10-Q 1 wve-10q_20170930.htm 10-Q wve-10q_20170930.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2017

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______ to ______

Commission File No. 001-37627

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Singapore

State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

Not applicable

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

8 Cross Street #10-00, PWC Building

Singapore 048424

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

+65 6236 3388

(Registrant’s telephone number)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No   

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of ‘‘large accelerated filer,’’ ‘‘accelerated filer,’’ ‘‘smaller reporting company,’’ and ‘‘emerging growth company’’ in Rule 12b–2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

 

The number of outstanding ordinary shares of the registrant as of November 1, 2017 was 27,790,022.

 

 

 

 

 


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

3

Item 1. Financial Statements

 

3

Unaudited Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

3

Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Operations

 

4

Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

 

5

Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

6

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements

 

7

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

13

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

22

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

23

PART II - OTHER INFORMATION

 

23

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

23

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

24

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

24

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

24

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

24

Item 5. Other Information

 

24

Item 6. Exhibits

 

32

 

 

2


PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

 

 

September 30, 2017

 

 

December 31, 2016

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

168,464

 

 

$

150,293

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

5,370

 

 

 

1,483

 

Deferred tax assets

 

 

 

 

 

214

 

Total current assets

 

 

173,834

 

 

 

151,990

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

24,584

 

 

 

8,607

 

Deferred tax assets

 

 

 

 

 

560

 

Restricted cash

 

 

3,608

 

 

 

3,601

 

Other assets

 

 

60

 

 

 

53

 

Total assets

 

$

202,086

 

 

$

164,811

 

Liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

4,705

 

 

$

4,943

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

6,953

 

 

 

4,434

 

Current portion of capital lease obligation

 

 

31

 

 

 

62

 

Current portion of deferred rent

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

 

2,705

 

 

 

2,705

 

Current portion of lease incentive obligation

 

 

678

 

 

 

11

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

15,122

 

 

 

12,155

 

Long-term liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital lease obligation, net of current portion

 

 

 

 

 

16

 

Deferred rent, net of current portion

 

 

3,837

 

 

 

680

 

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

 

 

6,283

 

 

 

8,311

 

Lease incentive obligation, net of current portion

 

 

2,093

 

 

 

116

 

Other liabilities

 

 

1,021

 

 

 

796

 

Total long-term liabilities

 

 

13,234

 

 

 

9,919

 

Total liabilities

 

$

28,356

 

 

$

22,074

 

Series A preferred shares, no par value; 3,901,348 shares issued and outstanding

   at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016

 

$

7,874

 

 

$

7,874

 

Shareholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ordinary shares, no par value; 27,767,905 and 23,502,169 shares issued and

   outstanding at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively

 

$

309,434

 

 

$

215,602

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

18,995

 

 

 

10,029

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(272

)

 

 

(291

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(162,301

)

 

 

(90,477

)

Total shareholders’ equity

 

$

165,856

 

 

$

134,863

 

Total liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

 

$

202,086

 

 

$

164,811

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

 

3


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Revenue

 

$

676

 

 

$

392

 

 

$

2,028

 

 

$

809

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

20,097

 

 

 

13,686

 

 

 

53,940

 

 

 

26,823

 

General and administrative

 

 

7,571

 

 

 

3,939

 

 

 

20,088

 

 

 

10,809

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

27,668

 

 

 

17,625

 

 

 

74,028

 

 

 

37,632

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(26,992

)

 

 

(17,233

)

 

 

(72,000

)

 

 

(36,823

)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividend income

 

 

515

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,287

 

 

 

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

 

1

 

 

 

118

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

328

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(75

)

 

 

(36

)

 

 

(211

)

 

 

(25

)

Total other income (expense), net

 

 

441

 

 

 

82

 

 

 

1,081

 

 

 

303

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(26,551

)

 

 

(17,151

)

 

 

(70,919

)

 

 

(36,520

)

Income tax benefit (provision)

 

 

416

 

 

 

(384

)

 

 

(905

)

 

 

(427

)

Net loss

 

$

(26,135

)

 

$

(17,535

)

 

$

(71,824

)

 

$

(36,947

)

Net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders—

   basic and diluted

 

$

(0.94

)

 

$

(0.75

)

 

$

(2.75

)

 

$

(1.64

)

Weighted-average ordinary shares used in computing net loss

   per share attributable to ordinary shareholders—basic

   and diluted

 

 

27,758,792

 

 

 

23,445,673

 

 

 

26,078,696

 

 

 

22,571,575

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

 

4


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Net loss

 

$

(26,135

)

 

$

(17,535

)

 

$

(71,824

)

 

$

(36,947

)

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign currency translation

 

 

1

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

19

 

 

 

43

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(26,134

)

 

$

(17,527

)

 

$

(71,805

)

 

$

(36,904

)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

 

5


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(71,824

)

 

$

(36,947

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortization of lease incentive obligation

 

 

(131

)

 

 

 

Depreciation of property and equipment

 

 

1,266

 

 

 

525

 

Share-based compensation expense

 

 

8,966

 

 

 

4,319

 

Deferred rent

 

 

3,207

 

 

 

371

 

Tax benefit related to share-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

(67

)

Deferred income taxes

 

 

774

 

 

 

178

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

 

 

 

(2,500

)

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(3,887

)

 

 

(466

)

Other non-current assets

 

 

(7

)

 

 

(53

)

Accounts payable

 

 

624

 

 

 

1,899

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

1,898

 

 

 

2,484

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

(2,028

)

 

 

11,692

 

Other non-current liabilities

 

 

225

 

 

 

(13

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(60,917

)

 

 

(18,578

)

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Increase in restricted cash

 

 

(7

)

 

 

 

Proceeds from the sale of property and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(14,808

)

 

 

(2,838

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(14,815

)

 

 

(2,834

)

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of ordinary shares, net of offering costs

 

 

93,509

 

 

 

30,000

 

Costs associated with initial public offering

 

 

 

 

 

(1,075

)

Payments on capital lease obligation

 

 

(47

)

 

 

(47

)

Tax benefit related to share-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

67

 

Proceeds from the exercise of share options

 

 

323

 

 

 

161

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

93,785

 

 

 

29,106

 

Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash

 

 

118

 

 

 

101

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

18,171

 

 

 

7,795

 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

 

150,293

 

 

 

161,220

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

$

168,464

 

 

$

169,015

 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tenant improvements paid for by the landlord during the period

 

$

2,774

 

 

$

 

Property and equipment purchases in accounts payable and

  accrued expenses at period end

 

$

1,419

 

 

$

1,595

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

 

6


Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements

 

1. THE COMPANY

Organization

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries, “Wave” or the “Company”) is a biotechnology company with an innovative and proprietary synthetic chemistry drug development platform that the Company is using to design, develop and commercialize a broad pipeline of first-in-class or best-in-class nucleic acid therapeutic candidates for genetically defined diseases. The Company is initially developing oligonucleotides that target genetic defects to either reduce the expression of disease-promoting proteins or transform the production of dysfunctional mutant proteins into the production of functional proteins.

The Company was incorporated in Singapore on July 23, 2012 and has its principal U.S. office in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Company was incorporated with the purpose of combining two commonly held companies, Wave Life Sciences USA, Inc. (“Wave USA”), a Delaware corporation (formerly Ontorii, Inc.), and Wave Life Sciences Japan, Inc. (“Wave Japan”), a company organized under the laws of Japan (formerly Chiralgen., Ltd.), which occurred on September 13, 2012. On May 31, 2016, Wave Life Sciences Ireland Limited (“Wave Ireland”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. On April 3, 2017, Wave Life Sciences UK Limited (“Wave UK”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

The Company’s primary activities since inception have been developing a synthetic chemistry drug development platform to design, develop and commercialize nucleic acid therapeutic programs, advancing the Company’s neurology franchise, expanding the Company’s research and development activities, advancing programs into the clinic, furthering clinical development of such clinical-stage programs, building the Company’s intellectual property, recruiting personnel and assuring adequate capital to support these activities.

Risks and Uncertainties

The Company is subject to risks common to companies in the biotechnology industry including, but not limited to, new technological innovations, protection of proprietary technology, developing internal manufacturing capabilities, dependence on key personnel, compliance with government regulations and the need to obtain additional financing. The Company’s therapeutic programs will require significant additional research and development efforts, including extensive preclinical and clinical testing and regulatory approval, prior to commercialization of any product candidates. These efforts require significant amounts of additional capital, adequate personnel infrastructure and extensive compliance-reporting capabilities. There can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development will be successfully completed, that adequate protection for the Company’s intellectual property will be obtained, that any products developed will obtain necessary government regulatory approval or that any approved products will be commercially viable. Even if the Company’s product development efforts are successful, it is uncertain when, if ever, the Company will generate significant revenue from product sales. The Company operates in an environment of rapid change in technology and substantial competition from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. In addition, the Company is dependent upon the services of its employees and consultants.

Basis of Presentation

The Company has prepared the accompanying consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and in U.S. dollars.

 

 

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The significant accounting policies described in the Company’s audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2016, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 16, 2017, have had no material changes during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017.

Unaudited Interim Financial Data

The accompanying interim consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2017, the related interim consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, and the related interim information contained within the notes to the consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and the notes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The

7


financial data and other information disclosed in these notes related to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 are unaudited. In the opinion of management, the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal and recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2017 or any other interim period or future year or period.

Principles of Consolidation

The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

The recently issued accounting pronouncements described in the Company’s audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2016, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2017, have had no material changes during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, except as described below.

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“ASU 2014-09”), which supersedes all existing revenue recognition requirements, including most industry-specific guidance. The new standard requires a company to recognize revenue when it transfers goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that the company expects to receive for those goods or services. The new standard will be effective on January 1, 2018 and earlier application is permitted only for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period.  For the year ended December 31, 2016 and the nine months ended September 30, 2017, revenue was generated exclusively from the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that ASU 2014-09 may have on its financial position and results of operations as it relates to this single arrangement, and expects to elect the modified retrospective application as its transition method.

In November 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes (“ASU 2015-17”), which requires entities to present deferred tax assets and liabilities, along with any related valuation allowance, as noncurrent on the balance sheet. The new standard is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. During the three months ended March 31, 2017, the Company elected to adopt ASU 2015-17 on a prospective basis. The adoption of this standard resulted in the reclassification of short-term deferred tax assets to long-term deferred tax assets.

In October 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory (“ASU 2016-16”).  The new standard requires companies to recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. Prior to the issuance of this standard, existing guidance prohibited the recognition of current and deferred income taxes for an intra-entity asset transfer until the asset has been sold to an outside party. ASU 2016-16 will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2018 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-16 may have on its consolidated financial statements.

 

3. SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION

The Wave Life Sciences Ltd. 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”) authorizes the board of directors or a committee of the board to grant incentive share options, non-qualified share options, share appreciation rights and restricted share awards to eligible employees, outside directors and consultants of the Company. Options generally vest over periods of one to four years, and options that expire or are forfeited are available to be granted again. The contractual life of all options is generally five or ten years from the grant date.

As of September 30, 2017, 1,730,546 ordinary shares remained available for future grant under the 2014 Plan.

The Company measures and records the value of options granted to non-employees over the period of time that services are provided and, as such, unvested portions are subject to re-measurement at subsequent reporting periods.

8


Share Options

Share option activity under the 2014 Plan for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 is summarized as follows:

 

 

 

Number of

Shares

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Exercise Price

 

Options outstanding as of January 1, 2017

 

 

3,577,766

 

 

$

10.58

 

Granted

 

 

414,000

 

 

 

25.55

 

Exercised

 

 

(76,319

)

 

 

4.24

 

Canceled or forfeited

 

 

(109,652

)

 

 

16.79

 

Outstanding as of September 30, 2017

 

 

3,805,795

 

 

 

12.26

 

Options exercisable as of September 30, 2017

 

 

2,042,259

 

 

 

6.62

 

Options unvested as of September 30, 2017

 

 

1,763,536

 

 

 

18.79

 

 

The Company recorded share-based compensation expense related to options granted to non-employees in the amount of $0.6 million and $0.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded share-based compensation expense related to options granted to non-employees in the amount of $1.9 million and $1.9 million, respectively. Share-based compensation expense related to non-employees is recorded in research and development expenses.

 

Restricted Share Units

 

Restricted share unit (“RSU”) activity for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 is summarized as follows:

 

 

 

RSUs

 

 

Average Grant

Date Fair Value

(in dollars

per share)

 

RSUs Outstanding as of January 1, 2017

 

 

22,750

 

 

$

21.69

 

Granted

 

 

170,859

 

 

 

29.05

 

Vested

 

 

(22,750

)

 

 

21.69

 

Canceled or forfeited

 

 

(8,579

)

 

 

29.05

 

RSUs Outstanding at September 30, 2017

 

 

162,280

 

 

 

29.05

 

 

The RSUs granted in 2016 fully vested during the three months ended September 30, 2017 upon the first anniversary of the grant date. The RSUs granted in 2017 vest over a four-year period. Any RSUs that are forfeited or canceled are available to be granted again.

 

Share-based compensation expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 was classified in the consolidated statements of operations as follows:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Research and development expenses

 

$

1,759

 

 

$

1,695

 

 

$

5,527

 

 

$

3,207

 

General and administrative expenses

 

 

1,241

 

 

 

486

 

 

 

3,439

 

 

 

1,112

 

Total share-based compensation

 

$

3,000

 

 

$

2,181

 

 

$

8,966

 

 

$

4,319

 

 

 

4. PFIZER COLLABORATION AND SHARE PURCHASE AGREEMENT

On May 5, 2016, the Company entered into a Research, License and Option Agreement (the “Pfizer Collaboration Agreement”) with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”). Pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the Company and Pfizer agreed to collaborate on the discovery, development and commercialization of stereopure oligonucleotide therapeutics for up to five programs (the “Pfizer Programs”), each directed at a genetically-defined hepatic target selected by Pfizer (the “Collaboration”).  The Company received $10.0 million as an upfront license fee under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement.  Subject to option exercises by Pfizer, assuming five potential products are successfully developed and commercialized, the Company may earn up to $871.0 million in potential research, development and commercial milestone payments, plus royalties, tiered up to low double-digits, on sales of any products that may result from the Collaboration. None of the payments under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement are refundable.

9


Simultaneously with the entry into the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the Company entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (the “Pfizer Equity Agreement,” and together with the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the “Pfizer Agreements”) with C.P. Pharmaceuticals International C.V., an affiliate of Pfizer (the “Pfizer Affiliate”). Pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Equity Agreement, the Pfizer Affiliate purchased 1,875,000 of the Company’s ordinary shares (the “Shares”) at a purchase price of $16.00 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $30.0 million. The Company did not incur any material costs in connection with the issuance of the Shares.

Under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the parties agreed to collaborate during the four-year Research Term. During the Research Term, the Company is responsible to use its commercially reasonable efforts to advance up to five programs through to the selection of clinical candidates. At that stage, Pfizer may elect to license any of these Pfizer Programs exclusively and to have exclusive rights to undertake the clinical development of the resulting clinical candidates into products and the potential commercialization of any such products thereafter. In addition, the Company receives a non-exclusive, royalty-bearing sublicensable license to use Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology in any of the Company’s own hepatic programs that are outside the scope of the Collaboration (the “Wave Programs”). If the Company uses this technology on the Wave Programs, Pfizer is eligible to receive potential development and commercial milestone payments from the Company. Pfizer is also eligible to receive tiered royalties on sales of any products that include Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology.

Pfizer nominated two hepatic targets upon entry into the Collaboration in May 2016. In August 2016, Pfizer nominated the third hepatic target under the Collaboration and pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, Pfizer had the option to nominate two additional targets by November 5, 2017. On November 5, 2017, the Company amended its Pfizer Collaboration Agreement to extend the target nomination period from November 5, 2017 to May 5, 2018. This amendment provides Pfizer with an additional six months to nominate the two remaining hepatic targets under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. The Collaboration is managed by a joint steering committee in which both parties are represented equally, which will oversee the scientific progression of each Pfizer Program up to the clinical candidate stage. During the four-year Research Term and for a period of two years thereafter, the Company has agreed to work exclusively with Pfizer with respect to using any of the Company’s stereopure oligonucleotide technology that is specific for the applicable hepatic target which is the basis of any Pfizer Program.  

The stated term of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement commenced on May 5, 2016 and terminates, with respect to each Pfizer Program, on the date of the last to expire payment obligations and expires, with respect to each Wave Program, on a program-by-program basis accordingly. Pfizer may terminate its rights related to a Pfizer Program under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement at its own convenience upon 90 days’ notice to the Company. The Company may also terminate its rights related to a Wave Program at its own convenience upon 90 days’ notice to Pfizer. The Pfizer Collaboration Agreement may also be terminated by either party in the event of an uncured material breach of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement by the other party.

During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, the Company recognized revenue of $0.7 million and $2.0 million, respectively, under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, the Company recognized revenue of $0.4 million and $0.8 million, respectively, under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. Deferred revenue amounted to $9.0 million at September 30, 2017, of which $2.7 million is included in current liabilities.  

 

 

5. NET LOSS PER ORDINARY SHARE

The Company applies the two-class method to calculate its basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, as its Series A preferred shares are participating securities. The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula that treats a participating security as having rights to earnings that otherwise would have been available to ordinary shareholders. However, for the periods presented, the two-class method does not impact the net loss per ordinary share as the Company was in a net loss position for each of the periods presented and holders of Series A preferred shares do not participate in losses.

Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted-average number of ordinary shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders.

The Company’s potentially dilutive shares, which include outstanding share options to purchase ordinary shares and Series A preferred shares, are considered to be ordinary share equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.

10


The following ordinary share equivalents, presented based on amounts outstanding at each period end, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders for the periods indicated because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:

 

 

 

As of September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Options to purchase ordinary shares

 

 

3,805,795

 

 

 

3,509,242

 

Restricted share units

 

 

162,280

 

 

 

22,750

 

Series A preferred shares

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

 

6. INCOME TAXES

The Company is a multi-national company subject to taxation in the United States and various other jurisdictions. During the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded an income tax benefit of $0.4 million and an income tax provision of $0.4 million, respectively. The income tax benefit recorded during the three months ended September 30, 2017 was due to the implementation of a revised international corporate structure aligned with the Company’s international operations. The income tax provision recorded during the three months ended September 30, 2016 was primarily the result of U.S. income generated under research and management services arrangements between the Company’s U.S. and Singapore entities.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded an income tax provision of $0.9 million and $0.4 million, respectively. The increase in the income tax provision for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 as compared to the nine months ended September 30, 2016 was a result of the Company’s establishment of a valuation allowance against the Company’s U.S. deferred tax assets.

During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded no income tax benefits for the net operating losses incurred in Japan, Singapore, Ireland or the United Kingdom, due to its uncertainty of realizing a benefit from those items.

The Company’s reserves related to taxes and its accounting for uncertain tax positions are based on a determination of whether and how much of a tax benefit taken by the Company in its tax filings or positions is more-likely-than-not to be realized following resolution of any potential contingencies present related to the tax benefit.

 

 

7. RELATED PARTIES

The Company had the following related party transactions for the periods presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, which have not otherwise been discussed in these notes to the consolidated financial statements:

 

The Company had cash of $109 thousand and $118 thousand at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, in depository accounts with Kagoshima Bank, Ltd., an affiliate of one of the Company’s shareholders, Kagoshima Shinsangyo Sousei Investment Limited Partnership.

 

Pursuant to the terms of various service agreements with Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories Ltd. (“SNBL”), one of the Company’s shareholders, the Company paid SNBL $83 thousand and $4 thousand during the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and $161 thousand and $329 thousand during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, for contract research services provided to the Company and its affiliates.

 

In 2012, the Company entered into a consulting agreement for scientific advisory services with Dr. Gregory L. Verdine, one of the Company’s founders and a member of the Company’s Board of Directors. The consulting agreement does not have a specific term and may be terminated by either party upon 14 days’ prior written notice. Pursuant to the consulting agreement, the Company pays Dr. Verdine approximately $13 thousand per month, plus reimbursement of certain expenses.

 

11


8. GEOGRAPHIC DATA

The Company’s long-lived assets consist of property and equipment, net and are located in the following geographical areas:

 

 

 

September 30, 2017

 

 

December 31, 2016

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Asia

 

$

13

 

 

$

136

 

United States

 

 

24,571

 

 

 

8,471

 

Total long-lived assets

 

$

24,584

 

 

$

8,607

 

 

 

9. SUBSEQUENT EVENT

On November 5, 2017, the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement was amended to extend the target nomination period from November 5, 2017 to May 5, 2018. This amendment provides Pfizer with an additional six months to nominate the two remaining hepatic targets under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement.

 

 

12


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 16, 2017 (the “2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K”). Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, our actual results could differ materially from the results described in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements.

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. In some cases, forward-looking statements are identified by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “future,” “goals,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “ongoing,” “objective,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” “will” and “would” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. Forward-looking statements include statements about our ability to fund our working capital requirements; the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and current and future clinical trials; the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates; our ability to identify and develop new product candidates; our intellectual property position; our manufacturing, commercialization and marketing capabilities and strategy; our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities; our use of proceeds from our equity offerings; our estimates regarding future expenses and needs for additional financing; our ability to identify, recruit and retain key personnel; our financial performance; our competitive position; our liquidity and working capital requirements; and the expected impact of new accounting standards. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these statements, including the following: the ability of our preclinical studies to produce data sufficient to support the filing of global clinical trial applications and the timing thereof; our ability to continue to build and maintain the company infrastructure and personnel needed to achieve our goals; the clinical results of our programs, which may not support further development of our product candidates; actions of regulatory agencies, which may affect the initiation, timing and progress of clinical trials; our effectiveness in managing current and future clinical trials and regulatory processes; the success of our platform in identifying viable candidates; the continued development and acceptance of nucleic acid therapeutics as a class of drugs; our ability to demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of our stereopure candidates in clinical trials, including our ability to develop candidates across multiple therapeutic modalities; our ability to obtain, maintain and protect intellectual property; our ability to enforce our patents against infringers and defend our patent portfolio against challenges from third parties; our ability to fund our operations and to raise additional capital as needed; and competition from others developing therapies for similar uses, as well as the information under the caption “Risk Factors” contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in other filings we make with the SEC. If our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, these statements should not be regarded as representations or warranties by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise indicates, references to “Wave,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or similar terms refer to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries.

Overview

We are a biotechnology company with an innovative and proprietary synthetic chemistry drug development platform that we are using to design, develop and commercialize a broad pipeline of first-in-class or best-in-class nucleic acid therapeutic candidates for genetically-defined diseases. Nucleic acid therapeutics are a growing and innovative class of drugs that have the potential to address diseases that have historically been difficult to treat with small molecule drugs or biologics. Oligonucleotides are comprised of a sequence of nucleotides that are linked together by a backbone of chemical bonds. We are initially developing oligonucleotides that target genetic defects to either reduce the expression of disease-promoting proteins or transform the production of dysfunctional mutant proteins into the production of functional proteins.

The nucleic acid therapeutics we are developing are stereopure. A stereopure oligonucleotide is comprised of molecules with atoms precisely arranged in three-dimensional orientations at each linkage. We believe controlling the position of the sulfur atom in the phosphorothioate (“PS”) moiety will optimize the pharmacological profile of our therapeutics by maximizing therapeutic effect while minimizing the potential for side effects and safety risks. The stereopure therapies we are developing differ from the mixture-based

13


nucleic acid therapeutics currently on the market and in development by others. Our preclinical studies have demonstrated that our stereopure nucleic acid therapeutics may achieve superior pharmacologic properties as compared to mixture-based nucleic acid therapeutics. Our platform is designed to enable us to rationally design, optimize and produce stereopure nucleic acid therapeutics, which were previously thought to be too difficult to make and too expensive to manufacture. Further, our platform has the potential to design therapies that use any of the major molecular mechanisms employed by nucleic acid therapeutics, including antisense, ribonucleic acid interference (“RNAi”) splicing, and exon skipping.

Our goal is to develop disease-modifying drugs for indications with a high degree of unmet medical need in genetically-defined diseases. We are focused on designing single-stranded nucleic acid therapeutics that can distribute broadly within the human body, allowing us to target diseases across multiple organ systems and tissues, through both systemic and local administration. In addition to our current programs in development, we are also leveraging our platform to explore the next generation of stereopure nucleic acid therapeutics that have the potential to selectively target certain cell types.

Our core focus for our wholly-owned proprietary programs is neurology, which we broadly define as genetic diseases within the central nervous system and neuromuscular system. We have initiated clinical trials of our two lead programs in Huntington’s disease (“HD”) and our lead program in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“DMD”) targeting exon 51. As a part of our portfolio strategy, we expect to initiate three additional development programs by the end of 2018, targeting exon 53 in DMD and C9orf72 (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”) and frontotemporal dementia (“FTD”). Further details regarding our programs are set forth below.

 

In HD, we have two separate programs, WVE-120101 and WVE-120102, each targeting a different disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (“SNP”) within the huntingtin gene: rs362307 (“SNP1”) and rs362331 (“SNP2”). SNPs are naturally occurring variations within a given genetic sequence and in certain instances can be used to distinguish between two related copies of a gene where only one is responsible for causing production of a defective protein which causes disease. It has been shown that by targeting SNP1 or SNP2, the production of disease-causing proteins associated with HD can be reduced. In July 2017, we initiated PRECISION-HD1 and PRECISION-HD2, our two Phase 1b/2a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that will primarily evaluate the safety and tolerability of single and multiple doses of WVE-120101 and WVE-120102, respectively, administered intrathecally in HD patients.

 

In DMD, we have developed WVE-210201, which targets exon 51, a region within the ribonucleic acid (“RNA”), transcribed from the dystrophin gene. DMD is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that results in dysfunctional dystrophin protein. In November 2017, we initiated our Phase 1 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability and plasma concentrations of single ascending doses of WVE-210201 administered intravenously in DMD patients with gene mutations amenable to exon 51 skipping. In addition, in September 2017, we announced that our next development program will target exon 53 in DMD and is expected to initiate clinical trials in the first quarter of 2019.

 

In ALS and FTD, we are targeting pathological C9orf72 mutations resulting from repeat expansions in the gene. These expansions are currently known as the largest genetic cause of familial ALS and FTD, accounting for approximately one-third and one-quarter of patients, respectively. Mutations of C9orf72 are also considered to be a strong genetic risk factor for the more common, non-inherited, sporadic forms of ALS and FTD, both of which are fatal, complex, neurodegenerative disorders. We expect to initiate clinical development in ALS and FTD in the fourth quarter of 2018.

 

In May 2016, we entered into a collaboration with Pfizer focused on the advancement of genetically-defined targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, bringing together our proprietary drug development platform, across antisense and single-stranded RNAi modalities, along with GalNAc and Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology for delivery to the liver. The collaboration seeks to leverage our stereochemistry platform across antisense and RNAi modalities and may incorporate GalNAc and Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology. Under the terms of the agreement, Pfizer will select, and we will advance, up to five targets from discovery through to the selection of clinical candidates, at which point Pfizer may elect to exclusively license the programs and undertake further development and potential commercialization. Two targets were declared upon initiation of the agreement, including Apolipoprotein C-III. In the third quarter of 2016, Pfizer nominated its third target. In November 2017, we amended the agreement with Pfizer to extend the target nomination period for the remaining two targets. Per the terms of the amended agreement, Pfizer is entitled to nominate the remaining two targets by May 2018.

We have never been profitable, and since our inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our net loss was $71.8 million and $36.9 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $162.3 million and $90.5 million, respectively. We expect to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future.

14


Recent Developments

In July 2017, we commenced occupancy of our new 90,000 square foot manufacturing, laboratory and office facility in Lexington, Massachusetts. The facility is designed to produce active pharmaceutical ingredient under current good manufacturing practice (“cGMP”) and to have oligonucleotide synthesis capacity ranging from high throughput to large scale production. Our primary objectives for building this facility are to provide us and our current and future partners increased visibility and control of our drug product supply chain, greater independence, capacity and flexibility in conducting clinical trials, and the possibility of bringing disease-modifying therapies to patients in a potentially expedited manner.

Financial Operations Overview

Revenue

We have not generated any product revenue since our inception and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products for the foreseeable future. Our revenue during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 represents revenue earned under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, which was entered into in May 2016.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses since inception have consisted primarily of research and development costs and general and administrative costs.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our discovery efforts, and the development of our product candidates, which include:

 

compensation-related expenses, including employee salaries, bonuses, share-based compensation expense and other related benefits costs, for personnel in our research and development organization;

 

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including contract research organizations (“CROs”) that conduct research, preclinical and clinical activities on our behalf, as well as contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”) that manufacture drug products for use in our preclinical and clinical trials;

 

costs of third-party consultants, including fees, share-based compensation and related travel expenses;

 

the cost of sponsored research, which includes laboratory supplies and facility-related expenses, including rent, maintenance and other operating costs; and

 

costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements.

We recognize research and development costs as incurred. We recognize external development costs based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using information provided to us by our vendors. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual agreements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected in our financial statements as prepaid or accrued research and development expenses.

Our primary research and development focus since inception has been the development of our innovative and proprietary synthetic chemistry drug development platform. We are using our platform to design, develop and commercialize a broad pipeline of nucleic acid therapeutic candidates.

Our direct research and development expenses are tracked on a program-by-program basis and consist primarily of CROs, CMOs, consultants, and other external costs incurred in connection with our preclinical and clinical studies and regulatory fees. However, we do not allocate the cost of sponsored research on a program-by-program basis, because these costs are deployed across multiple product programs under development and, as such, are classified as costs of our research. The cost of sponsored research includes laboratory supplies, equipment repairs and maintenance and facility-related expenses.

15


The table below summarizes our research and development expenses incurred on our platform and by program:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

HD programs

 

$

2,144

 

 

$

3,791

 

 

$

6,637

 

 

$

6,949

 

DMD programs

 

 

4,178

 

 

 

994

 

 

 

11,089

 

 

 

1,861

 

ALS and FTD programs

 

 

183

 

 

 

 

 

 

693

 

 

 

 

Other discovery programs, platform development

   and identification of potential drug discovery

   candidates

 

 

13,592

 

 

 

8,901

 

 

 

35,521

 

 

 

18,013

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

20,097

 

 

$

13,686

 

 

$

53,940

 

 

$

26,823

 

 

Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect that our compensation-related expenses, including salaries, bonuses, share-based compensation and other related benefits costs, will increase in the future as we attract and maintain additional personnel. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase in the foreseeable future as we continue to conduct and initiate clinical trials for certain of our product candidates, continue to discover and develop additional product candidates, and pursue later stages of clinical development of our product candidates. Additionally, we expect our facility-related expenses to increase related to the lease we entered into in 2016 for space in Lexington, Massachusetts, which we intend to use primarily for our cGMP manufacturing, as well as for additional laboratory and office space.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation-related expenses, including salaries, bonuses, share-based compensation and other related benefits costs, for personnel in our executive, finance, corporate, business development, legal and administrative functions. General and administrative expenses also include legal fees relating to intellectual property and general corporate matters; expenses associated with being a public company; professional fees for accounting, auditing, tax and consulting services; insurance costs; travel expenses; other operating costs; and facility-related expenses.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future, primarily due to additional compensation-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, incentive arrangements and share-based compensation awards, as we increase our employee headcount to support the expected growth in our research and development activities and the potential commercialization of our product candidates.

Other Income (Expense), net

Other income (expense), net for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 consists primarily of dividend and interest income earned on cash and cash equivalents balances.

Income Taxes

We are a multi-national company subject to taxation in the United States and various other jurisdictions. The income tax provision recorded during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 was primarily the result of U.S. income generated under research and management services arrangements between our U.S. and Singapore entities. The income tax benefit recorded during the three months ended September 30, 2017 was the result of the implementation of a revised international corporate structure aligned with our international operations. The income tax provision recorded during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 was mainly the result of the establishment of a valuation allowance against our U.S. deferred tax assets.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America. The preparation of our financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, costs and expenses, revenue, and related disclosures.

16


Our critical accounting policies are described under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations— Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates” in our 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2017. We believe that of our critical accounting policies, the accounting policies with respect to revenue recognition and income taxes involve the most judgment and complexity. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, there were no material changes to our critical accounting policies.

Accordingly, we believe these identified policies are critical to fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations. If actual results or events differ materially from the estimates, judgments and assumptions used by us in applying these policies, our reported financial condition and results of operations could be materially affected.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

Change

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenue

 

$

676

 

 

 

392

 

 

$

284

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

20,097

 

 

 

13,686

 

 

 

6,411

 

General and administrative

 

 

7,571

 

 

 

3,939

 

 

 

3,632

 

Total operating expense

 

 

27,668

 

 

 

17,625

 

 

 

10,043

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(26,992

)

 

 

(17,233

)

 

 

(9,759

)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

441

 

 

 

82

 

 

 

359

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(26,551

)

 

 

(17,151

)

 

 

(9,400

)

Income tax benefit (provision)

 

 

416

 

 

 

(384

)

 

 

800

 

Net loss

 

$

(26,135

)

 

$

(17,535

)

 

$

(8,600

)

 

Revenue

The revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 was earned under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, which was entered into in May 2016. There was $0.7 million of revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2017, which represents an increase of $0.3 million over the $0.4 million of revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2016. This increase was the result of the nomination of the third target in August 2016.

Research and Development Expenses

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

Change

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

HD programs

 

$

2,144

 

 

$

3,791

 

 

$

(1,647

)

DMD programs

 

 

4,178

 

 

 

994

 

 

 

3,184

 

ALS and FTD programs

 

 

183

 

 

 

 

 

 

183

 

Other discovery programs, platform development

   and identification of potential drug discovery

   candidates

 

 

13,592

 

 

 

8,901

 

 

 

4,691

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

20,097

 

 

$

13,686

 

 

$

6,411

 

Research and development expenses were $20.1 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017, compared to $13.7 million for the three months ended September 30, 2016. The increase of $6.4 million was due primarily to the following:

 

a decrease of $1.6 million in preclinical and clinical expenses related to our two HD programs;

 

an increase of $3.2 million in preclinical and clinical expenses related to our DMD programs, mainly driven by activities related to WVE-210201;

 

an increase of $0.2 million in preclinical expenses related to our ALS program and our FTD program, each of which targets the C9orf72 mutation; and

17


 

an increase of $4.7 million in research and development expenses related to other discovery programs, platform development and identification of potential drug discovery candidates, due to an increase of $2.8 million in compensation-related expenses, which is the result of an increase in employee headcount, and an increase of $1.9 million in research and development supplies and services expenses and facility-related expenses.

Foreign currency translation did not have a significant impact on changes in our consolidated research and development expenses from the three months ended September 30, 2016 to the three months ended September 30, 2017.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses were $7.6 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017, as compared to $3.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2016. The increase of $3.7 million was the result of the increases in compensation-related expenses, which is the result of the increase in employee headcount, as well as increases in facility-related expenses and other general operating expenses.

Foreign currency translation did not have a significant impact on changes in our consolidated general and administrative expenses from the three months ended September 30, 2016 to the three months ended September 30, 2017.

Income Tax Benefit (Provision)

During the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, we recorded an income tax benefit of $0.4 million and an income tax provision of $0.4 million, respectively. The income tax provision recorded during the three months ended September 30, 2016 was primarily the result of U.S. income generated under research and management services arrangements between our U.S. and Singapore entities. The income tax benefit recorded during the three months ended September 30, 2017, was the result of the implementation of a revised international corporate structure aligned with our international operations. During the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, we recorded no income tax benefits for the net operating losses incurred in Japan, Singapore, Ireland or the United Kingdom, due to uncertainty regarding future taxable income in these jurisdictions.

Comparison of the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016:

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016:

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

Change

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenue

 

$

2,028

 

 

 

809

 

 

$

1,219

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

53,940

 

 

 

26,823

 

 

 

27,117

 

General and administrative

 

 

20,088

 

 

 

10,809

 

 

 

9,279

 

Total operating expense

 

 

74,028

 

 

 

37,632

 

 

 

36,396

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(72,000

)

 

 

(36,823

)

 

 

(35,177

)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

1,081

 

 

 

303

 

 

 

778

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(70,919

)

 

 

(36,520

)

 

 

(34,399

)

Income tax benefit (provision)

 

 

(905

)

 

 

(427

)

 

 

(478

)

Net loss

 

$

(71,824

)

 

$

(36,947

)

 

$

(34,877

)

 

Revenue

The revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 was earned under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, which was entered into in May 2016. There was $2.0 million in revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2017, which represents an increase of approximately $1.2 million in revenue over the $0.8 million of revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2016. This increase is due to the fact that nine months of revenue were earned under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement during the nine months ended September 30, 2017, as compared to the five months of revenue that were earned under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 from the May 2016 effective date through September 30, 2016 as well as the fact that the third target was nominated in August 2016.

18


Research and Development Expenses

The table below summarizes our research and development expenses incurred for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016:

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

Change

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

HD programs

 

$

6,637

 

 

$

6,949

 

 

$

(312

)

DMD programs

 

 

11,089

 

 

 

1,861

 

 

 

9,228

 

ALS and FTD programs

 

 

693

 

 

 

 

 

 

693

 

Other discovery programs, platform development

   and identification of potential drug discovery

   candidates

 

 

35,521

 

 

 

18,013

 

 

 

17,508

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

53,940

 

 

$

26,823

 

 

$

27,117

 

 

Research and development expenses were $53.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 compared to $26.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2016. The increase of $27.1 million was due to the following:

 

a decrease of $0.3 million in preclinical and clinical expenses related to our two HD programs;

 

an increase of $9.2 million in preclinical and clinical expenses related to our DMD programs, mainly driven by activities related to WVE-210201;

 

an increase of $0.7 million in preclinical expenses related to our ALS program and our FTD program, each of which targets the C9orf72 mutation; and

 

an increase of $17.5 million in research and development expenses related to other discovery programs, platform development and identification of potential drug discovery candidates, due to an increase of $10.4 million in compensation-related expenses, including an increase of $2.3 million in share-based compensation expense, which is the result of an increase in employee headcount, as well as an increase of $7.1 million in research and development supplies and services expenses and facility-related expenses.

Foreign currency translation did not have a significant impact on changes in our consolidated research and development expenses from the nine months ended September 30, 2016 to the nine months ended September 30, 2017.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses were $20.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017, compared to $10.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2016. The increase of $9.3 million was the result of the increases in compensation-related expenses, which is the result of the increase in employee headcount, as well as increases in facility-related expenses and other general operating expenses.

Foreign currency translation did not have a significant impact on changes in our consolidated general and administrative expenses from the nine months ended September 30, 2016 to the nine months ended September 30, 2017.

Income Tax Benefit (Provision)

During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, we recorded an income tax provision of $0.9 million and $0.4 million, respectively. The increase in the income tax provision was mainly the result of the establishment of a valuation allowance against our U.S. deferred tax assets. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, we recorded no income tax benefits for the net operating losses incurred in Japan, Singapore, Ireland or the United Kingdom, due to uncertainty regarding future taxable income in these jurisdictions.

19


Liquidity and Capital Resources

To date we have primarily funded our operations through private placements of debt and equity securities, public offerings of our ordinary shares and collaborations. Through September 30, 2017, we have received an aggregate of approximately $323.2 million in net proceeds from these transactions. We received $89.3 million in net proceeds from private placements of our debt and equity securities, $100.4 million in net proceeds ($111.9 million gross proceeds) from our initial public offering, inclusive of the over-allotment exercise, $40.0 million under the Pfizer Agreements, including $10.0 million as an upfront payment under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement and $30.0 million in the form of an equity investment, and $93.5 million in net proceeds ($100.0 million gross proceeds) from our April 2017 follow-on underwritten public offering.

Since our inception, we have not generated any product revenue and have incurred recurring net losses.

As of September 30, 2017, we had cash and cash equivalents totaling $168.5 million and an accumulated deficit of $162.3 million and restricted cash of $3.6 million related to letters of credit for our leased premises in Cambridge, Massachusetts and Lexington, Massachusetts.

We expect that the capital resources available to us as of September 30, 2017, together with anticipated milestone payments under our existing collaboration with Pfizer, will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into mid-2019. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, and we may use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. In addition, we may elect to raise additional funds before we need them if the conditions for raising capital are favorable due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

Until we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, which may include collaborations with third parties. On January 4, 2017, we filed a universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3, which was declared effective by the SEC on February 6, 2017, on which we registered for sale up to $500.0 million of any combination of our ordinary shares, debt securities, warrants, rights, purchase contracts and/or units from time to time and at prices and on terms that we may determine. After the closing of our follow-on underwritten public offering on April 18, 2017, approximately $400.0 million of securities remain available for issuance under this shelf registration. This shelf registration statement will remain in effect for up to three years from the date it was declared effective. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our inability to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy. We will need to generate significant revenue to achieve profitability, and we may never do so.

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our sources and uses of cash and cash equivalents for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016:

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Cash used in operating activities

 

$

(60,917

)

 

$

(18,578

)

Cash used in investing activities

 

 

(14,815

)

 

 

(2,834

)

Cash provided by financing activities

 

 

93,785

 

 

 

29,106

 

Effect of foreign exchange rates of cash

 

 

118

 

 

 

101

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

18,171

 

 

$

7,795

 

 

Operating Activities

During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, operating activities used approximately $60.9 million of cash, which was the result of our net loss of $71.8 million and changes in operating assets and liabilities of $3.2 million, partially offset by non-cash charges of $14.1 million. The non-cash charges were mainly related to the share-based compensation expense of $9.0 million and the $3.2 million increase in deferred rent.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2016, operating activities used $18.6 million of cash, which was the result of our net loss of $36.9 million, partially offset by changes in operating assets and liabilities of $13.0 million and non-cash charges of $5.3 million. The non-cash charges were related primarily to share-based compensation of $4.3 million. The cash provided from changes in operating assets and liabilities was primarily the result of the $11.7 million increase in deferred revenue as a result of the upfront payments received pursuant to the Pfizer Agreements.

20


Investing Activities

During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, investing activities used $14.8 million of cash, consisting primarily of purchases of property and equipment.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2016, investing activities used $2.8 million of cash, consisting primarily of purchases of property and equipment.

Financing Activities

During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, net cash provided by financing activities was $93.8 million, which was primarily due to the $93.5 million in net proceeds from the April 2017 follow-on underwritten public offering of 4,166,667 ordinary shares.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2016, net cash provided by financing activities was $29.1 million, which was primarily due to the $30.0 million in proceeds from the issuance of 1,875,000 ordinary shares to an affiliate of Pfizer related to the Pfizer Equity Agreement.

Effect of Foreign Exchange Rates on Cash

During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, the effect of changes in foreign exchange rates on cash was an increase in cash of $0.1 million, primarily due to changes in the Japanese yen from December 31, 2016 to September 30, 2017.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2016, the effect of changes in foreign exchange rates on cash was an increase in cash of $0.1 million, primarily due to changes in the Japanese yen from December 31, 2015 to September 30, 2016.

Funding Requirements

We expect our expenses to continue to increase in connection with our ongoing research and development activities and the establishment of our internal cGMP manufacturing capabilities. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:

 

continue to conduct our two Phase 1b/2a clinical trials evaluating our product candidates WVE 102101 and WVE 102102 in patients with HD and our Phase 1 clinical trial evaluating our product candidate WVE-210201 in patients with DMD;

 

conduct research and preclinical development of discovery targets and advance additional programs into clinical development;

 

file clinical trial applications with global regulatory agencies and conduct clinical trials for our programs;

 

make strategic investments in expanding our R&D platform capabilities and in optimizing our manufacturing processes and formulations;

 

develop manufacturing capabilities through outsourcing and establishing a scalable manufacturing facility;

 

maintain our intellectual property portfolio and consider the acquisition of complementary intellectual property;

 

seek and obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates; and

 

establish and build capabilities to market, manufacture and distribute our product candidates.

We may experience delays or encounter issues with any of the above, including but not limited to failed studies, complex results, safety issues or other regulatory challenges.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development of drug candidates and because the extent to which we may enter into collaborations with third parties for development of product candidates is unknown, we are unable to estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenses associated with completing the research and development for our therapeutic programs. Our future capital requirements for our therapeutic programs will depend on many factors, including:

 

the progress and results of conducting research and continued preclinical and clinical development within our therapeutic programs and with respect to future potential pipeline candidates;

 

the cost of manufacturing clinical supplies of our product candidates;

 

the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;

21


 

the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

 

the revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

 

the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims;

 

the effect of competing technological and market developments; and

 

the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies, including entering into licensing or collaboration arrangements for product candidates.

Identifying potential product candidates and conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials is a time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our product candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our product revenue, if any, will be derived from sales of products that we do not expect to be commercially available for many years, if ever. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funds to achieve our business objectives. Adequate additional funds may not be available to us on acceptable terms when we need them, or at all. We do not currently have any committed external source of funds, except for possible future payments from Pfizer if milestones under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement are achieved. On January 4, 2017, we filed a universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3, which was declared effective by the SEC on February 6, 2017 (the “2017 Shelf”), on which we registered for sale up to $500.0 million of any combination of our ordinary shares, debt securities, warrants, rights, purchase contracts and/or units from time to time and at prices and on terms that we may determine. On April 18, 2017, we closed a follow-on underwritten public offering of 4,166,667 for gross proceeds of $100.0 million under the 2017 Shelf. Following that closing, approximately $400.0 million of securities remains available for issuance under the 2017 Shelf. This registration statement will remain in effect for up to three years from the date it was declared effective. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our existing shareholders will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our shareholders. Additional debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends and may require the issuance of warrants, which could potentially dilute our shareholders’ ownership interests.

If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development programs or any future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

There have been no material changes to our contractual obligations and commitments set forth under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations- Contractual Obligations and Commitments” in our 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2017.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We had no off-balance sheet arrangements (as that term is defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K) as of September 30, 2017 that had or were reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

For detailed information regarding recently issued accounting pronouncements and the expected impact on our consolidated financial statements, see Note 2, “Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.

Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily the result of fluctuations in interest rates and foreign exchange rates as well as, to a lesser extent, inflation, and capital market risk.

22


Interest Rate Risk

We are exposed to interest rate risk in the ordinary course of our business. Our cash and cash equivalents are held in readily available checking and money market accounts.

Foreign Currency Risk

We are exposed to market risk related to changes in the value of the Japanese yen, which is the currency in which our Japanese subsidiary conducts its business. As of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, 0.1% and 0.2% of our assets, respectively, were located in Japan. Additionally, 0.8% and 0.5% of our general and administrative expenses were transacted in Japanese yen during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Furthermore, 1.0% and 2.1% of our research and development expenses were transacted in Japanese yen during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. When the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to the yen, our U.S. dollar reported revenue and expense from non-U.S. dollar denominated income and operating costs will decrease. Conversely, when the U.S. dollar weakens relative to the yen, our U.S. dollar reported revenue and expenses from non-U.S. dollar denominated income and operating costs will increase. Changes in the relative values of currencies occur regularly and, in some instances, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. Our foreign currency sensitivity is affected by changes in the Japanese yen, which is impacted by economic factors both locally in Japan and worldwide. A hypothetical 10% change in foreign currency rates would not have a material impact on our historical financial position or results of operations.

Inflation Risk

We do not believe that inflation had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016.

Capital Market Risk

We currently have no product revenues and depend on funds raised through other sources. One possible source of funding is through further equity offerings. Our ability to raise funds in this manner depends in part upon capital market forces affecting our share price.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of September 30, 2017. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to its management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of September 30, 2017, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the fiscal quarter ended September 30, 2017 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

 

PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings.

We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings.

23


Item 1A. Risk Factors.

In addition to the other information set forth in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, you should carefully consider the factors discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” that appear in Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which was filed with the SEC on March 16, 2017 (the “2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K”), and in Item 1A of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2017, which was filed with the SEC on August 9, 2017 (the “June 30 Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q”), which could materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. There have been no material changes from the risk factors previously disclosed in the 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K, as supplemented and amended by the risk factors disclosed in the June 30 Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds.

(a)

Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

None.

(b)

Use of Proceeds

On November 10, 2015, the SEC declared our registration statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 333-207379) effective for our initial public offering and we registered additional ordinary shares for our initial public offering on a registration statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 333-207940) filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The aggregate net proceeds to us from the offering, inclusive of the over-allotment exercise, were approximately $100.4 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by us. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on November 12, 2015 pursuant to Rule 424(b). We have used the net offering proceeds to advance our product candidates and for working capital and general corporate purposes. As of September 30, 2017, we have used all of the net initial public offering proceeds.

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities.

None.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

Item 5. Other Information.

Amendment to Pfizer Collaboration Agreement

The information set forth in this paragraph is included herein for the purpose of providing the disclosure required under “Item 1.01 - Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement” of Form 8-K. On November 5, 2017, we amended our Research, License and Option Agreement (the “Pfizer Collaboration Agreement”) with Pfizer, Inc. (“Pfizer”) to extend the target nomination period from November 5, 2017 to May 5, 2018. This amendment provides Pfizer with an additional six months to nominate the two remaining hepatic targets under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement.

Amendments to 2014 Equity Incentive Plan

As disclosed on Form 8-K/A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on August 17, 2017, our shareholders approved, at our 2017 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders on August 10, 2017, amendments to the Wave Life Sciences Ltd. 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”) to increase the total number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the plan by 1,000,000 shares, to increase by 150,000 shares the maximum number of shares available for grant to any participant in any fiscal year for purposes of meeting the requirements for qualified performance-based compensation under Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and to provide our Compensation Committee with discretion to grant awards intended to qualify as “performance-based compensation” for purposes of Section 162(m) of the Code.  A description of the terms and conditions of the amendments to the 2014 Plan is set forth in our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on July 6, 2017, under the heading “Proposal 4: Approval of Amendments to 2014 Equity Incentive Plan,” and is incorporated herein by reference. Such description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual terms of the plan, a copy of which is filed as Exhibit 10.1 to this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

24


Description of Share Capital

The information set forth below in this “Item 5. Other Information” is included to amend the description of our share capital contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with SEC, on November 9, 2015. We intend to incorporate the following description by reference into certain filings with the SEC, including registration statements on Form S-3 and Form S-8.

General

For the purposes of this section, references to “shareholders” mean those persons whose names and number of shares are entered in our register of members. Only persons who are registered in our register of members are recognized under Singapore law as shareholders of our company with legal standing to institute shareholder actions against us or otherwise seek to enforce their rights as shareholders. Our branch register of members is maintained by our transfer agent, Computershare Trust Company, N.A. (“Computershare”).

Certain of our ordinary shares are held through the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”). Accordingly, DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., is the shareholder on record registered in our register of members for such shares. The holder of our shares held in book-entry through DTC or its nominee may become a registered shareholder by exchanging its interest in our shares for certificated shares and being registered in our register of members. The procedures by which a holder of book-entry interests held through DTC or its nominee may exchange such interests for certificated shares are determined by DTC and Computershare, in accordance with their internal policies and guidelines regulating the withdrawal and exchange of book-entry interests for certificated shares, and following such an exchange Computershare will perform the procedures to register the shares in the register.

Under the Singapore Companies Act, if (a) the name of any person is without sufficient cause entered in or omitted from the register of members; or (b) default is made or there is unnecessary delay in entering in the register of members the fact of any person having ceased to be a member, the person aggrieved or any member of the public company or the company itself, may apply to the Singapore courts for rectification of the register of members. The Singapore courts may either refuse the application or order rectification of the register of members, and may direct the company to pay any damages sustained by any party to the application. The Singapore courts will not entertain any application for the rectification of a register of members in respect of an entry which was made in the register of members more than 30 years before the date of the application.

As of September 30, 2017, there were outstanding:

 

27,767,905 ordinary shares;

 

3,901,348 Series A preferred shares held by one shareholder of record;

 

162,280 ordinary shares issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted share units;

 

3,805,795 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding share options; and

 

1,730,546 ordinary shares reserved for issuance in connection with future grants under our equity incentive plan.

The following description of our share capital and provisions of our constitution (formerly known as our memorandum and articles of association) are summaries and are qualified by reference to the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution. A copy of our constitution has been filed with the SEC as an exhibit to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 filed with the SEC on March 16, 2017 and amended on April 28, 2017.

Ordinary Shares

As of September 30, 2017, our issued and paid-up ordinary share capital consists of 27,767,905 ordinary shares. We currently have only one class of issued ordinary shares, which have identical rights in all respects and rank equally with one another. Our ordinary shares have no par value and there is no authorized share capital under Singapore law. There is a provision in our constitution which provides that we may issue shares with such preferred, deferred or other special rights or such restrictions, whether in regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise as our board of directors may determine.

All our shares presently issued are fully paid-up, and existing shareholders are not subject to any calls on these shares. Although Singapore law does not recognize the concept of “non-assessability” with respect to newly-issued shares, we note that any purchaser of our shares who has fully paid up all amounts due with respect to such shares will not be subject under Singapore law to any personal liability to contribute to the assets or liabilities of our company in such purchaser’s capacity solely as a holder of such shares. We believe that this interpretation is substantively consistent with the concept of “non-assessability” under most, if not all, U.S. state corporations laws. All our shares are in registered form. We cannot, except in the circumstances permitted by the Singapore Companies Act, grant any financial assistance for the acquisition or proposed acquisition of our own shares. Except as described below under “— Takeovers,” there are no limitations imposed by the Singapore Companies Act or by our constitution on the right of shareholders not resident in Singapore to hold or vote ordinary shares.

25


Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our ordinary shares is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

NASDAQ Global Market

Our ordinary shares are listed for quotation on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “WVE.”

New Shares

Under the Singapore Companies Act, new shares may be issued only with the prior approval of our shareholders in a general meeting. General approval may be sought from our shareholders in a general meeting for the issue of shares. Approval, if granted, will lapse at the earlier of:

 

the conclusion of the next annual general meeting; or

 

the expiration of the period within which the next annual general meeting is required by law to be held (i.e., once every calendar year and within 15 months from the last preceding annual general meeting),

but any approval may be revoked or varied by the company in a general meeting.

Our shareholders have provided such general authority to issue new ordinary shares until the conclusion of our 2018 annual general meeting. Such approval will lapse in accordance with the preceding paragraph if our shareholders do not grant a new approval at our 2018 annual general meeting. Subject to this and the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution, our board of directors may allot and issue or grant options over or otherwise dispose of new ordinary shares to such persons on such terms and conditions and with the rights and restrictions as they may think fit to impose.

Preferred Shares

Series A Preferred Shares

As of September 30, 2017, we have 3,901,348 Series A preferred shares outstanding. These shares are currently held by one of our largest shareholders, Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. The terms of the Series A preferred shares as set out in our constitution include (1) no voting rights at any general meeting other than in limited circumstances, (2) a liquidation preference equal to $0.002 per Series A preferred share, (3) no entitlement to dividends and (4) the right to convert the Series A preferred shares at any time on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares at the discretion of the holder in accordance with the constitution.

The holders of the Series A preferred shares are not entitled to vote at any general meeting. The only instances in which the holders of the Series A preferred shares are able to vote at a general meeting would be if (but only if): the matters to be discussed at the meeting relate to or there is intent to pass resolutions on (i) abrogating or changing the rights attached to the Series A preferred shares; and (ii) for the winding up of the Company. Such resolutions would require the unanimous approval of the holders of the Series A preferred shares.

Other Preferred Shares

Under the Singapore Companies Act, different classes of shares in a public company may be issued only if (a) the issue of the class or classes of shares is provided for in the constitution of the public company and (b) the constitution of the public company sets out in respect of each class of shares the rights attached to that class of shares. Our constitution provides that we may issue shares of a different class with preferred, deferred or other special rights, or such restrictions, whether in regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise as our board of directors may determine. Under Singapore law, our preferred shareholders will have the right to attend any general meeting and in a poll at such general meeting, to have at least one vote for every preferred share held:

 

upon any resolution concerning the voluntary winding-up of our company under Section 290 of the Singapore Companies Act;

 

upon any resolution which varies the rights attached to such preferred shares; or

 

in the case of preferred shares issued after August 15, 1984, but before the commencement of Section 96 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2014, when the dividends to be paid on our preferred shares or any part thereof are more than twelve months in arrears and unpaid, for the period they remain in arrears and unpaid.

26


We may, subject to the Singapore Companies Act and the prior approval in a general meeting of our shareholders, issue preferred shares which are, or at our option or are to be, subject to redemption provided that such preferred shares may not be redeemed out of capital unless:

 

all the directors have made a solvency statement in relation to such redemption; and

 

we have lodged a copy of the statement with the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority of Singapore.

Further, such shares must be fully paid-up before they are redeemed.

As of September 30, 2017, we have no preferred shares outstanding other than the Series A preferred shares described above. At present, we have no plans to issue additional preferred shares.

Registration Rights Under Our Investors’ Rights Agreement

As of September 30, 2017, the holders of approximately 7.4 million of our ordinary shares are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of these shares under the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of the Investors’ Rights Agreement dated as of August 14, 2015 between us and the holders of these shares, and include demand registration rights, Form S-3 registration rights and piggyback registration rights. We are generally required to bear all registration expenses incurred in connection with the demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registrations described below, other than underwriting commissions and discounts, and will pay the reasonable fees and expenses, not to exceed $25,000, of one special counsel to represent all participating shareholders in a registration.

Demand Registration Rights

Under the terms of the Investors’ Rights Agreement, we will be required, upon the request of holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding shares of Registrable Securities, as such term is defined in the Investors’ Rights Agreement, requesting registration of at least 50% of the then-outstanding shares of Registrable Securities having an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $25.0 million, net of selling expenses, to effect the registration of such shares on Form S-1 for public resale. We are required to effect only one registration pursuant to this provision of the Investors’ Rights Agreement.

Form S-3 Registration Rights

At any time that we are entitled under the Securities Act to register our shares on Form S-3 and the holders of at least 30% of the then-outstanding Registrable Securities request that we register their shares for public resale on Form S-3 with an aggregate offering price of the shares to be registered of at least $5.0 million, net of selling expenses, we will be required to effect such registration. If, however, our chief executive officer certifies that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our shareholders for such registration to become or remain effective because such action would (i) materially interfere with a significant acquisition, corporate reorganization or similar transaction involving us, (ii) require premature disclosure of material information that we have a bona fide business purpose for preserving as confidential, or (iii) render us unable to comply with requirements under the Securities Act or Excha