F-1 1 d831334df1.htm FORM F-1 Form F-1
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 17, 2015

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM F-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

Baozun Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

Cayman Islands   5961   Not Applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

Building No. H, No. 1188 Wanrong Road

Zhabei District, Shanghai 200436

The People’s Republic of China

+86 21 6095-6000

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc.

400 Madison Avenue, 4th Floor

New York, NY 10017

+1 212 750-6474

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

Karen M. Yan, Esq.

Latham & Watkins LLP

26th Floor, IFC II

8 Century Boulevard

Shanghai 200120

People’s Republic of China

+86 21 6101-6001

 

Leiming Chen, Esq.

Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP

c/o 35th Floor, ICBC Tower

3 Garden Road Central

Hong Kong

+852 2514-7600

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ¨

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price(2)(3)

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share(1)

  US$200,000,000   US$23,240

 

 

(1) American depositary shares issuable upon deposit of Class A ordinary shares registered hereby will be registered under a separate registration statement on Form F-6 (Registration No. 333-            ). Each American depositary share represents              Class A ordinary shares.
(2) Includes (a) Class A ordinary shares represented by ADSs that may be purchased by the underwriters pursuant to their option to purchase additional ADSs and (b) all Class A ordinary shares represented by ADSs initially offered or sold outside the United States that are thereafter resold from time to time in the United States. Offers and sales of shares outside the United States are being made pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act of 1933 and are not covered by this registration statement.
(3) Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)

Issued                     , 2015

 

            American Depositary Shares

 

LOGO

 

Baozun Inc.

 

REPRESENTING              CLASS A ORDINARY SHARES

 

 

 

Baozun Inc., or Baozun, is offering American depository shares, or ADSs, each representing              of our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share. This is our initial public offering and no public market currently exists for our ADSs or ordinary shares. We anticipate that the initial public offering price will be between US$             and US$             per ADS.

 

 

 

Upon the completion of this offering,              Class A ordinary shares and 13,300,738 Class B ordinary shares of our company will be issued and outstanding, assuming that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs. Holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. Each Class A ordinary share will be entitled to one vote and each Class B ordinary share will be entitled to ten votes on all matters subject to shareholder vote. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon completion of this offering, Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu and Mr. Junhua Wu will beneficially own 9,410,369 and 3,890,369 Class B ordinary shares, respectively. Together, they will beneficially own all our issued Class B ordinary shares, which will represent             % of our aggregate voting power, assuming that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs.

 

We intend to apply to list the ADSs on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “BZUN.”

 

 

 

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable U.S. federal securities laws and are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

 

 

Investing in the ADSs involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 16.

 

 

 

PRICE US$             PER ADS

 

 

 

      

Price to
Public

      

Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions

      

Proceeds
to Baozun

 

Per ADS

       US$                       US$                       US$               

Total

       US$                       US$                       US$               

 

Baozun has granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional              ADSs to cover over-allotments.

 

The Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators have not approved or disapproved these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs to purchasers in New York, New York on            , 2015.

 

 

 

MORGAN STANLEY   CREDIT SUISSE   BofA MERRILL LYNCH

 

            , 2015


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

     Page  

Industry

     97   

Business

     102   

Regulation

     120   

Management

     128   

Principal Shareholders

     136   

Related Party Transactions

     140   

Description of Share Capital

     142   

Description of American Depositary Shares

     152   

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

     164   

Taxation

     166   

Underwriting

     174   

Expenses Relating to this Offering

     180   

Legal Matters

     181   

Experts

     182   

Where You Can Find Additional Information

     183   

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1   
 

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus that we have filed with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different. This prospectus may only be used where it is legal to offer and sell these securities. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of its date.

 

Until             , 2015 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that effect transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

Neither we nor any of the underwriters has done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who came into possession of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of the ADSs and the distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus outside of the United States.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to this summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our ADSs discussed under “Risk Factors,” before deciding whether to buy our ADSs. This prospectus contains information from an industry report commissioned by us and prepared by iResearch Consulting Group, a third-party research firm, to provide information on the e-commerce, brand e-commerce and e-commerce solutions markets. We refer to this report as the iResearch Report.

 

OUR BUSINESS

 

We are the leading brand e-commerce solutions provider in China, with a market share of approximately 20% as measured by transaction value in 2014, according to the iResearch Report. Our integrated brand e-commerce capabilities encompass all aspects of the e-commerce value chain covering IT solutions, store operations, digital marketing, customer services, warehousing and fulfillment. We help brand partners execute their e-commerce strategies in China by selling their goods directly to customers online or by providing services to assist with their e-commerce operations.

 

With e-commerce in China growing rapidly in both scale and complexity, more global brands view e-commerce as a valuable part of their China expansion strategy, and brands look to us as a trusted partner for our local knowledge and industry expertise to execute and integrate e-commerce strategies without the investment associated with establishing and maintaining local infrastructure and capabilities on their own.

 

The number of our brand partners grew from 56 as of December 31, 2012, to 71 as of December 31, 2013, and to 93 as of December 31, 2014. These brands cover diverse categories, including apparel, appliances, electronics, home, food and health, cosmetics and fast moving consumer goods, insurance and automobile. Many of our brand partners occupy leading positions in their respective industries, such as Philips, Nike, Microsoft and Haagen-Dazs. According to the iResearch Report, we are the leading brand e-commerce solutions provider in China that has penetrated into the most diversified and comprehensive range of categories.

 

We believe our brand partners value us for our integrated e-commerce capabilities, dependable services, deep category expertise, market insight and ability to innovate and adapt to the fast-changing e-commerce market. Our end-to-end brand e-commerce capabilities allow us to leverage brand partners’ unique resources and seamlessly integrate with their back-end systems to enable data tracking and analytics for the full transaction value chain, making us a valuable part of our brand partners’ e-commerce functions. We help our brand partners establish market presence and launch products quickly on official brand stores and major online marketplaces in China, such as Tmall, JD.com and Amazon, as well as social media platforms such as Weixin. We also help our brand partners devise and execute O2O strategies combining the strengths of their online and offline retail networks. By enabling seamless shopping experience across various channels both online and offline, we deliver omni-channel solutions to achieve optimal branding effect and sales results that are responsive to our brand partners’ individual e-commerce objectives.

 

Our store operation capabilities, logistics network and warehousing capacities are crucial to our success. We provide customizable solutions and dedicated personnel with relevant industry experience and brand-specific training in operating e-commerce stores. We partner with leading nationwide and local logistics services providers to ensure reliable and timely delivery. For example, we understand from SF Express, one of the largest express delivery services in China, that we are one of its top 10 customers in China. We are able to achieve next-day delivery in 95 cities across China. We operate three warehouses with an aggregate gross floor area of 45,000 square meters that can handle 200,000 daily orders and 250,000 daily pieces. Our warehouse management system

 

 

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is customized to account for variance in arrangements with brand partners and differences in product specifications, ranging from apparel, electronics to beauty and health products.

 

Technology is key to our success and quick expansion. Leveraging our proprietary and scalable technology infrastructure and systems, we provide integrated e-commerce solutions that synchronize marketing campaigns, centralize management of inventory, order fulfillment and customer service, and collect and analyze real-time consumer behavior and transaction data across internet, mobile and offline channels. The scalability of our systems, built on deep vertical knowledge and modular implementation, allows us to efficiently provide customized solutions across categories and support an increasingly larger array of transactions as we add new brands, integrate new channels and accommodate peaks and surges in consumer demand.

 

We continue to win brands’ loyalty with our track record of articulating their marketing needs into workable solutions that consistently deliver tangible sales results. We collect valuable consumer behavior data through our customer relationship management system. We have also developed our Business Intelligence, or BI, software which enables real-time analysis of transaction data across online and mobile channels to make more targeted and insightful marketing recommendations to our brand partners that leverage the strengths of various channels. We believe that as we increase our solution offerings and channels to our brand partners, launch more marketing initiatives and campaigns together and increase their sales, the stickiness of our relationships with brand partners will also grow.

 

We generate revenues from two revenue streams: (i) product sales and (ii) services. We generally operate e-commerce businesses for our brand partners based on one of three business models: distribution model, service fee model and consignment model, or in some circumstances, a combination of the business models. We derive product sales revenues when we sell products to customers under the distribution model. We derive services revenues under the service fee model and consignment model. For services provided, we charge our brand partners fees consisting of fixed fees and/or variable fees based on GMV or other variable factors such as number of orders fulfilled. Under the consignment model, we may also facilitate brand partners’ online sales of products as an agent and receive commission fee calculated based on a formula pre-agreed with our brand partners. In 2012, 2013 and 2014, net revenues from product sales accounted for 85.9%, 83.8% and 74.9%, respectively.

 

Our GMV was RMB1,460.4 million, RMB2,620.8 million and RMB4,248.9 million (US$684.8 million) in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. For the same periods, our total net revenues were RMB954.5 million, RMB1,521.8 million and RMB1,584.4 million (US$255.4 million). We incurred net loss of RMB47.2 million, RMB37.8 million and RMB59.8 million (US$9.6 million) in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. We incurred non-GAAP net loss of RMB42.7 million and RMB26.3 million in 2012 and 2013, respectively, and had non-GAAP net income of RMB25.1 million (US$4.1 million) in 2014. See “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

OUR INDUSTRY

 

Brand e-commerce refers to business-to-consumer, or B2C, e-commerce conducted through official brand stores and official marketplace stores. Brand e-commerce differentiates itself from other models of B2C e-commerce, such as independent direct sales platforms and online stores operated by brands’ offline distributors, as it enables the online stores to be operated with the brands’ unique brand image, look and feel and allows the brands to control their own branding and merchandising.

 

With the growth and rising popularity of e-commerce in China, global brands view e-commerce as an important part of their China expansion strategy, and increasingly elect e-commerce as their key distribution

 

 

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channel in China. Brand e-commerce has experienced and is expected to continue to experience a higher growth rate compared to the overall B2C e-commerce market in China. According to the iResearch Report, China’s brand e-commerce market is expected to increase from RMB22 billion (US$4 billion) in 2010 to RMB800 billion (US$129 billion) in 2014, representing a CAGR of 145.7%. It is expected to further reach RMB2,352 billion (US$379 billion) in 2017, at a CAGR of 43.3%.

 

While international and domestic brands are increasingly focusing on the growth opportunities in brand e-commerce in China, they also face challenges arising from the complexity in distribution channel selection, consumer demands, merchandising, online store operations, technology infrastructure, warehousing and fulfillment. As such, brands look to solutions providers with local knowledge and industry expertise to execute and integrate e-commerce strategies for them without the investment associated with establishing and maintaining local infrastructure and capabilities on their own. With their in-depth understanding of industry vertical expertise and brand partners’ needs, end-to-end brand e-commerce solution providers offer one-stop solutions across the e-commerce value chain for brands while enabling them to maintain a high level of quality and control.

 

The brand e-commerce solutions market in China is still in its emerging stage of development. It is expected to ride on the strong growth in China’s brand e-commerce sector and further increase market penetration. According to the iResearch Report, the market size of the brand e-commerce solutions market in China based on transaction value is expected to grow from RMB26 billion (US$4 billion) in 2014 to close to RMB100 billion (US$16 billion) in 2017, representing a CAGR of 56.7%.

 

OUR STRENGTHS

 

We believe that the following competitive strengths contribute to our leading position in the brand e-commerce solutions market in China:

 

   

leader in brand e-commerce solutions and trusted partner to global brands;

 

   

end-to-end brand e-commerce solutions with omni-channel capabilities;

 

   

proven store operation capabilities and fulfillment infrastructure;

 

   

scalable and reliable proprietary technology;

 

   

robust and insightful digital marketing capabilities; and

 

   

proven and experienced management team with deep industry knowledge.

 

OUR STRATEGIES

 

Our goal is to be a leading global e-commerce solutions provider for brands. We plan to achieve our goal by pursuing the following key strategies:

 

   

deepen existing relationships with brands;

 

   

expand and optimize our brand portfolio;

 

   

enhance our fulfillment capabilities;

 

   

strengthen our data analysis capabilities;

 

   

grow our closeout retail platform, Maikefeng;

 

   

extend our geographical reach in Asia; and

 

   

selectively pursue strategic alliances and acquisition opportunities.

 

 

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OUR CHALLENGES

 

Our ability to achieve our goal and execute our strategies is subject to risks and uncertainties, including those relating to our ability to:

 

   

manage risks associated with the growth of the e-commerce market in China;

 

   

retain and attract brand partners;

 

   

gain further category expertise;

 

   

increase product sales;

 

   

increase revenues generated from services;

 

   

enhance cooperation with marketplaces and other channel partners;

 

   

successfully expand and operate our business in Asia;

 

   

innovate and grow our new product and service offerings, such as our closeout retail platform Maikefeng;

 

   

manage our revenue and product mix;

 

   

effectively invest in our fulfillment infrastructure and technology platform; and

 

   

manage growth, costs and working capital.

 

We also face other challenges, risks and uncertainties that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. You should refer to “Risk Factors”, beginning on page 16, for a more detailed discussion of the risks involved in investing in our ADSs. For example, as holders of ADSs, you may have fewer rights than holders of our Class A ordinary shares and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

 

CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

 

We are a holding company and operate our business through our wholly-owned subsidiaries and a PRC consolidated variable interest entity, or VIE. We commenced operations to provide brand e-commerce solutions in China in August 2007 through Shanghai Baozun E-Commerce Limited, or Shanghai Baozun, a PRC limited liability company founded by our CEO Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu, our COO Mr. Junhua Wu, one of our directors Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang and several other individual investors, or collectively, the Founding Shareholders. Shanghai Baozun, our wholly-owned subsidiary, provides integrated brand e-commerce solutions to our brand partners, including IT services, store operations, digital marketing, customer services, warehousing and fulfillment.

 

In March 2010, we incorporated our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Shanghai Bodao E-Commerce Limited, or Shanghai Bodao, and Shanghai Yingsai Advertisement Limited, or Shanghai Yingsai, in China. In December 2011, we incorporated our wholly-owned subsidiary, Shanghai Fengbo E-Commerce Limited, or Shanghai Fengbo, in China. Shanghai Fengbo and Shanghai Bodao provide brand e-commerce solutions to our brand partners, and Shanghai Yingsai provides marketing services to our brand partners. As we began to expand our business outside of mainland China, we established Baozun Hongkong Limited in September 2013, which serves as our operation center in Hong Kong. In December 2013, we incorporated our holding company, Baozun Cayman Inc., under the laws of the Cayman Islands. We incorporated Baozun Hong Kong Holding Limited in

 

 

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January 2014 to develop our e-commerce solutions business in Hong Kong and internationally. We changed our holding company’s name from Baozun Cayman Inc. to Baozun Inc. in March 2015.

 

The operation of value-added telecommunications businesses in China requires an operating license, which we refer to as an ICP license, and foreign ownership of value-added telecommunications business is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws, rules and regulations. Although our current business does not require an ICP license, we hold an ICP license through our VIE, Shanghai Zunyi Business Consulting Ltd., or Shanghai Zunyi, which is the operator of our Maikefeng platform, to provide us with the flexibility to develop value-added telecommunications services in the future that would be in compliance with PRC laws, rules and regulations. In April and July 2014, through Shanghai Baozun, we entered into certain contractual arrangements with Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders under which we gained effective control over the operations of Shanghai Zunyi. Shanghai Zunyi was a dormant company before July 2014 and began serving customers through our Maikefeng platform, including our Maikefeng mobile application and mkf.com website, in July 2014.

 

In October 2014, we established Taiwan Baozun Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary, to expand our provision of brand e-commerce solutions to the Taiwan market.

 

As a holding company, our ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends and other distributions on equity paid to us by our principal operating subsidiaries. Pursuant to PRC laws and regulations, our wholly owned subsidiaries may pay dividends only out of their retained earnings, and are required to set aside a portion of their net income each year to fund certain statutory reserves. These reserves, together with the registered equity, are not distributable as cash dividends. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China—We rely to a significant extent on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements.” and “Regulation—Regulation of Dividend Distribution.”

 

For our private placement of ordinary shares and convertible redeemable preferred shares, see “Description of Share Capital—History of Securities Issuances.”

 

 

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The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure and the place of incorporation of each of our significant subsidiaries and VIE as of the date of this prospectus:

 

LOGO

 

 

Note:  
(1)   Shanghai Zunyi is our VIE in China and is 80% owned by Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu and 20% owned by Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang. It primarily serves as our platform for developing our Maikefeng business.

 

CORPORATE INFORMATION

 

Our principal executive offices are located at Building No. H, No. 1188 Wanrong Road, Zhabei District, Shanghai 200436, the People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 21 6095-6000. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Novasage Incorporations (Cayman) Limited, at Floor 4, Willow House, Cricket Square, P.O. Box 2582, Grand Cayman KY1-1103, Cayman Islands.

 

Investors should submit any inquiries to the address and telephone number of our principal executive offices. Our corporate website is www.baozun.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc., located at 400 Madison Avenue, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10017.

 

 

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IMPLICATIONS OF BEING AN EMERGING GROWTH COMPANY

 

As a company with less than US$1 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted to rely on exemptions from some of the reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:

 

   

being permitted to provide only two years of selected financial data (rather than five years) and only two years of audited financial statements (rather than three years), in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;

 

   

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting; and

 

   

not being required to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards.

 

We have taken, and may continue to take, advantage of some of these exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. We have, however, elected to “opt out” of the last exemption listed above and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

 

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (b) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least US$1 billion, (c) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the prior June 30, and (d) the date on which we have issued more than US$1 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

 

CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS PROSPECTUS

 

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to:

 

   

“ADRs” are to the American depositary receipts, which, if issued, evidence our ADSs;

 

   

“ADSs” are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents              Class A ordinary shares;

 

   

“Baozun”, “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our,” refer to Baozun Inc., a Cayman Islands company, formerly known as Baozun Cayman Inc. and unless the context requires otherwise, includes its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entity;

 

   

“brand e-commerce” are to B2C e-commerce conducted through official brand stores or official marketplace stores;

 

   

“brand partners” are to companies for which we operate official brand stores or official marketplace stores under their brand names or have entered into agreements to do so;

 

   

“China” and the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this prospectus only, Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau;

 

   

“GMV” are to gross merchandise volume, which is (i) the full value of all purchases transacted and settled on the stores operated by us (including our Maikefeng platform but excluding stores for the

 

 

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operations of which we only charge fixed fees) and (ii) the full value of purchases for which customers have placed orders and paid deposits on such stores and which have been settled offline. Our calculation of GMV includes value added tax and excludes (i) shipping charges, (ii) surcharges and other taxes, (iii) value of the goods that are returned and (iv) deposits for purchases that have not been settled;

 

   

“O2O” are to online-to-offline and offline-to-online commerce;

 

   

“official brand stores” are to brands’ official online stores;

 

   

“official marketplace stores” are to brands’ flagship stores and authorized stores on third-party online marketplaces;

 

   

“RMB” and “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;

 

   

“ordinary shares” are to our ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, prior to the completion of this offering, and to our Class A and Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share upon and after the completion of this offering;

 

   

“transaction value” are to the value of all purchases made through stores operated by a brand e-commerce service provider, and such definition is consistent with the iResearch Report; and

 

   

“US$” and “U.S. dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States.

 

Unless otherwise indicated, information in this prospectus assumes that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase              additional ADSs, representing              Class A ordinary shares.

 

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Offering price

We currently anticipate that the initial public offering price will be between US$              and US$              per ADS.

 

ADSs offered by us

             ADSs (or              ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full)

 

ADSs outstanding immediately after this offering

             ADSs (or              ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full)

 

Ordinary shares outstanding immediately after this offering

             ordinary shares (or              ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full), comprising (i)              Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share (or              Class A ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full), and (ii) 13,300,738 Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share.

 

The ADSs

Each ADS represents              Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share. The ADSs may be evidenced by an ADR.

 

  The depositary will hold the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and holders and beneficial owners of ADSs from time to time.

 

  We do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. If, however, we declare dividends on our ordinary shares, the depositary will pay you the cash dividends and other distributions it receives on our Class A ordinary shares, after deducting its fees and expenses in accordance with the terms set forth in the deposit agreement.

 

  You may turn in your ADSs to the depositary in exchange for Class A ordinary shares. The depositary will charge you fees for any exchange.

 

  We may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.

 

  To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the “Description of American Depositary Shares” section of this prospectus. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

 

Ordinary Shares

Our ordinary shares will be divided into Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares upon and after completion of this offering. On all matters subject to shareholders’ vote, holders of Class A

 

 

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ordinary shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B ordinary shares are entitled to ten votes per share. We plan to issue Class A ordinary shares represented by our ADSs in this offering. Upon any transfer of a Class B ordinary share by its holder to any person who is not an affiliate of such holder as defined in our fourth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, such Class B ordinary share shall automatically and immediately convert into one Class A ordinary share. Class B ordinary shares may be converted into an equal number of Class A ordinary shares at any time at the election of the holder of the Class B ordinary shares. In no event shall Class A ordinary shares be convertible into Class B ordinary shares. For more information on our ordinary shares, you should refer to the “Description of Share Capital” section of this prospectus.

 

Over-allotment option

We have granted the underwriters an option, exercisable within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an              additional ADSs representing              Class A ordinary shares.

 

Use of proceeds

We expect that we will receive net proceeds of approximately US$             million from this offering (or approximately US$             million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full), assuming an initial public offering price of US$             per ADSs, which is the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

  We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering as follows:

 

   

approximately US$             million for investment in sales and marketing activities;

 

   

approximately US$             million for investment in our research and development and technology infrastructure;

 

   

approximately US$             million for expansion of our warehousing and fulfillment infrastructure; and

 

   

the balance for general corporate purposes, working capital and potential acquisitions, investments and alliances (although we have no present commitments or agreements to enter into any acquisitions, investments or alliances).

 

  See “Use of Proceeds” for more information.

 

Lock-up

We, our directors, executive officers and all of our existing shareholders and option holders, have agreed with the underwriters not to sell, transfer or dispose of any of our ADSs, ordinary shares or similar securities for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus. See “Underwriting.”

 

 

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Payment and settlement

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment therefor through the facilities of Depository Trust Company on or about             , 2015.

 

Listing

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our ordinary shares or ADSs.

 

  We intend to apply for the listing of the ADSs on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “BZUN.” Our ADSs and shares will not be listed on any other stock exchange or traded on any automated quotation system.

 

Reserved ADSs

At our request, the underwriters have reserved for sale, at the initial public offering price, up to              ADSs offered in this offering to some of our directors, officers, employees, business associates and related persons through a directed share program.

 

Depositary

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.

 

 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

 

The following summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014 and summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP.

 

You should read this Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods.

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$  
     (in thousands, except for per share and per ADS data
and number of shares)
 

Consolidated Statement of Operations Information

        

Net revenues

        

Product sales

     819,422        1,274,746        1,187,162        191,336   

Services

     135,042        247,090        397,258        64,026   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     954,464        1,521,836        1,584,420        255,362   

Operating expenses(1)

        

Cost of products

     (808,063     (1,245,832     (1,086,133     (175,053

Fulfillment

     (72,026     (116,432     (168,130     (27,098

Sales and marketing

     (78,633     (146,202     (226,952     (36,577

Technology and content

     (6,554     (16,120     (63,607     (10,252

General and administrative

     (33,461     (38,160     (96,911     (15,619

Other operating expenses, net

     (122     (75     457        74   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (998,859     (1,562,821     (1,641,276     (264,525
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (44,395     (40,985     (56,856     (9,163

Other income (expenses)

        

Interest income

     122        4,574        3,156        509   

Interest expenses

     (3,275     (677     (1,552     (250

Exchange gain (loss)

     314        (376     (2,650     (427
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before tax

     (47,234     (37,464     (57,902     (9,351

Income tax expense

            (307     (1,912     (308
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

     (47,234     (37,771     (59,814     (9,639

Deemed dividend from issuance of convertible redeemable preferred shares

     (4,683            (16,666     (2,686

Change in redemption value of convertible redeemable preferred shares

     (16,231     (61,435     (79,169     (12,760
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders

     (68,148     (99,206     (155,649     (25,085
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders

        

Basic

     (2.27     (3.31     (5.31     (0.86

Diluted

     (2.27     (3.31     (5.31     (0.86

 

 

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     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB      US$  
     (in thousands, except for per share and per ADS data and
number of shares)
 

Weighted average shares used in calculating net loss per ordinary share

         

Basic

     29,983,883        29,983,883        29,314,067         29,314,067   

Diluted

     29,983,883        29,983,883        29,314,067         29,314,067   

Non-GAAP Financial Measure:(2)

         

Non-GAAP net income/(loss)

     (42,708     (26,265     25,149         4,053   

 

 

(1)   Share-based compensation expenses are allocated in operating expenses items as follows:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$  
     (in thousands)  

Fulfillment

     (73     (584     (460     (74

Sales and marketing

     (685     (5,822     (5,469     (881

Technology and content

     (159     (1,608     (26,311     (4,241

General and administrative

     (3,609     (3,492     (52,723     (8,498
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     4,526        11,506        84,963        13,694   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(2)   See “—Non-GAAP Financial Measure.”

 

 

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     As of December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB      US$  
                             Pro forma(1)  
     (in thousands, except per share and per ADS data and number of shares)  

Consolidated Balance Sheets Information

             

Cash and cash equivalents

     270,077        154,156        206,391        33,264        206,391         33,264   

Restricted cash

            36,000        37,900        6,108        37,900         6,108   

Accounts receivable, net

     57,448        106,468        229,502        36,989        229,502         36,989   

Inventories

     72,412        133,347        242,978        39,161        242,978         39,161   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

     465,179        531,447        872,514        140,624        872,514         140,624   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Accounts payable

     56,978        173,810        300,007        48,352        300,007         48,352   

Short-term borrowings

     48,774                                       
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     144,504        225,082        393,458        63,414        393,458         63,414   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Series A convertible redeemable preferred shares

     44,187        49,170        55,924        9,013                  

Series B convertible redeemable preferred shares

     162,195        180,182        202,125        32,577                  

Series C-1 convertible redeemable preferred shares

     258,923        308,848        355,176        57,244                  

Series C-2 convertible redeemable preferred shares

                   37,630        6,065                  

Series D convertible redeemable preferred shares

                   150,430        24,245                  

Shareholder’s equity/(deficit)

     (144,630     (232,375     (322,229     (51,934     479,056         77,210   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities, convertible redeemable preferred shares and shareholders’ deficit

     465,179        531,447        872,514        140,624        872,514         140,624   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)   The pro forma balance sheet information as of December 31, 2014 assumes the conversion upon completion of the initial public offering of all convertible redeemable preferred shares outstanding as of December 31, 2014 into ordinary shares.

 

The following table sets forth the following operating data for each period indicated.

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  

Number of brand partners as of the period end(1)

     56        71        93   

Number of GMV brand partners as of the period end(2)

     53        61        78   

Total GMV(3) (RMB in millions)

     1,460 (4)      2,621 (4)      4,249 (4) 

Average GMV per GMV brand partner(5)

     30        46        61   

 

(1)   Brand partners are defined as companies for which we operate official brand stores or official marketplace stores under their brand names or have entered into agreements to do so.
(2)   GMV brand partners are defined as brand partners that contributed to our GMV during the respective periods.
(3)  

GMV is defined as (i) the full value of all purchases transacted and settled on stores operated by us (including our Maikefeng platform but excluding stores for the operations of which we only charge fixed fees) and (ii) the full value of purchases for which customers have placed orders and paid deposits on such stores and which have been settled offline. Our calculation of GMV includes value added tax and excludes

 

 

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  (i) shipping charges, (ii) surcharges and other taxes, (iii) value of the goods that are returned and (iv) deposits for purchases that have not been settled.
(4)   GMV of our Maikefeng platform was nil, nil and RMB33.9 million (US$5.5 million) in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively.
(5)   Average GMV per GMV brand partner is calculated by dividing GMV (excluding Maikefeng) by the average number of GMV brand partners as of the beginning and end of the respective periods.

 

Non-GAAP Financial Measure

 

In evaluating our business, we consider and use one non-GAAP measure, non-GAAP net income/(loss), as a supplemental measure to review and assess our operating performance. The presentation of this non-GAAP financial measure is not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We define non-GAAP net income/(loss) as net income/(loss) excluding share-based compensation expenses.

 

We present the non-GAAP financial measure because it is used by our management to evaluate our operating performance and formulate business plans. Non-GAAP net income/(loss) enables our management to assess our operating results without considering the impact of share-based compensation expenses. We also believe that the use of the non-GAAP measure facilitate investors’ assessment of our operating performance.

 

The non-GAAP financial measure is not defined under U.S. GAAP and is not presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The non-GAAP financial measure has limitations as an analytical tool. One of the key limitations of using non-GAAP net income/(loss) is that it does not reflect all items of income and expense that affect our operations. Share-based compensation expenses have been and may continue to be incurred in our business and is not reflected in the presentation of non-GAAP net income/(loss). Further, the non-GAAP measure may differ from the non-GAAP information used by other companies, including peer companies, and therefore their comparability may be limited.

 

We compensate for these limitations by reconciling the non-GAAP financial measure to the nearest U.S. GAAP performance measure, which should be considered when evaluating our performance. We encourage you to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

 

The following table reconciles our non-GAAP net income/(loss) in 2012, 2013 and 2014 to the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which is net income/(loss):

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$  
    

(in thousands)

 

Reconciliation of Net Loss to Non-GAAP Net Income/(Loss):

        

Net loss

     (47,234     (37,771     (59,814     (9,639

Add: Share-based compensation expenses

     4,526        11,506        84,963        13,694   

Non-GAAP net income/(loss)

     (42,708     (26,265     25,149        4,053   

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our ADSs involves material risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties set forth below, as well as all of the other information included in this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our ADSs. The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In any such case, the market price of our ADSs could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

If the e-commerce market in China does not grow, or grows more slowly than we expect, demand for our services and solutions could be adversely affected.

 

Continued demand from our existing and potential brand partners to use our services and solutions depends on whether e-commerce will continue to be widely accepted. While online retail has existed in China since the 1990s, only recently have large online retail companies become profitable. The long-term viability and prospects of the online retail business in China remain relatively untested. Our future results of operations will depend on numerous factors affecting the development of the e-commerce industry in China, which may be beyond our control. These factors include:

 

   

the growth of internet, broadband, personal computer and mobile penetration and usage in China, and the rate of any such growth;

 

   

the trust and confidence level of online retail consumers in China, as well as changes in consumers’ demographics, tastes and preferences;

 

   

whether alternative retail channels or business models that better address the needs of consumers emerge in China; and

 

   

the development of fulfillment, payment and other ancillary services associated with online purchases.

 

If consumer utilization of e-commerce channels in China does not grow or grows more slowly than we expect, demand for our services and solutions would be adversely affected, our revenues would be negatively impacted and our ability to pursue our growth strategy would be compromised.

 

If the complexities and challenges faced by brand partners seeking to sell online diminish, or if our brand partners increase their in-house e-commerce capabilities as an alternative to our solutions and services, demand for our solutions and services could be adversely affected.

 

One of the key attractions of our solutions and services to brand partners is our ability to help address the complexities and difficulties they face in the e-commerce market in China. If the level of such complexities and difficulties declines as a result of changes in the e-commerce landscape or otherwise, or if our brand partners choose to increase their in-house support capabilities as an alternative to our e-commerce solutions and services, our solutions and services may become less important or attractive to our brand partners, and demand for our solutions and services may decline.

 

Our success is tied to the success of our existing and future brand partners for which we operate brand e-commerce business.

 

Our success is substantially dependent upon the success of our brand partners. As we continue to expand and optimize our brand partner base, our future success will also be tied to the success of our future brand partners. We cannot assure you that our efforts to optimize our brand partner base will be successful or will not have any material adverse impact on our business performance or results of operation. The retail business in China is intensely competitive. If our brand partners were to have financial difficulties, suffer impairment of their brands or if the profitability of, or demand for, their products decreases, it could adversely affect our results of operations and our ability to maintain and grow our business. Our business could also be adversely affected if our brand partners’ marketing, brands or retail stores are not successful or if our brand partners reduce their marketing efforts.

 

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If we are unable to retain our existing brand partners, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We provide brand e-commerce solutions to brand partners primarily pursuant to annual and bi-annual contractual arrangements. These contracts may not be renewed or, if renewed, may not be renewed on the same or more favorable terms for us. We may not be able to accurately predict future trends in brand partners renewals, and our brand partners’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate due to factors such as level of satisfaction with our services and solutions and our fees and charges, as well as factors beyond our control, such as level of competition faced by our brand partners, their level of success in e-commerce and their spending levels.

 

In particular, some of our existing brand partners have had years of cooperation with us and we generated a significant portion of our net revenue through (i) the sale of products in the stores of these brands operated by us and (ii) provision of our services to these brand partners, which we collectively refer to as net revenues “related to” these brand partners in order to assess our overall business relationship with them. In 2014, net revenues related to our top two brand partners comprised approximately 30% and 22% of our total net revenues, respectively. Some of our other brand partners also contributed significantly to our total GMV while our net revenues related to them were less significant (each less than 10% of our total net revenues in 2014) as they mainly utilized our capabilities under the service fee model or consignment model and therefore we did not generate any product sales revenue related to them. Net revenues related to our top 10 brand partners in the aggregate comprised approximately 76% of our total net revenues in 2014. If some of our existing brand partners, in particular brand partners with years of cooperation with us, terminate or do not renew their business relationships with us, renew on less favorable terms or for fewer services and solutions, and we do not acquire replacement brand partners or otherwise grown our brand partner base, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Some of our existing brand partners do not allow us to sell products of, or provide similar services to, their competitors, which has restricted and may continue to restrict the development and expansion of our business, including the business operation of Maikefeng, our closeout retail platform which we launched in 2014. We have a variety of products on Maikefeng, some of which may be manufactured or distributed by competitors of our existing brand partners. If the operation of Maikefeng is considered by such brand partners as a breach under relevant distribution and service contracts with them, they may request an early termination of such contracts and claim for damages or other liabilities against us, as a result of which our business operations and reputations may be materially and adversely affected. Further, with the expansion in our business, we may be subject to similar non-compete restrictions requested from existing and future brand partners. Compliance with such restrictions will limit our ability to expand our business. If we are found by these brand partners to be in violation of the non-compete restrictions, we may be subject to breach liabilities, as a result of which our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We have incurred significant net losses since inception and may not be able to achieve and subsequently maintain profitability.

 

We incurred net losses of RMB47.2 million, RMB37.8 million and RMB59.8 million (US$9.6 million) during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. We anticipate that our operating expenses will increase substantially in the foreseeable future as we increase the scale of our operations. As a result, we can provide no assurance as to when or whether we will achieve profitability. In addition, as we will become a public company, we have begun, and will continue, to incur significant accounting, legal and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. To achieve profitability, we will need to increase our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses or increase sales of the products and services that have higher profitability or significantly reduce our expense level and if we are forced to reduce our expenses, our growth strategy could be compromised. If we are not able to achieve or subsequently maintain profitability, the value of our company and our ADSs could decline significantly.

 

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In addition, our growth and profitability are affected by our revenue mix, which may vary over time because we work with our brand partners under different combinations of business models to achieve their objectives. Accordingly, our historical performance may not be indicative of future operating results. For more information, please see “Business—Our Business Models and Solutions.”

 

We rely in part on a pricing model under which a variable portion of the revenues we generate from our brand partners is based upon the amount of GMV, and any change in the attractiveness of that model may adversely affect our financial results.

 

We have adopted a pricing model under which a portion of the revenues we generate from our brand partners is variable based on our GMV. If our GMV were to decline, or if our brand partners were to demand fixed pricing terms that do not provide for any variability based on the full value of all purchases transacted and settled on the stores operated by us, our revenues and profitability may be adversely affected.

 

If we fail to maintain our relationships with e-commerce channels, or if e-commerce channels otherwise curtail or inhibit our ability to integrate our solutions with their channels, our solutions would be less appealing to existing and potential brand partners.

 

We generate a substantial majority of our revenues from the solutions we provide on e-commerce channels, including but not limited to marketplaces, social media and mobile channels. These e-commerce channels have no obligation to do business with us or to allow us access to their channels in the long term. If we fail to maintain our relationships with these channels, they may decide at any time and for any reason to significantly curtail or inhibit our ability to integrate our solutions with their channels. Additionally, these channels may decide to make significant changes to their respective business models, policies, systems or plans, and those changes could impair or inhibit our brand partners’ ability to use our solutions to sell their products on those channels, or may adversely affect GMV that our brand partners can sell on those channels or reduce the desirability of selling on those channels. Further, these channels could decide to acquire similar capabilities that we possess and compete with us. Any of these could cause our brand partners to re-evaluate the value of our solutions and services and potentially terminate their relationships with us, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

We rely on the success of certain e-commerce channels such as Tmall.

 

A substantial majority of our GMV is derived from merchandise sold or services rendered on Tmall. If e-commerce channels such as Tmall are not successful in attracting consumers or their reputations are adversely affected for whatever reasons, our brand partners may cease to sell their products on these channels. As our results of operations rely on the solutions we provide on these e-commerce channels, a decrease in the use of these channels would reduce demands for our services, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors.

 

We face intense competition in the market for brand e-commerce solutions and services, and we expect competition to continue to intensify in the future. Increased competition may result in reduced pricing for our services and solutions or a decrease in our market share, any of which could negatively affect our ability to retain existing brand partners and attract new brand partners, our future financial and operating results, and our ability to grow our business.

 

A number of competitive factors could cause us to lose potential sales or to sell our services and solutions at lower prices or at reduced profitability, including:

 

   

Potential brand partners may choose to continue using or developing applications or building e-commerce teams or infrastructures in-house, rather than paying for our solutions and services;

 

   

The e-commerce channels themselves, which typically offer, often free, software tools that allow brand partners to connect to the e-commerce channels, may decide to compete more vigorously with us;

 

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Competitors may adopt more aggressive pricing policies and offer more attractive sales terms, adapt more quickly to new technologies and changes in brand partners’ requirements, and devote greater resources to the promotion and sales of their products and services than we can;

 

   

Current and potential competitors may offer software that addresses one or more online channel management functions at a lower price point or with greater depth than our solutions and may be able to devote greater resources to those solutions than we can; and

 

   

Software vendors could bundle channel management solutions with other solutions or offer such products at a lower price as part of a larger product sale.

 

In addition, competition may intensify as our competitors raise additional capital and as established companies in other market segments or geographic markets expand into our market segments or geographic markets. If we cannot compete successfully against our competitors, our business and our operating and financial results could be adversely affected.

 

Material disruption of e-commerce channels could prevent us from providing services to our brand partners and reduce sales in stores operated by us.

 

E-commerce channels could cease operations unexpectedly due to a number of events, including interruptions in telecommunication services, computer viruses and unlawful access of e-commerce channels. Any material channel downtime or disruption could prevent us from providing services to our brand partners and reduce sales in stores operated by us. Because we operate on a limited number of e-commerce channels, the adverse effects of such downtime and disruption could be significant to our operations as a whole.

 

We may not be successful in growing our Maikefeng platform.

 

Since our inception, we have focused on providing e-commerce services and solutions to brand partners. In March 2014, we expanded our business to extend our product and service offerings to cover the entire product life cycle for our brand partners, and launched our closeout retail online platform, Maikefeng, which offers authentic and high-quality products at discounted prices through our Maikefeng mobile application and mkf.com website. Our relatively short history in operating a closeout retail platform may make it difficult for us to grow our Maikefeng platform. If we cannot successfully address new challenges and compete effectively, we may not be able to recover costs of our investments and eventually achieve profitability, and our future results of operations and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our expansion into new product categories may expose us to new challenges and more risks.

 

We currently serve brand partners in the apparel, appliances, electronics, home, food and health, cosmetics, insurance and automobile categories. In the future, we may provide services to brand partners in new product categories in which we have limited experience and operating history. This may make predicting our future results of operations more difficult than it otherwise would be. Therefore, our past results of operations should not be taken as indicative of our future performance. If we cannot successfully address new challenges and compete effectively, we may not be able to recover costs of our investments and eventually achieve profitability, and our future results of operations and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our results of operations are subject to fluctuations due to the seasonality of our business and other events.

 

We have experienced and expect to continue to experience seasonal fluctuations in our revenues. These seasonal patterns have caused and will continue to cause fluctuations in our operating results. Our results of operations historically have been seasonal primarily because consumers increase their purchases during particular promotional activities, such as Singles Day (which is an online sales promotion event and falls on November 11 of each year) and the impact of seasonal buying patterns within certain categories such as apparel. In addition, we generally experience a lower level of sales activity in the first quarter due to the Chinese New Year holiday, during which consumers generally spend less time shopping online and businesses in China are generally closed.

 

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In anticipation of increased sales activity during holiday seasons, we increase our inventory levels and incur additional expenses such as by hiring a significant number of temporary employees to supplement our permanent staff. If our revenues are below seasonal expectations during these dates, our operating results could be below the expectations of securities analysts and investors. Due to the nature of our business, it is difficult to predict the seasonal pattern of our sales and the impact of this seasonality on our business and financial results. In the future, our seasonal sales patterns may become more pronounced, may strain our personnel, customer service operations, fulfillment operations and shipment activities and may cause a shortfall in revenues compared to expenses in a given period. As a result, the trading price of our ADSs may fluctuate from time to time due to seasonality.

 

In addition, if too many consumers access the online stores operated by us within a short period of time due to increased promotions or other demand, we may experience system interruptions that make such online stores unavailable or prevent us from transmitting orders to our fulfillment operations, which may reduce the volume of transactions in the stores that we operate as well as the attractiveness of such online stores to consumers. In anticipation of increased sales activity during holiday seasons, we and our brand partners increase our inventory levels. If we and our brand partners do not increase inventory levels for popular products in sufficient amounts or are unable to restock popular products in a timely manner, we and our brand partners may fail to meet customer demand which could reduce the attractiveness of such online stores. Alternatively, if we overstock products, we may be required to take significant inventory markdowns or write-offs, which could reduce profits.

 

We have experienced rapid growth in recent years, and failure to adequately manage our expansion either organically or through strategic alliances or acquisitions could impair our ability to deliver high-quality solutions to our brand partners and adversely affect our reputation.

 

Expansion has placed, and continues to place, significant strain on our management and resources. To accommodate our growth, we anticipate that we will need to implement a variety of new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls, including the improvement of our accounting and other internal management systems. We will also need to continue to expand, train, manage and motivate our workforce and manage our relationships with our brand partners, suppliers, third-party merchants and other service providers. All of these endeavors involve risks and will require substantial management effort and significant additional expenditures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, and any failure to do so may have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

 

We have made minority investments in and formed joint ventures with third parties that are complementary to our business and operations. In the future, we may pursue select strategic alliances or joint ventures and potential strategic acquisitions that are complementary to our business and operations, including opportunities that can help us promote our solutions to new brand partners, expand our service offerings and improve our technology infrastructure. Strategic alliances or joint ventures with third parties could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance or default by counterparties, and increased expenses in establishing these new alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have little ability to control or monitor the actions of our strategic partners. To the extent a strategic partner suffers any negative publicity as a result of its business operations, our reputation may be negatively affected by virtue of our association with such party.

 

In addition, we may not be successful in achieving the strategic objective upon which any given minority investment or joint venture is premised, and we could lose all or part of our investment. As of March 31, 2015, we had invested an aggregate of RMB16.2 million (US$2.6 million) in such minority investments and joint ventures.

 

We may fail to expand effectively to international markets.

 

We have been expanding and will continue to expand our business internationally, which may cause our business to be susceptible to international business risks and challenges. We started offering our brand partners end-to-end solutions in Hong Kong in 2013. In October 2014, we established Taiwan Baozun Corporation, a

 

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wholly-owned subsidiary, to expand our provision of brand e-commerce solutions to Taiwan. As e-commerce grows in other South East Asian markets, we have also commenced our provision of IT services in Indonesia in 2014. International operations are subject to inherent risks and challenges that could adversely affect our business, such as compliance with international legal and regulatory requirements and managing fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Any negative impact from our international business efforts could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition as a whole. In addition, we may face additional competition from local companies. Local companies may have a substantial competitive advantage because of their greater understanding of, and focus on, local customers.

 

If we fail to manage our accounts receivable and inventories effectively, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Under the distribution model, we generally grant a credit period of no more than two weeks to the customers of our products. Under the service fee model, we normally charge service fees from our brand partners with a credit period of one month to four months. As of December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014, our accounts receivables amounted to RMB57.4 million, RMB106.5 million and RMB229.5 million (US$37.0 million), respectively. Our accounts receivables turnover days were 17 days in 2012, 20 days in 2013 and 39 days in 2014. The increases in the amount and turnover days were due to the increases in our sales volumes and our revenues generated from services.

 

Our inventories have increased significantly in recent periods, from RMB72.4 million as of December 31, 2012 to RMB133.3 million as of December 31, 2013 and RMB243.0 million (US$39.2 million) as of December 31, 2014. These increases reflected the additional inventories required to support our substantially expanded sales volumes.

 

As we plan to continue expanding our product sales and our services, the amount and turnover days of our accounts receivables and inventories may continue to increase, which will make it more challenging for us to manage our working capital effectively and our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We rely on our ability to enter into marketing and promotional arrangements with online services, search engines, directories and other websites to drive traffic to the stores we operate. If we are unable to enter into or properly maintain these marketing and promotional arrangements, our ability to generate revenue could be adversely affected.

 

We have entered into marketing and promotional arrangements with online services, search engines, directories and other web sites to provide content, advertising banners and other links to our brand partners’ e-commerce businesses. We expect to rely on these arrangements as significant sources of traffic to our brand partners’ e-commerce businesses and to attract new brand partners. If we are unable to maintain these relationships or enter into new arrangements on acceptable terms, our ability to attract new brand partners could be harmed. Further, many of the parties with which we may have online advertising arrangements provide advertising services for other marketers of goods. As a result, these parties may be reluctant to enter into or maintain relationships with us. Failure to achieve sufficient traffic or generate sufficient revenue from purchases originating from third parties may limit our brand partners’ and our ability to maintain market share and revenue.

 

We may not be able to respond to rapid changes in channel technologies or requirements.

 

The e-commerce market is characterized by rapid technological changes and frequent changes in rules, specifications and other requirements for our brand partners to be able to sell their merchandise on particular channels. Our ability to retain existing brand partners and attract new brand partners depends in large part on our ability to enhance and improve our existing solutions and introduce new solutions that can adapt quickly to these technological changes on the part of channels. To achieve market acceptance for our solutions, we must effectively anticipate and offer solutions that meet frequently changing channel requirements in a timely manner. If our solutions fail to do so, our ability to renew our contracts with existing brand partners and our ability to create or increase demand for our solutions will be impaired.

 

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If we and our brand partners fail to anticipate changes in consumers’ buying preferences and adjust product offering and merchandising of the stores that we operate accordingly, our results of operation may be materially and adversely impacted.

 

Our success depends, in part, upon our ability and our brand partners’ ability to anticipate and respond to consumer trends with respect to products sold through the stores that we operate. Constantly changing consumer preferences have affected and will continue to affect the online retail industry. We must stay abreast of emerging consumer preferences and anticipate product trends that will appeal to existing and potential consumers. Our dedicated store operation teams work closely with our brand partners to manage inventory and site content of the brand stores that we operate. In order to be successful, we and our brand partners must accurately predict consumers’ tastes and avoid overstocking or understocking products. If we or our brand partners fail to identify and respond to changes in merchandising and consumer preferences, sales on our brand partners’ e-commerce businesses could suffer and we or our brand partners could be required to mark down unsold inventory, which could negatively impact our financial results.

 

The proper functioning of our technology platform is essential to our business. Any failure to maintain the satisfactory performance of our platform could materially and adversely affect our business and reputation.

 

The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our technology platform are critical to our success and our ability to attract and retain brand partners and provide quality customer service. Any system interruptions caused by telecommunications failures, errors encountered during system upgrades or system expansions, computer viruses, hacking or other attempts to harm our systems that result in the unavailability or slowdown of our technology platform, degraded order fulfillment performance, or additional shipping and handling costs may, individually or collectively, materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, any system failure or interruption could cause material damage to our reputation and brand image if our systems are perceived to be insecure or unreliable. Our servers may also be vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions, which could lead to system interruptions, website slowdown or unavailability, delays or errors in transaction processing, loss of data or the inability to accept and fulfill consumers’ orders. Security breaches, computer viruses and hacking attacks have become more prevalent in our industry. We have experienced in the past and may experience in the future such attacks and unexpected interruptions. We can provide no assurance that our current security mechanisms will be sufficient to protect our IT systems from any third-party intrusions, viruses or hacker attacks, information or data theft or other similar activities. Any such future occurrences could materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Additionally, we must continue to upgrade and improve our technology platform to support our business growth, and failure to do so could impede our growth. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in executing these system upgrades and improvement strategies. In particular, our systems may experience interruptions during upgrades, and the new technologies or infrastructures may not be fully integrated with the existing systems on a timely basis, or at all. If our existing or future technology platform does not function properly, it could cause system disruptions and slow response times, affecting data transmission, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any deficiencies in China’s telecommunication infrastructure could impair our ability to provide e-commerce solutions to our brand partners and materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Our business depends on the performance and reliability of the telecommunication infrastructure in China. The availability of our technology platform depends on telecommunications carriers and other third-party providers for communications and storage capacity, including bandwidth and server storage, among other things. Almost all access to the internet and mobile network is maintained through state-owned telecommunication

 

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carriers under administrative control, and we obtain access to end-user networks operated by such telecommunications carriers and service providers to present our internet platform to consumers. We have experienced service interruptions in the past, which were typically caused by service interruptions at the underlying external telecommunications service providers, such as the internet data centers and broadband carriers from which we lease services. Service interruptions prevent brand partners from utilizing our technology platform, and frequent interruptions could frustrate consumers and discourage them from attempting to place orders, which could cause us and our brand partners to lose consumers and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Software failures or human errors could cause our solutions to oversell our brand partners’ inventory or misprice their offerings, which would hurt our reputation and reduce demand for our services and solutions.

 

Some of our brand partners rely on our solutions to automate the allocation of their inventories simultaneously across multiple online channels, as well as to ensure that their sales comply with the policies of each channel. In many instances, our personnel operates our solutions on behalf of our brand partners. In the event that our solutions do not function properly, or if there are human errors on the part of our service staff, our brand partners might inadvertently sell more inventories than they actually have in stock or make sales that violate channel policies. Overselling their inventories could force our brand partners to cancel orders at rates that violate channel policies. Errors in our software or human error could cause transactions to be incorrectly processed that would cause GMV and, as a result, our fees to be overstated. We have experienced rare instances of such errors in the past and might experience similar occurrences in the future could reduce demand for our solutions and hurt our business reputation. Brand partners could also seek recourse against us in these cases.

 

Any interruption in our fulfillment operations for an extended period may have an adverse impact on our business.

 

Our ability to process and fulfill orders accurately depends on the smooth operation of our fulfillment and logistics network. Our fulfillment and logistics infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage caused by fire, flood, power outage, telecommunications failure, break-ins, earthquake, human error and other events. If any of our fulfillment and logistics infrastructure were rendered incapable of operations, then we may be unable to fulfill any orders. We do not carry business interruption insurance, and the occurrence of any of the foregoing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We depend on third-party delivery service providers to deliver products to consumers, and if they fail to provide reliable delivery services, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We rely on third-party delivery service providers to deliver products to consumers, and any major interruptions to or failures in these third parties’ delivery services could prevent the timely or successful delivery of products. These interruptions may be due to unforeseen events that are beyond our control or the control of these third-party delivery companies, such as inclement weather, natural disasters, transportation interruptions or labor unrest or shortage. If products are not delivered on time or are delivered in a damaged state, consumers may refuse to accept products and may claim refund from us or our brand partners, and brand partners may have less confidence in our services. As a result, we may lose brand partners, and our financial condition and reputation could suffer.

 

We are subject to third-party payment processing related risks.

 

We accept payments using a variety of methods, including online payments with credit cards and debit cards issued by major banks in China, payment through third-party online payment platforms such as Alipay and Tenpay, and payment on delivery. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower our profitability. We may also be subject to fraud and other illegal activities in connection with the various payment

 

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methods we offer, including online payment and payment on delivery options. We are also subject to various rules, regulations and requirements, regulatory or otherwise, governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments from consumers, process electronic funds transfers or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

If we are unable to provide high-quality customer service, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We depend on our online customer service representatives in our customer service center to provide live assistance to online shoppers. If our online customer service representatives fail to satisfy the individual needs of customers, our brand partners’ sales could be negatively affected, and we may lose potential or existing brand partners, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business generates and processes a large amount of data, and the improper use or disclosure of such data could harm our reputation as well as have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

 

Our business generates and processes a large quantity of personal, transaction, demographic and behavioral data. We face risks inherent in handling large volumes of data and in protecting the security of such data. In particular, we face a number of challenges relating to data from transactions and other activities on our platform, including:

 

   

protecting the data in and hosted on our system, including against attacks on our system by outside parties or fraudulent behavior by our employees;

 

   

addressing concerns related to privacy and sharing, safety, security and other factors; and

 

   

complying with applicable laws, rules and regulations relating to the collection, use, disclosure or security of personal information, including any requests from regulatory and government authorities relating to such data.

 

Negative publicity, including negative internet postings, about us, our Baozun brand, management, brand partners and product offerings may have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation and the trading price of our ADSs.

 

Negative publicity about us, our Baozun brand, management, brand partners and product offerings may arise from time to time. Negative comments about the stores operated by us, products offered in such stores, our business operation and management may appear in internet postings and other media sources from time to time and we cannot assure you that other types of negative publicity of a more serious nature will not arise in the future. For example, if our customer service representatives fail to satisfy the individual needs of our customers, our customers may become disgruntled and disseminate negative comments about our product offerings and services. In addition, our brand partners may also be subject to negative publicity for various reasons, such as customers’ complaints about the quality of their products and related services or other public relation incidents of such brand partners, which may adversely affect the sales of products of these brand partners in the stores operated by us and indirectly affect our reputation. Moreover, negative publicity about other online retailers or e-commerce service providers in China may arise from time to time and cause customers to lose confidence in the products and services we offer. Any such negative publicity, regardless of veracity, may have a material adverse effect on our business, our reputation and the trading price of our ADSs.

 

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If counterfeit products are sold in the stores we operate, including our Maikefeng platform, our reputation and financial results could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We represent reputable brands, and we source goods from our brand partners directly or through third party procurement agents authorized by our brand partners. However, their measures of safeguarding against counterfeit products sold through e-commerce may not be adequate. Although we have indemnity clauses in most of our contracts with our brand partners, sales could decline and we may suffer reputational harm. We may be subject to sanctions under applicable laws and regulations if we are deemed to have participated or assisted in infringement activities associated with counterfeit goods, which may include injunctions to cease infringing activities, rectification, compensation, administrative penalties and even criminal liability, depending on the gravity of such misconduct. Furthermore, counterfeit products may be defective or inferior in quality as compared to authentic products and may pose safety risks to consumers. If consumers are injured by counterfeit products sold through online stores we operate or our Maikefeng platform, we may be subject to lawsuits, severe administrative penalties and criminal liability. See “—We may be subject to product liability claims that could be costly and time-consuming.” We believe our reputation is extremely important to our success and our competitive position. The discovery of counterfeit products sold through online stores we operate or our Maikefeng platform may severally damage our reputation among brand partners, and they may refrain from using our services in the future, which would materially and adversely affect our business operations and financial results.

 

Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business or failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business is subject to supervision and regulation by relevant PRC government authorities, including without limitation the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce and the State Food and Drug Administration. These government authorities promulgate and enforce regulations that cover many aspects of operation of online retailing and distribution of products such as food and medical devices, including entry into these industries, scope of permitted business activities, licenses and permits requisite for business operation, and restriction on foreign investments. We are required to hold a number of licenses and permits in connection with our business operation, including food distribution permits, as well as approvals for the establishment of foreign-invested enterprises engaging in the sale of goods over the internet, and we may be required to hold an ICP license for our Maikefeng business. Meanwhile, the brand partners we partner with are also obliged to hold licenses and meet regulatory requirements in order for them to sell products themselves or through our e-commerce solutions. While we currently hold all material licenses and permits required for our business operations, we cannot assure you that we will not be required to renew these licenses and permits upon their expiration or to obtain new licenses or permits in the future as a result of our business expansion, change in our business operations or change in laws and regulations applicable to us.

 

As e-commerce business via internet and mobile network is still evolving in China, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time, and substantial uncertainties exist regarding interpretation and implementation of current and future PRC laws and regulations applicable to our business operations. We cannot assure you that our current business activities will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or any of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities’ interpretation of these laws and regulations. For example, the 2013 Classified Catalog of Telecommunications Services (Draft for Comments) specifies that information services provided through mobile networks are recognized as internet information services, and service providers, like operators of mobile application stores, will be required to meet certain qualifications, including obtaining an ICP license covering internet information services rendered through mobile network. With the expansion of our business via mobile channels, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE may therefore be required to obtain such ICP license or expand the current scope of our ICP license held through our VIE to cover internet information services rendered through mobile network.

 

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If we fail to adapt to any new regulatory requirement or any competent government authority considers that we operate our business operation without any requisite license, permit or approval, or otherwise fails to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, we may be subject to administrative actions and penalties against us, including fines, confiscation of our incomes, revocation of our licenses or permits, or, in severe cases, cessation of certain business. In addition, if our brand partners are found by government authorities to have operated their business through us without requisite approvals, licenses or permits or otherwise to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations, they may be ordered to take rectification actions. Any of these actions may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our leased property interests may be defective and our right to lease the properties affected by such defects may be challenged, which could cause significant disruption to our business.

 

We lease approximately 22 premises in China for our offices, customer service center and warehouses as of December 31, 2014. Some of the lessors of these leases have not provided us with sufficient documents to prove their ownership of the premises or their rights to lease the premises to us for our intended use. We may not be able to maintain such leases if the lessors are not legal owners of the properties or do not have competent authorizations from the legal owners of the properties or have not obtained requisite governmental approvals in respect of our leases. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully extend or renew our leases upon expiration of the current term on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and may therefore be forced to relocate our affected operations. This could disrupt our operations and result in significant relocation expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we compete with other businesses for premises at certain locations or of desirable sizes. As a result, even though we could extend or renew our leases, rental payments may significantly increase as a result of the high demand for the leased properties. In addition, we may not be able to locate desirable alternative sites for our facilities as our business continues to grow and failure in relocating our affected operations could adversely affect our business and operations.

 

We may be subject to product liability claims that could be costly and time-consuming.

 

We sell products manufactured by third parties, some of which may be defective. If any product that we sell were to cause personal injury or injury to property, the injured party or parties could bring claims against us as the retailer of the product. These claims will not be covered by insurance as we do not maintain any product liability insurance. Similarly, we could be subject to claims that customers of the online stores operated by us or our Maikefeng platform were harmed due to their reliance on our product information, product selection guides, advice or instructions. If a successful claim were brought against us, it could adversely affect our business. We may have the right under applicable laws, rules and regulations to recover from the relevant brand partners, manufacturers or distributors compensation that we are required to make to consumers or end users in connection with a product liability, personal injury or a similar claim, if such relevant party is found responsible. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to recover all or any amounts from these parties. Any product liability claim, regardless of its merit or success, could result in the expenditure of funds and management time and adverse publicity and could have a negative impact on our business.

 

We depend on key management as well as experienced and capable personnel generally, and any failure to attract, motivate and retain our staff could severely hinder our ability to maintain and grow our business.

 

Our future success is significantly dependent upon the continued service of our key executives and other key employees. If we lose the services of any member of management or key personnel, we may not be able to locate suitable or qualified replacements, and may incur additional expenses to recruit and train new staff, which could severely disrupt our business and growth.

 

In addition, we have a number of employees, including many members of management, whose equity ownership in our company could give them a substantial amount of personal wealth following our initial public

 

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offering. As a result, it may be difficult for us to continue to retain and motivate these employees, and this wealth could affect their decisions about whether or not they continue to remain with us. If we are unable to motivate or retain these employees, our business may be severely disrupted and our prospects could suffer.

 

Competition for talent in the PRC e-commerce industry is intense, and the availability of suitable and qualified candidates in China is limited. Competition for these individuals could cause us to offer higher compensation and other benefits to attract and retain them. Even if we were to offer higher compensation and other benefits, there is no assurance that these individuals will choose to join or continue to work for us. Any failure to attract or retain key management and personnel could severely disrupt our business and growth.

 

If we are unable to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel or sufficient workforce while controlling our labor costs, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel, particularly technical, fulfillment, marketing and other operational personnel with experience in the e-commerce industry. Since our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent and labor, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees that we will need to achieve our strategic objectives. Particularly, our fulfillment infrastructure is labor intensive and requires a substantial number of blue-collar workers, and these positions tend to have higher than average turnover. As of December 31, 2014, we employed a total of 227 logistics personnel. We may hire additional employees in connection with the strengthening of our fulfillment capabilities. We have observed an overall tightening of the labor market and an emerging trend of shortage of labor supply. Failure to obtain stable and dedicated warehousing, delivery and other labor support may lead to underperformance of these functions and cause disruption to our business. Labor costs in China have increased with China’s economic development, particularly in the large cities where we operate our fulfillment centers and more generally in the urban areas where we maintain our delivery and pickup stations. It is also costly to employ qualified personnel who have the knowledge and experience of working with leading global brands. In addition, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may also be limited and may not meet the demand for our business growth on a timely fashion, or at all, and rapid expansion may impair our ability to maintain our corporate culture. See “—Increases in labor costs or restrictions in the supply of labor in China may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

 

Increases in labor costs or restrictions in the supply of labor in China may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We currently use workers dispatched by third-party labor service agents to provide customer service and perform fulfillment function. As of December 31, 2014, approximately 26% of our work force was dispatched by third-party labor service agents. Such labor arrangement does not fully comply with the Interim Provisions on Labor Dispatch issued in January 2014, which became effective on March 1, 2014, that provides the number of dispatched contract workers hired by an employer shall not exceed 10% of the total number of its work force. These Interim Provisions require us to formulate a plan to reduce the number of our dispatched contract workers to comply with such statutory requirement prior to March 1, 2016. Although we are allowed to continue to engage the dispatched workers pursuant to our existing agreements with labor service agents entered into before December 28, 2012, we will need to replace them with full-time employees after the expiration of these contracts. In addition, under the amended Labor Contract Law amended on December 28, 2012, labor dispatch is only allowed to apply to provisional, auxiliary or substitutive positions. As such, we may need to adjust our staffing arrangements which may result in an increase in our labor cost.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any warning or notice of potential negative action by relevant labor authorities regarding our labor dispatch arrangement. However, if we are found to be in violation of the new rules regulating dispatched contract workers, we may be ordered to rectify the noncompliance by

 

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entering into written employment contracts with our dispatched contract workers, and if we fail to rectify within the time period specified by the labor authority, we may be subject to a penalty ranging from RMB5,000 (US$814.6) to RMB10,000 (US$1,629.2) per dispatched worker. See “Regulation—Regulations Relating to Employment”.

 

We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property rights.

 

We rely on a combination of trademark, fair trade practice, patent, copyright and trade secret protection laws in China and other jurisdictions, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions, to protect our intellectual property rights. We also enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees and any third parties who may access our proprietary information, and we rigorously control access to our proprietary technology and information.

 

Intellectual property protection may not be sufficient in China or other countries in which we operate. Confidentiality agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China or elsewhere. In addition, policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult, time-consuming and costly and the steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may be accused of infringing intellectual property rights of third parties and content restrictions of relevant laws.

 

Third parties may claim that the technology or content used in our operation of online stores or our service offerings infringe upon their intellectual property rights. We have been in the past subject to non-material legal proceedings and claims relating to infringement of the intellectual property rights of others. The possibility of intellectual property claims against us increases as we continue to grow, particularly internationally. Such claims, whether or not having merit, may result in our expenditure of significant financial and management resources, injunctions against us or payment of damages. We may need to obtain licenses from third parties who allege that we have infringed their rights, but such licenses may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. These risks have been amplified by the increase in the number of third parties whose sole or primary business is to assert such claims.

 

China has enacted laws and regulations governing internet access and the distribution of products, services, news, information, audio-video programs and other content through the internet. The PRC government has prohibited the distribution of information through the internet that it deems to be in violation of PRC laws and regulations. If any of the information disseminated through the online stores operated by us were deemed by the PRC government to violate any content restrictions, we would not be able to continue to display such content and could become subject to penalties, including confiscation of income, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The outcome of any claims, investigations and proceedings is inherently uncertain, and in any event defending against these claims could be both costly and time-consuming, and could significantly divert the efforts and resources of our management and other personnel. An adverse determination in any such litigation or proceedings could cause us to pay damages, as well as legal and other costs, limit our ability to conduct business or require us to change the manner in which we operate.

 

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Our ability to raise capital in the future may be limited, and our failure to raise capital when needed could prevent us from growing.

 

We may in the future be required to raise capital through public or private financing or other arrangements. Such financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business. Additional equity financing may dilute the interests of our shareholders, and debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants and could restrict our operational flexibility and reduce our profitability. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to grow our business or respond to competitive pressures.

 

We may not have sufficient insurance coverage.

 

We have obtained insurance to cover certain potential risks, such as property damage. However, insurance companies in China offer limited business insurance products. As a result, we may not be able to acquire any insurance for certain types of risks such as business liability or service disruption insurance for our operations in China, and our coverage may not be adequate to compensate for all losses that may occur, particularly with respect to loss of business or operations. We do not maintain business interruption insurance or product liability insurance, nor do we maintain key-man life insurance. This could leave us exposed to potential claims and losses. Any business disruption, litigation, regulatory action, outbreak of epidemic disease or natural disaster could also expose us to substantial costs and diversion of resources. We cannot assure you that our insurance coverage is sufficient to prevent us from any loss or that we will be able to successfully claim our losses under our current insurance policy on a timely basis, or at all. If we incur any loss that is not covered by our insurance policies, or the compensated amount is significantly less than our actual loss, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

A severe or prolonged downturn in the global or Chinese economy could materially and adversely affect our business and our financial condition.

 

The global financial markets have experienced significant disruptions since 2008 and the United States, Europe and other economies went into a recession. The recovery from the lows of 2008 and 2009 has been uneven and is facing new challenges, including the escalation of the European sovereign debt crisis since 2011 and the slowdown of the Chinese economy in 2012. It is unclear whether the Chinese economy will resume its high growth rate. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have also been concerns over unrest in the Middle East and Africa, which have resulted in volatility in oil and other markets. There have also been concerns about the economic effect of the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear crisis in Japan and tensions in the relationship between China and Japan. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions. Any prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, and continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs.

 

Any occurrence of a natural disaster, widespread health epidemic or other outbreaks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business could be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters, such as snowstorms, earthquakes, fires or floods, the outbreak of a widespread health epidemic, such as swine flu, avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, Ebola or other events, such as wars, acts of terrorism, environmental accidents, power shortage or communication interruptions. The occurrence of such a disaster or a prolonged outbreak of an epidemic illness or other adverse public health developments in China or elsewhere in the world could materially disrupt our business and operations. Such events could also significantly impact our industry and cause a temporary closure of the facilities we use for our operations, which would severely disrupt

 

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our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our operations could be disrupted if any of our employees or employees of our business partners were suspected of having the swine flu, avian influenza, SARS or Ebola, since this could require us or our business partners to quarantine some or all of such employees or disinfect the facilities used for our operations. In addition, our revenues and profitability could be materially reduced to the extent that a natural disaster, health epidemic or other outbreak harms the global or PRC economy in general. Our operations could also be severely disrupted if our buyers, sellers or other participants were affected by such natural disasters, health epidemics or other outbreaks.

 

If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired.

 

We will be subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations of the NASDAQ Global Market after the completion of this offering. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting. Commencing with our fiscal year ending December 31, 2016, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting in our Form 20-F filing for that year, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as the term is defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. This will require that we incur substantial additional professional fees and internal costs to expand our accounting and finance functions and that we expend significant management efforts. Prior to this offering, we were never required to test our internal controls within a specified period, and, as a result, we may experience difficulty in meeting these reporting requirements in a timely manner.

 

Prior to this offering, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. Our management has not completed an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements for 2012, 2013 and 2014, we and our auditors, an independent registered public accounting firm, identified one material weakness and one significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting. As defined in the standards established by the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. A “significant deficiency” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, that is less severe than a material weakness yet important enough to merit attention by those responsible for oversight of the company’s financial reporting.

 

The material weakness identified was we lacked formal process to identify and address risks of material misstatement related to U.S. GAAP reporting. The significant deficiency identified was we lacked audit committee and internal audit function to establish formal risk assessment process and internal control framework. We plan to implement a number of measures to address the material weakness and the significant deficiency that have been identified. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Internal Control Over Financial Reporting.” However, we cannot assure you that these and other remedial measures will remediate the material weakness and the significant deficiency.

 

 

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Furthermore, it is possible that, had our management prepared a report on the effectiveness of, or our independent registered public accounting firm conducted an audit of, our internal control over financial reporting, additional significant deficiencies or material weaknesses might have been identified.

 

In addition, our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.

 

If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, the market price of our ADSs could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the NASDAQ Global Market, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, or other regulatory authorities.

 

The audit report included in this prospectus is prepared by auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in our prospectus filed with the SEC, as auditors of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the US Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditors are located in the Peoples’ Republic of China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditors are not currently inspected by the PCAOB.

 

Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

 

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

 

If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in administrative proceedings brought by the SEC alleging the firms’ failure to meet specific criteria set by the SEC, with respect to requests for the production of documents, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

Starting in 2011 the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms (including our independent registered public accounting firm) were affected by a conflict between U.S. and Chinese law. Specifically, for certain U.S. listed companies operating and audited in mainland China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the Chinese firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under China law they could not respond directly to the US regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or CSRC.

 

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In late 2012 this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the Chinese accounting firms, (including our independent registered public accounting firm). A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC’s internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the Commissioners of the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the Commissioner had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepts that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents will normally be made to the CSRC. The firms will receive matching Section 106 requests, and are required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. If they fail to meet specified criteria, the SEC retains authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Remedies for any future noncompliance could include, as appropriate, an automatic six-month bar on a single firm’s performance of certain audit work, commencement of a new proceeding against a firm, or in extreme cases the resumption of the current proceeding against all four firms.

 

In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

 

If our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Such a determination could ultimately lead to our delisting from the NASDAQ Global Market or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

 

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

 

If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to Shanghai Zunyi do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

 

Under current PRC laws and regulations, foreign investors are generally not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider and any such foreign investor must have experience in providing value-added telecommunications services overseas and maintain a good track record.

 

We are a Cayman Islands holding company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises, directly or indirectly. Accordingly, none of these PRC subsidiaries is eligible to provide value-added telecommunication services in China. We do not currently provide value-added telecommunication services because our sales of goods purchased by us does not constitute providing value-added telecommunication services. Our PRC consolidated VIE Shanghai Zunyi, however, holds an ICP license and may develop e-commerce platforms for other trading parties. Shanghai Zunyi is 80% owned by Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu, our co-founder, chairman and chief executive officer, and 20% owned by Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang, our director. Mr. Qiu and Mr. Zhang are both PRC citizens. We did not record any revenues from Shanghai Zunyi in 2012 and 2013, and revenues from Shanghai Zunyi contributed to 1.3% of our total net revenues in 2014.

 

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We entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders, which enable us to:

 

   

exercise effective control over Shanghai Zunyi;

 

   

receive substantially all of the economic benefits of Shanghai Zunyi; and

 

   

have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests and assets in Shanghai Zunyi when and to the extent permitted by PRC law.

 

Because of these contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of Shanghai Zunyi and hence consolidate its financial results as our VIE. For a detailed discussion of these contractual arrangements, see “Corporate History and Structure.”

 

In the opinion of Fangda Partners, our PRC legal counsel, (i) the ownership structures of Shanghai Baozun and our VIE in China, both currently and immediately after giving effect to this offering, do not violate any applicable PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between Shanghai Baozun, our VIE and its shareholders governed by PRC law are valid, binding and enforceable in accordance with their terms and applicable PRC laws and regulations currently in effect, and do not violate any PRC laws or regulations currently in effect. However, our PRC legal counsel has also advised us that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules; accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a view that is contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to VIE structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. In particular, in January 2015, the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law for public review and comments. Among other things, the draft Foreign Investment Law expands the definition of foreign investment and introduces the principle of “actual control” in determining whether a company is considered a foreign-invested enterprise, or an FIE. Under the draft Foreign Investment Law, variable interest entities would also be deemed as FIEs, if they are ultimately “controlled” by foreign investors, and be subject to restrictions on foreign investments. However, the draft law has not taken a position on what actions will be taken with respect to the existing companies with the “variable interest entity” structure. It is uncertain when the draft would be signed into law and whether the final version would have any substantial changes from the draft.

 

If we or our VIE is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

 

   

revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of our VIE;

 

   

shutting down our website, or discontinuing or restricting the conduct of any transactions between certain of our PRC subsidiaries and VIE;

 

   

imposing fines, confiscating the income from our VIE, or imposing other requirements with which we or our VIE may not be able to comply;

 

   

requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our VIE and deregistering the equity pledges of our VIE, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over our VIE; or

 

   

restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of this offering to finance our business and operations in China.

 

The imposition of any of these penalties would result in a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business. In addition, it is unclear what impact the PRC government actions would have on us and on our ability to consolidate the financial results of Shanghai Zunyi in our consolidated financial statements, if the PRC government authorities were to find our legal structure and contractual arrangements to be in violation of PRC laws and regulations. If the imposition of any of these government actions causes us to lose our right to direct the activities of Shanghai Zunyi or our right to receive substantially all the economic benefits and residual

 

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returns from Shanghai Zunyi and we are not able to restructure our ownership structure and operations in a satisfactory manner, we would no longer be able to consolidate the financial results of Shanghai Zunyi in our consolidated financial statements. Either of these results, or any other significant penalties that might be imposed on us in this event, would have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders for a portion of our business operations, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

 

Although a substantial majority of our revenue has historically been generated by our PRC subsidiaries, we have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders to operate our Maikefeng platform and hold our ICP license to enable us to develop online marketplaces. Such contractual arrangements include: (i) an exclusive technology service agreement which has an initial term of 20 years and will be automatically renewed on a yearly basis thereafter unless otherwise notified by Shanghai Baozun; (ii) an exclusive call option agreement which will remain in effect until all the equity interests and assets that are the subject of such option agreement are transferred to Shanghai Baozun or its designated entities or individuals; (iii) a proxy agreement which has an initial term of 20 years and will be automatically renewed on a yearly basis thereafter unless otherwise notified by Shanghai Baozun; and (iv) equity interest pledge agreements which will remain in full effect until all the secured contractual obligations have been performed or all the secured debts have been discharged. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Corporate History and Structure.” These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our VIE.

 

If we had direct ownership of Shanghai Zunyi, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of Shanghai Zunyi, which in turn could effect changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by our VIE and its shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over our VIE. However, the shareholders of our VIE may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate our business through the contractual arrangements with our VIE. We may replace the shareholders of our VIE at any time pursuant to our contractual arrangements with it and its shareholders. However, if any dispute relating to these contracts or the replacement of the shareholders remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC law and courts and therefore will be subject to uncertainties in the PRC legal system. See “—Any failure by our VIE or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.” Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our VIE may not be as effective in ensuring our control over the relevant portion of our business operations as direct ownership would be.

 

Any failure by our VIE or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.

 

If our VIE or its shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages. We cannot assure you such remedies will be effective. For example, if the shareholders of Shanghai Zunyi were to refuse to transfer their equity interest in Shanghai Zunyi to us or our designee when we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they were otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations.

 

All the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. See “Risks Related to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China—There are uncertainties regarding the

 

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interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.” Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a VIE should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law, and as a result it may be difficult to predict how an arbitration panel would view such contractual arrangements. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Additionally, under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay.

 

Our VIE holds the ICP license and operates our Maikefeng platform. In the event we are unable to enforce our contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our VIE, and our ability to conduct the Maikefeng businesses may be negatively affected. Considering that the substantial majority of our revenues are currently generated from our subsidiaries instead of our VIE, we do not believe that any failure by us to exert effective control over our VIE would have an immediate material adverse effect on our overall business operations, financial condition or results of operations. However, the business operation of Shanghai Zunyi, our VIE, may grow in the future, and if we fail to maintain effective control over our VIE, we may not be able to continue to consolidate our VIE’s financial results with our financial results, and such failure could in the future materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

The shareholders of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

 

Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu and Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang are the shareholders of our VIE, Shanghai Zunyi. Mr. Qiu is our co-founder, chairman and chief executive officer, while Mr. Zhang is our co-founder and director. They may have potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause our VIE to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our VIE, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our VIE and receive substantially all the economic benefits from it. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with Shanghai Zunyi to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor.

 

Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these shareholders and our company. Mr. Qiu and Mr. Zhang are also directors of our company. We rely on Mr. Qiu and Mr. Zhang to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands and China, which provide that directors owe a fiduciary duty to the company that requires them to act in good faith and in what they believe to be the best interests of the company and not to use their position for personal gains. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of Shanghai Zunyi, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

 

PRC regulations of loans to PRC entities and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our wholly owned subsidiary, Shanghai Baozun.

 

We may transfer funds to Shanghai Baozun or finance Shanghai Baozun by means of shareholder loans or capital contributions upon completion of this offering. Any such loans to Shanghai Baozun, which is a foreign-invested enterprise, cannot exceed statutory limits, which is the difference between the registered capital and the total investment amount of such subsidiary, and shall be registered with the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, or its local counterparts. Currently such statutory limit on the loans we may make to Shanghai Baozun is RMB120 million (US$19.3 million). Furthermore, any capital contributions we make to Shanghai Baozun shall be approved by the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, or its local counterparts. We

 

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may not be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. If we fail to receive such registrations or approvals, our ability to provide loans or capital contributions to Shanghai Baozun in a timely manner may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

In addition, SAFE promulgated the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues concerning Administration Improvement of Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or Circular 142, on August 29, 2008. SAFE promulgated Circular 45 on November 16, 2011 in order to clarify the application of Circular 142. Under Circular 142 and Circular 45, registered capital of a foreign-invested company settled in RMB converted from foreign currencies may only be used within the business scope approved by the applicable governmental authority and may not be used for equity investments in the PRC. In addition, foreign-invested companies may not change how they use such capital without SAFE’s approval, and may not in any case use such capital to repay RMB loans if proceeds of such loans have not been utilized. Violations of Circular 142 or Circular 45 may result in severe penalties. As a result, Circular 142 and Circular 45 may significantly limit our ability to transfer the net proceeds from our initial public offering and subsequent offerings or financings to Shanghai Baozun, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in the PRC.

 

Contractual arrangements in relation to our VIE may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our PRC VIE owes additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.

 

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between Shanghai Baozun, our wholly owned subsidiary in China, Shanghai Zunyi, our VIE in China, and its shareholders were not entered into on an arm’s-length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust Shanghai Zunyi’s income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by Shanghai Zunyi for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose punitive interest on Shanghai Zunyi for the adjusted but unpaid taxes at the rate of 5% over the basic RMB lending rate published by the People’s Bank of China for a period according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our VIE’s tax liabilities increase or if they are required to pay punitive interest.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China

 

Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and may result in our inability to sustain our growth and expansion strategies.

 

Most of our operations are conducted in the PRC and a substantial majority of our revenue is sourced from the PRC. Accordingly, our financial condition and results of operations are affected to a significant extent by economic, political and legal developments in the PRC.

 

The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the extent of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control

 

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over China’s economic growth by allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, regulating financial services and institutions and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

 

While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past three decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. Our financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us. In addition, the PRC government has implemented in the past certain measures, including interest rate increases, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for our services and consequently have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition and results of operations.

 

There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.

 

A substantial majority of our operations are conducted in the PRC, and are governed by PRC laws, rules and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries and VIE are subject to laws, rules and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value.

 

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws, rules and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investment in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws, rules and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China or may be subject to significant degrees of interpretation by PRC regulatory agencies. In particular, because these laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited number of published decisions and the nonbinding nature of such decisions, and because the laws, rules and regulations often give the relevant regulator significant discretion in how to enforce them, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations involve uncertainties and can be inconsistent and unpredictable. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until after the occurrence of the violation.

 

Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We are subject to laws that are applicable to retailers, including advertising and promotion laws and consumer protection laws that could require us to modify our current business practices and incur increased costs.

 

As an online distributor of goods, we are subject to numerous PRC laws and regulations that regulate retailers generally or govern online retailers specifically. For example, we are subject to laws in relation to advertising and online promotion, such as the Advertising Law, Pricing Law and Anti-Unfair Competition Law, and also consumer protection laws that are applicable to retailers. In the past, we have been subject to non-material administrative proceedings due to non-compliance with such laws and may continue to be subject to allegations of non-compliance with such laws. Such allegations, which may or may not have merit, may result in costs to us.

 

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If these regulations were to change or if we were found to be in violation with them, we need to spend additional costs to rectify non-compliance, or we could be subject to fines or penalties or suffer reputational harm, which could reduce demand for the products or services offered by us and hurt our business and results of operations. For example, the most recently amended Consumer Protection Law, which became effective in March 2014, further strengthens the protection of consumers and imposes more stringent requirements and obligations on both business operators, especially on businesses that operate on the internet. Pursuant to the Consumer Protection Law, consumers are generally entitled to return goods purchased within seven days upon receipt without giving any reasons if they purchase the goods over the internet. Consumers whose interests have been damaged due to their purchase of goods online may claim damages against sellers. Moreover, if we deceive consumers or knowingly sell substandard or defective products, we would not only compensate consumers for their losses, but also pay additional damages equal to three times the price of the goods or services.

 

Operators of online marketplace platforms, such as Tmall and JD.com who have partnered with us, are also subject to stringent obligations under the amended Consumer Protection Law. For example, where platform operators are unable to provide the real names, addresses and valid contact details of the sellers, the consumers may also claim damages from the platform operators. Operators of online marketplace platforms what know or should have known that sellers use their platforms to infringe upon legitimate rights and interests of consumers but fail to take necessary measures will bear joint and several liabilities with the sellers. Operators of online marketplace platforms may take measures and impose stricter requirements on sellers as a react to their obligations under the amended Customer Protection Law.

 

Similar legal requirements are frequently changed and subject to interpretation, and we are unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance with these requirements or their effect on our operations. We may be required to make significant expenditures or modify our business practices to comply with existing or future laws and regulations or to satisfy compliance requests from the marketplace platforms we partnered with, which may increase our costs and materially limit our ability to operate our business.

 

The approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, may be required in connection with this offering under a PRC regulation. The regulation also establishes more complex procedures for acquisitions conducted by foreign investors that could make it more difficult for us to grow through acquisitions.

 

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the MOFCOM, the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, or the SASAC, the State Administration of Taxation, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, or the SAIC, the CSRC, and the SAFE, jointly adopted the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which came into effect on September 8, 2006 and were amended on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules include, among other things, provisions that purport to require that an offshore special purpose vehicle formed for the purpose of an overseas listing of securities in a PRC company obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC published on its official website procedures regarding its approval of overseas listings by special purpose vehicles. However, substantial uncertainty remains regarding the scope and applicability of the M&A Rules to offshore special purpose vehicles.

 

While the application of the M&A Rules remains unclear, we believe, based on the advice of our PRC counsel, Fangda Partners, that the CSRC approval is not required in the context of this offering because (i) when we set up our offshore holding structure, Shanghai Baozun, currently our major PRC subsidiary, was a then existing foreign-invested entity and not a PRC domestic company as defined under the M&A rules, and the acquisition by Baozun Hong Kong Holding Limited of all the equity interest in Shanghai Baozun was not subject to the M&A Rules; and (ii) there is no statutory provision that clearly classifies the contractual arrangement among our PRC subsidiary, Shanghai Baozun, and our PRC VIE, Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders as transactions regulated by the M&A Rules. However, uncertainties still exist as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted and implemented, and the opinion of our PRC counsel is subject to any new laws, rules and

 

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regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the M&A Rules. We cannot assure you that the relevant PRC government agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as our PRC counsel. If the CSRC or other PRC regulatory body subsequently determines that we need to obtain the CSRC’s approval for this offering or if the CSRC or any other PRC government authorities promulgates any interpretation or implements rules before our listing that would require us to obtain CSRC or other governmental approvals for this offering, we may face adverse actions or sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies. In any such event, these regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into the PRC or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as our ability to complete this offering. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before settlement and delivery of the ADSs offered by this prospectus. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, you do so at the risk that such settlement and delivery may not occur.

 

The new regulations also established additional procedures and requirements that are expected to make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise, or that the approval from the MOFCOM be obtained in circumstances where overseas companies established or controlled by PRC enterprises or residents acquire affiliated domestic companies. We may grow our business in part by acquiring other companies operating in our industry. Complying with the requirements of the new regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share. See “Regulation—M&A Rules and Overseas Listing.”

 

PRC regulations relating to investments in offshore companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC-resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries or limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits.

 

SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, on July 4, 2014, which replaced the former circular commonly known as “SAFE Circular 75” promulgated by SAFE on October 21, 2005. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. According to the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Policies for the Foreign Exchange Administration of Direct Investment released on February 13, 2015 by SAFE, local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registration for overseas direct investment, including the initial foreign exchange registration and amendment registration, under SAFE Circular 37 from June 1, 2015. However, since this notice has not yet come into force, there exist high uncertainties with respect to its interpretation and implementation by governmental authorities and banks.

 

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Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu, Mr. Junhua Wu and Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang have completed initial filings with the local counterpart of SAFE relating to their investments in us. However, we may not be aware of the identities of all of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents. We do not have control over our beneficial owners and cannot assure you that all of our PRC-resident beneficial owners will comply with SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules. The failure of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents to register or amend their foreign exchange registrations in a timely manner pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, or the failure of future beneficial owners of our company who are PRC residents to comply with the registration procedures set forth in SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, may subject such beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to fines and legal sanctions. Furthermore, since SAFE Circular 37 was recently promulgated and it is unclear how this regulation, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant PRC government authorities, we cannot predict how these regulations will affect our business operations or future strategy. Failure to register or comply with relevant requirements may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to our company. These risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding our employee equity incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies due to their position as director, senior management or employees of the PRC subsidiaries of the overseas companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. Our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted options may follow SAFE Circular 37 to apply for the foreign exchange registration before our company becomes an overseas listed company. After our company becomes an overseas listed company upon completion of this offering, we and our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted options will be subject to the Notice on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, issued by SAFE in February 2012, according to which, employees, directors, supervisors and other management members participating in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company who are PRC residents are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit the ability to make payment under our equity incentive plans or receive dividends or sales proceeds related thereto, or our ability to contribute additional capital into our wholly-foreign owned enterprises in China and limit our wholly-foreign owned enterprises’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional equity incentive plans for our directors and employees under PRC law.

 

In addition, the State Administration for Taxation has issued circulars concerning employee share options or restricted shares. Under these circulars, employees working in the PRC who exercise share options, or whose restricted shares or restricted share units, or RSUs, vest, will be subject to PRC individual income tax. The PRC subsidiaries of an overseas listed company have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees related to their share options, restricted shares or RSUs. If the employees fail to pay, or the PRC subsidiaries fail to withhold, their income taxes according to relevant laws, rules and regulations, the PRC subsidiaries may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC government authorities.

 

We rely to a significant extent on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements.

 

We are a holding company and rely to a significant extent on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries and on remittances from the VIE, for our offshore cash and financing

 

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requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, fund inter-company loans, service any debt we may incur outside of China and pay our expenses. When our principal operating subsidiaries or the VIE incur additional debt, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions or remittances to us. Furthermore, the laws, rules and regulations applicable to our PRC subsidiaries and certain other subsidiaries permit payments of dividends only out of their retained earnings, if any, determined in accordance with applicable accounting standards and regulations.

 

Under PRC laws, rules and regulations, each of our subsidiaries incorporated in China is required to set aside at least 10% of its net income each year to fund certain statutory reserves until the cumulative amount of such reserves reaches 50% of its registered capital. These reserves, together with the registered equity, are not distributable as cash dividends. As a result of these laws, rules and regulations, our subsidiaries incorporated in China are restricted in their ability to transfer a portion of their respective net assets to their shareholders as dividends. In addition, registered share capital and capital reserve accounts are also restricted from withdrawal in the PRC, up to the amount of net assets held in each operating subsidiary. As of December 31, 2014, we had restricted assets of RMB19.7 million (US$3.2 million).

 

Limitations on the ability of the VIE to make remittance to the wholly-foreign owned enterprise and on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities, including to make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our businesses, pay dividends to our shareholders or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income.

 

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementing rules, enterprises established under the laws of jurisdictions outside of China with “de facto management bodies” located in China may be considered PRC tax resident enterprises for tax purposes and may be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their global income. “De facto management body” refers to a managing body that exercises substantive and overall management and control over the production and business, personnel, accounting books and assets of an enterprise. The State Administration of Taxation issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore-Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or Circular 82, on April 22, 2009. Circular 82 provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore-incorporated enterprise is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises, not those controlled by foreign enterprises or individuals, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 may reflect the State Administration of Taxation’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises. If we were to be considered a PRC resident enterprise, we would be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our global income. In such case, our profitability and cash flow may be materially reduced as a result of our global income being taxed under the Enterprise Income Tax Law. We believe that none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.”

 

Dividends payable to our foreign investors and gains on the sale of our ADSs or ordinary shares by our foreign investors may become subject to PRC tax law.

 

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation regulations issued by the State Council, a 10% PRC withholding tax is applicable to dividends payable to investors that are non-resident enterprises, which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC or which have such establishment or place of business but the dividends are not effectively connected with such establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC. Similarly, any gain realized on the transfer of

 

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ADSs or ordinary shares by such investors is also subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 10%, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties or under applicable tax arrangements between jurisdictions, if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. If we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends paid on our ordinary shares or ADSs, and any gain realized from the transfer of our ordinary shares or ADSs, would be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and would as a result be subject to PRC taxation. Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends payable to individual investors who are non-PRC residents and any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such investors may be subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 20%, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties or under applicable tax arrangements between jurisdictions. It is unclear whether if we or any of our subsidiaries established outside China are considered a PRC resident enterprise, holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares would be able to claim the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas. If dividends payable to our non-PRC investors, or gains from the transfer of our ADSs or ordinary shares by such investors are subject to PRC tax, the value of your investment in our ADSs or ordinary shares may decline significantly.

 

We and our shareholders face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises or other assets attributed to a Chinese establishment of a non-Chinese company, or immovable properties located in China owned by non-Chinese companies.

 

On February 3, 2015, the State Administration of Taxation issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7, which replaced or supplemented previous rules under the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Circular 698, issued by the State Administration of Taxation, on December 10, 2009. Pursuant to this Bulletin, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be recharacterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. According to Bulletin 7, “PRC taxable assets” include assets attributed to an establishment in China, immoveable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consists of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the tax situation of such indirect transfer and applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immoveable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax at 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. Where the payor fails to withhold any or sufficient tax, the transferor shall declare and pay such tax to the tax authority by itself within the statutory time limit. Late payment of applicable tax will subject the transferor to default interest. Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.

 

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There is uncertainty as to the application of Bulletin 7, or previous rules under Circular 698. Especially as Bulletin 7 is lately promulgated, it is not clear how it will be implemented. Bulletin 7 may be determined by the tax authorities to be applicable to our offshore restructuring transactions or sale of the shares of our offshore subsidiaries where non-resident enterprises, being the transferors, were involved. For example, in the past, our CEO Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu, Mr. Junhua Wu, Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang and three other individuals transferred some or all of their equity interest in us through indirect transfers conducted by their respective overseas holding companies which held shares in us. As a result, the transferors and transferees may be subject to the tax filing and withholding or tax payment obligation, while our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing. Furthermore, we, our non-resident enterprises and PRC subsidiaries may be required to spend valuable resources to comply with Bulletin 7 or to establish that we and our non-resident enterprises should not be taxed under Bulletin 7, for our previous and future restructuring or disposal of shares of our offshore subsidiaries, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize our revenue effectively.

 

Substantially all of our revenue is denominated in Renminbi. The Renminbi is currently convertible under the “current account,” which includes dividends, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not under the “capital account,” which includes foreign direct investment and loans, including loans we may secure from our onshore subsidiaries or variable interest entity. Currently, Shanghai Baozun, our major PRC subsidiary which is a wholly-foreign owned enterprise, may purchase foreign currency for settlement of “current account transactions,” including payment of dividends to us, without the approval of SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may limit or eliminate our ability to purchase foreign currencies in the future for current account transactions. Since a significant amount of our future revenue will be denominated in Renminbi, any existing and future restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize revenue generated in Renminbi to fund our business activities outside of the PRC or pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account remain subject to limitations and require approvals from, or registration with, SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. This could affect our ability to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing for our subsidiaries and the variable interest entity.

 

Fluctuations in exchange rates could result in foreign currency exchange losses and could materially reduce the value of your investment.

 

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions and the foreign exchange policy adopted by the PRC government. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar. Following the removal of the U.S. dollar peg, the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the PRC government has allowed the RMB to appreciate slowly against the U.S. dollar again, and it has appreciated more than 10% since June 2010. In April 2012, the PRC government announced that it would allow more RMB exchange rate fluctuation. However, it remains unclear how this announcement might be implemented. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future. There remains significant international pressure on the PRC government to adopt a more flexible currency policy, which could result in greater fluctuation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar. Substantially all of our revenues and costs are denominated in Renminbi. We are a holding company and we rely on dividends paid by our operating subsidiaries in China for our cash needs. Any significant revaluation of the Renminbi may materially reduce any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from this offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount we would receive.

 

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Risks Related to This Offering

 

There has been no public market for our shares or ADSs prior to this offering, and you may not be able to resell our ADSs at or above the price you paid, or at all.

 

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our shares or ADSs. We intend to apply for the listing of our ADSs on the NASDAQ Global Market. Our shares will not be listed on any exchange or quoted for trading on any over-the-counter trading system. If an active trading market for our ADSs does not develop after this offering, the market price and liquidity of our ADSs will be materially and adversely affected.

 

Negotiations with the underwriters will determine the initial public offering price for our ADSs which may bear no relationship to their market price after the initial public offering. We cannot assure you that an active trading market for our ADSs will develop or that the market price of our ADSs will not decline below the initial public offering price.

 

The trading price of our ADSs may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to you.

 

The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of other listed companies based in China. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of other Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings, including internet and e-commerce companies, may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. In addition, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to our operating performance, such as the large decline in share prices in the United States, China and other jurisdictions in late 2008, early 2009 and the second half of 2011, which may have a material and adverse effect on the trading price of our ADSs.

 

In addition to the above factors, the price and trading volume of our ADSs may be highly volatile due to multiple factors, including the following:

 

   

regulatory developments affecting us or our industry, brand partners, suppliers or third-party sellers;

 

   

announcements of studies and reports relating to the quality of our product and service offerings or those of our competitors;

 

   

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other e-commerce companies;

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and changes or revisions of our expected results;

 

   

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

   

conditions in the online retail market;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of new product and service offerings, acquisitions, strategic relationships, joint ventures, capital raisings or capital commitments;

 

   

additions to or departures of our senior management;

 

   

fluctuations of exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar;

 

   

release or expiry of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding shares or ADSs;

 

   

sales or perceived potential sales of additional ordinary shares or ADSs; and

 

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proceedings instituted recently by the SEC against five PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our ADSs will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If research analysts do not establish and maintain adequate research coverage or if one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our ADSs or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

 

As our initial public offering price is substantially higher than our net tangible book value per share, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

 

If you purchase ADSs in this offering, you will pay more for your ADSs than the amount paid by existing shareholders for their ordinary shares on a per ADS basis. As a result, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution of approximately US$             per ADS (assuming no exercise of outstanding options to acquire ordinary shares and no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ADSs), representing the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per ADS as of December 31, 2014, after giving effect to this offering, and the public offering price of US$             per ADS. In addition, you will experience further dilution to the extent that our ordinary shares are issued upon the exercise of share options. All of the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently outstanding share options will be issued at a purchase price on a per ADS basis that is less than the public offering price per ADS in this offering. See “Dilution” for a more complete description of how the value of your investment in our ADSs will be diluted upon completion of this offering.

 

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our ADSs for return on your investment.

 

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

 

Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our ADSs.

 

Substantial future sales or perceived potential sales of our ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

 

Sales of our ADSs in the public market after this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our ADSs to decline significantly. Upon completion of this offering, we will have              ordinary shares outstanding, including              Class A ordinary shares represented by ADSs, assuming

 

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the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares. All ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares sold in this offering will be freely transferable by persons other than our “affiliates” without restriction or additional registration under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. All of the other ordinary shares outstanding after this offering will be available for sale, upon the expiration of the lock-up periods described elsewhere in this prospectus beginning from the date of this prospectus (if applicable to such holder), subject to volume and other restrictions as applicable under Rules 144 and 701 under the Securities Act. Any or all of these ordinary shares may be released prior to the expiration of the applicable lock-up period at the discretion of the designated representatives. To the extent shares are released before the expiration of the applicable lock-up period and sold into the market, the market price of our ADSs could decline significantly. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale—Lock-Up Agreements.”

 

Certain major holders of our ordinary shares after completion of this offering will have the right to cause us to register under the Securities Act the sale of their shares, subject to the applicable lock-up periods in connection with this offering. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in ADSs representing these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. Sales of these registered shares in the form of ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline significantly.

 

Our dual-class voting structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

 

After this offering, Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu, our co-founder, chairman and chief executive officer, and Mr. Junhua Wu, our co-founder, director and chief operating officer, will have considerable influence over matters requiring shareholder approval. Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, we expect to create a dual-class voting structure such that our ordinary shares will consist of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Based on our proposed dual-class voting structure, on a poll, holders of Class A ordinary shares will be entitled to one vote per share in respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, while holders of Class B ordinary shares will be entitled to ten votes per share. We will issue Class A ordinary shares represented by our ADSs in this offering. Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, we expect that 9,410,369 ordinary shares held by Jesvinco Holdings Limited, which is wholly owned by Mr. Qiu, and 3,890,369 ordinary shares held by Casvendino Holdings Limited, which is wholly owned by Mr. Wu, will be designated as Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis, and all convertible redeemable preferred shares and all other outstanding ordinary shares will be re-designated as Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B ordinary shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A ordinary shares. Due to the disparate voting powers associated with our two classes of ordinary shares, Mr. Qiu and Mr. Wu will beneficially own             % and             % of the aggregate voting power of our company, respectively, immediately following the completion of this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional ADSs. The interests of Mr. Qiu and Mr. Wu may not coincide with your interests, and they may make decisions with which you disagree, including decisions on important topics such as the composition of the board of directors, compensation, management succession and our business and financial strategy. To the extent that the interests of Mr. Qiu or Mr. Wu differ from your interests, you may be disadvantaged by any action that they may seek to pursue. This concentrated control could also discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions, which could have the effect of depriving the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and our ADSs of the opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over the prevailing market price.

 

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You, as holders of ADSs, may have fewer rights than holders of our Class A ordinary shares and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

 

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights of our shareholders and may only exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the post-offering memorandum and articles of association that will become effective upon the completion of this offering, the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting is 10 days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit you to withdraw your Class A ordinary shares to allow you to cast your vote with respect to any specific matter. In addition, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to you or carry out your voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to you in a timely manner, but we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your ADSs. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may lack recourse if your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholders’ meeting.

 

Except in limited circumstances, the depositary for our ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs if you do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, which could adversely affect your interests.

 

Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if you do not vote, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs at shareholders’ meetings unless:

 

   

we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;

 

   

we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;

 

   

a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or

 

   

the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.

 

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that you cannot prevent our Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our ordinary shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

 

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.

 

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register both the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless both the rights and the underlying securities to be distributed to ADS holders are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective and we may not be able to establish a necessary exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

 

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You may not receive cash dividends if the depositary decides it is impractical to make them available to you.

 

The depositary will pay cash dividends on the ADSs only to the extent that we decide to distribute dividends on our Class A ordinary shares or other deposited securities, and we do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our Class A ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. To the extent that there is a distribution, the depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our Class A ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property to you.

 

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

 

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

 

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

 

We are a company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. We conduct our operations outside the United States and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. In addition, all of our directors and executive officers and the experts named in this prospectus reside outside the United States, and most of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against them in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands, the PRC or other relevant jurisdiction may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. For more information regarding the relevant laws of the Cayman Islands and China, see “Enforceability of Civil Liabilities.”

 

Since we are a Cayman Islands company, the rights of our shareholders may be more limited than those of shareholders of a company organized in the United States.

 

Under the laws of some jurisdictions in the United States, majority and controlling shareholders generally have certain fiduciary responsibilities to the minority shareholders. Shareholder action must be taken in good faith, and actions by controlling shareholders which are obviously unreasonable may be declared null and void. Cayman Island law protecting the interests of minority shareholders may not be as protective in all circumstances as the law protecting minority shareholders in some U.S. jurisdictions. In addition, the circumstances in which a shareholder of a Cayman Islands company may sue the company derivatively, and the procedures and defenses that may be available to the company, may result in the rights of shareholders of a Cayman Islands company being more limited than those of shareholders of a company organized in the United States.

 

Furthermore, our directors have the power to take certain actions without shareholder approval which would require shareholder approval under the laws of most U.S. jurisdictions. The directors of a Cayman Islands company, without shareholder approval, may implement a sale of any assets, property, part of the business, or securities of the company. Our ability to create and issue new classes or series of shares without shareholder approval could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control without any further action by our shareholders, including a tender offer to purchase our ordinary shares at a premium over then current market prices.

 

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You must rely on the judgment of our management as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and such use may not produce income or increase our ADS price.

 

A significant portion of the net proceeds of this offering is allocated for general corporate purposes, including funding potential investments in and acquisitions of complementary businesses, assets and technologies. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds received by us. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not improve our efforts to achieve or maintain profitability or increase our ADS price. The net proceeds from this offering may be placed in investments that do not produce income or that lose value.

 

Our articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could discourage a third party from acquiring us, which could limit our shareholders’ opportunity to sell their shares, including Class A ordinary shares represented by our ADSs, at a premium.

 

We have adopted amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the completion of this offering that contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our Class A ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

 

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to, and we will, rely on exemptions from certain NASDAQ corporate governance standards applicable to domestic U.S. issuers. This may afford less protection to holders of our ordinary shares and the ADSs.

 

We are exempted from certain corporate governance requirements of the NASDAQ Marketplace Rules by virtue of being a foreign private issuer. We are required to provide a brief description of the significant differences between our corporate governance practices and the corporate governance practices required to be followed by domestic U.S. companies listed on the NASDAQ Global Market. The standards applicable to us are considerably different than the standards applied to domestic U.S. issuers. For instance, we are not required to:

 

   

have a majority of the board be independent;

 

   

have an audit committee, a compensation committee or a nominating and corporate governance committee consisting entirely of independent directors;

 

   

have regularly scheduled executive sessions with only independent directors; or

 

   

have executive sessions of solely independent directors each year.

 

We have relied on and intend to continue to rely on some of these exemptions. As a result, you may not be provided with the benefits of certain corporate governance requirements of the NASDAQ Marketplace Rules.

 

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As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from certain disclosure requirements under the Exchange Act, which may afford less protection to our shareholders than they would enjoy if we were a domestic U.S. company.

 

As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from, among other things, the rules prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements under the Exchange Act. In addition, our executive officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit and recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. We are also not required under the Exchange Act to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as domestic U.S. companies with securities registered under the Exchange Act. As a result, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they would under the Exchange Act rules applicable to domestic U.S. companies.

 

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 for so long as we are an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

 

The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. However, we have elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

 

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”

 

Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the NASDAQ Global Market, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. However, we have elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

 

We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur

 

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additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

 

In the past, shareholders of a public company often brought securities class action suits against the company following periods of instability in the market price of that company’s securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may become a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse United States federal income tax consequences to United States investors.

 

Based on the projected composition of our income and valuation of our assets, we do not expect to be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for our current taxable year, and we do not expect to become one in the future, although there can be no assurance in this regard. The determination of whether or not we are a PFIC is made on an annual basis and will depend on the composition of our income and assets from time to time. Specifically, we will be classified as a PFIC for United States federal income tax purposes if either: (1) 75% or more of our gross income in a taxable year is passive income, or (2) the average percentage of our assets by value in a taxable year which produce or are held for the production of passive income (which includes cash) is at least 50%. The calculation of the value of our assets will be based, in part, on the quarterly market value of our ADSs, which is subject to change. See “Taxation—Material U. S. Federal Income Tax Consequences—Passive Foreign Investment Company.”

 

If we were or were to become a PFIC, such characterization could result in adverse United States federal income tax consequences to you if you are a United States investor. For example, if we are a PFIC, our United States investors will become subject to increased tax liabilities under United States federal income tax laws and regulations and will become subject to burdensome reporting requirements. We cannot assure you that we will not be a PFIC for our current taxable year or any future taxable year. See “Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences—Passive Foreign Investment Company.”

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. The forward looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Use of Proceeds”, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business.” Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Risk Factors,” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

 

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

 

   

our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;

 

   

our goals and strategies;

 

   

the expected growth of the retail and online retail markets in China;

 

   

our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

 

   

our expectations regarding our relationships with our brand partners and e-commerce channels;

 

   

our plans to invest in our technology platform;

 

   

competition in our industry;

 

   

relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry;

 

   

our ability to attract, train and retain executives and other qualified employees; and

 

   

fluctuations in general economic and business conditions.

 

These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Important risks and factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations are generally set forth in “Prospectus Summary—Our Challenges,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business,” “Regulation” and other sections in this prospectus. You should thoroughly read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

This prospectus contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The online retail industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of our ADSs. In addition, the rapidly changing nature of the online retail industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to

 

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update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$            , or approximately US$             if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and the estimated offering expenses payable by us. These estimates are based upon an assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS, the midpoint of the price range shown on the front cover page of this prospectus. A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by US$             million, assuming the number of ADSs offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us, or by US$             if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full.

 

The primary purposes of this offering are to create a public market for our shares for the benefit of all shareholders, retain talented employees by providing them with equity incentives, and obtain additional capital. We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering as follows:

 

   

approximately US$             million for investment in sales and marketing activities;

 

   

approximately US$             million for investment in our research and development and technology infrastructure;

 

   

approximately US$             million for expansion of our warehousing and fulfillment infrastructure; and

 

   

the balance for general corporate purposes, working capital and potential acquisitions, investments and alliances (although we have no present commitments or agreements to enter into any acquisitions, investments or alliances).

 

The foregoing represents our current intentions with respect of the use and allocation of the net proceeds of this offering based upon our present plans and business conditions, but our management will have significant flexibility and discretion in applying the net proceeds of this offering. The occurrence of unforeseen events or changed business conditions may result in application of the proceeds of this offering in a manner other than as described in this prospectus.

 

In utilizing the net proceeds of this offering, as an offshore holding company, we are permitted, under PRC laws and regulations, to provide funding to our subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions and to our VIE only through loans. Subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements, we may extend inter-company loans to our subsidiaries in China or make additional capital contributions to our subsidiaries in China to fund their capital expenditures or working capital. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—PRC regulations of loans to PRC entities and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our wholly owned subsidiary, Shanghai Baozun.”

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

 

Our board of directors has complete discretion on whether to distribute dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant.

 

We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business.

 

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We rely principally on dividends from our subsidiaries in China for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. Dividends distributed by Shanghai Baozun, our major PRC subsidiary, to us is subject to PRC taxes. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated distributable after-tax profits, if any, determined in accordance with their respective articles of association and Chinese accounting standards and regulations. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China—We rely to a significant extent on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements.”

 

If we pay any dividends, we will pay our ADS holders to the same extent as holders of our Class A ordinary shares, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, including the fees and expenses payable thereunder. See “Description of American Depositary Shares.” Cash dividends on our Class A ordinary shares, if any, will be paid in U.S. dollars.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

 

The following table sets forth our indebtedness and total capitalization as of December 31, 2014:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on a pro forma basis to reflect the automatic conversion of all of our issued and outstanding Series A, B, C1, C2 and D convertible redeemable preferred shares as of December 31, 2014 into 84,640,163 ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

   

on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect the pro forma adjustments described above as well as the issuance and sale by us of              ADSs offered in this offering at the assumed public offering price of US$             per ADS, the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and further assuming no exercise by the underwriters of the over-allotment option and no other change to the number of ADSs sold by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.

 

You should read this table together with the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     As of December 31, 2014
     Actual     Pro forma(1)     Pro forma As
Adjusted(1)
     RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB    US$
     (in thousands)

Series A convertible redeemable preferred shares, US$0.0001 par value, 19,622,241 shares authorized, issued and outstanding

     55,924        9,013                      

Series B convertible redeemable preferred shares, US$0.0001 par value, 26,532,203 shares authorized, issued and outstanding

     202,125        32,577                      

Series C1 convertible redeemable preferred shares, US$0.0001 par value, 29,056,332 shares authorized, issued and outstanding

     355,176        57,244                      

Series C2 convertible redeemable preferred shares, US$0.0001 par value, 1,925,063 shares authorized, issued and outstanding

     37,630        6,065                      

Series D convertible redeemable preferred shares, US$0.0001 par value, 7,504,324 shares authorized, issued and outstanding

     150,430        24,245                      

Ordinary shares (US$0.0001 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized, 28,058,820 shares issued and outstanding on an actual basis, and 112,698,983 shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis):

     17        3        70        11        

Equity/(deficit):

             

Additional paid in capital(2)

     3,755        605        804,987        129,741        

Accumulated deficit

     (327,205     (52,736     (327,205     (52,736     

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     1,204        194        1,204        194        
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

  

 

Total equity/(deficit)(2)

     (322,229     (51,934     479,056        77,210        
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

  

 

Total capitalization(2)

     479,056        77,210        479,056        77,210        
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

  

 

 

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(1)   The pro forma and pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our total shareholders’ equity and total capitalization following the completion of this offering are subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Pro forma as adjusted numbers assumes that the underwriters will not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs.
(2)   Assuming the number of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus remains the same, and after deduction of underwriting discounts and commissions and the estimated offering expenses payable by us, a US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS would increase (decrease) each of additional paid-in capital, total equity and total capitalization by US$             million.

 

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DILUTION

 

If you invest in our ADSs, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ADS and our net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the initial public offering price per ordinary share is substantially in excess of the book value per ordinary share attributable to the existing shareholders. Our net tangible book value is determined by subtracting the value of our intangible assets and total liabilities from our total assets.

 

Our net tangible book value as of December 31, 2014 was approximately US$             or US$             per ordinary share as of that date and US$             per ADS. Net tangible book value represents the amount of our total consolidated tangible assets, less the amount of our total consolidated liabilities. Dilution is determined by subtracting net tangible book value per ordinary share, after giving effect to the additional proceeds we will receive from this offering, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

Without taking into account any other changes in net tangible book value after December 31, 2014, other than to give effect to our sale of the ADSs offered in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS, the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price, after deduction of the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2014 would have been US$            , or US$             per ordinary share and US$             per ADS. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$             per ordinary share and US$             per ADS to the existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$             per ordinary share and US$             per ADS to investors purchasing ADSs in this offering. The following table illustrates such dilution:

 

     Per Ordinary
Share
     Per ADS  

Assumed initial public offering price

   US$                    US$                

Net tangible book value as of December 31, 2014

   US$         US$     

Pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2014

   US$         US$     

Increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value attributable to this offering

   US$         US$     

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after the offering

   US$         US$     

Amount of dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value to new investors in the offering

   US$         US$     

 

A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of US$             per ADS would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to this offering by US$            , the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share and per ADS after giving effect to this offering by US$             per ordinary share and US$             per ADS and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share and per ADS to new investors in this offering by US$             per ordinary share and US$             per ADS, assuming no change to the number of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus and assuming no exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses.

 

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The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of December 31, 2014, the differences between existing shareholders and new investors with respect to the number of ordinary shares (in the form of ADSs or shares) purchased from us, the total consideration paid and the average price per ordinary share and per ADS paid before deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses. The total number of ordinary shares does not include ordinary shares underlying the ADSs issuable upon the exercise of the over-allotment option granted to the underwriters.

 

     Ordinary Shares
Purchased
    Total Consideration     Average Price
Per Ordinary
Share
     Average
Price Per
ADS
 
     Number    Percent     Amount      Percent       

Existing shareholders

                   US$                                 US$                    US$                

New investors

                   US$                      US$         US$     
  

 

  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

        100.0   US$           100.0   US$         US$     
  

 

  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our net tangible book value following the completion of this offering is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of our ADSs and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

 

The discussion and tables above assume no exercise of any outstanding share options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus. As of the date of this prospectus, there are 15,313,398 ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding share options at a weighted average exercise price of US$0.0136 per share. To the extent that any of these options are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors.

 

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EXCHANGE RATE INFORMATION

 

Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China and substantially all of our revenues are denominated in RMB. This prospectus contains translations of RMB amounts into U.S. dollars at specific rates solely for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from RMB to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to RMB in this prospectus were made at a rate of RMB6.2046 to US$1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board on December 31, 2014. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate, at the rates stated below, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. On April 10, 2015, the noon buying rate was RMB6.2082 to US$1.00.

 

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, information concerning exchange rates between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar based on the exchange rates set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. These rates are provided solely for your convenience and are not necessarily the exchange rates that we used in this prospectus or will use in the preparation of our periodic reports or any other information to be provided to you.

 

     Exchange Rate  

Period

   Period End      Average(1)      Low      High  
     (RMB per US$1.00)  

2010

     6.6000         6.7606         6.8330         6.6000   

2011

     6.2939         6.4475         6.6364         6.2939   

2012

     6.2301         6.2990         6.3879         6.2221   

2013

     6.0537         6.1412         6.2438         6.0537   

2014

     6.2046         6.1704         6.2591         6.0402   

October

     6.1124         6.1251         6.1385         6.1107   

November

     6.1429         6.1249         6.1429         6.1117   

December

     6.2046         6.1886         6.2256         6.1490   

2015

           

January

     6.2495         6.2181         6.2535         6.1870   

February

     6.2695         6.2518         6.2695         6.2399   

March

     6.1990         6.2386         6.2741         6.1955   

April (through April 10, 2015)

     6.2082         6.1989         6.2082         6.1930   

 

Source: Federal Reserve Statistical Release

(1)   Annual averages are calculated using the average of the rates on the last business day of each month during the relevant year. Monthly averages are calculated using the average of the daily rates during the relevant month.

 

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

 

We were incorporated in the Cayman Islands in order to enjoy the following benefits:

 

   

political and economic stability;

 

   

an effective judicial system;

 

   

a favorable tax system;

 

   

the absence of exchange control or currency restrictions; and

 

   

the availability of professional and support services.

 

However, certain disadvantages accompany incorporation in the Cayman Islands. These disadvantages include:

 

   

the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and these securities laws provide significantly less protection to investors; and

 

   

Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

 

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles do not contain provisions requiring that disputes, including those arising under the securities laws of the United States, among us, our officers, directors and shareholders, be arbitrated.

 

Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China, and substantially all of our assets are located in China. Substantially all of our officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon us or these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

 

We have appointed Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc., located at 400 Madison Avenue, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10017, as our agent upon whom process may be served in any action brought against us under the securities laws of the United States.

 

Maples and Calder, our counsel as to Cayman Islands law, and Fangda Partners, our counsel as to PRC law, have advised us, respectively, that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands and China, respectively, would:

 

   

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

 

   

entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

 

Maples and Calder has further advised us that although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States (and the Cayman Islands are not a party to any treaties for the reciprocal enforcement or recognition of such judgments), a judgment obtained in such jurisdiction will be recognized and enforced in the courts of the Cayman Islands at common law, without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute, by an action commenced on the foreign judgment debt in the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, provided that such judgment: (a) is given by a foreign court of competent jurisdiction; (b) imposes on the judgment debtor a liability to pay a liquidated sum for which the judgment has been given; (c) is final; (d) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty; and (e) was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the

 

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Cayman Islands. However, the Cayman Islands courts are unlikely to enforce a punitive judgment of a United States court predicated upon the liabilities provision of the federal securities laws in the United States without retrial on the merits if such judgment gives rise to obligations to make payments that may be regarded as fines, penalties or similar charges.

 

Fangda Partners has further advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. China does not have any treaties or other agreements with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or the Cayman Islands.

 

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CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

 

Our History

 

We are a holding company and operate our business through our wholly-owned subsidiaries and a PRC consolidated VIE. We commenced operations to provide brand e-commerce solutions in China in August 2007 through Shanghai Baozun, a PRC limited liability company founded by our CEO Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu, our COO Mr. Junhua Wu, one of our directors Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang and several other individual investors, or collectively, the Founding Shareholders. Shanghai Baozun, our wholly-owned subsidiary, provides integrated brand-e-commerce solutions to our brand partners, including IT services, store operations, digital marketing, customer services, warehousing and fulfillment.

 

In March 2010, we incorporated our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Shanghai Bodao E-Commerce Limited, or Shanghai Bodao, and Shanghai Yingsai Advertisement Limited, or Shanghai Yingsai, in China. In December 2011, to further develop our e-commerce solutions business, we incorporated our wholly-owned subsidiary, Shanghai Fengbo E-Commerce Limited, or Shanghai Fengbo, in China. Shanghai Fengbo and Shanghai Bodao provide brand e-commerce solutions to our brand partners, and Shanghai Yingsai provides marketing services to our brand partners. As we began to expand our business outside of mainland China, we established Baozun Hongkong Limited in September 2013, which serves as our operation center in Hong Kong. In December 2013, we incorporated our holding company, Baozun Cayman Inc., under the laws of the Cayman Islands. We incorporated Baozun Hong Kong Holding Limited in January 2014 to develop our e-commerce solutions business in Hong Kong and internationally. We changed our holding company’s name from Baozun Cayman Inc. to Baozun Inc. in March 2015.

 

The operation of value-added telecommunications businesses in China requires an ICP license, and foreign ownership of value-added telecommunications business is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws, rules and regulations. Although our current business does not require an ICP license, we hold an ICP license through our PRC consolidated VIE, Shanghai Zunyi, which is the operator of our Maikefeng platform, to provide us with the flexibility to develop value-added telecommunications services in the future that would be in compliance with PRC laws, rules, regulations. In April and July 2014, through Shanghai Baozun, we entered into certain contractual arrangements with Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders under which we gained effective control over the operations of Shanghai Zunyi. Shanghai Zunyi was a dormant company before July 2014 and began serving consumers through our Maikefeng platform, including our Maikefeng mobile application and mkf.com website, in July 2014.

 

In October 2014, we established Taiwan Baozun Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary, to expand our provision of brand e-commerce solutions to the Taiwan market.

 

As a holding company, our ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends and other distributions on equity paid to us by our principal operating subsidiaries. Pursuant to PRC laws and regulations, our wholly owned subsidiaries may pay dividends only out of their retained earnings, and are required to set aside a portion of their net income each year to fund certain statutory reserves. These reserves, together with the registered equity, are not distributable as cash dividends. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China—We rely to a significant extent on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements.” and “Regulation—Regulation of Dividend Distribution.”

 

For our private placement of ordinary shares and convertible redeemable preferred shares, see “Description of Share Capital—History of Securities Issuances.”

 

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Our Corporate Structure

 

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure and the place of incorporation of each of our significant subsidiaries and VIE as of the date of this prospectus:

 

LOGO

 

 

Note:    (1)   Shanghai Zunyi is our VIE in China and is 80% owned by Mr. Vincent Wenbin Qiu and 20% owned by Mr. Michael Qingyu Zhang. It primarily serves as our platform for developing our Maikefeng business.

 

We have entered into contractual arrangements with Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders, through which we exercise effective control over operations of Shanghai Zunyi and receive substantially all economic benefits generated from it. As a result of these contractual arrangements, under U.S. GAAP, we are considered the primary beneficiary of Shanghai Zunyi and thus consolidate its results in our consolidated financial statements. However, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing us with control over the VIE as direct ownership of its equity interests. In addition, the VIE or its shareholders may breach the contractual arrangements with us. In such cases, we would have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, which may not always be effective, particularly in light of uncertainties in the PRC legal system. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders for a portion of our business operations, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.”

 

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Contractual Arrangements with Shanghai Zunyi and its Shareholders

 

Our relationships with Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders are governed by a series of contractual arrangements. The following is a summary of the currently effective contractual arrangements by and among our wholly-owned subsidiary, Shanghai Baozun, our VIE, Shanghai Zunyi, and the shareholders of Shanghai Zunyi.

 

Exclusive Technology Service Agreement. On April 1, 2014, Shanghai Zunyi and Shanghai Baozun entered into an exclusive technology service agreement. Pursuant to the exclusive technology service agreement, Shanghai Baozun has the exclusive right to provide specified technology services to Shanghai Zunyi. Without the prior written consent of Shanghai Baozun, Shanghai Zunyi may not accept the same or similar technology services provided by any third party during the term of the agreement. Shanghai Zunyi agrees to pay to Shanghai Baozun a service fee at 95% of the net revenues of Shanghai Zunyi and extra service fee for additional services provided by Shanghai Baozun as requested by Shanghai Zunyi within three months after each calendar year for the services provided in the preceding year. The agreement has an initial term of 20 years and will be automatically renewed on a yearly basis thereafter unless otherwise notified by Shanghai Baozun, and shall be terminated when the operating term of Shanghai Baozun or Shanghai Zunyi expires. To the extent permitted by law, Shanghai Zunyi is not contractually entitled to terminate the exclusive technology service agreement with Shanghai Baozun.

 

Exclusive Call Option Agreement. On April 1, 2014, Shanghai Zunyi, each of its shareholder and Shanghai Baozun entered into an exclusive call option agreement. Each of Shanghai Zunyi’s shareholders have granted Shanghai Baozun an exclusive call option to purchase their equity interests in Shanghai Zunyi at an exercise price equal to the higher of (i) the registered capital in Shanghai Zunyi; and (ii) the minimum price as permitted by applicable PRC laws. Shanghai Zunyi has further granted Shanghai Baozun an exclusive call option to purchase its assets at an exercise price equal to the book value of the assets or the minimum price as permitted by applicable PRC law, whichever is higher. Shanghai Baozun may nominate another entity or individual to purchase the equity interests or assets, if applicable, under the call options. Each call option is exercisable subject to the condition that applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations do not prohibit completion of the transfer of the equity interests or assets pursuant to the call option. Shanghai Baozun is entitled to all dividends and other distributions declared by Shanghai Zunyi, and each of the shareholders of Shanghai Zunyi has agreed to give up their rights to receive any distributions or proceeds from the disposal of their equity interests in Shanghai Zunyi and to pay any such distributions or premium to Shanghai Baozun with deduction of applicable taxes. The exclusive call option agreement remains in effect until the equity interest and assets that are the subject of such agreements are transferred to Shanghai Baozun or its designated entities or individuals. To the extent permitted by law, Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders are not contractually entitled to terminate the exclusive call option agreement with Shanghai Baozun.

 

Proxy Agreement. On July 28, 2014, Shanghai Zunyi, each of its shareholder and Shanghai Baozun entered into a voting right proxy agreement, or the Proxy Agreement. Each shareholder of Shanghai Zunyi granted an irrevocable power of attorney to Shanghai Baozun that authorizes any person designated by Shanghai Baozun to exercise his rights as an equity holder of Shanghai Zunyi, including the right to attend and vote at equity holders’ meetings and appoint directors. The proxy agreement has an initial term of 20 years and will be automatically renewed on a yearly basis thereafter unless otherwise notified by Shanghai Baozun. If (i) the operating term of Shanghai Baozun or Shanghai Zunyi expires; or (ii) the parties thereto mutually agree on an early termination, the proxy agreement may be terminated. To the extent permitted by law, Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders are not contractually entitled to terminate the proxy agreement with Shanghai Baozun.

 

Equity Interest Pledge Agreements. On July 28, 2014, Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders entered into equity interest pledge agreements with Shanghai Baozun. The shareholders of Shanghai Zunyi pledged all of their equity interests in Shanghai Zunyi to Shanghai Baozun to secure their and Shanghai Zunyi’s obligations under certain agreements above and other agreed obligations and as collateral for all of the amounts payable by Shanghai Zunyi to Shanghai Baozun under those agreements. If any event of default as defined under this

 

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agreement occurs, Shanghai Baozun, as the pledgee, will be entitled to dispose of the pledged equity interests. In addition, any increase in the registered capital of Shanghai Zunyi will be further pledged in favor of Shanghai Baozun. The equity interest pledge agreements will remain in full effect until all the secured contractual obligations have been performed or all the secured debts have been discharged. Under PRC laws, the equity pledge is required to be registered with the SAIC or its competent branches for perfection. The equity pledge of Shanghai Zunyi has already been registered with the relevant branch of the SAIC.

 

As a result of these contractual arrangements, we have the power to direct the activities of Shanghai Zunyi, and through the service fee paid to us under the exclusive technology service agreement, we can receive substantially all of the economic benefits of Shanghai Zunyi even though we do not receive all of the revenues generated by Shanghai Zunyi.

 

In the opinion of Fangda Partners, our PRC legal counsel, (i) the ownership structures of Shanghai Baozun and Shanghai Zunyi do not violate any applicable PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between Shanghai Baozun, Shanghai Zunyi and its shareholders governed by PRC law are valid, binding and enforceable in accordance with their terms and applicable PRC laws and regulations currently in effect, and do not violate any PRC laws or regulations currently in effect.

 

However, our PRC legal counsel has also advised us that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules; accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a view that is contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to Shanghai Zunyi do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—Any failure by our VIE or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.”

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

 

The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014 and selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and have been audited by Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Certified Public Accountants LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm.

 

You should read this Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods.

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations Information

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$  
     (in thousands, except for per share and per ADS data
and number of shares)
 

Net revenues

        

Product sales

     819,422        1,274,746        1,187,162        191,336   

Services

     135,042        247,090        397,258        64,026   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     954,464        1,521,836        1,584,420        255,362   

Operating expenses(1)

        

Cost of products

     (808,063     (1,245,832     (1,086,133     (175,053

Fulfillment

     (72,026     (116,432     (168,130     (27,098

Sales and marketing

     (78,633     (146,202     (226,952     (36,577

Technology and content

     (6,554     (16,120     (63,607     (10,252

General and administrative

     (33,461     (38,160     (96,911     (15,619

Other operating expenses, net

     (122     (75     457        74   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (998,859     (1,562,821     (1,641,276     (264,525
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (44,395     (40,985     (56,856     (9,163

Other income (expenses)

        

Interest income

     122        4,574        3,156        509   

Interest expenses

     (3,275     (677     (1,552     (250

Exchange gain (loss)

     314        (376     (2,650     (427
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before tax

     (47,234     (37,464     (57,902     (9,331

Income tax expense

            (307     (1,912     (308
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

     (47,234     (37,771     (59,814     (9,639

Deemed dividend from issuance of convertible redeemable preferred shares

     (4,683            (16,666     (2,686

Change in redemption value of convertible redeemable preferred shares

     (16,231     (61,435     (79,169     (12,760
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders

     (68,148     (99,206     (155,649     (25,085
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders

        

Basic

     (2.27     (3.31     (5.31     (0.86

Diluted

     (2.27     (3.31     (5.31     (0.86

Weighted average shares used in calculating net loss per ordinary share

        

Basic

     29,983,883        29,983,883        29,314,067        29,314,067   

Diluted

     29,983,883        29,983,883        29,314,067        29,314,067   

Non-GAAP Financial Measure:(2)

        

Non-GAAP net income/(loss)

     (42,708     (26,265     25,149        4,053   

 

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(1)   Share-based compensation expenses are allocated in operating expenses items as follows:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$  
     (in thousands)  

Fulfillment

     (73     (584     (460     (74

Sales and marketing

     (685     (5,822     (5,469     (881

Technology and content

     (159     (1,608     (26,311     (4,241

General and administrative

     (3,609     (3,492     (52,723     (8,498
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     4,526        11,506        84,963        13,694   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(2)   See “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measure.”

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets Information

 

     As of December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB      US$  
                             Pro forma(1)  
     (in thousands, except per share and per ADS data and number of shares)  

Cash and cash equivalents

     270,077        154,156        206,391        33,264        206,391         33,264   

Restricted cash

            36,000        37,900        6,108        37,900         6,108   

Accounts receivable, net

     57,448        106,468        229,502        36,989        229,502         36,989   

Inventories

     72,412        133,347        242,978        39,161        242,978         39,161   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

     465,179        531,447        872,514        140,624        872,514         140,624   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Accounts payable

     56,978        173,810        300,007        48,352        300,007         48,352   

Short-term borrowings

     48,774                                       
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     144,504        225,082        393,458        63,414        393,458         63,414   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Series A convertible redeemable preferred shares

     44,187        49,170        55,924        9,013                  

Series B convertible redeemable preferred shares

     162,195        180,182        202,125        32,577                  

Series C-1 convertible redeemable preferred shares

     258,923        308,848        355,176        57,244                  

Series C-2 convertible redeemable preferred shares

                   37,630        6,065                  

Series D convertible redeemable preferred shares

                   150,430        24,245                  

Shareholder’s equity/(deficit)

     (144,630     (232,375     (322,229     (51,934     479,056         77,210   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities, convertible redeemable preferred shares and shareholders’ deficit

     465,179        531,447        872,514        140,624        872,514         140,624   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)   The pro forma balance sheet information as of December 31, 2014 assumes the conversion upon completion of the initial public offering of all convertible redeemable preferred shares outstanding as of December 31, 2014 into ordinary shares.

 

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Selected Operating Data

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  

Number of brand partners as of the period end(1)

     56        71        93   

Number of GMV brand partners as of the period end(2)

     53        61        78   

Total GMV(3) (RMB in millions)

     1,460 (4)      2,621 (4)      4,249 (4) 

Average GMV per GMV brand partner(5)

     30        46        61   

 

(1)   Brand partners are defined as companies for which we operate official brand stores or official marketplace stores under their brand names or have entered into agreements to do so.
(2)   GMV brand partners are defined as brand partners that contribute to our total GMV in the respective periods.
(3)   Total GMV is defined as (i) the full value of all purchases transacted and settled on stores operated by us (including our Maikefeng platform but excluding stores for the operations of which we only charge fixed fees) and (ii) the full value of purchases for which customers have placed orders and paid deposits on such stores and which have been settled offline. Our calculation of GMV includes value added tax and excludes (i) shipping charges, (ii) surcharges and other taxes, (iii) value of the goods that are returned and (iv) deposits for purchases that have not been settled.
(4)   GMV of our Maikefeng platform was nil, nil and RMB33.9 million (US$5.5 million) in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively.
(5)   Average GMV per GMV brand partner is calculated by dividing GMV (excluding Maikefeng) by the average number of GMV brand partners as of the beginning and end of the respective periods.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our audited consolidated combined financial statements and unaudited consolidated combined financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

Overview

 

We are the leading brand e-commerce solutions provider in China, with a market share of approximately 20% as measured by transaction value in 2014, according to the iResearch Report.

 

The number of our brand partners grew from 56 as of December 31, 2012, to 71 as of December 31, 2013, and to 93 as of December 31, 2014. Our brand partners cover diverse categories, including apparel, appliances, electronics, home, food and health, cosmetics and fast moving consumer goods, insurance and automobile, and many of them are market leaders in their respective industries.

 

Our integrated e-commerce capabilities allow us to leverage our brand partners’ unique resources and are seamlessly integrated with their back-end systems. This enables data tracking and analytics for the full transaction value chain, making us a valuable part of the brands’ e-commerce functions. We help our brand partners establish their market presence and launch products quickly through official brand store sites and major online marketplaces in China as well as social media platforms. We also help our brand partners devise and execute O2O strategies combining the strengths of their online stores and offline retail networks. By enabling seamless shopping experience across various channels both online and offline, we deliver omni-channel solutions to achieve optimal branding effect and sales results that are responsive to our brand partners’ individual e-commerce objectives.

 

Leveraging our proprietary and scalable technology infrastructure and systems, we provide integrated e-commerce solutions that synchronize marketing campaigns, centralize management of inventory, order fulfillment and customer service, and collect and analyze consumer behavior and transaction data across internet, mobile and offline channels.

 

We partner with leading nationwide and local logistics services providers to ensure reliable and timely delivery. We are able to achieve next-day delivery in 95 cities across China. We operate three warehouses with an aggregate gross floor area of 45,000 square meters that can handle 200,000 daily orders and 250,000 daily pieces. Our warehouse management system is customized to account for variance in arrangements with brands and differences in specifications for products, ranging from apparel, electronics to beauty and health products.

 

We generate revenue from two revenue streams: (i) product sales and (ii) services. We generally operate e-commerce businesses for our brand partners based on one of three business models: distribution model, service fee model and consignment model, or in some circumstances, a combination of the business models. We derive product sales revenues when we sell products to customers under the distribution model. We derive services revenues under the service fee model and consignment model. For services provided, we charge our brand partners fees consisting of fixed fees and/or variable fees based on GMV or other variable factors such as number of orders fulfilled. Under the consignment model, we may facilitate brand partners’ online sales of products as an agent and receive commission fee calculated based on a formula pre-agreed with our brand partners. In 2012, 2013 and 2014, net revenues from product sales accounted for 85.9%, 83.8% and 74.9%, respectively.

 

Our GMV was RMB1,460.4 million, RMB 2,620.8 million and RMB4,248.9 million (US$684.8 million) in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. For the same periods, our total net revenues were RMB954.5 million,

 

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RMB1,521.8 million and RMB1,584.4 million (US$255.4 million), respectively. We incurred net loss of RMB47.2 million, RMB37.8 million and RMB59.8 million (US$9.6 million) in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. We incurred non-GAAP net loss of RMB42.7 million and RMB26.3 million in 2012 and 2013, respectively, and had non-GAAP net income of RMB25.1 million (US$4.1 million) in 2014. See “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

We currently operate our Maikefeng platform through our PRC consolidated VIE, Shanghai Zunyi. We did not generate any revenues from Shanghai Zunyi in 2012 and 2013, and revenues from Shanghai Zunyi contributed 1.3% of our total net revenues in 2014. As we grow our Maikefeng platform, we expect that revenues from Shanghai Zunyi will continue to increase.

 

Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

 

Our results of operations and financial condition are affected by the general factors driving the retail industry and online retail, including:

 

   

Levels of per capita disposable income and consumer spending in China and our target markets. Consumer spending power has been rising in China and in our other target markets in Asia, including Hong Kong, Taiwan and Indonesia. The growth of the e-commerce market in these markets depend on continued increase in consumption.

 

   

Development and popularity of e-commerce in China and in our target markets. Driven by the growth of the internet, broadband, personal computer and mobile penetration in China and the development of fulfillment, payment and other ancillary services associated with online purchases, e-commerce is expected to rapidly rise in significance in China and in our other target markets in Asia. The growing number of online shoppers have made online marketplaces and other e-commerce channels into popular retail platforms for brands. The growth of our business depends on the development and popularity of e-commerce, and the value of e-commerce as part of brands’ expansion strategies.

 

While our business is influenced by general factors affecting our industry, our operating results are more directly affected by company specific factors, including the following major factors:

 

   

Our ability to retain and attract brand partners. The number of our brand partners directly affect our total revenues. We would need to continue to maintain and expand our brand partner base to maintain and grow our revenues.

 

   

Our ability to increase GMV. We generate the majority of our revenues primarily through product sales. Increases in GMV and revenues depend on our ability to attract higher traffic to the online stores, convert more store visitors into consumers, increase consumers’ order values, grow repeat customer base, provide superior experience to customers and expand product offerings.

 

   

Our ability to enhance cooperation with marketplaces. We generate the majority of our revenues primarily through product sales on official marketplace stores that we operate on Tmall. Our future growth depends on our ability to enhance cooperation with Tmall and expand working relationships with other major online marketplaces, such as JD.com.

 

   

Our ability to successfully extend and operate our business in Asia. Almost all of our revenues are generated in China. Our success in extending our geographical reach will affect the increase in our revenues.

 

   

Our ability to innovate. Our ability to innovate and continue to introduce new value-added brand e-commerce solutions through improved technologies and marketing know-how is key to better serve our brand partners and help our brand partners enhance their e-commerce success, which will contribute to our ability to maintain and attract brand partners, sell more solutions and generate more revenues. Our ability to innovate is also crucial to our ability to improve our Maikefeng platform to increase our product sales.

 

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Our ability to manage our revenues and product mix. We generate revenues from product sales and service fees. Our net revenues as a percentage of our GMV and profitability could vary depending on the mix of our revenues from these sources. In general, our net revenues as a percentage of our GMV are lower but our profitability is higher when services revenues contribute to a larger share of our revenues. Our product mix also affects our revenue mix and profitability. Depending on the product category, we may derive more revenues from product sales than service fees, or vice versa, which may further impact our profitability.

 

   

Our ability to effectively invest in our technology platform and fulfillment infrastructure. Our results of operations depend in part on our ability to invest in our technology platform and fulfillment infrastructure cost-effectively. Capital expenditure for investments also affects our financial condition, especially our cash flow.

 

   

Our ability to manage growth, control costs and manage working capital. Our expansion will result in substantial demands on our management, operational, technological, financial and other resources. Our ability to control cost and manage working capital is key to our success. Our continued success depends on our ability to leverage our scale to obtain more favorable terms, including better credit terms and larger credit lines, from our brand partners, marketplaces, advertising partners, lessors of warehouses and logistics services providers. Our ability to gain better insight in inventory turnover and sales patterns, which allows us to better optimize our working capital, may also affect our operations.

 

Descriptions of Certain Statement of Operations Items

 

Net Revenues

 

We generate revenues from two revenue streams: (i) product sales and (ii) services. We generally operate e-commerce businesses for our brand partners based on one of the three business models: distribution model, service fee model and consignment model, or, in some circumstances, a combination of the business models.

 

We derive product sales revenues when we sell products to customers under the distribution model. We select and purchase goods from our brand partners and/or their authorized distributors and sell branded goods directly to customers through our online stores or our Maikefeng platform. Revenues generated from product sales include fees charged to customers for shipping and handling expenses. We record product sales revenue, net of return allowances, value added tax and related surcharges, when the products are delivered and accepted by customers. We offer customers an unconditional right of return for a period of seven days upon receipt of products. Return allowances, which reduce net revenues, are estimated based on our analysis of returns by categories of products based on historical data we have maintained, and subject to adjustments to the extent that actual returns differ or are expected to differ.

 

We derive services revenues under the service fee model and consignment model. We provide IT services, online store operation services, digital marketing services and other services, such as payment collection, to our brand partners under the service fee model. Under the consignment model, we provide online store operation services and warehousing services, whereby our brand partners stock goods in our warehouses for future sales and we are responsible for delivering the goods to customers. Under the consignment model, brand partners may also use one or more of other services rendered by us. We may also facilitate our brand partners’ online sales of goods as an agent under the consignment model and charge our brand partners commission fees calculated based on a formula pre-agreed with our brand partners. We do not take title to the products, do not have any latitude in establishing prices and selecting merchandise, have no discretion in selecting suppliers and generally are not involved in determining product specifications. Based on these indicators, we record the commission fees as services revenue.

 

For services provided under the service fee model and consignment model, we charge our brand partners fees consisting of fixed fees and/or variable fees based on GMV or other variable factors such as number of

 

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orders fulfilled. In particular, variable fees based on GMV is calculated using a predetermined ratio that we have negotiated with our brand partners, which may vary depending on factors such as the type and extent of the services we render. Revenues generated from services relating to online store design and setup and marketing and promotion services for brand partners are recognized when the services are rendered. Revenue generated from services relating to online store operations, customer services, and warehouse and fulfillment services consisted of both fixed fees and variable fees based on the value of merchandise sold. Fixed fees are recognized as revenues ratably over the service period. Variable fees are recognized as revenues when they become determinable based on the GMV and confirmed by our brand partners.

 

The following table sets forth our revenues by source for each period indicated.

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012      2013      2014  
     RMB      %      RMB      %      RMB      US$      %  
     (in thousands, except percentages)  

Net revenues

                    

Product sales

     819,422         85.9         1,274,746         83.8         1,187,162         191,336         74.9   

Services

     135,042         14.1         247,090         16.2         397,258         64,026         25.1   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     954,464         100.0         1,521,836         100.0         1,584,420         255,362         100.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

The following table sets forth the following operating data for each period indicated.

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  

Number of brand partners as of the period end(1)

     56        71        93   

Number of GMV brand partners as of the period end(2)

     53        61        78   

Total GMV(3) (RMB in millions)

     1,460 (4)      2,621 (4)      4,249 (4) 

Average GMV per GMV brand partner(5)

     30        46        61   

 

(1)   Brand partners are defined as companies for which we operate official brand stores or official marketplace stores under their brand names or have entered into agreements to do so.
(2)   GMV brand partners are defined as brand partners that contributed to our GMV during the respective periods.
(3)   GMV is defined as (i) the full value of all purchases transacted and settled on stores operated by us (including our Maikefeng platform but excluding stores for the operations of which we only charge fixed fees) and (ii) the full value of purchases for which customers have placed orders and paid deposits on such stores and which have been settled offline. Our calculation of GMV includes value added tax excludes (i) shipping charges and (ii) surcharges and other taxes, (iii) value of the goods that are returned and (iv) deposits for purchases that have not been settled.
(4)   GMV of our Maikefeng platform was nil, nil and RMB33.9 million (US$5.5 million) in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively.
(5)   Average GMV per GMV brand partner is calculated by dividing GMV (excluding Maikefeng) by the average number of GMV brand partners as of the beginning and end of the respective periods.

 

Our net revenues as a percentage of our GMV decreased from 65.4% in 2012 to 58.1% in 2013 to 37.3% in 2014. The decreases in our net revenue as a percentage of our GMV were primarily due to the increase in our services revenues as a percentage of our net revenues, particularly the increase in commission fees charged by us under the consignment model. Because commission fees charged by us under the consignment model is recorded as the services revenue on a net basis, it represents a smaller percentage of GMV than sales of products under the

 

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distribution model, which is recorded as products sales revenue on a gross basis. The trend of our net revenues as a percentage of our GMV in the future depends on the relative pace of the increase in our services revenues and the increase in our product sales revenue, including revenue generated from our Maikefeng platform.

 

Operating expenses

 

Our operating expenses consist primarily of cost of products, fulfillment expenses, sales and marketing expenses, technology and content expenses, and general and administrative expenses. The following table breaks down our total operating expenses by these categories, by amounts and as percentages of total net revenues for each of the periods presented.

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     %     RMB     %     RMB     US$     %  
     (in thousands, except percentages)  

Net revenues

     954,464        100.0        1,521,836        100.0        1,584,420        255,362        100.0   

Operating expenses

              

Cost of products

     (808,063     (84.7     (1,245,832     (81.9     (1,086,133     (175,053     (68.3

Fulfillment

     (72,026     (7.5     (116,432     (7.7     (168,130     (27,098     (10.6

Sales and marketing

     (78,633     (8.2     (146,202     (9.6     (226,952     (36,577     (14.6

Technology and content

     (6,554     (0.7     (16,120     (1.1     (63,607     (10,252     (4.0

General and administrative

     (33,461     (3.5     (38,160     (2.5     (96,911     (15,619     (6.1

Other operating income (expenses), net

     (122     (0.0     (75     (0.0     457        74        (0.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (998,859     (104.6     (1,562,821     (102.8     (1,641,276     (264,525     (103.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

Cost of products is separately presented for product sales under the distribution model. Cost of products consists of the purchase price of products and inbound shipping charges, as well as inventory write-downs. Shipping charges to receive products from the suppliers are included in the inventories, and recognized as cost of products upon sale of the products to the customers. Our cost of products does not include other direct costs related to cost of product sales such as shipping and handling expenses, payroll and benefits of staff, logistic centers rental expenses and depreciation expenses. Therefore our cost of products may not be comparable to other companies which include such expenses in their cost of products. We expect our cost of products to increase in line with the growth of our net revenues generated from product sales.

 

Our fulfillment expenses primarily consist of (i) expenses charged by third-party couriers for dispatching and delivering products to consumers, (ii) expenses incurred in operating our fulfillment and customer service center, including personnel cost and expenses attributable to buying, receiving, inspecting and warehousing inventories, picking, packaging and preparing customer orders for shipment, and store operations, (iii) rental expenses of leased warehouses, and (iv) packaging material costs. We expect our fulfillment expenses to increase as we will hire additional fulfillment personnel and lease more warehouses to meet the demand driven by the increase in the GMV and expansion of our fulfillment services. We plan to make our fulfillment operations more efficient by setting up customized warehouse facilities to make full use of the available space, improve the pick-and-pack workflow efficiency, accommodate greater product selection and minimize order splitting.

 

Our sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of payroll, bonus and benefits of sales and marketing staff, advertising costs, service fees paid to marketplaces, agency fees and costs for promotional materials. Our sales and marketing expenses have increased in recent years, primarily due to the growth of our sales and marketing team and an expansion of our marketing efforts. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will continue to increase as we devote further efforts to expand digital marketing services for our brand partners and engage in additional advertising activities to increase the GMV of stores operated by us.

 

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Our technology and content expenses consist primarily of technology infrastructure expenses and payroll and related expenses for employees in our technology and system department, editorial content, as well as costs associated with the computer, storage and telecommunications infrastructure for internal use. We expect spending in technology and content to increase over time as we add more experienced IT professionals and continue to invest in our technology platform to provide comprehensive services to brand partners.

 

Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll and related expenses for our management and other employees involved in general corporate functions, office rentals, depreciation and amortization expenses relating to property and equipment used in general and administrative functions, professional service and consulting fees and other expenses incurred in connection with general corporate purposes. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase as we incur additional expenses in connection with the expansion of our business and our operations, which include adding more staff to our general and administrative team, increasing expenses related to improving and maintaining our internal control over financial reporting and complying with our reporting obligations, and higher share-based compensation expenses.

 

Taxation

 

Cayman Islands

 

We are not subject to income or capital gains tax under the current laws of the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Islands does not impose a withholding tax on payments of dividends to shareholders.

 

Hong Kong

 

Our subsidiary incorporated in Hong Kong is subject to Hong Kong profit tax at a rate of 16.5% on its taxable income generated from operations in Hong Kong. Hong Kong does not impose a withholding tax on dividends.

 

China

 

Generally, our subsidiaries and consolidated VIE in China are subject to enterprise income tax on their taxable income in China at a rate of 25%. The enterprise income tax is calculated based on the entity’s global income as determined under PRC tax laws and accounting standards.

 

We are subject to VAT at a rate of 17% on product sales and 6% on our services, in each case less any deductible VAT we have already paid or borne. We are also subject to surcharges on VAT payments in accordance with PRC law.

 

We are subject to business tax at a rate of 5% for our services.

 

Dividends paid by our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary in China to our intermediary holding company in Hong Kong will be subject to a withholding tax rate of 10%, unless the relevant Hong Kong entity satisfies all the requirements under the Arrangement between the PRC and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital entered into on August 21, 2006 and receives approval from the relevant tax authority. If the relevant Hong Kong entity satisfies all the requirements under the tax arrangement and receives approval from the relevant tax authority, then the dividends paid to the Hong Kong entity would be subject to withholding tax at the standard rate of 5%.

 

If our holding company in the Cayman Islands or any of our subsidiaries outside of China were deemed to be a “resident enterprise” under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, it would be subject to enterprise income tax on its worldwide income at a rate of 25%. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China—We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income.”

 

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Critical Accounting Policies

 

We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make judgments, estimates and assumptions. We continually evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experiences and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Since the use of estimates is an integral component of the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from our expectations as a result of changes in our estimates. Some of our accounting policies require a higher degree of judgment than others in their application and require us to make significant accounting estimates.

 

The selection of critical accounting policies, the judgments and other uncertainties affecting application of those policies and the sensitivity of reported results to changes in conditions and assumptions are factors that should be considered when reviewing our financial statements. We believe the following accounting policies involve the most significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our financial statements.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

We provide brand e-commerce solutions to our brand partners and have two revenue streams: (i) product sales and (ii) services. Consistent with the criteria of ASC 605, Revenue Recognition, we recognize revenues when the following four revenue recognition criteria are met: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, (iii) the selling price is fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured.

 

We generate revenues from selling branded products directly to customers under the distribution model or facilitate our brand partners’ sales of products as an agent under the consignment model.

 

We evaluate whether it is appropriate to record proceeds from product sales as revenues at the gross amount or the net amount as commission fees earned in accordance with ASC 605-45-45.

 

Product Sales

 

Under the distribution model, we select and purchase goods from our brand partners and/or their authorized distributors and sell goods directly to customers through online stores operated by us or on our Maikefeng platform. Revenue under the distribution model is recognized on a gross basis and presented as product sales in the consolidated statements of operations, because (i) we, rather than the brand partner, are the primary obligor and are responsible to the customers for the key aspects of the fulfillment of the transaction including pre-sales and after-sales services; (ii) we bear the physical and general inventory risk once the products are delivered to our warehouse; (iii) we have latitude in establishing prices; and (iv) we have credit risk. The majority of revenues generated from selling branded products are under the distribution model and recognized on a gross basis.

 

Product sales, net of return allowances, value added tax and related surcharges, are recognized when customers accept the products upon delivery. We offer online customers an unconditional right of return for a period of seven days upon receipt of products. Return allowances, which reduce revenue, are estimated based on historical data we have maintained and our analysis of returns by categories of products, and subject to adjustments to the extent that actual returns differ or expected to differ. We made gross return allowances against our revenue of RMB188,000, RMB265,000 and RMB331,000 (US$53,348) for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively.

 

A majority of our customers make online payments through third-party payment platforms when they place orders on our online stores. The funds will not be released to us by these third-party payment platforms until the customers accept the delivery of the products at which point we recognize sales of products.

 

A portion of our customers pay upon the receipt of our products. Our delivery service providers collect the payments from our customers for us. We record a receivable on the balance sheet with respect to cash held by third-party couriers.

 

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Shipping and handling charges are included in net revenues. We typically do not charge shipping fees on orders exceeding a certain sale amount. Shipping revenue has not been material for the periods presented. Our shipping costs are presented as part of our operating expenses.

 

Services

 

In some instances, we facilitate the brand partners’ online sales of their respective branded products as an agent. We do not take title to the products, do not have any latitude in establishing prices and selecting merchandise, have no discretion in supplier selection, and generally are not involved in the determination of products specification. Based on these indicators, we have determined that revenue from our sales of products where we act as an agent are service fees in nature. Therefore, we record commission fees from our brand partners based on a pre-determined formula as services revenue in the consolidated statements of operations.

 

We also provide IT, online store operations, marketing and promotion, customer service, warehousing and fulfillment, and other services to our brand partners. Brand partners may elect to use our comprehensive end-to-end e-commerce solutions or select specific elements of our e-commerce supporting infrastructure and service that best fit their needs. We charge our brand partners a combination of fix fees and/or variable fees based on the value of merchandise sold or other variable factors such as number of orders fulfilled. Revenue generated from these service arrangements is recognized on a gross basis and presented as services revenue in the consolidated statements of operations. All the costs that we incur in the provision of the above services are classified as operating expenses on the consolidated statements of operations.

 

Revenue generated from services relating to IT service, and marketing and promotion services for brand partners are recognized when the services are rendered. Revenue generated from services relating to online store operations, customer services, and warehouse and fulfillment services consisted of both fixed fees and variable fees based on the value of merchandise sold. Fixed fee is recognized as revenue ratably over the service period. Variable fees are recognized as revenue when they become determinable based on the value of merchandise sold and confirmed by the brand partners.

 

Some of our service contracts are considered multiple element arrangements as they include provision of a combination of various services based on the brand partner’s requirements. These contracts may include one-time online store design and setup services, marketing and promotion services during certain holidays, and continuous online store operation services, warehouse and fulfillment services over a period of time to the same brand partner.

 

We allocate arrangement consideration in multiple-deliverable revenue arrangements at the inception of an arrangement to all services revenues based on the relative selling price in accordance with the selling price hierarchy, which includes (i) vendor-specific objective evidence, or VSOE, if available; (ii) third-party evidence or TPE, if VSOE is not available, and (iii) best estimate of selling price, or BESP, if neither VSOE nor TPE is available.

 

VSOE. We determine VSOE based on our historical pricing and discounting practices for the specific service when sold separately. In determining VSOE, we require that a substantial majority of the selling prices for these services fall within a reasonably narrow pricing range. We have historical pricing for online store operation and customer services and warehousing and fulfillment services on a standalone basis. As a result, we have used VSOE to allocate the selling price for these services when they are elements of a multiple element arrangement. We have not historically priced one-time online store design and set up services on a standalone basis, and therefore, we consider TPE and BESP as discussed below.

 

TPE. When VSOE cannot be established for deliverables in multiple element arrangements, we apply judgment with respect to whether we can establish a selling price based on TPE. TPE is determined based on competitor prices for similar deliverables when sold separately. Generally, our business strategy differs from that of our peers, and its offerings contain a significant level of differentiation such that the comparable pricing of

 

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services with similar functionality cannot be obtained. Furthermore, we are unable to reliably determine what similar competitor services’ selling prices are on a stand-alone basis. As a result, for the periods presented in the consolidated financial statements, we have not been able to establish selling price based on TPE for any of our service offering.

 

BESP. When we are unable to establish selling price using VSOE or TPE, we use BESP in our allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of BESP is to determine the price at which we would transact a sale if the service were sold on a stand-alone basis. We determine BESP for deliverables by considering multiple factors including, but not limited to, prices we charge for similar offerings and the cost of services we provide. We have used BESP to allocate the selling price of one-time online store design and set up services and marketing and promotion services under these multiple element arrangements. The process for determining BESP involves management judgment. Our process of considering multiple factors may vary depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each deliverable. If facts and circumstances underlying the factors we consider change, or should subsequent facts and circumstances lead us to consider additional factors, our BESP could change in future periods. We regularly review the evidence of selling prices for our services and maintain internal controls over the establishment and updates of these estimates. There were no material changes in BESP for our services during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014, nor do we expect a material change in BESP in the foreseeable future.

 

Inventories

 

Inventories, consisting of products available for sale, are valued at the lower of cost or market. Cost of inventories is determined using the weighted average cost method. This valuation requires us to make judgments, based on currently available information, about the likely method of disposition, such as through sales to individual customers or liquidations in limited instances due to closure of online stores, and expected recoverable values of each disposition category.

 

We adopt different strategies to deal with non-seasonal and seasonal demands. In addition, we actively track the sales data and make timely adjustments to our procurement plan in order to minimize the chance of excess unsold inventory. As a result, our obsolete inventory has not been significant. Our inventory provision is made for valuation of inventory at the lower of cost or market value. In addition, we generally reserve for inventories on hand aging over certain period of time. Inventory provisions charged to cost of products were RMB9.9 million, RMB12.0 million and RMB12.5 million (US$2.0 million) for 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively.

 

Share-Based Compensation

 

Our share-based payment transactions with our directors, employees and consultants are measured based on the grant date fair value of the equity instrument we issued and recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period based on the straight-line method, with a corresponding impact reflected in additional paid-in capital.

 

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The following table sets forth information regarding the share options granted to eligible employees and directors:

 

Grant Date

 

Type of
equity
instrument

  Number of
Ordinary
shares
Underlying
each equity
instrument
    Exercise
Price
    Fair Value
of

the Equity
Instrument
as of the
Grant Date
    Fair Value
of the
Underlying
Ordinary
Shares as of
the Grant
Date
    Intrinsic Value as of
the Grant Date
 
              RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB     US$    

RMB in

thousands

   

US$ in

thousands

 

February 1, 2012

  Share options     1,298,422        0.1        0.02        3.47        0.57        3.53        0.58        4,454        726   

June 28, 2013

  Share options     3,599,400        0.1        0.02        5.93        0.97        5.99        0.98        21,200        3,454   

August 29, 2014

  Share options     8,892,833        0.1        0.02        13.32        2.17        13.38        2.18        118,097        19,240   

 

Management is responsible for determining the fair value of options granted to our directors, employees and consultants and considered a number of factors including valuations.

 

In determining the fair value of our share options, the binomial option pricing model was applied. The key assumptions used to determine the fair value of the options at the relevant grant dates were as follows. Changes in these assumptions could significantly affect the fair value of stock options and hence the amount of compensation expenses we recognize in our consolidated financial statements.

 

Our share-based compensation expenses are measured at the fair value of the awards as calculated under the binomial option-pricing model. Assumptions used in the binomial model are presented below:

 

     2012     2013     2014  

Risk-free interest rate (per annum)(1)

     2.57     2.59     2.99

Contract life (in years)

     10        10        10   

Expected volatility range(3)

     55.97     50.68     50.48

Expected dividend yield(4)

     0.00     0.00     0.00

 

(1)   We estimate risk-free interest rate based on the yield to maturity of U.S. treasury bonds denominated in US$ and adjusted for country risk premium of PRC with a maturity similar to the expected expiry of the term.
(2)   We estimate the volatility is based on the historical volatility of the comparable companies in the period equal to average time to expiration to the valuation date.
(3)   We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not anticipate any dividend payments on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future.

 

The assumptions used in share-based compensation expenses recognition represent our best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of our judgment. If factors change or different assumptions are used, our share-based compensation expenses could be materially different for any period.

 

Moreover, the estimates of fair value are not intended to predict actual future events or the value that ultimately will be realized by grantees who receive share-based awards, and subsequent events are not indicative of the reasonableness of the original estimates of fair value made by us for accounting purposes.

 

We apply ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, or ASC 718, to account for our employee share-based payments. ASC 718 requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in the subsequent period if actual forfeitures differ from initial estimates. Forfeiture rates are estimated based on historical and future expectations of employee turnover rates and are adjusted to reflect future changes in circumstances and facts, if any. Share-based compensation expenses are recorded net of estimated forfeitures

 

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such that expense is recorded only for those share-based awards that are expected to vest. To the extent we revise these estimates in the future, the share-based payments could be materially impacted in the period of revision, as well as in following periods.

 

Fair Value of Our Ordinary Shares

 

We are a private company with no quoted market prices for our ordinary shares. We have therefore needed to make estimates of the fair value of our ordinary shares at various dates for the following purposes:

 

   

determining the fair value of our ordinary shares at the date of issuance of convertible instruments as one of the inputs in determining the intrinsic value of the beneficial conversion feature, if any; and

 

   

determining the fair value of our ordinary shares at the date of the grant of a share-based compensation award to our employees as one of the inputs in determining the grant date fair value of the award.

 

The following table sets forth the fair value of our ordinary shares estimated at different times with the assistance from an independent valuation firm:

 

Date

   Total Equity Value      Fair Value per
Ordinary
Share
     DLOM     Discount
Rate
   

Purpose of Valuation

     (RMB in
thousand)
     (US$ in
thousand)
     (RMB)      US$                   

February 1, 2012

     376,941         61,411         3.53         0.58         30     15   Share options grant

September 21, 2012

     549,637         89,547         2.92         0.48         30     15   To determine potential beneficial conversion feature in connection with the issuance of Series C1 convertible redeemable preferred shares

June 28, 2013

     940,927         153,295         5.99         0.98         25     15   Share options grant

August 29, 2014

     1,866,669         304,117         13.38         2.18         18     15   To determine potential beneficial conversion feature in connection with the issuance of Series C2 convertible redeemable preferred shares, and share option grant

 

In determining the fair value of our ordinary shares, we applied the income approach/ discounted cash flow, or DCF, analysis based on our projected cash flow using management’s best estimate as of the valuation date. The determination of the fair value of our ordinary shares requires complex and subjective judgments to be made regarding our projected financial and operating results, our unique business risks, the liquidity of our shares and our operating history and prospects at the time of valuation.

 

The major assumptions used in calculating the fair value of ordinary shares include:

 

Discount Rates. The discount rates listed out in the table above were based on the weighted average cost of capital, which was determined based on a consideration of the factors including risk-free rate, comparative industry risk, equity risk premium, company size and non-systemic risk factors.

 

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Comparable Companies. In deriving the weighted average cost of capital used as the discount rates under the income approach, seven publicly traded companies were selected for reference as our guideline companies. The guideline companies were selected based on the following criteria: (i) they operate in the e-commerce industry and (ii) their shares are publicly traded in developed capital markets, including the United States, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan and the UK.

 

Discount for Lack of Marketability, or DLOM. DLOM was quantified by the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Under this option-pricing method, the cost of the put option, which can hedge the price change before the privately held shares can be sold, was considered as a basis to determine the DLOM. This option pricing method is one of the methods commonly used in estimating DLOM as it can take into consideration factors like timing of a liquidity event, such as an initial public offering, and estimated volatility of our shares. The farther the valuation date is from an expected liquidity event, the higher the put option value and thus the higher the implied DLOM. The lower DLOM is used for the valuation, the higher is the determined fair value of the ordinary shares.

 

The income approach involves applying appropriate discount rates to estimated cash flows that are based on earnings forecasts. Our revenues and earnings growth rates, as well as major milestones that we have achieved, contributed to the increase in the fair value of our ordinary shares from 2012 to 2014.

 

However, these fair values are inherently uncertain and highly subjective. The assumptions used in deriving the fair values are consistent with our business plan. These assumptions include: (i) no material changes in the existing political, legal and economic conditions in China; (ii) our ability to retain competent management, key personnel and staff to support our ongoing operations; and (iii) no material deviation in market conditions from economic forecasts. These assumptions are inherently uncertain.

 

The option-pricing method was used to allocate enterprise value to preferred and ordinary shares, taking into account the guidance prescribed by the AICPA Audit and Accounting Practice Aid, “Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation.” The method treats common stock and preferred stock as call options on the enterprise’s value, with exercise prices based on the liquidation preference of the preferred stock.

 

The option-pricing method involves making estimates of the anticipated timing of a potential liquidity event, such as a sale of our company or an initial public offering, and estimates of the volatility of our equity securities. The anticipated timing is based on the plans of our board of directors and management. Estimating the volatility of the share price of a privately held company is complex because there is no readily available market for the shares. We estimated the volatility of our shares to range from 40.5% to 45.9% based on the historical volatilities of comparable publicly traded companies engaged in similar lines of business. Had we used different estimates of volatility, the allocations between preferred and ordinary shares would have been different.

 

The fair value of our ordinary shares decreased from RMB3.53 (US$0.58) per share as of February 1, 2012 to RMB2.92 (US$0.48) per share as of September 21, 2012. The decrease in fair value of our ordinary shares was attributable to dilution impact from the issuance of convertible redeemable preferred shares on September 21, 2012.

 

The fair value of our ordinary shares increased from RMB2.92 (US$0.48) per share as of September 21, 2012 to RMB13.38 (US$2.18) per share as of August 29, 2014. The increase in fair value of our ordinary shares was primarily attributable to organic business growth:

 

   

We further improved the functionality and user experience of online stores and increased the number of brand partners.

 

   

We reduced the proportion of personal computers in our product mix due to their lower markups, and the reduction was expected to improve our overall profitability.

 

   

We entered into new product categories, mainly automobile and insurance, which we expected would generate more revenues and increase our overall profitability.

 

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We launched new business in mkf.com.

 

   

Our GMV increased during the period.

 

The estimates used to determine the fair value of ordinary shares will not be necessary to determine the fair value of new awards once our ADSs begin trading.

 

Income Taxes

 

Current income taxes are provided on the basis of net income for financial reporting purposes, adjusted for income and expense items which are not assessable or deductible for income tax purposes, in accordance with the regulations of the relevant tax jurisdictions. We follow the liability method of accounting for income taxes.

 

Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial statements carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities by applying enacted statutory tax rates that will be in effect in the period in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse. We record a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rate is recognized in our consolidated financial statements in the period of change.

 

In accordance with the provisions of ASC 740, we recognize in our financial statements the benefit of a tax position if the tax position is “more likely than not” to prevail based on the facts and technical merits of the position. Tax positions that meet the “more likely than not” recognition threshold are measured at the largest amount of tax benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon settlement. We estimate our liability for unrecognized tax benefits which are periodically assessed and may be affected by changing interpretations of laws, rulings by tax authorities, changes and/or developments with respect to tax audits, and expiration of the statute of limitations. The ultimate outcome for a particular tax position may not be determined with certainty prior to the conclusion of a tax audit and, in some cases, appeal or litigation process.

 

We consider positive and negative evidence when determining whether some portion or all of our deferred tax assets will not be realized. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of current and cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability, the duration of statutory carry-forward periods, our historical results of operations, and our tax planning strategies. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Based upon the level of our historical taxable income and projections for future taxable income over the periods in which the deferred tax assets are deductible, we believe it is more likely than not that we will not realize the deferred tax assets resulted from the tax loss carried forward in the future periods.

 

The actual benefits ultimately realized may differ from our estimates. As each audit is concluded, adjustments, if any, are recorded in our financial statements in the period in which the audit is concluded. Additionally, in future periods, changes in facts, circumstances and new information may require us to adjust the recognition and measurement estimates with regard to individual tax positions. Changes in recognition and measurement estimates are recognized in the period in which the changes occur. As of December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014, we did not have any significant unrecognized uncertain tax positions.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In July 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued a pronouncement which provides guidance on financial statement presentation of an unrecognized tax benefit when a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward exists. The FASB’s objective in issuing this Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, is to eliminate diversity in practice resulting from a lack of guidance on this topic in current U.S. GAAP. The amendments in this ASU state that an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion

 

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of an unrecognized tax benefit, should be presented in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward, except as follows. To the extent a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward is not available at the reporting date under the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction to settle any additional income taxes that would result from the disallowance of a tax position or the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction does not require the entity to use, and the entity does not intend to use, the deferred tax asset for such purpose, the unrecognized tax benefit should be presented in the financial statements as a liability and should not be combined with deferred tax assets. This ASU applies to all entities that have unrecognized tax benefits when a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward exists at the reporting date. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied prospectively to all unrecognized tax benefits that exist at the effective date. Retrospective application is permitted. We have adopted this ASU and concluded that there is no material impact on our consolidated financial results or disclosure.

 

In May 2014, the FASB and International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB, issued their converged standard on revenue recognition. The objective of the revenue standard ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” is to provide a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers to improve comparability within industries, across industries, and across capital markets. The revenue standard contains principles that an entity will apply to determine the measurement of revenue and timing of when it is recognized. The underlying principle is that an entity will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. For public companies, the revenue standard is effective for the first interim period within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and early adoption is not permitted. We are in the process of evaluating the impact of the standard on our consolidated financial statements.

 

On August 27, 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, which provides guidance on determining when and how reporting entities must disclose going-concern uncertainties in their financial statements. The new standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date of issuance of the entity’s financial statements (or within one year after the date on which the financial statements are available to be issued, when applicable). Further, an entity must provide certain disclosures if there is “substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern.” The ASU is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. The ASU must be applied at the effective date, and we are in the process of evaluating the impact of the standard on our consolidated financial statements.

 

In November 2014, the FASB issued a new pronouncement which provides guidance on determining whether the host contract in a hybrid financial instrument issued in the form of a share is more akin to debt or to equity. The new standard requires management to determine the nature of the host contract by considering the economic characteristics and risks of the entire hybrid financial instrument, including the embedded derivative feature that is being evaluated for separate accounting from the host contract. The new standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption, including adoption in an interim period, is permitted. The effects of initially adopting the amendments in this update should be applied on a modified retrospective basis to existing hybrid financial instruments issued in the form of a share as of the beginning of the fiscal year for which the amendments are effective. We are in the process of assessing the effect of adoption of this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.

 

Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

Prior to this offering, we have been a private company with limited numbers of accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements for 2012, 2013 and 2014, we and our auditors, an independent registered public accounting firm, identified one material weakness and one significant deficiency in our internal control over

 

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financial reporting. As defined in the standards established by the PCAOB, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. A “significant deficiency” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, that is less severe than a material weakness yet important enough to merit attention by those responsible for oversight of the company’s financial reporting.

 

The material weakness identified was we lacked formal process to identify and address risk of material misstatement related to U.S. GAAP reporting. This identified material weakness could affect our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and to prevent or detect material misstatements of the company’s annual or interim financial statements on a timely basis.

 

Neither we nor our independent registered public accounting firm undertook a comprehensive assessment of our internal control under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for purposes of identifying and reporting any weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. We and they are required to do so only after we become a public company. Had we performed a formal assessment of our internal control over financial reporting or had our independent registered public accounting firm performed an audit of our internal control over financial reporting, additional control deficiencies may have been identified.

 

To remediate our identified material weakness and improve our internal control over financial reporting, we are in the process of implementing the risk assessment process, preparing the risk assessment documentation and performing the formal evaluation process for evaluating related risks based on such documentation.

 

The significant deficiency identified was we lacked audit committee and enough internal audit resources to establish formal internal control framework. Following the identification of the significant deficiency, we are in the process of establishing an audit committee before the closing of this offering. We will improve our internal audit function and hire an experienced internal auditor by the end of 2015. The internal auditor will be independent of our operations and will report directly to the audit committee. We will perform self-assessment of internal control effectiveness on a continuous basis. The identified deficiency will be corrected and documented in a timely manner. We will also hire more competent personnel or seek external professional service related to SOX 404 compliance.

 

We cannot assure you that all these measures will be sufficient to remediate our material weakness or significant deficiency in time, or at all. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired.”

 

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Results of Operations

 

The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated both in absolute amount and as a percentage of our total net revenues.

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     2014  
     RMB     %     RMB     %     RMB     US$      %  
     (in thousands, except for per share and per ADS data and number of shares)  

Net revenues

               

Product sales

     819,422        85.9        1,274,746        83.8        1,187,162        191,336         74.9   

Services

     135,042        14.1        247,090        16.2        397,258        64,026         25.1   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     954,464        100.0        1,521,836        100.0        1,584,420        255,362         100.0   

Operating expenses(1)

               

Cost of products

     (808,063     (84.7     (1,245,832     (81.9     (1,086,133     (175,053      (68.6

Fulfillment

     (72,026     (7.5     (116,432     (7.7     (168,130     (27,098      (10.6

Sales and marketing

     (78,633     (8.2     (146,202     (9.6     (226,952     (36,577      (14.3

Technology and content

     (6,554     (0.7     (16,120     (1.1     (63,607     (10,252      (4.0

General and administrative

     (33,461     (3.5     (38,160     (2.5     (96,911     (15,619      (6.1

Other operating expenses, net

     (122     (0.0     (75     (0.0     457        74         0.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (998,859     (104.6     (1,562,821     (102.8     (1,641,276     (264,525      (103.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (44,395     (4.6     (40,985     (2.8     (56,856     (9,163      (3.6

Other income (expenses)

               

Interest income

     122        0.0        4,574        0.3        3,156        509         0.2   

Interest expenses

     (3,275     (0.3     (677     (0.0     (1,552     (250      (0.1

Exchange gain (loss)

     314        0.0        (376     (0.0     (2,650     (427      (0.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Loss before tax

     (47,234     (4.9     (37,464     (2.5     (57,902     (9,331      (3.7

Income tax expense

                   (307     (0.0     (1,912     (308      (0.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net loss

     (47,234     (4.9     (37,771 <