rewards; be compatible with effective controls and risk management; and be backed up by strong corporate governance. Further, in 2016 the federal banking regulators re-proposed rules that would prohibit incentive compensation arrangements that would encourage inappropriate risks by providing excessive compensation or that could lead to a material financial loss, and include certain prescribed standards for governance and risk management for incentive compensation for institutions.
Bank regulation
The Bank is a banking institution that is chartered by and headquartered in the State of Tennessee, and it is subject to supervision and regulation by the TDFI and the FDIC. The TDFI and FDIC supervise and regulate all areas of the Bank’s operations including, without limitation, the making of loans, the issuance of securities, the conduct of the Bank’s corporate affairs, the satisfaction of capital adequacy requirements, the payment of dividends, and the establishment or closing of banking offices. The FDIC is the Bank’s primary federal regulatory agency, which periodically examines the Bank’s operations and financial condition and compliance with federal consumer protection laws. In addition, the Bank’s deposit accounts are insured by the FDIC to the maximum extent permitted by law, and the FDIC has certain enforcement powers over the Bank.
As a state-chartered banking institution in the State of Tennessee, the Bank is empowered by statute, subject to the limitations contained in those statutes, to take and pay interest on deposits, to make loans on residential and other real estate, to make consumer and commercial loans, to invest, with certain limitations, in equity securities and in debt obligations of banks and corporations and to provide various other banking services for the benefit of the Bank’s clients. Various state consumer laws and regulations also affect the operations of the Bank, including state usury laws, consumer credit and equal credit opportunity laws, and fair credit reporting. In addition, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, or FDICIA, generally prohibits insured state chartered institutions from conducting activities as principal that are not permitted for national banks. The Bank is also subject to various requirements and restrictions under federal and state law, including but not limited to requirements to maintain reserves against deposits, lending limits, limitations on branching activities, limitations on the types of investments that may be made, activities that may be engaged in, and types of services that may be offered. Various consumer laws and regulations also affect the operations of the Bank. Also, the Bank and certain of its subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in certain tying arrangements in connection with extensions of credit, leases or sales of property, or furnishing products or services.
Capital adequacy
See “Holding company regulation: U.S. Basel III capital rules.”
Capitalization levels and prompt corrective action
Federal law and regulations establish a capital-based regulatory scheme designed to promote early intervention for troubled banks and require the FDIC to choose the least expensive resolution of bank failures. The capital-based regulatory framework contains five categories of regulatory capital requirements, including “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” and “critically undercapitalized.” A well-capitalized insured depository institution is one (i) having a total risk-based capital ratio of 10 percent or greater, (ii) having a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8 percent or greater, (iii) having a CET1 capital ratio of 6.5 percent or greater, (iv) having a leverage capital ratio of 5 percent or greater and (v) that is not subject to any order or written directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.
Generally, a financial institution must be “well capitalized” before the Federal Reserve will approve an application by a bank holding company to acquire a bank or merge with a bank holding company, and the FDIC applies the same requirement in approving bank merger applications.
An institution that fails to remain well-capitalized becomes subject to a series of restrictions that increase in severity as its capital condition weakens. Such restrictions may include a prohibition on capital distributions, restrictions on asset growth or restrictions on the ability to receive regulatory approval of applications.
As of December 31, 2020, the Bank had sufficient capital to qualify as “well capitalized” under the requirements contained in the applicable regulations, policies and directives pertaining to capital adequacy, and it is unaware of any material violation or alleged material violation of these regulations, policies or directives. Rapid growth, poor loan portfolio performance, or poor earnings performance, or a combination of these factors, could change the Bank’s capital position in a relatively short period of time, making additional capital infusions necessary.
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It should be noted that the minimum ratios referred to above in this section are merely guidelines, and the bank regulators possess the discretionary authority to require higher capital ratios.
Bank reserves
The Federal Reserve imposes reserve requirements on certain types of deposits and other liabilities of depository institutions. The Federal Reserve Board determined to reduce the reserve requirement ratios to zero percent effective March 26, 2020 in light of the shift to an ample reserves regime. The interim final rule was adopted as a final rule without change in February 2021.
Bank dividends
The FDIC prohibits any distribution that would result in the bank being “undercapitalized” (<4% leverage ratio, <4.5% CET1 Risk-Based ratio, <6% Tier 1 Risk-Based ratio, or <8% Total Risk-Based ratio). Tennessee law places restrictions on the declaration of dividends by state chartered banks to their shareholders, including, but not limited to, that the board of directors of a Tennessee-chartered bank may only make a dividend from the surplus profits arising from the business of the bank, and may not declare dividends in any calendar year that exceeds the total of its retained net income of that year combined with its retained net income of the preceding two (2) years without the prior approval of the TDFI commissioner. Furthermore, the FDIC and the TDFI also have authority to prohibit the payment of dividends by a Tennessee bank when it determines such payment to be an unsafe and unsound banking practice.
Insurance of accounts and other assessments
The Bank pays deposit insurance assessments to the Deposit Insurance Fund, which is determined through a risk-based assessment system. The Bank’s deposit accounts are currently insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund, generally up to a maximum of $250,000 per separately insured depositor. The Bank pays assessments to the FDIC for such deposit insurance. Under the current assessment system, the FDIC assigns an institution to a risk category based on the institution’s most recent supervisory and capital evaluations, which are designed to measure risk. Under the FDIA, the FDIC may terminate a bank’s deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order, agreement or condition imposed by the FDIC. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC has adopted regulations that base deposit insurance assessments on total assets less capital rather than deposit liabilities and include off-balance sheet liabilities of institutions and their affiliates in risk-based assessments. After an institution's average assets exceed $10 billion over four quarters, the assessment rate increases compared to institutions at lower average asset levels. In addition, for larger institutions, the FDIC uses a performance score and a loss-severity score that are used to calculate an initial assessment rate. In calculating these scores, the FDIC uses a bank’s capital level and supervisory ratings and
certain financial measures to assess an institution’s ability to withstand asset-related stress and funding-related stress. The FDIC has the ability to make discretionary adjustments to the total score based upon significant risk factors that are not adequately captured in the calculations.
Restrictions on transactions with affiliates
The Bank is subject to sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, or FRA, and the Federal Reserve’s Regulation W, as made applicable to state nonmember banks by section 18(j) of the FDIA. An affiliate of a bank is any company or entity that controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the Bank, and, in our case, includes, among others, the Company as well as our Vice Chairman, James W. Ayers and the companies he controls. Accordingly, transactions between the Bank, on the one hand, and the Company or Mr. Ayers or any of his affiliates, on the other hand, will be subject to a number of restrictions, including restrictions relating to extensions of credit, contracts, leases and purchases or sale of assets. Such restrictions and limitations prevent the Company or Mr. Ayers or his affiliates from borrowing from the Bank unless the loans are secured by specified collateral of designated amounts. Furthermore, such secured loans by the Bank to the Company or Mr. Ayers and his affiliates are limited, individually, to ten percent (10%) of the Bank’s capital and surplus, and such secured loans are limited in the aggregate to twenty percent (20%) of the Bank’s capital and surplus.
All such transactions must be on terms that are no less favorable to the Bank than those that would be available from nonaffiliated third parties. Federal Reserve policies also forbid the payment by bank subsidiaries of management fees which are unreasonable in amount or exceed the fair market value of the services rendered or, if no market exists, actual costs plus a reasonable profit.
Loans to insiders
Loans to executive officers, directors or to any person who directly or indirectly, or acting through or in concert with one or more persons, owns, controls or has the power to vote more than 10% of any class of voting securities of a bank, which the Bank refers to as “10% Shareholders,” or to any political or campaign committee the funds or services of which will
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benefit those executive officers, directors, or 10% Shareholders or which is controlled by those executive officers, directors or 10% Shareholders, are subject to Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the FRA and their corresponding regulations, which are commonly referred to as Regulation O. Among other things, these loans must be made on terms substantially the same as those prevailing on transactions made to unaffiliated individuals and certain extensions of credit to those persons must first be approved in advance by a disinterested majority of the entire board of directors. Regulation O prohibits loans to any of those individuals where the aggregate amount exceeds an amount equal to 15% of an institution’s unimpaired capital and surplus plus an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus in the case of loans that are fully secured by readily marketable collateral, or when the aggregate amount on all of the extensions of credit outstanding to all of these persons would exceed the Bank’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Section 22(g) identifies limited circumstances in which the Bank is permitted to extend credit to executive officers.  
Community Reinvestment Act
The Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, and its corresponding regulations are intended to encourage banks to help meet the credit needs of their service areas, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound operations. These regulations provide for regulatory assessment of a bank’s record in meeting the credit needs of its service area. Federal banking agencies are required to make public a rating of a bank’s performance under the CRA. The federal banking agencies consider a bank’s CRA rating when a bank submits an application to establish banking centers, merge, or acquire the assets and assume the liabilities of another bank. In the case of a bank holding company, the CRA performance record of all banks involved in the merger or acquisition are reviewed in connection with the filing of an application to acquire ownership or control of shares or assets of a bank or to merge with any other financial holding company. An unsatisfactory record can substantially delay, block or impose conditions on the transaction. The Bank received a satisfactory rating on its most recent CRA assessment.
In December 2019, the FDIC and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) jointly proposed rules that would significantly change existing CRA regulations. The proposed rules are intended to increase bank activity in low- and moderate-income communities where there is significant need for credit, more responsible lending, greater access to banking services, and improvements to critical infrastructure. The proposals change four key areas: (i) clarifying what activities qualify for CRA credit; (ii) updating where activities count for CRA credit; (iii) providing a more transparent and objective method for measuring CRA performance; and (iv) revising CRA-related data collection, record keeping, and reporting. However, the Federal Reserve Board did not join in that proposed rulemaking. In May 2020, the OCC issued its final CRA rule, effective October 1, 2020. The FDIC has not finalized the revisions to its proposed CRA rule. In September 2020, the Federal Reserve Board issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“ANPR”) that invites public comment on an approach to modernize the regulations that implement the CRA by strengthening, clarifying, and tailoring them to reflect the current banking landscape and better meet the core purpose of the CRA. The ANPR seeks feedback on ways to evaluate how banks meet the needs of low- and moderate-income communities and address inequities in credit access. As such, we will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes to the regulations implementing the CRA and their impact to our financial condition, results of operations, and/or liquidity, which cannot be predicted at this time.
Anti-money laundering and economic sanctions
The USA PATRIOT Act provides the federal government with additional powers to address terrorist threats through enhanced domestic security measures, expanded surveillance powers, increased information sharing and broadened anti-money laundering requirements. By way of amendments to the BSA, the USA PATRIOT Act imposed new requirements that obligate financial institutions, such as banks, to take certain steps to control the risks associated with money laundering and terrorist financing.
Among other requirements, the USA PATRIOT Act and implementing regulations require banks to establish anti-money laundering programs that include, at a minimum:
internal policies, procedures and controls designed to implement and maintain the bank's compliance with all of the requirements of the USE PATRIOT Act, the BSA and related laws and regulations;
systems and procedures for monitoring and reporting of suspicious transactions and activities;
designated compliance officer;
employee training;
an independent audit function to test the anti-money laundering program;
procedures to verify the identity of each client upon the opening of accounts; and
heightened due diligence policies, procedures and controls applicable to certain foreign accounts and relationships.
Additionally, the USA PATRIOT Act requires each financial institution to develop a customer identification program (“CIP”) as part of the Bank’s anti-money laundering program. The key components of the CIP are identification, verification, government list comparison, notice and record retention. The purpose of the CIP is to enable the financial institution to
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determine the true identity and anticipated account activity of each client. To make this determination, among other things, the financial institution must collect certain information from clients at the time they enter into the client relationship with the financial institution. This information must be verified within a reasonable time through documentary and non-documentary methods. Furthermore, all clients must be screened against any CIP-related government lists of known or suspected terrorists. Financial institutions are also required to comply with various reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Federal Reserve and the FDIC consider an applicant’s effectiveness in combating money laundering, among other factors, in connection with an application to approve a bank merger or acquisition of control of a bank or bank holding company.
Likewise, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, is responsible for helping to ensure that United States entities do not engage in transactions with the subjects of U.S. sanctions, as defined by various Executive Orders and Acts of Congress. Currently, OFAC administers and enforces comprehensive U.S. economic sanctions programs against certain specified countries/regions. In addition to the country/region-wide sanctions programs, OFAC also administers complete embargoes against individuals and entities identified on OFAC’s list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (“SDN List”). The SDN List includes thousands of parties that are located in many jurisdictions throughout the world, including in the United States and Europe. The Bank is responsible for determining whether any potential and/or existing clients appear on the SDN List or are owned or controlled by a person on the SDN List. If any client appears on the SDN List or is owned or controlled by a person or entity on the SDN List, such client’s account must be placed on hold and a blocking or rejection report, as appropriate and if required, must be filed within 10 business days with OFAC. In addition, if a client is a citizen of, has provided an address in, or is organized under the laws of any country or region for which OFAC maintains a comprehensive sanctions program, the Bank must take certain actions with respect to such clients as dictated under the relevant OFAC sanctions program. The Bank must maintain compliance with OFAC by implementing appropriate policies and procedures and by establishing a recordkeeping system that is reasonably appropriate to administer the Bank’s compliance program. The Bank has adopted policies, procedures and controls to comply with the BSA, the USA PATRIOT Act and OFAC regulations.
Regulatory enforcement authority
Federal and state banking laws grant substantial enforcement powers to federal and state banking regulators. This enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, to issue consent or removal orders and to initiate injunctive actions against banking organizations and “institution-affiliated parties,” such as management, employees and agents. In general, these enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of laws, regulations and orders of regulatory authorities, or unsafe or unsound practices. Other actions or inactions, including filing false, misleading or untimely reports with regulatory authorities, may provide the basis for enforcement action. When issued by a banking regulator, consent and similar orders may, among other things, require affirmative action to correct any harm resulting from a violation or practice, including restitution, reimbursement, indemnifications or guarantees against loss. A bank may also be ordered to restrict its growth, dispose of certain assets, rescind agreements or contracts, or take other actions determined to be appropriate by the ordering regulatory agency.
Federal Home Loan Bank system
The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati, which is one of 11 regional Federal Home Loan Banks (“FHLBs”). Each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. It is funded primarily from funds deposited by member institutions and proceeds from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. It makes loans to members (i.e., advances) in accordance with policies and procedures established by the board of directors of the FHLB.
As a member of the FHLB of Cincinnati, the Bank is required to own capital stock in the FHLB in an amount generally at least equal to 0.20% (or 20 basis points) of the Bank’s total assets at the end of each calendar year, plus 4.5% of its outstanding advances (borrowings) from the FHLB of Cincinnati under the activity-based stock ownership requirement. These requirements are subject to adjustment from time to time. On December 31, 2020, the Bank was in compliance with this requirement.
Privacy and data security
Under the GLBA, federal banking regulators adopted rules limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose nonpublic information about consumers to nonaffiliated third parties. The rules require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to nonaffiliated third parties. The GLBA also directed federal regulators, including the FDIC, to prescribe standards for the security of consumer information. The Bank is subject to such standards, as well as standards for notifying clients in the event of a security breach.
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Consumer laws and regulations
The Bank is also subject to other federal and state consumer laws and regulations that are designed to protect consumers in transactions with banks. While the list set forth below is not exhaustive, these laws and regulations include the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair and Accurate Transactions Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Military Lending Act, the Mortgage Disclosure Improvement Act, and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, among others. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with consumers when offering consumer financial products and services.
The CFPB may issue regulations that impact products and services offered by us or the Bank. The regulations could reduce the fees that we receive, alter the way we provide our products and services, or expose us to greater risk of private litigation or regulatory enforcement action.
Future legislative developments
Various legislative acts are from time to time introduced in Congress and the Tennessee legislature. This legislation may change banking statutes and the environment in which we operate in substantial and unpredictable ways. We cannot determine the ultimate effect that potential legislation, if enacted, or implementing regulations and interpretations with respect thereto, would have on our financial condition or results of operations.
Available Information
Our website address is www.firstbankonline.com. we file or furnish to the SEC Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and annual reports to shareholders, and from time to time, amendments to these documents and other documents called for by the SEC. The reports and other documents filed with or furnished to the SEC are available to investors on or through our website at https://investors.firstbankonline.com under the heading “Stock & Filings” and then under “SEC Filings.” These reports are available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with the SEC.
In addition to our website, the SEC maintains an internet site that contains our reports, proxy and information statements and other information we file electronically with the SEC at https://www.sec.gov.
ITEM 1A - Risk Factors
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the material risks described below.  Many of these risks are beyond our control although efforts are made to manage those risks while simultaneously optimizing operational and financial results.  The occurrence of any of the following risks, as well as risks of which we are currently unaware or currently deem immaterial, could materially and adversely affect our assets, business, cash flows, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects, results of operations and the trading price of our common stock. It is impossible to predict or identify all such factors and, as a result, you should not consider the following factors to be a complete discussion of the risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could materially and adversely affect our assets, business, cash flows, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects, results of operations and the trading price of our common stock.
In addition, certain statements in the following risk factors constitute forward-looking statements. Please refer to the section entitled “Cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements” beginning on page 2 of this Annual Report.

COVID-19 RISK
The COVID-19 pandemic (“COVID-19”) had, and is likely to continue to have, an adverse impact, possibly materially, on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

The COVID-19 pandemic has created economic and financial disruptions in the economy, changed customer behaviors, disrupted supply chains, created volatility in equity markets, created significant volatility and disruption in financial markets, and increased unemployment levels. While the development and distribution of vaccines are occurring at a rapid pace, it is not yet known whether the vaccines will be widely adopted or known effective against the various strains of the virus. The pandemic has resulted in temporary closures of many businesses and the implementation of social distancing requirements in many of the communities we serve. As a result, the demand for our products and services has been significantly impacted, which could adversely affect our revenue. The pandemic continues to result in the recognition of credit losses in our loan portfolios and increases in our allowance for credit losses, particularly if businesses remain
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closed, unemployment levels rise or regional economic conditions worsen. In response to the pandemic, we have initiated relief programs designed to support our customers and communities including payment deferral programs, deferral-related and other fee waivers, and other expanded assistance for customers.

Our business operations may also be disrupted if significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with the pandemic. The increase in the number of employees working remotely throughout the economy also subjects us, our customers, and our vendors to additional cybersecurity risk as cybercriminals attempt to exploit vulnerabilities, compromise business emails, and generate phishing attacks during this time.

In response to the pandemic, the Federal Reserve reduced the benchmark federal funds rate to a target range of 0% to 0.25%, and the yields on 10 and 30-year treasury notes declined to historic lows. Various bond buying programs have also been implemented in order to stabilize the financial system and reduce volatility in key debt markets. The effectiveness of these efforts is uncertain, and we cannot predict future developments, including how long the outbreak and related restrictions will last, which geographical regions may be particularly affected, or what other government responses may occur.

Future governmental actions may require additional types of customer-related responses that could negatively impact our financial results. We could be required to take capital actions in response to the pandemic, including reducing dividends and eliminating stock repurchases. The extent to which the pandemic continues to impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic; efficacy of vaccines; actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic; the effect on our customers, counterparties, employees and third party service providers; and the effect on economies and markets. To the extent that the pandemic continues to adversely affect our business and financial performance, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks.
CREDIT RISK
The majority of our assets are loans, which if not repaid would result in losses to the Bank.

Making any loan involves various risks, including risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers, risks of nonpayment, risks resulting from uncertainties as to the future value of collateral and cash flows available to service debt, and risks resulting from changes in economic and market conditions. Our credit risk approval and monitoring procedures may fail to identify or reduce these credit risks, and they cannot completely eliminate all credit risks related to our loan portfolio. If the overall economic climate, including employment rates, real estate markets, interest rates and general economic growth, in the United States, generally, or Tennessee (particularly the Nashville MSA), specifically, experiences material disruption, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, the collateral we hold may decrease in value or become illiquid, and the levels of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise and require additional provisions for loan losses, which would cause our net income and return on equity to decrease.
We maintain an allowance for credit losses, which is a reserve established through a provision for credit losses charged to expense, which represents the portion of the loan's amortized cost basis that we do not expect to collect due to credit losses over the loan's life, considering past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions considering macroeconomic forecasts. In addition, we record a reserve for unfunded commitments, considering the same items included in the allowance for credit losses with the addition of expected funding. Management’s determination of the appropriateness of the allowance and reserve for unfunded commitments is based on periodic evaluation of the loan portfolio, lending-related commitments and other relevant factors, including macroeconomic forecasts and historical loss rates. Deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the allowance for credit losses and/or the reserve for unfunded commitments. The model is sensitive to changes in macroeconomic forecasts and incorporates management judgement. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for credit losses for any reason, such increase could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The application of the purchase method of accounting in our acquisitions (and any future acquisitions) also will affect our allowance for credit losses. We are required to determine whether purchased loans held for investment have experienced more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality since origination. Loans that have experienced this level of deterioration in credit quality are subject to special accounting at initial recognition. We initially measure the amortized cost of a purchase credit deteriorated loan by adding the acquisition date estimate of expected credit losses to the loan's purchase price (i.e. the "gross up" approach). If we have underestimated credit losses at recognition, we will incur additional expense in our provision for credit losses to maintain an appropriate level of allowance for credit losses on those loans.
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In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our allowance for credit losses and may require an increase in the provision for credit losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. Furthermore, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for credit losses, we will need additional provisions to increase the allowance for credit losses. Any increases in the allowance for credit losses will result in a decrease in net income and capital, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of collateral securing our real estate loans and result in loan and other losses.
As of December 31, 2020, approximately 77.9% of our loan portfolio was comprised of loans with real estate as a primary or secondary component of collateral. This includes collateral consisting of income producing and residential construction properties, which properties tend to be more sensitive to general economic conditions and downturns in real estate markets. As a result, adverse developments affecting real estate values in our market areas could increase the credit risk associated with our real estate loan portfolio. Adverse changes affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio and could result in losses that would adversely affect credit quality and our financial condition or results of operations. These adverse changes could significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral to secure the loans and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses.  If real estate values decline, it is also more likely that we would be required to increase our allowance for credit losses. Thus, declines in the value of real estate collateral could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

We are subject to lending concentration risks.
As of December 31, 2020, the following loan types accounted for the stated percentages of our loan portfolio: commercial real estate (both owner-occupied and non-owner occupied) - 36%; commercial and industrial - 19%; and construction - 17%. These loans expose us to greater credit risk than loans secured by other types of collateral because the collateral securing these loans is typically more difficult to liquidate. Additionally, these types of loans also often involve larger loan balances to a single borrower or groups of related borrowers. These higher credit risks are further heightened when the loans are concentrated in a small number of larger borrowers leading to relationship exposure.
Non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans may be affected to a greater extent than residential loans by adverse conditions in real estate markets or the economy because commercial real estate borrowers’ ability to repay their loans depends on successful development of their properties. These loans also involve greater risk because they generally are not fully amortizing over the loan period, and therefore have a balloon payment due at maturity. A borrower’s ability to make a balloon payment typically will depend on being able to either refinance the loan or sell the underlying property in a timely manner. In addition, banking regulators have been giving commercial real estate lending greater scrutiny, and may require banks with higher levels of commercial real estate loans to implement improved underwriting, internal controls, risk management policies and portfolio stress testing, as well as possibly higher levels of allowances for losses and capital levels as a result of commercial real estate lending growth and exposures.
Commercial and industrial loans and owner-occupied commercial real estate loans are typically based on the borrowers’ ability to repay the loans from the cash flow of their businesses. These loans may involve greater risk because the availability of funds to repay each loan depends substantially on the success of the business itself. In addition, the assets securing the loans depreciate over time, are difficult to appraise and liquidate, and fluctuate in value based on the success of the business.
Risk of loss on a construction loan depends largely upon whether our initial estimate of the property’s value at completion of construction or development equals or exceeds the cost of the property construction or development (including interest), the availability of permanent take-out financing and the builder’s ability to sell the property. During the construction or development phase, a number of factors can result in delays and cost overruns. If estimates of value are inaccurate or if actual construction costs exceed estimates, the value of the property securing the loan may be insufficient to ensure full repayment when completed through a permanent loan or by foreclosure on collateral.
Commercial real estate loans, commercial and industrial loans, and construction loans are more susceptible to a risk of loss during a downturn in the business cycle due to the vulnerability of these sectors during a downturn. Our underwriting, review and monitoring cannot eliminate all of the risks related to these loans. We also make both secured and unsecured loans to our commercial customers. Unsecured loans generally involve a higher degree of risk of loss than secured loans because, without collateral, repayment is wholly dependent upon the success of the borrowers’ businesses. Because of this lack of collateral, we are limited in our ability to collect on defaulted unsecured loans. Further, the collateral that secures our secured commercial and industrial loans typically includes inventory, accounts receivable and equipment, which usually have a value that is insufficient to satisfy the loan without a loss if the business does not succeed. Our loan
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concentration in these sectors and their higher credit risk could lead to increased losses on these loans, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

MARKET AND INTEREST RATE RISK
Difficult or volatile market conditions in the national financial markets, the U.S. economy generally, or the state of Tennessee in particular may adversely affect our lending activity or other businesses, as well as our financial condition.

Our business and financial performance are vulnerable to weak economic conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally or specifically in the state of Tennessee, the principal market in which we conduct business. A deterioration in economic conditions in our primary market areas could result in increased loan delinquencies, foreclosures, and write-downs of asset values, lower demand for our products and services, reduced low cost or noninterest-bearing deposits, and intangible asset impairment. Additionally, difficult market conditions may lead to a deterioration in the value of the collateral for loans made by us, especially real estate, which could reduce our customers' ability to repay outstanding loans and reduce the value of assets associated with our existing loans. Additional issues surrounding weakening economic conditions and volatile markets that could adversely impact us include increased industry regulation and downward pressures on our stock price.
We conduct our banking operations primarily in Tennessee. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 76% of our loans and approximately 81% of our deposits were made to borrowers or received from depositors who live and/or primarily conduct business in Tennessee. Therefore, our success will depend in large part upon the general economic conditions in this area. This geographic concentration imposes risks from lack of geographic diversification, as adverse economic developments in Tennessee (including the Nashville MSA, our largest market), among other things, could affect the volume of loan originations, increase the level of nonperforming assets, increase the rate of foreclosure losses on loans, reduce the value of our loans and loan servicing portfolio, reduce the value of the collateral securing our loans and reduce the amount of our deposits.
Any regional or local economic downturn that affects Tennessee or existing or prospective borrowers, depositors or property values in this area may affect us and our profitability more significantly and more adversely than our competitors whose operations are less geographically concentrated.

Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our earnings and financial condition are dependent to a large degree upon net interest income, which is the difference, or spread, between interest earned on loans, securities and other interest-earning assets and interest paid on deposits, borrowings and other interest-bearing liabilities. When market rates of interest change, the interest we receive on our assets and the interest we pay on our liabilities may fluctuate. This may cause decreases in our spread and may adversely affect our earnings and financial condition. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors including, without limitation: the rate of inflation; economic conditions; federal monetary policies; and stability of domestic and foreign markets.
Although we have implemented procedures we believe will reduce the potential effects of changes in interest rates on our net interest income, these procedures may not always be successful. Accordingly, changes in levels of market interest rates could materially and adversely affect our net interest income and our net interest margin, asset quality, loan and lease origination volume, liquidity or overall profitability. Additionally, changes in interest rates can adversely impact the origination of mortgage loans held for sale and resulting mortgage banking revenues.

A transition away from LIBOR as a reference rate for financial contracts could negatively affect our income and expenses and the value of various financial contracts.
In November 2020, the ICE Benchmark Administration, the London Interbank Offered Rate administrator, announced its intention to continue LIBOR until June 30, 2023. The Financial Conduct Authority announced support for this development, signaling an extension from its prior communication that it would no longer require panel banks to submit rates for LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee was convened in the U.S. to explore alternative reference rates and supporting processes. The ARRC is made up of financial and capital market institutions, is convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and includes participation by various regulators. The ARRC identified a potential successor rate to LIBOR in the Secured Overnight Financing Rate and crafted the Paced Transition Plan to facilitate the transition. However, there are conceptual and technical differences between LIBOR and SOFR.
We have a significant number of loans, derivative contracts and other financial instruments with attributes that are either directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR. We have not yet determined the optimal replacement reference rate(s) that will
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ultimately replace LIBOR in current contracts maturing after LIBOR cessation. We have introduced SOFR as an option for use in our variable or adjustable rate credit products going forward. We have organized an internal transition program to identify system, operational, and contractual impacts, assess our risks, manage the transition, facilitate communication with our customers, and monitor the program progress.
The retirement of LIBOR is a significant shift in the industry. The transition will change our market risk profiles, requiring changes to risk and pricing models, valuation tools, product design and hedging strategies. Furthermore, failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could adversely impact our reputation. Although we are currently unable to assess what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be, failure to adequately manage the transition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The performance of our investment securities portfolio is subject to fluctuation due to changes in interest rates and market conditions, including credit deterioration of the issuers of individual securities.
Changes in interest rates may negatively affect both the returns on and fair value of our investment securities. Interest rate volatility can reduce unrealized gains or increase unrealized losses in our portfolio. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors including monetary policies, domestic and international economic and political issues, and other factors beyond our control. Additionally, actual investment income and cash flows from investment securities that carry prepayment risk, such as mortgage-backed securities and callable securities, may materially differ from those anticipated at the time of investment or subsequently as a result of changes in interest rates and market conditions. These occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our net interest income or our results of operations.

We may be materially and adversely affected by the creditworthiness and liquidity of other financial institutions.
Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks and other institutional customers. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of a default by, or questions or concerns about the creditworthiness of, a counterparty or client, or concerns about the financial services industry generally. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure due to us. Any such losses could have a material adverse effect on us.
LIQUIDITY RISK
A lack of liquidity could adversely affect our operations and jeopardize our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities to ensure that we have adequate liquidity to fund our operations. In addition to our traditional funding sources, we also may borrow funds from third-party lenders or issue equity or debt securities to investors. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities, or on terms that are acceptable to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us directly or the financial services industry or economy in general, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry. Any decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses, pay dividends to our shareholders, or to fulfill obligations such as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity, business, financial condition or results of operations.
MORTGAGE BANKING RISK
Our mortgage revenue is cyclical and is sensitive to the level of interest rates, changes in economic conditions, decreased economic activity, and slowdowns in the housing market.

We may not be able to grow our mortgage business at the same rate of growth achieved in recent years or even grow our mortgage business at all. The success of our mortgage segment is dependent upon our ability to originate loans and sell them to investors, in each case at or near current volumes. Loan production levels are sensitive to changes in the level of interest rates and changes in economic conditions. Mortgage production, especially refinancing activity, declines in rising interest rate environments. Our mortgage origination volume could be materially and adversely affected by rising interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates increase, there can be no assurance that our mortgage production will continue at current levels. Further, over half of our mortgage volume is through our consumer direct internet delivery channel, which targets national customers. As a result, loan originations through this channel are particularly susceptible to the interest rate environment and the national housing market.
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Because we sell a substantial portion of the mortgage loans we originate, the profitability of our mortgage banking business also depends in large part on our ability to aggregate a high volume of loans and sell them in the secondary market at a gain. In fact, when rates rise, we expect increasing industry-wide competitive pressures related to changing market conditions to reduce pricing margins and mortgage revenues generally. If our level of mortgage production declines, our continued profitability will depend upon our ability to reduce our costs commensurate with the reduction of revenue from our mortgage operations. If we are unable to do so, our continued profitability may be materially and adversely affected.

In 2020, we sold nearly all of the $6.65 billion of mortgage loans held for sale that we closed. When mortgage loans are sold, whether as whole loans or pursuant to a securitization, we are required to make customary representations and warranties to purchasers, guarantors and insurers about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated. We may be required to repurchase or substitute mortgage loans, or indemnify buyers against losses, in the event we breach certain representations or warranties in connection with the sale of such loans. If repurchase and indemnity demands increase, such demands are valid claims and are in excess of our provision for potential losses, our liquidity, results of operations or financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

The value of our mortgage servicing rights asset is subjective by nature and may be vulnerable to inaccuracies or other events outside our control.

The value of our mortgage servicing rights asset can fluctuate. Particularly, the asset could decrease in value if prepay speeds, delinquency rates, or the cost to service increases or overall values decrease causing a lack of liquidity of MSRs in the market. Similarly, the value may decrease if interest rates decrease or change in a non-parallel manner or are otherwise volatile. All of which are mostly out of FirstBank’s control. We must use estimates, assumptions and judgments when valuing this asset. An inaccurate valuation, or changes to the valuation due to factors outside of our control, could negatively impact our ability to realize the full value of this asset. As a result, our balance sheet may not precisely represent the fair market value of this and other financial assets.

We are dependent on U.S. government‑sponsored entities and government agencies, and any changes in these entities, their current roles or the leadership at such entities or their regulators could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.

Our ability to generate revenues through mortgage loan sales depends on programs administered by GSEs, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, government agencies, including Ginnie Mae, and others that facilitate the issuance of mortgage‑backed securities (“MBS”), in the secondary market. Presently, almost all of the newly originated loans that we originate directly with borrowers qualify under existing standards for inclusion in MBS issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae. A number of legislative proposals have been introduced in recent years that would wind down or phase out the GSEs. It is not possible to predict the scope and nature of the actions that the U.S. government, will ultimately take with respect to the GSEs. Any changes in laws and regulations affecting the relationship between Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and their regulators or the U.S. federal government, and any changes in leadership at these entities, could adversely affect our business and prospects. Any discontinuation of, or significant reduction in, the operation of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac or any significant adverse change in their capital structure, financial condition, activity levels in the primary or secondary mortgage markets or in underwriting criteria could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Elimination of the traditional roles of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, or any changes to the nature or extent of the guarantees provided by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or the fees, terms and guidelines that govern our selling and servicing relationships with them, could also materially and adversely affect our ability to sell and securitize loans through our loan production segment, and the performance, liquidity and market value of our investments. Moreover, any changes to the nature of the GSEs or their guarantee obligations could redefine what constitutes an Agency MBS and could have broad adverse implications for the market and our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. 
Decreased residential mortgage origination volume and pricing decisions of competitors may adversely affect our profitability.
Our mortgage operation originates, sells and services residential mortgage loans. Changes in interest rates, housing prices, applicable government regulations and pricing decisions by our loan competitors may adversely affect demand for our residential mortgage loan products, the revenue realized on the sale of loans, the revenues received from servicing such loans for others and, ultimately, reduce our net income. New regulations, increased regulatory reviews, and/or changes in the structure of the secondary mortgage markets which we utilize to sell mortgage loans may increase costs and make it more difficult to operate a residential mortgage origination business. Our revenue from the mortgage banking
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business was $255.3 million in 2020. This revenue could significantly decline in future periods if interest rates were to rise and the other risks highlighted in this paragraph were realized, which may adversely affect our profitability.
We may incur costs, liabilities, fines and other sanctions if we fail to satisfy our mortgage loan servicing obligations.
We act as servicer for approximately $9.79 billion of mortgage loans owned by third parties as of December 31, 2020. As a servicer for those loans, we have certain contractual obligations to third parties. If we commit a material breach of our obligations as servicer, we may be subject to termination if the breach is not cured within a specified period of time following notice, causing us to lose servicing income. For certain investors and/or transactions, we may be contractually obligated to repurchase a mortgage loan or reimburse the investor for credit losses incurred on the loan as a remedy for origination errors with respect to the loan. If we have increased repurchase obligations because of claims that we did not satisfy our obligations as a servicer, or if we have increased loss severity on such repurchases, we may have a significant reduction to net servicing income within our mortgage banking noninterest income. In addition, we may be subject to fines and other sanctions imposed by federal or state regulators as a result of actual or perceived deficiencies in our foreclosure practices. Any of these actions may harm our reputation or negatively affect our residential lending or servicing business and, as a result, our profitability.
LEGAL, REGULATORY AND COMPLIANCE RISK
We are subject to significant government regulation and supervision.
FB Financial Corporation and FirstBank are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision by the FDIC, Tennessee Department of Financial Institution, the Federal Reserve Board, CFPB, among others, the primary focus of which is to protect customers, depositors, the deposit insurance fund and the safety and soundness of the banking system as a whole, and not shareholders. The quantity and scope of applicable federal and state regulations may place banks at a competitive disadvantage compared to less regulated competitors such as financial technology companies, finance companies, credit unions, mortgage banking companies and leasing companies. These laws and regulations apply to almost every aspect of our business, and affect our lending practices and procedures, capital structure, investment activities, deposit gathering activities, our services and products, risk management practices, dividend policy and growth, including through acquisitions.

Legislation and regulation with respect to our industry has increased in recent years, and we expect that supervision and regulation will continue to expand in scope and complexity. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, and could subject us to additional costs, restrict our growth, limit the services and products we may offer or limit the pricing of banking services and products. In addition, establishing systems and processes to achieve compliance with laws and regulation increases our costs and could limit our ability to pursue business opportunities.

If we receive less than satisfactory results on regulatory examinations, we could be subject to damage to our reputation, significant fines and penalties, requirements to increase compliance and risk management activities and related costs and restriction on acquisitions, new locations, new lines of business, or continued growth. Future changes in federal and state banking could adversely affect our operating results and ability to continue to compete effectively. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act and related regulations subject us to additional restrictions, oversight and reporting obligations, which have significantly increased costs. And over the last several years, state and federal regulators have focused on enhanced risk management practices, mortgage law and regulation, compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering laws, data integrity and security, use of service providers, and fair lending and other consumer protection issues, which has increased our need to build additional processes and infrastructure. Government agencies charged with adopting and interpreting laws, rules and regulations, may do so in an unforeseen manner, including in ways that potentially expand the reach of the laws, rules or regulations more than initially contemplated or currently anticipated. We cannot predict the substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulation, or the application thereof. Compliance with such current and potential regulation and scrutiny could significantly increase our costs, impede the efficiency of our internal business processes, require us to increase our regulatory capital and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner. Our success depends on our ability to maintain compliance with both existing and new laws and regulations.

Applicable laws and regulations restrict both the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to us and our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.
The Company and the Bank are subject to various regulatory restrictions relating to the payment of dividends. In addition, the Federal Reserve has the authority to prohibit bank holding companies from engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting their business. These federal and state laws, regulations and policies are described in greater detail in “Business: Supervision and regulation: Bank regulation: Bank dividends” and “Business: Supervision and regulation: Holding company regulation: Restriction on bank holding company dividends,” and generally consider previous results and net income, capital needs, asset quality, existence of enforcement or remediation proceedings, and overall financial
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condition in determining whether a dividend payment is appropriate. For the foreseeable future, the majority, if not all, of our revenue will be from any dividends paid to us by the Bank. Accordingly, our ability to pay dividends also depends on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to us. Further, the present and future dividend policy of the Bank is subject to the discretion of its board of directors. We cannot guarantee that we or the Bank will be permitted by financial condition or applicable regulatory restrictions to pay dividends, that the board of directors of the Bank will elect to pay dividends to us, or the timing or amount of any dividend actually paid. See “Dividend policy.” If we do not pay dividends, market perceptions of our common stock may be adversely affected, which could in turn create downward pressure on our stock price.

As the parent company of FirstBank, the Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank.
The Federal Reserve requires us to act as a source of strength to the Bank and to commit capital and financial resources to support the Bank. This support may be required at times when we might otherwise determine not to provide it. In addition, if we commit to a federal bank regulator that we will maintain the capital of the Bank, whether in response to the Federal Reserve’s invoking its source-of-strength authority or in response to other regulatory measures, that commitment will be assumed by a bankruptcy trustee and, as a result, the Bank will be entitled to priority payment in respect of that commitment, ahead of our other creditors. Thus, any borrowing that must be done by us in order to support the Bank may adversely impact our cash flow, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

Our financial condition may be affected negatively by the costs of litigation.
We may be involved from time to time in a variety of litigation, investigations or similar matters arising out of our business. From time to time, and particularly during periods of economic stress, customers may make claims or otherwise take legal action pertaining to performance of our responsibilities. These claims are often referred to as “lender liability” claims. Whether customer claims and legal action related to the performance of our responsibilities are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in a favorable manner, they may result in significant financial liability and/or adversely affect our market perception, products and services, as well as potentially affecting customer demand for those products and services. In many cases, we may seek reimbursement from our insurance carriers to cover such costs and expenses. These claims, as well as supervisory and enforcement actions by our regulators could involve large monetary claims, capital directives, regulatory agreements and directives and significant defense costs. The outcome of any such cases or actions is uncertain. Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory action against us could have material adverse financial effects or cause significant reputational harm to us, which in turn could seriously harm our business prospects. Our insurance may not cover all claims that may be asserted against us, and any claims asserted against us, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, may harm our reputation. Should the ultimate judgments or settlements in any litigation or investigation significantly exceed our insurance coverage, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

TECHNOLOGY AND OPERATIONAL RISKS
We rely on third party vendors to provide services that are integral to the operation of our business.
We depend on many third-party service providers that are integral to the operation of our business. These vendors service our mortgage loan business, provide critical core systems processing services, essential web hosting and other internet systems, and deposit processing services. If any of these service providers fail to perform servicing duties or perform those duties inadequately, we could experience a temporary interruption in our business, sustain credit losses on our loans or incur additional costs to obtain a replacement servicer. There can be no assurance that a replacement servicer could be retained in a timely manner or at a similar cost.
We cannot be sure that we will be able to maintain these relationships on favorable terms. In addition, some of our data processing services are provided by companies associated with our competitors. The loss of these vendor relationships could disrupt the services we provide to our customers and cause us to incur significant expense in connection with replacing these services. If these third-party service providers experience difficulties, or terminate their services, and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, particularly on a timely basis, our operations could be interrupted. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected, perhaps materially. Even if we are able to replace third-party service providers, it may be at a higher cost to us, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. If we experienced issues with our mortgage servicing provider, our servicing rights could be terminated or we may be required to repurchase mortgage loans or reimburse investors as a result of such failures of our third-party service providers, any of which could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations or financial condition.
Additionally, we utilize many vendors that provide services to support our operations, including the storage and processing of sensitive consumer and business customer data. A cyber security breach of a vendor's system may result in theft and/or unavailability of our data or disruption of business processes.  In most cases, we will remain primarily liable to our
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customers for losses arising from a breach of a vendor's data security system. We rely on our outsourced service providers to implement and maintain prudent cyber security controls.  We have procedures in place to assess a vendor's cyber security controls prior to establishing a contractual relationship and to periodically review assessments of those control systems. However, these procedures are not infallible, and a vendor's system can be breached despite the procedures we employ.
If these third-party service providers experience difficulties, or terminate their services, and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, particularly on a timely basis, our operations could be interrupted. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected, perhaps materially. Even if we are able to replace third-party service providers, it may be at a higher cost to us, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risks and/or losses to us.
Our risk management framework is comprised of various processes, systems and strategies, and is designed to manage the types of risk to which we are subject, including, among others, credit, market, liquidity, interest rate and compliance risks. Our framework also includes financial or other modeling methodologies that involve management assumptions and judgment. Our risk management framework may not be effective under all circumstances and may not adequately mitigate any risk or loss to us. If our framework is not effective, we could suffer unexpected losses and our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
System failure or breaches of our network security, including as a result of cyber-attacks or data security breaches, could subject us to increased operating costs as well as litigation and other liabilities.
The computer systems and network infrastructure we, and our vendors, use may be vulnerable to physical theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or a similar catastrophic event, as well as security breaches, denial of service attacks, viruses, ransomware, and other disruptive problems caused by cyber criminals. Any damage or failure that causes breakdowns or disruptions in our client relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of client business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Computer break-ins, phishing and other disruptions could also jeopardize the security of information stored in and transmitted through our computer systems and network infrastructure. Information security risks have generally increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, nation state supported organizations, terrorists, and other external parties. Our operations rely on the secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential information in our computer systems and networks. Although we believe we have robust information security procedures and controls, our technologies, systems, vendors, networks, and our customers’ devices may become the target of cyber-attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, unavailability, loss or destruction of our or our customers’ confidential, proprietary and other information, or otherwise disrupt our or our customers’ business operations. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
We are under continuous threat of loss due to cyber-attacks, especially as we continue to expand client capabilities to utilize internet and other remote channels to transact business. The occurrence of any cyber-attack or information security breach could result in significant potential liabilities to customers and other third parties, reputational damage, the disruption of our operations and regulatory concerns, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes and we may not have the resources to implement new technology to stay current with these changes.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. Our future success will depend in part upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy client demands for convenience as well as to provide secure electronic environments as we continue to grow and expand our market area. Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest, and have invested significantly more than us, in technological improvements. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or more convenient products compared to those that we will be able to provide, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing such products and services to our customers, which could impair our growth and profitability.
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We are subject to certain operational risks, including, but not limited to, client or employee fraud.
Employee errors and employee and client misconduct could subject us to financial losses or regulatory sanctions and seriously harm our reputation. Misconduct by our employees could include hiding unauthorized activities from us, improper or unauthorized activities on behalf of our customers or improper use of confidential information. It is not always possible to prevent employee errors and misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Employee errors could also subject us to financial claims for negligence. We maintain a system of internal controls and insurance coverage to mitigate against these operational risks. If our internal controls fail to prevent or detect an occurrence, or if any resulting loss is not insured or exceeds applicable insurance limits, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition, we rely heavily upon information supplied by third parties, including the information contained in credit applications, property appraisals, title information, equipment pricing and valuation and employment and income documentation, in deciding which loans we will originate, as well as the terms of those loans. If any of the information upon which we rely is misrepresented, either fraudulently or inadvertently, and the misrepresentation is not detected prior to asset funding, the value of the asset may be significantly lower than expected, or we may fund a loan that we would not have funded or on terms we would not have extended.
Catastrophic events and disasters could negatively affect our local economies or disrupt our operations or result in other consequences which could have an adverse impact on our financial results or condition.
A significant portion of our business is located in the Southeast and includes areas which are susceptible to weather-related events such as tornadoes, floods, droughts, and fires. Such events can disrupt our operations, cause damage to our properties, and negatively affect the local economies in which we operate. The severity and impact of future natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, floods, and other weather-related events are difficult to predict. While we maintain insurance covering many of these weather-related events, there is no insurance against the disruption that such a catastrophic event could cause in the markets that we serve, the resulting adverse impact on our borrowers’ ability to timely repay their loans, and/or the value of any collateral held by us.
In addition, geopolitical matters, including international trade disputes, political unrest, the emergence of widespread health emergencies or pandemics, cyber attacks or campaigns, and slow growth in the global economy, as well as acts of terrorism, war, and other violence could result in disruptions in the financial markets or the markets that we serve. These negative events could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition and may affect our ability to access capital.
STRATEGIC AND OTHER BUSINESS RISKS
Our strategy of pursuing acquisitions exposes us to risk.
We intend to continue pursuing a strategy that includes acquisitions, which involves significant operational, strategic, and regulatory risks. Acquisitions may disrupt our business and dilute stockholder value, and integrating acquired companies may be more difficult, costly, or time-consuming than we expect.
The market for acquisition targets is highly competitive, which may adversely affect our ability to find acquisition candidates that fit our strategy and standards. Our ability to compete in acquiring target institutions will depend on our available financial resources to fund the acquisitions, including the amount of cash and cash equivalents we have and the liquidity and market price of our common stock. In addition, increased competition may also drive up the acquisition consideration that we will be required to pay in order to successfully capitalize on attractive acquisition opportunities. To the extent that we are unable to find suitable acquisition targets, an important component of our growth strategy may not be realized.
Acquisitions of financial institutions also involve operational risks and uncertainties, such as unknown or contingent liabilities with no available manner of recourse, exposure to unexpected problems such as asset quality, the retention of key employees and customers, and other issues that could negatively affect our business. We may not be able to complete future acquisitions or, if completed, we may not be able to successfully integrate the operations, technology platforms, management, products and services of the entities that we acquire or to realize our attempts to eliminate redundancies. The integration process may also require significant time and attention from our management that would otherwise be directed toward servicing existing business and developing new business. Failure to successfully integrate the entities we acquire into our existing operations in a timely manner may increase our operating costs significantly and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution of our tangible book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future acquisition, and the carrying amount of any goodwill that we currently maintain or may acquire may be subject to impairment in future periods.

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If we continue to grow, we will face risks arising from our increased size. If we do not manage such growth effectively, we may be unable to realize the benefit from the investments in technology, infrastructure and personnel that we have made to support our expansion. In addition, we may incur higher costs and realize less revenue growth than we expect, which would reduce our earnings and diminish our future prospects, and we may not be able to continue to implement our business strategy and successfully conduct our operations. Risks associated with failing to maintain effective financial and operational controls as we grow, such as maintaining appropriate loan underwriting procedures, information technology systems, determining adequate allowances for loan losses and complying with regulatory accounting requirements, including increased loan losses, reduced earnings and potential regulatory penalties and restrictions on growth, all could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our pursuit of acquisitions may disrupt our business, and any equity that we issue as merger consideration may have the effect of diluting the value of your investment. In addition, we may fail to realize some or all of the anticipated benefits of completed acquisitions. We anticipate that the integration of businesses that we may acquire in the future will be a time-consuming and expensive process, even if the integration process is effectively planned and implemented. If difficulties arise with respect to the integration process, the economic benefits expected to result from acquisitions might not occur. As with any merger of financial institutions, there also may be business disruptions that cause us to lose customers or cause customers to move their business to other financial institutions. Failure to successfully integrate businesses that we acquire could have an adverse effect on our profitability, return on equity, return on assets, or our ability to implement our strategy, any of which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may not be able to complete future financial institution acquisitions.
From time to time, we evaluate and engage in the acquisition of other banking organizations. We must satisfy a number of meaningful conditions before we can complete an acquisition of another bank or bank holding company, including federal and state bank regulatory approvals. The process for obtaining required regulatory approvals can be time-consuming and unpredictable and is subject to numerous regulatory and policy factors, a number of which are beyond our control. We may fail to pursue or to complete strategic and competitively significant acquisition opportunities as a result of the perceived difficulty or impossibility of obtaining required regulatory approvals in a timely manner or at all.

We have a shareholder who owns a significant portion of our stock and that shareholders' interests in our business may be different than our other shareholders.
Mr. Ayers, our Vice Chairman and Founder, currently owns approximately 29% of our common stock. Further, Mr. Ayers has the right under the shareholder's agreement, by and between the Company and Mr. Ayers and entered into in connection with the Company's initial public offering, to designate up to 20% of our directors and at least one member of the nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees of our board of directors for so long as permitted under applicable law. So long as Mr. Ayers continues to own a significant portion of our common stock, he will have the ability to influence the vote in any election of directors and will have the ability to significantly influence a vote regarding a transaction that requires shareholder approval regardless of whether others believe the transaction is in our best interests. In any of these matters, the interests of Mr. Ayers may differ from or conflict with the interests of our other shareholders. Moreover, this concentration of stock ownership may also adversely affect the trading price of our common stock to the extent investors perceive disadvantages in owning stock of a company with a significant shareholder.
We could be required to write down goodwill and other intangible assets.
At December 31, 2020, our goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets were $265.0 million. Under current accounting standards, if we determine goodwill or intangible assets are impaired because, for example, the acquired business does not meet projected revenue targets or certain key employees leave, we are required to write down the carrying value of these assets. We conduct a review at least annually to determine whether goodwill is impaired. Our goodwill impairment evaluation indicated no impairment of goodwill for our reporting segments. We cannot provide assurance, however, that we will not be required to take an impairment charge in the future. Any impairment charge would have an adverse effect on our shareholders' equity and financial results and could cause a decline in our stock price.
We face strong competition from financial services companies and other companies that offer banking services.
We conduct our banking operations primarily in Tennessee, with our largest market being the Nashville MSA, which is a highly competitive banking market. Many of our competitors offer the same, or a wider variety of, banking services within our market areas, and we compete with them for the same customers. These competitors include banks with nationwide operations, regional banks and community banks. In many instances these national and regional banks have greater resources than we do, and the smaller community banks may have stronger ties in local markets than we do, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage. We also face competition from many other types of financial institutions, including thrift institutions, finance companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, credit unions, mortgage banks and other internet-based companies offering financial services which enjoy fewer regulatory constraints and some may have lower
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cost structures. In addition, a number of out-of-state financial institutions have opened offices and solicit deposits in our market areas. Increased competition in our markets may result in reduced loans and deposits, as well as reduced net interest margin and profitability. If we are unable to attract and retain banking customers, we may be unable to continue to grow our loan and deposit portfolios, and our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.

Further, a number of larger banks have recently entered the Nashville MSA, and we believe this trend will continue as banks look to gain a foothold in this growing market. This trend will likely result in greater competition in, and may impair our ability to grow our share of our largest market.

ITEM 1B - Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
ITEM 2 - Properties
Our principal executive offices and FirstBank’s main office are located at 211 Commerce Street, Suite 300, Nashville, Tennessee 37201. As of December 31, 2020, we operated 81 full-service bank branches and nine limited service branch locations throughout our geographic market areas as well as 23 mortgage offices throughout the southeastern United States. We have banking locations in the Tennessee metropolitan markets of Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, and Jackson in addition to the metropolitan markets of Huntsville and Florence, Alabama and Bowling Green, Kentucky. We also operate in 16 community markets throughout our footprint. See “ITEM 1. Business – Our Markets” for more detail. We own 52 of these banking locations and lease our other banking locations, nearly all of our mortgage offices and our principal executive office. We believe that our offices and banking locations are in good condition, are suitable to our needs and, for the most part, are relatively new or refurbished. Additionally, we continue to upgrade our properties to make them more energy efficient and protect the environment.
ITEM 3 - Legal Proceedings
Various legal proceedings to which FB Financial Corporation or a subsidiary of FB Financial Corporation is party arise from time to time in the normal course of business. As of the date hereof, there are no material pending legal proceedings to which FB Financial Corporation or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any of its or its subsidiaries' assets or properties are subject.
ITEM 4 - Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
 
Market Information and Holders of Record
 
FB Financial Corporation's common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "FBK" and has traded on that market since September 16, 2016.  
The Company had approximately 1,962 stockholders of record as of March 5, 2021. A substantially greater number of holders of FBK common stock are "street name" or beneficial holders, whose shares of record are held by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.
Stock Performance Graph
The performance graph and table below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on the common stock of the Company with the cumulative total return on the equity securities included in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (S&P 500), which reflects overall stock market performance and the S&P 500 Bank Industry Group, which is a GICS Level 2 industry group consisting of 19 regional and national publicly traded banks. The graph assumes an initial $100 investment on September 16, 2016 (the date of our initial public offering) through December 31, 2020. Data for the S&P 500 and S&P 500 Bank Industry Group assumes reinvestment of dividends. Returns are shown on a total return basis. The performance graph represents past performance and should not be considered to be an indication of future performance. The information in this paragraph and the following stock performance graph shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, other than as provided in Item 201 of Regulation S-K, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically request that such information be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporate it by reference into a filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

fbk-20201231_g3.jpg
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Index
FB Financial CorporationS&P 500 Total Return IndexS&P 500 Bank Total Return Index
9/16/2016109.21 99.62 98.77 
12/29/2017221.00 127.79 158.91 
12/31/2018185.25 122.18 132.79 
12/31/2019211.28 160.65 186.75 
12/31/2020187.74 190.21 161.06 
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence
Dividends
During the second quarter of 2018, our board of directors declared a dividend to shareholders of record for the first time as a public company and has done so for each subsequent quarter since. Our dividend declarations have also been applicable to outstanding restricted stock units, for which related cash distributions are made on the vesting dates of the underlying units.
The following table shows the dividends that have been declared on our common stock with respect to the periods indicated below. Per share amounts are presented to the nearest cent.  
 
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Quarterly periodAmount
per share
Total cash
dividend
2020:
First Quarter$0.09 $2,866 
Second Quarter0.09 2,962 
Third Quarter0.09 4,336 
Fourth Quarter0.09 4,338 
 
Subsequent to December 31, 2020, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.11 per share to shareholders of record as of February 8, 2021 and payable on February 22, 2021.
Any future determination or changes relating to our dividend policy will be made by our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including general and economic conditions, industry standards, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, banking regulations, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our shareholders or by the Bank to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant.
As a bank holding company, any dividends paid by us are subject to various federal and state regulatory limitations and also may be subject to the ability of the Bank to make distributions or pay dividends to us. The Bank is also subject to various legal, regulatory and other restrictions on its ability to pay dividends and make other distributions and payments to us. Our ability to pay dividends is limited by minimum capital and other requirements prescribed by law and regulation. Furthermore, we are generally prohibited under Tennessee corporate law from making a distribution to a shareholder to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus (unless the charter permits otherwise) the amount that would be needed, if we were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of any shareholders who may have preferential rights superior to those receiving the distribution. In addition, financing arrangements that we may enter into in the future may include restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to pay dividends.
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Stock Repurchase Program
Period(a)
Total number of shares purchased
(b)
Average price paid per share
(c)
Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs
(d)
Maximum number (or approximate dollar value) of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
October 1 - October 31— — — $25,000,000 
November 1 - November 30— — — 25,000,000 
December 1 - December 31— — — 25,000,000 
Total— — — 25,000,000 
The Company's board of directors approved a repurchase plan for up to $25 million of Company common stock for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company purchased no shares pursuant this plan. On February 18, 2021, the board of directors approved a repurchase plan for up to $100 million of Company common stock. This repurchase plan expires March 31, 2022, and purchases will be conducted pursuant to a written plan intended to comply with Rule 10b-18 promulgated under the Exchange Act.
Sale of Equity Securities
The Company did not sell any unregistered equity securities during 2020.
37



ITEM 6 - Selected Financial Data
The following selected historical consolidated financial data of the Company should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere herein. Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in any future period.
As of or for the year ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 
Statement of Income Data
Total interest income$314,644 $282,537 $239,571 $169,613 $120,494 
Total interest expense48,986 56,501 35,503 16,342 9,544 
Net interest income265,658 226,036 204,068 153,271 110,950 
Provisions for credit losses107,967 7,053 5,398 (950)(1,479)
Total noninterest income301,855 135,397 130,642 141,581 144,685 
Total noninterest expense377,085 244,841 223,458 222,317 194,790 
Income before income taxes82,461 109,539 105,854 73,485 62,324 
Income tax expense(4)
18,832 25,725 25,618 21,087 21,733 
Net income applicable to noncontrolling interest— — — — 
Net income applicable to FB Financial Corporation$63,621 $83,814 $80,236 $52,398 $40,591 
Net income(4)
$63,629 $83,814 $80,236 $52,398 $40,591 
Net interest income (tax—equivalent basis)$268,497 $227,930 $205,668 $156,094 $113,311 
Per Common Share
Basic net income(4)
$1.69 $2.70 $2.60 $1.90 $2.12 
Diluted net income(4)
1.67 2.65 2.55 1.86 2.10 
Book value(1)
27.35 24.56 21.87 19.54 13.71 
Tangible book value(5)
21.73 18.55 17.02 14.56 11.58 
Cash dividends declared0.36 0.32 0.20 — 4.03 
Selected Balance Sheet Data
Cash and cash equivalents$1,317,898 $232,681 $125,356 $119,751 $136,327 
Loans held for investment7,082,959 4,409,642 3,667,511 3,166,911 1,848,784 
Allowance for credit losses(170,389)(31,139)(28,932)(24,041)(21,747)
Loans held for sale899,173 262,518 278,815 526,185 507,442 
Investment securities, at fair value1,176,991 691,676 658,805 543,992 582,183 
Other real estate owned, net12,111 18,939 12,643 16,442 7,403 
Total assets11,207,330 6,124,921 5,136,764 4,727,713 3,276,881 
Customer deposits9,396,478 4,914,587 4,068,610 3,578,694 2,670,031 
Brokered and internet time deposits61,559 20,351 103,107 85,701 1,531 
Total deposits9,458,037 4,934,938 4,171,717 3,664,395 2,671,562 
Borrowings238,324 304,675 227,776 347,595 216,453 
Total common shareholders' equity1,291,289 762,329 671,857 596,729 330,498 
Selected Ratios
Return on average:
Assets(2)
0.75 %1.45 %1.66 %1.37 %1.35 %
Shareholders' equity(2)
6.58 %11.6 %12.7 %11.2 %14.7 %
Tangible common equity(5)
8.54 %15.4 %16.7 %14.0 %17.6 %
Average shareholders' equity to average assets11.5 %12.5 %13.0 %12.2 %9.20 %
Net interest margin (tax-equivalent basis)3.46 %4.34 %4.66 %4.46 %4.10 %
Efficiency ratio66.4 %67.7 %66.8 %75.4 %76.2 %
Adjusted efficiency ratio (tax-equivalent basis)(5)
59.2 %65.4 %65.8 %68.1 %70.6 %
Loans held for investment to deposit ratio74.9 %89.4 %87.9 %86.4 %69.2 %
Yield on interest-earning assets4.09 %5.42 %5.47 %4.93 %4.45 %
Cost of interest-bearing liabilities0.94 %1.48 %1.11 %0.66 %0.48 %
Cost of total deposits0.62 %1.10 %0.76 %0.42 %0.29 %
38


As of or for the year ended December 31,
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 
Credit Quality Ratios
Allowance for credit losses as a percentage of loans held for
investment(6)
2.41 %0.71 %0.79 %0.76 %1.18 %
Allowance for credit losses to nonperforming loans(6)
264.3 %117.0 %173.0 %238.1 %216.2 %
Nonperforming loans to loans, net of unearned income0.91 %0.60 %0.46 %0.32 %0.54 %
Capital Ratios (Company)
Total common shareholders' equity to assets11.5 %12.4 %13.1 %12.6 %10.1 %
Tier 1 capital (to average assets)10.0 %10.1 %11.4 %10.5 %10.1 %
Tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets(3)
12.0 %11.6 %12.4 %11.4 %12.2 %
Total capital (to risk-weighted assets)(3)
15.0 %12.2 %13.0 %12.0 %13.0 %
Tangible common equity to tangible assets(5)
9.38 %9.69 %10.5 %9.70 %8.70 %
Common Equity Tier 1 (to risk-weighted assets) (CET1)(3)
11.7 %11.1 %11.7 %10.7 %11.0 %
Capital Ratios (Bank)
Total common Shareholders' equity to assets12.3 %12.8 %13.2 %12.6 %9.90 %
Tier 1 capital (to average assets)10.5 %9.90 %10.9 %9.80 %9.00 %
Tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets)(3)
12.6 %11.5 %11.9 %10.7 %10.9 %
Total capital to (risk-weighted assets)(3)
14.9 %12.1 %12.5 %11.3 %11.7 %
Common Equity Tier 1 (to risk-weighted assets) (CET1)(3)
12.6 %11.5 %11.9 %10.7 %10.9 %
(1)Book value per share equals our total shareholders’ equity as of the date presented divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the date presented. The number of shares of our common stock outstanding was 47,220,743, 31,034,315, 30,724,532, 30,535,517, and 24,107,660 as of December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
(2)We have calculated our return on average assets and return on average equity for a period by dividing net income for that period by our average assets and average equity, as the case may be, for that period. We calculate our average assets and average equity for a period by dividing the sum of our total asset balance or total stockholder’s equity balance, as the case may be, as of the close of business on each day in the relevant period and dividing by the number of days in the period.
(3)We calculate our risk-weighted assets using the standardized method of the Basel III Framework.
(4)During the third quarter of 2016, we became a C corporation in conjunction with our initial public offering. As such, we did not pay federal income taxes for the full year of 2016. The following presents pro forma net income and pro forma net income per share using a pro forma provision for federal income tax using a combined effective income tax rate of 36.75% for the year ended December 31, 2016 and adjusting our historical net income to give effect to the pro forma provision for U.S. federal income tax. For the year ended December 31, 2016, pro forma provision for income tax was $22.9 million, pro forma net income was $39.4 million, pro forma net income per common share-basic was $2.06, and pro forma net income per common share-diluted was $2.04.
(5)These measures are not measures recognized under generally accepted accounting principles (United States) (“GAAP”), and are therefore considered to be non-GAAP financial measures. See “GAAP reconciliation and management explanation of non-GAAP financial measures” for a reconciliation of these measures to their most comparable GAAP measures.
(6)Excludes reserve for credit losses on unfunded commitments of $13.4 million recorded in accrued expenses and other liabilities at December 31, 2020.
GAAP reconciliation and management explanation of non-GAAP financial measures
We identify certain financial measures discussed in this Report as being "non-GAAP financial measures." The non-GAAP financial measures presented in this Report are adjusted efficiency ratio (tax equivalent basis), tangible book value per common share, tangible common equity to tangible assets and return on average tangible common equity.
In accordance with the SEC's rules, we classify a financial measure as being a non-GAAP financial measure if that financial measure excludes or includes amounts, or is subject to adjustments that have the effect of excluding or including amounts, that are included or excluded, as the case may be, in the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP as in effect from time to time in the United States in our statements of income, balance sheets or statements of cash flows.
The non-GAAP financial measures that we discuss in this Report should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the most directly comparable or other financial measures calculated in a