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Ferrari N.V.
2022 ANNUAL REPORT AND FORM 20-F























UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-37596
Ferrari N.V.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
The Netherlands
(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
Via Abetone Inferiore n. 4
I-41053 Maranello (MO)
Italy
Tel. No.: +39 0536 949111
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)


Antonio Picca Piccon
Tel. No.: +39 0536 949111
Facsimile No.: +39 0536 241494
Via Abetone Inferiore n. 4 I-41053 Maranello (MO) Italy
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares (par value of €0.01 each)RACENew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 181,953,498 common shares, par value €0.01 per share, and 63,343,913 special voting shares, par value €0.01 per share.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No o
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Act of 1934. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o












Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP o International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board þ Other o
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 o or Item 18 o.
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes No þ
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes o No o
































TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Page
Board Report
Forward-Looking Statements
4









Board of Directors

Executive Chairman
John Elkann

Chief Executive Officer
Benedetto Vigna

Vice Chairman
Piero Ferrari

Directors
Delphine Arnault
Francesca Bellettini
Eddy Cue
Sergio Duca
John Galantic
Maria Patrizia Grieco
Adam Keswick



Independent Auditors

Ernst & Young Accountants LLP (AFM Annual Report filing)(1)
EY S.p.A. (Form 20-F filing)(1)
_________________________________________________________________________
(1)    Refer to “IntroductionAbout this Report” for additional information relating to the AFM Annual Report filing and the Form 20-F filing.
5









Introduction

About this report

This document, referred to hereafter as the “Annual Report and Form 20-F” or “Annual Report”, constitutes both the statutory annual report in accordance with Dutch legal requirements (“AFM Annual Report”) and the annual report on Form 20-F (“Form 20-F”), applicable to Foreign Private Issuers, pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the United States (“U.S.”) Securities Exchange Act of 1934, for Ferrari N.V. for the year ended December 31, 2022, except as noted below.

For the cross-references of the content of this document to the Form 20-F requirements please refer to the “Form 20-F Cross Reference” section included elsewhere in this document.

This Annual Report is filed with the Netherlands Authority for Financial Markets (Autoriteit Financiële Markten, the “AFM”). The following sections have been removed for our Annual Report filing with the AFM:

Form 20-F cover page;
Corporate Governance — Differences between Dutch Corporate Governance Practices and NYSE Listing Standards;
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm in respect of Internal Control over Financial Reporting for the SEC filing;
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm in respect of the PCAOB audits of the 2022 financial statements for the SEC filing;
Exhibits; and
Signatures.

This Annual Report and the exhibits hereto are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and unless otherwise stated, all references in this document to “Form 20-F” refer to the SEC filing. The following sections have been removed for our Form 20-F filing with the SEC:

Letter from the Chairman and the Chief Executive Officer;
2023 Outlook;
Corporate Governance — Disclosures pursuant to Decree Article 10 EU-Directive on Takeovers;
Corporate Governance — Responsibilities in respect to the Annual Report;
Non Financial Statement;
Controls and procedures — Statement by the Board of Directors;
Company Financial Statements;
Other Information — Additional Information for Netherlands Corporate Governance; and
Independent auditor’s report — Report on the audit of the financial statements 2022 included in the Annual Report in respect of the AFM filing.


6


Documents on Display

The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including the Company, at http://www.sec.gov. The address of the SEC’s website is provided solely for information purposes and is not intended to be an active link. Reports and other information concerning the business of Ferrari may also be inspected at the offices of the New York Stock Exchange, 11 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005, United States.

We also make our periodic reports as well as other information filed with or furnished to the SEC available, free of charge, through our website at https://www.ferrari.com/en-EN/corporate as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports and other information are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information on our website or the websites of any other entity is not incorporated by reference in this document.

This document is a PDF copy of the Annual Report of Ferrari N.V. at and for the year ended December 31, 2022 and is not presented in the ESEF-format as specified in the Regulatory Technical Standards on ESEF (Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/815). The official Annual Report of Ferrari N.V. in ESEF single reporting package, as filed with the AFM, is available on Ferrari’s website.
7



Certain Defined Terms and Note on Presentation

Certain Defined Terms

In this report, unless otherwise specified, the terms “we”, “our”, “us”, the “Group”, the “Company” and “Ferrari” refer to Ferrari N.V., individually or together with its subsidiaries as the context may require. References to “Ferrari N.V.” refer to the registrant.

Note on Presentation

This Annual Report includes the consolidated financial statements of Ferrari N.V. at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”), as well as IFRS as adopted by the European Union. There is no effect on these consolidated financial statements resulting from differences between IFRS as issued by the IASB and IFRS as adopted by the European Union. The consolidated financial statements and the notes to the consolidated financial statements are referred to collectively as the “Consolidated Financial Statements”.

Basis of Preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements
The Group’s financial information is presented in Euro. In some instances, information is presented in U.S. Dollars. All references in this document to “Euro” and “€” refer to the currency introduced at the start of the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union pursuant to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, as amended, and all references to “U.S. Dollars” and “$” refer to the currency of the United States of America (the “United States” or the “U.S.”).

The language of this Annual Report is English. Certain legislative references and technical terms have been cited in their original language in order that the correct technical meaning may be ascribed to them under applicable law.

The financial data in the section “Results of Operations” is presented in millions of Euro, while the percentages presented are calculated using the underlying figures in thousands of Euro.

Certain totals in the tables included in this document may not add due to rounding.

Except otherwise disclosed within this Annual Report, no significant change has occurred since the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
8



Forward-Looking Statements

Statements contained in this Annual Report, particularly those regarding our possible or assumed future performance, competitive strengths, costs, dividends, reserves and growth as well as industry growth and other trends and projections, are “forward-looking statements” that contain risks and uncertainties. In some cases, words such as “may”, “will”, “expect”, “could”, “should”, “intend”, “estimate”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “remain”, “continue”, “on track”, “successful”, “grow”, “design”, “target”, “objective”, “goal”, “forecast”, “projection”, “outlook”, “prospects”, “plan”, “guidance” and similar expressions are used to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements reflect the respective current views of Ferrari with respect to future events and involve significant risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, without limitation:

our ability to preserve and enhance the value of the Ferrari brand;
the success of our Formula 1 racing team and the expenses we incur for our Formula 1 activities, the uncertainty of the sponsorship and commercial revenues we generate from our participation in the Formula 1 World Championship, as well as the popularity of Formula 1 more broadly;
our ability to keep up with advances in high performance car technology, to meet the challenges and costs of integrating advanced technologies, including hybrid and electric, more broadly into our car portfolio over time and to make appealing designs for our new models;
the impact of increasingly stringent fuel economy, emissions and safety standards, including the cost of compliance, and any required changes to our products, as well as possible future bans of combustion engine cars in cities and the potential advent of self-driving technology;
increases in costs, disruptions of supply or shortages of components and raw materials;
our ability to successfully carry out our controlled growth strategy and, particularly, our ability to increase our presence in growth market countries;
our low volume strategy;
global economic conditions, macro events and pandemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine;
changes in the general economic environment (including changes in some of the markets in which we operate) and changes in demand for luxury goods, including high performance luxury cars, demand for which is highly volatile;
our ability to preserve our relationship with the automobile collector and enthusiast community;
competition in the luxury performance automobile industry;
changes in client preferences and automotive trends;
disruptions at our manufacturing facilities in Maranello and Modena;
climate change and other environmental impacts, as well as an increased focus of regulators and stakeholders on environmental matters;
our ability to maintain the functional and efficient operation of our information technology systems and to defend from the risk of cyberattacks, including on our in-vehicle technology;
reliance upon a number of key members of executive management and employees, and the ability of our current management team to operate and manage effectively;
the performance of our dealer network on which we depend for sales and services;
product warranties, product recalls and liability claims;
the performance of our licensees for Ferrari-branded products;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others;
our continued compliance with customs regulations of various jurisdictions;
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labor relations and collective bargaining agreements;
our ability to ensure that our employees, agents and representatives comply with applicable law and regulations;
changes in tax, tariff or fiscal policies and regulatory, political and labor conditions in the jurisdictions in which we operate;
our ability to service and refinance our debt;
exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate changes, credit risk and other market risks;
our ability to provide or arrange for adequate access to financing for our dealers and clients, and associated risks;
the adequacy of our insurance coverage to protect us against potential losses;
the ability of Maserati, our engine customer, to sell its planned volume of cars;
potential conflicts of interest due to director and officer overlaps with our largest shareholders; and
other factors discussed elsewhere in this document.

We expressly disclaim and do not assume any liability in connection with any inaccuracies in any of the forward-looking statements in this document or in connection with any use by any third party of such forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. We do not undertake an obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements.

Additional factors which could cause actual results and developments to differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements are included in the section “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report. These factors may not be exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements included in this Annual Report. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made in this report in the context of these risks and uncertainties.

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Creating Value for Our Shareholders

Ferrari is among the world’s leading luxury brands with unique, world-class capabilities, and a vision built on our historic foundations and strengths.

We are fiercely protective of our brand, which is among the most iconic and recognizable in the world and is critical to our value proposition to all of our stakeholders. We strive to maintain and enhance the power of our brand and the passion we inspire in clients and the broader community of automotive enthusiasts by continuing our rigorous production and distribution model, which promotes excellence in innovation, design and uniqueness.

We also support our brand value by promoting a strong connection to our company and our brand among the community of Ferrari enthusiasts. We focus relentlessly on strengthening this connection by rewarding our most loyal clients through a range of initiatives, such as driving events and client activities in Maranello and, most importantly, by providing our most loyal and active clients with preferential access to our newest, most exclusive and highest value cars. As a result, in 2022, we sold approximately 66% of our new cars to existing Ferrari clients and 38% to clients being current owners of more than one Ferrari, which reinforces the demand for our cars and the image of luxury and exclusivity inherent in our brand.

Our commitment to excellence and our pursuit of innovation, state-of-the-art performance and distinction in design and engineering in our luxury cars is inseparable from our commitment to integrity, transparency and responsibility in conducting our business. By fully integrating environmental and social considerations with economic objectives we are able to identify potential risks and capitalize on additional opportunities, resulting in a process of continuous improvement. Sustainability is a core element of our governance model and executive management plays a direct and active role in developing and achieving our sustainability objectives under the oversight of our Board of Directors. As a clear demonstration of this commitment, we have strengthened the integration of environmental topics in our strategic plan by presenting, in June 2022, a decarbonization strategy that will help us reach carbon neutrality by 2030.

The foundation of a responsible company rests on being fully attentive to the nature and extent of this interconnection and our understanding of both the potential effects of our activities and how those effects can be mitigated through responsible management.

All of the above is strictly linked to our values:

INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM: Our talented individuals are our greatest resource. However they can only pursue the extraordinary by working together as a team. By fostering integrity, excellence and generosity, we give each of our people the possibility to express their own full potential and to be part of something greater.
TRADITION AND INNOVATION: Tradition and innovation drive each other. The ongoing quest for lasting firsts is what fuels the Ferrari legend. Our ability to combine revolutionary technological solutions with exceptional artisanal craftsmanship is what enables us to create icons that stay timeless in a fast changing world.
PASSION AND ACHIEVEMENT: Ferrari’s racing spirit lives on in emotions that transcend the road and the track, ultimately becoming an authentic attitude towards life. Nothing excites us more than setting ambitious targets and expectations and then exceeding them. It is how the power of passion becomes the beauty of achievement.

To ensure tangible long-term value creation and a continuing integration of our sustainability strategy, we place particular emphasis on:

a governance model based on transparency and integrity, fostering best practices;
a safe and eco-friendly working environment including excellent working conditions and the utmost respect for human rights;
continuing professional development of our employees;
mutually beneficial relationships with business partners and the communities in which we operate;
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mitigation of environmental impacts from our production processes and the luxury cars we produce, addressing direct and indirect GHG emissions, focusing on energy and materials, in addition to our electrification journey.
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Risk Factors
We face a variety of risks and uncertainties in our business. Those described below are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe to be immaterial, may also become important factors that affect us.
Risks Related to Our Business, Strategy and Operations
We may not succeed in preserving and enhancing the value of the Ferrari brand, which we depend upon to drive demand and revenues.

Our financial performance is influenced by the perception and recognition of the Ferrari brand, which, in turn, depends on many factors such as the design, performance, quality and image of our cars, the appeal of our dealerships and stores, the success of our promotional activities including public relations and marketing, as well as our general profile, including our brand’s image of exclusivity. The value of our brand and our ability to achieve premium pricing for Ferrari-branded products may decline if we are unable to maintain the value and image of the Ferrari brand, including, in particular, its aura of exclusivity. Maintaining the value of our brand will depend significantly on our ability to continue to produce luxury performance cars of the highest quality. The market for luxury goods generally and for luxury automobiles in particular is intensely competitive, and we may not be successful in maintaining and strengthening the appeal of our brand. Client preferences, particularly among luxury goods, can vary over time, sometimes rapidly. We are therefore exposed to changing perceptions of our brand image, particularly as we seek to attract new generations of clients and, to that end, we continuously renovate and expand the range of our models. For example, the gradual expansion of hybrid engine technology (already integrated in past models such as the LaFerrari and the LaFerrari Aperta, as well as in the more recent 296 GTB, 296 GTS, SF90 Stradale and SF90 Spider) and electric engine technology will introduce a notable change in the overall driver experience compared to the combustion engine cars of our historical models. Any failure to preserve and enhance the value of our brand may materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our cars, to maintain premium pricing, and to extend the value of our brand into other activities profitably or at all.

We selectively license the Ferrari brand to third parties that produce and sell Ferrari-branded luxury goods and therefore we rely on our licensing partners to preserve and enhance the value of our brand. If our licensees or the manufacturers of these products do not maintain the standards of quality and exclusivity that we believe are consistent with the Ferrari brand, or if such licensees or manufacturers otherwise misuse the Ferrari brand, our reputation and the integrity and value of our brand may be damaged and our business, operating results and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. More broadly, our Lifestyle Strategy will significantly increase the deployment of our brand in non-car products and experiences, including a large variety of Ferrari-branded accessories and apparel. If this strategy is not successful, our brand image may be diluted or tainted.

Our brand image depends in part on the success of our Formula 1 racing team.
The prestige, identity, and appeal of the Ferrari brand depends in part on the continued success of the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in the Formula 1 World Championship. The racing team is a key component of our marketing strategy and may be perceived by our clients as a demonstration of the technological capabilities of our cars, which also support the appeal of other Ferrari-branded luxury goods. We are focused on improving our racing results and restoring our historical position as the premier racing team particularly in Formula 1 as our most recent Drivers’ Championship and Constructors’ Championship were in 2007 and 2008, respectively. If we are unable to attract and retain the necessary talent to succeed in international competitions or devote the capital necessary to fund successful racing activities, the value of the Ferrari brand and the appeal of our cars and other luxury goods may suffer. Even if we are able to attract such talent and adequately fund our racing activities, there is no assurance that this will lead to competitive success for our racing team.
The success of our racing team depends in particular on our ability to attract and retain top drivers, racing team management and engineering talent. Our primary Formula 1 drivers, team managers and other key employees of Scuderia Ferrari are critical to the success of our racing team and if we were to lose their services, this could have a material adverse effect on the success of our racing team and correspondingly the Ferrari brand. If we are unable to find adequate replacements or to attract, retain and incentivize drivers and team managers, other key employees or new qualified personnel, the success of our racing team may suffer. As the success of our racing team forms a large part of our brand identity, a sustained period without racing success could detract from the Ferrari brand and, as a result, from potential clients’
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enthusiasm for the Ferrari brand and their perception of our cars, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we are unable to keep up with advances in high performance car technology, our brand and competitive position may suffer.

Performance cars are characterized by leading-edge technology that is constantly evolving. In particular, advances in racing technology often lead to improved technology in road cars. Although we invest heavily in research and development, we may be unable to maintain our leading position in high performance car technology and, as a result, our competitive position may suffer. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our cars and introduce new models in order to continue to provide cars with the latest technology. However, our cars may not compete effectively with our competitors’ cars if we are not able to develop, source and integrate the latest technology into our cars. For example, in the next few years luxury performance cars will increasingly transition to hybrid and electric technology, albeit at a slower pace compared to mass market vehicles. See “The introduction of electric technology in our cars is costly and its long-term success is uncertain”. We are also increasingly investing in connectivity, which requires significant investments in research and development; we expect that the future generation of cars will feature a high degree of connectivity for purposes of infotainment, safety and regulatory compliance.

Developing and applying new automotive technologies is costly, and may become even more costly in the future as available technology advances and competition in the industry increases. If our research and development efforts do not lead to improvements in car performance relative to the competition, or if we are required to spend more to achieve comparable results, the sales of our cars or our profitability may suffer.

The introduction of electric technology in our cars is costly and its long-term success is uncertain.

We are gradually introducing electric technology in our cars and we currently plan to introduce the first full electric Ferrari in 2025. In accordance with our strategy, we believe electric technology, together with hybrid and other advanced technologies, will be key to providing continuing performance upgrades to our sports car customers, and will also help us capture the preferences of the urban, affluent car purchasers whom we are increasingly targeting, while helping us meet increasingly stricter emissions requirements.

The integration of electric technology more broadly into our car portfolio over time may present challenges and costs. We expect to continue to increase research and development spending in the medium term, particularly on electric technology-related projects. Although we expect to price our cars appropriately to recoup the investments and expenditures we are making, we cannot be certain that these expenditures will be fully recovered. In addition, this transformation of our car technology creates risks and uncertainties such as the impact on driver experience and the impact on the cars’ residual value over time, both of which may be met with an unfavorable market reaction. Other manufacturers of luxury sports cars may be more successful in implementing electric technology. In the long-term, although we believe that combustion engines will continue to be fundamental to the Ferrari driver experience, hybrid and pure electric cars may become the prevalent technology for performance sports cars thereby displacing combustion engine models. See also “If we are unable to keep up with advances in high performance car technology, our brand and competitive position may suffer.”

Because electric technology is a core component of our strategy, and in the medium term we plan to increase the portion of our shipments that feature vehicles with electric technology, if the introduction of electric cars proves too costly or is unsuccessful in the market, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

If our cars do not perform as expected our ability to develop, market and sell our cars could be harmed.

Our cars may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the cars prior to their sale to consumers. Our cars may not perform in line with our clients’ evolving expectations or in a manner that equals or exceeds the performance characteristics of other cars currently available. For example, our newer cars may not have the durability or longevity of current cars, and may not be as easy to repair as other cars currently on the market. Any product defects or any other failure of our performance cars to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, harm to our brand and reputation, and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

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New or changing laws, regulations or policies of governmental organizations regarding, among other things, increased fuel economy requirements, reduced greenhouse gas or pollutant emissions, or vehicle safety, may have a significant effect on our costs of operation and/or how we do business.
We are subject throughout the world to comprehensive and constantly evolving laws, regulations and policies. We expect the extent of the legal and regulatory requirements affecting our business and our costs of compliance to continue to increase significantly in the future. In Europe and the United States, for example, significant governmental regulation is driven by environmental, fuel economy, vehicle safety and noise emission concerns. Evolving regulatory requirements could significantly affect our product development plans and may limit the number and types of cars we sell and where we sell them, which may affect our revenue and profitability. Governmental regulations may increase the costs we incur to design, develop and produce our cars and may affect our product portfolio. Regulation may also result in a change in the character or performance characteristics of our cars, which may render them less appealing to our clients. We anticipate that the number and extent of these regulations, and their effect on our cost structure and product line-up, will increase significantly in the future.

In the United States, considerable uncertainty is associated with emissions regulations in light of changing policies under the past and newly appointed administration. New regulations are in the process of being developed, and many existing and potential regulatory initiatives are subject to review by federal or state agencies or the courts. In addition, we are subject to legislation relating to the emission of other air pollutants such as, among others, the EU “Euro 6” standards and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards, the “Tier 3” Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), and the Zero Emission Vehicle regulation in California, which are subject to similar derogations for Small Volume Manufacturers (“SVMs”). We lost our status as an SVM for the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) in 2019, because our global production exceeded 10,000 vehicles, but we have not lost our SVM status for EU CO2 regulations or for EPA GHG regulations in the United States. In 2021 and 2022, our global production exceeded 10,000 vehicles again and therefore we were no longer considered a SVM by the NHTSA for the model years 2021 and 2022. We purchased the fuel economy (“CAFE”) credits needed to fulfill both our 2021 and 2022 deficits, and we expect to adopt the same approach in the coming years if required. We could lose our status as an SVM in the EU, the United States and other countries if we do not continue to meet all of the necessary eligibility criteria under applicable regulations as they evolve, not only in relation to volumes but also in relation to the conditions of operational independence. In order to meet these criteria we may need to modify our growth plans or other operations. Furthermore, even if we continue to benefit from derogations as an SVM, we may be subject to alternative standards that the regulators may deem appropriate for our technical and economic capabilities and such alternative standards may be significantly more stringent than those currently applicable to us.

As the state of California has been granted special authority under the Clean Air Act to set its own vehicle emission standards, the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) enacted regulations under which manufacturers of vehicles for certain model years that are in compliance with the EPA greenhouse gas emissions regulations are also deemed to be in compliance with California’s greenhouse gas emission regulations (the so-called “deemed to comply” provision). These regulations have evolved over time. In 2018, the CARB amended its existing regulations to clarify that the “deemed to comply” provision would not be available for certain model years if the EPA standards for those years were altered via an amendment of federal regulations and, in 2019, EPA announced a decision to withdraw California’s waiver of preemption under the Clean Air Act. In this decision, the EPA also affirmed the NHTSA’s authority to set nationally applicable regulatory standards under the preemption provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). On March 9, 2022, the EPA rescinded its withdrawal of the waiver for California’s light-duty vehicle GHG and zero emission vehicle (ZEV) standards. California and Section 177 states may again enforce those standards. Subsequently, CARB clarified that the compliance with CARB’s GHG regulations is expected from model year 2021 for all manufacturers. Ferrari meets the requirements to be classified as an SVM based on the relevant regulations in the state of California. CARB is still considering how to address small volume manufacturers standards under its regulations. Therefore, depending on future developments, it may be necessary to also petition the CARB for SVM alternative standards and to increase the number of tests to be performed in order to follow the CARB specific procedures.

In relation to the safety legislation framework, in 2016, the NHTSA published guidelines for driver distraction. In addition, pursuant to the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act of 2021, the NHTSA has to conduct research and report to Congress within 2024 on the potential for technology interventions to reduce driver distraction, driver disengagement, automation complacency, and foreseeable misuse of Advanced Driving Assistant Systems (“ADAS”) by drivers. The costs of compliance associated with these and similar rulemaking may be substantial.

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Other governments around the world, such as those in Canada, South Korea, China and certain Middle Eastern countries, are also creating new policies to address these issues which could be even more stringent than the U.S. or European requirements. As in the United States and Europe, these government policies if applied to us could significantly affect our product development plans. Under these existing regulations, as well as new or stricter rules or policies, we could be subject to sizable civil penalties or have to restrict or modify product offerings drastically to remain in compliance. We may have to incur substantial capital expenditures and research and development expenditures to upgrade products and manufacturing facilities, which would have an impact on our cost of production and results of operation.

In the future, the advent of self-driving technology may result in regulatory changes that we cannot predict but may include limitations or bans on human driving in specific areas. In 2020 the European Commission issued its new digital strategy policies, which represent a priority in the European Commission’s regulatory agenda. Although no regulations have been issued in this regard, the European Commission has showed a determination to strengthen Europe’s digital sovereignty and role as a standard setter, with a clear focus on data, technology, and infrastructure.

Similarly, driving bans on combustion engine vehicles could be imposed, particularly in metropolitan areas, as a result of progress in electric and hybrid technology. Several others regulations are also emerging to take into account the non-exhaust emissions such as brake particulate emissions and the environmental impact of the electric and hybrid vehicles components, with a particular focus on batteries and waste batteries.

To comply with current and future environmental rules in all markets in which we sell our cars, we may have to incur substantial capital expenditure and research and development expenditure to upgrade products and manufacturing facilities, which would have an impact on our cost of production and results of operations.

For a description of the regulations referred to in the paragraphs above please see “Overview of Our Business—Regulatory Matters”.

If our car designs do not appeal to clients, our brand and competitive position may suffer.

Design and styling are an integral component of our models and our brand. Our cars have historically been characterized by distinctive designs combining the aerodynamics of a sports car with powerful, elegant lines. We believe our clients purchase our cars for their appearance as well as their performance. However, we will need to renew over time the style of our cars to differentiate the new models we produce from older models, and to reflect the broader evolution of aesthetics in our markets. We devote great efforts to the design of our cars and most of our current models are designed by the Ferrari Design Centre, our in-house design team. The design of our electric cars and, more generally, of our future models with increased connectivity features will depart from past designs in appearance and functionality, thereby requiring new skills and presenting new challenges. If the design of our future models fails to meet the evolving tastes and preferences of our clients and prospective clients, or the appreciation of the wider public, our brand may suffer and our sales may be adversely affected.

We depend on our suppliers, many of which are single source suppliers; and if these suppliers fail to deliver necessary raw materials, components, parts, systems, services or infrastructure of appropriate quality in a timely manner, our operations may be disrupted.

Our business depends on a significant number of suppliers, which provide the raw materials, components, parts, systems, services and infrastructure we require to manufacture cars and parts and to operate our business. We use a variety of raw materials in our business, including aluminum, and precious metals such as palladium and rhodium. We source materials from a limited number of suppliers. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain access to these raw materials, and in some cases this access may be affected by factors outside of our control and the control of our suppliers. In addition, prices for these raw materials fluctuate and while we seek to manage this exposure, we may not be successful in mitigating these risks.

As with raw materials, we are also at risk of supply disruption and shortages in parts and components we purchase for use in our cars. We source a variety of key components from third parties, including transmissions, brakes, driving-safety systems, navigation systems, mechanical, electrical and electronic parts, plastic components as well as castings and tires, which makes us dependent upon the suppliers of such components. In coming years, we will also require a greater number of components for hybrid and electric engines as we introduce hybrid and electric technology in our cars, and we expect producers of these components will be called upon to increase the levels of supply as the shift to hybrid or electric technology
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gathers pace in the industry. While we obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other small volume car manufacturers, most of the key components we use in our cars are purchased by us from single source suppliers. We generally do not qualify alternative sources for most of the single-sourced components we use in our cars and we do not maintain long-term agreements with a number of our suppliers. Furthermore, we have limited ability to monitor the financial stability of our suppliers.

While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain or engineer replacement components for our single-sourced components, we may be unable to do so in the short term, or at all, at prices or costs that we believe are reasonable. Qualifying alternate suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of our cars may be time consuming, costly and may force us to make costly modifications to the designs of our cars. For example, defective airbags manufactured by Takata Corporation (“Takata”), our former principal supplier of airbags, have led to widespread recalls by several automotive manufacturers starting in 2015, including us (see also “Overview of Oyr Business—Regulatory Matters—Vehicle safety”). Following the acquisition of Takata by Key Safety Systems (“KSS”) in April 2018, Joyson Safety Systems, which is the combined company of Takata and KSS following the acquisition, is our principal supplier of the airbags installed in our cars. Failure by Joyson Safety Systems to continue the supply of airbags may cause significant disruption to our operations.

In the past, we have replaced certain suppliers because they failed to provide components that met our quality control standards. The loss of any single or limited source supplier or the disruption in the supply of components from these suppliers could lead to delays in car deliveries to our clients, which could adversely affect our relationships with our clients and also materially and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. The supply of raw materials, parts and components may also be disrupted or interrupted by natural disasters, or by unexpected fluctuations in market demand and supply, such as the ongoing global shortage of semiconductors that started in 2021, which is impacting the automotive industry in particular. If any major disasters occur, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, wars, terrorist attacks, pandemics or other events, our supply chain may be disrupted, which may stop or delay production and shipment of our cars. The ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the recognition by Russia of the independence of the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk, in the Donbas region of Ukraine and the resulting geopolitical tensions have had a significant impact on the global economy resulting in a sharp increase in energy prices and higher prices for certain raw materials and goods and services, which in turn is contributing to higher inflation globally. The Russian/Ukrainian conflict has continued to escalate without a resolution expected in the near future, with the short and long-term impact on financial and business conditions in Europe remaining highly uncertain. Many governments around the world, including those of the United States, the European Union and Japan, have announced the imposition of sanctions on certain industry sectors and parties in Russia and the regions of Donetsk and Luhansk, as well as enhanced export controls on certain industries and products, including luxury goods, and the exclusion of certain Russian financial institutions from the SWIFT system. On March 11, 2022, the President of the United States issued an executive order prohibiting exports to Russia of luxury goods (including luxury transportation items such as automobiles and racing cars). Shortly thereafter, on March 15, 2022, the Council of the European Union imposed new sanctions on Russia prohibiting the export of luxury goods having a value in excess of €300 per item. These and any additional sanctions and export controls, as well as any counterresponses by the governments of Russia or other jurisdictions, could adversely affect, directly or indirectly, our supply chain, with negative implications on the availability and prices of raw materials, and our customers, as well as the global financial markets and financial services industry. See also “We are subject to risks related to pandemics or public health crises, including COVID-19, that may materially and adversely affect our business” for a discussion of the COVID-19 pandemic and potential other widespread public health crises, which may affect our supply chain directly or indirectly.

Changes in our supply chain have in the past resulted and may in the future result in increased costs and delays in car production. We have also experienced cost increases from certain suppliers in order to meet our quality targets and development timelines and because of design changes that we have made, and we may experience similar cost increases in the future. We are negotiating with existing suppliers for cost reductions, seeking new and less expensive suppliers for certain parts, and attempting to redesign certain parts to make them less expensive to produce. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts to control and reduce supplier costs while maintaining a stable source of high quality supplies, our operating results will suffer. Additionally, cost reduction efforts may disrupt our normal production processes, thereby harming the quality or volume of our production.

Furthermore, if our suppliers fail to provide components in a timely manner or at the level of quality necessary to manufacture our cars, our clients may face longer waiting periods which could result in negative publicity, harm our reputation and relationship with clients and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
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Our controlled growth strategy exposes us to risks.

Our growth strategy includes a controlled expansion of our sales and operations, including the launching of new car models and expanding sales, as well as dealer operations and workshops, in targeted growth regions internationally. In particular, our growth strategy includes the opportunity for us to expand operations in regions and markets that we have identified as having relatively high growth potential. We may encounter difficulties in entering and establishing ourselves in these markets, including in establishing new successful dealership networks and facing more significant competition from competitors that are already present in those regions.

Our growth depends on the continued success of our existing cars, as well as the successful introduction of new cars. Our ability to create new cars and to sustain existing car models is affected by whether we can successfully anticipate and respond to consumer preferences and car trends. The failure to develop successful new cars or delays in their launch that could result in others bringing new products and leading-edge technologies to the market first, could compromise our competitive position and hinder the growth of our business. As part of our growth strategy, we broadened the range of our models to capture additional customer demand for different types of vehicles and modes of utilization. In 2022, with the launch of the Purosangue and the 296 GTS, we met our previously announced objective of introducing 15 new models by 2022 (as announced at our Capital Markets Day in September 2018), which is unprecedented for Ferrari over a similar time frame. At our Capital Markets Day in June 2022, we announced our plan to introduce 15 new models over the period from 2023 to 2026. In addition, we will gradually but rapidly expand the use of hybrid and electric technology in our road cars, consistent with customer preferences and broader industry trends. While we will seek to ensure that these changes remain fully consistent with the Ferrari car identity, we cannot be certain that they will prove profitable and commercially successful.

Our controlled growth strategy may expose us to new business risks that we may not have the expertise, capability or the systems to manage. This strategy will also place significant demands on us by requiring us to continuously evolve and improve our operational, financial and internal controls. Continued expansion also increases the challenges involved in maintaining high levels of quality, management and client satisfaction, recruiting, training and retaining sufficiently skilled management, technical and marketing personnel. If we are unable to manage these risks or meet these demands, our growth prospects and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We continuously improve our international network footprint and skill set. We also plan to open additional retail stores in international markets. We do not yet have significant experience directly operating in many of these markets, and in many of them we face established competitors. Many of these countries have different operational characteristics, including but not limited to employment and labor, transportation, logistics, real estate, environmental regulations and local reporting or legal requirements.

Consumer demand and behavior, as well as tastes and purchasing trends may differ in these markets, and as a result, sales of our products may not be successful, or the margins on those sales may not be in line with those we currently anticipate. Furthermore, such markets will have upfront short-term investment costs that may not be accompanied by sufficient revenues to achieve typical or expected operational and financial performance and therefore may be dilutive to us in the short-term. In many of these countries, there is significant competition to attract and retain experienced and talented employees.
Consequently, if our international expansion plans are unsuccessful, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Our low volume strategy may limit potential profits, and if volumes increase our brand exclusivity may be eroded.

A key to the appeal of the Ferrari brand and our marketing strategy is the aura of exclusivity and the sense of luxury which our brand conveys. A central facet to this exclusivity is the limited number of models and cars we produce and our strategy of maintaining our car waiting lists to reach the optimal combination of exclusivity and client service. Our low volume strategy is also an important factor in the prices that our clients are willing to pay for our cars. This focus on maintaining exclusivity limits our potential sales growth and profits compared to manufacturers less reliant on the exclusivity of their products.

On the other hand, our current growth strategy contemplates a measured but significant increase in car sales above current levels as we target a larger customer base and modes of use, we increase our focus on reaching a younger customer base and creating new Ferrari collectors, and our product portfolio evolves with a broader product range. We sold 13,221 cars
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in 2022 compared to 7,255 cars in 2014, the year before our initial public offering, and sales are expected to continue to increase gradually.

In pursuit of our strategy, we may be unable to maintain the exclusivity of the Ferrari brand. If we are unable to balance brand exclusivity with increased production, we may erode the desirability and ultimately the consumer demand or relative pricing for our cars. As a result, if we are unable to increase car production meaningfully or introduce new car models without eroding the image of exclusivity in our brand we may be unable to significantly increase our revenues.

The small number of car models we produce and sell may result in greater volatility in our financial results.

We depend on the sales of a small number of car models to generate our revenues. Our current product portfolio consists of ten Range models, two Special Series models and one strictly limited edition Icona model. In 2022, with the launch of the Purosangue and the 296 GTS, we met our previously announced objective of introducing 15 new models by 2022 (as announced at our Capital Markets Day in September 2018), which is unprecedented for Ferrari over a similar time frame. At our Capital Markets Day in June 2022, we announced our plan to introduce 15 new models over the period from 2023 to 2026. Despite our expanded offering, a limited number of models will continue to account for a large portion of our revenues at any given time in the foreseeable future, compared to other automakers. Therefore, a single unsuccessful new model would harm us more than it would other automakers. There can be no assurance that our cars will continue to be successful in the market, or that we will be able to launch new models on a timely basis compared to our competitors. It generally takes several years from the beginning of the development phase to the start of production for a new model and the car development process is capital intensive. As a result, we would likely be unable to replace quickly the revenue lost from one of our main car models if it does not achieve market acceptance. Furthermore, our revenues and profits may also be affected by our Special Series and limited edition models (including the Icona limited editions) that we launch from time to time and which are typically priced higher than our range models. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in developing, producing and marketing additional new cars (including our Special Series and limited edition models) to sustain sales growth in the future.

We are subject to risks related to pandemics or public health crises, including COVID-19, that may materially and adversely affect our business.
Public health crises such as pandemics or similar outbreaks could adversely impact our business. Over the last three years the global spread of COVID-19, including variants thereof, led to governments around the world mandating increasingly restrictive measures to contain the pandemic, including social distancing, quarantine, “shelter in place” or similar orders, travel restrictions and suspension of non-essential business activities. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption to the global economy, including changes in consumer spending and behavior, disruption to supply chains and financial markets, as well as restrictions on business and individual activities, leading to a global economic slowdown and a severe recession in several of the markets in which we operate, which may reverberate after all restrictions are lifted.

From mid-March to early May 2020, we temporarily suspended production at our plants in Maranello and Modena, while implementing remote working arrangements for all non-manufacturing related activities. We were able to return to full production in May 2020. We generally realize minimal revenue while our facilities are shut down, but we continue to incur expenses. Moreover, the negative cash impact is exacerbated by the fact that, despite not selling cars, we have to continue to pay suppliers for components previously ordered. We continue to take certain preventative measures to combat the spread of COVID-19 at our facilities, including the provision of personal protective equipment and guidelines to ensure safe working arrangements and avoid large gatherings, although certain measures were suspended from December 2022 based on an overall improvement in the management of the pandemic and in line with government regulations. Should the conditions relating to COVID-19 adversely change, we may have to re-implement certain measures that were suspended or implement additional measures as required. Additionally, remote work continues to be available for those employees whose job activity is compatible with such work arrangements.

Despite delays in shipments of cars from March 2020 to May 2020 in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic and related government measures, since May 2020 substantially all Ferrari dealerships have remained operational and order collections continued, with the exception of additional closures at certain dealerships in China during 2022 due to COVID-19-related restrictions. These restrictions did not have a significant impact on our business and expected deliveries were made as planned once restrictions were lifted. For further information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our results of operations and liquidity, see “Financial Overview”. Although COVID-19-related restrictions have been lifted or relaxed across most of the markets where we operate, certain restrictions have remained in place or been reimplemented in
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some instances and our businesses may continue to experience impacts from a resurgence of COVID-19 or other widespread public health crises, such as incremental health and safety measures and related increased expenses, capacity restrictions and closures, with a potential adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We may yet experience a new shutdown or slowdown of all or part of our manufacturing facilities, including in the event that our employees are diagnosed with COVID-19 or our supply chains are disrupted. Our suppliers, customers, dealers, franchisees and other contractual counterparties may be restricted or prevented from conducting business activities for indefinite or intermittent periods of time, including as a result of safety concerns, shutdowns, slowdowns, illness of such parties’ workforce and other actions and restrictions requested or mandated by governmental authorities. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic or other widespread public health crises may lead to financial distress for our suppliers or dealers, as a result of which they may have to permanently discontinue or substantially reduce their operations. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic or other widespread public health crises may lead to higher working capital needs, reduced liquidity and certain limitations in the supply of credit, which may ultimately lead to higher costs of capital for Ferrari. Any of the foregoing could limit customer demand or our capacity to meet customer demand and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our brand activities across different jurisdictions have also been, and may continue to be, adversely impacted, due to the temporary closure of the Ferrari stores, museums and theme parks in the first quarter of 2020 to comply with government orders, with an adverse impact on our revenues originating from such activities. Although Ferrari stores gradually reopened starting in May 2020, to date in-store traffic has not yet fully recovered to pre-pandemic levels and Ferrari stores, museums and theme parks may continue to be subject to certain restrictions as a result of local regulations, although overall brand activities increased in 2021 compared to 2020. The increase in brand activities continued in 2022 compared to 2021.

The Formula 1 2022 World Championship was not significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, in contrast with the previous two seasons (although the 2022 Russian Grand Prix was cancelled due to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which reduced the races in the 2022 Formula 1 season from 23 to 22). With respect to the Formula 1 2023 World Championship, as of the date of this Annual Report, the Chinese Grand Prix was cancelled due to COVID-19, and the current expectation is that the season will include a total of 23 or 24 races.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or other widespread public health crises on Ferrari’s results of operations and financial condition will depend largely on future events outside of our control, including ongoing developments in the pandemic or other widespread public health crises, the success of containment measures, vaccination campaigns and other actions taken by governments around the world, as well as the overall condition and outlook of the global economy. While we are continuing to monitor and assess the evolution of the pandemic or other widespread public health crises and its effects on both the macroeconomic scenario and our financial position and results of operations, significant uncertainty remains around the length and extent of the restrictions in the markets in which we operate. However, the effects on our business, results of operations, financial performance and cash flows may be material and adverse.

The COVID-19 pandemic or other widespread public health crises may also exacerbate other risks disclosed in this section, including, but not limited to, our competitiveness, demand for our products, shifting consumer preferences, exchange rate fluctuations, customers’ and dealers’ access to affordable financing, and credit market conditions affecting the availability of capital and financial resources.

Please refer to “Financial Overview” for additional information relating to how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted our results of operations and financial condition.

Global economic conditions, pandemics and macro events may adversely affect us.

Our sales volumes and revenues may be affected by overall general economic conditions within the various countries in which we operate. Deteriorating general economic conditions may affect disposable incomes and reduce consumer wealth impacting client demand, particularly for luxury goods, which may negatively impact our profitability and put downward pressure on our prices and volumes. Furthermore, during recessionary periods, social acceptability of luxury purchases may decrease and higher taxes may be more likely to be imposed on certain luxury goods including our cars, which may affect our sales. Adverse economic conditions may also affect the financial health and performance of our dealers in a manner that will affect sales of our cars or their ability to meet their commitments to us.

The luxury performance car market is generally affected by global macroeconomic conditions and many factors affect the level of consumer spending in the luxury performance car industry, including the state of the economy as a whole,
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stock market performance, interest and exchange rates, inflation, political uncertainty, the availability of consumer credit, tax rates, unemployment levels and other matters that influence consumer confidence. In general, although our sales have historically been comparatively resilient in periods of economic turmoil, sales of luxury goods tend to decline during recessionary periods when the level of disposable income tends to be lower or when consumer confidence is low. Global economic growth slowed sharply in 2022 and is expected to stall or contract in the upcoming months. As a consequence, consumers’ confidence is generally showing signs of deterioration. In addition, significant inflationary pressures appeared in 2021 in many of the markets in which we operate and this trend was exacerbated in 2022. Inflation has led and may further lead to increases in the costs we incur for raw materials, utilities or services, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations if we are not able to pass on the increased costs to our customers or successfully implement other mitigating actions. Furthermore, following the recent rise in inflation, several main central banks raised interest rates rapidly over the course of 2022 and further increases may be implemented in the coming months, which will in turn increase the cost of borrowing as well as the market rates for new car financing. Such increases could impact our ability to obtain affordable financing or could make our cars less affordable to clients, which could cause consumers to delay the purchase of our cars or to purchase less expensive cars.

We are also susceptible to risks relating to epidemics and pandemics of diseases. See “We are subject to risks related to pandemics or public health crises, including COVID-19, that may materially and adversely affect our business”.

We distribute our products internationally and we may be affected by downturns in general economic conditions or uncertainties regarding future economic prospects that may impact the countries in which we sell a significant portion of our products. In particular, the majority of our current sales are in the EU and in the United States; if we are unable to expand in other growth markets, a downturn in mature economies such as the EU and the United States may negatively affect our financial performance. In addition, uncertainties regarding future trade arrangements and industrial policies in various countries or regions create additional macroeconomic risk. In the United States, any policy to discourage import into the United States of vehicles produced elsewhere could adversely affect our operations. Any new policies may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In general, the banking, economic and monetary crisis, as well as the escalating energy prices triggered by the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, as well as conflicts elsewhere in the world, may reduce customers’ interest for, and financial ability to buy, luxury products. Although Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan only represented approximately 12 percent of our net revenues in 2022 and is expected to represent a limited proportion of our growth in the short term, slowing economic conditions in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan may adversely affect our revenues in that region. A significant decline in the EU, the global economy or in the specific economies of our markets, or in consumers’ confidence, could have a material adverse effect on our business. See also “Developments in China and other growth markets may adversely affect our business”.

Additionally, sanctions and export controls which could be introduced as a result of geopolitical tensions and conflicts could adversely affect, directly or indirectly, our supply chain and customers, as well as the global financial markets and financial services industry. See also “We depend on our suppliers, many of which are single source suppliers; and if these suppliers fail to deliver necessary raw materials, systems, components and parts of appropriate quality in a timely manner, our operations may be disrupted”.

The value of our brand depends in part on the automobile collector and enthusiast community.
An important factor in the connection of clients to the Ferrari brand is our strong relationship with the global community of automotive collectors and enthusiasts, particularly collectors and enthusiasts of Ferrari automobiles. This is influenced by our close ties to the automotive collectors’ community and our support of related events (such as car shows and driving events) at our headquarters in Maranello and through our dealers, the Ferrari museums and affiliations with regional Ferrari clubs. The support of this community also depends upon the perception of our cars as collectibles, which we also support through our Ferrari Classiche services, and the active resale market for our automobiles which encourages interest over the long-term. The increase in the number of cars we produce relative to the number of automotive collectors and purchasers in the secondary market may adversely affect our cars’ value as collectible items and in the secondary market more broadly.

If there is a change in collector appetite or damage to the Ferrari brand, our ties to, and the support we receive from, this community may be diminished. Such a loss of enthusiasm for our cars from the automotive collectors’ community could harm the perception of the Ferrari brand and adversely impact our sales and profitability.

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We face competition in the luxury performance car industry.

We face competition in all product categories and markets in which we operate. We compete with other international luxury performance car manufacturers which own and operate well-known brands of high-quality cars, some of which form part of larger automotive groups and may have greater financial resources and bargaining power with suppliers than we do, particularly in light of our policy to maintain low volumes in order to preserve and enhance the exclusivity of our cars. In addition, several other manufacturers have recently entered or are attempting to enter the upper end of the luxury performance car market, including with advanced electric technology, thereby increasing competition. We believe that we compete primarily on the basis of our brand image, the performance and design of our cars, our reputation for quality and the driving experience for our customers. If we are unable to compete successfully, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our business is subject to changes in client preferences and trends in the automotive and luxury industries.

Our continued success depends in part on our ability to originate and define products and trends in the automotive and luxury industries, as well as to anticipate and respond promptly to changing consumer demands and automotive trends in the design, styling, technology, production, merchandising and pricing of our products. Our products must appeal to a client base whose preferences cannot be predicted with certainty and are subject to rapid change. Evaluating and responding to client preferences has become even more complex in recent years, due to our expansion in new geographical markets. The introduction of hybrid and electric technology and the associated changes in customer preferences that may follow are also a challenge we will face in future periods. See also “If we are unable to keep up with advances in high performance car technology, our brand and competitive position may suffer” and “The introduction of electric technology in our cars is costly and its long-term success is uncertain”. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will be able to produce, distribute and market new products efficiently or that any product category that we may expand or introduce will achieve sales levels sufficient to generate profits. We encounter this risk, for example, as we introduce the Purosangue, a luxury high performance four seat, four door Ferrari that we launched in 2022 with deliveries expected to start in 2023. Furthermore this risk is particularly pronounced as we expand in accordance with our strategy into adjacent segments of the luxury industry, where we do not have a level of experience and market presence comparable to the one we have in the automotive industry. Any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Demand for luxury goods, including luxury performance cars, is volatile, which may adversely affect our operating results.

Volatility of demand for luxury goods, in particular luxury performance cars, may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. The market in which we sell our cars is subject to volatility in demand. Demand for luxury automobiles depends to a large extent on general, economic, political and social conditions in a given market as well as the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. Global economic growth slowed sharply in 2022 and may stall or further contract in the upcoming months. As a luxury performance car manufacturer and low volume producer, we compete with larger automobile manufacturers many of which have greater financial resources in order to withstand changes in the market and disruptions in demand. Demand for our cars may also be affected by factors directly impacting the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as the availability and cost of financing, prices of raw materials and parts and components, fuel costs and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes, including taxes on luxury goods, resulting in limitations to the use of high performance sports cars or luxury goods more generally. Volatility in demand may lead to lower car unit sales, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. The impact of a luxury market downturn may be particularly pronounced for the most expensive among our car models, which generate a more than proportionate amount of our profits, therefore exacerbating the impact on our results. In addition, these effects may have a more pronounced impact on us given our low volume strategy and relatively smaller scale as compared to large global mass-market automobile manufacturers.

We depend on our manufacturing facilities in Maranello and Modena.

We assemble all of the cars that we sell and manufacture, and all of the engines we use in our cars and sell to Maserati, at our production facility in Maranello, Italy, where we also have our corporate headquarters. We manufacture all of our car chassis in a nearby facility in Modena, Italy. Our Maranello or Modena plants could become unavailable either permanently or temporarily for a number of reasons, including contamination, power shortage or labor unrest. Alternatively, changes in law and regulation, including export, tax and employment laws and regulations, or economic conditions, including wage inflation, could make it uneconomic for us to continue manufacturing our cars in Italy. In the event that we were unable
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to continue production at either of these facilities or it became uneconomic for us to continue to do so, we would need to seek alternative manufacturing arrangements which would take time and reduce our ability to produce sufficient cars to meet demand. Moving manufacturing to other locations may also affect the perception of our brand and car quality among our clients. Such a transfer would materially reduce our revenues and could require significant investment, which as a result could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Maranello and Modena are located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy which has the potential for seismic activity. For instance, in 2012 a major earthquake struck the region, causing production at our facilities to be temporarily suspended for one day. If major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, wars, terrorist attacks, pandemics or other events occur, our headquarters and production facilities may be seriously damaged, or we may stop or delay production and shipment of our cars. See also “We are subject to risks related to pandemics or public health crises, including COVID-19, that may materially and adversely affect our business” for a discussion of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such damage from disasters or unpredictable events could have a material adverse impact on our business, results from operations and financial condition.

We are subject to risks associated with climate change and other environmental impacts, as well as an increased focus of regulators and stakeholders on environmental matters.

Global climate change is resulting, and is expected to continue to result, in natural disasters and extreme weather, such as drought, wildfires, storms, sea-level rise, flooding, heat waves and cold waves, occurring more frequently or with greater intensity. Such extreme events are driving changes in market dynamics, stakeholder expectations, local, national and international climate change policies and regulations.

We are subject to climate-related risks where we conduct our business. Physical impacts of climate change, including natural disasters and adverse weather, could result in disruptions to us, our suppliers, vendors, customers and logistics hubs. These risks may also exacerbate other risks disclosed in this “Risk Factors” section, including but not limited to, our competitiveness, demand for our products, shifting consumer preferences, availability and price of raw materials, and concentration of our production activities in Maranello and Modena.

The global automotive industry in particular is currently experiencing significant developments due to an increased focus on climate change and evolving regulatory requirements relating to fuel efficiency, electrification and greenhouse gas emissions, among others. These evolving requirements and technological changes have caused us, and are expected to continue to cause us, to adapt and change certain aspects of our operations, our future plans and strategies and the allocation of our resources. Failure to effectively manage these aspects may result in increased costs, reputational risks, limits in our ability to manufacture or market certain of our products, or otherwise negatively impact our business, results of operations, profitability and competitive position.

Additionally, our stakeholders, including our customers, employees, suppliers and investors, are increasingly focused on environment, social and governance (“ESG”) matters. From time to time, in alignment with our sustainability strategy, we establish and publicly announce goals and commitments to improve our environmental performance and we have been taking deliberate actions to achieve carbon neutrality by 2030. There can be no assurance that our stakeholders will agree with our sustainability strategy or will be satisfied with our actions in relation to these matters. Additionally, if we fail (or are perceived to fail) to execute our sustainability strategy or achieve our environmental goals, if our sustainability strategy or environmental goals do not meet the expectations and standards of our stakeholders, or if we improperly report our progress in the execution of our sustainability strategy or the achievement of our environmental goals, our reputation could be negatively impacted, causing our customers, employees, suppliers and investors to lose confidence in us and our brand, which could negatively impact our business, access to capital or have an adverse effect on our revenues and profitability.

A disruption in our information technology, including as a result of cybercrimes, could compromise confidential and sensitive information.

We depend on our information technology and data processing systems to operate our business, and a significant malfunction or disruption in the operation of our systems, human error, interruption to power supply, or a security breach that compromises the confidential and sensitive information stored in those systems, could disrupt our business and adversely impact our ability to compete. Our ability to keep our business operating effectively depends on the functional and efficient operation by us and our third party service providers of our information, data processing and telecommunications systems,
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including our car design, manufacturing, inventory tracking and billing and payment systems. We rely on these systems to enable a number of business processes and help us make a variety of day-to-day business decisions as well as to track transactions, billings, payments and inventory. Such systems are susceptible to malfunctions and interruptions due to equipment damage, power outages, and a range of other hardware, software and network problems. Those systems are also susceptible to cybercrime, or threats of intentional disruption, which are increasing in terms of sophistication and frequency, especially considering that such cyber incidents may remain undetected for long periods of time. Additionally, a significant portion of our office personnel moved to a “remote work” model in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and full- or part-time remote work arrangements are now expected to continue in the future for part of our personnel. Remote work relies heavily on the use of remote networking and online conferencing services, which expose us to additional cybersecurity risks. For any of these reasons, we may experience system malfunctions or interruptions. Although our systems are diversified, including multiple server locations, several layers of cybersecurity countermeasures and controls, a range of software applications for different regions and functions, and we periodically assess and implement actions to reduce risks to our systems, a significant or large scale malfunction or interruption of our systems could adversely affect our ability to manage and keep our operations running efficiently, and damage our reputation if we are unable to track transactions and deliver products to our dealers and clients. A malfunction that results in a wider or sustained disruption to our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition to supporting our operations, we use our systems to collect and store confidential and sensitive data, including information about our business, our clients and our employees.

As our technology continues to evolve, we anticipate that we will collect and store even more data in the future, and that our systems will increasingly use remote communication features that are sensitive to both willful and unintentional security breaches. Much of our value is derived from our confidential business information, including car design, proprietary technology and trade secrets, and to the extent the confidentiality of such information is compromised, we may lose our competitive advantage and our car sales may suffer. We also collect, retain and use certain personal information, including data we gather from clients for product development and marketing purposes, and data we obtain from employees. Therefore we are subject to a variety of ever-changing data protection and privacy laws on a global basis, including the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

We expect that future generations of cars will feature an increasing degree of connectivity for purposes of infotainment, safety and regulatory compliance, and the increased demand for a “connected car” has led to increased digitization of car systems, the wide application of software, and the creation of new, fully digital mobility services. This technology is capable of transmitting and storing an increasing amount of personal information belonging to our customers. These new features may increase the cyber security risk of our cars. Any unauthorized access to in-vehicle IT systems may compromise the car security or the privacy of our customers’ information and expose us to claims as well as reputational damage. In addition, our third parties could also be subject to external cyber-attacks. Should the third party be connected to our system, the cyber attacker could potentially penetrate our IT systems. Although we prioritize cybersecurity on all of our cars and when processing personal data, any significant compromise in the integrity of our data security could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Cybersecurity is the object of increasing regulatory updates and we will be required to keep our internal systems updated to comply with the new rules that may come into force. For instance, pursuant to the UN-ECE regulations, we will be required to maintain over time, and to periodically renew, the Cyber Security Management System (“CSMS”) to register and sell our cars, as well as to demonstrate that we are able to deal with, and aware of, potential cyber risks, both for our cars and for our enterprise. Failure in maintaining the Cyber Security Management System Certification could result, for the countries where the regulations are applicable, in impossibility to homologate and sell new vehicles.

Our success depends largely on the ability of our current management team to operate and manage effectively.

Our success depends on the ability of our senior executives and other members of management to effectively manage our business as a whole and individual areas of the business. Most of our senior executives and employees, including many highly skilled engineers, technicians and artisans, are required to work from our offices and production facilities in and around Maranello, Italy. If we were to lose the services of any of these senior executives or key employees, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. We have developed incentive plans aimed at retaining and incentivizing our senior executives and employees, as well as management succession plans that we believe are appropriate in the circumstances, although it is difficult to predict with any certainty that we will replace these individuals with persons of equivalent experience and capabilities. If we are unable to find adequate replacements or to attract, retain and
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incentivize senior executives, other key employees or new qualified personnel, our business, results of operations and financial condition may suffer.

Our revenues from Formula 1 activities may decline and our related expenses may grow.

Revenues from our Formula 1 activities depend principally on the income from our sponsorship agreements and on our share of Formula 1 revenues from broadcasting and other sources. See “Overview of Our Business—Racing Activities—Formula 1 Activities.” If we are unable to renew our existing sponsorship agreements or if we enter into new or renewed sponsorship agreements with less favorable terms, our revenues would decline. In addition, our share of profits related to Formula 1 activities may decline if either our team’s performance worsens compared to other competing teams, or if the overall Formula 1 business suffers, including potentially as a result of increasing popularity of other racing events. Furthermore, in order to compete effectively on track we have been investing significant resources in research and development and to competitively compensate the best available drivers and other racing team members. These expenses also vary based on changes in Formula 1 regulations that require modification to our racing engines and cars. These expenses are expected to continue, and may grow further, including as a result of any changes in Formula 1 regulations, which would negatively affect our results of operations.

Compliance with the FIA Formula One regulations, which are periodically amended by the Formula One Commission and then approved by the FIA World Motorsport Council, requires significant changes to our racing cars, processes and operations. If we are unable to effectively adapt our cars to comply with changes in FIA Formula One regulations, our performance in races may suffer. These changes may result in adverse effects on our revenues and results of operations.

Starting from 2021, new FIA Formula One financial regulations have been introduced. These provide for a cap on spending for all chassis costs and expenses (excluding, among others, the activities to enable the supply of the current power units, marketing costs, drivers’ salaries and the top three personnel at each team). The budget cap for the 2022 Formula 1 season was approximately $146 million. A similar cap has now been introduced also for the development of the power units that will be used in the 2026 season and is applicable for spending starting in 2023. The aforementioned budget caps on spending are defined for each season based on several factors, including the number of races and inflation. The 2023 budget cap, which relates to the chassis as well as the power units to be used in 2026, is currently being defined. In October 2022, Ferrari received a certificate of compliance from the FIA Cost Cap Administration for 2021. The cap on expenses affects the amount of resources that we are allowed to allocate to Formula 1 activities, with potential adverse effects on our team’s performance if we are not able to optimize such resources.

We rely on our dealer network to provide sales and services.

We do not own our Ferrari dealers and virtually all of our sales are made through our network of dealerships located throughout the world. If our dealers are unable to provide sales or service quality that our clients expect or do not otherwise adequately project the Ferrari image and its aura of luxury and exclusivity, the Ferrari brand may be negatively affected. We depend on the quality of our dealership network and our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected if our dealers suffer financial difficulties or otherwise are unable to perform to our expectations. Furthermore, we may experience disagreements or disputes in the course of our relationship with our dealers or upon termination which may lead to financial costs, disruptions and reputational harm.

Our growth strategy also depends on our ability to attract a sufficient number of quality new dealers to sell our products in new areas. We may face competition from other luxury performance car manufacturers in attracting quality new dealers, based on, among other things, dealer margin, incentives and the performance of other dealers in the region. If we are unable to attract a sufficient number of new Ferrari dealers in targeted growth areas, our prospects could be materially adversely affected.

We are exposed to risks in connection with product warranties as well as the provision of services.

A number of our contractual and legal requirements oblige us to provide extensive warranties to our clients, dealers and national distributors. There is a risk that, relative to the guarantees and warranties granted, the calculated product prices and the provisions for our guarantee and warranty risks have been set or will in the future be set too low. There is also a risk that we will be required to extend the guarantee or warranty originally granted in certain markets for legal reasons, or provide
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services as a courtesy or for reasons of reputation where we are not legally obliged to do so, and for which we will generally not be able to recover from suppliers or insurers.

Car recalls may be costly and may harm our reputation.

We have in the past and we may from time to time in the future be required to recall our products to address performance, compliance or safety-related issues. We may incur costs for these recalls, including replacement parts and labor to remove and replace the defective parts. In addition, regulatory oversight of recalls, particularly in the vehicle safety, has increased recently. Any product recalls can harm our reputation with clients, particularly if consumers call into question the safety, reliability or performance of our cars. Any such recalls could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product liability claims and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. The automobile industry experiences significant product liability claims and we have inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our cars do not perform as expected or malfunction resulting in personal injury or death. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our cars and business, adversely affecting our reputation and inhibiting or preventing commercialization of future cars, which could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, operating results and financial condition. While we seek to insure against product liability risks, insurance may be insufficient to protect against any monetary claims we may face and will not mitigate any reputational harm. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition. We may not be able to secure additional product liability insurance coverage on commercially acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed, particularly if we face liability for our products and are forced to make a claim under such a policy.

We rely on our licensing and franchising partners to preserve the value of our licenses and the failure to maintain such partners could harm our business.

We currently have multi-year agreements with licensing partners for various Ferrari-branded products in the sports, lifestyle and luxury retail segments. We also have multi-year agreements with franchising partners for our Ferrari stores and theme park. In the future, we may enter into additional licensing or franchising arrangements. Many of the risks associated with our own products, including risks relating to the image of the Ferrari brand and its aura of exclusivity, as well as to the demand for luxury goods, also apply to our licensed products and franchised stores. In addition, there are problems that our licensing or franchising partners may experience, including risks associated with each licensing partner’s ability to obtain capital, manage its labor relations, maintain relationships with its suppliers, manage its credit and bankruptcy risks, and maintain client relationships. While we maintain significant control over the products produced for us by our licensing partners and the franchisees running our Ferrari stores and theme parks, any of the foregoing risks, or the inability of any of our licensing or franchising partners to execute on the expected design and quality of the licensed products, Ferrari stores and theme park, or otherwise exercise operational and financial control over its business, may result in loss of revenue and competitive harm to our operations in the product categories where we have entered into such licensing or franchising arrangements. While we select our licensing and franchising partners with care, any negative publicity surrounding such partners could have a negative effect on licensed products, the Ferrari stores and theme parks or the Ferrari brand. Further, while we believe that we could replace our existing licensing or franchising partners if required, our inability to do so for any period of time could materially adversely affect our revenues and harm our business.

In connection with our new Lifestyle Strategy, we continue to streamline our existing arrangements with licensing partners. This may adversely affect our results from brand activities, particularly in the short to medium term while our broader Lifestyle Strategy is carried out.

We depend on the strength of our trademarks and other intellectual property rights.

Given the importance of our brand’s recognition on our financial performance and strategy, we believe that our trademarks and other intellectual property rights are fundamental to our success and market position. Therefore, our business depends on our ability to protect and promote our trademarks and other intellectual property rights. Accordingly, we devote
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substantial efforts to the establishment and protection of our trademarks and other intellectual property rights such as registered designs and patents on a worldwide basis. We believe that our trademarks and other intellectual property rights are adequately supported by applications for registrations, existing registrations and other legal protections in our principal markets. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that our intellectual property rights may be challenged by others, or that we may be unable to register our trademarks or otherwise adequately protect them in some jurisdictions, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the United States, Japan and European countries. If a third party were to register our trademarks, or similar trademarks, in a country where we have not successfully registered such trademarks, it could create a barrier to our commencing trade under those marks in that country.

We may fail to adequately protect our intellectual and industrial property rights against infringement or misappropriation by third parties.

Our success and competitive positioning depend on, among other factors, our registered intellectual property rights, as well as other industrial or intellectual property rights, including confidential know-how, trade secrets, database rights and copyrights. To protect our intellectual property, we rely on intellectual property laws, agreements for the protection of trade secrets, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements, and other contractual means. Such measures, however, may be inadequate and our intellectual property rights may be infringed or challenged by third parties, and our confidential know-how or trade secrets could be misappropriated or disclosed to the public without our consent. Consultants, vendors and current and former employees, for example, could violate their confidentiality obligations and restrictions on the use of Ferrari’s intellectual property. Ferrari may not be able to prevent such infringements, misappropriations or disclosures, with potential adverse effects on our brand, reputation and business. In particular, our components may be subject to product piracy, where our components are counterfeited, which may result in reputational risk for Ferrari. The risks described above arise particularly in our Brand activities (see “Overview of Our Business—Ferrari Lifestyle Strategy”).

If we fail to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, this may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, as other manufacturers may be able to manufacture similar products at lower cost, with adverse effects on our competitive position. In addition, counterfeited products, or products illegally branded as “Ferrari”, may damage our brand. In addition, we may incur high costs in reacting to infringements or misappropriations of our intellectual property rights.

Third parties may claim that we infringe their intellectual property rights.

We believe that we hold all the rights required for our business operations (including intellectual property rights and third-party licenses). However, we are exposed to potential claims from third parties alleging that we infringe their intellectual property rights, since many competitors and suppliers also submit patent applications for their inventions and secure patent protection or other intellectual property rights. If we are unsuccessful in defending against any such claim, we may be required to pay damages or comply with injunctions which may disrupt our operations. We may also as a result be forced to enter into royalty or licensing agreements on unfavorable terms or to redesign products to comply with third parties’ intellectual property rights.

Developments in China and other growth markets may adversely affect our business.

We operate in a number of growth markets, both directly and through our dealers. We believe we have potential for further success in new geographies, in particular in China, but also more generally in Asia, recognizing the increasing personal wealth in these markets. While demand in these markets has increased in recent years due to sustained economic growth and growth in personal income and wealth, we are unable to foresee the extent to which economic growth will be sustained. For example, rising geopolitical and social tensions, pandemics or similar public health crises, or slowdowns in the rate of growth there and in other emerging markets could limit the opportunity for us to increase unit sales and revenues in those regions in the near term.

Our exposure to growth countries may increase, as we may pursue expanded sales in such countries. Economic and political developments in growth markets, including economic crises, political instability or social tensions, have had and could have in the future material adverse effects on our results of operations and financial condition. Further, in certain markets in which we or our dealers operate, required government approvals may limit our ability to act quickly in making decisions on our operations in those markets. Other government actions may also impact the market for luxury goods in these markets, such as tax changes or the active discouragement of luxury purchases. Consumer spending habits in these markets
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may also change due to other factors that are outside of our control. For instance, since August 2021 the President of the People’s Republic of China has repeatedly signaled the government’s intention to regulate the spending patterns of individuals and families with ultra-high incomes and encourage high-income groups and enterprises to return more to society. Resulting regulatory action or similar statements by governmental authorities may affect the social acceptability of spending on luxury goods.

Maintaining and strengthening our position in these growth markets is a component of our global growth strategy. However, initiatives from several global luxury automotive manufacturers have increased competitive pressures for luxury cars in several growth markets. As these markets continue to grow, we anticipate that additional competitors, both international and domestic, will seek to enter these markets and that existing market participants will try to aggressively protect or increase their market share. Increased competition may result in pricing pressures, reduced margins and our inability to gain or hold market share, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See also “Global economic conditions, pandemics and macro events may adversely affect us”.

We face risks associated with our international operations, including unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions and establishing ourselves in new markets, all of which could harm our business.

We currently have international operations and subsidiaries in various countries and jurisdictions in Europe, North America and Asia that are subject to the legal, political, regulatory, tax and social requirements and economic conditions in these jurisdictions. Additionally, as part of our growth strategy, we will continue to expand our sales, maintenance, and repair services internationally. However, such expansion requires us to make significant expenditures, including the establishment of local operating entities, hiring of local employees and establishing facilities in advance of generating any revenue. We are subject to a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, impact our ability to sell our cars and require significant management attention. These risks include:

conforming our cars to various international regulatory and safety requirements where our cars are sold, or homologated;
difficulty in establishing, staffing and managing foreign operations;
difficulties attracting clients in new jurisdictions;
foreign government taxes, regulations and permit requirements, including foreign taxes that we may not be able to offset against taxes imposed upon us in Italy;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, including risks related to any interest rate swap or other hedging activities we undertake;
our ability to enforce our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the United States, Japan and European countries, which increases the risk of unauthorized, and uncompensated, use of our technology;
European Union and foreign government trade restrictions, customs regulations, tariffs and price or exchange controls;
foreign labor laws, regulations and restrictions;
preferences of foreign nations for domestically produced cars;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships;
political instability, natural disasters, pandemics or other widespread public health crises, war or events of terrorism; and
the strength of international economies.
If we fail to successfully address these risks, many of which we cannot control, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially harmed.

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If we were to lose our Authorized Economic Operator certificate, we may be required to modify our current business practices and to incur increased costs, as well as experience shipment delays.

Because we ship and sell our cars in numerous countries, the customs regulations of various jurisdictions are important to our business and operations. To expedite customs procedure, we obtained the European Union’s Authorized Economic Operator (“AEO”) certificate. The AEO certificate is granted to operators that meet certain requirements regarding supply chain security and the safety and compliance with law of the operator’s customs controls and procedures. Operators are audited periodically for continued compliance with the requirements. The AEO certificate allows us to benefit from special expedited customs treatment, which significantly facilitates the shipment of our cars in the various markets where we operate. If we were to lose the AEO status, including for failure to meet one of the certification’s requirements, we would be required to change our business practices and to adopt standard customs procedures for the shipment of our cars. This could result in increased costs and shipment delays, which, in turn, could negatively affect our results of operations.

Labor laws and collective bargaining agreements with our labor unions could impact our ability to operate efficiently.

All of our production employees are represented by trade unions, are covered by collective bargaining agreements and/or are protected by applicable labor relations regulations that may restrict our ability to modify operations and reduce costs quickly in response to changes in market conditions. These regulations and the provisions in our collective bargaining agreements may impede our ability to organize our business successfully to compete more efficiently and effectively, especially with those automakers whose employees are not represented by trade unions or are subject to less stringent regulations, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Improper conduct of employees, agents, or other representatives could adversely affect our reputation and our business, operating results, and financial condition.

Our compliance controls, policies, and procedures may not in every instance protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents, contractors, or collaborators that would violate the laws or regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including employment, foreign corrupt practices, environmental, competition, and other laws and regulations. Such improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations, and monetary and injunctive penalties. In particular, our business activities may be subject to anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate. If we fail to comply with any of these regulations, it could adversely impact our operating results and our financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and our ability to conduct business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating, and resolving any actual or alleged violation is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our executive management.

Changes in tax, tariff or fiscal policies could adversely affect demand for our products.

Imposition of any additional taxes and levies designed to limit the use of automobiles could adversely affect the demand for our vehicles and our results of operations. Changes in corporate and other taxation policies, including those relating to the Patent Box tax regime in Italy, as well as changes in export and other incentives given by various governments, or import or tariff policies, could also adversely affect our results of operations. See also “We currently benefit or seek to benefit from certain special tax regimes, which may not be available in the future”. The impact of any such tariffs on our operations and results is uncertain and could be significant, and we can provide no assurance that any strategies we implement to mitigate the impact of such tariffs or other trade actions will be successful. While we are managing our product development and production operations on a global basis to reduce costs and lead times, unique national or regional standards can result in additional costs for product development, testing and manufacturing. Governments often require the implementation of new requirements during the middle of a product cycle, which can be substantially more expensive than accommodating these requirements during the design phase of a new product. The imposition of any additional taxes and levies or change in government policy designed to limit the use of high performance sports cars or automobiles more generally, or any decisions by policymakers to implement taxes on luxury automobiles, could also adversely affect the demand for our cars. The occurrence of the above may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.


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Our indebtedness could adversely affect our operations and we may face difficulties in servicing or refinancing our debt.

As of December 31, 2022, our gross consolidated debt was approximately €2,812 million (which includes our financial services). See “Financial Overview—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Net Debt and Net Industrial Debt” for additional information. Our current and long-term debt requires us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow to service interest and principal payments and, if interest rates rise, this amount may increase. In addition, our existing debt may limit our ability to raise further capital or incur additional indebtedness to execute our growth strategy or otherwise may place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to competitors that have less debt. To the extent we become more leveraged, the risks described above would increase. We may also have difficulty refinancing our existing debt or incurring new debt on terms that we would consider to be commercially reasonable, if at all.

We are subject to risks associated with exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate changes, credit risk and other market risks.

We operate in numerous markets worldwide and are exposed to market risks stemming from fluctuations in currency and interest rates. In particular, changes in exchange rates between the Euro and the main foreign currencies in which we operate affect our revenues and results of operations. For other risks related to a rise in interest rates, see also “Our indebtedness could adversely affect our operations and we may face difficulties in servicing or refinancing our debt” and “Car sales depend in part on the availability of affordable financing”. The exposure to currency risk is mainly linked to the differences in geographic distribution of our sourcing and manufacturing activities from those in our commercial activities, as a result of which our cash flows from sales are denominated in currencies different from those connected to purchases or production activities. For example, we incur a large portion of our capital and operating expenses in Euro while we receive the majority of our revenues in currencies other than Euro. In addition, foreign exchange movements might also negatively affect the relative purchasing power of our clients which could also have an adverse effect on our results of operations. The year 2022 was characterized by rising volatility in exchange rates. The U.S. Dollar remained strong against the Euro over the first nine months of 2022 before reversing this trend with a decline in the last quarter of the year, while the Japanese Yen and Pound Sterling progressively depreciated against the Euro over the course of 2022. In early 2023 the Euro has continued its upward trend against the main currencies to which Ferrari is exposed. If the U.S. Dollar or some other currencies were to depreciate against the Euro, we expect that it would adversely impact our revenues and results of operations. The extent of adverse impacts from exchange rate fluctuations could increase if the portion of our business in countries outside of Eurozone increases. See “Financial Overview—Trends, Uncertainties and Opportunities”.

We seek to manage risks associated with fluctuations in currency through financial hedging instruments. Although we seek to manage our foreign currency risk in order to minimize any negative effects caused by rate fluctuations, including through hedging activities, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so successfully, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could nevertheless be adversely affected by fluctuations in market rates, particularly if these conditions persist. Moreover, the valuation of hedging instruments is influenced by the market dynamics of several financial factors, such as exchange rates, interest rates and implied volatility, that can negatively impact our cost of hedging and the valuation of our outstanding hedging transactions at fair value.

Our financial services activities are also subject to the risk of insolvency of dealers and retail clients, as well as unfavorable economic conditions in markets where these activities are carried out. Despite our efforts to mitigate such risks through the credit approval policies applied to dealers and retail clients, there can be no assurances that we will be able to successfully mitigate such risks, particularly with respect to a general change in economic conditions.

Car sales depend in part on the availability of affordable financing.

In certain regions, financing for new car sales has been available at relatively low interest rates for several years due to, among other things, expansive government monetary policies. To the extent that interest rates may rise generally based on governmental monetary policies or actions of central banks, market rates for new car financing are expected to rise as well, which may make our cars less affordable to clients or cause consumers to purchase less expensive cars, adversely affecting our results of operations and financial condition. Economies around the world have recently experienced significant inflationary pressures, with inflation measures in the United States, Europe and the United Kingdom reaching levels not recorded for several decades. In response, monetary authorities have taken anti-inflationary measures including rapid increases in interest rates which are gradually transferring to market credit rates. If consumer interest rates increase
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substantially or if financial service providers tighten lending standards or restrict their lending to certain classes of credit, our clients may choose not to, or may not be able to, obtain financing to purchase our cars.

We may not be able to provide adequate access to financing for our dealers and clients, and our financial services operations may be disrupted.

Our dealers enter into wholesale financing arrangements to purchase cars from us to hold in inventory or to use in showrooms and facilitate retail sales, and retail clients use a variety of finance and lease programs to acquire cars.

In most markets, we rely either on controlled or associated finance companies or on commercial relationships with third parties, including third party financial institutions, to provide financing to our dealers and retail clients. Finance companies are subject to various risks that could negatively affect their ability to provide financing services at competitive rates, including:
the performance of loans and leases in their portfolio, which could be materially affected by delinquencies or defaults;
higher than expected car return rates and the residual value performance of cars they lease; and
fluctuations in interest rates and currency exchange rates.

Furthermore, to help fund our retail and wholesale financing business, our financial services companies in the United States also access forms of funding available from the banking system in each market, including sales or securitization of receivables either in negotiated sales or through asset-backed financing programs. At December 31, 2022, an amount of $1,179 million was outstanding under revolving securitizations carried out by Ferrari Financial Services Inc. See “Financial Overview—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Net Debt and Net Industrial Debt” for additional information. Should we lose the ability to access the securitization market at advantageous terms or at all, the funding of our controlled or associated finance companies would become more difficult and expensive and our financial condition may therefore be adversely affected.

Any financial services provider, including our controlled finance companies, will face other demands on its capital, as well as liquidity issues relating to other investments or to developments in the credit markets. Furthermore, they may be subject to regulatory changes that may increase their costs, which may impair their ability to provide competitive financing products to our dealers and retail clients. To the extent that a financial services provider is unable or unwilling to provide sufficient financing at competitive rates to our dealers and retail clients, such dealers and retail clients may not have sufficient access to financing to purchase or lease our cars. As a result, our car sales and market share may suffer, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our dealer and retail customer financing in Europe are mainly provided through Ferrari Financial Services GmbH, our partnership with FCA Bank S.p.A. (“FCA Bank”), which is a joint venture between FCA Italy S.p.A. (a subsidiary of Stellantis N.V.) and Crédit Agricole Consumer Finance S.A. (“CACF”). If we fail to maintain our partnership with FCA Bank, we may not be able to find a suitable alternative partner with similar resources and experience and continue to offer financing services to support the sales of Ferrari cars in key European markets, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In December 2021, Stellantis N.V. (hereinafter also “Stellantis” and together with its subsidiaries, the “Stellantis Group”) communicated its intention to create a leading operational leasing group and enhanced captive finance arm. As part of the proposed transaction, in the first half of 2023 CACF is expected to acquire the 50 percent stake in FCA Bank currently owned by Stellantis. In early 2023 Ferrari received a change of control notification from FCA Bank and Ferrari now has the option to accept the change of control and continue the joint venture or not to accept it and discuss further developments with FCA Bank.

Engine production revenues are dependent on Maserati’s ability to sell its cars.

We produce V8 and V6 engines for Maserati pursuant to a multi-year arrangement with Maserati, which will expire at end of 2023. While Maserati is required to compensate us for certain production costs, in the event that the sales of Maserati cars decline compared to the contractual requirements of our engine production agreements with Maserati, our revenues from the sale of engines may be adversely affected.

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Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to protect us against all potential losses to which we may be subject, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We maintain insurance coverage that we believe is adequate to cover normal risks associated with the operation of our business. However, there can be no assurance that any claim under our insurance policies will be honored fully or timely, our insurance coverage will be sufficient in any respect or our insurance premiums will not increase substantially. Accordingly, to the extent that we suffer loss or damage that is not covered by insurance or which exceeds our insurance coverage, or have to pay higher insurance premiums, our financial condition may be affected.














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Risks Related to our Common Shares

The market price and trading volume of our common shares may be volatile, which could result in rapid and substantial losses for our shareholders.

The market price of our common shares may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. In addition, the trading volume of our common shares may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our common shares declines significantly, a shareholder may be unable to sell their common shares at or above their purchase price, if at all. The market price of our common shares may fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. Some of the factors that could negatively affect the price of our common shares, or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common shares, include:

variations in our operating results, or failure to meet the market’s earnings expectations;
publication of research reports about us, the automotive industry or the luxury industry, or the failure of securities analysts to cover our common shares;
departures of any members of our management team or additions or departures of other key personnel;
adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future;
actions by shareholders;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations, or differing interpretations thereof, affecting our business, or enforcement of these laws and regulations, or announcements relating to these matters;
adverse publicity about the automotive industry or the luxury industry generally, or particularly scandals relating to those industries, specifically;
litigation and governmental investigations; and
general market and economic conditions.

The loyalty voting program may affect the liquidity of our common shares and reduce our common share price.

The implementation of our loyalty voting program could reduce the trading liquidity and adversely affect the trading prices of our common shares. The loyalty voting program is intended to reward our shareholders for maintaining long-term share ownership by granting initial shareholders and persons holding our common shares continuously for at least three years the option to elect to receive special voting shares. Special voting shares cannot be traded and, if common shares participating in the loyalty voting program are sold they must be deregistered from the loyalty register and any corresponding special voting shares transferred to us for no consideration (om niet). This loyalty voting program is designed to encourage a stable shareholder base and, conversely, it may deter trading by shareholders that may be interested in participating in our loyalty voting program. Therefore, the loyalty voting program may reduce liquidity in our common shares and adversely affect their trading price.

The interests of our largest shareholders may differ from the interests of other shareholders.

Exor N.V. (“Exor”) is our largest shareholder, holding approximately 24.44 percent of our outstanding common shares and approximately 36.25 percent of our voting power (as of February 13, 2023). Therefore, Exor has a significant influence over matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, including matters such as adoption of the annual financial statements, declarations of annual dividends, the election and removal of the members of our board of directors (the “Board of Directors”), capital increases and amendments to our articles of association. In addition, as of February 13, 2023, Trust Piero Ferrari, a Jersey trust established by Piero Ferrari, the Vice Chairman of Ferrari, holds approximately 10.39 percent of our outstanding common shares. Piero Ferrari holds the usufruct over such shares including the right to exercise the voting rights of such shares, corresponding to approximately 15.42 percent of voting interest in us (as of February 13, 2023). The percentages of ownership and voting power above are calculated based on the number of outstanding shares net of treasury shares. As a result, Piero Ferrari also has influence in matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders. Exor and Piero Ferrari informed us that they have entered into a shareholder agreement, recently amended to reflect adherence by Trust Piero Ferrari, pursuant to which they have undertaken to consult for the purpose of forming, where possible, a common view on the
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items on the agenda of shareholders meetings. See “Major Shareholders—Shareholders’ Agreement”. The interests of Exor and Piero Ferrari may in certain cases differ from those of other shareholders. In addition, the sale of substantial amounts of our common shares in the public market by Trust Piero Ferrari or the perception that such a sale could occur could adversely affect the prevailing market price of the common shares.

We may have potential conflicts of interest with Stellantis and Exor and its related companies.

Questions relating to conflicts of interest may arise between us and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., our former largest shareholder, renamed Stellantis N.V., in a number of areas relating to common shareholdings and management, as well as our past and ongoing relationships. There are certain overlaps among the directors and officers of us and Stellantis. For example, Mr. John Elkann, our Executive Chairman, is the Chairman and an executive director of Stellantis and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Exor. Certain of our other directors and officers may also be directors or officers of Stellantis or Exor, our and Stellantis’s largest shareholder. These individuals owe duties both to us and to the other companies that they serve as officers and/or directors, which may create conflicts as, for example, these individuals review opportunities that may be appropriate or suitable for both us and such other companies, or we pursue business transactions in which both we and such other companies have an interest, such as our arrangement to supply engines for Maserati cars. Exor holds approximately 24.44 percent of our outstanding common shares and approximately 36.25 percent of the voting power in us (as of February 13, 2023), while it holds approximately 14.35 percent of the outstanding common shares in Stellantis (based on SEC filings). The percentages of ownership and voting power above are calculated based on the number of outstanding shares net of treasury shares. Exor also owns a controlling interest in CNH Industrial N.V. and Iveco Group N.V., which were part of the former Fiat Group before being spun-off several years ago. These ownership interests could create actual, perceived or potential conflicts of interest when these parties or our common directors and officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for us and Stellantis or Exor, as applicable.

Our loyalty voting program may make it more difficult for shareholders to acquire a controlling interest in Ferrari, change our management or strategy or otherwise exercise influence over us, which may affect the market price of our common shares.

The provisions of our articles of association which establish the loyalty voting program may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of our company, even if a change of control were considered favorably by shareholders holding a majority of our common shares. As a result of the loyalty voting program, a relatively large proportion of the voting power of Ferrari could be concentrated in a relatively small number of shareholders who would have significant influence over us. As of February 13, 2023, Exor had approximately 24.44 percent of our outstanding common shares and a voting interest in Ferrari of approximately 36.25 percent. As of February 13, 2023, Trust Piero Ferrari, a Jersey trust established by Piero Ferrari held voting rights relating to approximately 10.39 percent of our outstanding common shares. Piero Ferrari holds the usufruct over such shares including the right to exercise the voting rights of such shares, corresponding to, as a result of the loyalty voting mechanism, approximately 15.42 percent of the voting power in our shares. The percentages of ownership and voting power above are calculated based on the number of outstanding shares net of treasury shares. In addition, Exor and Piero Ferrari informed us that they have entered into a shareholder agreement, recently amended to reflect adherence by Trust Piero Ferrari, summarized under “Major Shareholders—Shareholders Agreement”. As a result, Exor and Piero Ferrari may exercise significant influence on matters involving our shareholders. Exor and Piero Ferrari and other shareholders participating in the loyalty voting program may have the power effectively to prevent or delay change of control or other transactions that may otherwise benefit our shareholders. The loyalty voting program may also prevent or discourage shareholder initiatives aimed at changing Ferrari’s management or strategy or otherwise exerting influence over Ferrari. See “Corporate Governance—Loyalty Voting Program”.

We are a Dutch public company with limited liability, and our shareholders may have rights different to those of shareholders of companies organized in the United States.

The rights of our shareholders may be different from the rights of shareholders governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. We are a Dutch public company with limited liability (naamloze vennootschap). Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of association and by the laws governing companies incorporated in the Netherlands. The rights of our shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our Board of Directors may be different from the rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of board of directors in companies governed by the laws of other jurisdictions including the United States. In the performance of its duties, our Board of Directors is required by Dutch law to consider our interests and the interests of our shareholders, our employees and other stakeholders, in all cases with due
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observation of the principles of reasonableness and fairness. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, your interests as a shareholder.

We expect to maintain our status as a “foreign private issuer” under the rules and regulations of the SEC and, thus, are exempt from a number of rules under the Exchange Act of 1934 and are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a company incorporated in the United States.

As a “foreign private issuer,” we are exempt from rules under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) that impose certain disclosure and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers, Directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our common shares. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, nor are we required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information concerning us than there is for U.S. public companies.

Our ability to pay dividends on our common shares may be limited and the level of future dividends is subject to change.

Our payment of dividends on our common shares in the future will be subject to business conditions, financial conditions, earnings, cash balances, commitments, strategic plans and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant at the time it recommends approval of the dividend. Our dividend policy is subject to change in the future based on changes in statutory requirements, market trends, strategic developments, capital requirements and a number of other factors. In addition, under our articles of association and Dutch law, dividends may be declared on our common shares only if the amount of equity exceeds the paid up and called up capital plus the reserves that have to be maintained pursuant to Dutch law or the articles of association. Further, even if we are permitted under our articles of association and Dutch law to pay cash dividends on our common shares, we may not have sufficient cash to pay dividends in cash on our common shares. We are a holding company and our operations are conducted through our subsidiaries. As a result, our ability to pay dividends primarily depends on the ability of our subsidiaries, particularly Ferrari S.p.A., to generate earnings and to provide us with the necessary financial resources.

Our maintenance of two exchange listings may adversely affect liquidity in the market for our common shares and could result in pricing differentials of our common shares between the two exchanges.

Our shares are listed on both the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and the Euronext Milan. The dual listing of our common shares may split trading between the NYSE and the Euronext Milan, adversely affect the liquidity of the shares and the development of an active trading market for our common shares in one or both markets and may result in price differentials between the exchanges. Differences in the trading schedules, as well as volatility in the exchange rate of the two trading currencies, among other factors, may result in different trading prices for our common shares on the two exchanges.

It may be difficult to enforce U.S. judgments against us.

We are organized under the laws of the Netherlands, and a substantial portion of our assets are outside of the United States. Most of our Directors and senior management and our independent auditors are resident outside the United States, and all or a substantial portion of their respective assets may be located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for U.S. investors to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult for U.S. investors to enforce within the United States judgments against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts outside the United States would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our Directors and officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof. Therefore, it may be difficult to enforce U.S. judgments against us, our Directors and officers and our independent auditors.

Stellantis creditors may seek to hold us liable for certain Stellantis obligations.

One step of our Separation (see “Overview—History of the Company”) from FCA (references to “FCA” or “FCA Group” refer to Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., together with its subsidiaries, prior to the merger between FCA and Peugeot S.A. completed on January 16, 2021, which resulted in the creation of Stellantis N.V.) included a demerger from FCA of our common shares previously held by it. In connection with a demerger under Dutch law, the demerged company may continue
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to be liable for certain obligations of the demerging company that exist at the time of the demerger, but only to the extent that the demerging company fails to satisfy such liabilities. Based on other actions taken as part of the Separation, we do not believe we retain any liability for obligations of FCA, now Stellantis, existing at the time of the Separation. Nevertheless, in the event that Stellantis fails to satisfy obligations to its creditors existing at the time of the demerger, it is possible that those creditors may seek to recover from us, claiming that we remain liable to satisfy such obligations. While we believe we would prevail against any such claim, litigation is inherently costly and uncertain and could have an adverse effect. See “Overview—History of the Company”.


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Risks Related to Taxation

Changes to taxation or the interpretation or application of tax laws could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

Our business is subject to various taxes in different jurisdictions (mainly Italy), which include, among others, the Italian corporate income tax (“IRES”), regional trade tax (“IRAP”), value added tax (“VAT”), excise duty, registration tax and other indirect taxes. We are exposed to the risk that our overall tax burden may increase in the future.

Changes in tax laws or regulations or in the position of the relevant Italian and non-Italian authorities regarding the application, administration or interpretation of these laws or regulations, particularly if applied retrospectively, could have negative effects on our current business model and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

In order to reduce future potential disputes with tax authorities, we seek advance agreements with tax authorities on significant matters. In particular we filed a ruling application for advance pricing agreement (APA) on transfer pricing, which is expected to be resolved upon by the end of 2023.

In November 2022 we filed a request for admission to the Cooperative Compliance Regime in Italy, which provides for constant and preventive discussions between the taxpayer and the Italian tax authorities on the most significant transactions, characterized by tax risks, and the definition of the relevant tax treatment. Our admission to the Cooperative Compliance Regime is expected by the end of 2023.

In addition, tax laws are complex and subject to subjective valuations and interpretive decisions, and we will periodically be subject to tax audits aimed at assessing our compliance with direct and indirect taxes. The tax authorities may not agree with our interpretations of, or the positions we have taken or intend to take on, tax laws applicable to our ordinary activities and extraordinary transactions. In case of challenges by the tax authorities to our interpretations, we could face long tax proceedings that could result in the payment of penalties and have a material adverse effect on our operating results, business and financial condition.

On October 8, 2021, an agreement was reached between 136 countries for a two-pillar approach to international tax reform (the “OECD Agreement”). Amongst other things, Pillar One proposes a reallocation of a proportion of tax to market jurisdictions, while Pillar Two seeks to apply a global minimum effective tax rate of 15 percent most likely starting from 2024. The OECD Agreement is likely to determine changes in corporate tax rates in a number of countries in the coming years. The impact of changes in corporate tax rates on the measurement of tax assets and liabilities depends on the nature and timing of the legislative changes in each country, which are subject to uncertainty.

There may be potential “Passive Foreign Investment Company” tax considerations for U.S. holders.

Shares of our stock would be stock of a “passive foreign investment company,” or a PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes with respect to a U.S. holder if for any taxable year in which such U.S. holder held shares of our stock, after the application of applicable “look-through rules” (i) 75 percent or more of our gross income for the taxable year consists of “passive income” (including dividends, interest, gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business, as defined in applicable Treasury Regulations), or (ii) at least 50 percent of our assets for the taxable year (averaged over the year and determined based upon value) produce or are held for the production of “passive income”. U.S. persons who own shares of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the dividends they receive from the PFIC, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC.
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While we believe that shares of our stock are not stock of a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, this conclusion is based on a factual determination made annually and thus is subject to change. Moreover, our common shares may become stock of a PFIC in future taxable years if there were to be changes in our assets, income or operations.

The consequences of the loyalty voting program are uncertain.

No statutory, judicial or administrative authority directly discusses how the receipt, ownership, or disposition of special voting shares should be treated for Italian or U.S. tax purposes and as a result, the tax consequences in those jurisdictions are uncertain.

The fair market value of the special voting shares, which may be relevant to the tax consequences, is a factual determination and is not governed by any guidance that directly addresses such a situation. Because, among other things, our special voting shares are not transferable (other than, in very limited circumstances, together with the associated common shares) and a shareholder will receive amounts in respect of the special voting shares only if we are liquidated, we believe and intend to take the position that the fair market value of each special voting share is minimal. However, the relevant tax authorities could assert that the value of the special voting shares as determined by us is incorrect.

The tax treatment of the loyalty voting program is unclear and shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors in respect of the consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of special voting shares.

We currently benefit or seek to benefit from certain special tax regimes, which may not be available in the future.

Italian Law no. 190/2014, as subsequently amended and supplemented, introduced an optional Patent Box regime in the Italian tax system. The Patent Box regime is a tax exemption related to, inter alia, the use of intellectual property assets. Business income derived from the use of each qualified intangible asset is partially exempted from taxation for both IRES and IRAP purposes. We are currently applying the Patent Box tax regime for the period from 2020 to 2024, in line with applicable tax regulations in Italy. Law Decree No. 146 as amended by the 2022 Italian budget law, replaced the former Patent Box regime (which allowed taxpayers to exempt from corporate income tax (IRES) and regional income tax (IRAP) up to 50% of their income derived from the direct or indirect exploitation of intangibles) by introducing a new Patent Box regime with a 110% “super tax deduction” for research and development expenses related to eligible intangible assets. The decree provides for a specific transitional procedure between the two regimes. The amount of the related tax benefits (if any) that the Group may receive from the Patent Box or other tax regimes remains subject to uncertainty.

In addition, we benefit from the measures introduced in Italy by art. 110 of Law Decree no. 104/2020, converted into Law no.126/2020, which reopened the voluntary step up of tangible and intangible assets, with the application of a three-percent substitutive tax rate. The budget law for fiscal year 2022 introduced some retroactive changes to the step-up regime. In particular, it provided for an increase from 18 years to 50 years of the amortization period for tax purposes for any trademarks and goodwill that benefited from the step-up regime, which reduces the annual financial benefit but does not affect the overall positive impact of the incentive.

Furthermore, we currently calculate taxes due in Italy based, among other things, on certain tax breaks recognized by Italian tax regulations for R&D expenses and for the investments on manufacturing equipment, the Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) and tax credits for energy costs, which result in tax savings.

These measures continue to mitigate the tax burden in Italy. Significant changes in regulations or interpretation might adversely affect the availability of such exemptions and result in higher tax charges. See also “Changes to taxation or the interpretation or application of tax laws could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.”


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Overview

Ferrari is among the world’s leading luxury brands, focused on the design, engineering, production and sale of the world’s most recognizable luxury performance sports cars. Our brand symbolizes exclusivity, innovation, state-of-the-art sporting performance and Italian design and engineering heritage. Our name and history and the image enjoyed by our cars are closely associated with our Formula 1 racing team, Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful racing team in the history of Formula 1. From the inaugural year of Formula 1 in 1950 through the present, Scuderia Ferrari has won 242 Grand Prix races, 16 Constructors’ World titles and 15 Drivers’ World titles. We are the only team which has taken part in all the editions of the Championship, racing in more than 1,000 Formula 1 Grand Prix races. We believe that our history of excellence, technological innovation and defining style transcends the automotive industry, and is the foundation of the Ferrari brand and image. We design, engineer and produce our cars in Maranello, Italy, and sell them in over 60 markets worldwide through a network of 177 authorized dealers operating 196 points of sale as of the end of 2022.

We believe our cars are the epitome of design, performance and driving thrills. Our product offering comprises four main pillars: Range, Special Series, Icona and Supercar. Our current product portfolio (including cars presented in 2022, for which shipments will commence in future years) is comprised of ten Range models (four V8 internal combustion engine (“ICE”) models: Roma, Portofino M, F8 Tributo and F8 Spider; two V12 ICE models: 812 GTS and Purosangue; two V6 hybrid models: 296 GTB and 296 GTS; two V8 hybrid models: SF90 Stradale and SF90 Spider), two Special Series models (812 Competizione and 812 Competizione A), and our latest Icona expression (Daytona SP3). In 2022, we launched two new models: the 296 GTS (the spider version of the 296 GTB), a PHEV featuring a new V6 engine, and the Ferrari Purosangue, the first ever four-door, four-seater Ferrari featuring a V12 internal combustion engine. In 2022, with the launch of the Ferrari Purosangue and the 296 GTS, we met our previously announced objective of introducing 15 new models by 2022 (as announced at our Capital Markets Day in September 2018), which is unprecedented for Ferrari over a similar time frame. In the first quarter of 2022 we completed the shipments of the Ferrari Monza SP1 and Monza SP2, our first Icona expression.
We also produce limited edition Supercars and One-Off cars. Our most recent Supercar model, the LaFerrari Aperta, the spider version of the LaFerrari, was launched in 2016 to celebrate our 70th anniversary.
In 2022, we shipped 13,221 cars and recorded net revenues of €5,095 million, EBIT of €1,227 million, net profit of €939 million and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) of €1,773 million. For additional information regarding EBITDA, including a reconciliation of EBITDA to net profit, as well as other non-GAAP financial measures we present, see “Financial Overview—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Non-GAAP Financial Measures”.

Whilst broadening our product portfolio to target a larger customer base, we continue to pursue a low volume production strategy in order to maintain a reputation for exclusivity and scarcity among purchasers of our cars and we carefully manage our production volumes and delivery waiting lists to promote this reputation. We divide our regional markets into (i) EMEA, (ii) Americas, (iii) Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and (iv) Rest of APAC, which represented respectively 45.1 percent, 26.1 percent, 11.7 percent and 17.1 percent of units shipped in 2022. The geographic distribution of shipments reflects deliberate allocations driven by the pace of introduction of individual models.

We focus our marketing and promotion efforts on the investments we make in our racing activities and in particular, Scuderia Ferrari’s participation in the FIA World Endurance Championship and in the FIA Formula 1 World Championship, the latter being the pinnacle of motorsport and is one of the most watched annual sports series in the world, with approximately 445 million unique viewers in 2021 and an average total audience for a Grand Prix weekend of 70.3 million. (Source: Formula 1 Press Office). Although our most recent Formula 1 world title was in 2008, we continuously enhance our focus on Formula 1 activities with the goal of improving racing results and restoring our historical position as the premier racing team in Formula 1. We believe that these activities support the strength and awareness of our brand among motor enthusiasts, clients and the general public. In 2022, we unveiled the 296 GT3, the V6 that will replace the 488 GT3, which delivered 119 titles and over 500 wins and takes its place in history as the most successful racing Ferrari to date. In the same year, we also unveiled our new Le Mans hypercar, the 499P, which marks Ferrari’s return to the top tier of the FIA World Endurance Championship in the 2023 Season, 50 years after we last competed for the title.

Ferrari’ presence in the broader luxury landscape is a unique opportunity to ensure brand relevance across present and future generations and to amplify the cultural relevance of our brand. As one of the world’s primary luxury brands, we operate in carefully selected luxury and lifestyle categories - personal luxury goods, collectibles and experiences, the role of which is to fuel long-term growth by broadening our customer base and expanding our unique value proposition beyond our
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core business, while preserving the brand’s DNA, its heritage and values. See below “Overview of Our Business—Ferrari Lifestyle Strategy”.

As part of our Lifestyle activities, in 2021 we launched our own Ferrari fashion collections with dedicated fashion shows in June 2021, February 2022 and September 2022. We also license the Ferrari brand to a limited number of producers and retailers of luxury and lifestyle sectors, including theme parks that, we believe, enhance the brand experience of our loyal clients and Ferrari enthusiasts. The world of Ferrari can also be experienced in our Ferrari Museum in Maranello and in the Enzo Ferrari Museum in Modena. Our international network of Ferrari Stores consisted of 16 Ferrari-owned directly operated stores and 2 franchised stores as of December 31, 2022, where visitors can find our fashion collection, as well as on our website and in selected multi-brand points of sale.

We will continue focusing our efforts on protecting and enhancing the value of our brand to preserve our strong financial profile and fuel long term growth in existing and emerging markets, while expanding the Ferrari brand to carefully selected lifestyle categories.

History of the Company

Ferrari was incorporated as a public limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap) under the laws of the Netherlands on September 4, 2015 with an indefinite duration. Our official seat (statutaire zetel) is in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and our corporate address and principal place of business are located at Via Abetone Inferiore n. 4, I-41053 Maranello (MO), Italy. Ferrari is registered with the Dutch Trade Register of the Chamber of Commerce under number 64060977. Its telephone number is +39-0536-949111. The name and address of the Company’s agent in the United States is: Ferrari North America, Inc., 250 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. Its telephone number is +1 (201) 816 2600.

Our company is named after our founder Enzo Ferrari. An Alfa Romeo driver since 1924, Enzo Ferrari founded his own racing team, Scuderia Ferrari, in Modena in 1929 initially to race Alfa Romeo cars. In 1939 he set up his own company, initially called Auto Avio Costruzioni. In late 1943, Enzo Ferrari moved his headquarters from Modena to Maranello, which remains our headquarters to this day.

In 1947, we produced our first racing car, the 125 S. The 125 S’s powerful 12 cylinder engine would go on to become synonymous with the Ferrari brand. In 1948, the first road car, the Ferrari 166 Inter, was produced. Styling quickly became an integral part of the Ferrari brand.

In 1950, we began our participation in the Formula 1 World Championship, racing in the world’s second Grand Prix in Monaco, which makes Scuderia Ferrari the longest running Formula 1 team. We won our first Constructor World Title in 1952. Our success on the world’s tracks and roads extends beyond Formula 1, including victories in some of the most important car races such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the world’s oldest endurance automobile race, and the 24 Hours of Daytona.

The Fiat group acquired a 50 percent stake in Ferrari S.p.A. in 1969 and increased its stake to 90 percent in 1988 following the death of Enzo Ferrari, with the remaining 10 percent held by Enzo Ferrari’s son, Piero Ferrari.

Ferrari became an independent, publicly traded company following its separation from Stellantis (prior to the merger with Peugeot S.A. in January 2021, FCA ), which was completed on January 3, 2016 (the “Separation”) and occurred through a series of transactions including (i) an intragroup restructuring which resulted in the Company’s acquisition of the assets and business of Ferrari North Europe Limited and the transfer by FCA of its 90 percent shareholding in Ferrari S.p.A. to the Company, (ii) the transfer of Piero Ferrari’s 10 percent shareholding in Ferrari S.p.A. to the Company, (iii) the initial public offering of common shares of the Company on the New York Stock Exchange in October 2015 under the ticker symbol RACE, and (iv) the distribution, following the initial public offering, of FCA’s remaining interest in the Company to FCA’s shareholders. On January 4, 2016, the Company also completed the listing of its common shares on the Mercato Telematico Azionario (“MTA”, subsequently renamed Euronext Milan), under the ticker symbol RACE.
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Industry Overview

Within the luxury goods market, we define our target market for luxury performance cars powered by engines producing more than 500 hp and selling at a retail price in excess of Euro 150,000 (including VAT). The luxury performance car market historically has followed relatively closely growth patterns in the broader luxury market. The luxury performance car market is generally affected by global macroeconomic conditions and, although we and certain other manufacturers have proven relatively resilient, general downturns can have a disproportionate impact on sales of luxury goods in light of the discretionary nature of consumer spending in this market. Furthermore, because of the emotional nature of the purchasing decision, economic confidence and factors such as expectations regarding future income streams as well as the social acceptability of luxury goods may impact sales.

Following the sharp recession of 2008-2009, the luxury performance car market has been resilient to further economic downturns and stagnation in the broader economy, driven by an increase in new product launches. A sustained period of wealth creation in several Asian countries and, to a lesser extent, in the Americas, has led to an expanding population of potential consumers of luxury goods. Developing consumer preferences in the Asian markets, where the newly affluent are increasingly embracing western brands of luxury products, have also led to higher demand for cars in our segment, which are primarily produced by established European manufacturers. In turn, the changing demographic of customers and potential customers is driving an evolution towards luxury performance cars also suited to an urban and more frequent use. Additionally, the growing appetite of younger affluent purchasers for luxury performance cars has led to new entrants to the industry, which in turn has resulted in higher sales overall in the market.

After the challenges brought by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, which depressed industry volumes, the luxury performance car market experienced a V-shaped recovery in 2021 and in 2022, when it surpassed 2019 pre-pandemic levels. Ferrari shipments surpassed the 2019 pre-pandemic levels a year earlier, in 2021, benefiting from actions taken to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (including widespread vaccination campaigns) and to maintain production capacity.

One of the key elements driving the positive performance of the market in 2021 and 2022 was the renewed product offering by several competitors. This strong performance of the luxury performance car market was achieved despite several adverse global events like supply chain issues, the semi-conductor crisis, the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and rising inflation. Most of the producers in the luxury performance car market managed to navigate through these difficulties by adjusting their supply chain policies and by revising their pricing strategies, as well as through the aforementioned renewal of their product offerings.

Unlike in other segments of the broader luxury market, in the luxury performance car market, a significant portion of demand is driven by new product launches. The market share of individual producers fluctuates over time reflecting the timing of product launches. New launches tend to drive sales volumes even in difficult market environments because the novelty, exclusivity and excitement of a new product is capable of creating and capturing its own demand from clients. The luxury performance car market also experienced an increased demand for personalization and digital connectivity, with several industry players introducing customized solutions to serve local markets.

Growing environmental concerns are leading to the implementation of increasingly stringent emissions regulations and an increase in demand for both hybrid and electric vehicles. Cost and limited charging infrastructure are currently limiting factors in the demand for electric vehicles, but advancements in battery technology in coming years are expected to boost sales of hybrid and electric high-performance luxury vehicles, although at a slower pace compared to mass market vehicles. The ability to combine driving experience with hybrid and electric technology will be key for the commercial success of high performance luxury vehicles.
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As shown in the chart below, our volumes in recent years have proven less volatile than our competitors’. We believe this is due to our strategy of maintaining low volumes compared to demand, as well as to the higher number of models in our product portfolio and our more frequent product launches compared to our competitors.
race-20221231_g1.jpg
Ferrari and Luxury Performance Car Industry data are updated to December 31, 2022.
We identify the Luxury Performance Car Industry to include all luxury sports cars with power above 500 hp, and retail price above Euro 150,000 (including VAT) sold by Aston Martin, Audi, Bentley, BMW, Ferrari, Ford, Honda/Acura, Lamborghini, Maserati, McLaren, Mercedes Benz, Polestar, Porsche and Rolls-Royce.
Ferrari data based on internal information for the 25 Top Countries (excluding Middle East countries) for Ferrari annual registrations and sales (which accounted for approximately 91% of the total Ferrari shipments in 2022).
Data for the Luxury Performance Car Industry based on units registered (in Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, Belgium and Austria) or sold (in USA, Canada, South Korea, Mainland China, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Indonesia). Source: USA-US Maker Data Club; Brazil-JATO; Canada-JATO; Austria-OSZ; Belgium-FEBIAC; France-SIV; Germany-KBA; UK-SMMT; Italy-UNRAE; Netherlands-VWE; Poland-CEPiK; Hungary-Ministry of the Interior; Czech Republic-Cars Importers Association; Spain-TRAFICO; Sweden-BranschData; Switzerland-ASTRA; Mainland China-China Automobile Industry Association-DataClub; Russia-AEBRUS; Taiwan-Ministry of Transportation and Communications; Australia-VFACTS-S; Japan-JAIA; Indonesia-GAIKINDO; New Zealand-VFACTS; Singapore-LTA, MTA (Land Transport Authority, Motor Trader Associations); South Korea-KAIDA.

In 2022, Ferrari’s volumes in the largest 25 markets increased compared to 2021, primarily driven by the contribution from our renewed and enlarged product range. In 2022, we had a market share of 24% in the luxury performance car market.


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The chart below sets forth our market shares in 2022 based on volumes in our largest 25 markets by geographical area.
race-20221231_g2.jpg

Ferrari and Luxury Performance Car Industry data are updated to December 31, 2022.
We identify the Luxury Performance Car Industry to include all luxury sports cars with power above 500 hp, and retail price above Euro 150,000 (including VAT) sold by Aston Martin, Audi, Bentley, BMW, Ferrari, Ford, Honda/Acura, Lamborghini, Maserati, McLaren, Mercedes Benz, Polestar, Porsche and Rolls-Royce.
Ferrari data based on internal information for the 25 Top Countries (excluding Middle East countries) for Ferrari annual registrations and sales (which accounted for approximately 91% of the total Ferrari shipments in 2022).
Data for the Luxury Performance Car Industry based on units registered (in Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, Belgium and Austria) or sold (in USA, Canada, South Korea, Mainland China, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Indonesia). Source: USA-US Maker Data Club; Brazil-JATO; Canada-JATO; Austria-OSZ; Belgium-FEBIAC; France-SIV; Germany-KBA; UK-SMMT; Italy-UNRAE; Netherlands-VWE; Poland-CEPiK; Hungary- Ministry of the Interior; Czech Republic-Cars Importers Association; Spain-TRAFICO; Sweden-BranschData; Switzerland-ASTRA; Mainland China-China Automobile Industry Association-DataClub; Russia-AEBRUS; Taiwan-Ministry of Transportation and Communications; Australia-VFACTS-S; Japan-JAIA; Indonesia-GAIKINDO; New Zealand-VFACTS; Singapore-LTA, MTA (Land Transport Authority, Motor Trader Associations); South Korea-KAIDA.
Ferrari is market leader in several countries, including France, Italy, Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan and Singapore, among others.

While we monitor our market share as an indicator of our brand appeal, we do not regard market share in the luxury performance market as particularly relevant as compared to other segments of the automotive industry. We are not focused on market share as a performance metric. Instead, we deliberately manage our supply relative to demand, to defend and promote our brand exclusivity and premium pricing.

Competition

Competition in the luxury performance car market is concentrated in a fairly small number of producers, including both large automotive companies that own luxury brands as well as small producers exclusively focused on luxury cars, like us. Our main competitors are Lamborghini, McLaren, Aston Martin, Rolls-Royce and Bentley, as well as Porsche, Mercedes and Audi in certain segments of the market, and may vary based on the technical characteristics and target customer segment for each model.

Competition in the luxury performance car market is primarily driven by the strength of the brand and the appeal of the products in terms of performance, styling and innovation as well as by the manufacturers’ ability to regularly renew their product offerings in order to continue to stimulate customer demand.

Competition among similarly positioned luxury performance cars is also driven by price and total cost of ownership. Resilience of the car value after a period of ownership is an important competitive dimension among similarly positioned luxury cars, because higher resilience decreases the total cost of ownership and promotes repeat purchases: we believe this is a strong competitive advantage of Ferrari cars.



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Overview of Our Business

Range, Special Series, Icona and Supercar: New Ferrari Line-Up Strategic Pillars
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Our product offering comprises four main pillars: Range, Special Series, Icona and Supercar. Our current product portfolio as of 2022 includes ten Range models (four V8 internal combustion engine (“ICE”) models: Roma, Portofino M, F8 Tributo and F8 Spider; two V12 ICE models: 812 GTS and Purosangue; two V6 hybrid models: 296 GTB and 296 GTS; two V8 hybrid models: SF90 Stradale and SF90 Spider), two Special Series models (812 Competizione and 812 Competizione A), and one strictly limited edition Icona model (Daytona SP3). We also produce limited edition Supercars and One-Off cars. Our most recent Supercar model, the LaFerrari Aperta, was launched in 2016 to celebrate our 70th anniversary. In 2022, we launched the 296 GTS and the Purosangue.

Our diversified product offering includes different architectures (such as front-engine and mid-rear engine), engine sizes (V6, V8 and V12), technologies (natural aspirated, turbo-charged, hybrid), body styles (such as coupes, spiders, targa and 4-doors) and seats (2 seaters, 2+ seaters, 4 seaters).

race-20221231_g4.jpg


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We target end clients seeking high performance cars with distinctive design and state-of-the-art technology. Our broad product portfolio is designed to fulfill the strategy of “different Ferrari for different Ferraristi, different Ferrari for different moments”, which means being able to offer a highly differentiated product line-up that can meet the varying needs of current and new customer segments (in terms of sportiness, comfort, on-board space and design, amongst others) and that can allow our existing clients to use a Ferrari in various moments of their lives. We believe that our target end clients can be divided into two main categories: on the one hand, the “Sports Car Driver”, a client looking for an elegant and understated design, who like driving their car in a variety of locations and conditions, alone or with passengers, and who use their Ferrari for longer journeys; on the other hand, the “Pilot”, a client looking for a high performing and extreme sports car, who intend to drive their car on track and on challenging roads, and who are looking for an exciting driving experience.

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We are also actively engaged in after sales activities driven, among other things, by the objective of preserving and extending the market value of the cars we sell. We believe our cars’ performance in terms of value preservation after a period of ownership significantly exceeds that of any other brand in the luxury car segment. High residual value is important to the primary market because clients, when purchasing our cars, take into account the expected resale value of the car in assessing the overall cost of ownership. Furthermore, a higher residual value potentially lowers the cost for the owner to switch to a new model thereby supporting client loyalty and promoting repeat purchase.

The following chart shows the percentage of our unit shipments(1) by pillar(2) for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020:

race-20221231_g6.jpg
(1)    Excluding the XX Programme, racing cars, one-off and pre-owned cars.
(2)    There were no shipments of Supercars during the period from 2020 to 2022.


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The following chart shows the percentage of our unit shipments(1) by geographic market for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020:
race-20221231_g7.jpg
(1)    Excluding the XX Programme, racing cars, one-off and pre-owned cars.


See also “Financial Overview—Trends, Uncertainties and Opportunities—Shipments”.

The following chart shows the percentage of our unit shipments(1) by engine type for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020:

race-20221231_g8.jpg
(1)    Excluding the XX Programme, racing cars, one-off and pre-owned cars.

Range
We believe that our target end clients can be divided into two main categories: Pilot and Sports Car Driver.

Range models designed for the Pilot clients are characterized by compact bodies, a design guided by performance and aerodynamics, that often benefit from technologies initially developed for our Formula 1 single-seaters or Ferrari GT racing activities. They favor performance over comfort, seeking to provide the driver with an immediate response and superior handling, leveraging state-of-the-art vehicle dynamics, components and controls. We currently offer seven such models: the SF90 Stradale and the SF90 Spider, our first series production cars which feature PHEV technology that combines a V8 engine (780 hp) with three electric motors allowing the car to reach 1,000 hp; the F8 Tributo and the F8 Spider, equipped with a mid-rear V8 engine (720 hp) and 4 time winner of the engine of the year award; the 812 GTS, equipped with a front V12 engine (800 hp); the 296 GTB and the 296 GTS, powered by the first 6-cylinder engine installed on a Ferrari road car, producing 830 hp of total power output delivered by the new 120° V6 engine (663 hp), coupled with an electric motor capable of delivering a further 122 kW (167 hp) – an unprecedented performance for a V6 car.

Our Range models that are designed for the Sports Car Driver client, which also exhibit the performance expected of a Ferrari, are characterized by more refined interiors with a higher focus on comfort and on-board life quality. We currently offer three such models: two models equipped with our V8 engine, the Ferrari Roma (620 hp) and the Ferrari Portofino M
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(620 hp), and one model equipped with our V12 naturally aspirated engine, the new Ferrari Purosangue (725 hp) launched in September 2022.

Special Series

From time to time, we also design, engineer and produce Special Series cars which can be limited in time or volume and are usually based on some of our Range models but introduce novel product concepts. These cars are characterized by significant modifications designed to enhance performance and driving thrills. Our Special Series cars are particularly targeted to collectors and, from a commercial and product development standpoint, they facilitate the transition from existing to new Range models. In 2021, we launched the 812 Competizione, shipments of which commenced in 2022, and the 812 Competizione A, whose shipments are expected to commence in 2023. The 812 Competizione and the 812 Competizione A, respectively a coupe and targa, both feature 830 hp engines and represent the pinnacle of our technical expertise and performance with an extraordinary weight to power ratio of 1.79 kg/hp, which puts them at the top of our V12 car category, reaching 0-100 km/h in 2.85 seconds and 0-200 km/h in 7.7 seconds. In 2020, we completed the deliveries of the Ferrari 488 Pista and Ferrari 488 Pista Spider, our previous Special Series models.

Icona

In September 2018, we introduced a new pillar of our product portfolio: the Icona, a unique concept that takes inspiration from the iconic concepts of our history and reinterprets them in a modern fashion, pairing timeless design with state-of-the-art materials and technology. The first example of this strictly limited-edition product line-up is the Ferrari Monza SP1/SP2, which is inspired by the classic collectible barchetta cars, the 750 Monza and 860 Monza. In 2021, the Daytona SP3 was unveiled. This limited-edition targa takes inspiration from legendary Ferrari sports prototypes of the 1960s and sports a naturally aspirated V12 engine, mid-rear-mounted in typical racing car style. The most iconic of all Ferrari’s engines, this power unit delivers 840 hp – along with 697 Nm of torque and maximum revs of 9500 RPM – making it the most powerful naturally aspirated road engine ever built by Ferrari.

Supercars

In line with our tradition of Supercars starting with the GTO (288 GTO) in 1984 and including the Enzo in 2002, the LaFerrari in 2013 and the LaFerrari Aperta, our latest supercar launched in 2016, we also produce limited edition Supercars. These are the highest expression of Ferrari road car performance at the time and are often the forerunners of technological innovations for future Range models, with innovative features and futuristic design.

One-Offs

In order to meet the varying needs of our most loyal and discerning clients, we also produce a very limited number of One-Off models. While based on the chassis and equipped with engines of one of the current models for homologation and registration purposes, these cars reflect the exact exterior and interior design specifications requested by the clients, and are produced as a single, unique car. Some of the most iconic models emerged from our One-Off program include the SP12 EC (inspired by the 512 BB and created in 2011), the F12 TRS (a radical two-seat roadster created on the platform of the F12 berlinetta in 2014), the Ferrari SP38 (a superlative mid-rear V8 turbo taking inspiration from the legendary Ferrari F40), the 458MM Speciale (the last mid rear model with a V8 naturally aspirated engine in 2016), the Ferrari P80/C, a real track car taking inspiration from past Ferrari Sport Prototipo models, and the Ferrari Omologata, based on the 812 Superfast V12 platform. The most recent models include the BR20, a very elegant V12 based on the GTC4 Lusso and produced in 2021, and the SP48 Unica, based on the F8 Tributo, and the SP51, based on the 812 Superfast but with an open-air configuration, both launched in 2022.
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race-20221231_g9.jpg


The following chart shows our product offering’s strategic pillars in terms of their appeal to Ferraristi and Collectors respectively.

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Personalization Offer
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All of our models feature highly customizable interior and exterior options, which are included in our personalization catalogue. Some of these options include performance contents like carbon fiber parts, carbon fiber wheels, titanium exhaust systems, alternative brake caliper colors, parking cameras, MagnaRide dual mode suspension, various door panel configurations, steering wheel inserts and state-of-the-art custom high fidelity sound systems. Starting with the SF90 Stradale and the SF90 Spider, we have also introduced the “Assetto Fiorano” configuration, which provides numerous exclusive features for those who seek extreme performance and design. This more extreme configuration is also available for the 296 GTB and 296 GTS. With the launch of the Purosangue in 2022, we added new options for our customers including dimmable and carbon fiber roof and a design specification package, which provide a complete and holistic offer for all types of customers.

With our “Special Equipment & Atelier” program, we offer clients additional customization choices for their cars. Our specialists are able to guide clients in creating a very customized car through a wide catalogue of special items such as different types of rare leathers (with new colors presented during 2022), custom stitching, special paints, special carbon fiber, and personalized luggage sets designed to match the car’s interior.

The “Tailor Made” program provides an additional level of personalization to meet the increased expectations of our clients. A dedicated Ferrari designer assists clients in selecting and applying virtually any specific design element of their choice. Our clients benefit from a large selection of finishes and accessories in an array of different materials (ranging from cashmere to denim), treatments and hues. To assist our clients’ choice we also offer three collections inspired by Ferrari’s own tradition: Scuderia (taking its lead from our sporting history), Classica (bringing a modern twist to the styling cues of our signature Range models) and Inedita (showcasing more experimental and innovation-led personalization). In 2022, we produced the first cars from the Cavalcade Collection. These cars were specially crafted by Ferrari Tailor Made in order to celebrate ten years of memorable road journeys in a range of striking color themes inspired by spectacular Italian landscapes.

The “One-off” program is the maximum level of personalization and exclusivity. See “—Supercars" and "—One-Offs” above for additional details.

Design

Design is a fundamental and distinctive aspect of our products and our brand. The design of a Ferrari is a structural part of our innovation process, and everything we do to develop the lines of our cars is functional to increase their performance and driving thrills. Our designers, modelers and engineers work together to create car bodies that incorporate the most innovative aerodynamic solutions in the sleek and powerful lines typical of our cars. The interiors of our cars seek to balance functionality, aesthetics and comfort. Cockpits are designed to maximize the driving experience, tending towards more sporty or more comfortable depending on the model. The interiors of our vehicles boast elegant and sophisticated trims and details that enhance the ergonomic layout of all main controls, many of which are clustered on the steering wheel. A guiding principle of our design is that each new model represents a clear departure from prior models and introduces new and distinctive aesthetic elements, delivering constant innovation within the furrow of tradition.

For the design of our cars we have relied historically on Italian coachbuilders such as Carrozzeria Touring, Vignale, Scaglietti and Pininfarina. These partnerships helped Ferrari in defining its design language at the forefront of design advance. Throughout the years this area of excellence has been recognized repeatedly by a long series of awards being bestowed upon Ferrari cars.

In 2010 we established the Ferrari Design Centre, our in-house design department, with the objective of improving control over the entire design process and ensuring long-term continuity of the Ferrari style. The mission of the Ferrari Design Centre is to define and evolve the stylistic direction of the marque, imprinting all new products with a modern stamp, according to a futuristic, uncompromised vision. The name and logo “Ferrari Design” denotes all concepts and works of the Ferrari Design Centre (see “—Intellectual Property”). Ferrari Design handles all aspects of automotive styling for the Ferrari road cars product range, encompassing the styling of all bodywork, external components and interior trim, applied to series production models for the Range, Special Series, Supercars, Icona, One-Offs, concept cars and some track-only models. Ferrari Design also includes a Color & Trim unit which manages the choice of materials and finishes for both exterior and interior trim and, in addition, is responsible for the Tailor Made program in conjunction with the Product Marketing department. Ferrari Design is also often involved in the styling and conceptual definition of Ferrari branded products produced by our licensees (see “—Ferrari Lifestyle Strategy”). In 2019, we created the Advanced Design team, a laboratory that aims at defining the brand’s design vision, developing new concepts and formal languages through so far unexplored
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methods and tools, and trying to achieve simplification and formal purity while staying true to the Ferrari DNA which has characterized its history.

Ferrari Design is organized as an integrated automotive design studio, employing a total workforce of approximately 120 people (full-time workers as well as external contractors) including designers, 3D surfacing operators, physical modelers and graphic artists. It operates a modeling studio fully equipped with 5-axis milling machines with the capacity to develop various full-scale models (interior and exterior) in parallel.

In September 2018, we opened a new building for the Ferrari Design Centre, which is our first facility fully dedicated to the Ferrari Design. The new building hosts two Ateliers and the Tailor Made department to engage clients with Ferrari’s rich personalization services. The Ferrari Design Centre has designed our most recent cars, including our entire current line-up.

In 2022, we unveiled, among others:

The Ferrari Purosangue, the Prancing Horse’s first ever four-door, four-seater;
The 296 GTS, our latest evolution of the mid-rear-engined two-seater berlinetta spider equipped with our innovative V6 hybrid engine;
The 296 GT3, the V6 track car that will replace the 488 GT3;
The 499P, our new Le Mans hypercar for the track;
The Ferrari Vision Gran Turismo, the first Ferrari concept car, created specifically for the virtual motor sports world, which represents a futuristic Design Manifesto for Ferrari’s road and racing cars.
During its 13 year history, the Ferrari Design Centre has received many prestigious design awards for the cars it has designed, including the following in the last 2 years:

Ferrari Daytona SP3: Red Dot Best of The Best (2022); EyesOn Design Award (2022); Grand Prix du Design- Automobile Awards (2022);
Ferrari 296 GTB: iF Design Award (2022); Red Dot Design Award (2022); Car Design Award (2022); AUTONIS - Auto Motor und Sport - Best Design Innovation (2022); Supercar Of The Year – Top Gear Awards (2022);
Ferrari 812 Competizione: iF Design Award (2022); Red Dot Design Award (2022);
Ferrari 812 Competizione A: iF Design Award (2022); Red Dot Design Award (2022);
Ferrari SF90 Spider: iF Design Award (2021); Red Dot Design Award (2021);
Ferrari Omologata: Red Dot Design Award (2021);
Ferrari Roma: iF Design Award (2021);
Ferrari Portofino M: AUTONIS - Auto Motor und Sport - Best New Design (2021).

On September 27, 2021, we announced a long-term, multi-year collaboration with the creative collective LoveFrom. The first expression of this new partnership will bring together Ferrari’s legendary performance and excellence with LoveFrom’s experience and creativity that has defined extraordinary world changing products.


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Racing Sports Cars Lifestyle

Product Development and Technological Innovation

Our development efforts take into account the three pillars of competitive advantage of Ferrari cars: design, performance and driving thrills.
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Design – sight is the first sense to enjoy a Ferrari and the design of a Ferrari is a structural part of our innovation process. Everything we do to develop the design of our cars is functional to increase their performance and driving thrills.

Performance – features such as power, aerodynamics, weight, driveline and mechatronics all contribute to determine the lap time on track. We strive to ensure that every Ferrari is the best performing car in its segment.

Driving thrills – a key differentiator of Ferrari cars. There are five main elements to driving thrills: longitudinal acceleration, lateral acceleration, braking, gear change and sound.

Innovation Principles

Our goal with innovation is to enhance the performance and driving thrills of our cars. The unique Ferrari way of developing a car involves the following main elements:

leveraging on Formula 1 and racing-specific know-how;
prioritizing innovations on core hardware and software;
tailoring existing solutions available on the market; and
developing distinctive and iconic components.

In addition to these internally driven factors, regulation is key in determining the direction of innovation.

Furthermore, being prepared for change is part of our DNA, and climate change is a further stimulus for us to innovate. In the near future, we expect Ferrari’s innovation program to be focused not only on electric transition but also on innovative materials, alternative fuels, lubricants and coolants.

In this regard, we have placed significant focus on introducing new materials, such as recycled aluminum, for which CO2 emissions could be reduced by up to 90%, and we are working with partners on the use of alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, E-Fuels, coolants and lubricants which would allow us to reduce emissions while continuing to use internal combustion engines that preserve our heritage.

Our goal is to find technological solutions that will allow us to be compliant with applicable regulations, without penalizing the performance and driving thrills of our cars.

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Key Features of our Offer

Three Powertrains with Distinctive Driving Emotions

Ferrari engines are characterized by prime performance in a key parameter for cars’ engines: specific power. We intend to broaden the powertrain offering to include full electric, hydrogen and other technologies as well as the internal combustion engine (ICE) which continues to represent Ferrari’s heritage.

Ferrari targets a well-diversified product portfolio, composed of ICE, hybrid engines and full electric engines, each one delivering distinctive driving emotions.

ICE – Ferrari will continue to pursue the internal combustion engine evolution and, with the support of partners, will develop solutions in energy efficiency and alternative fuels to build on an essential part of the Company’s heritage.
Hybrid – our cars have shown that hybrid is the right technology for increasing pure performance, and we have taken advantage of the technology transfer from the racing world. Ferrari firmly believes that the hybrid engine can further increase performance, as evidenced by the four hybrid engine cars currently in our product portfolio.
Electric – leveraging strong commonalities with the internal combustion engine, including technology transfer from the racing world, precision mechanics, fluid-dynamics and performance software, electric technology will also provide unique elements, driving emotions and the thrills of a true Ferrari.

The worlds of electric and combustion engines have many similarities, including:

the racing world - Formula 1 and other racing competitions were and will be the starting point for the development and test of new contents to use on our range cars. For instance, the architecture of our electric engine is racing derived; but the challenge has been to industrialize that engine, in order to move from unitary production, to that of thousands of units. A challenge that we have met thanks to the precision mechanics know-how already existing in Maranello;
the fluid dynamics - cooling systems are key to, among other things, the performance and durability of electric engines. We use our know-how on combustion engine cooling systems to develop the best and most efficient solutions for our future electric engines; and
the performance software - the performance software, as we apply everything we have learned over the years in the combustion world to the new challenges of the electrification era.

Ferrari Dynamic and Sensors

Sensors and the relevant know-how built over decades contribute to the driving thrills and performance, as well as reliability and car safety.

Our first sensor, a position sensor, was adopted in 1980 on the Ferrari 308GTBi. Now, a Ferrari car can have hundreds of sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, microphones, and others, which improve vehicle dynamics as well as performance and driving thrills.

In the near future, our cars will be equipped with new sensors that will allow us to further improve the existing features and enable new functions, and that will play a fundamental role on battery management, increasing the life of the battery as well as the safety of our cars. Longer term, new sensors technology will allow for new applications and a step-up in performance.

By combining sensors and software, it will be possible to further improve the performance and driving thrills of our cars. For example, comparing a Ferrari with a 6D sensor and one without it, we have reduced our braking distance by approximately 10% thanks to the information collected through accelerometers, gyroscopes, and the deep control vehicle software know-how. Another example is the FAST (“Ferrari Active Suspension Technology”), a technology that enables our cars to apply the best suspension for every driving condition by keeping the vehicle body at the best elevation for riding. FAST controls body roll in corners as well as the tire contact patch over high-frequency bumps.

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Architecture

The other principal technical area we are focusing on is the architecture. Our architecture covers all principal technical specifications of future Ferrari models. We expect that innovation requirements will arise principally from: the evolution of engine families; the level of hybridization and electrification; modes of traction; the number of seats up to a real four-seater; and the body style, which will vary much more significantly than in the past.

We expect that our core architectures will be the rear‑mid‑engine architecture and the front‑mid‑engine architecture, each comprising several variants.
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Autonomous driving and connectivity

While we do not intend to develop self-driving cars, we will adopt certain features of autonomous driving technology in response to regulatory developments and customer preferences, especially in the Range segment. For example, in 2018 we launched initial functionalities for Advanced Driving Assistant Systems (ADAS) such as predictive braking and automatic cruise control on current models, and further innovations will be introduced in future models.

Ferrari is carefully monitoring the evolution of autonomous driving technologies, including sensors, new chips, artificial intelligence and connectivity, and we will select and customize those innovations compatible with the Ferrari experience and the highest security standards. These technologies combined with the hybridization and the incoming cybersecurity requirements will also have an important impact on the electronic architecture of our cars and we are presently developing our future electrical and electronic architecture to take into account these requirements.

Increased in-house manufacturing and innovation

Ferrari will continue to develop and produce its core components in-house with a strong focus on innovation, while co-developing and tailoring best-in-class existing solutions with selected partners. Strategic partnerships in non-core hardware and software areas will provide access to state-of-the-art technologies, helping to maintain a disciplined approach towards investment whilst enhancing design, performance and driving thrills.






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Production and Procurement

Production Process

Our production facilities are located in Maranello and in Modena, Italy (see “—Properties”). Our production processes include supply chain management, production and distribution logistics of cars in our Range models and Special Series, as well as assembly of prototypes and avanseries.

Notwithstanding the low volumes of cars produced, our production process requires a great variety of inputs (over 40,000 product identifier codes sourced from approximately 800 total suppliers) entailing complex supply chain management to ensure continuity of production. Our stock of supplies is warehoused in or near Maranello, and its management is outsourced to a third party logistics company.

Most of the manufacturing process takes place in Maranello, including aluminum alloy casting in our foundry, engine construction, mechanical machining, painting, car assembly, and bench testing; at our second plant in Modena (Carrozzeria Scaglietti), we manufacture the aluminum bodyworks of our cars. All parts and components not produced in house at Ferrari are sourced from our panel of suppliers (see “—Production and Procurement—Procurement”).

Between 2002 and 2012 the plants housing our production processes were entirely renovated or rebuilt and in recent years we have continued to make significant investments in our manufacturing facilities. Equipment may require substantial investment with the introduction of new models or to maintain state-of-the-art technology, particularly in the case of shell tools for the foundry, tools for machining, feature tools for body welding and special mounting equipment for the assembly. Since 2021 we have been acquiring additional resources and production equipment, mainly in relation to Battery Electric Vehicles (“BEVs”), to successfully manage the new technological advancements and related challenges resulting from the transition to electrification.

As at December 31, 2022, our production processes employed 1,802 engineers, technicians and other personnel (184 white collar employees and 1,618 workers, of which 422 were temporary production employees). We have a flexible production organization, which allows us to adjust production capacity to accommodate our expected production requirements. This is primarily due to the low volume of cars we produce per year and to our highly skilled and flexible employee base that can be deployed across various production areas. In addition, we can adjust our make-or-buy strategies to address fluctuations in the level of demand on our internal production resources. Our facilities can accommodate a meaningful increase in production compared to current output with the increase of weekend shifts to address special peaks in demand. Since 2021 we have increased production with the introduction of a second shift on car assembly lines in addition to the single shift operated on the V8 assembly line. We constantly work to increase the utilization rate and reduce the internal scrap rate and we closely monitor an index of our production efficiency. We are also committed to continually improving the reliability of our cars, reducing defects, and optimize finishing.

Unlike most low volume car producers, we operate our own foundry and machining department producing several of the main components of our engines, such as engine blocks, cylinder heads and crankshafts. We believe this accelerates product development and results in components that meet our specifications more closely.

Engine Production

Our engines are produced according to a vertical structure, from the casting of aluminum in our foundry up to the final assembly and testing of the engine. Several of the main components of our engines, such as blocks and cylinder heads are produced at our foundry in Maranello. For this purpose, we use a special aluminum alloy that includes seven percent silicon and a trace of iron, which improves mechanical integrity, as well as our own shell and sand casting molds. Once all components are ready, engines are assembled on different lines for our V12 engines, our V8 and V6 engines, and the V6 engines we manufacture for Maserati. The assembly process is a combination of automatic and manual operations. At the start of the assembly process, each engine is identified with a barcode and operations are recorded electronically. Every engine goes to the test benches to ensure it delivers the expected performance: approximately 80 to 85 percent of engines are cold tested and approximately 15 to 20 percent of engines are also hot tested and measured for power and torque. In 2022 we produced an average of approximately 101 engines per day, including approximately 10 V12 engines and 57 V8/V6 engines
(including 5 V8 turbo engines for Maserati), as well as 34 V6 engines for Maserati (see “—Production and Procurement—Production Process—Manufacturing of Engines for Maserati”).

Body Assembly

In parallel with the assembly of our engines, we prepare our body-shells at our body shop Carrozzeria Scaglietti in Modena. The main components of body-shells are not manufactured internally but are sourced from manufacturers for chassis, bodies and carbon fiber parts. At Carrozzeria Scaglietti we have two different production lines dedicated to the assembly of our V8, V6 and V12 aluminum bodies and one dedicated line for the assembly of a special carbon fiber body for the Daytona SP3. We carefully check the alignment of the various parts with electronic templates and gauges and also perform surface controls on the aluminum panels to eliminate any imperfections by either filing or panel beating. Our highly trained specialists also manage specific phases of body-shells preparation, such as the completely manual execution of the “aesthetic weld”, a unique joint weld between flank and roof of certain models, including the Roma. In our Scaglietti plant we also developed a line for the assembly of the Purosangue, specifically dedicated to the construction of this model.

Painting

When transferred to our paint shop, the bodies are mounted on a loading bay, immersed in the cataphoresis tanks and subsequently transferred to a fixing gas fired oven at 180°C. After the cataphoresis, the sealing phase of the body is largely automated. Primers are then applied and fixed at 190°C until the completely grey body-shell is ready for painting. All body-shells are cleaned with automatic pressure blowers (to avoid the electrostatic effect) and carefully brushed with emu feathers (because of their natural electrostatic properties) to clean off any dirt particles or impurities before painting. The painting process is automated for larger surfaces, while it is done by hand for some other localized areas. In 2019, we replaced the robot which performs the application of the base coat. The whole car is painted at the same time to ensure color harmony. The bodies are finally polished with lacquer to fix the paint and give the bodies their final finish. In 2018, we substituted our clear coat with a new generation 2K (bi-component) transparent coat that allows us to decrease the temperature of the oven from 140°C to 90°C; this is a very innovative process that allows us to simultaneously paint aluminum and carbon fiber parts. At the end of the process “aesthetic blacks” are realized by painting any gaps in the car matte black finish.

Assembly Line and Final Checks

The final assembly of our cars takes place in Maranello. We have three different lines placed at ground level and the first floor of the building. For each model, the initial assembly operations take place simultaneously on different lines and sections to maximize efficiency so while the body is assembled on the main line, the powertrain, as well as the cockpit and the doors, are prepared on a separate sub-line. In 2018, the line on the first floor increased from one shift to two shifts. On the first floor there is also the assembly line for the Daytona SP3; since April 2021 the line on the ground floor also increased to two shifts.

Personalization and Road Tests
During the assembly process of our cars we manage the fitting of all bespoke interiors, components and special equipment options that our clients choose as part of our personalization program (see “—Range, Special Series, Icona and Supercar: New Ferrari Line-Up Strategic Pillars —Personalization Offer”). After the assembly phase, every car completes a 40-kilometer road test-drive.

Finishing and Cleaning

After the road test all cars go to the finishing department. There, we thoroughly clean interior and exterior, perform a comprehensive review of the whole car, and polish and finish the bodies to give them their final appearance.

Manufacturing of Engines for Maserati

We have been producing engines for Maserati since 2003. The V8 engines that we historically produced and continue to produce for Maserati are variants of Ferrari families of engines and are mounted on Maserati’s highest performing models, such as the Quattroporte and Levante (turbo engines), the GranTurismo and the GranCabrio (aspirated engines). All
of the V8 engines that we sell to Maserati are manufactured and assembled according to the same production processes we adopt for the V8s equipped on our cars (see “—Production and Procurement—Production Process”).

In 2011, we began producing a family of engines exclusively for Maserati, in much larger production volumes, to be installed on the Quattroporte and Ghibli (mainly the F160 3.0-liter V6 Turbo engines), and in 2016 we started the production of F161 engines to be installed on the Levante, Maserati’s SUV. The term of our supply agreement with Maserati for the production of V6 and V8 engines will expire in December 2023. Under the framework agreement, Maserati is required to compensate us for certain costs we may incur from our suppliers if there is a shortfall in the annual volume of engines actually purchased by Maserati in that year. In 2022, we sold approximately 1,120 V8 turbo engines to Maserati and approximately 8,020 V6 engines in six different versions, ranging from 330 hp to 450 hp.

In order to meet the V6 volume and specifications requirements of Maserati, in 2012 we built a dedicated assembly facility in Maranello with a much higher level of industrialization compared to production of our V12 engines. Due to the larger volumes and product specifications, our make-or-buy strategy for the production of F160 V6 and F161 V6 engines also differs from the strategy applicable to the production of Ferrari engines. The vast majority of the engine components are sourced externally from our panel of suppliers (see “—Production and Procurement—Procurement”) and in 2020 we started sourcing all casting and machining of the cylinder heads externally, while the V6 assembly line and testing continued to be managed by us in Maranello.

Procurement

We source a variety of components, raw materials, supplies, utilities, logistics and other services from numerous suppliers. We recognize the contribution of our suppliers to our success in pursuing excellence in terms of luxury and performance, therefore we carefully select suppliers that are able to meet our high standards.

For the sourcing of certain key components with highly technological specifications, we have developed strongly synergic relationships with some of our suppliers, which we consider “key strategic innovation partners”. We currently rely on selected key strategic innovation partners, including for the supply of transmissions and brakes. We have also developed strong relationships with other industrial partners for bodyworks and chassis manufacturing and for powertrain and transmissions, among other things. Pursuant to our make-or-buy strategy, we generally retain production in-house whenever we have an interest in preserving or developing technological know-how or when we believe that outsourcing would impair the efficiency and flexibility of our production process. Therefore, we continue to invest in the skills and processes required for low-volume production of components that we believe improve product quality.

For the year ended December 31, 2022, the purchases from our ten largest suppliers by value accounted for approximately 20 percent of total procurement costs, and no supplier accounted for more than 10 percent of our total procurement costs.

Sales and After-Sales

Our commercial team, which includes 492 employees at December 31, 2022, is organized in four geographic areas covering our principal regional end markets: (i) EMEA, (ii) Americas, (iii) Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and (iv) Rest of APAC.

Dealer network

We sell our cars exclusively through a network of authorized dealers (with the exception of one-offs and track cars which we sell directly to end clients). In our larger markets we act as importer either through wholly owned subsidiaries or, in China, through a subsidiary partly owned by a local partner, and we sell the cars to dealers for resale to end clients. In smaller markets we generally sell the cars to a single importer/dealer. We regularly assess the composition of our dealer network in order to maintain the highest level of quality. At December 31, 2022, our network comprised 177 dealers operating 196 points of sale.

We do not presently own dealerships and, while our strategy does not structurally contemplate owning dealerships, we retain flexibility to adapt to evolving market requirements over time.

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We believe that our careful and strict selection of the dealers that sell our cars is a key factor for promoting the integrity and success of our brand. Our selection criteria are based on the candidates’ reputation, financial stability and proven track records. We are also intent on selecting dealers who are able to provide a purchase and after-sales experience aimed at exceeding our clients’ high expectations. Furthermore, our dealers are committed to promoting and marketing our cars in a manner intended to preserve the Ferrari brand integrity and to ensure the highest level of client satisfaction.

While dealers may hold multiple franchises, we enjoy a high degree of prominence and level of representation at each point of sale, where most of the client interface and retail experience is exclusive to Ferrari. Our network and business development team works with all dealers to ensure our operating standards are met. Our rigorous design, layout and corporate identity guidelines guarantee uniformity of the Ferrari image and client interface.

Despite challenges in the last years resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, our dealer network has successfully adapted to the new scenario and proactively invested, so that the majority of our dealer network’s worldwide facilities have been upgraded with the latest Ferrari Corporate Identity, in order to provide clients with a superior experience while delivering a unique luxury environment and digital touchpoints to complement the physical space.

Ferrari also uses an omni-touchpoint strategy and continues to engage with dealers and clients at different levels. The client engagement typically takes place at the dealerships, whose ability to promote the client-community life has been reinforced via a new corporate identity implemented in recent years, but also through digital touchpoints such as the MyFerrari App, and through a plan of exclusive experiences organized at our headquarters in Maranello, as well as at regional or dealer level. Client engagement activities typically feature various car driving opportunities, both on track and on the road. We have also developed and implemented several engagement activities aimed at gathering the client community and promoting the discovery of our brand, including through experience touchpoints. While the Casa Ferrari hospitality has been proposed for some years, including in Pebble Beach and Abu Dhabi, in November 2022 the first Universo Ferrari brand exhibition was held outside of Maranello in Sydney.

Competence building and training are also key to the implementation of our strategy. Through our in-house Ferrari Academy we provide training to dealers for sales, after-sales and technical activities. This ensures that our dealer network delivers a consistent level of market leading standards across diverse cultural environments. During the last few years our training strategy was quickly adapted by introducing and enhancing virtual-training solutions to cope with travel restrictions, while continuing to foster expertise in the network at the highest level. We also introduced new courses in areas such as digital commercial execution and luxury management, with the aim of delivering the best possible client experience.

We collect and observe data relating to dealer profitability and financial health in order to prevent or mitigate any adverse experience for clients arising from a dealer ceasing to do business or experiencing financial difficulties. Our regional representatives visit dealerships regularly to monitor and measure performance and compliance with our operating standards. We have the right to terminate dealer relationships in a variety of circumstances, including failure to meet performance or financial standards, or failure to comply with our guidelines. Dealer turnover is relatively low, reflecting the strength of the franchise and our selection processes, but is sufficient to guarantee an orderly renewal over time and to stimulate the network’s health and performance.

We provide a suggested retail price or a maximum retail price for all of our cars, but each dealer is free to negotiate different prices with clients and to provide financing. Although many of our clients in certain markets purchase our cars from dealers without financing, we offer direct or indirect finance and leasing services to retail clients and to dealers. (See “—Financial Services”).


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The total number of our dealers as well as their geographical distribution tends to closely reflect the development or expected development of sales volumes to end clients in our various markets over time. The chart below sets forth the geographic distribution of our 196 points of sale at December 31, 2022:

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Our sales are diversified across our dealer network, with the largest dealer representing approximately 2.6 percent of our shipments, and our 15 largest dealers representing approximately 23 percent of our shipments in 2022.

As part of our supply and demand management, we determine allocations based on various metrics including expected developments in the relevant market, the number of cars sold historically by the various dealers, current order book of dealers and the average waiting time of the end client in the relevant market. Our order reporting system allows us to collect and monitor information regarding end client orders and is able to assist us in production planning, allocation and dealer management.

Parts

We supply parts for current and older models of Ferrari to our authorized dealer network.     In addition to substitution of spare parts during the life of the car, sales are driven by clients’ demand for parts to customize their cars and maximize performance, particularly after a change in ownership, as well as parts required to compete in the Ferrari Challenge and other client races. We also supply parts to Ferrari models currently out of production, with stocks dating back to 1995. The stock of parts for even older models is currently owned and managed by a third party which in some cases also manufactures out-of-stock parts based on our designs. The sale of parts is a profitable component of our product mix and is expected to benefit from the increase in the number of Ferrari cars in circulation.

After-sales

Dealers provide after-sales services to clients, either at facilities adjacent to showrooms or in stand-alone service points across 247 facilities worldwide at December 31, 2022. After-sales activities are very important for our business to ensure the client’s continued enjoyment of the car and the experience. Therefore, we enforce a strict quality control on our dealers’ services activities and we provide continued training and support to the dealers’ service personnel. This includes our team of “flying doctors,” Ferrari engineers who regularly travel to service centers to address difficult technical issues for our clients.

We sell cars together with a scheduled program of recommended maintenance services in order to ensure that these cars are maintained to the highest standards to meet our strict requirements for performance and safety.

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Our 7 Year Maintenance Program (free of charge for customers since 2011 on any new cars) is offered to further strengthen customer retention in the official network and has been coupled with the possibility to extend the statutory warranty term of our standard warranty terms through the Power warranty coverage program up to the 15th year of life of the car. For certain strictly limited series cars (for example, the LaFerrari and the LaFerrari Aperta) we introduced a Full Warranty Coverage Extension that can be applied after the 36-month commercial contractual warranty.
After the 7th year of life, a car (if in perfect maintenance condition) can be included in the Main Power warranty coverage program (Maintenance and Power) through to the car’s 15th year of life. Between the 15th year of life and the Classiche eligibility (20 year old car) Ferrari provides its customers, in addition to standard maintenance items, also certain specific maintenance kits (Ferrari Premium) to preserve car performance and safety systems. When a car follows the full maintenance program up to the 20th year of life, it automatically obtains the Ferrari Classiche certification.

While we do not have any direct involvement in pre-owned car sales, we seek to support a healthy secondary market in order to promote the value of our brand, benefit our clients and facilitate sales of new cars. Our dealers provide an inspection service for clients seeking to sell their car which involves detailed checks on the car and a certification on which the client can rely, covering, among other things, the authenticity of the car, the conformity to original technical specifications, and the state of repair. Furthermore, we offer owners of classic Ferrari cars maintenance and restoration services through the 73 Officina Ferrari Classiche workshops that form part of our service network.

In addition, owners of our classic cars can seek assistance in car and engine restorations at our Ferrari Classiche department in Maranello.

Financial Services

We offer retail client financing for the purchase of our cars as well as dealer financing through the operations of Ferrari Financial Services (“FFS”).

We offer retail client financing:
directly in the United States through our fully owned subsidiary Ferrari Financial Services Inc. (“FFS Inc”);
through our associate Ferrari Financial Services GmbH in certain markets in EMEA (primarily the UK, Germany and Switzerland); and
through various partnerships in other European countries and other major international markets, such as Japan and Mainland China.
FFS Inc also has limited remaining dealer financing services in the United States.

Through FFS, we offer a range of flexible, bespoke financial and ancillary services to clients (both current and new) interested in purchasing a wide range of cars, from our current product range to older pre-owned and classic models. FFS also provides special financing arrangements to a selected group of our most valuable and loyal customers.

Starting in 2016, FFS Inc has pursued a strategy of autonomous financing for our financial services activities in the United States, further reducing dependency on intercompany funding and increasing the portion of self-liquidating debt with various securitization transactions.

At December 31, 2022, the consolidated financial services portfolio was €1,400 million and entirely originated in the United States.

Client Relations

Our clients are the backbone of our business together with our brand and our technology. We do not promote our brand or our cars through general advertising. Our main brand marketing and promotional activities have two principal targets.

Firstly, we target the general public. Our most significant effort in this respect is centered on our racing activities and the resonance of Scuderia Ferrari (see “—Racing Activities—Formula 1 Activities”). We also reach the general public through the activities of our lifestyle division through the sale of luxury goods at our stores and online, the brand’s experience
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parks and museums, and collectibles. We also engage in other brand-promotional activities through digital platforms such as eSports, and our official social media channels.

Secondly, we target existing and prospective clients on both new car and preowned car sales, seeking to promote clients’ knowledge of our products, and their enjoyment of our cars both on road and on track, and to foster long-term relationships with our clients, which is key to our success. In 2022, 66% of our new cars were sold to existing Ferrari owners. In recent years, we have pursued a carefully designed enlargement and rejuvenation of our client base, while always respecting the principle of exclusivity. As communicated during our Capital Markets Day in June 2022, over the period from 2018 to 2022 we have grown our active client base by 25%, rejuvenated our loyal client base with new clients on average 8 years younger, and generated 60% new collectors and a 25% increase in the average number of Ferrari cars owned per client. By purchasing our cars, clients become part of a select community sharing a primary association with the Ferrari image and we foster this sense of fellowship with a number of initiatives. We strive to maximize the experience of our clients throughout their period of interaction with Ferrari – from first contact, through purchasing decision process, to waiting-time management and car delivery and enjoyment.

Recognizing the importance of digital touchpoints to enhance the overall client experience, Ferrari continues to develop the MyFerrari App, available exclusively for Ferrari clients to enhance and foster their connection to the Ferrari world through the direct distribution of tailored content. This channel enables clients to directly access features and services, strengthening their relationship with the brand and their preferred official Ferrari dealer.

Client Events

After nearly two years of client gatherings impacted by restrictions in response to COVID-19, with the exception of a few countries, 2022 saw the return of many client activities held in person, a key aspect and attraction for loyal clients to feel the sense of belonging to the Ferrari community.

In April 2022, we launched the 296 GTS, a model which defines the concept of driving thrills and represents our latest evolution of the mid-rear-engined two-seater berlinetta spider equipped with our innovative V6 hybrid engine. Following the launch, in May 2022, we unveiled our season-long Esperienza Ferrari program for new clients, where they can have a full brand experience at Maranello and the opportunity to test drive our new V6 hybrid engine on the 296 GTB both on road and at our historic Fiorano race circuit.

2022 was also an important milestone in the brand’s history, marking our 75th Anniversary. Clients attending our first ever Icona Cavalcade, dedicated exclusively to owners of the first Icona model, the Monza SP1 and Monza SP2, were invited to Maranello in June to join the company’s anniversary celebration, culminating in Ferrari’s Fiorano racetrack being lit by the largest ever LED display, as certified by the Guinness World Records.

In September 2022, Ferrari unveiled the Purosangue, the first ever four-door, four-seater car in the Prancing Horse’s 75-year history. Clients from over 40 countries joined the World Premiere held at the unique Teatro del Silenzio located in the picturesque Tuscan landscape.

In November 2022, the first Universo Ferrari brand exhibition to be held outside of Maranello took place in Sydney, Australia. Guests were offered the opportunity to enjoy various aspects of the Ferrari experience with special models on display including the latest Icona, the Daytona SP3, as well as the Australasia Regional Premiere of the Purosangue.

Throughout 2022, clients also had the opportunity to benefit from the exclusive and dedicated Casa Ferrari hospitality around the world in selected venues, including Formula 1 race weekends in Melbourne, Miami, Singapore and Abu Dhabi, as well as important automotive gatherings like Goodwood Festival of Speed in England and Pebble Beach in Monterey.

Driving Events

Driving events serve the dual objective of allowing clients to enjoy the best emotions of driving a Ferrari, and to foster client loyalty and repeat purchases by creating enhanced opportunities to experience new Ferrari cars. The Ferrari community is a passionate group supported by a wide array of experiences tailored to the dreams of modern car owners, classic car connoisseurs, and racetrack enthusiasts.

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We see nurturing our clients’ passion for driving as a key asset for our future commercial success, particularly in markets where racing traditions are less pronounced. We offer our prospective and existing clients interested in new Ferrari models our Esperienza Ferrari program, which consists of driving sessions with a team of highly qualified and skilled Ferrari instructors and technicians. In addition we also offer to our clients on-track driving courses (Corso Pilota), catering to different levels of skill and experience and teaching essential driving skills for high performance cars. In selected markets, such as China, we also offer complimentary driving courses on-track to any new car buyer.

In addition to on-track activities, we organize various on-the-road driving events for Ferrari owners, both under proprietary formats (Ferrari Cavalcade, including the Cavalcade Classiche that are dedicated to our collectors) and with our own branded presence within established driving events. For example, in the Ferrari Tribute to Mille Miglia and the Ferrari Tribute to Targa Florio, modern Ferrari cars take part in their own dedicated competition before the start of the main racing. There is also a calendar of Ferrari tours organized in various countries allowing all Ferrari owners to enjoy their cars on specially curated road journeys.

Another exclusive driving experience is the Corso Pilota Classiche course, led by experts of the Ferrari Classiche team and aimed at classic car enthusiasts and clients interested in learning more about the Ferrari Classiche certification program and the storied archives at our Officine Classiche restoration department. The initiative also offers the opportunity to experience on-track driving of the models celebrated on our Fiorano race circuit.

Client Experience On Track

The Client Experience On Track (formerly Corse Clienti) made it possible to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Ferrari Challenge Trofeo Pirelli with initiatives both in Europe and in America. While the European and the United States series were very well attended, the Asia Pacific series, where the championship started in the middle of the season, was still impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2023, the Finali Mondiali will take place at the Mugello circuit, which will host the event from October 24 to October 30 (see “—Racing Activities—Mugello Circuit”).

The F1 Clienti and the XX Programme also generated positive results, especially in the second half of the year, as evidenced by the record number of cars at the Finali Mondiali in Imola. With a return in terms of attendance at events comparable to the period prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the two programs continue to renew themselves while maintaining tradition, introducing elements of novelty and discontinuity appreciated by the participants. Wide participation was experienced in the Corsi Pilota programme, with a new attendance record in the United States and nearly always selling out in Italy.

In terms of media and television coverage, the European and American series recorded significant growth in numbers and benefited from live broadcasting on the official Ferrari YouTube channel, a service also extended to the Ferrari Challenge UK.

In a year dedicated to celebrations, the 50th anniversary of the Fiorano circuit was celebrated with a spectacular event organized on June 15, 2022, which earned the track entry in the Guinness World Records as the largest LED-illuminated racetrack.

Ferrari Classiche

The Ferrari Classiche department supports Ferrari customers in managing their historic Ferrari vehicles (over 20 years from their production) with the objective of keeping as many of these classic cars on the road as possible. Services include the certification of the authenticity of classic Ferrari cars and vehicles of particular historical relevance, the management of Ferrari restoration and repair activities, as well as the management of Ferrari spare parts, including when these are no longer available on the market. The department also provides advice on repair operations carried out on Ferrari Classiche cars within its network.

Ferrari Classiche aims to create a platform of information and technical expertise to preserve and enhance over time the awareness and value of Ferrari’s heritage and brand. We view the surviving Ferrari vehicles of historical value as the tangible legacy and incarnation of our brand. The Ferrari Classiche department also supports and encourages the direct participation of clients in strategic historical events.

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The Ferrari Classiche department in Maranello consists of an office of specialists and a workshop in which historic cars are checked, restored and repaired. In addition, in order to provide an enhanced service to owners away from the main workshop in Maranello, starting in 2017 Ferrari Classiche authorized a new service network with 73 Officina Ferrari Classiche workshops to date, primarily for vehicle repairs and the certifications’ inspections or revalidation, and the network is expected to expand in future periods.
The authenticity of the car with respect to the initial specifications is checked via a technical inspection, performed either at the Ferrari Classiche facility in Maranello or at an authorized Officina Ferrari Classiche, and benefits from a comprehensive archive containing drawings of each of the individual chassis and details of historical components. Based on the evidence gathered during this inspection, the car is then presented to an expert committee, chaired by the founder’s son, Piero Ferrari, for the certification.

At the Maranello workshop, Ferrari Classiche carries out full restorations using either original components and spare parts or replicas manufactured in accordance with the original specifications. Our service offers our clients the opportunity to restore any classic Ferrari to its original pristine conditions.

The Ferrari Classiche department also provides basic technical and instructional support to the Ferrari Classiche Academy, a new driving school project that launched in 2019 for vintage Ferrari cars, including the Ferrari 308 and 550 Maranello.

The Ferrari Classiche department also offers assistance services to customers willing to attend driving events (such as 1000 Miglia or other rally and tour) or static events (such as concours of elegance).
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Racing Activities

Participation in the FIA Formula 1 World Championship with Scuderia Ferrari and in the World Endurance Championship with the Ferrari Endurance Team is a core element of our marketing effort and promotional activities, as well as an important source of innovation for the support of the technological advancement of Ferrari’s product portfolio. We also compete in the F1 Esports Championship with the Scuderia Ferrari Esports Team and we own the Mugello racing circuit in Scarperia, near Florence, which we rent to racing events organizers. Each of these items is further discussed below.

Formula 1 Activities

The FIA Formula 1 World Championship is the pinnacle of motorsports with 445 million unique viewers and a total cumulative global television audience of 1.55 billion in 2021. (Source: Formula 1 Press Office)

Once again in 2021, Formula 1’s social media platforms grew significantly, with the total number of followers up 40 percent to 49.1 million, and video views increased by 50 percent to 7 billion. In 2021, Formula 1’s social media channels were once again the fastest growing major sports league in the world across the four major social platforms and registered the fastest growth in engagement compared to other major sports. (Source: Formula 1 Press Office)

Formula 1 cars rely on advanced technology, powerful hybrid engines and cutting edge aerodynamics. While Europe is the sport’s traditional base, longstanding non-European venues such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Mexico and the United States have been joined in the last two decades by racing venues in China, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Russia and Azerbaijan (although neither Russia nor China will host races in 2023). This provides participants in the Formula 1 World Championship exceptional visibility on the world stage.

Scuderia Ferrari has been racing in the Formula 1 World Championship since the series was launched in 1950, and won its first Grand Prix in 1951. We are the only team that has competed in each season since launch and the oldest and most successful in the history of Formula 1, with 238 Grand Prix wins. Throughout our racing history, we have won 15 Drivers’ Championships and 16 Constructors’ Championships, more than any other team. Many of the best known drivers in the sport’s history have raced in Scuderia Ferrari’s distinctive red cars including Alberto Ascari, Juan-Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Raikkonen. Our drivers’ line-up in 2022 comprised Charles Leclerc, the first graduate of the Ferrari Driver Academy training scheme to race for our Formula 1 racing team, and Carlos Sainz, a young but already experienced talented Spanish driver.

In 2021, the new FIA financial regulations entered into force and are now applicable as updated in 2022, imposing a cap on certain expenses and investments related to operations and the chassis of the cars which may be incurred by any single Formula 1 team. Moreover, development activities were also limited by the new regulation and only one development per component was allowed in the power unit area. In October 2022, Ferrari received a certificate of compliance from the FIA Cost Cap Administration for 2021. In December 2021, the World Motor Sport Council validated the framework for the 2026 Power Unit (PU) Regulations, which includes technical, operational and financial guidelines. The framework identifies key objectives related to, among other things, the environmental impact, cost reduction measures and competitiveness of the FIA Formula 1 World Championship. A detailed document setting out the 2026 Power Unit Regulations was submitted to the World Motor Sport Council during the course of 2022. The 2026 Formula 1 Power Unit Regulations were approved in August 2022 and apply starting in 2023 for motors to be used in the 2026 season. They will apply to power units starting from the 2026 season of the FIA Formula 1 World Championship and, consistent with the framework proposed to the Council, are mainly focused on the sustainability and innovation challenges of Formula 1. In 2022, the World Motor Sport Council also approved changes to the 2022 and 2023 Formula 1 Technical Regulations to address safety matters.

The Formula 1 2022 World Championship was not significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Russian Grand Prix was cancelled due to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which reduced the Formula 1 season from 23 races to 22 races.

In terms of results, the season ended with second place for the Scuderia Ferrari in the Constructors’ Championship, with 554 points, four victories, twenty podiums, twelve pole positions, and with second and fifth place finishes in the Drivers’ Championship, for Charles Leclerc and Carlos Sainz, respectively.

Scuderia Ferrari’s continuing participation in the FIA Formula 1 World Championship over the five year period from 2021 to 2025 is governed by two agreements – widely known as New Concorde Agreement - signed on August 18, 2020. The first of such agreements governs the regulatory and governance aspects of the sport, and the second governs the commercial aspects. The New Concorde Agreement recognizes the historical role of Ferrari, the only team that has
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participated in all Formula 1 World Championship editions since its inception. In exchange for their participation in Formula 1 races, the participating teams receive a share of a prize fund based on the profits earned from Formula 1-related commercial activities managed by Formula 1, including in particular, promoters’ fees, television broadcasting royalties, partnership agreements and other sources. Shares in the prize fund are paid to the teams, largely based on the relative ranking of each team in the championship. We use our share of these payments to offset a portion of the costs associated with Scuderia Ferrari, including the costs of designing and producing the race cars each year and the costs associated with managing a racing team, including the salaries of the drivers, who are typically among the most highly paid athletes in the world. Please see “Risk Factors—Our revenues from Formula 1 activities may decline and our related expenses may grow”.

Improvements in technology and, from time to time, changes in regulations typically require the design and production of a new racing car every year. Therefore, in addition to our long-term research and development efforts, we begin designing our cars each year in the spring, in anticipation of the start of the racing season the following March. While the chassis and the power unit we build each year are designed to be used throughout the racing season, the majority of other components fitted on our cars are adjusted from race to race depending on the characteristics of the circuits.

To maximize the performance, efficiency and safety of our Formula 1 cars, while complying with the strict technical rules and restrictions set out by the FIA, our research and development team plays a key role in the development of our road cars and their engines. We often transfer technologies initially developed for racing to our road cars. Examples include steering wheel paddles for gear-shifting, the use and development of composite materials, which make cars lighter and faster, and technology related to hybrid propulsion.

Our road cars (especially our sports car models) have benefited from the know-how acquired in the wind tunnel by our racing car development teams, enjoying greater stability as they reach high speeds on and off the track. Our research and development team focus on combining minimal lap times with maximum efficiency, leading to advances in kinetic energy recovery systems, or ERS, technology. Current advanced ERS features two electric motor/generator units in every car, which allow the car to recover, store and deploy energy generated both by the vehicle during braking and by the exhaust gases through a turbocharger.

The great visibility, both on traditional media and on digital platforms, that Scuderia Ferrari obtains thanks to its participation in the FIA Formula 1 World Championship continues to attract significant sponsorships. The visibility and placement of partner logos on the car and team uniforms reflect their respective level of sponsorship.

We use the platform provided by Formula 1 for a number of associated marketing initiatives, such as the hosting of clients and other key partners in Ferrari Formula 1 Club Hospitality to watch and experience the Grand Prix races with Scuderia Ferrari, and our Formula 1 drivers’ participation in various promotional activities for our road cars. We also often sell older Formula 1 cars to customers for use in amateur racing or collection.

More generally, Formula 1 racing allows us to promote and market our brand and technology to a global audience without resorting to traditional advertising activities, therefore preserving the aura of exclusivity around our brand and limiting the marketing costs that we, as a company operating in the luxury industry, would otherwise incur.

World Endurance Championship

Ferrari confirmed its status as World Endurance Champion of the LMGTE Pro class, both in the Constructors’ and Drivers’ categories, and achieved several other successes during the year. At the end of a season that was once again full of titles and successes in the most important GT championships at the international and national level, in 2022 we unveiled the 296 GT3, the V6 that will replace the 488 GT3, which delivered 119 titles and over 500 wins and takes its place in history as the most successful racing Ferrari to date. In 2022, we also unveiled our new Le Mans hypercar, the 499P, which signals Ferrari’s return to the top tier of the FIA World Endurance Championship in the 2023 Season – 50 years after we last competed for the title.    

Scuderia Ferrari Esports team
To further enhance the Ferrari experience, we have been focusing on the ever growing popularity of E-sports. The Scuderia Ferrari Esports Team competes in the F1 Esports Championship, Virtual 24H of Le Mans, and SRO Esports Championship. In 2022, the tournament expanded to cover Europe and North America, with the aim to find new drivers for the Ferrari Esports team and a program to reach a younger audience worldwide.

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Mugello Circuit

Located in Scarperia just outside Firenze, for more than 100 years the Mugello Circuit has been one of the leading motorsport venues globally. Internationally renowned as the host venue for the Italian MotoGP Grand Prix since 1976 (and consecutively since 1994), the Formula 1 Grand Prix of Tuscany Ferrari 1000 in 2020, and numerous international motorsports competitions, the 5,245 metres circuit mimicking the natural slopes of the Tuscan hills is also famed for its ultimate driving experience and modern facilities.

Originally a 66 km road circuit, the first motorsport events held at Mugello starting from 1914 were regularity. Enzo Ferrari won in 1921 on an Alfa Romeo class 4.500. The current facilities were designed in the early 70’s and later re-modelled in 1988 when Ferrari bought the circuit. Year after year the track has seen consistent improvements in terms of safety with FIA Grade 1 and FIM Grade A certifications, the highest levels of homologation for a racetrack.

In 2022, the circuit hosted 190 days of track activities and 13 race weekends.

The circuit was awarded the prize for the Best Grand Prix circuit for a MotoGP event five times (1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2011), and is also a leader in terms of its sustainability practices. It was the first circuit in the world to obtain FIA’s prestigious “Achievement of Excellence” in 2015 and to be certified according to the sustainable event management system ISO 20121. In July 2021, an analysis carried out by Enovation Consulting and Right Hub on 96 circuits worldwide, 23 of which host or have hosted a Formula 1 GP, featured the Mugello Circuit on top of the Sustainable Circuits Index.

In 2022 all certifications were renewed, including for the international standards for sustainable and event management as well as the system of safety and health management on work places.


Ferrari Lifestyle Strategy
Ferrari’s presence in the wider luxury landscape is a unique opportunity to ensure brand relevance across generations. The role of Ferrari Lifestyle is to fuel long term growth by broadening our customers’ base and expanding our value proposition beyond our core business, while preserving our brand’s DNA, its heritage and values.
The goal and mission of our Ferrari Lifestyle Strategy is that of bringing to life a universe that encapsulates Ferrari’s DNA while accompanying our clients through different stages and moments of their lives.

Over the past five years, to strengthen brand desirability, Ferrari:

1)Entered into the personal luxury goods segment, a critical segment to broaden our client base, amplifying cultural relevance for the brand especially for future generations. We also launched our clothing and apparel collection through three dedicated fashion shows.
2)Created a new organizational structure, creating a dedicated and talented team with fashion and luxury expertise based in Milan and working closely with our team in Maranello.
3)Rationalized its licenses by terminating approximately half of its license agreements where the product offering and distribution was not consistent with the positioning of the Ferrari brand.
4)Completed the rationalization of the retail network by closing 7 franchised stores and 3 directly operated stores considered unsuitable for Ferrari’s luxury positioning. We have since relocated and restyled our existing flagship boutiques and opened 2 new ones in the United States. Our international network of Ferrari Stores consisted of 16 Ferrari-owned directly operated stores and 2 franchised stores as of December 31, 2022.

Ferrari Lifestyle will have three pillars: (1) Personal Luxury Goods, (2) Collectibles and (3) Experience.

(1)Personal Luxury Goods – Will be dedicated to our own refined collection – accessories, apparel and selected merchandising – embodying the style, creativity and quality that we stand for, balancing exclusiveness and inclusiveness through a carefully combined mix of product categories. Importantly, we will continue to strengthen partnerships with selected licensees, which will allow us to play in complementary territories/categories while being loyal to our brand’s DNA and positioning. Through our network of directly operated stores, we offer a wide range of Ferrari branded products, including our fashion collection and selected merchandising and licenses.


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race-20221231_g15.jpg
(2)Collectibles – Will build on the concept of collectability by enlarging and customizing the portfolio of available Ferrari tokens and the offer of Ferrari branded products such as high-end watches and high-end writing instruments, consumer electronics, sportswear, toys, leading video games, and other accessories. We will expand the offer of products such as limited editions and one-off artifacts embodying the inherent craftsmanship and innovative spirit that lie behind the creation, design and manufacture of our cars. We believe that this may even become the natural platform to venture into NFTs while leveraging one block chain technology.

race-20221231_g16.jpg
(3)Experience – Through this pillar we intend to nurture our heritage and celebrate our craftsmanship through dedicated and tailor-made experiences. We will capture the essence of the Ferrari spirit by immersing customers in the racing
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history, passion and values of Ferrari, through our Ferrari museums in Modena and Maranello (which attracted more than 616,000 visitors in 2022), Il Cavallino restaurant in Maranello and our theme parks in Abu Dhabi and Spain.
race-20221231_g17.jpg
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Intellectual Property

We own a number of registered designs and utility patents. We expect the number to grow as we continue to pursue technological innovations and to develop our design and brand activities.

We file patent applications in Europe, and around the world (including in the United States) to protect technology and improvements considered important to our business. No single patent is material to our business as a whole.

We also own a number of registered trademarks, designs and patents, including approximately 500 trademarks (word or figurative), registered in several countries and across a number classes. In particular, we ensure that the maximum level of protection is given to the following iconic trademarks, for which we own approximately 4,270 applications/registrations in approximately 140 countries, in most of the main classes for goods and services:

“Ferrari” (word)
“Ferrari” logotype:
    race-20221231_g18.jpg
the “Prancing Horse” (figurative):
race-20221231_g19.jpg
the trademark (figurative):
    race-20221231_g20.jpg
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the racing shield (figurative):
    race-20221231_g21.jpg
Scuderia Ferrari (word and figurative):
race-20221231_g22.jpg
The names of our Range, Special Series and Icona car models and Formula 1 single-seater models are also registered as trademarks (and logotypes) and we also register their domain names and the cars’ design.

The protection of intellectual property is also increasingly important in connection with our design and brand activities. Therefore, we adopt and follow internal processes and procedures to ensure both that all necessary protection is given to our intellectual property rights and that no third party rights are infringed by us. In addition, we are particularly active in seeking to limit any counterfeiting activities regarding our Ferrari branded products around the world. To reach this goal we closely monitor trademark applications and domain names worldwide, actively interact with national and local authorities and customs and avail ourselves of a network of experienced outside counsels.
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Properties

Our principal manufacturing facility is located in Maranello (Modena), Italy. It has an aggregate covered area of approximately 835 thousand square meters. Our Maranello plant hosts our corporate offices and most of the facilities we operate for the design, development and production of our road and track cars, as well as of our Formula 1 single-seaters. (See “—Production and Procurement—Production Process”). Except for some leased technical equipment, we own all of our facilities and equipment in Maranello.

Since 2002 we have either rebuilt or renovated most of the existing buildings in Maranello, including the paint shop building and the production building. In 2015 we completed construction of the new building entirely dedicated to our Formula 1 team and racing activities, as well as the new wind tunnel 4WD. In 2018 we completed the new Ferrari Design Centre, a building that covers more than 7 thousand square meters. In 2019 we completed the office area and workshop area of the New Technical Center for the development of engines and hybrid systems. The entire building and the engine and hybrid test benches cover an area of approximately 20 thousand square meters and were completed in 2021. Also in 2019, we purchased land of approximately 16 thousand square meters in line with our expansion plans.

In 2020 we purchased approximately 64 thousand square meters of land in Maranello to be used for future developments. In 2021, we completed the construction of the new building related to new GT sport activities (which covers an area of approximately 6 thousand square meters near the Fiorano track), the new building for our Formula 1 simulator and the renovation of the offices used by our Marketing and Commercial department. In 2021 we also purchased approximately 52 thousand square meters of land in Maranello to be used for future developments.

In 2022, we started the construction of the 40 thousand square meter e-building (on land acquired in recent years), where we will manufacture the unique Ferrari electric engines, inverters, battery modules, magnets, and assembly lines.

Adjacent to the plant is our Fiorano track, of approximately 3 thousand meters, built in 1972 and remodeled in 1996.

The track also houses the Formula 1 logistics offices. Additional facilities in Maranello include a product development center, a hospitality area and the Ferrari museum.

We also own the Mugello racing circuit in Scarperia, near Florence, which we rent to racing events organizers (see “—Racing Activities—Mugello Circuit”).

We own a second plant in Modena, named Carrozzeria Scaglietti. At this approximately 26 thousand square meter plant we manufacture aluminum bodyworks for our regular Range, Special Series and prototype cars.

The total carrying value of our property, plant and equipment at December 31, 2022 was €1,458 million.

Employees

Human capital is a crucial factor in our success, building on our position as a global leader in the luxury performance car sector and creating long-term, sustainable value. To recognize excellence, encourage professional development and create equal opportunities, we adopt a number of initiatives, including our appraisal system to assess our middle-managers and white collar employees through performance management metrics; our talent management and succession planning, in addition to assessment plans for blue collars; training and skill-building initiatives; employee satisfaction and engagement surveys, including our so-called “Pit Stop”, “Pole Position” and “Formula Cultura” programs; and flexible work arrangements, commuting programs and a dedicated welfare program, Formula Benessere, which includes, among other programs, Formula Benessere Donna and Formula Benessere Junior (offering medical assistance to employees and their families) and Formula Estate Junior (offering Summer Campus to the children of employees).


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At December 31, 2022, we had a total of 4,919 employees, including 152 managers and senior managers. Of these employees, 4,606 were based at our Maranello facility and 313 were based in offices around the world (including 26 managers and senior managers), mostly in North America and China.
December 31,
202220212020
White-collar employees and middle-managers2,441 2,276 2,186 
Italy2,163 2,039 1,961 
Rest of the world278 237 225 
Workers2,326 2,190 2,233 
Italy2,317 2,180 2,224 
Rest of the world