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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to             .
Commission file number 001-36859
   
PayPal_Monogram_Full_Color_RGB.jpg

PayPal Holdings, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
Delaware47-2989869
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2211 North First StreetSan Jose,California95131
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(408) 967-1000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
  
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per sharePYPLNASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. 
Yes     No




Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer
  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).      Yes      No 

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $73.4 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

As of February 1, 2024, there were 1,071,741,864 shares of common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.



Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Page
Part I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Part III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV
Item 15.
Item 16.
Trademarks, Trade Names and Service Marks
PayPal owns or has rights to use the trademarks, service marks, and trade names that it uses in conjunction with the operation of its business. Some of the more important trademarks that PayPal owns or has rights to use that appear in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include: PayPal®, PayPal Credit®, Braintree, Venmo, Xoom, Zettle, Hyperwallet, Honey, and Paidy, which may be registered or trademarked in the United States and other jurisdictions. PayPal’s rights to some of these trademarks may be limited to select markets. This report may contain additional trade names and trademarks of other companies. The use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks does not imply our endorsement or sponsorship of, or a relationship with these companies.


Table of Contents
PART I

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including statements that involve expectations, plans or intentions (such as those relating to future business, future results of operations or financial condition, new or planned features or services, mergers or acquisitions, or management strategies). These forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as “may,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “intend,” "continue," “strategy,” “future,” “opportunity,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” and other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results and financial condition to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, among others, those discussed in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K, as well as in our consolidated financial statements, related notes, and the other information appearing in this report and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We do not intend, and undertake no obligation except as required by law, to update any of our forward-looking statements after the date of this report to reflect actual results, new information, or future events or circumstances. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. You should read the information in this report in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear in this report.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

OVERVIEW

PayPal Holdings, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in January 2015 and is a leading technology platform that enables digital payments and simplifies commerce experiences on behalf of merchants and consumers worldwide. PayPal is committed to democratizing financial services to help improve the financial health of individuals and to increase economic opportunity for entrepreneurs and businesses of all sizes around the world. Our goal is to enable our merchants and consumers to manage and move their money anywhere in the world in the markets we serve, anytime, on any platform, and using any device when sending payments or getting paid, including person-to-person (“P2P”) payments. We believe that effective management of non-financial risks and opportunities, including environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) topics, helps to create value for our stakeholders and deliver on our mission and strategy. We also believe that our core values help stimulate the creativity and engagement of our global workforce to deliver products and services designed to meet the diverse needs of our customers. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” or “PayPal” refer to PayPal Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.



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4

Table of Contents
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PayPal’s payment solutions enable our customers to connect, transact, and send and receive payments, whether they are online or in person. We provide proprietary payment solutions accepted by merchants that enable the completion of payments on our platform on behalf of our customers. We operate a global, two-sided network at scale that connects merchants and consumers with 426 million active accounts (consisting of 391 million consumer active accounts and 35 million merchant active accounts) across approximately 200 markets as of December 31, 2023.

We offer our customers the flexibility to use their PayPal or Venmo accounts to send and receive payments for goods and services, as well as the ability to transfer and withdraw funds. We enable consumers to exchange funds more safely with merchants using a variety of funding sources, which may include a bank account, a PayPal or Venmo account balance, PayPal and Venmo branded credit products including our installment products, a credit card, a debit card, certain cryptocurrencies, or other stored value products such as gift cards, and eligible rewards. Our PayPal and Venmo products also make it safer and simpler for friends and family to transfer funds to each other. We offer merchants an end-to-end payments solution that provides authorization and settlement capabilities, as well as instant access to funds and payouts. We help merchants connect with their customers, and offer tools and insights to help increase sales, power omnichannel experiences, and manage risk. We also help reduce the friction typically involved in cross-border commerce by offering consumers a simple payment experience and by enabling merchants to extend their reach to consumers in the global markets in which our services are available.

We earn revenues primarily by charging fees for completing payment transactions for our customers and other payment-related services, which are typically based on the volume of activity processed on our payments platform. We also generate revenue from customers for currency conversion, for instant transfers from their PayPal or Venmo account to their bank account or debit card, and to facilitate the purchase and sale of cryptocurrencies; however, we generally do not charge customers to fund or draw from their accounts. We also earn revenue by providing other value-added services, which primarily comprise revenue earned through partnerships, interest and fees from our merchant and consumer credit products, interest earned on certain assets underlying customer balances, referral fees, subscription fees, and gateway services.


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KEY PERFORMANCE METRICS

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We measure the scale of our platform and the relevance of our products and services to our customers through certain metrics, including total payment volume, payment transactions, and active accounts:

Total payment volume (“TPV”) is the value of payments, net of payment reversals, successfully completed on our payments platform or enabled by PayPal via a partner payment solution, not including gateway-exclusive transactions.

Number of payment transactions are the total number of payments, net of payment reversals, successfully completed on our payments platform or enabled by PayPal via a partner payment solution, not including gateway-exclusive transactions.

An active account is an account registered directly with PayPal or a platform access partner that has completed a transaction on our platform, not including gateway-exclusive transactions, within the past 12 months. A platform access partner is a third party whose customers are provided access to PayPal’s platform or services through such third-party’s login credentials, including individuals and entities that utilize Hyperwallet’s payout capabilities. A user may register on our platform to access different products and may register more than one account to access a product. Accordingly, a user may have more than one active account. The number of active accounts provides management with additional perspective on the overall scale of our platform, but may not have a direct relationship to our operating results.

OUR STRENGTHS

Our business is built on a strong foundation designed to drive growth and differentiate us from our competitors. A critical element of our overall growth strategy involves increasing the engagement of our active accounts, which we expect will contribute to growth in payment transactions, total payment volume, and net revenues. We believe that our competitive strengths include the following:

Two-sided networkour payments platform connecting merchants and consumers enables PayPal to offer unique end-to-end product experiences designed to remove friction for consumers and drive sales conversion for merchants while gaining valuable insights into how our customers use our platform. Our payments platform provides for digital and in-store (at the point of sale) transactions while being both technology and platform agnostic.

Merchant and consumer choiceour branded and unbranded card processing payment solutions support an open ecosystem that provides choice to both merchants and consumers, enabling flexibility to make and receive payments using a wide variety of different funding options and digital wallet solutions.


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Scaleour global scale helps us to drive organic growth. As of December 31, 2023, we had 426 million active accounts, consisting of 391 million consumer active accounts and 35 million merchant active accounts in approximately 200 markets around the world. A market is a geographic area or political jurisdiction, such as a country, territory, or protectorate, in which we offer some or all of our products and services. A country, territory, or protectorate is identified by a distinct set of laws and regulations. In 2023, we processed $1.53 trillion of TPV.

Trusted brandswe have built and strengthened well-recognized and trusted brands, including PayPal, Braintree, and Venmo. Our communications and marketing efforts across multiple geographies and demographic groups play an important role in building brand visibility, usage, and overall preference among customers.

Risk and compliance managementour enterprise risk and compliance management program is designed to help keep customer information secure and ensure we process legitimate transactions around the world, while identifying and minimizing illegal, high-risk, or fraudulent transactions.

Regulatory licenseswe believe that our regulatory licenses, which enable us to operate in markets around the world, are a distinct advantage and help support business growth.

MERCHANT AND CONSUMER PAYMENT SOLUTIONS

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In late 2023, we reorganized our operations to be more closely aligned to the customers we serve—consumers, small businesses, and large enterprises—and to help enable our teams to deliver more seamless and differentiated end-to-end experiences.

Merchant value proposition

We partner with our merchants to help grow and expand their businesses by providing global reach and powering all aspects of digital checkout. We offer alternative payment methods including access to credit solutions, provide fraud prevention and risk management solutions, reduce merchant losses through proprietary protection programs, and offer tools and insights for utilizing data analytics to help merchants attract and engage customers and improve sales conversion. We employ a technology and platform agnostic approach intended to enable merchants of all sizes to quickly and easily provide digital checkout online, including through PayPal-branded checkout and unbranded card processing (primarily consisting of Braintree), as well as in person at the point of sale, across all platforms and devices, and to securely and simply receive payments from their customers.


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PayPal’s payments platform enables merchants to accept all types of online and in person payments, including those made with the PayPal and Venmo digital wallets, our consumer credit products, credit cards and debit cards, and competing digital wallets, as well as other popular local payment methods. Our diversified suite of products and services is tailored to meet the needs of merchants regardless of their size or business complexity. We offer a seamless, omnichannel solution that helps merchants manage and grow their business. By offering simplified and personalized shopping experiences for consumers, we help merchants drive increased engagement and sales conversion.

We offer access to merchant financing products for eligible small and medium-sized businesses through the PayPal Working Capital and PayPal Business Loan products, which we collectively refer to as our merchant financing solutions. The PayPal Working Capital product allows businesses to access a loan or cash advance for a fixed fee, based on their annual payment volume processed by PayPal. The PayPal Business Loan product provides businesses with access to short-term financing for a fixed fee or interest based on an evaluation of both the applying business as well as the business owner. In the United States (“U.S.”), these products are provided under a program agreement with an independent chartered financial institution. We believe that our merchant financing solutions enable us to deepen our engagement with our existing small and medium-sized merchants and expand services to new merchants by providing access to capital that may not be available from traditional banks or other lenders.

We generate revenues from merchants primarily by charging fees for completing their payment transactions and other payment-related services. We also earn revenues from interest and fees earned on our merchant loans receivables.

Consumer value proposition

We focus on providing affordable, convenient, and secure consumer financial products and services intended to facilitate the management and movement of money. We provide consumers with a digital wallet that enables them to send payments to merchants more safely using a variety of funding sources, which may include a bank account, a PayPal or Venmo account balance, our consumer credit products, a credit card, a debit card, certain cryptocurrencies, or other stored value products such as gift cards, and eligible rewards. Our goal is to create the simplest checkout experience possible for consumers both online and on mobile devices.

We also offer consumers P2P payment solutions for domestic and international transfers through our PayPal, Venmo, and Xoom products and services. Our Venmo digital wallet in the U.S. is a leading mobile application used to move money between our customers and to make purchases at select merchants. Our Xoom international money transfer service enables our customers to send money to people around the world in a secure, fast, and cost-effective way. P2P is an important source of customer engagement and also serves as a customer acquisition channel that facilitates organic growth by enabling potential users to establish active accounts with PayPal or Venmo at the time they make or receive a P2P payment.

We also focus on simplifying and personalizing shopping experiences for our consumers by offering tools for product discovery, price tracking, saving through deals and offers, convenient package tracking, and redemption of shopping rewards, which help our merchants to increase consumer engagement and sales conversion.

We offer credit products to eligible consumers in certain markets as a funding source at checkout. Our consumer credit offerings include our buy now, pay later products in the U.S., United Kingdom (“U.K.”), France, and Germany, among other markets, and in Japan through our Paidy brand. A key attribute of our buy now, pay later products is the absence of interest or consumer late fees for missed payments in most of the geographies where we offer them. Further, we offer interest-bearing installment products for consumers in the U.S. (issued by an independent chartered financial institution) and in Germany. In the U.S., consumers may apply for our PayPal- and Venmo-branded consumer credit cards and our PayPal Credit revolving consumer credit product, which are offered through a partnership with an independent chartered financial institution. We offer a PayPal-issued PayPal Credit product in the U.K. We believe that our consumer credit products help us to increase engagement with consumers and merchants on our two-sided network.

We have expanded our consumer value proposition through enhancements to the PayPal and Venmo digital wallets, which provide functionality to enable consumers to more easily check out, explore deals and offers, track and redeem rewards, and to transact with certain cryptocurrencies, including buying, holding, selling, sending, and receiving them in certain markets. Our goal is to drive increased consumer engagement by providing consumers with a wide range of services to manage their finances and enhance their ability to shop online and in person.

We generate revenue from consumers from: foreign currency conversions, instant transfers from their PayPal or Venmo account to their bank account or debit card, and facilitating the purchase and sale of cryptocurrencies; interest, fees, or other revenue from our credit products; and other miscellaneous fees.

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PROTECTING MERCHANTS AND CONSUMERS

Protecting merchants and consumers on our payments platform from financial and fraud loss is important to successfully compete and sustainably grow our business. Fraudulent activities, such as account takeover, identity theft (including stolen financial information), and malicious activities by counterparties, represent a significant risk to merchants and consumers, as well as their payment partners. In addition to the protections afforded by applicable law, we provide merchants and consumers with protection programs for certain purchase transactions completed on our payments platform. Our protection programs help protect both merchants and consumers from financial loss resulting from, among other things, counterparty non-performance. These programs are designed to promote confidence on the part of both consumers, who will not be required to pay in certain circumstances, such as not receiving their purchased item in the condition significantly as described, and merchants, who will receive payment for delivering an item to the customer. We believe that these programs are generally consistent with or broader than protections provided by other participants in the payments industry.

Our ability to help protect both merchants and consumers is based largely on our proprietary, end-to-end payments platform and our ability to utilize the data from both sides of transactions on our two-sided network, specifically from buyers and sellers and from senders and receivers of payments. Our ongoing investment in systems and processes is designed to enhance the safety and security of our products and reflects our goal of having PayPal recognized as one of the world’s most trusted payments brands.

COMPETITION

The global payments industry is highly competitive, dynamic, highly innovative, and increasingly subject to regulatory scrutiny and oversight. Many of the areas in which we compete evolve rapidly with innovative and disruptive technologies, shifting user preferences and needs, price sensitivity of merchants and consumers, and frequent introductions of new products and services. Competition also may intensify as new competitors emerge, businesses combine or enter into new partnerships, and established companies in other segments expand to become competitive with various aspects of our business.

Our business faces competition from a wide range of businesses and from all forms of physical and electronic payments. We face competition from banks and financial institutions, which provide traditional payment methods (particularly credit cards and debit cards (collectively, “payment cards”), electronic bank transfers, credit, and installment methods), payment networks that facilitate payments for payment cards or proprietary retail networks, payment card processors, and “card on file” services. We also face competition from providers offering a variety of payment products and services, including tokenized and contactless payment cards, digital wallets and mobile payments solutions, credit, installment or other buy now pay later methods, real-time payment systems, P2P payments and money remittance services, card readers and other devices or technologies for payment at point of sale (such as contactless cards, tokenized cards, Near Field Communication (NFC) based solutions, and Quick Response (QR) code based solutions), virtual currencies (such as cryptocurrencies and stablecoins) and distributed ledger technologies, and tools that simplify and personalize shopping experiences for consumers and merchants. Our products and services also face competition from paper-based payments (primarily cash and checks).

We differentiate ourselves to merchants through our ability to innovate and develop products and services that offer new payment experiences for our merchants, demonstrate that they may achieve incremental sales by using and offering our services to consumers, and support transactions on our payments platform across varied technologies and payment methods; through the simplicity and transparency of our fee structure; and through our seller protection programs, analytics, and risk management, as well as other merchant services. In addition, we differentiate ourselves to consumers through our broad acceptance and the ability to use our products and services across multiple commerce channels, including e-commerce, mobile, and in person payments, and without sharing their financial information with the merchant or any other party they are paying; our customer service, dispute resolution, and purchase protection programs; and our ability to simplify and personalize shopping experiences. We invest resources towards improving our products and services and expanding their acceptance, offering choice in payment options, providing excellent customer service, and building brands that merchants and consumers trust.

In addition to the discussion in this section, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” under the caption “We face substantial and increasingly intense competition worldwide in the global payments industry” for further discussion of the potential impact of competition on our business.


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STRATEGY

Our ability to grow revenue is affected by, among other things, the macroeconomic environment and its impact on consumer spending patterns, adoption of digital payment methods, the expansion of multiple commerce channels, the growth of mobile devices and merchant and consumer applications on those devices, the growth of merchants and consumers globally with internet and mobile access, the pace of transition from cash and checks to digital forms of payment, our share of digital payments, and our ability to innovate and introduce new products, services, and features that merchants and consumers value. Our strategy to drive growth in our business includes the following:

Growing our core business: through expanding our global capabilities, customer base and scale, increasing our customers’ engagement with our products and services by better addressing their everyday needs to access, manage, and move money, creating seamless checkout experiences, and expanding the adoption of our solutions by merchants and consumers;

Expanding our value proposition for merchants and consumers: by being technology- and platform- agnostic, partnering with our merchants to grow and expand their business online and in person, including offering merchants risk management and seller protection programs, and providing consumers with simple, secure, and flexible ways to manage and move money across different markets, merchants, and platforms, including offering buyer protection programs and simplifying their shopping experiences;

Forming and expanding strategic partnerships: by building new strategic partnerships and deepening existing ones to provide better experiences for our customers, offer greater choice and flexibility, acquire new customers, and reinforce our role in the payments ecosystem; and

Seeking new areas of growth: by focusing on innovation in both the digital and physical worlds and finding opportunities to expand and improve upon our existing products and capabilities.


TECHNOLOGY

Our payments platform utilizes a combination of proprietary and third-party technologies and services intended to facilitate transactions efficiently and securely between millions of merchants and consumers worldwide across different channels, markets, and networks. Our payments platform connects with financial services providers around the world and allows consumers to make purchases using a wide range of payment methods, regardless of where a merchant is located. Consumers who use our payments platform can send payments in approximately 200 markets around the world and in approximately 150 currencies, withdraw funds to their bank accounts in 56 currencies, and hold balances in their PayPal accounts in 24 currencies.

We have developed intuitive user interfaces, customer tools, transaction management databases, and payment network integrations on our platform designed to enable our customers to utilize our suite of products and services. Our payments platform, open application programming interfaces, and developer tools are designed to enable developers to innovate with ease and offer robust solutions to our global ecosystem of merchants and consumers, while at the same time helping to maintain the security of our customers’ information.

The technology infrastructure supporting our payments platform is designed to simplify the storage and processing of large amounts of data and facilitate the deployment and operation of large-scale global products and services in both our own data centers and when hosted by third-party cloud service providers. Our technology infrastructure is designed around industry best practices intended to reduce downtime and help ensure the resiliency of our payments platform in the event of outages or catastrophic occurrences. Our payments platform incorporates multiple layers of protection for business continuity and system redundancy purposes and to help mitigate cybersecurity risks. We have a comprehensive cybersecurity program designed to protect our technology infrastructure and payments platform against cybersecurity threats, which includes regularly testing our systems to identify and address potential vulnerabilities. We strive to continually improve our technology infrastructure and payments platform to enhance the customer experience and to increase efficiency, scalability, and security.

For additional information regarding risks relating to our technology infrastructure and cybersecurity, see the information in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” under the captions “Cyberattacks and security vulnerabilities could result in serious harm to our reputation, business, and financial condition” and “Business interruptions or systems failures may impair the availability of our websites, applications, products or services, or otherwise harm our business.”


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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Our total research and development expense was $1.6 billion, $1.7 billion, and $1.6 billion in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

The protection of our intellectual property, including our trademarks, copyrights, domain names, trade dress, patents, and trade secrets, is important to the success of our business. We seek to protect our intellectual property rights by relying on applicable laws, regulations, and administrative procedures in the U.S. and internationally. We have registered our core brands as domain names and as trademarks in the U.S. and many international jurisdictions. We also have an active program to secure and enforce trademarks and domain names that correspond to our brands in markets of interest. We have filed and continue to file patent applications in the U.S. and in international jurisdictions covering certain aspects of our proprietary technology and new innovations. We also rely on contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary rights when offering or procuring products and services. We routinely enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors, and non-disclosure agreements with parties with whom we conduct business to control access to, and use and disclosure of, our proprietary information.

For additional information regarding risks relating to our intellectual property, see the information in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” under the captions “Third parties may allege that we are infringing their patents and other intellectual property rights” and “We may be unable to protect or enforce our intellectual property.”

GOVERNMENT REGULATION

We operate globally and in a rapidly evolving regulatory environment characterized by a heightened focus by regulators globally on all aspects of the payments industry, including anti-money laundering, countering terrorist financing, privacy, cybersecurity, and consumer protection. The laws and regulations applicable to us, including those enacted prior to the advent of digital payments, continue to evolve through legislative and regulatory action and judicial interpretation. New or changing laws and regulations, including changes to their interpretation and implementation, as well as increased penalties and enforcement actions related to non-compliance, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. We monitor these areas closely and are focused on designing compliant solutions for our customers.

Government regulation impacts key aspects of our business. We are subject to the laws and regulations applicable to the payments industry in the markets we operate, which are subject to interpretation and change.

Payments regulation. Various laws and regulations govern the payments industry in the U.S. and internationally. In the U.S., PayPal, Inc. (a wholly-owned subsidiary) holds licenses to operate as a money transmitter (or its equivalent) in the states where such licenses are required, as well as in the District of Columbia and certain territories. These licenses include not only our PayPal-branded products and services, but also our Venmo, Hyperwallet, and Xoom products and services, to the extent offered in these locations. As a licensed money transmitter, PayPal is subject to, among other requirements, restrictions on the investment of customer funds, reporting requirements, bonding requirements, and inspection by state regulatory agencies. In certain cases, these licenses also generally cover PayPal’s service enabling customers to buy, hold, transfer, and sell cryptocurrency directly from their PayPal or Venmo account. In the State of New York, PayPal holds a full Bitlicense issued by the New York Department of Financial Services to offer cryptocurrency services in the state.

Outside the U.S., we provide similar services customized for various countries and foreign jurisdictions through our foreign subsidiaries. The activities of those non-U.S. entities are, or may be, supervised by a financial regulatory authority in the jurisdictions in which they operate. Among other regulatory authorities, the Luxembourg Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier (the “CSSF”), the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority, the People’s Bank of China, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, the Reserve Bank of India, the Central Bank of Russia, and the Central Bank of Brazil have asserted jurisdiction over some or all of our activities in their respective jurisdictions. This list is not exhaustive, and there are numerous other regulatory agencies which have asserted or may assert jurisdiction over our activities.

In addition, financial services regulators in various jurisdictions, including the U.S. and the European Union (“EU”), have implemented authentication requirements for banks and payment processors intended to reduce online fraud, which could impose significant costs, make it more difficult for new customers to open PayPal accounts, and reduce the ease of use of our products.


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Financial Services supervision. We serve our customers in the U.K. through PayPal U.K. Limited (“PayPal U.K.”), a wholly-owned subsidiary that is subject to regulation as an electronic money institution in the U.K. by the FCA. PayPal U.K. is authorized and regulated by the FCA from November 1, 2023. We serve our customers in the EU (and the U.K. through October 31, 2023) through PayPal (Europe) S.à.r.l. et Cie, S.C.A. (“PayPal (Europe)”), a wholly-owned subsidiary that is licensed and subject to regulation as a credit institution in Luxembourg by the CSSF. Accordingly, we must comply with rules and regulations of the U.K. and European banking industry, including those related to capitalization, funds management, corporate governance, anti-money laundering, disclosure, reporting, and inspection. We are, or may be, subject to banking-related regulations in other countries now or in the future related to our role in the financial industry. In addition, based on our relationships with our partner financial institutions, we are, or may be, subject to indirect regulation and examination by the regulators of these partner financial institutions.

Lending regulation. Our U.S. consumer short-term, interest-free, installment product is subject to federal and state laws governing consumer credit and debt collection, and PayPal holds multiple state licenses as the lender for this product. Paidy, Inc. holds multiple licenses for the issuance of its consumer installment products in Japan and is registered with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry as a Comprehensive Credit Purchase Intermediary. In Australia, PayPal Credit Pty Limited offers a consumer short-term, interest-free, installment product that is exempt from regulation by the primary consumer credit legislation, but is subject to other laws which cover the provision of financial services, credit reporting, debt collection, and privacy. PayPal’s consumer short-term, interest-free, installment products in the U.K., France, Germany, Spain, and Italy are generally exempt from primary consumer credit legislation; however, certain consumer lending laws, consumer protection, and banking transparency regulations apply to this activity.

Our U.S. consumer interest-bearing installment product is subject to federal and state laws and is offered by an independent chartered financial institution. PayPal’s interest-bearing installment product for consumers in Germany is subject to applicable local laws such as consumer (lending) laws, consumer protection, or banking transparency regulations. These loans are originated by PayPal (Europe).

PayPal and Venmo co-branded consumer credit cards and the PayPal Credit revolving consumer credit product are issued by an independent chartered financial institution in the U.S., and are subject to laws and regulations governing these programs. PayPal Credit in the U.K. is a regulated, revolving consumer credit product subject to applicable local laws and regulations.

Our U.S. merchant lending products are subject to federal and state regulations and are offered by an independent chartered financial institution. Our merchant lending products offered in Germany and France are subject to the laws of Luxembourg and certain local laws, and our merchant lending product offered in the U.K. is subject to U.K. regulation. The loans offered to European and U.K. merchants are originated by PayPal (Europe) and PayPal U.K., respectively. Our merchant lending product in Australia is subject to the laws of Australia and originated by PayPal Credit Pty Limited.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). The CFPB has significant authority to regulate consumer financial products in the U.S., including consumer credit, deposits, payments, and similar products. As a larger market participant of remittance transfers, we are subject to the direct supervisory authority of the CFPB. The CFPB and similar regulatory agencies in other jurisdictions may have broad consumer protection mandates that could result in the promulgation and interpretation of rules and regulations that may affect our business.

Anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing, and sanctions. PayPal is subject to anti-money laundering (“AML”) laws and regulations in the U.S. and other jurisdictions, as well as laws designed to prevent the use of the financial systems to facilitate terrorist activities. Our AML program is designed to prevent our payments platform from being used to facilitate money laundering, terrorist financing, and other illicit activities, or to do business in countries or with persons and entities included on designated country or person lists promulgated by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls and equivalent authorities in other countries. Our AML and sanctions compliance programs, overseen by our AML/Bank Secrecy Act Officer, are composed of policies, procedures, and internal controls, and are designed to address these legal and regulatory requirements and assist in managing money laundering and terrorist financing risks.

Interchange fees. Interchange fees (the transaction fees for processing credit and debit card transactions) are subject to regulation in certain jurisdictions. For example, in the EU, the Multilateral Interchange Fee Regulation caps interchange fees and provides for business rules to be complied with by any company dealing with payment card transactions. Interchange fees are being reviewed or challenged in various jurisdictions. As a result, the fees that we collect in certain jurisdictions may become the subject of regulatory challenge.




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Data protection and privacy. We are subject to a number of laws, rules, directives, and regulations (“privacy and data protection laws”) relating to the collection, use, retention, security, processing, and transfer (collectively, “processing”) of personally identifiable information about our customers, our merchants’ customers, and employees (“personal data”) in the countries where we operate. Our business relies on the processing of personal data in many jurisdictions and the movement of data across national borders. As a result, much of the personal data that we process, which may include certain financial information associated with individuals, is subject to one or more privacy and data protection laws in one or more jurisdictions. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between or among us, our subsidiaries, and other parties with which we have commercial relationships.

Regulatory scrutiny of privacy, data protection, cybersecurity practices, and the processing of personal data is increasing around the world. Regulatory authorities are continuously considering numerous legislative and regulatory proposals and interpretive guidelines that may contain additional privacy and data protection obligations. Many jurisdictions in which we operate have adopted, or are in the process of adopting or amending data privacy legislation or regulation aimed at creating and enhancing individual privacy rights. In addition, the interpretation and application of these privacy and data protection laws in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere are subject to change and may subject us to increased regulatory scrutiny and business costs.

Anti-corruption. PayPal is subject to applicable anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Anti-corruption laws generally prohibit offering, promising, giving, accepting, or authorizing others to provide anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to or from a government official or private party in order to influence official action or otherwise gain an unfair business advantage, such as to obtain or retain business. We have implemented policies, procedures, and internal controls that are designed to comply with these laws and regulations.

Additional regulatory developments. Various regulatory agencies continue to examine and implement laws governing a wide variety of issues, including virtual currencies, identity theft, account management guidelines, disclosure rules, cybersecurity, competition, and marketing, which may impact PayPal’s business. Certain governments around the world are adopting laws and regulations pertaining to ESG performance, transparency, and reporting, including those related to general corporate ESG disclosures (e.g., the EU Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive) as well as topical reporting and risk management disclosure requirements, such as obligations related to disclosure of the management of climate-related risks.

For an additional discussion on governmental regulation affecting our business, please see “Item 1A. Risk Factorsand “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” included in this Form 10-K.

ESG MANAGEMENT

PayPal is committed to creating a more inclusive global economy and advancing our core values of Inclusion, Innovation, Collaboration, and Wellness across our communities, workforce, and strategies. We manage priority ESG risks and opportunities organized across responsible business practices, employees and culture, social innovation, and environmental sustainability. We believe this integrated, enterprise-wide approach to managing our global business responsibly helps to enable us to create value for our stakeholders, including our stockholders, employees, partners, and communities. We continue to advance and prioritize efforts to manage key non-financial factors critical to our long-term business, including further enhancements to support the safety and security of our products and platform, ongoing programmatic development intended to foster an inclusive culture across the employee experience, and progress on our science-based approach to reducing our climate change impacts. We take this commitment seriously and endeavor to provide transparent disclosures on our progress through our annual Global Impact Report and other communications.

HUMAN CAPITAL

At PayPal, we consider the management of our global talent (human capital) to be essential to the ongoing success of our business. As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 27,200 people globally, with 45% in the Americas, 42% in Asia-Pacific, and 13% in Europe and the Middle East. Our global employees work predominantly full-time and represent 144 nationalities, across 27 countries, including approximately 10,200 located in the U.S.

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Attracting, recruiting, developing, and retaining diverse talent enables us to provide our customers with products and services that help them to thrive in the global economy. In 2023, we continued to build employee awareness and engagement in our leadership principles, which were launched in 2022, to establish a common set of expectations for all employees. We continued to integrate these principles across our global talent strategy to help shape our programs throughout the employee lifecycle and achieve key business priorities. A year after launch, 78% of employees responding to a global survey reported that the leadership principles are now part of their day-to-day work. We also remain focused on promoting the physical, mental, and financial wellness of our employees, particularly as our workforce continues to navigate changes in where and how we work and operate in a dynamic and competitive environment.

Employee engagement

We use employee feedback to directly inform the ongoing development of our employee programs. In addition to administering an annual survey to gather input from our global workforce, we also conducted specific surveys to gather direct employee feedback on our specific topics. This year, our 2023 annual employee survey was conducted in September, between the announcement of the appointment of Alex Chriss as PayPal’s new CEO and his assumption of the role. We heard from 82% of our global employees. Our engagement score, which reflects whether employees would recommend PayPal to their peers and/or are happy at PayPal, was 77%. Our score measuring intent to stay was 77%, which reflects an employee’s expectation to remain employed with the company in two years.

Talent acquisition, development, and retention

As a leading technology platform that enables digital payments and simplifies commerce experiences, we compete for top global talent around the world. We believe that a strong culture focused on employee experiences that enables advancement, learning, and individual career insights is essential to the successful acquisition, development, and retention of diverse talent. Accordingly, we have implemented programs focused on inclusive hiring practices and extending our talent pipeline through targeted partnerships, revise our career development program for individuals and managers, extended individual coaching and mentorship programs (particularly for technical and underrepresented talent), and advanced efforts for employees to grow through self-paced and community learning experiences.

Employee wellness

We remain focused on promoting the holistic well-being of our employees, including resources, programs, and services to support our employees’ physical, mental, and financial wellness. Benefits include Global Wellness Days for all employees, resources to foster emotional well-being, and providing workplace flexibility through Crisis Leave and other programs. We promote employee financial wellness, including by offering individual employee financial coaching. Through our global Community Impact program, we support our employees’ individual passions and communities by matching eligible employee donations and volunteer time with non-profit organizations up to $2,500 annually per employee.

Diversity, inclusion, equity, and belonging

We believe that fostering diversity, inclusion, equity, and belonging (“DIE&B”) is critical to our global talent strategy and pivotal to building a culture that embraces individual characteristics, values diversity, minimizes barriers, and enhances feelings of security and support across the workplace. We are committed to equal pay for equal work and promoting enterprise-wide inclusive learning opportunities. We believe that our strong commitment to DIE&B is evident at all levels of the organization from our Board of Directors to our executive leadership team to our global workforce. As of December 31, 2023, 46% of our Board and 75% of our senior leadership team identified as women and/or from a diverse ethnic group. Across our workforce, we reached 55% overall diverse workforce representation, including 43% global gender diversity (inclusive of self-identified women and non-binary employees) and 54% U.S. ethnic diversity, as of December 31, 2023. Additional U.S. workforce diversity metrics can be found in our public EEO-1 reports and annual Global Impact Report available at https://about.pypl.com/values-in-action/reporting/default.aspx.


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Workforce representation is only one aspect of our broader DIE&B strategy. In 2023, we continued our support for underrepresented communities and employees, including through activities such as inclusion-focused employee learning modules and our enterprise-wide sponsorship program. We continue to evaluate DIE&B progress across the company and as part of the individual performance assessment under our 2023 annual incentive plan for our senior executives. In addition, we empower eight employee resource groups, which are open to all employees, to promote community and belonging for employees that identify as Black, Latinx/Hispanic, women, interfaith, veterans, LGBTQ+, Asian, and disabled persons and their allies.

Our evolving workplace

We remain focused on creating a culture of flexibility and community by designing ways to collaborate across diverse workplace models, whether working virtually, on-site, or using a hybrid approach. We empower functional leadership to determine the most appropriate workplace strategy for their teams to optimize employee productivity and engagement and deliver on business priorities. Across PayPal, we are focused on providing tools and resources to support our diverse and distributed teams. We believe this flexible approach has broadened our potential global talent pools.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

The address of our principal executive offices is PayPal Holdings, Inc., 2211 North First Street, San Jose, California 95131. Our website is located at www.paypal.com, and our investor relations website is located at https://investor.pypl.com. From time to time, we may use our investor relations site and other online and social media channels, including the PayPal Corporate website (https://about.pypl.com), the PayPal Newsroom (https://newsroom.paypal-corp.com/), PayPal’s LinkedIn page (https://www.linkedin.com/company/paypal), Alex Chriss’ LinkedIn profile (https://www.linkedin.com/in/alexchriss/), Alex Chriss’ X profile (https://twitter.com/acce), and Jamie Miller’s LinkedIn profile (https://www.linkedin.com/in/jamiesmiller/), as a means of disclosing information about the Company, including information which could be deemed to be material to investors. Our Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. The content of our websites and information we may post on, provide to, or accessible through online and social media channels, including those mentioned above, are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our websites or online and social media channels are intended to be inactive textual references only.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, in addition to other information appearing in this Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, for important information regarding risks and uncertainties that could affect us. These risk factors do not identify all risks we face, and additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, future prospects, and the trading price of our common stock could be materially and adversely affected.

CYBERSECURITY AND TECHNOLOGY RISKS

Cyberattacks and security vulnerabilities could result in serious harm to our reputation, business, and financial condition.

The techniques used to attempt to obtain unauthorized or illegal access to systems and information (including customers’ personal data), disable or degrade service, exploit vulnerabilities, or sabotage systems are constantly evolving. In some circumstances, these attempts may not be recognized or detected until after they have been launched against a target. Unauthorized parties will continue to attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities through various means, including through hacking into our systems or facilities or those of our customers, partners, or vendors, and attempting to fraudulently induce users of our systems (including employees, vendor and partner personnel and customers) into disclosing user names, passwords, payment card information, multi-factor authentication application access or other sensitive information used to gain access to such systems or facilities. This information may, in turn, be used to access our customers’ confidential personal or proprietary information and financial instrument data that are stored on or accessible through our information technology systems and those of third parties with whom we partner. This information may also be used to execute fraudulent transactions or otherwise engage in fraudulent actions. Numerous and evolving cybersecurity threats, including advanced and persisting cyberattacks, cyberextortion, distributed denial-of-service attacks, ransomware, spear phishing and social engineering schemes, the introduction of computer viruses or other malware, and the physical destruction of all or portions of our information technology and infrastructure and those of third parties with whom we partner or that are part of our information technology supply chain, are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex, may be difficult to detect, and could compromise the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of the data in our systems, as well as the systems themselves.

We believe that hostile actors, who may comprise individuals, coordinated groups, sophisticated organizations, or nation state supported entities may target PayPal due to our name, brand recognition, types of data (including sensitive payments- and identity-related data) that customers provide to us, and the widespread adoption and use of our products and services. We have experienced from time to time, and may experience in the future, cybersecurity incidents, including breaches of our security measures, network breaches, and compromise of personally identifiable customer information due to human error, deception, malfeasance, insider threats, system errors, defects, vulnerabilities, or other issues.

Any cybersecurity incidents, including cyberattacks or data security breaches affecting the information technology or infrastructure of companies we acquire or of our customers, partners, or vendors (including data center and cloud computing providers) could have similar negative effects.

Under payment card network rules and our contracts with our payment processors, if there is a breach of payment card information stored by us or our direct payment card processing vendors, we could be liable to the payment card issuing banks, including for their cost of issuing new cards and related expenses. Cybersecurity breaches and other exploited security vulnerabilities could subject us to significant costs and third-party liabilities, result in improper disclosure of data and violations of applicable privacy and other laws, require us to change our business practices, cause us to incur significant remediation costs, lead to loss of customer confidence in, or decreased use of, our products and services, damage our reputation and brands, divert the attention of management from the operation of our business, result in significant compensation or contractual penalties from us to our customers and their business partners as a result of losses to or claims by them, or expose us to litigation, regulatory investigations, and significant fines and penalties. While we maintain insurance policies intended to help offset the financial impact we may experience from these risks, our coverage may be insufficient to compensate us for all losses caused by security breaches and other damage to or unavailability of our systems.

Business interruptions or systems failures may impair the availability of our websites, applications, products or services, or otherwise harm our business.

Our systems and operations and those of our service providers and partners have experienced from time to time, and may experience in the future, business interruptions or degradation of service because of distributed denial-of-service and other cyberattacks, insider threats, hardware and software defects or malfunctions, human error, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires,

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and other natural disasters, public health crises (including pandemics), power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks, computer viruses or other malware, or other events. The frequency and intensity of weather events related to climate change are increasing, which could increase the likelihood and severity of such disasters as well as related damage and business interruption. Our corporate headquarters are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a seismically active region in California. A catastrophic event that could lead to a disruption or failure of our systems or operations could result in significant losses and require substantial recovery time and significant expenditures to resume or maintain operations. Further, some of our systems, including those of companies that we have acquired, are not fully redundant and any failure of these acquired systems, including due to a catastrophic event, may lead to operational outages or delays. While we engage in disaster recovery planning and testing intended to mitigate risks from outages or delays, our planning and testing may not be sufficient for all possible outcomes or events. As a provider of payments solutions, we are also subject to heightened scrutiny by regulators that may require specific business continuity, resiliency and disaster recovery plans, and rigorous testing of such plans, which may be costly and time-consuming to implement, and may divert our resources from other business priorities. Any of the foregoing risks could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, system failures, cyberattacks, unplanned outages, and other events or conditions from time to time that have and may interrupt the availability, or reduce or adversely affect the speed or functionality, of our products and services. A prolonged interruption of, or reduction in, the availability, speed, or functionality of our products and services could materially harm our business. Frequent or persistent interruptions in our services could permanently harm our relationship with our customers and partners and our reputation. If any system failure or similar event results in damage to our customers or their business partners, they could seek significant compensation or contractual penalties from us for their losses. These claims, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time-consuming and costly for us to address.

We continue to undertake system upgrades and re-platforming efforts designed to improve the availability, reliability, resiliency, and speed of our payments platform. These efforts are costly and time-consuming, involve significant technical complexity and risk, may divert our resources from new features and products, and may ultimately not be effective. Frequent or persistent site interruptions could lead to regulatory scrutiny, significant fines and penalties, and mandatory and costly changes to our business practices, and ultimately could cause us to lose existing licenses that we need to operate or prevent or delay us from obtaining additional licenses that may be required for our business.

We also rely on facilities, components, applications, software, and services supplied by third parties, including data center facilities and cloud data storage and processing services. From time to time, we have experienced interruptions in the provision of such facilities and services provided by these third parties. If these third parties experience operational interference or disruptions (including a cybersecurity incident), fail to perform their obligations, or breach their agreements with us, our operations could be disrupted or otherwise negatively affected, which could result in customer dissatisfaction, regulatory scrutiny, and damage to our reputation and brands, and materially and adversely affect our business. While we maintain insurance policies intended to help offset the financial impact we may experience from these risks, our coverage may be insufficient to compensate us for all losses caused by interruptions in our service due to systems failures and similar events.

In addition, any failure to successfully implement new information systems and technologies, or improvements or upgrades to existing information systems and technologies in a timely manner could adversely impact our business, internal controls, results of operations, and financial condition.

If we cannot keep pace with rapid technological developments to provide new and innovative products and services, the use of our products and services and, consequently, our revenues, could decline.

Rapid, significant, and disruptive technological changes impact the industries in which we operate, including payment technologies (including real-time payments, payment card tokenization, virtual currencies, distributed ledger and blockchain technologies, and proximity payment technology such as Near Field Communication and other contactless payments); internet browser technologies, that enable users to easily store their payment card information for use on any retail or e-commerce website; artificial intelligence and machine learning; developments in technologies supporting our regulatory and compliance obligations; and in-store, digital, and social commerce.

We expect that new technologies applicable to the industries in which we operate will continue to emerge and may be superior to, or render obsolete, the technologies we currently use in our products and services. We cannot predict the effects of technological changes on our business, which technological developments or innovations will become widely adopted, and how those technologies may be regulated. Developing and incorporating new technologies into new and existing products and services may require significant investment, take considerable time, and may not ultimately be successful. We rely in part on

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third parties, including some of our competitors, for the development of and access to new or evolving technologies. These third parties may restrict or prevent our access to, or utilization of, those technologies, as well as their platforms or products. Our ability to develop, provide or incorporate new technologies and adapt our existing products and services or develop future and new products and services using new technologies may be limited or restricted by industry-wide standards, platform providers, payments networks, changes to laws and regulations, changing customer expectations, third-party intellectual property rights, and other factors. If we are unable to develop and incorporate new technologies and adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards in a timely or cost-effective manner, our business could be harmed.

LEGAL, REGULATORY AND COMPLIANCE RISKS

Our business is subject to extensive government regulation and oversight. Our failure to comply with extensive, complex, overlapping, and frequently changing rules, regulations, and legal interpretations could materially harm our business.

Our business is subject to complex and changing laws, rules, regulations, policies, and legal interpretations in the markets in which we offer services directly or through partners, including, but not limited to, those governing: banking, credit, deposit taking, cross-border and domestic money transmission, prepaid access, foreign currency exchange, privacy, data protection, data governance, cybersecurity, banking secrecy, digital payments, cryptocurrency, payment services (including payment processing and settlement services), lending, fraud detection, consumer protection, antitrust and competition, economic and trade sanctions, anti-money laundering, and counter-terrorist financing.

Regulators and legislators globally have been establishing, evolving, and increasing their regulatory authority, oversight, and enforcement in a manner that impacts our business. As we introduce new products and services and expand into new markets, including through acquisitions, we expect to become subject to additional regulations, restrictions, and licensing requirements. As we expand and localize our international activities, we expect that our obligations in the markets in which we operate will continue to increase. In addition, because we facilitate sales of goods and provide services to customers worldwide, one or more jurisdictions may claim that we or our customers are required to comply with their laws, which may impose different, more specific, or conflicting obligations on us, as well as broader liability.

Any failure or perceived failure to comply with existing or new laws, regulations, or orders of any government authority (including changes to or expansion of their interpretation) may subject us to significant fines, penalties, criminal and civil lawsuits, forfeiture of significant assets, and enforcement actions in one or more jurisdictions; result in additional compliance and licensure requirements; cause us to lose existing licenses or prevent or delay us from obtaining additional licenses that may be required for our business; increase regulatory scrutiny of our business; divert management’s time and attention from our business; restrict our operations; lead to increased friction for customers; force us to make changes to our business practices, products, or operations; require us to engage in remediation activities; or delay planned transactions, product launches, or improvements. Any of the foregoing could, individually or in the aggregate, harm our reputation, damage our brands and business, and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. The complexity of U.S. federal and state and international regulatory and enforcement regimes, coupled with the global scope of our operations and the evolving global regulatory environment, could result in a single event prompting a large number of overlapping investigations and legal and regulatory proceedings by multiple government authorities in different jurisdictions. While we have implemented policies and procedures designed to help ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors, and agents will not violate such laws and regulations.

Payments Regulation

In the U.S., PayPal, Inc. (a wholly-owned subsidiary) holds licenses to operate as a money transmitter (or its equivalent) in the states where such licenses are required, as well as in the District of Columbia and certain territories. If we fail to comply with applicable laws or regulations required to maintain our licenses, we could be subject to liability and/or additional restrictions, forced to cease doing business with residents of certain states or territories, forced to change our business practices, or required to obtain additional licenses or regulatory approvals, which could impose substantial costs and harm our business.

While we currently allow our customers to send payments from approximately 200 markets, we allow customers in only approximately half of those markets (including the U.S.) to also receive payments, in some cases with significant restrictions on the manner in which customers can hold balances or withdraw funds. These restrictions may limit our ability to grow our business.

Outside of the U.S., we principally provide our services to customers in the European Economic Area (“EEA”) through PayPal (Europe) S.à.r.l. et Cie, S.C.A. (“PayPal (Europe)”), our wholly-owned subsidiary that is licensed and subject to regulation as a credit institution in Luxembourg and PayPal U.K. Limited (“PayPal U.K.”), a wholly-owned subsidiary that is subject to

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regulation as an electronic money institution in the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) by the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”). PayPal (Europe) or PayPal U.K. may be subject to enforcement actions and significant fines if either violates applicable requirements. If the business activities of PayPal (Europe) exceed certain thresholds, or if the European Central Bank (“ECB”) so determines, PayPal (Europe) may be deemed a significant supervised entity and certain activities of PayPal (Europe) would become directly supervised by the ECB, rather than by the Luxembourg Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier. PayPal (Europe) is also subject to regulation by the ECB under the oversight framework for electronic payment instruments, schemes and arrangements (PISA). Compliance with applicable laws and regulations could become more costly and operationally difficult to manage due to additional supervision, potentially inconsistent interpretations, and domestic regulations by various countries in the region. Applicable regulation relating to payments, anti-money laundering, and digital services, which are key focus areas of regulators and subject to extensive new regulation, could subject us to additional and complex obligations, risks, and associated costs, and impact our ability to expand our business in Europe.

In many of the other markets outside the U.S. in which we do business, we serve our customers through PayPal Pte. Ltd., our wholly-owned subsidiary based in Singapore. PayPal Pte. Ltd. is supervised by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (“MAS”). As of July 1, 2023, PayPal Pte. Ltd. has been issued a Major Payment Institution license by the MAS under the Payment Services Act 2019 to continue providing payments services. In order to maintain this license and certain other licenses or registrations we hold in certain markets, we are required to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, which will result in increased operational complexity and costs for our Singapore and international operations.

In many of the markets outside the U.S. (other than Singapore) served by PayPal Pte. Ltd. or by local branches or subsidiaries subject to local regulatory supervision or oversight, as the case may be, there may be uncertainty whether our Singapore-based service is subject only to Singapore law or also to other local laws, and whether such local laws might require a payment processor like us to be licensed as a payments service, bank, financial institution, or otherwise.

There are substantial costs and potential product and operational changes involved in maintaining and renewing licenses, certifications, and approvals, and we could be subject to enforcement actions, fines, and litigation if we are found to violate any of these requirements. There can be no assurance that we will be able to (or decide to) continue to apply for or obtain any licenses, renewals, certifications, and approvals in any jurisdiction. In certain markets, we may need to rely on local banks or other partners to process payments and conduct foreign currency exchange transactions in local currency, and local regulators may use their authority over such local partners to prohibit, restrict, or limit us from doing business. Any of the foregoing could, individually or in the aggregate, result in substantial additional costs, delay or preclude planned transactions, product launches or improvements, require significant and costly operational changes, impose restrictions, limitations, or additional requirements on our business, products and services, or prevent or limit us from providing our products or services in a given market.

Cryptocurrency Regulation and Related Risks

Our customer cryptocurrency offerings could subject us to additional regulations, licensing requirements, or other obligations or liabilities. Within the U.S., we are regulated by the New York Department of Financial Services as a virtual currency business, which does not qualify us to engage in securities brokerage or dealing activities. The regulatory status of particular cryptocurrencies is unclear under existing law. For example, if the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) were to assert that any of the cryptocurrencies we support are securities, the SEC could assert that our activities involving that cryptocurrency require securities broker-dealer registration or other obligations under the federal securities laws. The rapidly evolving regulatory landscape with respect to cryptocurrency may subject us to additional licensing and regulatory obligations or to additional inquiries or investigations from the SEC or other regulators and governmental authorities, and require us to make product changes, restrict or discontinue product offerings in certain markets, implement additional and potentially costly controls, or take other actions.

In August 2023, a third-party issuer with which we have partnered commercially (the “PYUSD Issuer”) launched a U.S. dollar-denominated stablecoin named PayPal USD (“PYUSD”), which was initially available to PayPal U.S. customers and subsequently made available to Venmo customers in September 2023. These PayPal and Venmo customers may, if provisioned for external transfers and subject to our sanctions and anti-money laundering controls, send PYUSD to external wallets not controlled by PayPal. The PYUSD Issuer may also allow institutional users to directly purchase PYUSD from the PYUSD Issuer (as per the PYUSD Issuer’s stablecoin terms and conditions). The regulatory treatment of stablecoins is evolving and has drawn significant attention from legislative and regulatory bodies around the world, including the SEC. There are uncertainties on how ongoing changes to federal, state, and international laws and regulations would apply to stablecoins in practice, and we and the PYUSD Issuer may face substantial costs to operationalize and comply with any additional or changed requirement. If we or the PYUSD Issuer fail to comply with regulations, requirements, prohibitions or other obligations applicable to us, we could face regulatory or other enforcement actions, potential fines, and other consequences. In addition, we could face

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reputational harm through our relationship with the PYUSD Issuer if the PYUSD Issuer were to face regulatory scrutiny, PYUSD is deemed to be a security, or PYUSD is alleged to be used for transactions in connection with illicit or illegal activities.

We hold our customers’ cryptocurrency assets through one or more third-party custodians. Financial and third-party risks related to our customer cryptocurrency offerings, such as inappropriate access to, theft, or destruction of cryptocurrency assets held by our custodians, insufficient insurance coverage by a custodian to reimburse us for all such losses, a custodian’s failure to maintain effective controls over the custody and settlement services provided to us, a custodian’s inability to purchase or liquidate cryptocurrency holdings, the failure of the PYUSD Issuer to maintain sufficient reserve assets backing PYUSD and defaults on financial or performance obligations by a custodian, banks with which the PYUSD Issuer maintains reserve assets or counterparty financial institutions, could expose our customers and us to loss, and therefore significantly harm our business, financial performance, and reputation.

We have selected custodian partners and the PYUSD Issuer, and may in the future select additional custodian partners and stablecoin issuing entities, that are subject to regulatory oversight, capital requirements, maintenance of audit and compliance industry certifications, and cybersecurity procedures and policies. Nevertheless, operational disruptions at any such custodian or issuer, or such custodians’ or issuer’s failure to safeguard cryptocurrency holdings (or reserve assets) could result in losses of customer assets, expose us to customer claims, reduce consumer confidence and materially impact our operating results and our cryptocurrency product offerings.

Custodial arrangements to safeguard cryptocurrency assets involve unique risks and uncertainties in the event of a custodian’s bankruptcy. While other types of assets and some custodied cryptocurrencies have been deemed not to be part of the custodian’s bankruptcy estate under various regulatory regimes, bankruptcy courts have not yet definitively determined the appropriate treatment of custodial holdings of digital assets in a bankruptcy proceeding. In the event of a custodian’s bankruptcy, the lack of precedent and the highly fact-dependent nature of the determination could delay or preclude the return of custodied cryptocurrency assets to us or to our customers. Although we contractually require our custodians to segregate our customer assets and not commingle them with proprietary or other assets, we cannot be certain that these contractual obligations, even if duly observed by a custodian, will be effective in preventing such assets from being treated as part of the custodian’s estate under bankruptcy or other insolvency law. In that event, our claim on behalf of such customers against a custodian’s estate for our customers’ cryptocurrency assets could be treated as a general unsecured claim against the custodian, in which case our customers could seek to hold us liable for any resulting losses.

In addition, our cryptocurrency product offerings could have the effect of heightening or exacerbating many of the risk factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.

Lending Regulation

We hold a number of U.S. state lending licenses for our U.S. consumer short-term installment loan product, which is subject to federal and state laws governing consumer credit and debt collection. While the consumer short-term installment loan products that we offer outside the U.S. are generally exempt from primary consumer credit legislation, certain consumer lending laws, consumer protection or banking transparency regulations continue to apply to these products. Increased global regulatory focus on short-term installment products and consumer credit more broadly could result in laws or regulations requiring changes to our policies, procedures, operations, and product offerings, and restrict or limit our ability to offer credit products.

Consumer Protection

Violations of federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations, including the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (“EFTA”) and Regulation E as implemented by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), could result in the assessment of significant actual damages or statutory damages or penalties (including treble damages in some instances) and plaintiffs’ attorneys’ fees. We are subject to, and have paid amounts in settlement of, lawsuits containing allegations that our business violated the EFTA and Regulation E or otherwise advance claims for relief relating to our business practices (e.g., that we improperly held consumer funds or otherwise improperly limited consumer accounts).

In addition, the CFPB, pursuant to its market-monitoring authority, may require us to provide extensive information on our products and offerings. From time to time, we have received orders from the CFPB pursuant to such market-monitoring authority requiring us to provide, among other items, extensive information on our payment products, including with respect to the collection, use of, and access to data and consumer protections, as well as our Buy Now, Pay Later offerings.

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Following the departure of the U.K. from the European Union (“EU”) and the EEA on January 31, 2020 (commonly referred to as “Brexit”), effective November 1, 2023, PayPal’s wholly-owned U.K. subsidiary received authorizations from the FCA as an electronic money institution and consumer credit firm, and registration as a cryptoasset business, subject to certain conditions that will require further implementation action by us. If we are unable to meet these requirements, our U.K. business and operations may be impacted and we may be subject to enforcement actions.

Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing; Economic and Trade Sanctions

Regulators globally continue to increase standards and expectations regarding anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing, and to expand the scope of existing laws and regulations to emerging products and markets, which may require us to further revise or expand our compliance program globally and/or in specific jurisdictions, including the procedures we use to verify the identity of our customers and to monitor international and domestic transactions. Such changes could have the effect of making compliance more costly and operationally difficult to manage, lead to increased friction for customers, and result in a decrease in business. Regulators regularly re-examine the transaction volume thresholds at which we must obtain and keep applicable records or the circumstances in which we must verify identities of customers, and any change to such obligations could result in greater compliance costs and impact our business. We are also required to comply with economic and trade sanctions administered by the U.S., the EU and its member states, the U.K., and other jurisdictions in which we operate. Non-compliance with anti-money laundering laws and regulations or economic and trade sanctions may subject us to significant fines, penalties, lawsuits, and enforcement actions, result in regulatory sanctions and additional compliance requirements, increase regulatory scrutiny of our business, restrict our operations, and damage our reputation and brands. Our compliance history may be considered by OFAC and other regulators as part of any potential future investigation of our sanctions regulation.

Privacy and Protection of Customer Data

The legal and regulatory environment relating to privacy and data protection laws continues to develop and evolve in ways we cannot predict, including with respect to technologies such as cloud computing, artificial intelligence, machine learning, cryptocurrency, and blockchain technology. Any failure or alleged failure by us to comply with our privacy policies as communicated to customers or with privacy and data protection laws relating to our collection, use, storage, transfer, or sharing of customer data with third parties could result in proceedings or actions against us by data protection authorities, other government agencies, or others, which could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments, and negative publicity, require us to change our business practices, increase the costs and complexity of compliance, result in reputational harm, and materially harm our business. Compliance with inconsistent privacy and data protection laws may also restrict or limit our ability to provide products and services to our customers.

PayPal relies on a variety of compliance methods to transfer personal data of EEA individuals to the U.S., including Binding Corporate Rules for internal transfers of certain types of personal data and Standard Contractual Clauses (“SCCs”) as approved by the European Commission for transfers to and from third parties. Additionally, in July 2023, the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework, the U.K. Extension to the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework, and the Swiss-U.S. Data Privacy Framework became effective as additional mechanisms to enable transfers of personal data to the U.S. from the EU/EEA, the U.K., and Switzerland, respectively. The new Data Protection Framework (DPF) replaces prior transatlantic personal data transfer regimes that were invalidated by the Court of Justice of the European Union. As such, there are risks in solely relying on the DPF for internal transfers of personal data to the U.S. While PayPal intends to continue to rely on Binding Corporate Rule and SCCs and will evaluate the circumstances under which the DPF may be leveraged for transfers of personal data to the U.S., we may be subject to regulatory enforcement actions if our approach is deemed to be noncompliant.

Many jurisdictions in which we operate globally have enacted, or are in the process of enacting, data privacy legislation or regulations aimed at creating and enhancing individual privacy rights. For example, numerous U.S. states have enacted or are in the process of enacting state level data privacy laws and regulations governing the collection, use, and retention of their residents’ personal information. The continued proliferation of privacy laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate is likely to result in a disparate array of privacy rules with unaligned or conflicting provisions, accountability requirements, individual rights, and national or local enforcement powers, which may subject us to increased regulatory scrutiny and business costs and could lead to unintended consumer confusion.

We are subject to regulatory scrutiny and may be subject to legal proceedings under antitrust and competition laws.

We are subject to scrutiny by various government agencies regarding antitrust and competition laws and regulations in the U.S. and internationally, including in connection with proposed or implemented business combinations, acquisitions, investments,

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partnerships, commercial agreements and business practices. Some jurisdictions also provide private rights of action for competitors or consumers to assert claims of anticompetitive conduct. Companies and government agencies have in the past alleged, and may in the future allege, that our actions violate the antitrust or competition laws in the U.S. or other jurisdictions in which we operate or otherwise constitute unfair competition, or that our products and services are used so broadly that otherwise uncontroversial business practices could be deemed anticompetitive. Any claims or investigations, even if without merit, may be costly to defend or respond to, involve negative publicity, and cause substantial diversion of management’s time and effort, and could result in reputational harm, significant judgments, fines and other remedial actions against us, require us to change our business practices, make product or operational changes, or delay or preclude planned transactions, product launches or improvements.

We are regularly subject to general litigation, regulatory scrutiny, and government inquiries.

We are regularly subject to claims, individual and class action lawsuits, arbitration proceedings, government and regulatory investigations, inquiries, actions or requests, and other proceedings alleging violations of laws, rules, and regulations with respect to competition, antitrust, intellectual property, privacy, data protection, information security, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing, sanctions, anti-bribery, anti-corruption, consumer protection (including unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices), the terms of our customer agreements, fraud, accessibility, securities, tax, labor and employment, commercial disputes, services, charitable fundraising, contract disputes, escheatment of unclaimed or abandoned property, product liability, use of our services for illegal purposes, the matters described in “Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies—Litigation and Regulatory Matters—General Matters” to our consolidated financial statements, and other matters. The number and significance of these disputes and inquiries is expected to continue to increase as our products, services, and business expand in complexity, scale, scope, and geographic reach, including through acquisitions of businesses and technology. Investigations and legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, expensive and disruptive to our operations, and could result in substantial judgments, fines, penalties or settlements, negative publicity, substantial diversion of management’s time and effort, reputational harm, criminal sanctions, or orders that prevent or limit us from offering certain products or services; require us to change our business practices or customer agreement terms in ways that may increase costs or reduce revenues, develop non-infringing or otherwise altered products or technologies, or pay substantial royalty or licensing fees; or delay or preclude planned transactions or product launches or improvements. Determining legal reserves or possible losses from such matters involves significant estimates and judgments and may not reflect the full range of uncertainties and unpredictable outcomes. We may be exposed to losses in excess of the amount recorded, and such amounts could be material. If our estimates and assumptions change or prove to have been incorrect, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Third parties may allege that we are infringing their patents and other intellectual property rights.

We are frequently subject to litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. Intellectual property infringement claims against us may result from, among other things, our expansion into new business areas, including through acquisitions of businesses and technology, or new or expanded products and services and their convergence with technologies not previously associated with areas related to our business, products, and services. The ultimate outcome of any allegation or claim is often uncertain and any such claim, with or without merit, may be time-consuming to defend, result in costly litigation, divert management’s time and attention from our business, result in reputational harm, and require us to, among other things, redesign or stop providing our products or services, pay substantial amounts to settle claims or lawsuits, satisfy judgments, or pay substantial royalty or licensing fees.

We may be unable to protect or enforce our intellectual property.

The protection of our proprietary rights, including our trademarks, copyrights, domain names, trade dress, patents and trade secrets, is important to the success of our business. Effective protection of our proprietary rights may not be available in every jurisdiction in which we offer our products and services. Although we have generally taken measures to protect our intellectual property, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in protecting or enforcing our rights in every jurisdiction, that our contractual arrangements will prevent or deter third parties from infringing or misappropriating our intellectual property, or that third parties will not independently develop equivalent or superior intellectual property rights. We may be required to expend significant time and resources to prevent infringement and enforce our rights, and we may be unable to discover or determine the extent of any unauthorized use of our proprietary rights. If we are unable to prevent third parties from infringing or otherwise violating our proprietary rights, the uniqueness and value of our products and services could be adversely affected, the value of our brands could be diminished, and our business could be adversely affected. We expect to continue to license in the future certain of our proprietary rights, such as trademarks or copyrighted material, to others. These licensees may take actions that diminish the value of our proprietary rights or harm our reputation. Any failure to adequately protect or enforce our

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proprietary rights, or significant costs incurred in doing so, could diminish the value of our intangible assets and materially harm our business.

BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS RISKS

We face substantial and increasingly intense competition worldwide in the global payments industry.

The global payments industry is highly competitive, dynamic, highly innovative, and increasingly subject to regulatory scrutiny and oversight. Many of the areas in which we compete evolve rapidly with innovative and disruptive technologies, shifting user preferences and needs, price sensitivity of merchants and consumers, and frequent introductions of new products and services. Competition also may intensify as new competitors emerge, businesses enter into business combinations and partnerships, and established companies in other segments expand to become competitive with various aspects of our business.

We compete with a wide range of businesses in every aspect of our business. Some of our current and potential competitors are or may be larger than we are, have larger customer bases, greater brand recognition, longer operating histories, a dominant or more secure position, broader geographic scope, volume, scale, resources, and market share than we do, or offer products and services that we do not offer. Other competitors are or may be smaller or younger companies that may be more agile in responding to regulatory and technological changes and customer preferences. Our competitors may devote greater resources to the development, promotion, and sale of products and services, and/or offer lower prices or more effectively offer their own innovative programs, products, and services. We often partner with other businesses, and the ability to continue establishing these partnerships is important to our business. Competition for relationships with these partners is intense, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to establish, grow, or maintain these partner relationships. If we are unable to differentiate our products and services from those of our competitors, drive value for our customers, or effectively and efficiently align our resources with our goals and objectives, we may not be able to compete effectively. See “Item 1. Business—Competition” of this Form 10-K for further discussion of the competitive environment in the markets where we operate.

Changes to payment card networks or bank fees, rules, or practices could harm our business.

To process certain transactions, we must comply with applicable payment card, bank or other network (collectively, “network”) rules. The rules govern all aspects of a transaction on the networks, including fees and other practices. From time to time, the networks have increased the fees and assessments that they charge for transactions that access their networks. Certain networks have also imposed special fees or assessments for transactions that are executed through a digital wallet such as the one that PayPal offers. Our payment processors may have the right to pass any increases in fees and assessments on to us and to increase their own fees for processing. Any increase in interchange fees, special fees, or assessments for transactions that we pay to the networks or our payment processors could make our pricing less competitive, increase our operating costs, and reduce our operating income, which could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In some jurisdictions, government regulations have required payment card networks to reduce or cap interchange fees. Any changes in interchange fee rates or limitations, or their applicability to PayPal, could adversely affect our competitive position against payment card service providers and the revenue we earn from our branded card programs, require us to change our business practices, and harm our business.

We may also be subject to fines and other penalties assessed by networks resulting from any rule violations by us or our merchants. The networks set and interpret their rules, and have alleged from time to time that various aspects of our business model violate these rules, or our agreements with the networks. Such allegations may result in significant fines, penalties, damages, or other liabilities, adversely impact benefits to us under the agreements, or require changes in our business practices that may be costly and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. The network rules may also increase the cost of, impose restrictions on, or otherwise impact the development of, our products which may negatively affect product deployment and adoption. The networks could adopt new operating rules or interpret or re-interpret existing rules that we or our payment processors might find difficult or impractical to follow, or costly to implement, which could require us to make significant changes to our products, increase our operational costs, and negatively impact our business. If we become unable or limited in our ability to accept certain payment types such as debit or credit cards, our business would be materially and adversely affected.

Changes in how consumers fund their PayPal transactions could harm our business.

We pay transaction fees when consumers fund payment transactions using credit cards, lower fees when consumers fund payments with debit cards, and nominal fees when consumers fund payment transactions by electronic transfer of funds from bank accounts, from an existing PayPal account balance or Venmo account balance, or through our PayPal branded consumer

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credit products. Our financial performance is sensitive to changes in the rate at which our consumers fund payments using payment cards, which can significantly increase our costs. Although we provide consumers in certain markets with the opportunity to use their existing PayPal account balance or Venmo account balance to fund payment transactions, some of our consumers may prefer to use payment cards, which may offer features and benefits not provided as part of their PayPal accounts. Any increase in the portion of our payment volume funded using payment cards or in fees associated with our funding mix, or other events or developments that make it more difficult or costly for us to fund transactions with lower-cost funding options, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance and significantly harm our business.

Our credit products expose us to additional risks.

We offer credit products to a wide range of consumers and merchants in the U.S. and various international markets. The financial success of these products depends largely on the effective management of related risk. The credit decision-making process for our consumer credit products uses proprietary methodologies and credit algorithms and other analytical techniques designed to analyze the credit risk of specific consumers based on, among other factors, their past purchase and transaction history with PayPal or Venmo and their credit scores. Similarly, proprietary risk models and other indicators are applied to assess merchants who desire to use our merchant financing offerings to help predict their ability to repay. These risk models may not accurately predict the creditworthiness of a consumer or merchant due to inaccurate assumptions, including those related to the particular consumer or merchant, market conditions, economic environment, or limited transaction history or other data. The accuracy of these risk models and the ability to manage credit risk related to our credit products may also be affected by legal or regulatory requirements, changes in consumer behavior, changes in the economic environment, issuing bank policies, and other factors.

We generally rely on the activities and charters of unaffiliated financial institutions to provide PayPal and Venmo branded consumer credit and merchant financing offerings to our U.S. customers. As a service provider to these unaffiliated financial institutions, which are federally supervised U.S. financial institutions, we are subject from time to time to examination by their federal banking regulators. In the event of any termination or interruption in a partner bank’s ability or willingness to lend, our ability to offer consumer credit and merchant financing products could be interrupted or limited, which could materially and adversely affect our business. We may be unable to reach a similar arrangement with another unaffiliated financial institution on favorable terms or at all. Obtaining and maintaining the lending licenses required for us to originate such loans ourselves would be a costly, time-consuming and uncertain process, and would subject us to additional laws and regulatory requirements, which could significantly increase our costs and compliance obligations and require us to change our business practices.

Merchant loans under our U.S. PayPal Working Capital (“PPWC”) and PayPal Business Loan (“PPBL”) products and certain U.S. installment loan products are provided by a state-chartered industrial bank under a program agreement with us, and we acquire the receivables generated by those loans from the state-chartered bank after origination. In June 2020, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) approved a final rule clarifying that loans validly originated by state-chartered banks or insured branches of foreign banks remain valid throughout the lifetime of the loan, reflecting a similar rule finalized by the Office of the Comptroller of Currency (“OCC”) in May 2020 for nationally chartered banks. The final rule reaffirms and codifies the so-called “valid-when-made doctrine,” which provides that the permissibility of an interest rate for a loan is determined when the loan is made and will not be affected by subsequent events such as sale, assignment, or other transfer. While a number of state attorneys general have unsuccessfully challenged these FDIC and OCC rules, there remains some uncertainty whether non-bank entities purchasing loan receivables originated by FDIC-insured, state-chartered banks may rely on federal preemption of state usury laws and other state laws. An adverse outcome of these or similar challenges, or changes to applicable laws and regulations or regulatory policy, could materially impact our U.S. PPWC, PPBL, certain installment products, and our business.

We are subject to the risk that account holders who use our credit products will default on their payment obligations. The non-payment rate among account holders may increase due to, among other factors, changes to underwriting standards, risk models not accurately predicting the creditworthiness of a user, worsening economic conditions, such as a recession or government austerity programs, increases in prevailing interest rates, and high unemployment rates. Account holders who miss payments often fail to repay their loans, and account holders who file for protection under the bankruptcy laws generally do not repay their loans. Any deterioration in the performance of loans facilitated through our platform or unexpected losses on such loans may increase the risk of potential charge-offs, increase our allowance for loans and interest receivable, negatively impact our revenue share arrangement with an independent chartered financial institution with respect to our U.S. consumer credit products, and materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We currently purchase receivables related to our U.S. PayPal-branded merchant financing offerings and certain U.S. consumer installment loan products and extend credit for our consumer and merchant products outside the U.S. through our international

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subsidiaries. In June 2023, we entered into a multi-year agreement to sell up to €40 billion of U.K. and European buy now, pay later (“BNPL”) loan receivables originated by PayPal (Europe) and PayPal U.K., consisting of the sale of a substantial majority of the U.K. and European BNPL loan portfolio held on PayPal (Europe)’s balance sheet at the closing of the transaction and a forward-flow arrangement for the sale of future originations of eligible loans, and in October 2023, we began selling those receivables. The sale of future eligible receivables is subject to certain conditions. If these conditions are not satisfied or waived or if the parties are unable to fulfill their obligations under these arrangements, the sale of these receivables could be delayed and we may not realize the expected benefits of this arrangement.

From time to time, we may consider other third-party sources of funding (including asset sales, warehouse facilities, forward-flow arrangements, securitizations, partnerships or other funding structures) for our credit portfolio or other receivables. The availability of such third-party funding is subject to a number of factors, including economic conditions and interest rates, and there can be no assurance that any such funding arrangements can be obtained on favorable terms or at all. If we are unable to fund our credit products or the purchase of the receivables related to our credit products and offerings adequately or in a cost-effective manner, the growth of our credit products and our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted.

We rely on third parties in many aspects of our business, which creates additional risk.

We rely on third parties in many aspects of our business, including networks, banks, payment processors, and payment gateways that link us to the payment card and bank clearing networks to process transactions; unaffiliated third-party lenders to originate our U.S. credit products to consumers, U.S. merchant financing, and branded credit card products; branded debit card and savings products issued by unaffiliated banks; cryptocurrency custodial service providers; and external business partners and contractors who provide key functions (e.g., outsourced customer support and product development functions; facilities; information technology, data center facilities and cloud computing). We are subject to additional risks inherent in engaging and relying upon third-party providers, including legal, regulatory, information security, reputational and operational risks. We are undertaking efforts to diversify our reliance on a small number of third-party payment processors in various markets. We are working with our primary payment processor in the U.S. to facilitate the migration of our arrangements to other payment processors over a transition period in connection with the wind-down of our agreement; however, if we are unable to timely and efficiently migrate our business to other payment processors or experience disruptions in connection with this transition, our business could be harmed. If we are unable to effectively manage our third-party relationships, these third parties are unable to meet their obligations to us, or we experience substantial disruptions in these relationships, our operations, results of operations, and financial results could be adversely impacted. Additionally, our relationships with third parties inherently involve a lesser degree of control over business operations, governance, and compliance, which potentially increases our financial, legal, reputational, and operational risk.

Any factors that reduce cross-border trade or make such trade more difficult could harm our business.

Cross-border trade (i.e., transactions where the merchant and consumer are in different countries) is an important source of our revenues and profits. Cross-border transactions generally provide higher revenues and operating income than similar transactions that take place within a single country or market. In certain markets, cross-border trade represents our primary (and in some instances our only) presence.

Cross-border trade may be negatively impacted by various factors including foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, tariffs, trade barriers or restrictions, sanctions, import or export controls, and the interpretation and application of laws of multiple jurisdictions in the context of cross-border trade and foreign exchange. Any factors that increase the costs of cross-border trade for us or our customers or that restrict, delay, or make cross-border trade more difficult or impractical could reduce our cross-border transactions and volume, negatively impact our revenues and profits, and harm our business.

Failure to deal effectively with fraud, abusive behaviors, bad transactions, and negative customer experiences may increase our loss rate and could negatively impact our business and severely diminish merchant and consumer confidence in and use of our services.

We expect that third parties will continue to attempt to abuse access to and misuse our payments services to commit fraud by, among other things, creating fictitious PayPal accounts using stolen or synthetic identities or personal information, making transactions with stolen financial instruments, abusing or misusing our services for financial gain, or fraudulently inducing users of our systems into engaging in fraudulent transactions. Due to the nature of PayPal’s digital payments services, third parties may seek to engage in abusive schemes or fraud attacks that are often difficult to detect and may be deployed at a scale that would otherwise not be possible in physical transactions. Measures to detect and reduce the risk of fraud and abusive

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behavior are complex, require continuous improvement, and may not be effective in detecting and preventing fraud, particularly new and continually evolving forms of fraud or in connection with new or expanded product offerings. If these measures are not effective, our business could be negatively impacted. We also incur substantial losses from erroneous transactions and situations where funding instruments used for legitimate transactions are closed or have insufficient funds to satisfy payments, or the payment is initiated to an unintended recipient in error. Numerous and evolving fraud schemes and misuse of our payments services could subject us to significant costs and liabilities, require us to change our business practices, cause us to incur significant remediation costs, lead to loss of customer confidence in, or decreased use of, our products and services, damage our reputation and brands, divert the attention of management from the operation of our business, and result in significant compensation or contractual penalties from us to our customers and their business partners as a result of losses or claims. While we actively seek to recover transaction losses where possible, such recoveries may be insufficient to compensate us for such losses.

Our Purchase and Seller Protection Programs (“protection programs”) are intended to reduce the likelihood of losses for consumers and merchants from unauthorized and fraudulent transactions. Our Purchase Protection Program also protects consumers who do not receive the item ordered or who receive an item that is significantly different from its description. We incur substantial losses from our protection programs as a result of disputes filed by our customers. We seek to recover losses from our protection programs from the merchant, but may not be able to fully recover our losses (for example, if the merchant is unwilling or unable to pay, the transaction involves a fraudulent merchant, or the merchant provides sufficient evidence that the item was delivered).

In addition, consumers who pay through PayPal or Venmo may have reimbursement rights from their payment card issuer, which in turn will seek recovery from us. If losses incurred by us related to payment card transactions become excessive, we could lose the ability to accept payment cards for payment, which would negatively impact our business. Regulators and card networks may also adapt error resolution and chargeback requirements to account for evolving forms of fraud, which could increase PayPal’s exposure to fraud losses and impact the scope of coverage of our protection programs. Increases in our loss rate, including as a result of changes to the scope of transactions covered by our protection programs, could negatively impact our business. See “Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies—Protection Programs” to our consolidated financial statements.

Failure to effectively monitor and evaluate the financial condition of our merchants may expose PayPal to losses. In the event of the bankruptcy, insolvency, business failure, or other business interruption of a merchant that sells goods or services in advance of the date of their delivery or use (e.g., airline, cruise, or concert tickets, custom-made goods, and subscriptions), we could be liable to the buyers of such goods or services, including through our Purchase Protection Program or through chargebacks on payment cards used by customers to fund their purchase. Allowances for transaction losses that we have established may be insufficient to cover incurred losses.

Use of our payments services for illegal activities or improper purposes could harm our business.

We expect that users will continue to attempt to use our payments platform for illegal activities or improper uses, including money laundering, terrorist financing, sanctions evasion, illegal online gambling, fraudulent sales of goods or services, illegal telemarketing activities, illegal sales of prescription medications or controlled substances, piracy of software, movies, music, and other copyrighted, trademarked or digital goods, bank fraud, child pornography, human trafficking, prohibited sales of alcoholic beverages or tobacco products, securities fraud, pyramid or Ponzi schemes, or the facilitation of other illegal or improper activity. Moreover, certain activity that may be legal in one jurisdiction may be illegal in another jurisdiction, and a merchant may be found responsible for intentionally or inadvertently importing or exporting illegal goods, resulting in liability for us. Owners of intellectual property rights or government authorities may seek to bring legal action against providers of payments solutions, including PayPal, that are peripherally involved in the sale of infringing or allegedly infringing items by a user. While we invest in measures intended to prevent and detect illegal activities that may occur on our payments platform, these measures require continuous improvement and may not be effective in detecting and preventing illegal activity or improper uses.

Any illegal or improper uses of our payments platform or failure by us to detect or prevent illegal or improper activity by our users may subject us to claims, individual and class action lawsuits, and government and regulatory requests, inquiries, or investigations that could result in liability, restrict our operations, impose additional restrictions or limitations on our business or require us to change our business practices, harm our reputation, increase our costs, and negatively impact our business.

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Acquisitions, dispositions, strategic investments, and other strategic transactions could result in operating difficulties and could harm our business.

We expect to continue to consider and evaluate a wide array of potential strategic transactions as part of our overall business strategy, including business combinations, acquisitions, and dispositions of certain businesses, technologies, services, products, and other assets; strategic investments; and commercial and strategic partnerships (collectively, “strategic transactions”). At any given time, we may be engaged in discussions or negotiations with respect to one or more strategic transactions, any of which could, individually or in the aggregate, be material to our financial condition and results of operations. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying, negotiating, consummating and integrating transaction opportunities. Strategic transactions may involve additional significant challenges, uncertainties, and risks, including challenges of obtaining regulatory or other approvals, integrating new employees, products, systems, technologies, operations, and business cultures; challenges associated with operating acquired businesses in markets or business areas in which we may have limited or no experience; disruption of our ongoing operations and diversion of our management’s attention; inadequate data security, cybersecurity, or operational and information technology resilience; failure to identify, or our underestimation of, commitments, liabilities, deficiencies and other risks associated with acquired businesses or assets; potential exposure to new or incremental risks associated with acquired businesses and entities, strategic investments or other strategic transactions, including potential new or increased regulatory oversight and uncertain or evolving legal, regulatory, and compliance requirements, particularly with respect to companies in new or developing businesses or industries; challenges associated with dispositions of business or operations, including disruption to other parts of our business, potential loss of employees or customers, the transfer of technology and/or certain intellectual property rights to third-party purchasers, or exposure to unanticipated liabilities or ongoing obligations to us following any such dispositions; failure of the transaction to advance our business strategy or for its anticipated benefits to materialize; potential impairment of goodwill or other acquisition-related intangible assets; and the potential for our acquisitions to result in dilutive issuances of our equity securities or the incurrence of significant additional debt. Strategic transactions are inherently risky, may not be successful, and may harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Strategic investments in which we have a minority ownership stake inherently involve a lesser degree of influence over business operations. The success of our strategic investments may be dependent on controlling shareholders, management, or other persons or entities that may have business interests, strategies, or goals that are inconsistent with ours. Business decisions or other actions or omissions of the controlling shareholders, management, or other persons or entities who control companies in which we invest may adversely affect the value of our investment, result in litigation or regulatory action against us, and damage our reputation.

Our international operations subject us to increased risks, which could harm our business.

Our international operations generate a significant portion of our net revenues. Our international operations subject us to significant challenges, uncertainties, and risks, including local regulatory, licensing, reporting, and legal obligations; costs and challenges associated with operating in markets in which we may have limited or no experience, including effectively localizing our products and services and adapting them to local preferences; difficulties in developing, staffing, and simultaneously managing a large number of varying foreign operations as a result of distance, language, and cultural differences and in light of varying laws, regulations, and customs; differing employment practices and the existence of works councils; difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified employees and maintaining our company culture; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; exchange control regulations; profit repatriation restrictions; potential tariffs, sanctions, fines, or other trade barriers or restrictions; import or export regulations; compliance with U.S. and foreign anti-bribery, anti-corruption, sanctions, anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing laws and regulations; the interpretation and application of laws of multiple jurisdictions; and national or regional political, economic, or social instability.

Our international operations also may heighten many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section. Any violations of the complex foreign and U.S. laws, rules and regulations that may apply to our international operations may result in lawsuits, enforcement actions, criminal actions, or sanctions against us and, our directors, officers, and employees; prohibit or require us to change our business practices; and damage our reputation. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with these laws, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors, or agents will not violate our policies. These risks are inherent in our international operations, may increase our costs of doing business internationally, and could materially and adversely affect our business.

Global and regional economic conditions could harm our business.


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Adverse global and regional economic conditions such as turmoil affecting the banking system or financial markets, including, but not limited to, tightening in the credit markets, extreme volatility or distress in the financial markets (including the fixed income, credit, currency, equity, and commodity markets), higher unemployment, high consumer debt levels, recessionary or inflationary pressures, supply chain issues, reduced consumer confidence or economic activity, government fiscal, monetary and tax policies, U.S. and international trade relationships, agreements, treaties, tariffs and restrictive actions, the inability of a government to enact a budget in a fiscal year, government shutdowns, government austerity programs, and other negative financial news or macroeconomic developments could have a material adverse impact on the demand for our products and services, including a reduction in the volume and size of transactions on our payments platform. Additionally, any inability to access the capital markets when needed due to volatility or illiquidity in the markets or increased regulatory liquidity and capital requirements may strain our liquidity position. Such conditions may also expose us to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates or interest rates that could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

If our reputation or our brands are damaged, our business and operating results may be harmed.

Our reputation and brands are globally recognized, important to our business, and affect our ability to attract and retain our customers. There are numerous ways our reputation or brands could be damaged. We may experience scrutiny or criticism from customers, partners, employees, government entities, media, advocacy groups, and other influencers or stakeholders that disagree with, among other things, our product offering decisions or public policy positions. Damage to our reputation or our brands may result from, among other things, new features, products, services, operational efforts, or terms of service (or changes to the same), or our decisions regarding user privacy, data practices, or information security. The proliferation of social media may increase and compound the likelihood, speed, magnitude, and unpredictability of negative brand events. If our brands or reputation are damaged, our business and operating results may be adversely impacted.

Real or perceived inaccuracies in our key metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.

Our key metrics are calculated using internal company data based on the activity we measure on our payments platform and compiled from multiple systems, including systems that are internally developed or acquired through business combinations. While the measurement of our key metrics is based on what we believe to be reasonable methodologies and estimates, there are inherent challenges and limitations in measuring our key metrics globally at scale. The methodologies used to calculate our key metrics require significant judgment.

We regularly review our processes for calculating these key metrics, and from time to time we may make adjustments to improve the accuracy or relevance of our metrics. For example, we continuously apply models, processes and practices designed to detect and prevent fraudulent account creation on our platforms, and work to improve and enhance those capabilities. When we detect a significant volume of illegitimate activity, we generally remove the activity identified from our key metrics. Although such adjustments may impact key metrics reported in prior periods, we generally do not update previously reported key metrics to reflect these subsequent adjustments unless the retrospective impact of process improvements or enhancements is determined by management to be material. Further, as our business develops, we may revise or cease reporting metrics if we determine that such metrics are no longer appropriate measures of our performance. If investors, analysts, or customers do not consider our reported measures to be sufficient or to accurately reflect our business, we may receive negative publicity, our reputation may be harmed, and our business may be adversely impacted.

Environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) issues may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and damage our reputation.

Investors, customers, employees, regulators, legislators and other stakeholders are increasingly focused on ESG matters and related disclosures, including with respect to cybersecurity, data privacy and protection, global talent and climate. If we are unable to comply with new laws and regulations or changes to legal or regulatory requirements concerning ESG matters, or fail to meet investor, industry or stakeholder expectations and standards, our reputation may be harmed, customers may choose to refrain from using our products and services, we may be subject to fines, penalties, regulatory or other enforcement actions, and our business or financial condition may be adversely affected. We may also experience additional scrutiny or criticism from investors, customers, partners, media, government entities, and other stakeholders if they perceive PayPal to not have acted appropriately with respect to ESG matters. If our ESG-related data, processes and reporting are incomplete or inaccurate, or if we fail to achieve progress with respect to ESG-related goals on a timely basis, or at all, our reputation, business, financial performance and growth could be adversely affected.

We specifically recognize the inherent physical climate-related risks where we conduct business. Our primary locations may be vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. For example, California, where our headquarters are located, has

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historically experienced, and is projected to continue to experience, extreme weather and natural disaster events more frequently, including drought, water scarcity, flooding, heat waves, wildfires and resultant air quality impacts, and power shutoffs associated with wildfire prevention. Such events may disrupt our business and may cause us to experience additional costs to maintain or resume operations and higher attrition.

If one or more of our counterparty financial institutions default on their financial or performance obligations to us or fail, we may incur significant losses.

We have significant amounts of cash, cash equivalents, receivables outstanding, and other investments on deposit or in accounts with banks or other financial institutions in the U.S. and international jurisdictions. As part of our foreign currency hedging activities, we regularly enter into transactions involving derivative financial instruments with various financial institutions. Certain banks and other financial institutions are also lenders under our credit facilities. We regularly monitor our concentration of, and exposure to counterparty risk, and actively manage this exposure to mitigate the associated risk. Despite these efforts, we may be exposed to the risk of default on obligations by, or deteriorating operating results or financial condition or failure of, these counterparty financial institutions. If one of our counterparty financial institutions were to become insolvent, placed into receivership, or file for bankruptcy, our ability to recover losses incurred as a result of default or to access or recover our assets that are deposited, held in accounts with, or otherwise due from, such counterparty may be limited due to the insufficiency of the failed institutions’ estate to satisfy all claims in full or the applicable laws or regulations governing the insolvency, bankruptcy, or resolution proceedings. In the event of default on obligations by, or the failure of, one or more of these counterparties, we could incur significant losses, which could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

If we are unable, or perceived as unable, to effectively manage customer funds, our business could be harmed.

We hold a substantial amount of funds belonging to our customers, including balances in customer accounts and funds being remitted to sellers of goods and services or recipients of person-to-person transactions. In certain jurisdictions where we operate, we are required to comply with applicable regulatory requirements with respect to customer balances. Our success is reliant on public confidence in our ability to effectively manage our customers’ balances and handle substantial transaction volumes and amounts of customer funds. Any failure to manage customer funds in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, or any public loss of confidence in us or our ability to effectively manage customer balances, could lead customers to discontinue or reduce their use of our products or reduce customer balances held with us, which could significantly harm our business.

There are risks associated with our indebtedness.

We have incurred indebtedness, and we may incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our ability to pay interest and repay the principal for our indebtedness is dependent upon our ability to manage our business operations and generate sufficient cash flows to service such debt. Our outstanding indebtedness and any additional indebtedness we incur may have significant consequences, including the need to use a significant portion of our cash flow from operations and other available cash to service our indebtedness, thereby reducing the funds available for other purposes, including capital expenditures, acquisitions, strategic investments, and share repurchases; the reduction of our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business, competitive pressures and market conditions; and limits on our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, strategic investments, share repurchases, or other general corporate purposes.

Our revolving credit facilities and the indentures for our senior unsecured notes pursuant to which certain of our outstanding debt securities were issued contain financial and other covenants that restrict or could restrict, among other things, our business and operations. If we fail to pay amounts due under a debt instrument or breach any of its covenants, the lenders or noteholders would typically have the right to demand immediate repayment of all borrowings thereunder (subject in certain cases to a grace or cure period). Moreover, any such acceleration and required repayment of, or default in respect of, our indebtedness could, in turn, constitute an event of default under other debt instruments, thereby resulting in the acceleration and required repayment of our indebtedness. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.

Changes by any rating agency to our outlook or credit rating could negatively affect the value of both our debt and equity securities and increase our borrowing costs. If our credit ratings are downgraded or other negative action is taken, the interest rates payable by us under our indebtedness may increase, and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future on favorable terms or at all could be adversely affected.


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Changes in tax laws, exposure to unanticipated additional tax liabilities, or implementation of reporting or record-keeping obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business.

An increasing number of U.S. states, the U.S. federal government, and governments of foreign jurisdictions, such as the EU Commission, as well as international organizations, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”), are focused on tax reform and other legislative or regulatory action to increase tax revenue. For example, various countries have proposed or enacted digital services taxes and global minimum tax provisions under the Pillar Two OECD model rules. These actions may materially and adversely affect our effective tax rate, net income, and cash flows.

The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires estimation and significant judgment, and there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are currently undergoing a number of investigations, audits, and reviews by tax authorities in multiple U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions. Any adverse outcome of any such audit or review could result in unforeseen tax-related liabilities that differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements, which may, individually or in the aggregate, materially affect our financial results in the periods for which such determination is made. While we have established reserves based on assumptions and estimates that we believe are reasonable to cover such eventualities, these reserves may prove to be insufficient.

In addition, our future income taxes could be adversely affected by the incurrence of losses or earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates, and earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates; by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, including as a result of gains on our foreign currency exchange risk management program; by changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting principles; or by certain discrete items.

A number of U.S. states, the U.S. federal government, and foreign jurisdictions have implemented and may impose reporting or record-keeping obligations on companies that engage in or facilitate e-commerce to improve tax compliance. A number of jurisdictions are also reviewing whether payment service providers and other intermediaries could be deemed to be the legal agent of merchants for certain tax purposes. We have modified our systems to meet applicable requirements and expect that further modifications will be required to comply with future requirements, which may negatively impact our customer experience and increase operational costs. Any failure by us to comply with these and similar reporting and record-keeping obligations could result in substantial monetary penalties and other sanctions, adversely impact our ability to do business in certain jurisdictions, and harm our business.

We may be unable to attract, retain, and develop the highly skilled employees we need to support our business.

Competition for key and other highly skilled personnel is intense, especially for executive talent, software engineers, and other technology talent. We may be limited in our ability to recruit or hire internationally, including due to restrictive laws or policies on immigration, travel, or availability of visas for skilled workers. The loss of the services of any of our key personnel, or our inability to attract, hire, develop, motivate and retain key and other highly qualified and diverse talent, whether in a remote or in-office environment, or protect the safety, health and productivity of our workforce could harm our overall business and results of operations.

We are subject to risks associated with information disseminated through our products and services.

We may be subject to claims relating to information disseminated through our online services, including claims alleging defamation, libel, harassment, hate speech, breach of contract, invasion of privacy, negligence, copyright or trademark infringement, or other theories based on the nature and content of the materials disseminated through the services, among other things. We invest in measures intended to detect and block activities that may occur on our payments platform in violation of our policies and applicable laws. These measures require continuous improvement and may not be sufficiently effective in detecting and preventing the exchange of information in violation of our policies and applicable laws. If these measures are not sufficiently effective, our business could be negatively impacted. If the laws or regulations that provide protections for online dissemination of information are invalidated or are modified to reduce protections available to us and we become liable for information provided by our customers and carried on our products and services, we could be directly harmed and we may be forced to implement new measures to reduce our exposure, including expending substantial resources or discontinuing certain product or service offerings, which could harm our business.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.


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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

CYBERSECURITY RISK MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGY

Our Information Security Program is designed to support the Company in identifying, protecting, detecting, responding to, and recovering from cybersecurity threats and incidents (collectively, “cybersecurity risks”) with the intention to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our critical systems and information.

We design and regularly assess our Information Security Program guided by National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (NIST CSF) and ISO standards (including ISO 27001), proprietary controls and industry best practices.

Our Information Security Program is built on a three lines of defense model integrated into our overall Enterprise Risk and Compliance Management Program (“ERCM Program”). It shares common methodologies, reporting channels, and governance processes that apply across the ERCM Program to other legal, compliance, strategic, operational, and financial risk areas. The Program is governed by the Technology, Information Security, and Privacy Risk Management Committee and overseen by our Board of Directors (“Board”) and its Audit, Risk and Compliance Committee (“ARC Committee”).

The three lines of defense model is designed to provide a structure for risk accountability in the first line of defense (“FLOD”), effective challenge by the second line of defense (“SLOD”), and independent risk assurance by the third line of defense (“TLOD”). Our Office of the Chief Information Security Officer serves as FLOD and provides operational and technical controls and capabilities to protect against cybersecurity risks. The Technology and Information Security team serves as SLOD and provides independent oversight of our technology and cybersecurity risk mitigation practices and capabilities. As TLOD, Internal Audit independently assesses the effectiveness of our first and second line of defense organizations in managing cybersecurity risk and independently reports the results of audits to our ARC Committee to assist it in its oversight duties.

Our Information Security Program includes:

Risk assessments designed to help identify material cybersecurity risks to our critical systems, information, products, services, and our broader enterprise Information Technology (“IT”) environment;
Regular testing of our systems to identify and address potential vulnerabilities;
Integrated planning and preparedness activities supporting business continuity and operational resiliency;
Security teams principally responsible for managing (1) our annual cybersecurity risk assessment processes, (2) our security controls, and (3) our response to cybersecurity incidents;
A cybersecurity incident response plan that includes procedures for responding to cybersecurity incidents;
24/7 monitoring and measurement of cybersecurity threats through our PayPal Cyber Defense Center (“CDC”);
The use of external service providers, where appropriate, to assess, test or otherwise assist with aspects of our security controls;
An information training and awareness program for our employees, contractors, incident response personnel, and senior management; and
A third-party risk management framework designed to monitor and address risks from cybersecurity incidents of service providers, suppliers, and vendors that includes due diligence over third-party’s information security and technology control environment at onboarding and periodically throughout the lifecycle of the relationship. In addition, our standard contractual terms require notification and communication from third parties in the event of a cybersecurity incident. We maintain procedures to respond to, manage and mitigate third-party cybersecurity events and vulnerabilities when identified.

For a description of risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” under the captions “Cyberattacks and security vulnerabilities could result in serious harm to our reputation, business, and financial condition” and “Business interruptions or systems failures may impair the availability of our websites, applications, products or services, or otherwise harm our business.


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CYBERSECURITY GOVERNANCE

Our Board considers cybersecurity risk as part of its risk oversight function and has delegated to our ARC Committee oversight of cybersecurity and other information technology risks. The ARC Committee oversees PayPal’s overall risk framework, including management’s implementation of our cybersecurity risk management program, and reports to the full Board of Directors on a regular basis on cybersecurity and information technology risk management.

The ARC Committee receives periodic reports from the Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) on our cybersecurity risks. Our CISO has numerous years of experience at PayPal and other organizations building security products, managing security infrastructure, providing a variety of security services, and overseeing incident response and management, escalation of security events, vulnerability scanning, and security defect management. Management also updates the ARC Committee, as necessary, regarding cybersecurity incidents.

The ARC Committee reports to the Board regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity risk oversight. The Board also receives briefings at least annually from management on our Information Security Program. Board members receive presentations on cybersecurity topics from our CISO and external experts from time to time as part of our continuing education to Board on topics relevant to their service as a member of our Board.

Our cybersecurity teams, overseen by our CISO, are responsible for assessing and managing our risks from cybersecurity threats, including defining security policy and board reporting of security risk. The CISO approves all security policies and oversees the identification, assessment, and management of cybersecurity risks, which provides a proactive and comprehensive approach to safeguarding our information assets. The teams have primary responsibility for our overall Information Security Program and supervise both our internal cybersecurity personnel and our external cybersecurity consultants. Our cybersecurity teams’ experience includes cybersecurity incident response, in-depth security assessments and security emulation exercises to evaluate security profile, security research, education and outreach, and security tool development.

Our cybersecurity teams, in coordination with the CDC, supervise efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate, and remediate cybersecurity threats and incidents through the operation of our incident response plan and various other means, which may include briefings from internal security personnel, threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources, including external consultants engaged by us, as well as alerts and reports produced by security tools deployed in the IT environment. The CDC team oversees, identifies, and addresses security threats aimed at safeguarding PayPal employees, consumers, and merchants.

Our CISO organization is responsible for independently identifying, measuring, monitoring, controlling and reporting aggregate risks and for setting policies for the management and oversight of risk. The organization monitors cyber regulation requirements, reviews impacts of new products and initiatives, conduct reviews of cyber assessments and testing activities and provides effective challenge to the FLOD risk management activities.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We own and lease various properties in the United States (“U.S.”) and other countries around the world. We use these properties for executive and administrative offices, customer services and operations centers, product development offices, and data centers. As of December 31, 2023, our owned and leased properties provided us with aggregate square footage as follows:
United StatesOther CountriesTotal
 (In millions)
Owned facilities0.7 0.2 0.9 
Leased facilities1.3 1.6 2.9 
Total facilities2.0 1.8 3.8 
We own a total of approximately 70 acres of land, with approximately 49 acres in the U.S. Our corporate headquarters are located in San Jose, California and occupy approximately 0.7 million of owned square feet.
    

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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The information set forth under “Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies—Litigation and Regulatory Matters” to the consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Form 10-K is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

COMMON STOCK

PayPal common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the ticker symbol “PYPL.”

As of February 1, 2024, there were 3,942 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is significantly greater than this number of record holders, and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never paid any cash dividends and we currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

STOCK REPURCHASE ACTIVITY

In June 2022, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program that provides for the repurchase of up to $15 billion of our common stock, with no expiration from the date of authorization. Our stock repurchase program is intended to offset the impact of dilution from our equity compensation programs and, subject to market conditions and other factors, may also be used to make opportunistic repurchases of our common stock to reduce outstanding share count. Any share repurchases under our stock repurchase program may be made through open market transactions, block trades, privately negotiated transactions, including accelerated share repurchase agreements or other means at times and in such amounts as management deems appropriate, and will be funded from our working capital or other financing alternatives. Moreover, any stock repurchases are subject to market conditions and other uncertainties and we cannot predict if or when any stock repurchases will be made. We may terminate our stock repurchase program at any time without prior notice.

The stock repurchase activity under our stock repurchase program during the three months ended December 31, 2023 is summarized as follows:
Total number of shares purchased
Average price
paid per share
(1)
Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programsApproximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
(In millions, except per share amounts)
Balance as of September 30, 2023
$11,466 
October 1, 2023 through October 31, 2023
1.8 $58.13 1.8 11,359 
November 1, 2023 through November 30, 2023
1.9 $57.45 1.9 11,247 
December 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023
6.4 $60.37 6.4 10,859 
Balance as of December 31, 2023
10.1 10.1 $10,859 
(1) Average price paid per share for open market purchases includes broker commissions, but excludes excise tax.




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ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear in this report. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” and “PayPal” refer to PayPal Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations focuses on a discussion of 2023 results as compared to 2022 results. For a discussion of 2022 results as compared to 2021 results, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” within our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the SEC on February 10, 2023.

BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

THE COMPANY

We are a leading technology platform that enables digital payments and simplifies commerce experiences on behalf of merchants and consumers worldwide. PayPal is committed to democratizing financial services to help improve the financial health of individuals and to increase economic opportunity for entrepreneurs and businesses of all sizes around the world. Our goal is to enable our merchants and consumers to manage and move their money anywhere in the world in the markets we serve, anytime, on any platform, and using any device when sending payments or getting paid, including person-to-person payments.

Regulatory environment

We operate globally and in a rapidly evolving regulatory environment characterized by a heightened focus by regulators globally on all aspects of the payments industry, including countering terrorist financing, anti-money laundering, privacy, cybersecurity, and consumer protection. The laws and regulations applicable to us, including those enacted prior to the advent of digital payments, continue to evolve through legislative and regulatory action and judicial interpretation. New or changing laws and regulations, including changes to their interpretation and implementation, as well as increased penalties and enforcement actions related to non-compliance, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. We monitor these areas closely and are focused on designing compliant solutions for our customers.

Cybersecurity and information security

Cybersecurity and information security risks for global payments and technology companies like us have increased significantly in recent years. Although we have developed systems and processes designed to protect the data we manage, prevent data loss and other security incidents, and enable us to effectively respond to known and potential risks, and expect to continue to expend significant resources to bolster these protections, we remain subject to these risks and there can be no assurance that our security measures will provide sufficient security or prevent breaches or attacks. For additional information regarding our cybersecurity and information security risks, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Cyberattacks and security vulnerabilities could result in serious harm to our reputation, business, and financial condition” and “Item 1C. Cybersecurity.”

MACROECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

The broader implications of the macroeconomic environment, including uncertainty around recent international conflicts including the Russia and Ukraine conflict, supply chain shortages, a recession globally or in markets in which we operate, higher inflation rates, higher interest rates, and other related global economic conditions, remain unknown. A deterioration in macroeconomic conditions could continue to increase the risk of lower consumer spending, merchant and consumer bankruptcy, insolvency, business failure, higher credit losses, foreign currency exchange fluctuations, or other business interruption, which may adversely impact our business. If these conditions continue or worsen, they could adversely impact our future financial and operating results.


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OVERVIEW OF RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following table provides a summary of our consolidated financial results for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:
 Year Ended December 31,Percent Increase/(Decrease)
 20232022202120232022
 (In millions, except percentages and per share amounts)
Net revenues$29,771 $27,518 $25,371 %%
Operating expenses24,743 23,681 21,109 %12 %
Operating income5,028 3,837 4,262 31 %(10)%
Operating margin17 %14 %17 %****
Other income (expense), net383 (471)(163)181 %189 %
Income tax expense (benefit) 1,165 947 (70)23 %**
Effective tax rate22 %28 %(2)%****
Net income (loss)$4,246 $2,419 $4,169 76 %(42)%
Net income (loss) per diluted share$3.84 $2.09 $3.52 84 %(41)%
Net cash provided by operating activities
$4,843 $5,813 $5,797 (17)%— %
All amounts in tables are rounded to the nearest million, except as otherwise noted. As a result, certain amounts may not recalculate using the rounded amounts provided.
** Not meaningful.

Net revenues increased $2.3 billion, or 8%, in 2023 compared to 2022 driven primarily by growth in total payment volume (“TPV”, as defined below under “Key Metrics”) of 13%.

Total operating expenses increased $1.1 billion, or 4%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due primarily to an increase in transaction expense, partially offset by reductions in sales and marketing expense, restructuring and other, and technology and development expense.

Operating income increased $1.2 billion, or 31%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due to net revenues growing more than operating expenses. Our operating margin was 17% and 14% in 2023 and 2022, respectively, reflecting the positive impact of operating efficiencies in our business and gain on sale of a divested business, partially offset by the negative impact of an increase in transaction expense.

Net income increased by $1.8 billion, or 76%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due to the previously discussed increase in operating income of $1.2 billion and an increase of $854 million in other income (expense), net, driven primarily by net gains on strategic investments in the current period as compared to net losses and impairments on strategic investments in the prior period as well as higher interest income from an increase in interest rates, partially offset by an increase in income tax expense of $218 million primarily related to higher pre-tax income, inclusive of tax expense associated with net gains on strategic investments and the sale of a divested business.

IMPACT OF FOREIGN CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES

We have significant international operations that are denominated in foreign currencies, primarily the British pound, Euro, Australian dollar, and Canadian dollar, subjecting us to foreign currency exchange risk which may adversely impact our financial results. The strengthening or weakening of the United States (“U.S.”) dollar versus foreign currencies in which we conduct our international operations impacts the translation of our net revenues and expenses generated in these foreign currencies into the U.S. dollar. In 2023, 2022, and 2021, we generated approximately 42%, 43%, and 46% of our net revenues from customers domiciled outside of the U.S., respectively. Because we generate substantial net revenues internationally, we are subject to the risks of doing business outside of the U.S., including those discussed under “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

We calculate the year-over-year impact of foreign currency exchange movements on our business using prior period foreign currency exchange rates applied to current period transactional currency amounts. While changes in foreign currency exchange rates affect our reported results, we have a foreign currency exchange exposure management program in which we use foreign currency exchange contracts, designated as cash flow hedges, intended to reduce the impact on earnings from foreign currency exchange rate movements. Gains and losses from these foreign currency exchange contracts are recognized as a component of transaction revenues or operating expenses (as applicable) in the same period the forecasted transactions impact earnings.


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In the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the year-over-year foreign currency exchange rate movements relative to the U.S. dollar had the following impact on our reported results:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(In millions)
Favorable (unfavorable) impact to net revenues (exclusive of hedging impact)
$128 $(949)
Hedging impact111 462 
Favorable (unfavorable) impact to net revenues
239 (487)
(Unfavorable) favorable impact to operating expense
(29)492 
Net favorable impact to operating income$210 $

While we enter into foreign currency exchange contracts to help reduce the impact on earnings from foreign currency exchange rate movements, it is impossible to predict or eliminate the total effects of this exposure.

We also use foreign currency exchange contracts, designated as net investment hedges, to reduce the foreign currency exchange risk related to our investment in certain foreign subsidiaries. Gains and losses associated with these instruments will remain in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until the underlying foreign subsidiaries are sold or substantially liquidated.

Given that we also have foreign currency exchange risk on our assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of our subsidiaries, we have an additional foreign currency exchange exposure management program in which we use foreign currency exchange contracts to help offset the impact of foreign currency exchange rate movements on our assets and liabilities. The foreign currency exchange gains and losses on our assets and liabilities are recorded in other income (expense), net, and are offset by the gains and losses on the foreign currency exchange contracts. These foreign currency exchange contracts reduce, but do not entirely eliminate, the impact of foreign currency exchange rate movements on our assets and liabilities.

Additionally, in connection with transactions occurring in multiple currencies on our payments platform, we generally set our foreign currency exchange rates daily and may face financial exposure if we incorrectly set our foreign currency exchange rates or as a result of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates between the times that we set our foreign currency exchange rates and when transactions occur.

KEY METRICS AND FINANCIAL RESULTS

KEY METRICS

TPV, number of payment transactions, active accounts, and number of payment transactions per active account are key non-financial performance metrics (“key metrics”) that management uses to measure the scale of our platform and the relevance of our products and services to our customers, and are defined as follows:

TPV is the value of payments, net of payment reversals, successfully completed on our payments platform or enabled by PayPal via a partner payment solution, not including gateway-exclusive transactions.

Number of payment transactions are the total number of payments, net of payment reversals, successfully completed on our payments platform or enabled by PayPal via a partner payment solution, not including gateway-exclusive transactions.

An active account is an account registered directly with PayPal or a platform access partner that has completed a transaction on our platform, not including gateway-exclusive transactions, within the past 12 months. A platform access partner is a third party whose customers are provided access to PayPal’s platform or services through such third party’s login credentials, including individuals and entities that utilize Hyperwallet’s payout capabilities. A user may register on our platform to access different products and may register more than one account to access a product. Accordingly, a user may have more than one active account. The number of active accounts provides management with additional perspective on the overall scale of our platform, but may not have a direct relationship to our operating results.


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Number of payment transactions per active account reflects the total number of payment transactions within the previous 12-month period, divided by active accounts at the end of the period. The number of payment transactions per active account provides management with insight into the average number of times an account engages in payments activity on our payments platform in a given period. The number of times a consumer account or a merchant account transacts on our platform may vary significantly from the average number of payment transactions per active account.

As our transaction revenue is typically correlated with TPV growth and the number of payment transactions completed on our payments platform, management uses these metrics to gain insights into the scale and strength of our payments platform, the engagement level of our customers, and underlying activity and trends which may be indicators of current and future performance. We present these key metrics to enhance investors’ evaluation of the performance of our business and operating results.

Our key metrics are calculated using internal company data based on the activity we measure on our payments platform and compiled from multiple systems, including systems that are internally developed or acquired through business combinations. While the measurement of our key metrics is based on what we believe to be reasonable methodologies and estimates, there are inherent challenges and limitations in measuring our key metrics globally at our scale. The methodologies used to calculate our key metrics require significant judgment.

We regularly review our processes for calculating these key metrics, and from time to time we may make adjustments to improve the accuracy or relevance of our metrics. For example, we continuously apply models, processes, and practices designed to detect and prevent fraudulent account creation on our platforms, and work to improve and enhance those capabilities. When we detect a significant volume of illegitimate activity, we generally remove the activity identified from our key metrics. Although such adjustments may impact key metrics reported in prior periods, we generally do not update previously reported key metrics to reflect these subsequent adjustments unless the retrospective impact of process improvements or enhancements is determined by management to be material.

NET REVENUES

Our revenues are classified into the following two categories:

Transaction revenues: Net transaction fees charged to merchants and consumers on a transaction basis based on the TPV completed on our payments platform. Growth in TPV is directly impacted by the number of payment transactions that we enable on our payments platform. We generate additional revenue from merchants and consumers: on transactions where we perform currency conversion, when we enable cross-border transactions (i.e., transactions where the merchant and consumer are in different countries), to facilitate the instant transfer of funds for our customers from their PayPal or Venmo account to their bank account or debit card, to facilitate the purchase and sale of cryptocurrencies, as contractual compensation from sellers that violate our contractual terms (for example, through fraud or counterfeiting), and other miscellaneous fees.

Revenues from other value added services: Net revenues derived primarily from revenue earned through partnerships, referral fees, subscription fees, gateway fees, and other services we provide to our merchants and consumers. We also earn revenues from interest and fees earned on our portfolio of loans receivable, and interest earned on certain assets underlying customer balances.

Our revenues can be significantly impacted by a number of factors, including the following:
 
The mix of merchants, products, and services;
The mix between domestic and cross-border transactions;
The geographic region or country in which a transaction occurs; and
The amount of our loans receivable outstanding with merchants and consumers.

Refer to “Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K for further discussion on factors that may impact our revenue.


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Net revenue analysis

The components of our net revenues for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 were as follows (in millions):
5922
Transaction revenues

Transaction revenues grew by $1.7 billion, or 7%, in 2023 compared to 2022 driven primarily by growth in TPV and the number of payment transactions from our Braintree products and services, partially offset by a decline in revenues from our core PayPal products and services, including declines in contractual compensation of $190 million from sellers that violated our contractual terms predominantly in international markets. Transaction revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 were also impacted unfavorably by lower net gains due to hedging activities as compared to the same period of the prior year.

The graphs below present the respective key metrics (in millions) for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:
699269936994
*Reflects active accounts at the end of the applicable period.

The following table provides a summary of related metrics:
 Year Ended December 31,Percent Increase/
(Decrease)
 20232022202120232022
Number of payment transactions per active account58.7 51.4 45.4 14 %13 %
Percent of cross-border TPV(1)
12 %13 %16 %** ** 
(1) Cross-border TPV occurs primarily between two PayPal accounts in different countries and includes transactions initiated through our Xoom product.
** Not meaningful

We had active accounts of 426 million and 435 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, a decrease of 2%. Number of payment transactions was 25.0 billion and 22.3 billion for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, an increase of 12%. TPV was $1.53 trillion and $1.36 trillion or the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, an increase of 13%.


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Transaction revenues growth was lower than the growth in TPV and the number of payment transactions in 2023 due primarily to a decline in revenues from core PayPal products and services, an unfavorable impact from hedging, and declines in foreign currency exchange fees.

Revenues from other value added services

Revenues from other value added services increased by $602 million, or 26%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due primarily to increases in interest earned on certain assets underlying customer account balances resulting from higher interest rates, and to a lesser extent, interest and fee revenue on our loans receivable portfolio driven by consumer interest-bearing installment loans and consumer revolving loans. These drivers positively impacting revenues from other value added services were partially offset by a decline in revenue earned from our PayPal Honey product and a lower revenue share earned from an independent chartered financial institution (“partner institution”).

Consumers that have outstanding loans and interest receivable due to our partner institution may experience hardships that result in losses recognized by the partner institution, which may result in a decrease in our revenue share earned in future periods. In the event the overall return on the PayPal branded credit programs funded by the partner institution does not meet a minimum rate of return (“minimum return threshold”) in a particular quarter, our revenue share for that period would be zero. Further, in the event the overall return on the PayPal branded credit programs managed by the partner institution does not meet the minimum return threshold as measured over four consecutive quarters and in the following quarter, we would be required to make a payment to the partner institution, subject to certain limitations. Through December 31, 2023, the overall return on the PayPal branded credit programs funded by the partner institution exceeded the minimum return threshold.

Seasonality

The Company does not experience meaningful seasonality with respect to net revenues. No individual quarter in 2023, 2022, or 2021 accounted for more than 30% of annual net revenue.

OPERATING EXPENSES

The following table summarizes our operating expenses and related metrics we use to assess the trends in each:
 Year Ended December 31,Percent Increase/
(Decrease)
 20232022202120232022
 (In millions, except percentages)
Transaction expense$14,385 $12,173 $10,315 18 %18 %
Transaction and credit losses1,682 1,572 1,060 %48 %
Customer support and operations1,919 2,120 2,075 (9)%%
Sales and marketing1,809 2,257 2,445 (20)%(8)%
Technology and development2,973 3,253 3,038 (9)%%
General and administrative2,059 2,099 2,114 (2)%(1)%
Restructuring and other
(84)207 62 (141)%234 %
Total operating expenses$24,743 $23,681 $21,109 %12 %
Transaction expense rate(1)
0.94 %0.90 %0.83 %****
Transaction and credit loss rate(2)
0.11 %0.12 %0.09 %****
(1) Transaction expense rate is calculated by dividing transaction expense by TPV.
(2) Transaction and credit loss rate is calculated by dividing transaction and credit losses by TPV.
** Not meaningful.


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Transaction expense

Transaction expense is primarily composed of the costs we incur to accept a customer’s funding source of payment. These costs include fees paid to payment processors and other financial institutions when we draw funds from a customer’s credit or debit card, bank account, or other funding source they have stored in their digital wallet. We refer to the allocation of funding sources used by our consumers as our “funding mix.” The cost of funding a transaction with a credit or debit card is generally higher than the cost of funding a transaction from a bank or through internal sources such as a PayPal or Venmo account balance or our consumer credit products. As we expand the availability and presentation of alternative funding sources to our customers, our funding mix may change, which could increase or decrease our transaction expense rate. The cost of funding a transaction is also impacted by the geographic region or country in which a transaction occurs, as we generally pay lower rates for transactions funded with credit or debit cards outside the U.S. Our transaction expense rate is impacted by changes in product mix, merchant mix, regional mix, funding mix, and fees paid to payment processors and other financial institutions. Macroeconomic environment changes may also result in behavioral shifts in consumer spending patterns affecting the type of funding source they use, which could also impact the funding mix.

11668
Transaction expense increased by $2.2 billion, or 18%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due primarily to an increase in TPV of 13% and unfavorable changes in product mix. The increase in transaction expense rate in 2023 compared to 2022 was also attributable to unfavorable changes in product mix with a higher proportion of TPV from unbranded card processing volume, which generally has higher expense rates than other products and services, partially offset by favorable changes in regional mix with respect to our core PayPal products and services. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, approximately 36%, 35%, and 39% of TPV, respectively, was generated outside of the U.S.

Transaction and credit losses

Transaction losses include the expense associated with our customer protection programs, fraud, and chargebacks. Credit losses include the current expected credit losses associated with our merchant and consumer loans receivable portfolio. Our transaction and credit losses fluctuate depending on many factors, including TPV, product mix, current and projected macroeconomic conditions such as unemployment rates, retail e-commerce sales and household disposable income, merchant insolvency events, changes to and usage of our customer protection programs, the impact of regulatory changes, and the credit quality of loans receivable arising from transactions funded with our credit products for consumers and loans and advances to merchants. Estimating our current expected credit loss allowances for our loans receivable portfolios is an inherently uncertain process and the ultimate losses we incur may vary from the current estimates. We regularly update our allowance estimates as new facts become known and events occur that may impact the ultimate losses incurred. A deterioration in macroeconomic conditions or other factors beyond those considered in our estimates could result in credit losses that exceed our current estimated credit losses and adversely impact our future operating results.

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The components of our transaction and credit losses for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 were as follows (in millions):
13655
Transaction and credit losses increased by $110 million, or 7%, in 2023 compared to 2022.

Transaction losses were approximately $1.2 billion for both 2023 and 2022, reflecting a slight increase of $22 million, or 2%. Transaction loss rate (transaction losses divided by TPV) was 0.08%, 0.09%, and 0.09% for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. The increase in transaction losses in 2023 was primarily attributable to lower recoveries compared to 2022 and higher losses related to fraud schemes, partially offset by a $39 million loss related to an ongoing merchant insolvency proceeding in 2022 with no activity of comparable individual magnitude in the current period.

Credit losses increased by $88 million in 2023 compared to 2022. The components of credit losses for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 were as follows (in millions):

Year Ended December 31,
2023(3)
20222021
Net charge-offs(1)
$549 $267 $219 
Reserve build (release)(2)
(59)135 (312)
Credit losses$490 $402 $(93)
(1) Net charge-offs includes principal charge-offs partially offset by recoveries for consumer and merchant receivables.
(2) Reserve build (release) represents change in allowance for principal receivables excluding foreign currency remeasurement.
(3) Includes changes in the allowance due to the reclassification of loans and interest receivable to or from held for sale.

The provision in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 was primarily attributable to loan originations during the respective periods and a deterioration in the credit quality of loans outstanding. During 2023 and 2022, allowances for our merchant and consumer portfolios included qualitative adjustments that took into account uncertainty with respect to macroeconomic conditions, and around the financial health of our borrowers, including the effectiveness of loan modification programs made available to merchants.

Consumer loan portfolio

As of December 31, 2023, loans and interest receivable, held for sale was $563 million. Loans and interest receivable, held for sale, represents the portion of our installment consumer receivables that we intend to sell. This portfolio includes the substantial majority of our United Kingdom (“U.K.”) and other European buy now, pay later loan receivables. In June 2023, we entered into a multi-year agreement with a global investment firm to sell up to €40 billion of U.K. and other European buy now, pay later loan receivables, consisting of eligible loans and interest receivables, including a forward-flow arrangement for the sale of future originations of eligible loans over a 24-month commitment period (collectively, “eligible consumer installment receivables”). For additional information, see “Note 1—Overview and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

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The consumer loans and interest receivable balance as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $4.8 billion and $5.9 billion, respectively, net of participation interest sold, representing a year-over-year decrease of 19% driven by the sale of eligible consumer installment receivables in the U.K. and other European countries, as discussed above, partially offset by the expansion of our revolving credit product in the U.K. and our installment credit products in Japan.

The following table provides information regarding the credit quality of our consumer loans and interest receivable balance:
December 31,
20232022
Percent of consumer loans and interest receivable current(1)
95.4 %97.1 %
Percent of consumer loans and interest receivable > 90 days outstanding(1), (2)
2.2 %1.4 %
Net charge-off rate(1), (3)
7.2 %4.5 %
(1) Amounts as of December 31, 2023 exclude loans and interest receivable, held for sale.
(2) Represents percentage of balances which are 90 days past the billing date or contractual repayment date, as applicable.
(3) Net charge-off rate is the annualized ratio of net credit losses during the three months ended December 31, 2023, excluding fraud losses, on consumer loans as a percentage of the average daily amount of consumer loans and interest receivable balance during the same period.

The increase in net charge-off rate for consumer loans and interest receivable at December 31, 2023 as compared to December 31, 2022 was primarily due to the sale of eligible consumer installment receivables, as discussed above, and deterioration in the credit quality of the U.S. interest-bearing installment product.

We continue to evaluate and modify our acceptable risk parameters related to our consumer loan portfolio in response to the changing macroeconomic environment. In response to declining performance, a number of risk mitigation strategies were implemented in the third quarter of 2023, which resulted in reduced originations for our U.S. interest-bearing installment product.

Merchant loan portfolio

We offer access to merchant finance products for certain small and medium-sized businesses, which we refer to as our merchant finance offerings. Total merchant loans, advances, and interest and fees receivable outstanding, net of participation interest sold, as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was $1.2 billion and $2.1 billion, respectively, reflecting a decline of 44% due primarily to a decrease in originations related to our PayPal Business Loan (“PPBL”) products in the U.S.

The following table provides information regarding the credit quality of our merchant loans, advances, and interest and fees receivable balance:
December 31,
20232022
Percent of merchant loans, advances, and interest and fees receivable current87.0 %90.7 %
Percent of merchant loans, advances, and interest and fees receivable > 90 days outstanding(1)
5.6 %3.7 %
Net charge-off rate (2)
18.8 %4.5 %
(1) Represents percentage of balances which are 90 days past the original expected or contractual repayment period, as applicable.
(2) Net charge-off rate is the annualized ratio of net credit losses during the three months ended December 31, 2023, excluding fraud losses, on merchant loans and advances as a percentage of the average daily amount of merchant loans, advances, and interest and fees receivable balance during the same period.

The decrease in the percent of current merchant receivables, increase in percent of merchant receivables greater than 90 days outstanding, and increase in the net charge-off rate for merchant receivables at December 31, 2023 as compared to December 31, 2022 were primarily due to the expansion of acceptable risk parameters in 2022, which resulted in a decline in the overall credit quality of loans outstanding related to our PPBL product. The significant decline in the merchant receivable portfolio year-over-year due to repayments and reduced originations also resulted in higher delinquency and charge-off rates as a percentage of outstanding loan balance as of December 31, 2023.

We continue to evaluate and modify our acceptable risk parameters related to our merchant loan portfolio in response to the changing macroeconomic environment. In response to declining performance, a number of risk mitigation strategies were implemented throughout 2023, which resulted in reduced originations for our PPBL product.

For additional information, see “Note 11—Loans and Interest Receivable” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements, and “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Our credit products expose us to additional risks” included in this Form 10-K.


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Customer support and operations

Customer support and operations includes costs incurred in our global customer operations centers, including costs to provide call support to our customers, costs to support our trust and security programs protecting our merchants and consumers, and other costs incurred related to the delivery of our products, including payment devices, card production, and customer onboarding and compliance costs.
19636

Customer support and operations costs decreased $201 million, or 9%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due primarily to a decline in employee-related costs, contractors and consulting costs, and customer onboarding and compliance costs.

Sales and marketing

Sales and marketing includes costs incurred for customer acquisition, business development, advertising, and marketing programs.
20225
Sales and marketing expenses decreased $448 million, or 20%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due primarily to lower spending on targeted user incentives and marketing campaigns, and to a lesser extent, a decline in amortization of acquired intangibles.


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Technology and development

Technology and development includes costs incurred in connection with the development of our payments platform, new products, and the improvement of our existing products, including the amortization of software and website development costs incurred in developing our payments platform, which are capitalized. It also includes acquired developed technology and our site operations and other infrastructure costs incurred to support our payments platform.
21028
Technology and development expenses decreased $280 million, or 9%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due primarily to lower intangible amortization and a decline in costs related to contractors and consultants.

General and administrative

General and administrative includes costs incurred to provide support to our business, including legal, human resources, finance, risk and compliance, executive, and other support operations.
21538
General and administrative expenses decreased $40 million, or 2%, in 2023 compared to 2022 due primarily to a decline in depreciation expense and facilities costs.

Restructuring and other

Restructuring and other primarily consist of restructuring expenses, asset impairment charges, gain on sale of divested business, and losses on loans and interest receivable, held for sale.
21983
Restructuring and other decreased by $291 million in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily resulting from gain on sale of a divested business, partially offset by restructuring charges, asset impairment charges, and fair value adjustments on loans and interest receivable, held for sale.

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In the fourth quarter of 2023, we completed the sale of Happy Returns and recorded a pre-tax gain of $339 million, net of transaction costs. For additional information on the divestiture, see “Note 4—Business Combinations and Divestitures” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

During the first quarter of 2023, management initiated a global workforce reduction intended to focus resources on core strategic priorities, and improve our cost structure and operating efficiency. The associated restructuring charges during the year ended December 31, 2023 were $122 million. We primarily incurred employee severance and benefits costs, which were substantially completed in the fourth quarter of 2023. The estimated reduction in annualized employee-related costs associated with the impacted workforce was approximately $280 million, including approximately $85 million in stock-based compensation. We expect to reinvest a portion of the reduction in annual costs associated with the impacted workforce to drive business priorities.

During the first quarter of 2022, management initiated a strategic reduction of the existing global workforce intended to streamline and optimize our global operations to enhance operating efficiency. This effort focused on reducing redundant operations and simplifying our organizational structure. The associated restructuring charges during the year ended December 31, 2022 were $121 million. We primarily incurred employee severance and benefits costs, as well as associated consulting costs. The strategic actions associated with this plan were substantially completed by the fourth quarter of 2022.

For information on the associated restructuring liabilities, see “Note 17—Restructuring and Other” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

Additionally, we are continuing to review our real estate and facility capacity requirements due to our new and evolving work models. We incurred asset impairment charges of $61 million and $81 million in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, due to exiting certain leased properties, which resulted in a reduction of right-of-use lease assets and related leasehold improvements.

In the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized a gain of $17 million due to the sale of an owned property. We also incurred a loss of $14 million related to another owned property, which was previously held for sale, in the year ended December 31, 2023.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately $74 million of losses were recorded in restructuring and other, which included net loss on sale of loans and interest receivable previously held for sale (inclusive of transaction costs) and fair value adjustments in order to measure loans and interest receivable, held for sale, at the lower of cost or fair value.

Other income (expense), net

Other income (expense), net of $383 million in 2023 increased $854 million compared to $(471) million in 2022 due primarily to net gains on strategic investments in the current period compared to net losses and impairments in the prior period and higher interest income from an increase in interest rates.

Income tax expense (benefit)

Our effective income tax rate was 22% in 2023 and 28% in 2022. The decrease in our effective income tax rate in 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily attributable to higher tax expense in the prior year related to the intra-group transfer of intellectual property. See “Note 16—Income Taxes” to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K for more information on our effective tax rate.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

We require liquidity and access to capital to fund our global operations, including our customer protection programs, credit products, capital expenditures, investments in our business, potential acquisitions and strategic investments, working capital, and other cash needs. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents, and investments, cash expected to be generated from operations, and our expected access to capital markets, together with potential external funding through third party sources, will be sufficient to meet our cash requirements within the next 12 months and beyond.


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SOURCES OF LIQUIDITY

Cash, cash equivalents, and investments

The following table summarizes our cash, cash equivalents, and investments as of December 31, 2023 and 2022:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(In millions)
Cash, cash equivalents, and investments(1)(2)
$15,493 $13,723 
(1) Excludes assets related to funds receivable and customer accounts of $38.9 billion and $36.3 billion as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
(2) Excludes total restricted cash of $3 million and $17 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and strategic investments of $1.8 billion and $2.1 billion at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Cash, cash equivalents, and investments held by our foreign subsidiaries were $10.0 billion at December 31, 2023 and $8.6 billion at December 31, 2022, or 64% and 62%, of our total cash, cash equivalents, and investments as of those respective dates. At December 31, 2023, all of our cash, cash equivalents, and investments held by foreign subsidiaries were subject to U.S. taxation under Subpart F, Global Intangible Low Taxed Income (“GILTI”) or the one-time transition tax under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“Tax Act”). Subsequent repatriations to the U.S. will not be taxable from a U.S. federal tax perspective, but may be subject to state income or foreign withholding tax.

A significant aspect of our global cash management activities involves meeting our customers’ requirements to access their cash while simultaneously meeting our regulatory financial ratio commitments in various jurisdictions. Our global cash balances are required not only to provide operational liquidity to our businesses, but also to support our global regulatory requirements across our regulated subsidiaries. Accordingly, not all of our cash is available for general corporate purposes.

Cash flows

The following table summarizes our consolidated statements of cash flows:
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
 (In millions)
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities
$4,843 $5,813 $5,797 
Investing activities
752 (3,328)(5,149)
Financing activities
(2,993)(1,203)(557)
Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash76 (155)(102)
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$2,678 $1,127 $(11)

Operating activities

Cash flows from operating activities includes net income adjusted for certain non-cash expenses, timing differences between expenses recognized for provision for transaction and credit losses and actual cash transaction losses incurred, and changes in other assets and liabilities. Significant non-cash expenses for the period include depreciation and amortization and stock-based compensation. The cash impact from actual transaction losses incurred during a period is reflected as changes in other assets and liabilities. The expenses recognized during the period for provision for credit losses are estimates of current expected credit losses on our merchant and consumer credit products. Actual charge-offs of receivables related to our merchants and consumer credit products have no impact on cash from operating activities.

The net cash provided by operating activities of $4.8 billion in 2023 was due primarily to operating income of $5.0 billion, as well as adjustments for non-cash expenses including provision for transaction and credit losses of $1.7 billion, stock-based compensation of $1.5 billion, and depreciation and amortization of $1.1 billion. Cash flows from operating activities was also impacted by proceeds from repayments and sales of loans receivable, originally classified as held for sale, of $10.8 billion and changes in other assets of $203 million. These changes, which favorably impacted cash generated from operations, were offset by originations of loans receivable, held for sale of $11.5 billion, actual cash transaction losses incurred during the period of $1.2 billion, changes in deferred income taxes of $668 million, gain on divestiture of business, excluding transaction costs, of $356 million, net accretion of investments purchased at a discount of $367 million, and changes in liabilities of $222 million.


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The net cash provided by operating activities of $5.8 billion in 2022 was due primarily to operating income of $3.8 billion, as well as adjustments for non-cash expenses including provision for transaction and credit losses of $1.6 billion, depreciation and amortization of $1.3 billion, and stock-based compensation of $1.3 billion. Cash flows from operating activities was also impacted by net losses on our strategic investments of $304 million, and an increase in other liabilities of $856 million. These changes, which favorably impacted cash generated from operations, were partially offset by actual cash transaction losses incurred during the period of $1.2 billion and changes in deferred income taxes of $811 million.

Cash paid for income taxes, net in 2023, 2022, and 2021 was $2.1 billion, $878 million, and $474 million, respectively. Included within cash paid for income taxes for 2023 is $106 million related to the purchase of transferable tax credits as authorized by the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022.

Investing activities

Cash flows from investing activities includes purchases, maturities and sales of investments; cash paid for acquisitions and strategic investments; purchases and sales of property and equipment; purchases, originations, sales, and principal repayment of loans receivable, originally classified as held for investment; changes in funds receivable; and changes in collateral posted related to derivative instruments, net.

The net cash provided by investing activities of $752 million in 2023 was due primarily to proceeds from repayments and sales of loans receivable, originally classified as held for investment, of $26.7 billion, maturities and sales of investments of $24.3 billion, and proceeds from divestiture of business, net of cash divested, of $466 million. These cash inflows were partially offset by purchases and originations of loans receivable of $25.2 billion, purchases of investments of $22.0 billion, changes in funds receivable from customers of $2.9 billion, and purchases of property and equipment of $623 million.

The net cash used in investing activities of $3.3 billion in 2022 was due primarily to purchases and originations of loans receivable of $28.2 billion, purchases of investments of $20.2 billion, changes in funds receivable from customers of $2.7 billion, and purchases of property and equipment of $706 million. These cash outflows were partially offset by principal repayment of loans receivable of $24.9 billion and maturities and sales of investments of $23.4 billion.

Financing activities

Cash flows from financing activities includes proceeds from issuance of common stock, purchases of treasury stock, tax withholdings related to net share settlements of equity awards, borrowings and repayments under financing arrangements, changes in funds payable and amounts due to customers, and changes in collateral received related to derivative instruments, net.

The net cash used in financing activities of $3.0 billion in 2023 was due primarily to the repurchase of $5.0 billion of our common stock under our stock repurchase programs, repayments of borrowings under financing arrangements of $1.1 billion (including principal repayment of fixed rate debt that matured in June 2023 and repayment of borrowings under our Paidy credit agreement), tax withholdings of $257 million related to net share settlement of equity awards, and a decline in collateral received related to derivative instruments of $197 million. These cash outflows were partially offset by changes in funds payable and amounts due to customers of $1.9 billion and borrowings under financing arrangements of $1.5 billion (including proceeds from the issuance of fixed rate debt in June 2023, borrowings under our Paidy credit agreement, and short-term overdraft borrowings).

The net cash used in financing activities of $1.2 billion in 2022 was due primarily to the repurchase of $4.2 billion of our common stock under our stock repurchase programs, repayments of borrowings under financing arrangements of $1.7 billion (including the repurchase and redemption of certain fixed rate notes and repayment of borrowings under a prior credit agreement), and tax withholdings of $336 million related to net share settlement of equity awards. These cash outflows were partially offset by borrowings under financing arrangements of $3.5 billion (including proceeds from the issuance of fixed rate debt in May 2022 and borrowings under our Paidy credit agreements) and changes in funds payable and amounts due to customers of $1.4 billion.

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Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

Foreign currency exchange rates had a positive impact of $76 million and negative impact of $155 million on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash during 2023 and 2022, respectively. The positive impact of foreign currency exchange on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash in 2023 was primarily due to favorable fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar to the British pound. The negative impact of foreign currency exchange on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash in 2022 was primarily attributable to the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar to the Australian dollar and, to a lesser extent, to the fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar to the Swedish krona, Japanese yen, Indian rupee, and the Euro.

Available credit and debt

In June 2023, we entered into a credit agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) that provides for an unsecured $5.0 billion, five-year revolving credit facility and terminated the facility entered into in September 2019. The Credit Agreement includes a $150 million letter of credit sub-facility and a $600 million swingline sub-facility, with available borrowings under the revolving credit facility reduced by the amount of any letters of credit and swingline borrowings outstanding from time to time. As of December 31, 2023, no borrowings were outstanding under the Credit Agreement and as such, $5.0 billion of borrowing capacity was available for the purposes permitted by the Credit Agreement, subject to customary conditions to borrowing.

In February 2022, we entered into a credit agreement (the “Paidy Credit Agreement”) with Paidy as co-borrower, which provided for an unsecured revolving credit facility of ¥60.0 billion, which was modified in September 2022 to increase the borrowing capacity by ¥30.0 billion for a total borrowing capacity of ¥90.0 billion (approximately $638 million as of December 31, 2023). In the year ended December 31, 2023, ¥50.0 billion (approximately $355 million) was drawn down under the Paidy Credit Agreement. Accordingly, at December 31, 2023, ¥40.0 billion (approximately $283 million) of borrowing capacity was available for the purposes permitted by the Paidy Credit Agreement, subject to customary conditions to borrowing.

We maintain uncommitted credit facilities in various regions throughout the world with a borrowing capacity of approximately $80 million in the aggregate, where we can withdraw and utilize the funds at our discretion for general corporate purposes. As of December 31, 2023, the majority of the borrowing capacity under these credit facilities was available, subject to customary conditions to borrowing.

In June 2023, May 2022, May 2020 and September 2019, we issued fixed rate notes with varying maturity dates for an aggregate principal amount of $12.6 billion (collectively referred to as the “Notes”). Proceeds from the issuance of these Notes may be used for general corporate purposes, which may include funding the repayment or redemption of outstanding debt, share repurchases, ongoing operations, capital expenditures, and possible acquisitions of businesses, assets, or strategic investments. As of December 31, 2023, we had $10.6 billion in fixed rate debt outstanding with varying maturity dates.

For additional information, see “Note 12—Debt” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

Depending on market conditions, we may from time to time issue debt, including in private or public offerings, to fund our operating activities, finance acquisitions, make strategic investments, repurchase shares under our stock repurchase programs, or reduce our cost of capital.

We have a cash pooling arrangement with a financial institution for cash management purposes. The arrangement allows for cash withdrawals from the financial institution based upon our aggregate operating cash balances held within the financial institution (“Aggregate Cash Deposits”). The arrangement also allows us to withdraw amounts exceeding the Aggregate Cash Deposits up to an agreed-upon limit. The net balance of the withdrawals and the Aggregate Cash Deposits are used by the financial institution as a basis for calculating our net interest expense or income under the arrangement. As of December 31, 2023, we had a total of $3.9 billion in cash withdrawals offsetting our $3.9 billion in Aggregate Cash Deposits held within the financial institution under the cash pooling arrangement.


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Credit ratings

As of December 31, 2023, we continue to be rated investment grade by Standard and Poor’s Financial Services, LLC, Fitch Ratings, Inc., and Moody’s Investors Services, Inc. We expect that these credit rating agencies will continue to monitor our performance, including our capital structure and results of operations. Our goal is to be rated investment grade, but as circumstances change, there are factors that could result in our credit ratings being downgraded or put on a watch list for possible downgrading. If that were to occur, it could increase our borrowing rates, including the interest rate on borrowings under our credit agreements.

CURRENT AND FUTURE CASH REQUIREMENTS

Our material cash requirements include funds to support current and potential: operating activities, credit products, customer protection programs, stock repurchases, strategic investments, acquisitions, other commitments, and capital expenditures and other future obligations.

Credit products

Growth in our portfolio of loan receivables increases our liquidity needs, and any inability to meet those liquidity needs could adversely affect our business. We continue to evaluate partnerships and third-party sources of funding for our credit products.

The Luxembourg Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier (the “CSSF”) agreed that PayPal’s management may designate up to 50% of European customer balances held in our Luxembourg banking subsidiary to fund European, U.K., and U.S. credit activities. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the total amount approved by management to be designated to fund credit activities was $3.0 billion and $3.8 billion, respectively, and represented approximately 39% and 37% of European customer balances made available for our corporate use as of those respective dates, as determined by applying financial regulations maintained by the CSSF. We may periodically seek to designate additional amounts of European customer balances for our credit activities, as we deem necessary, based on utilization of the approved funds and anticipated credit funding requirements. Under certain exceptional circumstances, corporate liquidity could be called upon to meet our obligations related to our European customer balances.

In June 2023, we entered into a multi-year agreement with a global investment firm to sell up to €40 billion of our eligible consumer installment receivables portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we sold $5.5 billion of loans and interest receivable, in connection with this agreement. For additional information, see “Note 1—Overview and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

While our objective is to expand the availability of our credit products with capital from external sources, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in achieving that goal.

Customer protection programs

The risk of losses from our customer protection programs are specific to individual consumers, merchants, and transactions, and may also be impacted by regional variations in, and changes or modifications to, the programs, including as a result of changes in regulatory requirements. For the periods presented in these consolidated financial statements included in this report, our transaction loss rate ranged between 0.08% and 0.09% of TPV. Historical loss rates may not be indicative of future results.

Stock repurchases

During the year ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased approximately $5.0 billion of our common stock in the open market under our stock repurchase programs authorized in July 2018 and June 2022. The June 2022 stock repurchase program became effective during the first quarter of 2023 upon completion of the July 2018 stock repurchase program. As of December 31, 2023, a total of approximately $10.9 billion remained available for future repurchases of our common stock under our June 2022 stock repurchase program. For additional information, see “Note 14—Stock Repurchase Programs” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.


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Future obligations

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, approximately $6.2 billion and $4.9 billion, respectively, of unused credit was available to PayPal Credit account holders in the U.K. While this amount represents the total unused credit available, we have not experienced, and do not anticipate, that all of our PayPal Credit account holders will access their entire available credit at any given point in time. In addition, the individual lines of credit that make up this unused credit are subject to periodic review and termination based on, among other things, account usage and customer creditworthiness.

We have certain fixed contractual obligations and commitments that include future estimated payments for general operating purposes. Changes in our business needs, contractual cancellation provisions, fluctuating interest rates, and other factors may result in actual payments differing from our estimates. We cannot provide certainty regarding the timing and amounts of these payments. The following table summarizes our obligations as of December 31, 2023 that are expected to impact liquidity and cash flow in future periods. We believe we will be able to fund these obligations through our existing cash and investment portfolio and cash expected to be generated from operations. 
Purchase
Obligations
Operating
Leases
Transition TaxLong-term DebtTotal
Payments Due During the Year Ending December 31,(In millions)
2024$936 $186 284 $1,575 $2,981 
2025477 153 354 1,498 2,482 
2026348 139 — 1,689 2,176 
2027— 118 — 732 850 
2028— 87 — 483 570 
Thereafter— 174 — 8,996 9,170 
$1,761 $857 $638 $14,973 $18,229 

The significant assumptions used in our determination of amounts presented in the above table are as follows:

Purchase obligation amounts include minimum purchase commitments for cloud computing services, capital expenditures, advertising, and other goods and services entered into in the ordinary course of business.

Operating lease amounts include minimum rental payments under our non-cancelable operating leases (including leases not yet commenced) primarily for office and data center facilities. The amounts presented are consistent with contractual terms and are not expected to differ significantly from actual results under our existing leases, unless a substantial change in our headcount needs requires us to expand our occupied space or exit an office facility early.

Transition tax represents the one-time mandatory tax on previously deferred foreign earnings under the Tax Act.

Long-term debt amounts represent the future principal and interest payments (based on contractual interest rates) on our fixed-rate debt. For more information, see “Note 12—Debt” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

As we are unable to reasonably predict the timing of settlement of liabilities related to unrecognized tax benefits, net, the table above does not include $2.4 billion recorded in other long-term liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2023.

Other considerations

Our liquidity, access to capital, and borrowing costs could be adversely impacted by declines in our credit rating, our financial performance, and global credit market conditions, as well as a broad range of other factors. In addition, our liquidity, access to capital, and borrowing costs could also be negatively impacted by the outcome of any of the legal or regulatory proceedings to which we are a party. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K for additional discussion of these and other risks that our business faces.


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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The application of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires us to make estimates and assumptions about certain items and future events that directly affect our reported financial condition. We have established detailed policies and control procedures to provide reasonable assurance that the methods used to make estimates and assumptions are well controlled and are applied consistently from period to period. The accounting estimates and assumptions discussed in this section are those that we consider to be the most critical to our financial statements. An accounting estimate or assumption is considered critical if both (a) the nature of the estimate or assumption is material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment involved, and (b) the impact within a reasonable range of outcomes of the estimate and assumption is material to our financial condition. Management has discussed the development, selection, and disclosure of these estimates with the Audit, Risk, and Compliance Committee of our Board of Directors. Our significant accounting policies, including recent accounting pronouncements, are described in “Note 1Overview and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10K.

A quantitative sensitivity analysis is provided where information is reasonably available, can be reliably estimated, and provides material information to investors. The amounts used to assess sensitivity are included to allow users of this report to understand a general directional cause and effect of changes in the estimates and do not represent management’s predictions of variability. For all of these estimates, it should be noted that future events rarely develop exactly as forecasted, and such estimates require regular review and adjustment.

ALLOWANCE FOR TRANSACTION AND CREDIT LOSSES

Transaction and credit losses include the expense associated with our customer protection programs, fraud, chargebacks, and credit losses associated with our loans receivable balances. Our transaction and credit losses fluctuate depending on many factors, including: total TPV, product mix, current and projected macroeconomic conditions, merchant insolvency events, changes to and usage of our customer protection programs, the impact of regulatory changes, and the credit quality of loans receivable arising from transactions funded with our credit products, which include revolving and installment credit products offered to consumers at checkout, as well as merchant loans and advances arising from the PayPal Working Capital and PPBL products.

We establish allowances for negative customer balances and estimated transaction losses arising from processing customer transactions, such as chargebacks for unauthorized credit card use and merchant-related chargebacks due to non-delivery or unsatisfactory delivery of purchased items, purchase protection program claims, account takeovers, and bank returns and reversals. Additions to the allowance, in the form of provisions, are reflected in transaction and credit losses on our consolidated statements of income (loss). The allowances are based on known facts and circumstances, internal factors including experience with similar cases, historical trends involving collection and write-off patterns, and the mix of transaction and loss types, as well as current and projected macroeconomic factors, as appropriate.

We also establish an allowance for loans and interest receivable, which represents our estimate of current expected credit losses inherent in our portfolio of loans and interest receivable and includes expected credit losses from modifications of receivables to borrowers experiencing financial difficulty. Determining appropriate current expected credit loss allowances for loans and interest receivable is an inherently uncertain process and ultimate losses may vary from the current estimates. We regularly update our allowance estimates as new facts become known and events occur that may impact the settlement or recovery of losses. The allowances are maintained at a level we deem appropriate to adequately provide for current expected credit losses at the balance sheet date after incorporating the impact of externally sourced macroeconomic forecasts. As of December 31, 2023, we utilized externally published projections of U.S. forecasted unemployment rates, forecasted U.S. and U.K. retail e-commerce sales, and forecasted U.K. household disposable income, among others, over the reasonable and supportable forecast period. As of December 31, 2022, we utilized externally published projections of the U.S. and U.K. forecasted unemployment rates, forecasted U.S. retail e-commerce sales, and forecasted U.K. household disposable income, among others, over the reasonable and supportable forecast period. The overall principal and interest coverage ratio as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 was approximately 9% and 7%, respectively. A significant change in the forecasted macroeconomic factors could result in a material change in our allowances. Our allowance as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 took into account uncertainty with respect to macroeconomic conditions, uncertainty around the financial health of our borrowers, and effectiveness of loan modification programs made available to merchants. An increase of 1% in the principal and interest coverage ratio would increase our allowances by approximately $60 million based on the loans and interest receivable balance outstanding as of December 31, 2023.

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ACCOUNTING FOR INCOME TAXES

Our annual tax rate is based on our income, statutory tax rates, and tax planning opportunities available to us in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Tax laws are complex and subject to different interpretations by the taxpayer and respective government taxing authorities. Significant judgment is required in determining our tax expense and in evaluating our tax positions, including evaluating uncertainties. We review our tax positions quarterly and adjust the balances as new information becomes available. Our income tax rate is significantly affected by the tax rates that apply to our foreign earnings. In addition to local country tax laws and regulations, our income tax rate depends on the extent that our foreign earnings are taxed by the U.S. through provisions such as the GILTI tax and base erosion anti-abuse tax.

Deferred tax assets represent amounts available to reduce income taxes payable on taxable income in future years. Such assets arise because of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, as well as from net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We evaluate the recoverability of these future tax deductions and credits by assessing the adequacy of future expected taxable income from all sources, including reversal of taxable temporary differences, forecasted operating earnings, and available tax planning strategies. These sources of income rely heavily on estimates that are based on a number of factors, including our historical experience and short-range and long-range business forecasts. To the extent deferred tax assets are not expected to be realized, we record a valuation allowance.

We recognize and measure uncertain tax positions in accordance with U.S. GAAP, pursuant to which we only recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We report a liability for unrecognized tax benefits resulting from uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. U.S. GAAP further requires that a change in judgment related to the expected ultimate resolution of uncertain tax positions be recognized in earnings in the quarter in which such change occurs. We recognize interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.

We file annual income tax returns in multiple taxing jurisdictions around the world. A number of years may elapse before an uncertain tax position is audited by the relevant tax authorities and finally resolved. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of resolution of any particular uncertain tax position, we believe that our reserves for income taxes are adequate. We adjust these reserves, as well as the related interest and penalties, where appropriate in light of changing facts and circumstances. Settlement of any particular position could require the use of cash.

Based on our results for the year ended December 31, 2023, a one-percentage point increase in our effective tax rate would have resulted in an increase in our income tax expense of approximately $54 million.

LOSS CONTINGENCIES

We are regularly involved in various claims, regulatory and legal proceedings, and investigations of potential violations by regulatory oversight authorities. On a regular basis, we review the status of each significant matter and assess our potential financial exposure. If the potential loss from any claim, legal proceeding, or potential regulatory violation is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, we accrue a liability for the estimated loss. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and whether an exposure is reasonably estimable. Our judgments are subjective and are based on the status of the legal or regulatory proceedings, the merits of our defenses, and consultation with in-house and outside legal counsel. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, accruals are based on the best information available at the time. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the potential liability related to pending claims, litigation, or other violations and may revise our estimates. Due to the inherent uncertainties of legal and regulatory processes in the multiple jurisdictions in which we operate, our judgments may differ materially from the actual outcomes.

REVENUE RECOGNITION

Application of the accounting principles in U.S. GAAP related to the measurement and recognition of revenue requires us to make judgments and estimates. Complex arrangements with nonstandard terms and conditions may require significant contract interpretation to determine the appropriate accounting. Specifically, the determination of whether we are a principal to a transaction (gross revenue) or an agent (net revenue) can require considerable judgment. Further, we provide incentive payments to consumers and merchants. Evaluating whether these incentives are a payment to a customer, or consideration payable on behalf of a customer, requires judgment. Incentives determined to be made to a customer, or payable on behalf of a customer, are recorded as a reduction to gross revenue. Incentives that are earned by the customer based on performance targets

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are recorded when earned, based on management’s estimate of each customer’s future performance. These accruals are regularly reviewed and estimates of performance are adjusted, as appropriate, based on changes in performance expectations, actual customer performance, amendments to existing contracts, or the execution of new contracts. Changes in judgments with respect to these assumptions and estimates could impact the amount of revenue recognized.

EVALUATION OF STRATEGIC INVESTMENTS FOR IMPAIRMENT

We have strategic investments in non-marketable equity securities, which include investments that do not have a readily determinable fair value and are measured at cost minus impairment, if any, and are adjusted for changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment in the same issuer (the Measurement Alternative). We review these investments regularly to determine if impairment has occurred. We assess whether an impairment loss on these non-marketable equity securities, which are primarily investments in privately held companies, has occurred based on qualitative factors such as the companies’ financial condition and business outlook, industry performance, regulatory, economic or technological environment, and other relevant events and factors affecting the company. When indicators of impairment exist, we estimate the fair value of these non-marketable equity securities using the market approach and/or the income approach. If any impairment is identified, we write down the investment to its fair value and record the corresponding charge through other income (expense), net on our consolidated statements of income (loss). Estimating fair value requires judgment and use of estimates such as discount rates, forecasted cash flows, and market data of comparable companies, among others. For sensitivity analysis performed on our strategic investments, see “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk—Equity Investment Risk.”

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Market risk is the potential for economic losses to be incurred on market risk sensitive instruments arising from adverse changes in market factors such as interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, and equity investment risk. Management establishes and oversees the implementation of policies governing our investing, funding, and foreign currency derivative activities intended to mitigate market risks. We monitor risk exposures on an ongoing basis.

INTEREST RATE RISK

We are exposed to interest rate risk relating to our investment portfolio and from interest-rate sensitive assets underlying the customer balances we hold on our consolidated balance sheets as customer accounts.

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, approximately 59% and 57%, respectively, of our total cash, cash equivalents, and investment portfolio (excluding restricted cash and strategic investments) was held in cash and cash equivalents. The remaining portfolio and assets underlying the customer balances that we hold on our consolidated balance sheets as customer accounts are maintained in interest and non-interest bearing bank deposits, time deposits, and available-for-sale debt securities. We seek to preserve principal while holding eligible liquid assets, as defined by applicable regulatory requirements and commercial law in certain jurisdictions where we operate, equal to at least 100% of the aggregate amount of all customer balances. We do not pay interest on amounts due to customers.

Interest rate movements affect the interest income we earn on cash and cash equivalents, time deposits, and available-for-sale debt securities and the fair value of those securities. A hypothetical 100 basis points increase in interest rates would have resulted in a decrease in the fair value of our cash equivalents and available-for-sale debt securities investment by approximately $122 million and $161 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Changes in the fair value of our available-for-sale debt securities resulting from such interest rate changes are reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) and are realized only if we sell the securities prior to their scheduled maturities or the declines in fair values are due to expected credit losses.

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had $10.6 billion and $10.4 billion, respectively, in fixed rate debt with varying maturity dates. Since these notes bear interest at fixed rates, they do not result in any financial statement risk associated with changes in interest rates. However, the fair value of these notes fluctuates when interest rates change, increasing in periods of declining interest rates and declining in periods of increasing interest rates.


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As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we also had revolving credit facilities of approximately $5.6 billion and $5.7 billion, respectively, available to us. We are obligated to pay interest on borrowings under these facilities as well as other customary fees, including an upfront fee and an unused commitment fee based on our debt rating. Borrowings under these facilities, if any, bear interest at floating rates. As a result, we are exposed to the risk related to fluctuations in interest rates to the extent of our borrowings. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, ¥50.0 billion (approximately $355 million) and ¥64.3 billion (approximately $491 million), respectively, was outstanding under these facilities. A 100 basis points hypothetical adverse change in applicable market interest rates would not have resulted in a material impact to interest expense recorded in the period. For additional information, see “Note 12—Debt” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

Interest rates may also adversely impact our customers’ spending levels and ability and willingness to pay outstanding amounts owed to us. Higher interest rates often lead to larger payment obligations by customers of our credit products to us, or to lenders under mortgage, credit card, and other consumer and merchant loans, which may reduce our customers’ ability to remain current on their obligations to us and therefore lead to increased delinquencies, charge-offs, and allowances for loans and interest receivable, which could have an adverse effect on our net income (loss).

FOREIGN CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATE RISK

We have significant operations internationally that are denominated in foreign currencies, primarily the British pound, Euro, Australian dollar, and Canadian dollar, which subject us to foreign currency exchange rate risk and may adversely impact our financial results. We transact in various foreign currencies and have significant international revenues and expenses. In addition, we charge our international subsidiaries for their use of intellectual property and technology and for certain corporate services. Our cash flows, results of operations, and certain of our intercompany balances that are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations may differ materially from expectations, and we may record significant gains or losses due to foreign currency fluctuations and related hedging activities. We are generally a net receiver of foreign currencies and therefore benefit from a weakening of the United States (“U.S.”) dollar, and are adversely affected by a strengthening of the U.S. dollar, relative to foreign currencies. We considered the historical trends in foreign currency exchange rates and determined that it was reasonably possible that changes in exchange rates of 10% for all currencies could be experienced in the near term.

We have a foreign currency exchange exposure management program designed to identify material foreign currency exposures, manage these exposures, and reduce the potential effects of currency fluctuations on our consolidated cash flows and results of operations through the execution of foreign currency exchange contracts. These foreign currency exchange contracts are accounted for as derivative instruments; for additional details related to our foreign currency exchange contracts, please see “Note 10—Derivative Instruments” to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

We use foreign currency exchange forward contracts to protect our forecasted U.S. dollar-equivalent earnings and our investment in foreign subsidiaries from adverse changes in foreign currency exchange rates. These hedging contracts reduce, but do not entirely eliminate, the impact of adverse foreign currency exchange rate movements. We designate these contracts as cash flow hedges of forecasted revenues and expenses denominated in certain foreign currencies and net investment hedges for accounting purposes. The derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of AOCI. Cash flow hedges are subsequently reclassified into revenue or expense in the same period the forecasted transaction affects earnings. The accumulated gains and losses associated with net investment hedges will remain in AOCI until the foreign subsidiaries are sold or substantially liquidated, at which point they will be reclassified into earnings.

If the U.S. dollar weakened by a hypothetical 10% at December 31, 2023 and 2022, the amount recorded in AOCI related to our foreign currency exchange forward contracts, before taxes, would have been approximately $622 million and $710 million lower, respectively, before considering the offsetting impact of the underlying hedged item.

We have an additional foreign currency exchange management program in which we use foreign currency exchange contracts to help offset the foreign currency exchange risk on our assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of our subsidiaries. These contracts are not designated as hedging instruments and reduce, but do not entirely eliminate, the impact of currency exchange rate movements on our assets and liabilities. The foreign currency exchange gains and losses on our assets and liabilities are recorded in other income (expense), net, and are offset by the gains and losses on the foreign currency exchange contracts.


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Adverse changes in exchange rates of a hypothetical 10% for all foreign currencies would have resulted in a negative impact on income before income taxes of approximately $417 million and $173 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, without considering the offsetting effect of foreign currency exchange contracts. Foreign currency exchange contracts in place as of December 31, 2023 would have positively impacted income before income taxes by approximately $400 million, resulting in a net negative impact of approximately $17 million. Foreign currency exchange contracts in place as of December 31, 2022 would have positively impacted income before income taxes by approximately $144 million, resulting in a net negative impact of approximately $29 million. These reasonably possible adverse changes in exchange rates of 10% were applied to monetary assets, monetary liabilities, and available-for-sale debt securities denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of our subsidiaries at the balance sheet dates to compute the adverse impact these changes would have had on our income before income taxes in the near term.

EQUITY INVESTMENT RISK

Our strategic investments are subject to a variety of market-related risks that could substantially reduce or increase the carrying value of the portfolio. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, our strategic investments totaled $1.8 billion and $2.1 billion which represented approximately 11% and 14% of our total cash, cash equivalents, and short-term and long-term investment portfolio at each of those respective dates. Our strategic investments include marketable equity securities, which are publicly traded, and non-marketable equity securities, which are primarily investments in privately held companies. We are required to record all adjustments to the value of these strategic investments through our consolidated statements of income (loss). As such, we expect volatility to our net income (loss) in future periods due to changes in observable prices and impairment related to our non-marketable equity securities accounted for under the Measurement Alternative. These changes could be material based on market conditions. Additionally, the financial success of our investments in privately held companies is typically dependent on a liquidity event, such as a public offering, acquisition, private sale, or other favorable market event providing the ability to realize appreciation in the value of the investment. A hypothetical adverse change of 10% in the carrying value of our strategic investments as of December 31, 2023, which could be experienced in the near term, would have resulted in a decrease of approximately $184 million to the carrying value of the portfolio. We review our non-marketable equity securities accounted for under the Measurement Alternative for impairment when events and circumstances indicate a decline in fair value of such assets below carrying value. Our analysis includes a review of recent operating results and trends, recent purchases and sales of securities, and other publicly available data, for which we assess factors such as the investees’ financial condition and business outlook, industry performance, regulatory, economic, or technological environment, and other relevant events and factors affecting the investees.

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

The audited consolidated financial statements covering the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 and accompanying notes listed in Part IV, Item 15(a)(1) of this Form 10‑K are included in this report.

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

None.

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in the Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act), our principal executive officer and our principal financial officer have concluded that as of December 31, 2023, the end of the period covered by this report, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.

Management’s report on internal control over financial reporting. Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on its evaluation under the framework in Internal Control - Integrated Framework, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023.


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The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears in Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K.

Changes in internal controls over financial reporting. There were no changes in our internal controls over financial reporting as defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f) that occurred during our most recently completed fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION

RULE 10B5-1 TRADING PLANS

An equity trading plan is a written document that preestablishes the amounts, prices and dates (or formula for determining the amounts, prices and dates) of future purchases or sales of the Company’s stock, including sales of shares acquired under the Company’s employee and director equity plans.

On December 7, 2023, Jonathan Auerbach entered into an equity trading plan that is intended to satisfy the affirmative defense conditions of Rule 10b5-1(c) under the Exchange Act. Mr. Auerbach was serving as an executive officer of the Company at the time the trading plan was adopted. The trading plan has a duration of March 7, 2024 to September 10, 2024 with approximately 85,839 shares (vested and net shares expected to vest over the duration of the trading plan) subject to sale under the plan.

ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

None.

PART III

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Incorporated by reference from our Proxy Statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days after December 31, 2023.

ITE