F-1 1 d373760df1.htm F-1 F-1
Table of Contents

As filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on October 6, 2017.

Registration No. 333-          

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM F-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

ERYTECH Pharma S.A.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

France   2836   Not applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

ERYTECH Pharma S.A.

Bâtiment Adénine, 60 Avenue Rockefeller

69008 Lyon France

+33 4 78 74 4438

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

CorpoMax Inc.

2915 Ogletown Road

Newark, Delaware 19713

+1 302 266 8200

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Marc Recht

Divakar Gupta

Brian Leaf

Cooley LLP

500 Boylston Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02116

+1 617 937 2300

 

Arnaud Duhamel

Gide Loyrette Nouel A.A.R.P.I.

22, cours Albert ler

75008 Paris France

+33 1 40 75 00 00

 

Eric W. Blanchard

Brian K. Rosenzweig

Covington & Burling LLP

The New York Times Building

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, New York 10018-1405

+1 212 841 1111

  Bertrand Sénéchal

Linklaters LLP

25 rue de Marignan

75008 Paris France

+33 1 56 43 56 43

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

TITLE OF EACH CLASS OF

SECURITIES TO BE REGISTERED

 

PROPOSED

MAXIMUM

AGGREGATE

OFFERING PRICE (2)(3)(4)

   AMOUNT OF
REGISTRATION FEE (5)

Ordinary shares, 0.10 nominal value per share (1)

  US$100,000,000    US$12,450

 

 

(1)    All ordinary shares will be in the form of ADSs in the U.S. offering, with each ADS representing one ordinary share. ADSs issuable upon deposit of the ordinary shares registered hereby have been registered pursuant to a separate registration statement on Form F-6.
(2)    Includes ordinary shares (which may be in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs), that the underwriters have the option to purchase. See “Underwriting.”
(3)    Includes ordinary shares which are being offered in a private placement in Europe and other countries outside of the United States and Canada but which may be resold from time to time in the United States in transactions requiring registration under the Securities Act or an exemption therefrom. The total number of ordinary shares in the U.S. offering and the European private placement is subject to reallocation between them.
(4)    Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.
(5)    Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) based on an estimate of the proposed maximum aggregate offering price.

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information contained in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED OCTOBER 6, 2017

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

                Ordinary Shares

(Including Ordinary Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares)

 

LOGO

         per Ordinary Share

$             per American Depositary Share

 

 

ERYTECH Pharma S.A. is offering an aggregate of                      ordinary shares in a global offering.

ERYTECH Pharma S.A. is offering                      ordinary shares in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, in the United States, referred to herein as the U.S. offering. Each ADS represents the right to receive one ordinary share and the ADSs may be evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs. This is our initial public offering of our ADSs in the United States. We have applied to list our ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ERYP.”

ERYTECH Pharma S.A. is concurrently offering              ordinary shares in Europe and countries outside of the United States and Canada in a private placement, referred to herein as the European private placement. Our ordinary shares are listed on Euronext Paris under the symbol “ERYP.” On                      , 2017, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris was          per ordinary share, equivalent to a price of $         per ADS, assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar.

The closings of the U.S. offering and the European private placement, which are together referred to as the global offering, will occur simultaneously. The total number of ordinary shares (including in the form of ADSs) in the U.S. offering and the European private placement is subject to reallocation between them.

We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

Investing in the ordinary shares and ADSs involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 13.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any U.S. state or other securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

     PER
ORDINARY
SHARE
     PER ADS      TOTAL  

Offering price

                 $               $           

Underwriting commissions (1)

                 $      $  

Proceeds, before expenses, to ERYTECH Pharma

                 $      $  

 

 

(1)    The underwriters will also be reimbursed for certain expenses incurred in the global offering. See “Underwriting” for details.

We have agreed to issue, at the option of the underwriters, within 30 days from the date of the underwriting agreement, up to an aggregate of                     additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares in the global offering to be sold to the several underwriters at the applicable offering price. If the underwriters exercise this option in full, the total underwriting commissions payable by us will be $         and the total proceeds to us, before expenses, will be $            .

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs to purchasers in the U.S. offering on or about                 , 2017 through the book-entry facilities of The Depository Trust Company. The underwriters expect to deliver the ordinary shares to purchasers in the European private placement on or about                 , 2017 through the book-entry facilities of Euroclear France.

 

Global Coordinator and Joint Book-Runner

  U.S. Joint Book-Runner   European Joint Book-Runner

Jefferies

  Cowen   Oddo BHF

U.S. Lead Manager

JMP Securities

Prospectus dated                 , 2017.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

     PAGE  

Exchange Rate Information

     ii  

Market, Industry and Other Data

     iii  

Trademarks and Service Marks

     iii  

Prospectus Summary

     1  

Risk Factors

     13  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     48  

Market Information

     49  

Use of Proceeds

     50  

Dividend Policy

     52  

Capitalization

     53  

Dilution

     55  

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

     58  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     60  

Business

     79  

Management

     115  

Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions

     127  

Principal Shareholders

     131  

Description of Share Capital

     133  

Limitations Affecting Shareholders of a French Company

     152  

Description of American Depositary Shares

     153  

Shares and ADSs Eligible for Future Sale

     160  

Material United States Federal Income and French Tax Considerations

     162  

Enforcement of Civil Liabilities

     170  

Underwriting

     171  

Expenses Relating to the Global Offering

     179  

Legal Matters

     180  

Experts

     180  

Where You Can Find More Information

     181  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1  

 

 

For investors outside the United States: Neither we nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit the global offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the global offering of the ADSs and ordinary shares and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

We are incorporated in France, and a majority of our outstanding securities are owned by non-U.S. residents. Under the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, we are currently eligible for treatment as a “foreign private issuer.” As a foreign private issuer, we will not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as domestic registrants whose securities are registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

Our financial statements included in this prospectus are presented in euros and, unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts are in euros. All references in this prospectus to “$,” “US$,” “U.S.$,” “U.S. dollars,” “dollars” and “USD” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “” and “euros,” mean euros, unless otherwise noted. Throughout this prospectus, references to ADSs mean ADSs or ordinary shares represented by such ADSs, as the case may be.


Table of Contents

EXCHANGE RATE INFORMATION

The following table sets forth, for each period indicated, the low and high exchange rates for euros expressed in U.S. dollars, the exchange rate at the end of such period and the average of such exchange rates on the last day of each month during such period, based on the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for the euro. As used in this prospectus, the term “noon buying rate” refers to the rate of exchange for the euro, expressed in U.S. dollars per euro, as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes. The exchange rates set forth below demonstrate trends in exchange rates, but the actual exchange rates used throughout this prospectus may vary.

 

 

 

     YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,  
     2012      2013      2014      2015      2016  

High

     1.3463        1.3816        1.3927        1.2015        1.1516  

Low

     1.2062        1.2774        1.2101        1.0524        1.0375  

Rate at end of period

     1.3186        1.3779        1.2101        1.0859        1.0552  

Average rate per period

     1.2859        1.3281        1.3297        1.1096        1.1072  

 

 

The following table sets forth, for each of the last six months, the low and high exchange rates for euros expressed in U.S. dollars and the exchange rate at the end of the month based on the noon buying rate as described above.

 

 

 

     APRIL
2017
     MAY
2017
     JUNE
2017
     JULY
2017
     AUGUST
2017
     SEPTEMBER
2017
 

High

     1.0941        1.1236        1.1420        1.1826        1.2025        1.2041  

Low

     1.0606        1.0869        1.1124        1.1336        1.1703        1.1747  

Rate at end of period

     1.0895        1.1236        1.1411        1.1826        1.1894        1.1813  

 

 

On December 30, 2016, the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for the euro was 1.00 = $1.0552. Unless otherwise indicated, currency translations in this prospectus reflect the December 30, 2016 exchange rate.

On September 29, 2017, the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for the euro was 1.00 = $1.1813.

 

ii


Table of Contents

MARKET, INDUSTRY AND OTHER DATA

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market size estimates, is based on information from independent industry analysts, third-party sources and management estimates. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information released by independent industry analysts and third-party sources, as well as data from our internal research, and are based on assumptions made by us based on such data and our knowledge of such industry and market, which we believe to be reasonable. In addition, while we believe the market opportunity information included in this prospectus is generally reliable and is based on reasonable assumptions, such data involves risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors.”

TRADEMARKS AND SERVICE MARKS

“ERYTECH Pharma,” “ERYCAPS,” “GRASPA,” the ERYTECH logo and other trademarks or service marks of ERYTECH Pharma S.A. appearing in this prospectus are the property of ERYTECH Pharma S.A. or its subsidiary, ERYTECH Pharma, Inc. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus are listed without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their right thereto. All other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply any relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

 

iii


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs). You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” and our financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters discussed in the sections of this prospectus titled “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” before making an investment decision. Unless otherwise indicated, “ERYTECH,” “the company,” “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to ERYTECH Pharma S.A. and its consolidated subsidiary.

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company developing innovative therapies for rare forms of cancer and orphan diseases. Leveraging our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, which uses a novel technology to encapsulate therapeutic drug substances inside erythrocytes, or red blood cells, we have developed a pipeline of product candidates targeting both solid and liquid tumors for patients with high unmet medical needs. Our lead product candidate, which we refer to as eryaspase or GRASPA, targets the metabolism of cancers by depriving tumor cells of asparagine, an amino acid necessary for their survival and critical in maintaining the cells’ rapid growth rate. We are developing eryaspase for the treatment of solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Based on the initial feedback we received from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, at our pre-IND meeting in October 2017, we plan to initiate a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase for pancreatic cancer in the United States and Europe during the third quarter of 2018. We are also developing eryaspase for the treatment of liquid tumors, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, and acute myeloid leukemia, or AML. We expect to commence a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase as a first-line treatment for adults with ALL by the end of the third quarter of 2018. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, we intend to resubmit a Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, for eryaspase for relapsed or refractory ALL later in October 2017. With respect to eryaspase for the treatment of AML, we are conducting a Phase 2b clinical trial in Europe and expect to report initial results from this trial by the end of 2017.

Recent Developments—Phase 2b Clinical Trial for Eryaspase for the Treatment of Second-Line Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

 

We recently announced the full results from our Phase 2b clinical trial of eryaspase combined with chemotherapy in 141 patients suffering from second-line metastatic pancreatic cancer. The trial met its pre-specified co-primary endpoints of improvement in overall survival rates and progression-free survival rates. The hazard ratio for overall survival in the entire patient population was 0.60, meaning that treatment with eryaspase reduced the risk of death rate by 40% compared to treatment with chemotherapy alone. Our clinical trial represents the first time an asparaginase-based therapy has been reported to have a survival benefit in a solid tumor indication. We presented these results at the European Society for Medical Oncology Congress in Madrid, Spain in September 2017.

Eryaspase—Our Lead Cancer Metabolism–Targeting Product Candidate

Eryaspase consists of the enzyme L-asparaginase encapsulated in red blood cells. L-asparaginase cleaves and reduces intracellular asparagine, a naturally occurring amino acid essential for the survival and proliferation of cells within the body, including cancer cells, and, through osmosis via the treated red blood cells, depletes this protein building block from circulating blood plasma. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells often lack the enzymes necessary to produce asparagine internally and, therefore, must obtain this nutrient from circulating blood. While L-asparaginase injections have been used for decades as a cancer metabolism treatment, the toxicity profiles of current commercially available forms of unencapsulated, or free-form, L-asparaginases have generally limited their use to pediatric ALL patients. Encapsulation of L-asparaginase utilizing our proprietary ERYCAPS platform is designed to shield the body from the side effects of L-asparaginase, which we believe

 



 

1


Table of Contents

broadens the potential use of L-asparaginase outside the pediatric ALL setting, including for the treatment of aggressive solid and liquid tumors. Eryaspase has been tested in over 320 patients to date. In our clinical trials, patients treated with eryaspase have achieved improvements in efficacy endpoints compared to treatment with free-form L-asparaginase or standard of care chemotherapy, and treatment has generally been well tolerated. We are currently developing eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML.

We have not yet obtained approval for any of our products and, as a result, we have not yet generated significant revenues and have incurred significant losses since our inception as we continue to invest in the development of our ERYCAPS platform. Please refer to “—Summary Risk Factors” in this prospectus summary as well as “Risk Factors” for more information about these and other risks we face.

Our ERYCAPS Platform Technology

Our proprietary technology uses transfusion-grade, standard packed red blood cells of all four blood groups (O, A, B and AB), which we obtain from blood banks. We match the red blood cells used to the blood type of the patient receiving treatment. The red blood cells are subjected to osmotic stress, which opens and reseals pores on the surface of the cells and allows therapeutic compounds to be added and then trapped inside the cells. Encapsulation offers a number of benefits as compared to free-form compounds. By protecting the therapeutic substance from detection and clearance by the body’s immune system, encapsulation is designed to reduce the potential for allergic reactions and to allow the therapeutic substance to remain in the body longer. The cellular membranes of the red blood cells also protect the body against the direct toxicity of the drug substance, which results in a decreased incidence of side effects. In the case of L-asparaginase, encapsulation has been shown to extend the half-life of free-form L-asparaginase from one day to approximately 30 days, which should lead to fewer injections required for treatment and a lower overall dose. Another form of L-asparaginase derived from the bacteria E. coli, currently marketed under the brand name Oncaspar, has a half-life of eight days. We believe that these features make eryaspase a promising therapy for patients who may not be able to tolerate currently available free-form L-asparaginases.

 



 

2


Table of Contents

Our Product Development Pipeline

Using our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, we are developing a pipeline of product candidates to treat rare forms of cancer and other orphan diseases. The following table summarizes our product development pipeline:

LOGO

We are currently developing eryaspase for the treatment of the following types of cancer:

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which solid tumors form in the tissues of the pancreas. We estimate there are approximately 150,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed each year in the United States and Europe. Pancreatic cancer is a particularly aggressive cancer, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%, and is one of the fastest growing cancer indications. According to estimates published by the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth largest cause of cancer deaths in the United States. According to an article published in the scientific journal Cancer Research, pancreatic cancer is projected to surpass colon and breast cancer to become the second largest cause of cancer deaths by 2030.

In early October 2017, we met with the FDA to discuss further development of eryaspase for the pancreatic cancer indication and we intend to meet with the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP, of the EMA later in 2017. Based on the initial feedback we received from the FDA at our pre-IND meeting in October 2017, we plan to initiate a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase for pancreatic cancer in the United States and Europe during the third quarter of 2018. We retain worldwide rights to commercialize eryaspase for the pancreatic cancer indication.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

ALL is a blood cancer affecting the lymphoid progenitor cells. ALL patients have excess cells derived from the lymphoid lineage, such as lymphoblasts, B-cells, T-cells and natural killer cells. The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 5,970 new cases of ALL will be diagnosed in the United States in 2017, resulting in approximately 1,440 deaths. Based on incidence data published in scientific literature, we estimate that there are at least as many new cases of ALL diagnosed each year in Europe as in the United States.

 



 

3


Table of Contents

In 2014, we completed a multi-center, open-label pivotal Phase 2/3 clinical trial in 80 children and adults with relapsed or refractory ALL in which we evaluated the safety and efficacy of GRASPA compared to free-form L-asparaginase derived from the bacteria E. coli, also known as native L-asparaginase. In this European trial, patients without a history of allergies to native L-asparaginase treatments were randomized to receive standard chemotherapy plus either GRASPA or native L-asparaginase. Patients with a known allergy to native L-asparaginase treatments were treated with standard chemotherapy plus GRASPA. The patients treated with GRASPA experienced a mean duration of L-asparaginase activity that was more than twice as long as for patients receiving native L-asparaginase. None of the non-allergic patients who received GRASPA experienced an allergic reaction, as compared to 46% of non-allergic patients who received native L-asparaginase. Only 12% of patients with a prior L-asparaginase allergy experienced a new allergic reaction after receiving GRASPA, with no patients in the trial experiencing a severe allergic reaction. Patients in the GRASPA treatment arm also had overall higher complete remission rates during induction, and GRASPA was also associated with fewer drug-related adverse events. After three years of follow-up, a nominal improvement in overall survival rates was observed. We expect to commence a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase as a first-line treatment for adults with ALL by the end of the third quarter of 2018.

Depending on the outcome of our discussions with regulatory authorities, we intend to resubmit an MAA to the EMA for GRASPA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL later in October 2017. If approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL, GRASPA is expected to be marketed in Europe by our commercial partner Orphan Europe, a subsidiary of Recordati S.p.A., an Italian-based pharmaceutical company, and in Israel by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., an Israeli pharmaceutical company, or Teva. In the United States, we are conducting a Phase 1 clinical trial of eryaspase as a first-line treatment for which we expect to enroll between 12 and 18 adult ALL patients, and we expect to complete this trial by the end of 2018. We retain rights to commercialize eryaspase for the treatment of ALL outside of Europe and Israel, including in the United States.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

AML is an aggressive cancer of the blood and bone marrow that is particularly fatal if left untreated. The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 21,000 new cases of AML will be diagnosed in the United States in 2017, resulting in over 10,000 deaths. Based on incidence data published in scientific literature, we estimate that there are at least as many new cases of AML diagnosed each year in Europe as there are in the United States. AML is generally a disease of older people and is uncommon before the age of 45, with approximately 95% of new AML cases in the United States occurring in patients over the age of 19. The median age of a patient with AML is approximately 67 years.

We believe the safety profile of eryaspase may also allow it to be developed as a potential treatment for AML patients, many of whom may respond to asparaginase but cannot be treated with L-asparaginase due to its side effects. We are conducting a multinational, randomized Phase 2b clinical trial in Europe of 123 elderly AML patients, which we refer to as the ENFORCE 1 trial. We completed enrollment of the ENFORCE 1 trial in August 2016 and expect to report primary results by the end of 2017. If approved for the treatment of AML, we expect eryaspase to be marketed in Europe by our commercial partner Orphan Europe and in Israel by Teva. We retain rights to commercialize eryaspase for the treatment of AML outside of Europe and Israel, including in the United States.

Both the FDA and EMA have granted orphan drug designation for eryaspase or GRASPA, as the case may be, for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML. Orphan drug designation provides manufacturers with research grants, tax credits and eligibility for marketing exclusivity of up to seven years in the United States and 10 years in Europe.

Our Additional ERYCAPS Product Candidates

In addition to our product pipeline centered on L-asparaginase treatment, we believe that our ERYCAPS platform has broad potential application and can be used to encapsulate within red blood cells a wide range of therapeutic agents for which long-circulating therapeutic activity or rapid and specific targeting is desired.

 

   

Cancer Metabolism. We have received funding from BPI France for a research program, known as the TEDAC program, and have identified two other enzymes, methionine-g-lyase, or MGL, and arginine

 



 

4


Table of Contents
 

deiminase, or ADI, that degrade amino acids necessary for tumor survival. We believe these enzymes can be encapsulated within red blood cells in order to induce tumor starvation. We expect to commence a Phase 1 clinical trial in Europe by the end of the third quarter of 2018 evaluating the safety of erymethionase, our MGL product candidate, and we are currently conducting preclinical studies on eryminase, our ADI product candidate, as a potential treatment for various cancers.

 

    Enzyme Replacement. Outside of the oncology field, we also are studying the use of our ERYCAPS platform to promote long-acting enzyme activity and targeting of specific cells, which we believe may result in attractive product development opportunities for enzyme therapies in the field of metabolic diseases. We refer to this program under the name ERYZYME. We believe that encapsulation of the therapeutic enzymes may reduce the potential for allergic reactions and allow the therapeutic substance to remain in the body longer when compared to non-encapsulated enzymes. In March 2017, we announced our entry into a research collaboration with the Fox Chase Cancer Center to advance the preclinical development of erymethionase for the treatment of homocystinuria, a rare and severe metabolic disorder of methionine metabolism. In July 2017, we announced our entry into a research collaboration with Queen’s University to advance the preclinical development of eryminase specifically for the treatment of arginase-1 deficiency, a rare and severe metabolic disorder related to arginine metabolism.

 

    Immunotherapy. We have also initiated ERYMMUNE, a preclinical development program designed to explore the use of our ERYCAPS platform to encapsulate tumor antigens within red blood cells as an innovative approach to cancer immunotherapy. Based on our preclinical research, we believe that encapsulated tumor antigens can be targeted to key organs, such as the liver or spleen, in order to induce an immune response, resulting in sustained activation of the body’s immune system to fight cancers. We expect to complete preclinical proof-of-concept studies of ERYMMUNE by the end of 2017.

Our Strategy

Our goal is to become a leading biopharmaceutical company focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing innovative therapies to treat rare forms of cancer and other orphan diseases. The key elements of our strategy to achieve this goal include the following:

 

    Rapidly advance the clinical development of eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the United States and in Europe.

 

    Complete the development of, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize eryaspase in Europe and the United States for the treatment of ALL.

 

    Continue to develop eryaspase for the treatment of other liquid and solid tumor indications.

 

    Leverage our ERYCAPS platform to develop additional innovative and novel therapeutics targeting rare forms of cancer and other orphan diseases.

 

    Execute on research and development and commercialization opportunities that maximize the value of our proprietary ERYCAPS platform.

Our Collaborations for ALL and AML

In November 2012, we entered into an exclusive license and distribution agreement with Orphan Europe to market and distribute GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in 38 countries in Europe, including all of the countries in the European Union. Under the license and distribution agreement, we received an upfront payment of 5 million and are entitled to receive up to an aggregate of 37.5 million upon the achievement of specified regulatory and sales milestones. In addition, Orphan Europe is contributing to the development costs of GRASPA for the treatment of AML, and we are also eligible to receive up to 45% of net product sales by Orphan Europe, representing a combined transfer price and royalties. In March 2011, we entered into an exclusive distribution agreement with Abic Marketing Limited, an affiliate of Teva, which we refer to in this prospectus as Teva. Under the distribution agreement, Teva acquired the exclusive rights to GRASPA in Israel. Teva will seek regulatory approval of GRASPA for the treatment of ALL in Israel and will be responsible for the marketing and distribution of GRASPA, if it is approved. Net profits from sales of GRASPA in Israel will be shared equally between us and Teva.

 



 

5


Table of Contents

We retain the rights to commercialize eryaspase for the treatment of ALL and AML outside of Europe and Israel, including in the United States, and for the treatment of all other indications outside of Israel. We retain the worldwide development and commercialization rights to all of our other product candidates, including eryaspase for the pancreatic cancer indication.

Summary Risk Factors

An investment in our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) involves a high degree of risk. Any of the factors set forth under “Risk Factors” may limit our ability to successfully execute our business strategy. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this prospectus and, in particular, should evaluate the specific factors set forth under “Risk Factors” in deciding whether to invest in our securities. Among these important risks are the following:

 

    We have no approved products, which makes it difficult to assess our future prospects.

 

    We are heavily dependent on the success of our most advanced product candidate, eryaspase.

 

    We may not be successful in our efforts to use and expand our ERYCAPS platform to develop marketable products.

 

    We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.

 

    To date, we have relied primarily on the sale of equity securities and convertible bonds, conditional advances, and reimbursements of research tax credit claims to fund our ongoing cash needs. We may need to raise additional funding, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate our product development efforts or other operations.

 

    Our product candidates will need to undergo clinical trials that are time-consuming and expensive, the outcomes of which are unpredictable, and for which there is a high risk of failure. If clinical trials of our product candidates fail to satisfactorily demonstrate safety and efficacy to the EMA, FDA and other regulators, we may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of these product candidates.

 

    Administration of our product candidates could present risks that exist in relation to blood transfusions.

 

    We will be largely dependent on Orphan Europe and Teva for the marketing of GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in Europe and Israel, respectively.

 

    Our production capacity could prove insufficient for our needs. In particular, our inability to produce and supply adequate amounts of GRASPA to Orphan Europe and Teva under our distribution agreements would give rise to potential financial liability and termination of our agreements, which would harm our business and financial condition.

 

    We face substantial competition from companies with considerably more resources and experience than we have, which may result in others discovering, developing, receiving approval for, or commercializing products before or more successfully than us.

 

    Our ability to compete may decline if we do not adequately protect our proprietary rights.

 

    There has been no market for our ADSs prior to the U.S. offering and an active and liquid market for our securities may fail to develop, which could harm the market price of our ADSs.

 

    The rights of shareholders in companies subject to French corporate law differ in material respects from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States.

 

    As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from a number of rules under the U.S. securities laws and are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a U.S. company, which may limit the information available to holders of ADSs and ordinary shares.

 

    We are an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our ADSs less attractive to investors.

 



 

6


Table of Contents

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the U.S. Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

 

    the ability to present only two years of audited financial statements in addition to any required interim financial statements and correspondingly reduced disclosure in management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations in the registration statement for the global offering of which this prospectus forms a part;

 

    exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002; and

 

    to the extent that we no longer qualify as a foreign private issuer, (1) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and (2) exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation, including golden parachute compensation.

We may take advantage of these provisions for up to five years or such earlier time that we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in total annual gross revenue, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced burdens. For example, we have presented only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations disclosure in this prospectus, and have taken advantage of the exemption from auditor attestation on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. To the extent that we take advantage of these reduced burdens, the information that we provide stockholders may be different than you might obtain from other public companies in which you hold equity interests.

In addition, under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. Since International Financial Reporting Standards make no distinction between public and private companies for purposes of compliance with new or revised accounting standards, the requirements for our compliance as a private company and as a public company are the same.

Implications of Being a Foreign Private Issuer

We are also considered a “foreign private issuer” under U.S. securities laws. In our capacity as a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from certain rules under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that impose certain disclosure obligations and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.

We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We will remain a foreign private issuer until such time that more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (1) the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents; (2) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (3) our business is administered principally in the United States.

 



 

7


Table of Contents

We have taken advantage of certain reduced reporting and other requirements in this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different from the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold equity securities.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated as a société par actions simplifiée, or S.A.S., on October 26, 2004 and became a société anonyme, or S.A., on September 29, 2005. Our principal executive offices are located at Bâtiment Adénine, 60 Avenue Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon, France. We are registered at the Register of Commerce and Companies of Lyon (Registre du commerce et des sociétés) under the number 479 560 013. In April 2014, we incorporated our wholly-owned U.S. subsidiary, ERYTECH Pharma, Inc. In February 2016, we opened our U.S. office in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In May 2013, we completed the initial public offering of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris, raising 17.7 million in gross proceeds. In October 2014, December 2015, December 2016 and April 2017, we raised 30.0 million, 25.4 million, 9.9 million and 70.5 million, respectively, in gross proceeds from the issuances of additional ordinary shares. Our telephone number at our principal executive offices is +33 4 78 74 44 38. Our agent for service of process in the United States is CorpoMax Inc. Our website address is www.erytech.com. The reference to our website is an inactive textual reference only and information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website or any other website cited in this prospectus is not part of this prospectus.

 



 

8


Table of Contents

THE GLOBAL OFFERING

 

Global offering

                 ordinary shares offered by us, consisting of ordinary shares in the form of ADSs offered in the U.S. offering and ordinary shares offered in the European private placement. The closings of the U.S. offering and the European private placement will occur simultaneously. The total number of ordinary shares (including in the form of ADSs) in the U.S. offering and European private placement is subject to reallocation between these offerings as permitted under the applicable laws and regulations.

 

U.S. offering

             ADSs, each representing one ordinary share

 

European private placement

             ordinary shares

 

Ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) to be outstanding after the global offering

                 ordinary shares

 

Option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares in the global offering

We have agreed to issue, at the option of the underwriters, within 30 days after the date of the underwriting agreement, up to an aggregate of                  additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares.

 

American Depositary Shares

Each ADS represents one ordinary share, nominal value 0.10 per share. Purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering will have the rights of an ADS holder as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and all holders and beneficial owners of ADSs issued thereunder. To better understand the terms of the ADSs, purchasers of ADSs should carefully read the section in this prospectus titled “Description of American Depositary Shares.” We also encourage purchasers of ADSs to read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

 

Depositary

The Bank of New York Mellon

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from the global offering of approximately              ($             ) million, assuming an offering price of $             per ADS in the U.S. offering and              per ordinary share in the European private placement, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, after deducting estimated underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds from the global offering, together with our existing resources, to fund the clinical development of eryaspase through preclinical and clinical development and the overall development of our ERYCAPS platform technology, and for working capital and for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” for more information.

 



 

9


Table of Contents

Dividend policy

We do not expect to pay any dividends on the ordinary shares or ADSs in the foreseeable future.

 

Risk factors

You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in the ordinary shares or ADSs.

 

Proposed Nasdaq Global Market symbol for our ADSs

“ERYP”

 

Euronext Paris trading symbol for our ordinary shares

“ERYP”

The number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) that will be outstanding after the global offering is based on 11,744,448 ordinary shares outstanding as of June 30, 2017 and excludes:

 

    825,527 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of founder’s share warrants (BSPCE), share purchase warrants (BSA), free shares and stock options granted but not exercised as of June 30, 2017 at a weighted average exercise price of 10.2563 ($11.7035) per ordinary share based on the exchange rate in effect as of June 30, 2017 (this weighted average exercise price does not include the 209,388 ordinary shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding free shares that may be issued for free with no exercise price paid);

 

    357,913 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our share-based compensation plans and other delegations of authority from our shareholders; and

 

    13,000,000 ordinary shares reserved to date pursuant to a delegation of authority from our shareholders for share capital increases by us through rights issuances and public or private offerings.

Except as otherwise noted, the information in this prospectus assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares in the global offering.

 



 

10


Table of Contents

SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The following summary consolidated statement of income (loss) data for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 and summary consolidated statement of financial position data as of December 31, 2015 and 2016 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

The following summary consolidated statement of income (loss) data for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 and summary consolidated statement of financial position data as of June 30, 2017 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 were prepared in accordance with IAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, the standard of the International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, applicable to interim financial statements.

Our historical results and the results for the six months ended June 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2017 or in the future. You should read this summary data together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes beginning on page F-1, as well as the section of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Summary Consolidated Statement of Income (Loss) Data:

 

 

 

     YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,     SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30,  
     2015     2016     2016     2017  
     (in thousands, except share and
per share data)
 

Revenues

                

Other income

     2,929       4,138       2,403       1,788  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating income

     2,929       4,138       2,403       1,788  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

        

Research and development

     (10,776     (19,720     (8,800     (12,082

General and administrative

     (7,736     (6,808     (4,222     (3,895
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (18,512     (26,528     (13,022     (15,977
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

     (15,583     (22,390     (10,618     (14,189
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Financial income

     567       488       260       113  

Income tax

     3       (10     9       (5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   (15,013   (21,913   (10,349   (14,081
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Basic and diluted loss per share

   (2.16   (2.74   (1.31   (1.42
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted number of shares used for computing basic and diluted loss per share (1)

     6,957,654       7,983,642       7,929,309       9,937,252  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

(1)   This number represents the average weighted number of shares in circulation during the relevant period.

 



 

11


Table of Contents

Summary Condensed Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Data:

 

 

 

     AS OF JUNE 30, 2017  
     ACTUAL      AS
ADJUSTED (1)(2)
 
     (in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   88,551                        

Total assets

     99,307     

Total shareholders’ equity

     87,671     

Total non-current liabilities

     2,596     

Total current liabilities

     9,040     

Total liabilities

     11,636     

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

     99,307     

 

 

(1)   The as adjusted condensed consolidated statement of financial position data reflects our issuance and sale of ADSs and ordinary shares in the global offering at an assumed offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to          per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
(2)   The as adjusted condensed consolidated statement of financial position data is illustrative only and will change based on the actual offering price and other terms of the global offering determined at pricing. Each 1.00 ($        ) increase or decrease in the assumed offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to          per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, would increase or decrease the as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, total assets and total shareholders’ equity by          ($        ), assuming that the number of ordinary shares offered by us (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs), as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Subject to applicable law, we may also increase or decrease the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) we are offering. Each increase or decrease of 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us would increase or decrease the as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, total assets and total shareholders’ equity by          ($        ), assuming that the assumed offering price per ADS or ordinary share remains the same, and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 



 

12


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before deciding whether to purchase our securities. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business Strategy

We have no approved products, which makes it difficult to assess our future prospects.

A key element of our strategy is to use and expand our proprietary ERYCAPS platform to build a pipeline of innovative product candidates and to progress these drug candidates through clinical development for the treatment of rare forms of cancer and other orphan diseases. The discovery of therapeutic drugs based on encapsulating molecules inside red blood cells is an emerging field, and the scientific discoveries that form the basis for our efforts to discover and develop drug candidates are relatively new. The scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing drug candidates based on these discoveries is both preliminary and limited. Although our research and development efforts to date have resulted in a pipeline of product candidates, we have not yet obtained approval for any products, we have not yet generated any revenues from the sale of approved products and we may not be able to develop product candidates that are considered to be safe and effective. Our operations to date have been limited to developing our ERYCAPS platform technology and undertaking preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates, including our lead product candidate, eryaspase, which is known under the trade name GRASPA in Europe and Israel. However, we have not yet demonstrated an ability to overcome many of the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in new and rapidly evolving fields, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, the ability to predict our future operating results or business prospects is more limited than if we had a longer operating history or approved products on the market.

We are heavily dependent on the success of our most advanced product candidate, eryaspase.

Our business and future success depends on our ability to obtain regulatory approval for and, together with third-party collaborators, to successfully commercialize our lead product candidate, eryaspase, which is under clinical development for oncology indications. Eryaspase is our only product candidate in late-stage clinical development, and our business currently depends heavily on its successful development. Eryaspase will require additional clinical and non-clinical development, regulatory review and approval in multiple jurisdictions, substantial investment, access to sufficient commercial manufacturing capacity and significant marketing efforts before we can generate any revenue from product sales. We cannot be certain eryaspase will receive regulatory approval or be successfully commercialized even if we receive regulatory approval. In addition, because eryaspase is our most advanced product candidate, and because our other product candidates are based on the same ERYCAPS platform technology, if eryaspase encounters safety or efficacy problems, developmental delays or regulatory issues or other problems, our development plans and business would be significantly harmed.

We may be unable to provide the data necessary to support the resubmission of an MAA to the EMA for GRASPA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL on the timeline we expect, or at all.

We submitted an MAA to the EMA for GRASPA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL in September 2015. The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP, is the EMA committee responsible for reviewing the MAA. In September 2016, we received from CHMP a Day 180 List of Outstanding Issues. Following discussions with the EMA, we determined that the collection of the additional information requested by CHMP would take more time than allowed in the regulatory approval procedures. Accordingly, we decided to withdraw the MAA in November 2016. We have completed activities that are designed to provide data regarding immunogenicity and pharmacodynamics of eryaspase, as well as comparability of eryaspase produced with native versus recombinant asparaginase, and we intend to use the data obtained to resubmit the MAA later in October 2017. The data from these activities may not be sufficient to support regulatory approval, and we may need to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials to support resubmission of the MAA. The process of conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time consuming, and we may never succeed in achieving marketing approval for GRASPA.

 

13


Table of Contents

We may not be successful in our efforts to use and expand our ERYCAPS platform to develop marketable products.

We believe that our ERYCAPS platform has broad potential application and can be used to encapsulate a wide range of therapeutic agents within red blood cells for which long-circulating therapeutic activity and rapid and specific targeting is desired. However, we are at an early stage of development and our platform has not yet, and may never, lead to approved or marketable products. Even if we are successful in continuing to build our product pipeline, the potential product candidates that we identify may not be suitable for clinical development, including for reasons related to their harmful side effects, limited efficacy or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be products that will receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance. Use of red blood cells as the basis for our ERYCAPS platform may result in similar risks that affect the ability of our products to receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance. If we do not successfully develop and commercialize product candidates based upon our technological approach, we may not be able to obtain product or collaboration revenues in future periods, which would harm our business and our prospects.

We face substantial competition from companies with considerably more resources and experience than we have, which may result in others discovering, developing, receiving approval for, or commercializing products before or more successfully than us.

The biopharmaceuticals industry is highly competitive. Numerous biopharmaceutical laboratories, biotechnology companies, institutions, universities and other research entities are actively involved in the discovery, research, development and marketing of therapeutics to treat rare forms of cancer and orphan diseases, making it a highly competitive field. We have competitors in a number of jurisdictions, many of which have substantially greater name recognition, commercial infrastructures and financial, technical and personnel resources than we have.

L-asparaginase is currently available in four forms, and the current market primarily includes several products marketed by large pharmaceutical companies, including Jazz Pharmaceuticals PLC and Shire plc. In addition to currently available forms of L-asparaginase and new forms in development, our product candidates also compete with other products that could be used in the treatment of ALL or AML. These potential treatments include monoclonal antibodies, bispecific monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T-cells approaches. Several large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including Amgen Inc., Pfizer Inc., Cellectis S.A., Kite Pharma, Inc. and Novartis AG, are developing these types of therapies for the treatment of AML and ALL.

Established competitors may invest heavily to quickly discover and develop novel compounds that could make our product candidates obsolete or uneconomical. Any new product that competes with an approved product may need to demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability and safety to be commercially successful. Any of our product candidates that are approved in the future will also face other competitive factors, including generic competition, which could force us to lower prices or could result in reduced sales. In addition, new products developed by others could emerge as competitors to our product candidates. If we are not able to compete effectively against our current and future competitors, our business will not grow and our financial condition and operations will suffer.

Administration of our product candidates could present risks that exist in relation to blood transfusions.

Our product candidates must be intravenously injected and are therefore subject to risks associated with blood transfusions and the blood type compatibility of the donor. We currently acquire red blood cells from blood donations prepared and tested by blood banks, notably the Établissement Français du Sang and the American Red Cross. However, using donor-derived red blood cells presents risks associated with the potential transmission of infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, prions and parasites, as well as risks associated with the development of allergies or other complications, such as post-transfusion graft-versus-host disease, anaphylactic shock or death. Risks associated with the encapsulation of molecules inside red blood cells may vary and will depend on their toxicity. Although the blood banks that supply our red blood cells follow a strict preparation process, approved by health authorities, to detect and reduce possible risks for contamination by infectious agents, we cannot guarantee that our product candidates will not be contaminated, which could be detrimental to our product development and commercialization efforts.

 

14


Table of Contents

Risks Related to our Financial Position and Capital Needs

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.

We have not yet generated significant revenues and have incurred significant operating losses since our inception. We incurred net losses of 14.1 million, 15.0 million and 21.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively; and these losses have adversely impacted, and will continue to adversely impact, our equity attributable to shareholders and net assets. These losses are principally the result of our research expenditures and development costs for conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as general and administrative expenses associated with our operations. We anticipate that our operating losses will continue for at least the next several years as we continue our research and development activities and until we generate substantial revenues from approved product candidates. As of June 30, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of 83.6 million.

We have devoted most of our financial resources to research and development, including our clinical and preclinical development activities. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities and convertible bonds, obtaining public assistance in support of innovation, such as conditional advances and subsidies from the Banque Publique d’Investissement, or BPI France, and reimbursements of research tax credit claims. The amount of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the pace and amount of our future expenditures and our ability to obtain funding through equity or debt financings, strategic collaborations or additional grants or tax credits until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue. We have not yet received marketing approval for any of our product candidates. Even if we obtain regulatory approval to market a product candidate, our future revenues will depend upon the size of any markets in which our product candidates have received approval, and our ability to achieve sufficient market acceptance, reimbursement from third-party payors and adequate market share for our product candidates in those markets.

We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

 

    continue the preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates;

 

    expand the scope of our current clinical trials for our product candidates;

 

    expand our commercial manufacturing capabilities for our product candidates;

 

    seek regulatory and marketing approvals for our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

 

    establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval, especially in North America, for which we have not entered into a third-party collaboration;

 

    seek to identify and validate additional product candidates;

 

    acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies;

 

    make milestone, royalty or other payments under in-license or collaboration agreements;

 

    maintain, protect and expand our intellectual property portfolio;

 

    attract new and retain existing skilled personnel; and

 

    create additional infrastructure to support our operations as a U.S. reporting company with foreign private issuer status.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly from year to year, such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance. In any particular period or periods, our operating results could be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause the price of the ordinary shares and ADSs to decline.

We may need to raise additional funding, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate our product development efforts or other operations.

We are currently advancing our product candidates through preclinical and clinical development. Developing product candidates is expensive, lengthy and risky, and we expect our research and development expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we advance our product candidates toward commercialization.

 

15


Table of Contents

As of June 30, 2017, our cash and cash equivalents were 88.6 million. We estimate that the net proceeds from the global offering will be approximately          ($            ) million, assuming an offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to          per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We expect that the net proceeds from the global offering and our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our current operations for at least the next 12 months. However, our operating plan may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned, through public or private equity or debt financings, government or other third-party funding, marketing and distribution arrangements and other collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements or a combination of these approaches. In any event, we will require additional capital to pursue preclinical and clinical activities, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our product candidates. Even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans, we may seek additional capital if market conditions are favorable or if we have specific strategic considerations.

Any additional fundraising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates. In addition, we cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Moreover, the terms of any financing may adversely affect the holdings or the rights of our shareholders and the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of the ADSs or ordinary shares to decline. The sale of additional equity or convertible securities would be dilutive to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and we may be required to agree to certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. We could also be required to seek funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or otherwise at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable and we may be required to relinquish rights to some of our technologies or product candidates or otherwise agree to terms unfavorable to us. If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we may be required to significantly curtail, delay or discontinue one or more of our research or development programs or the commercialization of any product candidate or be unable to expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could impair our growth prospects.

We may be forced to repay conditional advances prematurely if we fail to comply with our contractual obligations under certain innovation grant agreements.

Since inception through June 30, 2017, we have received 2.7 million in non-refundable grants and 2.0 million in conditional advances from BPI France. If we fail to comply with our contractual obligations under the applicable innovation grant agreements, including if we lose our exclusive right to commercially develop our product candidates, we could be forced to repay the conditional advances (amounting to 1.2 million at June 30, 2017) ahead of schedule. Such premature repayment could adversely affect our ability to finance our research and development projects, in which case we would need to locate alternative sources of capital, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of and Obtaining Regulatory Approval for our Product Candidates

If our product candidates are not approved for marketing by applicable government authorities, we will be unable to commercialize them.

The European Commission (following review by the EMA) in Europe, the FDA in the United States and comparable regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions must approve new drug or biologic candidates before they can be commercialized, marketed, promoted or sold in those territories. We must provide these regulatory authorities with data from preclinical studies and clinical trials that demonstrate that our product candidates are safe and effective for a defined indication before they can be approved for commercial distribution. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is inherently uncertain as to outcome. We must provide data to ensure the identity, strength, quality and purity of the drug substance and drug product. Also, we must assure the regulatory authorities that the characteristics and performance of the clinical batches will be replicated consistently in the commercial batches. We have focused our development and planned

 

16


Table of Contents

commercialization efforts on Europe and the United States. In September 2015, we submitted an MAA to the EMA for the approval of GRASPA as a treatment for ALL. However, we announced our withdrawal of the MAA for GRASPA in November 2016. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with regulatory authorities, we intend to resubmit our MAA for GRASPA to the EMA later in October 2017. Further, the processes by which regulatory approvals are obtained from the EMA and FDA to market and sell a new product are complex, require a number of years and involve the expenditure of substantial resources. We cannot assure you that GRASPA, eryaspase or any of our future product candidates will receive EMA or FDA approval. Even if we obtain marketing approval of any of our product candidates in a major pharmaceutical market such as the United States or Europe, we may never obtain approval or commercialize our products in other major markets, due to varying approval procedures or otherwise, which would limit our ability to realize their full market potential.

Our product candidates will need to undergo clinical trials that are time-consuming and expensive, the outcomes of which are unpredictable, and for which there is a high risk of failure. If clinical trials of our product candidates fail to satisfactorily demonstrate safety and efficacy to the EMA, FDA and other regulators, we may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of these product candidates.

Preclinical testing and clinical trials are long, expensive and unpredictable processes that can be subject to extensive delays. We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. It may take several years to complete the preclinical testing and clinical development necessary to commercialize a product candidate, and delays or failure can occur at any stage. Interim results of clinical trials do not necessarily predict final results, and success in preclinical testing and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials even after promising results in earlier trials, and we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. The design of a clinical trial can determine whether its results will support approval of a product, and flaws in the design of a clinical trial may not become apparent until the clinical trial is well advanced. An unfavorable outcome in one or more trials would be a major setback for our product candidates and for us. Due to our limited financial resources, an unfavorable outcome in one or more trials may require us to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more product development programs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition and on the value of our securities.

In connection with clinical testing and trials, we face a number of risks, including risks that:

 

    a product candidate is ineffective, inferior to existing approved medicines, unacceptably toxic, or has unacceptable side effects;

 

    patients may die or suffer other adverse effects for reasons that may or may not be related to the product candidate being tested;

 

    extension studies on long-term tolerance could invalidate the use of our product;

 

    the results may not confirm the positive results of earlier testing or trials; and

 

    the results may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the EMA, FDA or other regulatory agencies to establish the safety and efficacy of our product candidates.

The results of preclinical studies do not necessarily predict clinical success, and larger and later-stage clinical trials may not produce the same results as earlier-stage clinical trials. Our clinical trials of eryaspase conducted to date have generated favorable safety and efficacy data; however, we may have different enrollment criteria in our future clinical trials. As a result, we may not observe a similarly favorable safety or efficacy profile as in our prior clinical trials. In addition, we cannot assure you that in the course of potential widespread use in future, we will not suffer setbacks in maintaining production quality or stability. Frequently, product candidates developed by pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have shown promising results in early preclinical studies or clinical trials, but have subsequently suffered significant setbacks or failed in later clinical trials. In addition, clinical trials of potential products often reveal that it is not possible or practical to continue development efforts for these product candidates.

If we do not successfully complete preclinical and clinical development, we will be unable to market and sell our product candidates and generate revenues. Even if we do successfully complete clinical trials, those results are not

 

17


Table of Contents

necessarily predictive of results of additional trials that may be needed before marketing applications may be submitted to the EMA or FDA, as applicable. Although there are a large number of drugs and biologics in development in Europe, the United States and other countries, only a small percentage result in the submission of a marketing application, even fewer are approved for commercialization, and only a small number achieve widespread physician and consumer acceptance following regulatory approval. If our clinical trials are substantially delayed or fail to prove the safety and effectiveness of our product candidates in development, we may not receive regulatory approval of any of these product candidates and our business and financial condition will be materially harmed.

Delays, suspensions and terminations in our clinical trials could result in increased costs to us and delay or prevent our ability to generate revenues.

Human clinical trials are very expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to design, implement and complete. The completion of trials for eryaspase or our other product candidates may be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays in:

 

    demonstrating sufficient safety and efficacy to obtain regulatory approval to commence a clinical trial;

 

    reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites;

 

    validating test methods to support quality testing of the drug substance and drug product;

 

    obtaining sufficient quantities of the drug substance or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials;

 

    manufacturing sufficient quantities of a product candidate;

 

    obtaining approval of applications from regulatory authorities for the commencement of a clinical trial;

 

    obtaining institutional review board, or IRB, approval to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective clinical trial site;

 

    determining dosing and clinical trial design; and

 

    patient enrollment, which is a function of many factors, including the size of the patient population, the nature of the protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical trial sites, the availability of effective treatments for the relevant disease and the eligibility criteria for the clinical trial.

For example, in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial in the United States in adult ALL patients, patient enrollment has taken longer than expected.

The commencement and completion of clinical trials for our product candidates may be delayed, suspended or terminated due to a number of factors, including:

 

    lack of effectiveness of product candidates during clinical trials;

 

    adverse events, safety issues or side effects relating to the product candidates or their formulation;

 

    inability to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts to continue clinical trials or development programs, which are very expensive;

 

    the need to sequence clinical trials as opposed to conducting them concomitantly in order to conserve resources;

 

    our inability to enter into collaborations relating to the development and commercialization of our product candidates;

 

    our failure to conduct clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements;

 

    our inability to manufacture or obtain from third parties materials sufficient for use in preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

    governmental or regulatory delays and changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines, including mandated changes in the scope or design of clinical trials or requests for supplemental information with respect to clinical trial results;

 

    delays in patient enrollment, variability in the number and types of patients available for clinical trials, and lower-than anticipated retention rates for patients in clinical trials;

 

    difficulty in patient monitoring and data collection due to failure of patients to maintain contact after treatment; and

 

    varying interpretations of our data, and regulatory commitments and requirements by the EMA, FDA and similar regulatory agencies.

 

18


Table of Contents

For example, our Investigational New Drug application, or IND, submitted to the FDA for eryaspase was on clinical hold from its original submission in July 2011 until March 21, 2013, and we cannot assure you that our current IND for eryaspase or any future IND will not be subject to clinical holds.

Many of these factors may also ultimately lead to denial of our marketing application for eryaspase or our other product candidates. If we experience delay, suspensions or terminations in a clinical trial, the commercial prospects for the related product candidate will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues will be delayed or such revenues could be reduced or fail to materialize.

Changes in regulatory requirements, guidance from regulatory authorities or unanticipated events during our clinical trials of our product candidates could necessitate changes to clinical trial protocols or additional clinical trial requirements, which would result in increased costs to us and could delay our development timeline.

Changes in regulatory requirements, FDA guidance or guidance from the EMA or other European regulatory authorities, or unanticipated events during our clinical trials, may force us to amend clinical trial protocols. The regulatory authorities could also impose additional clinical trial requirements. Amendments to our clinical trial protocols would require resubmission to the FDA, EMA, national clinical trial regulators and IRBs for review and approval, which may adversely impact the cost, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial. If we experience delays completing, or if we terminate, any of our clinical trials, or if we are required to conduct additional clinical trials, the commercial prospects for our product candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate product revenue will be delayed.

The United States and European formulations of eryaspase differ, and regulatory authorities in each jurisdiction may not accept data from alternative eryaspase formulations in other jurisdiction(s), which may result in delays and additional costs in order to conduct additional comparability studies or the need to repeat nonclinical and clinical studies in order to obtain approval in each jurisdiction in which we intend to commercialize eryaspase.

We use different formulations of eryaspase in our United States and European manufacturing processes, including the use of different preservative solutions for the storage and transportation of red blood cells and L-asparaginase encapsulated in red blood cells, an additional washing step that is used in our United States formulation in order to meet lower free hemoglobin standards in the United States, and separate sourcing of the active substance starting material of L-asparaginase. Although we have conducted in vitro comparability studies designed to demonstrate the equivalence of both formulations, additional comparability studies may be required by regulatory authorities. Even with additional comparability studies, regulatory authorities may not accept nonclinical or clinical data generated using an alternative formulation of eryaspase which may result in delays and costly requirements to repeat nonclinical and clinical studies in order to obtain marketing approval.

In the United States, our product candidates will be regulated as biological products, or biologics, which may subject them to competition sooner than we currently anticipate.

The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, was enacted as part of the 2010 enactments of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively, the ACA, to establish an abbreviated licensure pathway for biological products shown to be biosimilar to, or interchangeable with, an FDA-licensed biological reference product. “Biosimilarity” means that the biological product is highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components and there are no clinically meaningful differences between the biological product and the reference product in terms of safety, purity, and potency of the product. To meet the higher standard of “interchangeability,” an applicant must provide sufficient information to show biosimilarity and demonstrate that the biological product can be expected to produce the same clinical result as the reference product in any given patient and, if the biological product is administrated more than once to an individual, the risk in terms of safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between the use of the biological product and the reference product is not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch.

Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar or interchangeable product cannot be approved by the FDA until 12 years after the reference product was first licensed, and the FDA will not even accept an application for review until four years after the date of first licensure. The law is evolving, complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty. While it is uncertain when such processes intended to implement BPCIA may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our biological products.

 

19


Table of Contents

We believe that any of our product candidates approved as a biological product under a Biologics License Application, or BLA, should qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, potentially creating the opportunity for biosimilar or interchangeable competition sooner than we currently anticipate. Moreover, the process by which an interchangeable product, once approved, will be substituted for any one of our reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biological products, such as drugs, is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing and subject to interpretation.

In the European Union, GRASPA contains a known active substance, which would undermine its data and marketing exclusivities; however, this will not affect GRASPA’s orphan product exclusivity.

Data exclusivity refers to the period of time during which another company cannot refer to our data held in the authority’s files in support of its marketing authorization. The subsequent market exclusivity refers to the period of time during which another company may use our data in support of its marketing authorization for a generic, hybrid or biosimilar product, but the product in question may not be placed on the market. For products containing new active substances, this effectively prevents certain products, such as generics and similar biological products, from being placed on the market during the combined data and marketing exclusivity period. This combined period usually lasts for 10 years from the date of approval of the product containing the new active substance.

Because the active ingredient in GRASPA is not a new active substance, the 10-year period of protection against generics and similar biological products is undermined. Competitors developing such products could receive European Union marketing authorizations and place their products on the European Union market within 10 years of GRASPA’s own marketing authorization, if obtained.

However, if we still have orphan drug designation for GRASPA at the time we receive marketing approval from the EMA, we would still benefit from the independent period of market exclusivity afforded to orphan products. In the European Union, this is usually a period of 10 years from the date of marketing approval. The exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. The exclusivity period may increase to 12 years if, among other things, the MAA includes the results of studies from an agreed pediatric investigation plan. During the orphan exclusivity period, regulators should not accept or approve applications for the approval of a similar medicine for the same therapeutic indication, unless the second product is demonstrably safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior. Regulators may approve different products for the same condition as GRASPA.

We rely on third parties to assist in our discovery and development activities, and the loss of any of our relationships with research institutions could hinder our product development prospects.

We currently have and expect to continue to depend on collaborations with public and private research institutions to conduct some of our early-stage drug discovery activities. If we are unable to enter into research collaborations with these institutions, or if any one of these institutions fails to work efficiently with us, the research, development or marketing of our product candidates planned as part of the research collaboration could be delayed or canceled. In the event a research agreement is terminated or we become no longer in a position to renew the arrangement under acceptable conditions, our drug discovery and development activities may also be delayed.

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and perform data collection and analysis, which may result in costs and delays that prevent us from successfully commercializing our product candidates.

We rely, and will rely in the future, on medical institutions, clinical investigators, CROs, contract laboratories and collaborators to perform data collection and analysis and to carry out our clinical trials. Our development activities or clinical trials conducted in reliance on third parties may be delayed, suspended, or terminated if:

 

    the third parties do not devote a sufficient amount of time or effort to our activities or otherwise fail to successfully carry out their contractual duties or to meet regulatory obligations or expected deadlines;

 

    we replace a third party; or

 

    the quality or accuracy of the data obtained by third parties is compromised due to their failure to adhere to clinical protocols, regulatory requirements, or for other reasons.

We generally would not have the ability to control the performance of third parties in their conduct of development activities. In the event of a default, bankruptcy or shutdown of, or a dispute with, a third party, we may be unable to enter into a new agreement with another third party on commercially acceptable terms. Further, third-party

 

20


Table of Contents

performance failures may increase our development costs, delay our ability to obtain regulatory approval, and delay or prevent the commercialization of our product candidates. In addition, our third-party agreements usually contain a clause limiting such third party’s liability, such that we may not be able to obtain full compensation for any losses we may incur in connection with the third party’s performance failures. While we believe that there are numerous alternative sources to provide these services, in the event that we seek such alternative sources, we may not be able to enter into replacement arrangements without incurring delays or additional costs.

We have entered, and may in the future enter into, collaboration agreements with third parties for the development and commercialization of our product candidates, which may affect our ability to generate revenues.

We have limited capabilities for product development and may seek to enter into collaborations with third parties for the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates. Should we seek to collaborate with a third party with respect to a prospective development program, we may not be able to locate a suitable collaborator and may not be able to enter into an agreement on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we succeed in securing collaborators for the development and commercialization of our product candidates, such as the arrangements we have entered into related to the commercialization of GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in Europe and Israel, we have limited control over the amount and timing that our collaborators may dedicate to the development or commercialization of our product candidates. These collaborations pose a number of risks, including the following:

 

    collaborators may not have sufficient resources or decide not to devote the necessary resources due to internal constraints such as budget limitations, lack of human resources, or a change in strategic focus;

 

    collaborators may believe our intellectual property is not valid or is unenforceable or the product candidate infringes on the intellectual property rights of others;

 

    collaborators may dispute their responsibility to conduct development and commercialization activities pursuant to the applicable collaboration, including the payment of related costs or the division of any revenues;

 

    collaborators may decide to pursue a competitive product developed outside of the collaboration arrangement;

 

    collaborators may not be able to obtain, or believe they cannot obtain, the necessary regulatory approvals; or

 

    collaborators may delay the development or commercialization of our product candidates in favor of developing or commercializing another party’s product candidate.

Thus, collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates in the most efficient manner or at all.

Some collaboration agreements are terminable without cause on short notice. Once a collaboration agreement is signed, it may not lead to commercialization of a product candidate. We also face competition in seeking out collaborators. If we are unable to secure new collaborations that achieve the collaborator’s objectives and meet our expectations, we may be unable to advance our product candidates and may not generate meaningful revenues.

Due to our limited resources and access to capital, our decisions to prioritize development of certain product candidates may adversely affect our business prospects.

Because we have limited resources and access to capital to fund our operations, we must decide which product candidates to pursue and the amount of resources to allocate to each. As such, we are currently primarily focused on the development of eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML. Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular compounds, product candidates or therapeutic areas may not lead to the development of viable commercial products and may divert resources away from more promising opportunities. Similarly, our potential decisions to delay, terminate or collaborate with third parties with respect to some of our product development programs may also prove not to be optimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through collaboration, licensing or other arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights. If we make incorrect determinations regarding the market potential of our product candidates or misread trends in the pharmaceutical industry, our business prospects could be harmed.

 

21


Table of Contents

Risks Related to the Commercialization of Our Product Candidates

We will be largely dependent on Orphan Europe and Teva for the marketing of GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in Europe and Israel, respectively.

We have entered into exclusive distribution agreements with Orphan Europe and Teva with respect to the commercialization of GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in Europe and Israel, respectively. If approved, the marketing and commercial success of GRASPA in these countries will be largely driven by the efforts of Orphan Europe and Teva and will depend on marketing and commercial efforts deployed by these third parties.

Our exclusive license and distribution agreement with Orphan Europe requires Orphan Europe to commercialize GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in 38 countries in Europe, including every country in the European Union. In addition, Orphan Europe is responsible for seeking regulatory approval for GRASPA in the treatment of ALL in the 10 countries that are not part of the European Union. Although our agreement requires Orphan Europe to submit periodic marketing plans to estimate the future sales of GRASPA, Orphan Europe is not subject to any minimum sales requirements, and we cannot assure you that they will be successful in commercializing GRASPA, if it is approved. In addition, if Orphan Europe’s sales of GRASPA fail to meet our expectations, we have limited recourse and may be subject to a substantial penalty should we choose not to renew our agreement at the end of its term.

Our exclusive distribution agreement with Teva requires Teva to seek regulatory approval for GRASPA in Israel for the treatment of ALL and, if approved, to market and distribute GRASPA within Israel. Although our agreement requires Teva to meet minimum sales objectives each year after GRASPA’s launch, our only remedy for Teva’s failure to meet those objectives is termination of the agreement, which would require us to spend considerable time and resources either developing our own marketing capabilities in Israel or identifying a suitable alternative distributor, if one exists. We cannot guarantee that Teva will be successful in obtaining regulatory approval for or commercializing GRASPA, and any failure of Teva to do so would negatively impact our business and our future revenues.

In addition to our dependence on the marketing efforts of Orphan Europe and Teva, we also face the risk of noncompliance by these and other future distributors with local anti-corruption laws, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and other local and international regulations, and we have limited ability to control their actions to ensure they are in compliance. Noncompliance by these or future distributors could expose us to civil or criminal liability, fines and/or prohibitions on selling our products in certain countries.

We expect that our product revenues would be adversely impacted with the loss or transition of these or any future distributors of our products. If we choose to terminate any of our distribution agreements, we would either need to reach agreement with, qualify, train and supply a replacement distributor or supply and service customer accounts in those territories ourselves. Although our existing distribution agreements generally provide that the distributor will promptly and efficiently transfer its existing customer agreements to us, there can be no assurance that this will happen in a timely manner or at all. These factors may be disruptive for our customers, and our reputation may be damaged as a result. Our distributors may have more established relationships with potential customers than a new distributor or we may have in particular territories, which could adversely impact our ability to successfully commercialize GRASPA in these territories. In addition, it may take longer for us to be paid if payment timing and terms in these new arrangements are less favorable to us than those in our existing distribution arrangements. If we service customers directly rather than through distributors, we will incur additional expense and our working capital may be negatively impacted due to longer periods from cash collection from direct sales customers when compared to the timing of cash collection from distributors. Current or transitioning distributors may irreparably harm relationships with local existing and prospective customers and our standing with the biopharmaceutical community in general. In the event that we are unable to find alternative distributors or mobilize our own sales efforts in the territories in which a particular distributor operates, customer supply, our reputation and our operating results may be negatively impacted.

 

22


Table of Contents

Even if we successfully complete clinical trials of our product candidates, those candidates may not be commercialized successfully for other reasons.

Even if we successfully complete clinical trials for one or more of our product candidates and obtain relevant regulatory approvals, those candidates may not be commercialized for other reasons, including:

 

    failing to receive regulatory clearances required to market them as drugs;

 

    being subject to proprietary rights held by others;

 

    failing to obtain clearance from regulatory authorities on the manufacturing of our products;

 

    being difficult or expensive to manufacture on a commercial scale;

 

    having adverse side effects that make their use less desirable;

 

    failing to compete effectively with products or treatments commercialized by competitors; or

 

    failing to show that the long-term benefits of our products exceed their risks.

Even if any of our product candidates are commercialized, they may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors or the medical community in general necessary for commercial success.

Even if the medical community accepts a product as safe and efficacious for its indicated use, physicians may choose to restrict the use of the product if we are unable to demonstrate that, based on experience, clinical data, side-effect profiles and other factors, our product is preferable to any existing drugs or treatments. We cannot predict the degree of market acceptance of any product candidate that receives marketing approval, which will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to:

 

    the demonstration of the clinical efficacy and safety of the product;

 

    the approved labeling for the product and any required warnings;

 

    the advantages and disadvantages of the product compared to alternative treatments;

 

    our ability to educate the medical community about the safety and effectiveness of the product;

 

    the experience of clinicians with other potential treatments that use red blood cells to deliver therapeutics;

 

    the coverage and reimbursement policies of government and commercial third-party payors pertaining to the product; and

 

    the market price of our product relative to competing treatments.

If we are unable to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for our product candidates, whether it be an internal infrastructure or an arrangement with a commercial partner such as the ones that we have entered into for commercialization of GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in Europe and Israel, we may not be successful in commercializing those product candidates if and when they are approved.

We do not have a sales or marketing infrastructure and have no experience in the sale, marketing or distribution of pharmaceutical drugs. Under our arrangements with Orphan Europe and Teva, these third parties are responsible for the commercialization of eryaspase under the brand name GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in Europe and Israel, respectively, if GRASPA receives regulatory approval in such territory. To achieve commercial success for eryaspase outside of those countries, including in the United States, for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML, as well as eryaspase for the treatment of other indications and any other product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval, we will need to establish a sales and marketing organization to market or co-promote those products. There are risks involved with establishing our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities. For example, recruiting and training a sales force is expensive and time-consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a product candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize products on our own include:

 

    our inability to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;

 

    the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future products;

 

23


Table of Contents
    the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more products; and

 

    unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.

If we are unable to establish our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and enter into arrangements with third parties to perform these services, our revenue and our profitability, if any, are likely to be lower than if we were to sell, market and distribute any products that we develop ourselves.

Even though we have obtained orphan drug designation from the EMA for eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML and from the FDA for eryaspase for the same indications, we may not be able to obtain orphan drug marketing exclusivity for eryaspase or any of our other product candidates for other indications.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States. Similarly, in Europe, a medicinal product may receive orphan designation under Article 3 of Regulation (EC) 141/2000. This applies to products that are intended for a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition and either the condition affects no more than five in 10,000 persons in the European Union when the application is made or the product, without the benefits derived from orphan status, would unlikely generate sufficient return in the European Union to justify the necessary investment. Moreover, in order to obtain orphan designation in the European Union, it is necessary to demonstrate that there exists no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment of the condition authorized for marketing in the European Union, or if such a method exists, that the product will be of significant benefit to those affected by the condition. The EMA will reassess whether GRASPA continues to meet the criteria for orphan drug designation in the European Union at the time it reviews a marketing authorization application for the product. If the EMA considers that GRASPA no longer meets these criteria, for example, because it does not offer a significant benefit over existing therapies, it may revoke GRASPA’s orphan drug designation prior to approval.

The EMA has granted orphan drug designation for GRASPA for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML, and the FDA has granted orphan drug designation for eryaspase for the same indications. We may seek orphan drug designation for our other product candidates, and with respect to other indications. Generally, if a drug with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the drug is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the FDA from approving another marketing application for the same drug for that time period or the EMA or any other medicines regulator in the European Union from approving a similar medicinal product. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and usually 10 years in the European Union. The European Union exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA or EMA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition.

Even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a product candidate, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the candidate from competition because different drugs can be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the applicable regulatory authority can subsequently approve another drug for the same condition if it concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. Similarly, if our competitors are able to obtain orphan product exclusivity for their products in the same indications for which we are developing our product candidates, we may not be able to have our products approved by the applicable regulatory authority for a significant period of time.

Even if we obtain marketing approvals for our product candidates, the terms of approvals and ongoing regulation of our products may limit how we or they market our products, which could materially impair our ability to generate revenues.

Even if we receive regulatory approval for a product candidate, this approval may carry conditions that limit the market for the product or put the product at a competitive disadvantage relative to alternative therapies. For instance, a regulatory approval may limit the indicated uses for which we can market a product or the patient population that may utilize the product, or may be required to carry a warning in its labeling and on its packaging.

 

24


Table of Contents

Products with boxed warnings are subject to more restrictive advertising regulations than products without such warnings. These restrictions could make it more difficult to market any product candidate effectively. Accordingly, assuming we receive marketing approval for one or more of our product candidates, we will continue to expend time, money and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance.

Government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact our ability to generate revenues even if we obtain regulatory approval to market a product.

Our ability to commercialize any products successfully also will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and other third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, determine which medications they will cover and establish reimbursement levels. Assuming we obtain coverage for a given product by a third-party payor, the resulting reimbursement payment rates may not be adequate or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Patients who are prescribed medications for the treatment of their conditions, and their prescribing physicians, generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescription drugs. Patients are unlikely to use our products unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover all or a significant portion of the cost of our products. Therefore, coverage and adequate reimbursement is critical to new product acceptance. Coverage decisions may depend upon clinical and economic standards that disfavor new drug products when more established or lower cost therapeutic alternatives are already available or subsequently become available.

Government authorities and other third-party payors are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs, such as by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices as a condition of coverage, are using restrictive formularies and preferred drug lists to leverage greater discounts in competitive classes, and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. In addition, in the United States, federal programs impose penalties on drug manufacturers in the form of mandatory additional rebates and/or discounts if commercial prices increase at a rate greater than the Consumer Price Index-Urban, and these rebates and/or discounts, which can be substantial, may impact our ability to raise commercial prices. Further, no uniform policy requirement for coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors in the United States. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.

The continuing efforts of governments, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare costs to contain or reduce costs of healthcare may negatively affect our commercialization prospects, including:

 

    our ability to set a price we believe is fair for our products, if approved;

 

    our ability to obtain and maintain market acceptance by the medical community and patients;

 

    our ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability; and

 

    the availability of capital.

We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any potential product candidate that we may commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. If coverage and reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

In the United States, the ACA is significantly impacting the provision of, and payment for, healthcare. Various provisions of the ACA were designed to expand Medicaid eligibility, subsidize insurance premiums, provide incentives for businesses to provide healthcare benefits, prohibit denials of coverage due to pre-existing conditions, establish health insurance exchanges, and provide additional support for medical research. With regard to pharmaceutical products specifically, the ACA, among other things, expanded and increased industry rebates for

 

25


Table of Contents

drugs covered under Medicaid programs and made changes to the coverage requirements under the Medicare prescription drug benefit. Since its enactment there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. As a result, there have been delays in the implementation of, and action taken to repeal or replace, certain aspects of the ACA. For example, in May 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives passed legislation known as the American Health Care Act of 2017, and in June 2017, a bill titled the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017 was released by U.S. Senate Republicans, but was not passed by the full Senate. The prospects for further Congressional action remain uncertain. We continue to evaluate the effect that the ACA and its possible repeal and replacement has on our business.

In addition, both the Budget Control Act of 2011 and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, or the ATRA, have instituted, among other things, mandatory reductions in Medicare payments to certain providers. Additional legislative proposals to reform healthcare and government insurance programs, along with the trend toward managed healthcare in the United States, could influence the purchase of medicines and reduce reimbursement and/or coverage of our product candidates, if approved. Recently, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products. For example, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed bills designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the costs of drugs under Medicare and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. These legislative proposals and initiatives could harm our ability to market any product candidates and generate revenues. Cost containment measures that healthcare payors and providers are instituting and the effect of further healthcare reform could significantly reduce potential revenues from the sale of any of our product candidates approved in the future, and could cause an increase in our compliance, manufacturing, or other operating expenses.

We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and lower reimbursement, and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved product candidate. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our drugs. Moreover, we cannot predict what healthcare reform initiatives may be adopted in the future.

In some foreign countries, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. In addition, in some foreign markets, the pricing of prescription drugs is subject to government control and reimbursement may in some cases be unavailable. The requirements governing drug pricing vary widely from country to country. For example, the European Union provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. A member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product, may refuse to reimburse a product at the price set by the manufacturer or may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for biopharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for eryaspase or any of our other product candidates that may be approved. Historically, biopharmaceutical products launched in the European Union do not follow price structures of the United States and generally tend to have significantly lower prices.

We believe that pricing pressures at the federal and state levels in the United States, as well as internationally, will continue and may increase, which may make it difficult for us to sell our potential product candidates that may be approved in the future at a price acceptable to us or any third parties with whom we may choose to collaborate.

Any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval could be subject to post-marketing restrictions or withdrawal from the market, and we may be subject to substantial penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products following approval.

Any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval, as well as the manufacturing processes, post-approval studies and measures, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such products, among other things, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the EMA, FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing

 

26


Table of Contents

requirements, requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping. Even if marketing approval of a product candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, including the FDA requirement to implement a REMS to ensure that the benefits of a drug or biological product outweigh its risks.

The EMA and FDA may also impose requirements for costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of a product, such as long term observational studies on natural exposure. The FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure that they are manufactured, marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. The EMA and FDA impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use and if we do not market any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval for only their approved indications, we may be subject to warnings or enforcement action for off-label marketing. Violation of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and other statutes, including the False Claims Act, relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription drugs may lead to investigations or allegations of violations of federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws and state consumer protection laws.

The EMA, FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of drugs for off-label uses. If we are found to have improperly promoted off-label use, we may become subject to significant liability.

The EMA, FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that may be made about prescription drug products, such as our product candidates, if approved. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the EMA, FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. For example, if we receive marketing approval for eryaspase for ALL, physicians, in their professional medical judgment, may nevertheless prescribe eryaspase to their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label use, we may become subject to significant liability under the FDCA and other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed. If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of our products, if approved, we could become subject to significant liability, which would harm our reputation and negatively impact our financial condition.

Our future growth depends, in part, on our ability to penetrate foreign markets, where we would be subject to additional regulatory burdens and other risks and uncertainties.

Our future profitability will depend, in part, on our ability to commercialize our product candidates in markets within and without the United States and Europe. If we commercialize our product candidates in foreign markets, we would be subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including:

 

    economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular economies and markets;

 

    the burden of complying with complex and changing foreign regulatory, tax, accounting and legal requirements, many of which vary between countries;

 

    different medical practices and customs in foreign countries affecting acceptance in the marketplace;

 

    tariffs and trade barriers;

 

    other trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements or other restrictive actions by U.S. or foreign governments;

 

    longer accounts receivable collection times;

 

    longer lead times for shipping;

 

    compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;

 

    workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is common;

 

    language barriers for technical training;

 

27


Table of Contents
    reduced protection of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries, and related prevalence of generic alternatives to therapeutics;

 

    foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and currency controls;

 

    differing foreign reimbursement landscapes;

 

    uncertain and potentially inadequate reimbursement of our products; and

 

    the interpretation of contractual provisions governed by foreign laws in the event of a contract dispute.

Foreign sales of our products could also be adversely affected by the imposition of governmental controls, political and economic instability, trade restrictions and changes in tariffs.

Adverse market and economic conditions may exacerbate certain risks associated with commercializing our product candidates.

Future sales of our product candidates, it they are approved, will be dependent on purchasing decisions of and reimbursement from government health administration authorities, distributors and other organizations. As a result of adverse conditions affecting the global economy and credit and financial markets, including disruptions due to political instability or otherwise, these organizations may defer purchases, may be unable to satisfy their purchasing or reimbursement obligations, or may delay payment for eryaspase or any of our product candidates that are approved for commercialization in the future. In addition, there have been concerns for the overall stability and suitability of the euro as a single currency given the economic and political challenges facing individual Eurozone countries. Continuing deterioration in the creditworthiness of Eurozone countries, the withdrawal of one or more member countries from the European Union, or the failure of the euro as a common European currency or an otherwise diminished value of the euro could materially and adversely affect our future product revenue from European sales of our products.

Risks Related to the Production and Manufacturing of our Product Candidates

Our production capacity could prove insufficient for our needs. In particular, our inability to produce and supply adequate amounts of GRASPA to Orphan Europe and Teva under our distribution agreements would give rise to potential financial liability and termination of our agreements, which would harm our business and financial condition.

Our production capacity may prove insufficient in the future to meet the growth of our business, including producing sufficient quantities of product candidates for preclinical studies, clinical trials and, ultimately, our customers and distributors. For instance, we plan to initiate a Phase 3 clinical trial in Europe in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer during the third quarter of 2018, and our production capacity may be insufficient to timely commence and conduct that trial. Also, if we must increase production capacity for any reason, we may need to make considerable investments that could lead to significant financing needs or require us to enter into subcontracting agreements in order to outsource part of the production. Our distribution agreement with Teva provides that if we are unable to supply Teva with sufficient quantities of GRASPA for specified lengths of time, after notice and cure periods, Teva will be able to terminate our agreement and we could be required to reimburse Teva for all milestone payments we received prior to termination. Our distribution agreement with Orphan Europe requires us to use commercially reasonable efforts to supply them with their requested quantities of GRASPA, and our failure to do so could result in Orphan Europe’s ability to terminate our agreement. Termination of either agreement, including any financial penalties associated with termination, would negatively impact our financial condition.

We may not have access to the raw materials and other components necessary for the manufacturing of our product candidates.

We are dependent on third parties for the supply of various materials that are necessary to produce our product candidates for clinical trials. With respect to eryaspase, we rely on medac GmbH, or Medac, for the supply of asparaginase and on the American Red Cross in the United States and the Établissement Français du Sang in Europe for the supply of red blood cells. The Établissement Français du Sang is the sole operator in its territory for blood transfusions and is in charge of satisfying national needs for blood products. Although we have entered into agreements with the American Red Cross and the Établissement Français du Sang related to the supply of those materials, the supply could be reduced or interrupted at any time. In such case, we may not be able to find other suppliers of acceptable materials in appropriate quantities at an acceptable cost. If we lose key suppliers or the supply of materials is diminished or discontinued, or in the event of a major or international crisis impacting blood banks and the practice of blood donation, we may not be able to continue to develop, manufacture and market our

 

28


Table of Contents

product candidates or products in a timely and competitive manner. In addition, these materials are subject to stringent manufacturing processes and rigorous testing. Delays in the completion and validation of facilities and manufacturing processes of these materials could adversely affect our ability to complete trials and commercialize our products in a cost-effective and timely manner. If we encounter difficulties in the supply of these materials, chemicals or biological products, or if we were not able to maintain our supply agreements or establish new supply agreements in the future, our product development and our business prospects could be significantly compromised.

Our manufacturing facilities are subject to significant government regulations and approvals. If we or our third-party manufacturers fail to comply with these regulations or maintain these approvals, our business will be materially harmed.

We currently manufacture our product candidates for use in Europe in our facility in Lyon, France. In addition, we have entered into an agreement with the American Red Cross to produce eryaspase for use in our clinical trials in the United States, and we have an agreement with Medac to provide us with L-asparaginase for use in our production of eryaspase. We and our third-party manufacturers are subject to ongoing regulation and periodic inspection by the EMA, FDA and other regulatory bodies to ensure compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP. Any failure to follow and document our or their adherence to such cGMP regulations or other regulatory requirements may lead to significant delays in the availability of products for commercial sale or clinical trials, may result in the termination of or a hold on a clinical trial, or may delay or prevent filing or approval of marketing applications for our products.

Failure to comply with applicable regulations could also result in the EMA, FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities taking various actions, including:

 

    levying fines and other civil penalties;

 

    imposing consent decrees or injunctions;

 

    requiring us to suspend or put on hold one or more of our clinical trials;

 

    suspending or withdrawing regulatory approvals;

 

    delaying or refusing to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications;

 

    requiring us to suspend manufacturing activities or product sales, imports or exports;

 

    requiring us to communicate with physicians and other customers about concerns related to actual or potential safety, efficacy, and other issues involving our products;

 

    mandating product recalls or seizing products;

 

    imposing operating restrictions; and

 

    seeking criminal prosecutions.

Any of the foregoing actions could be detrimental to our reputation, business, financial condition or operating results. Furthermore, our key suppliers may not continue to be in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements, which could result in our failure to produce our products on a timely basis and in the required quantities, if at all. In addition, before any additional products would be considered for marketing approval in the United States, Europe or elsewhere, our suppliers will have to pass an audit by the applicable regulatory agencies. We are dependent on our suppliers’ cooperation and ability to pass such audits, and the audits and any audit remediation may be costly. Failure to pass such audits by us or any of our suppliers would affect our ability to commercialize our product candidates in the United States, Europe or elsewhere.

Our production costs may be higher than we currently estimate.

We manufacture our product candidates according to manufacturing best practices applicable to drugs for clinical trials and to specifications approved by the applicable regulatory authorities. If any of our products are found to be non-compliant, we would be required to manufacture the product again, which would entail additional costs and may prevent delivery of the product to patients on time.

Other risks inherent in the production process may have the same effect, such as:

 

    contamination of the controlled atmosphere area;

 

    unusable premises and equipment;

 

29


Table of Contents
    new regulatory requirements requiring a partial and/or extended stop to the production unit to meet the requirements;

 

    unavailable qualified personnel;

 

    power failure of extended duration;

 

    logistical error; and
    rupture in the cold chain, which is a system for storing and transporting blood and blood products within the correct temperature range and conditions.

In addition, a rise in direct or indirect energy rates may increase product manufacturing and logistical costs. Any of these risks, should they occur, could disrupt our activities and compromise our financial position, results, reputation or growth.

Risks Related to Our Operations

We may encounter difficulties in managing our growth, which could disrupt our operations.

As of June 30, 2017, we had 92 full-time employees, and we expect to increase our number of employees and the scope of our operations. To manage our anticipated development and expansion, including the potential commercialization of our product candidates in Europe and the United States, we must continue to implement and improve our managerial, operational and financial systems, expand our facilities and continue to recruit and train additional qualified personnel. Also, our management may need to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from its day-to-day activities and devote a substantial amount of time to managing these development activities. Due to our limited resources, we may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations or recruit and train additional qualified personnel. This may result in weaknesses in our infrastructure, give rise to operational mistakes, loss of business opportunities, loss of employees and reduced productivity among remaining employees. The physical expansion of our operations may lead to significant costs and may divert financial resources from other projects, such as the development of our product candidates. If our management is unable to effectively manage our expected development and expansion, our expenses may increase more than expected, our ability to generate or increase our revenue could be reduced and we may not be able to implement our business strategy. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize our product candidates, if approved, and compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage the future development and expansion of our company.

We depend on qualified management personnel and our business could be harmed if we lose key personnel and cannot attract new personnel.

Our success depends to a significant degree upon the technical and management skills of our senior management team, including, in particular, Gil Beyen, our chairman and chief executive officer, Iman El-Hariry, our chief medical officer, and Jérôme Bailly, our director of pharmaceutical operations and qualified person. The loss of the services of any of these individuals would likely have a material adverse effect on us. Our success also will depend upon our ability to attract and retain additional qualified management, marketing, technical, and sales executives and personnel. We compete for key personnel against numerous companies, including larger, more established companies with significantly greater financial resources than we possess. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in attracting or retaining such personnel, and the failure to do so, could harm our operations and our growth prospects.

Our failure to maintain certain tax benefits applicable to French biopharmaceutical companies may adversely affect our results of operations.

As a French biopharmaceutical company, we have benefited from certain tax advantages, including, for example, the CIR, which is a French tax credit aimed at stimulating research and development. The CIR can be offset against French corporate income tax due and the portion in excess, if any, may be refunded. The CIR is calculated based on our claimed amount of eligible research and development expenditures in France and represented 2.2 million and 3.3 million as of December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively. The French tax authorities, with the assistance of the Research and Higher Education Ministry, may audit each research and development program in respect of which a CIR benefit has been claimed and assess whether such program qualifies in its view for the CIR benefit. The French tax authorities may challenge our eligibility for, or our calculation of, certain tax reductions or deductions in respect of our research and development activities and, should the French tax authorities be successful, our credits

 

30


Table of Contents

may be reduced, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations and future cash flows. We believe, due to the nature of our business operations, that we will continue to be eligible to receive the CIR tax credit. In 2017, our CIR authorization from the Research and Higher Education Ministry was renewed. However, if the French Parliament decides to eliminate, or to reduce the scope or the rate of, the CIR benefit, either of which it could decide to do at any time, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our business may be exposed to foreign exchange risks.

We incur some of our expenses, and may in the future derive revenues, in currencies other than the euro. In particular, as we expand our operations and conduct clinical trials in the United States, we will incur expenses in U.S. dollars. As a result, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk as our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We currently do not engage in hedging transactions to protect against uncertainty in future exchange rates between particular foreign currencies and the euro. Therefore, for example, an increase in the value of the euro against the U.S. dollar could have a negative impact on our revenue and earnings growth as U.S. dollar revenue and earnings, if any, are translated into euros at a reduced value. We cannot predict the impact of foreign currency fluctuations, and foreign currency fluctuations in the future may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The ADSs being sold in the U.S. offering will be quoted in U.S. dollars on the Nasdaq Global Market, while our ordinary shares (including those being sold in the European private placement and the underlying ordinary shares of the ADSs being sold in the U.S. offering) trade in euros on the Euronext Paris exchange. Our financial statements are prepared in euros. Therefore, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the euro and the U.S. dollar will also affect, among other matters, the value of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

We may use hazardous chemicals and biological materials in our business. Any claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these materials could be time-consuming and costly.

Our research and development processes involve the controlled use of hazardous materials, including chemicals and biological materials. We cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or discharge and any resultant injury from these materials. We may be sued for any injury or contamination that results from our use or the use by third parties of these materials, and our liability may exceed any insurance coverage and our total assets. French and U.S. federal, state, local or foreign laws and regulations govern the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials and specified waste products, as well as the discharge of pollutants into the environment and human health and safety matters. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations may be expensive and may impair our research and development efforts. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we could incur substantial costs, including civil or criminal fines and penalties, clean-up costs or capital expenditures for control equipment or operational changes necessary to achieve and maintain compliance. In addition, we cannot predict the impact on our business of new or amended environmental laws or regulations or any changes in the way existing and future laws and regulations are interpreted and enforced.

Product liability and other lawsuits could divert our resources, result in substantial liabilities and reduce the commercial potential of our product candidates.

The risk that we may be sued on product liability claims is inherent in the development and commercialization of biopharmaceutical products. Side effects of, or manufacturing defects in, products that we develop could result in the deterioration of a patient’s condition, injury or even death. For example, our liability could be sought after by patients participating in the clinical trials in the context of the development of the therapeutic products tested and unexpected side effects resulting from the administration of these products. Once a product is approved for sale and commercialized, the likelihood of product liability lawsuits increases. Criminal or civil proceedings might be filed against us by patients, regulatory authorities, biopharmaceutical companies and any other third party using or marketing our products. These actions could include claims resulting from acts by our partners, licensees and subcontractors, over which we have little or no control. These lawsuits may divert our management from pursuing our business strategy and may be costly to defend. In addition, if we are held liable in any of these lawsuits, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be forced to limit or forgo further commercialization of the affected products.

We maintain product liability insurance coverage for our clinical trials at levels which we believe are appropriate for our clinical trials. Nevertheless, our insurance coverage may be insufficient to reimburse us for any expenses or losses we may suffer. In addition, in the future, we may not be able to obtain or maintain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or to otherwise protect against potential product or other legal or administrative

 

31


Table of Contents

liability claims by us or our collaborators, licensees or subcontractors, which could prevent or inhibit the commercial production and sale of any of our product candidates that receive regulatory approval. Product liability claims could also harm our reputation, which may adversely affect our ability to commercialize our products successfully.

Our internal computer systems, or those of our third-party contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, which could result in a material disruption of our product development programs.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our third-party contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data for our product candidates could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the lost data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or applications or other data or applications relating to our technology or product candidates, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liabilities and the further development of our product candidates could be delayed.

We may acquire businesses or products, or form strategic alliances, in the future, and we may not realize the benefits of such acquisitions.

Our current growth strategy does not involve plans to acquire companies or technologies facilitating or enabling us to access to new medicines, new research projects, or new geographical areas, or enabling us to express synergies with our existing operations. However, if such acquisitions were to become necessary in the future, we may not be able to identify appropriate targets or make acquisitions under satisfactory conditions, in particular, satisfactory price conditions. In addition, we may be unable to obtain the financing for these acquisitions on favorable terms, which could require us to finance these acquisitions using our existing cash resources that could have been allocated to other purposes. If we acquire businesses with promising markets or technologies, we may not be able to realize the benefit of acquiring such businesses if we are unable to successfully integrate them with our existing operations and company culture. We may encounter numerous difficulties in developing, manufacturing and marketing any new products resulting from a strategic alliance or acquisition that delay or prevent us from realizing their expected benefits or enhancing our business. We cannot assure you that, following any such acquisition, we will achieve the expected synergies to justify the transaction.

Risks Related to Other Legal Compliance Matters

We are subject to healthcare laws and regulations which may require substantial compliance efforts and could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings, among other penalties.

Healthcare providers, physicians and others will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of our products, if approved. Our business operations in the United States and our arrangements with clinical investigators, healthcare providers, consultants, third party payors and patients may expose us to broadly applicable federal and state fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws. These laws may impact, among other things, our research, proposed sales, marketing and education programs of our product candidates that obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable U.S. federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

    the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, including any kickback, bribe or rebate, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase or lease, order or recommendation of, any item, good, facility or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;

 

    U.S. federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalties laws, including the civil False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including those from civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease, or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

 

   

the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created additional federal criminal statutes that impose criminal and civil liability for, among other things, executing

 

32


Table of Contents
 

or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or knowingly and willingly falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

 

    HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and its implementing regulations, which impose certain requirements on covered entities and their business associates that perform functions or activities that involve HIPAA Protected Health Information on their behalf, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

 

    U.S. federal transparency requirements under the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, enacted as part of the ACA, that require applicable manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to track and annually report to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, payments and other transfers of value provided to physicians and teaching hospitals, and certain ownership and investment interests held by physicians or their immediate family members; and

 

    analogous state or foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers, state marketing and/or transparency laws applicable to manufacturers that may be broader in scope than the federal requirements, state laws that require biopharmaceutical companies to comply with the biopharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect as HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Ensuring that our business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will likely be costly. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations were found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, possible exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of our operations, any of which could substantially disrupt our operations. If the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found not to be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including violating applicable regulatory standards and requirements or engaging in insider trading, which could significantly harm our business.

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with legal requirements or the requirements of CMS, EMA, FDA and other government regulators, provide accurate information to applicable government authorities, comply with fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations in the United States and abroad, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of, including trading on, information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. In connection with the global offering, we intend to adopt a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may be ineffective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

 

33


Table of Contents

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Our ability to compete may decline if we do not adequately protect our proprietary rights.

Our commercial success depends on obtaining and maintaining proprietary rights to our product candidates and defending these rights against third-party challenges. We will only be able to protect our product candidates and their uses from unauthorized use by third parties to the extent that valid and enforceable patents, or effectively protected trade secrets, cover them. Our ability to obtain patent protection for our product candidates is uncertain due to a number of factors, including:

 

    we or our licensors may not have been the first to make the inventions covered by pending patent applications or issued patents;

 

    we or our licensors may not have been the first to file patent applications for our product candidates or the compositions we developed or for their uses;

 

    others may independently develop identical, similar or alternative products or compositions and uses thereof;

 

    our or our licensors’ disclosures in patent applications may not be sufficient to meet the statutory requirements for patentability;

 

    any or all of our or our licensors’ pending patent applications may not result in issued patents;

 

    we or our licensors may not seek or obtain patent protection in countries that may eventually provide us a significant business opportunity;

 

    any patents issued to us or our licensors may not provide a basis for commercially viable products, may not provide any competitive advantages, or may be successfully challenged by third parties;

 

    our or our licensors’ compositions and methods may not be patentable;

 

    others may design around our patent claims to produce competitive products which fall outside of the scope of our patents; or

 

    others may identify prior art or other bases which could invalidate our or our licensors’ patents.

Even if we have or obtain patents covering our product candidates or compositions, we may still be barred from making, using and selling our product candidates or technologies because of the patent rights of others. Others may have filed, and in the future may file, patent applications covering compositions or products that are similar or identical to ours. There are many issued U.S. and foreign patents relating to chemical compounds and therapeutic products, and some of these relate to compounds we intend to commercialize. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the cancer treatment field in which we are developing products. These could materially affect our ability to develop our product candidates or sell our products if approved. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending applications unknown to us that may later result in issued patents that our product candidates or compositions may infringe. These patent applications may have priority over patent applications filed by us.

Obtaining and maintaining a patent portfolio entails significant expense and resources. Part of the expense includes periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, various other governmental fees on patents and/or applications due in several stages over the lifetime of patents and/or applications, as well as the cost associated with complying with numerous procedural provisions during the patent application process. We may not choose to pursue or maintain protection for particular inventions. In addition, there are situations in which failure to make certain payments or noncompliance with certain requirements in the patent process can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If we choose to forgo patent protection or allow a patent application or patent to lapse purposefully or inadvertently, our competitive position could suffer.

Legal actions to enforce our patent rights can be expensive and may involve the diversion of significant management time. In addition, these legal actions could be unsuccessful and could also result in the invalidation of our patents or a finding that they are unenforceable. We may or may not choose to pursue litigation or other actions against those that have infringed on our patents, or used them without authorization, due to the associated expense and time commitment of monitoring these activities. If we fail to protect or to enforce our intellectual property rights successfully, our competitive position could suffer, which could harm our results of operations.

 

34


Table of Contents

Issued patents covering our product candidates could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court.

If we initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering our product candidate or technology, the defendant could counterclaim that the patent covering our product candidate or technology is invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity and unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge include alleged failures to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for unenforceability assertions include allegations that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties may also raise similar claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post-grant review and/or inter partes review and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions, and opposition proceedings. Such proceedings could result in revocation or amendment of our patents in such a way that they no longer cover our product candidates or competitive products. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to validity, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our product candidates.

Biopharmaceutical patents and patent applications involve highly complex legal and factual questions, which, if determined adversely to us, could negatively impact our patent position.

The patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. The interpretation and breadth of claims allowed in some patents covering biopharmaceutical compositions may be uncertain and difficult to determine, and are often affected materially by the facts and circumstances that pertain to the patented compositions and the related patent claims. The standards of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, are evolving and could change in the future. Consequently, we cannot predict the issuance and scope of patents with certainty. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. U.S. patents and patent applications may also be subject to interference proceedings, and U.S. patents may be subject to reexamination proceedings, post-grant review and/or inter partes review in the USPTO. Foreign patents may be subject also to opposition or comparable proceedings in the corresponding foreign patent office, which could result in either loss of the patent or denial of the patent application or loss or reduction in the scope of one or more of the claims of the patent or patent application. In addition, such interference, reexamination, post-grant review, inter partes review and opposition proceedings may be costly. Accordingly, rights under any issued patents may not provide us with sufficient protection against competitive products or processes.

In addition, changes in or different interpretations of patent laws in the United States and foreign countries may permit others to use our or our licensors’ discoveries or to develop and commercialize our technology and products without providing any compensation to us, or may limit the number of patents or claims we can obtain. The laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as U.S. laws and those countries may lack adequate rules and procedures for defending our intellectual property rights.

If we fail to obtain and maintain patent protection and trade secret protection for our product candidates, we could lose our competitive advantage and competition we face would increase, reducing any potential revenues and adversely affecting our ability to attain or maintain profitability.

Developments in patent law could have a negative impact on our business.

From time to time, the U.S. Supreme Court, other federal courts, the U.S. Congress, the USPTO or similar foreign authorities may change the standards of patentability and any such changes could have a negative impact on our business. In addition, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the America Invents Act, which was signed into law in 2011, includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These changes include a transition from a “first-to-invent” system to a “first-to-file” system, changes to the way issued patents are challenged, and changes to the way patent applications are disputed during the examination process. These changes may favor larger and more established companies that have greater resources to devote to patent application filing and prosecution. The USPTO has developed new regulations and procedures to govern the full implementation of the America Invents Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the America Invents Act, and, in particular, the first-to-file provisions, became effective on March 16, 2013. Substantive changes to patent law associated with the America Invents Act, or any subsequent U.S. legislation regarding patents, may affect our ability to obtain patents,

 

35


Table of Contents

and if obtained, to enforce or defend them. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the America Invents Act will have on the cost of prosecuting our U.S. patent applications, our ability to obtain U.S. patents based on our discoveries and our ability to enforce or defend any patents that may issue from our patent applications, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If we do not obtain protection under the Hatch-Waxman Amendments and similar non-U.S. legislation for extending the term of patents covering each of our product candidates, our business may be materially harmed.

Depending upon the timing, duration and conditions of FDA marketing approval of our product candidates, one or more of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Amendments, and similar legislation in the European Union. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit a patent term extension of up to five years for a patent covering an approved product as compensation for effective patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. However, we may not receive an extension if we fail to apply within applicable deadlines, fail to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise fail to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the length of the extension could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, the period during which we can enforce our patent rights for that product will be shortened and our competitors may obtain approval to market competing products sooner. As a result, our revenue from applicable products could be reduced, possibly materially.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to patent protection, because we operate in the highly technical field of development of therapies, we rely in part on trade secret protection in order to protect our proprietary technology and processes. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We have entered into confidentiality and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers, and other advisors. These agreements generally require that the other party keep confidential and not disclose to third parties all confidential information developed by the party or made known to the party by us during the course of the party’s relationship with us. These agreements also generally provide that inventions conceived by the party in the course of rendering services to us will be our exclusive property. However, these agreements may not be honored and may not effectively assign intellectual property rights to us.

In addition to contractual measures, we try to protect the confidential nature of our proprietary information using physical and technological security measures. Such measures may not, for example, in the case of misappropriation of a trade secret by an employee or third party with authorized access, provide adequate protection for our proprietary information. Our security measures may not prevent an employee or consultant from misappropriating our trade secrets and providing them to a competitor, and recourse we take against such misconduct may not provide an adequate remedy to protect our interests fully. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret can be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the United States may be less willing to protect trade secrets. Trade secrets may be independently developed by others in a manner that could prevent legal recourse by us. If any of our confidential or proprietary information, such as our trade secrets, were to be disclosed or misappropriated, or if any such information was independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position could be harmed.

We will not seek to protect our intellectual property rights in all jurisdictions throughout the world and we may not be able to adequately enforce our intellectual property rights even in the jurisdictions where we seek protection.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our product candidates in all countries and jurisdictions throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States could be less extensive than those in the United States, assuming that rights are obtained in the United States. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we do not pursue and obtain patent protection to develop their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing. Even if we pursue and obtain issued patents in particular jurisdictions, our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent third parties from so competing.

 

36


Table of Contents

In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the federal and state laws in the United States. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of some countries, particularly developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, especially those relating to biopharmaceuticals or biotechnologies. This could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents, if obtained, or the misappropriation of our other intellectual property rights. For example, many foreign countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner must grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against third parties, including government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, patents may provide limited or no benefit. Patent protection must ultimately be sought on a country-by-country basis, which is an expensive and time-consuming process with uncertain outcomes. Accordingly, we may choose not to seek patent protection in certain countries, and we will not have the benefit of patent protection in such countries.

Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. In addition, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in the United States and foreign countries may affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our technology and the enforcement of intellectual property. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Third parties may assert ownership or commercial rights to inventions we develop.

Third parties may in the future make claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our intellectual property. We have written agreements with collaborators that provide for the ownership of intellectual property arising from our collaborations. These agreements provide that we must negotiate certain commercial rights with collaborators with respect to joint inventions or inventions made by our collaborators that arise from the results of the collaboration. In some instances, there may not be adequate written provisions to address clearly the resolution of intellectual property rights that may arise from a collaboration. If we cannot successfully negotiate sufficient ownership and commercial rights to the inventions that result from our use of a third-party collaborator’s materials where required, or if disputes otherwise arise with respect to the intellectual property developed with the use of a collaborator’s samples, we may be limited in our ability to capitalize on the market potential of these inventions. In addition, we may face claims by third parties that our agreements with employees, contractors, or consultants obligating them to assign intellectual property to us are ineffective, or in conflict with prior or competing contractual obligations of assignment, which could result in ownership disputes regarding intellectual property we have developed or will develop and interfere with our ability to capture the commercial value of such inventions. Litigation may be necessary to resolve an ownership dispute, and if we are not successful, we may be precluded from using certain intellectual property, or may lose our exclusive rights in that intellectual property. Either outcome could have an adverse impact on our business.

If we fail to comply with our obligations under license or technology agreements with third parties, we could lose license rights that are critical to our business.

We license intellectual property that is critical to our business, including licenses underlying the technology in our diagnostic tests, and in the future we may enter into additional agreements that provide us with licenses to valuable intellectual property or technology. These licenses impose various royalty payments, milestones, and other obligations on us. If we fail to comply with any of these obligations, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license. Termination by the licensor would cause us to lose valuable rights, and could prevent us from distributing our current tests, or inhibit our ability to commercialize future test candidates. Our business would suffer if any current or future licenses terminate, if the licensors fail to abide by the terms of the license, if the licensors fail to prevent infringement by third parties, if the licensed patents or other rights are found to be invalid or unenforceable, or if we are unable to enter into necessary licenses on acceptable terms.

 

37


Table of Contents

Third parties may assert that our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information or misappropriated trade secrets.

We employ individuals who were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, and no such claims against us are currently pending, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of a former employer or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

A dispute concerning the infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary rights or the proprietary rights of others could be time-consuming and costly, and an unfavorable outcome could harm our business.

There is significant litigation in the biopharmaceutical industry regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. While we are not currently subject to any pending intellectual property litigation, and are not aware of any such threatened litigation, we may be exposed to future litigation by third parties based on claims that our product candidates, technologies or activities infringe the intellectual property rights of others. If our development activities are found to infringe any such patents, we may have to pay significant damages or seek licenses to such patents. A patentee could prevent us from using the patented drugs or compositions. We may need to resort to litigation to enforce a patent issued to us, to protect our trade secrets, or to determine the scope and validity of third-party proprietary rights. From time to time, we may hire scientific personnel or consultants formerly employed by other companies involved in one or more areas similar to the activities conducted by us. Either we or these individuals may be subject to allegations of trade secret misappropriation or other similar claims as a result of prior affiliations. If we become involved in litigation, it could consume a substantial portion of our managerial and financial resources, regardless of whether we win or lose. We may not be able to afford the costs of litigation. Any adverse ruling or perception of an adverse ruling in defending ourselves against these claims could have a negative impact on our cash position. Any legal action against us or our collaborators could lead to:

 

    payment of damages, potentially treble damages, if we are found to have willfully infringed a party’s patent rights;

 

    injunctive or other equitable relief that may effectively block our ability to further develop, commercialize, and sell products; or

 

    us or our collaborators having to enter into license arrangements that may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all.

Any of these outcomes could hurt our cash position and financial condition and our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest.

Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we will need to build name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively.

Risks Related to the Global Offering, Ownership of our Ordinary Shares and ADSs and Our Status as a Non-U.S. Company with Foreign Private Issuer Status

There has been no market for the ADSs prior to the U.S. offering and an active and liquid market for our securities may fail to develop, which could harm the market price of the ADSs.

Prior to the U.S. offering, while our ordinary shares have been traded on Euronext Paris since May 2013 and we have ADRs that trade on the U.S. over-the-counter market, there has been no public market on a U.S. national securities exchange for the ADSs or our ordinary shares in the United States. Although we anticipate our ADSs will be approved

 

38


Table of Contents

for listing on the Nasdaq Global Market, an active trading market for our ADSs may never develop or be sustained following the U.S. offering. The offering price of our ADSs will be determined through negotiations between us and the underwriters based on a number of factors. This offering price may not be indicative of the market price of our ADSs or ordinary shares after the global offering. In the absence of an active trading market for our ADSs or ordinary shares, investors may not be able to sell their ADSs at or above the offering price or at the time that they would like to sell.

The market price of our equity securities may be volatile, and purchasers of our ordinary shares or ADSs could incur substantial losses.

The market price for our ADSs and ordinary shares may be volatile. The stock market in general and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their ADSs or ordinary shares at or above the price originally paid for the security. The market price for our ADSs and ordinary shares may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

    actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

 

    actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;

 

    competition from existing products or new products that may emerge;

 

    announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations, or capital commitments;

 

    failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;

 

    issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts;

 

    fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;

 

    share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;

 

    additions or departures of key management or scientific personnel;

 

    lawsuits threatened or filed against us, disputes or other developments related to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters, and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;

 

    changes to coverage policies or reimbursement levels by commercial third-party payors and government payors and any announcements relating to coverage policies or reimbursement levels;

 

    announcement or expectation of additional debt or equity financing efforts;

 

    sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs by us, our insiders or our other shareholders; and

 

    general economic and market conditions.

These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for our ordinary shares and ADSs to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their ordinary shares or ADSs and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of the trading market for the ordinary shares and ADSs.

If we do not achieve our projected development and commercialization goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, our business will be harmed and the price of our securities could decline as a result.

We sometimes estimate for planning purposes the timing of the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development objectives. These milestones may include our expectations regarding the commencement or completion of scientific studies, clinical trials, the submission of regulatory filings, or commercialization objectives. From time to time, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these

milestones, such as the completion of an ongoing clinical trial, the initiation of other clinical programs, receipt of marketing approval, or a commercial launch of a product. The achievement of many of these milestones may be outside of our control. All of these milestones are based on a variety of assumptions which may cause the timing of achievement of the milestones to vary considerably from our estimates, including:

 

    our available capital resources or capital constraints we experience;

 

    the rate of progress, costs and results of our clinical trials and research and development activities, including the extent of scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and collaborators, and our ability to identify and enroll patients who meet clinical trial eligibility criteria;

 

39


Table of Contents
    our receipt of approvals by the EMA, FDA and other regulatory agencies and the timing thereof;

 

    other actions, decisions or rules issued by regulators;

 

    our ability to access sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of compounds and raw materials used in the manufacture of our product candidates;

 

    the efforts of our collaborators with respect to the commercialization of our products; and

 

    the securing of, costs related to, and timing issues associated with, product manufacturing as well as sales and marketing activities.

If we fail to achieve announced milestones in the timeframes we expect, the commercialization of our product candidates may be delayed, our business and results of operations may be harmed, and the trading price of the ordinary shares and ADSs may decline as a result.

After the completion of the global offering, we may be at an increased risk of securities class action litigation.

Historically, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies have experienced significant share price volatility in recent years. If we were to be sued, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.

After the global offering, our ownership will remain concentrated in the hands of our principal shareholders and ADS holders and management, who will continue to be able to exercise a direct or indirect controlling influence on us.

We anticipate that our executive officers, directors, current 5% or greater shareholders and affiliated entities, including Auriga Ventures III FCPR and Baker Bros. Advisors LP, will together beneficially own approximately         % of our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) outstanding after the global offering, assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares in the global offering. As a result, these shareholders, acting together, will have significant influence over all matters that require approval by our shareholders, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. Corporate action might be taken even if other shareholders, including those who purchase ordinary shares or ADSs in the global offering, oppose them. This concentration of ownership might also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of our company that other shareholders may view as beneficial.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from the global offering and may use them in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not increase the value of your investment.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds that we receive from the global offering. We may spend or invest these proceeds in a way with which our shareholders disagree. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business and financial condition. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from the global offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our investors.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of the ordinary shares and ADSs and their trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ADSs and ordinary shares depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If no or few securities or industry analysts cover our company, the trading price for the ADSs and ordinary shares would be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our equity securities or publishes incorrect or unfavorable research about our business, the price of the ordinary shares and ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, or downgrades our securities, demand for the ordinary shares and ADSs could decrease, which could cause the price of the ordinary shares and ADSs or their trading volume to decline.

We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our securities and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of the ordinary shares and ADSs. In addition, French law may limit the amount of dividends we are able to distribute.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and do not currently intend to do so for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your ordinary shares or ADSs for the foreseeable future and the success of an investment in ordinary shares or ADSs will depend upon any future appreciation in its value. Consequently, investors may need to sell all or part of their holdings of ordinary shares or ADSs after price appreciation, which may

 

40


Table of Contents

never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. There is no guarantee that the ordinary shares or ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which our shareholders have purchased them. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase the ADSs or ordinary shares.

Further, under French law, the determination of whether we have been sufficiently profitable to pay dividends is made on the basis of our statutory financial statements prepared and presented in accordance with accounting standards applicable in France. In addition, payment of dividends may subject us to additional taxes under French law. Please see the section of this prospectus titled “Description of Share Capital—Key Provisions of Our Bylaws and French Law Affecting Our Ordinary Shares—Rights, Preferences and Restrictions Attaching to Ordinary Shares” for further details on the limitations on our ability to declare and pay dividends and the taxes that may become payable by us if we elect to pay a dividend. Therefore, we may be more restricted in our ability to declare dividends than companies not based in France.

In addition, exchange rate fluctuations may affect the amount of euros that we are able to distribute, and the amount in U.S. dollars that our shareholders receive upon the payment of cash dividends or other distributions we declare and pay in euros, if any. These factors could harm the value of the ADSs, and, in turn, the U.S. dollar proceeds that holders receive from the sale of the ADSs.

If you purchase ordinary shares or ADSs in the global offering, you will experience substantial and immediate dilution.

If you purchase ordinary shares or ADSs in the global offering, you will experience substantial and immediate dilution of $         per ADS and          per ordinary share in net tangible book value after giving effect to the global offering at an assumed offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to          per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, because the price that you pay will be substantially greater than the net tangible book value per ADS or ordinary share, as applicable, that you acquire. This dilution is due in large part to the fact that our earlier investors paid substantially less than the offering price when they purchased their ordinary shares. You will experience additional dilution upon exercise of any outstanding warrants to purchase ordinary shares or if we otherwise issue additional ordinary shares or ADSs below the offering price. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after the global offering, see the section of this prospectus titled “Dilution.”

Future sales of ordinary shares or ADSs by existing shareholders could depress the market price of the ADSs and ordinary shares.

If our existing shareholders or holders of ADSs sell, or indicate an intent to sell, substantial amounts of ordinary shares or ADSs in the public market after the 90-day contractual lock-up and other legal restrictions on resale discussed in this prospectus lapse, the trading price of the ADSs and ordinary shares could decline significantly and could decline below the offering price. Upon completion of the global offering, we will have outstanding                 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares, approximately             of which are subject to a contractual restriction on selling for up to 90 days, subject to customary exceptions. The underwriters may permit our officers, directors, employees and current shareholders to sell ADSs or ordinary shares prior to the expiration of the lock-up agreements. See the section of this prospectus titled “Underwriting.”

After the lock-up agreements pertaining to the global offering expire, and based on the number of ordinary shares outstanding upon completion of the global offering (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs),                 additional ordinary shares will be eligible for sale in the public market, all of which shares are held by directors, executive officers and other affiliates and will be subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. In addition, the ordinary shares subject to outstanding warrants will become eligible for sale in the public market in the future, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. Following the global offering and expiration of the lock-up period, we intend to file one or more registration statements with the SEC covering the ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants. Upon effectiveness of such registration statements, any ordinary shares subsequently issued will be eligible for sale in the public market, except to the extent that they are restricted by the lock-up agreements referred to above and subject to compliance with Rule 144 in the case of our affiliates. Sales of a large number of the shares in the public market could have an adverse effect on the market price of the ADSs or ordinary shares. See the section of this prospectus titled “Shares and ADSs Eligible for Future

 

41


Table of Contents

Sale” for a more detailed description of sales that may occur in the future. If these additional ordinary shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of the ADSs and ordinary shares could decline substantially.

The rights of shareholders in companies subject to French corporate law differ in material respects from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States.

We are a French company with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by our bylaws and by the laws governing companies incorporated in France. The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our board of directors are in many ways different from the rights and obligations of shareholders in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. For example, in the performance of its duties, our board of directors is required by French law to consider the interests of our company, its shareholders, its employees and other stakeholders, rather than solely our shareholders and/or creditors. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, your interests as a shareholder or holder of ADSs. See the sections of this prospectus titled “Management—Corporate Governance Practices” and “Description of Share Capital.”

U.S. investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against our company and directors and senior management and the experts named in this prospectus.

Certain members of our board of directors and senior management and certain experts named in this prospectus are non-residents of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible to serve process on such persons or us in the United States or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against them or us based on civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. Additionally, it may be difficult to assert U.S. securities law claims in actions originally instituted outside of the United States. Foreign courts may refuse to hear a U.S. securities law claim because foreign courts may not be the most appropriate forums in which to bring such a claim. Even if a foreign court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides, and not U.S. law, is applicable to the claim. Further, if U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process, and certain matters of procedure would still be governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides. In particular, there is some doubt as to whether French courts would recognize and enforce certain civil liabilities under U.S. securities laws in original actions or judgments of U.S. courts based upon these civil liability provisions. In addition, awards of punitive damages in actions brought in the United States or elsewhere may be unenforceable in France. An award for monetary damages under the U.S. securities laws would be considered punitive if it does not seek to compensate the claimant for loss or damage suffered but is intended to punish the defendant. French law provides that a shareholder, or a group of shareholders, may initiate a legal action to seek indemnification from the directors of a corporation in the corporation’s interest if it fails to bring such legal action itself. If so, any damages awarded by the court are paid to the corporation and any legal fees relating to such action may be borne by the relevant shareholder or the group of shareholders.

The enforceability of any judgment in France will depend on the particular facts of the case as well as the laws and treaties in effect at the time. The United States and France do not currently have a treaty providing for recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. See the section of this prospectus titled “Enforcement of Civil Liabilities.”

Our bylaws and French corporate law contain provisions that may delay or discourage a takeover attempt.

Provisions contained in our bylaws and French corporate law could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders. In addition, provisions of our bylaws impose various procedural and other requirements, which could make it more difficult for shareholders to effect certain corporate actions. These provisions include the following:

 

    under French law, the owner of 95% of voting rights of a public company listed on a regulated market in a Member State of the European Union or in a state party to the European Economic Area, or EEA, Agreement, including France, has the right to force out minority shareholders following a tender offer made to all shareholders;

 

   

under French law, a non-resident of France as well as any French entity controlled by non-French residents may have to file an administrative notice with French authorities in connection with a direct or indirect

 

42


Table of Contents
 

investment in us, as defined by administrative rulings; see the section of this prospectus titled “Limitations Affecting Shareholders of a French Company”;

 

    a merger (i.e., in a French law context, a stock for stock exchange following which our company would be dissolved into the acquiring entity and our shareholders would become shareholders of the acquiring entity) of our company into a company incorporated in the European Union would require the approval of our board of directors as well as a two-thirds majority of the votes held by the shareholders present, represented by proxy or voting by mail at the relevant meeting;

 

    a merger of our company into a company incorporated outside of the European Union would require 100% of our shareholders to approve it;

 

    under French law, a cash merger is treated as a share purchase and would require the consent of each participating shareholder;

 

    our shareholders have granted and may grant in the future our board of directors broad authorizations to increase our share capital or to issue additional ordinary shares or other securities, such as warrants, to our shareholders, the public or qualified investors, including as a possible defense following the launching of a tender offer for our shares;

 

    our shareholders have preferential subscription rights on a pro rata basis on the issuance by us of any additional securities for cash or a set-off of cash debts, which rights may only be waived by the extraordinary general meeting (by a two-thirds majority vote) of our shareholders or on an individual basis by each shareholder;

 

    our board of directors has the right to appoint directors to fill a vacancy created by the resignation or death of a director, for the remaining duration of such director’s term of office and subject to the approval by the shareholders of such appointment at the next shareholders’ meeting, which prevents shareholders from having the sole right to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

    our board of directors can be convened by our chairman or our managing director, if any, or, when no board meeting has been held for more than two consecutive months, by directors representing at least one third of the total number of directors;

 

    our board of directors meetings can only be regularly held if at least half of the directors attend either physically or by way of videoconference or teleconference enabling the directors’ identification and ensuring their effective participation in the board’s decisions;

 

    our shares are nominative or bearer, if the legislation so permits, according to the shareholder’s choice;

 

    approval of at least a majority of the votes held by shareholders present, represented by a proxy, or voting by mail at the relevant ordinary shareholders’ general meeting is required to remove directors with or without cause;

 

    advance notice is required for nominations to the board of directors or for proposing matters to be acted upon at a shareholders’ meeting, except that a vote to remove and replace a director can be proposed at any shareholders’ meeting without notice;

 

    our bylaws can be changed in accordance with applicable laws;

 

    the crossing of certain thresholds has to be disclosed and can impose certain obligations; see the section of this prospectus titled “Description of Share Capital—Declaration of Crossing of Ownership Thresholds”;

 

    transfers of shares shall comply with applicable insider trading rules and regulations and, in particular, with the Market Abuse Directive and Regulation dated April 16, 2014; and

 

    pursuant to French law, our bylaws, including the sections relating to the number of directors and election and removal of a director from office, may only be modified by a resolution adopted by two-thirds of the votes of our shareholders present, represented by a proxy or voting by mail at the meeting.

You may not be able to exercise your right to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs.

Holders of ADSs may exercise voting rights with respect to the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. The deposit agreement provides that, upon receipt of notice of any meeting of holders of our ordinary shares, the depositary will fix a record date for the determination of ADS holders who shall be entitled to give instructions for the exercise of voting rights. Upon timely receipt of notice from us, if we so request, the depositary shall distribute to the holders as of the record date (1) the notice of the

 

43


Table of Contents

meeting or solicitation of consent or proxy sent by us and (2) a statement as to the manner in which instructions may be given by the holders.

Purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering may instruct the depositary of their ADSs to vote the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. Otherwise, purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering will not be able to exercise voting rights, unless they withdraw the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs they hold. However, a holder of ADSs may not know about the meeting far enough in advance to withdraw those ordinary shares. If we ask for a holder of ADSs’ instructions, the depositary, upon timely notice from us, will notify him or her of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to him or her. We cannot guarantee to any holder of ADSs that he or she will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that he or she can instruct the depositary to vote his or her ordinary shares or to withdraw his or her ordinary shares so that he or she can vote them. If the depositary does not receive timely voting instructions from a holder of ADSs, it may give a proxy to a person designated by us to vote the ordinary shares underlying his or her ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that a holder of ADSs may not be able to exercise his or her right to vote, and there may be nothing he or she can do if the ordinary shares underlying his or her ADSs are not voted as he or she requested.

Purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering may not be directly holding our ordinary shares.

A holder of ADSs will not be treated as one of our shareholders and will not have direct shareholder rights. French law governs our shareholder rights. The depositary will be the holder of the ordinary shares underlying ADSs held by purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering. Purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering will have ADS holder rights. The deposit agreement among us, the depositary and purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering, as an ADS holder, and all other persons directly and indirectly holding ADSs, sets out ADS holder rights, as well as the rights and obligations of the depositary.

The right as a holder of ADSs to participate in any future preferential subscription rights or to elect to receive dividends in shares may be limited, which may cause dilution to the holdings of purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering.

According to French law, if we issue additional securities for cash, current shareholders will have preferential subscription rights for these securities on a pro rata basis unless they waive those rights at an extraordinary meeting of our shareholders (by a two-thirds majority vote) or individually by each shareholder. However, our ADS holders in the United States will not be entitled to exercise or sell such rights unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. In addition, the deposit agreement provides that the depositary will not make rights available to purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act or exempted from registration under the Securities Act. Further, if we offer holders of our ordinary shares the option to receive dividends in either cash or shares, under the deposit agreement the depositary may require satisfactory assurances from us that extending the offer to holders of ADSs does not require registration of any securities under the Securities Act before making the option available to holders of ADSs. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, ADS holders may be unable to participate in our rights offerings or to elect to receive dividends in shares and may experience dilution in their holdings. In addition, if the depositary is unable to sell rights that are not exercised or not distributed or if the sale is not lawful or reasonably practicable, it will allow the rights to lapse, in which case you will receive no value for these rights.

Purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering may be subject to limitations on the transfer of their ADSs and the withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares.

ADSs, which may be evidenced by ADRs, are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary think it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law, government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason subject to a holder of ADSs’ right to cancel his or her ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares. Temporary delays in the cancellation of ADSs and withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares may arise because the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books, the transfer of ordinary

 

44


Table of Contents

shares is blocked to permit voting at a shareholders’ meeting or we are paying a dividend on our ordinary shares. In addition, a holder of ADSs may not be able to cancel his or her ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares when he or she owes money for fees, taxes and similar charges and when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of ordinary shares or other deposited securities. See the section of this prospectus titled “Description of American Depositary Shares.”

As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from a number of rules under the U.S. securities laws and are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a U.S. company. This may limit the information available to holders of ADSs and ordinary shares.

We are a foreign private issuer, as defined in the SEC’s rules and regulations and, consequently, we are not subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to public companies organized within the United States. For example, we are exempt from certain rules under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that regulate disclosure obligations and procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations applicable to a security registered under the Exchange Act, including the U.S. proxy rules under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers and directors are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, while we currently make annual and semi-annual filings with respect to our listing on Euronext Paris and expect to file financial reports on an annual and semi-annual basis, we will not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. public companies and will not be required to file quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K under the Exchange Act. Accordingly, there will be less publicly available information concerning our company than there would be if we were not a foreign private issuer.

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted and we expect to follow certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards. These practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq Global Market.

As a foreign private issuer listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, we will be subject to Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards. However, Nasdaq rules provide that foreign private issuers are permitted to follow home country corporate governance practices in lieu of Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards as long as notification is provided to Nasdaq of the intention to take advantage of such exemptions. We intend to rely on exemptions for foreign private issuers and follow French corporate governance practices in lieu of Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards, to the extent possible. Certain corporate governance practices in France, which is our home country, may differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance standards. For example, as a French company, neither the corporate laws of France nor our bylaws require a majority of our directors to be independent and we can include non-independent directors as members of our remuneration committee, and our independent directors are not required to hold regularly scheduled meetings at which only independent directors are present.

We are also exempt from provisions set forth in Nasdaq rules which require an issuer to provide in its bylaws for a generally applicable quorum, and that such quorum may not be less than one-third of the outstanding voting stock. Consistent with French law, our bylaws provide that a quorum requires the presence of shareholders having at least (1) 20% of the shares entitled to vote in the case of an ordinary shareholders’ general meeting or at an extraordinary shareholders’ general meeting where shareholders are voting on a capital increase by capitalization of reserves, profits or share premium, or (2) 25% of the shares entitled to vote in the case of any other extraordinary shareholders’ general meeting.

As a foreign private issuer, we are required to comply with Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act, relating to audit committee composition and responsibilities. Under French law, the audit committee may only have an advisory role and appointment of our statutory auditors, in particular, must be decided by the shareholders at our annual meeting.

Therefore, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would have under Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. For an overview of our corporate governance practices, see “Management—Corporate Governance Practices.”

 

45


Table of Contents

We are an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our ADSs less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the U.S. Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We will not take advantage of the extended transition period provided under Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Since IFRS makes no distinction between public and private companies for purposes of compliance with new or revised accounting standards, the requirements for our compliance as a private company and as a public company are the same.

We cannot predict if investors will find the ADSs less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find the ADSs less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for the ADSs and the price of the ADSs may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of the global offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; and (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional cost and expense.

While we currently qualify as a foreign private issuer, the determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2018. In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if we fail to meet the requirements necessary to maintain our foreign private issuer status as of the relevant determination date. For example, if more than 50% of our securities are held by U.S. residents and more than 50% of our executive officers or members of our board of directors are residents or citizens of the United States, we could lose our foreign private issuer status. Immediately following the closing of the global offering, approximately     % of our outstanding ordinary shares will likely be held by U.S. residents (assuming that all purchasers in the U.S. offering are residents of the United States).

The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly more than costs we incur as a foreign private issuer. If we are not a foreign private issuer, we will be required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive in certain respects than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We would be required under current SEC rules to prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, rather than IFRS, and modify certain of our policies to comply with corporate governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers. Such conversion of our financial statements to U.S. GAAP would involve significant time and cost. In addition, we may lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements on U.S. stock exchanges that are available to foreign private issuers such as the ones described above and exemptions from procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies.

U.S. holders of ADSs may suffer adverse tax consequences if we are characterized as a passive foreign investment company.

Generally, if, for any taxable year, at least 75% of our gross income is passive income, or at least 50% of the value of our assets is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income, including cash, we would be characterized as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For purposes of these tests, passive income includes dividends, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received

 

46


Table of Contents

from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. If we are characterized as a PFIC, U.S. holders of the ADSs may suffer adverse tax consequences, including having gains realized on the sale of the ADSs treated as ordinary income, rather than capital gain, the loss of the preferential rate applicable to dividends received on the ADSs by individuals who are U.S. holders, and having interest charges apply to distributions by us and the proceeds of sales of the ADSs. See “Material United States Federal Income and French Tax Considerations—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations.”

Our status as a PFIC will depend on the composition of our income (including whether we receive certain non-refundable grants or subsidies and whether such amounts and reimbursements of certain refundable research tax credits will constitute gross income for purposes of the PFIC income test) and the composition and value of our assets, which may be determined in large part by reference to the market value of the ADSs and our ordinary shares, which may be volatile, from time to time. Our status may also depend, in part, on how quickly we utilize the cash proceeds from the global offering in our business. Based on certain estimates of our gross income and assets, and on the nature of our business, we do not expect to be characterized as a PFIC for our taxable year ending December 31, 2017; however, there can be no assurance that we will not be considered a PFIC for any taxable year.

We must maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, and if we are unable to do so, the accuracy and timeliness of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, which could hurt our business, lessen investor confidence and depress the market price of our securities.

We must maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in order to accurately and timely report our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, as a public company listed in the United States, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act will require, among other things, that we assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at the end of each fiscal year. We anticipate being first required to issue management’s annual report on internal control over financial reporting, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, in connection with issuing our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ending December 31, 2018 and the filing of our second annual report with the SEC.

The rules governing the standards that must be met for our management to assess our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation. These stringent standards require that our audit committee be advised and regularly updated on management’s review of internal control over financial reporting. We are in the process of designing, implementing, and testing the internal control over financial reporting required to comply with this obligation. This process is time-consuming, costly, and complicated. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting beginning with our annual report following the date on which we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” which may be up to five fiscal years following the date of the global offering. Our management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that will be applicable to us as a public company listed in the United States. If we fail to staff our accounting and finance function adequately or maintain internal control over financial reporting adequate to meet the demands that will be placed upon us as a public company listed in the United States, our business and reputation may be harmed and the price of our ordinary shares and ADSs may decline. Furthermore, investor perceptions of us may be adversely affected, which could cause a decline in the market price of our securities.

 

47


Table of Contents

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, particularly the sections of this prospectus titled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business,” contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than present and historical facts and conditions contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. When used in this prospectus, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “is designed to,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “objective,” “should,” or the negative of these and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

    our ability to attain, maintain and expand marketing approval for eryaspase, which is known under the trade name GRASPA in Europe and Israel;

 

    the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

    our ability to successfully develop our ERYCAPS platform and advance our pipeline of product candidates;

 

    our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities;

 

    the regulatory and commercialization goals for GRASPA in our agreements with Orphan Europe and Teva, including the timing and amount of anticipated milestone and royalty payments;

 

    our ability to produce adequate supplies of our product candidates for preclinical and clinical testing and to fulfill our contractual obligations to third-party distributors;

 

    the effects of increased competition as well as innovations by new and existing competitors in our industry;

 

    our ability to obtain funding for our operations;

 

    our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property rights and propriety technologies and to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights and proprietary technology of third parties;

 

    regulatory developments in the United States, Europe and other foreign countries;

 

    statements regarding future revenue, hiring plans, expenses, capital expenditures, capital requirements and stock performance;

 

    the uncertainty of economic conditions in certain countries in Europe and Asia such as related to the United Kingdom’s referendum in June 2016 in which voters approved an exit from the European Union, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” and general economic conditions;

 

    our expected use of proceeds of the global offering; and

 

    other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the caption “Risk Factors.”

You should refer to the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors” for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and Section 27A of the Securities Act do not protect any forward-looking statements that we make in connection with the global offering.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

48


Table of Contents

MARKET INFORMATION

Our ordinary shares have been trading on Euronext Paris under the symbol “ERYP” since May 2013.

The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the reported high and low sale prices per ordinary share on Euronext Paris in euros as well as the average daily trading volume for these periods.

 

 

 

PERIOD

   HIGH      LOW      AVERAGE DAILY
TRADING VOLUME
 

Annual

        

2013

   12.07      8.58        5,086  

2014

     34.97        10.16        39,665  

2015

     40.20        23.04        42,280  

2016

     28.18        11.50        26,417  

Quarterly

        

First Quarter 2015

     32.99        25.20        58,926  

Second Quarter 2015

     37.00        25.93        51,097  

Third Quarter 2015

     40.20        28.15        37,287  

Fourth Quarter 2015

     32.80        23.04        22,804  

First Quarter 2016

     26.90        17.62        36,674  

Second Quarter 2016

     28.18        15.44        19,287  

Third Quarter 2016

     24.42        18.51        15,877  

Fourth Quarter 2016

     18.56        11.50        34,593  

First Quarter 2017

     29.82        12.10        120,436  

Second Quarter 2017

     30.20        23.81        112,977  

Third Quarter 2017

     27.96        22.44        40,349  

Fourth Quarter 2017 (through October 3, 2017)

     24.90        23.05        65,840  

Monthly

        

May 2017

     29.97        23.81        117,237  

June 2017

     29.93        25.58        59,407  

July 2017

     27.10        24.06        23,500  

August 2017

     26.73        22.44        42,441  

September 2017

     27.96        22.70        54,909  

October 2017 (through October 3, 2017)

     24.90        23.05        65,840  

 

 

On October 3, 2017, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris was 24.70 per share.

 

49


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from the global offering of approximately          ($        ) million, assuming an offering price $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to          per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares. If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares in the global offering, we estimate that we will receive net proceeds from the global offering of approximately         ($        ) million, assuming an offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to          per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Each 1.00 ($        ) increase or decrease in the assumed offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to          per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, would increase or decrease our net proceeds from the global offering by          ($        ) million, assuming the number of ordinary shares offered by us (which may be in the form of ADSs), as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Subject to applicable law, we may also increase or decrease the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) we are offering. An increase or decrease of 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us in the global offering would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us by approximately          ($        ) million, assuming that the assumed offering price per ADS or ordinary share remains the same and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The actual net proceeds payable to us will adjust based on the actual number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us in the global offering, the actual offering price per ADS and ordinary share and other terms of the global offering determined at pricing.

We currently expect to use the net proceeds from the global offering as follows:

 

    approximately         ($        ) million to conduct our planned pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the United States and Europe;

 

    approximately         ($        ) million to complete additional pivotal clinical trials of eryaspase for the treatment of ALL in the United States and Europe;

 

    approximately         ($        ) million to advance the development of eryaspase and potential follow-on products for other indications;

 

    approximately         ($        ) million to fund overall development of our ERYCAPS platform technology and other preclinical development programs; and
    the remainder, if any, for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

Even with the expected net proceeds from the global offering, we may need to raise additional capital in the future to conduct additional clinical developments with eryaspase, including to fund our planned pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial, and to complete the clinical development of other product candidates. However, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments will be sufficient to fund our clinical trials that have already commenced, including our Phase 1 clinical trial in the United States of eryaspase for the treatment of ALL, our Phase 2 clinical trial in Europe of eryaspase in ALL patients allergic to pegylated asparaginase and our Phase 2b clinical trial in Europe of eryaspase for the treatment of AML. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

This expected use of the net proceeds from the global offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the completion of the global offering or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses set forth above. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures and the extent of clinical development may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our

 

50


Table of Contents

development efforts, the status of and results from preclinical studies and any ongoing clinical trials or clinical trials we may commence in the future, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our future financing needs remain uncertain and our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from the global offering.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from the global offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

51


Table of Contents

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our ordinary shares. We do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our equity securities in the foreseeable future and intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business, given our state of development.

Subject to the requirements of French law and our bylaws, dividends may only be distributed from our distributable profits, plus any amounts held in our available reserves which are reserves other than legal and statutory and revaluation surplus. See the section of this prospectus titled “Description of Share Capital—Key Provisions of Our Bylaws and French Law Affecting Our Ordinary Shares—Rights, Preferences and Restrictions Attaching to Ordinary Shares” for further details on the limitations on our ability to declare and pay dividends. Dividend distributions, if any in the future, will be made in euros and converted into U.S. dollars with respect to the ADSs, as provided in the deposit agreement.

 

52


Table of Contents

CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of June 30, 2017:

 

    on an actual basis; and

 

    on an as adjusted basis to reflect (i) the issuance and sale of (a)              ADSs in the U.S. offering at an assumed offering price of $         per ADS (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar) and (b)                  ordinary shares in the European private placement at an assumed offering price of          per ordinary share, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                     , 2017, after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and (ii) the application of net proceeds from the global offering described under “Use of Proceeds.”

Our capitalization following the global offering will be adjusted based on the actual offering price and other terms of the global offering determined at pricing, including the amount by which actual offering expenses are higher or lower than estimated. The table should be read in conjunction with the information contained in “Use of Proceeds,” “Selected Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” as well as our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

 

 

     AS OF JUNE 30, 2017  
     ACTUAL      AS ADJUSTED (1)  
     (in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   88,551       
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Conditional advances

   1,182                        

Debt and capital lease obligations including current portion

     2,061     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total debt

     3,242     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Equity attributable to shareholders:

     

Ordinary shares, 0.10 nominal value: 11,744,448 shares issued and outstanding, actual;              shares issued and outstanding, as adjusted

     1,174     

Additional paid-in capital

     170,159     

Reserves

     (69,581)     

Net loss for the period

     (14,081)     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total equity attributable to shareholders

     87,671     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   90,913       
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1)    Each 1.00 ($            ) increase or decrease in the assumed offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to              per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, would increase or decrease each of as adjusted total equity attributable to our shareholders and as adjusted total capitalization by approximately              ($            ) million, assuming that the number of ordinary shares offered by us (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs), as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Subject to applicable law, we may also increase or decrease the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) we are offering. Each increase or decrease of 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us would increase or decrease each of as adjusted total equity attributable to our shareholders and as adjusted total capitalization by approximately              ($            ) million, assuming that the assumed offering price per ADS or ordinary share remains the same, and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each increase of 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us together with an associated 1.00 ($            ) increase in the assumed offering price of $         per ADS (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar) and assumed offering price of              per ordinary share, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, would increase each of as adjusted total equity attributable to our shareholders and as adjusted total capitalization by approximately              ($            ) million, after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each decrease of 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us together with an associated 1.00 ($            ) decrease in the assumed offering price of $         per ADS (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar) and of          per ordinary share, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on             , 2017, would decrease each of as adjusted total equity attributable to our shareholders and as adjusted total capitalization by approximately              ($            ) million, after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual offering price, the actual number of ordinary shares offered by us (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs), and other terms of the global offering determined at pricing.

 

53


Table of Contents

The number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) that will be outstanding after the global offering is based on 11,744,448 ordinary shares outstanding as of June 30, 2017 and excludes:

 

    825,527 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of founder’s share warrants (BSPCE), share purchase warrants (BSA), free shares and stock options granted but not exercised as of June 30, 2017 at a weighted average exercise price of 10.2563 ($11.7035) per ordinary share based on the exchange rate in effect as of June 30, 2017 (this weighted average exercise price does not include the 209,388 ordinary shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding free shares that may be issued for free with no exercise price paid);

 

    357,913 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our share-based compensation plans and other delegations of authority from our shareholders; and

 

    13,000,000 ordinary shares reserved to date pursuant to a delegation of authority from our shareholders for share capital increases by us through rights issuances and public or private offerings.

 

54


Table of Contents

DILUTION

If you invest in our ADSs or ordinary shares in the global offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the offering price per ADS or ordinary share paid by purchasers in the global offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per ADS or ordinary share after completion of the global offering. Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2017 was 87.6 million ($100.0 million), or 7.46 per ordinary share (equivalent to $8.51 per ADS), based on the exchange rate in effect as of June 30, 2017. Net tangible book value per ordinary share is determined by dividing (1) our total assets less our intangible assets and our total liabilities by (2) the number of ordinary shares outstanding as of June 30, 2017, or 11,744,448 ordinary shares.

After giving effect to our sale of (i)              ADSs in the U.S. offering and (ii)                        ordinary shares in the European private placement, assuming an offering price of $         per ADS (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar) and assumed offering price of          per ordinary share, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and the application of the estimated net proceeds from the global offering as described under “Use of Proceeds,” our as adjusted net tangible book value at June 30, 2017 would have been         ($        ), or          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS). This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS) to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS) to new investors.

The following table illustrates this dilution to new investors on a per ordinary share and per ADS basis:

 

 

 

     AS OF JUNE 30, 2017  
     PER ORDINARY
SHARE
     PER ADS  

Assumed offering price

                       $           

Historical net tangible book value per ordinary share or ADS as of June 30, 2017

   7.46         $ 8.51     

Increase in net tangible book value per ordinary share or ADS attributable to new investors participating in the global offering

           
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share or ADS after the global offering

           
     

 

 

       

 

 

 

Dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share or ADS to new investors participating in the global offering

                      
     

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and will change based on the actual offering price and other terms of the global offering determined at pricing. Each 1.00 ($        ) increase or decrease in the assumed offering price of $         per ADS (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar) and assumed offering price of          per ordinary share, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, would increase or decrease our as adjusted net tangible book value by approximately          ($        ) million, or approximately          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS), and the dilution to new investors participating in the global offering would be approximately          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS), assuming that the number of ordinary shares offered by us (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs), as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Subject to applicable law, we may also increase or decrease the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) we are offering. An increase of 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us would increase the as adjusted net tangible book value by approximately          ($        ) million, or          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS), and the dilution to new investors participating in the global offering would be          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS), assuming that the assumed offering price per ADS or ordinary share remains the same, and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, a decrease of 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us would decrease the as adjusted net tangible book value by approximately          ($        ) million, or          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per

 

55


Table of Contents

ADS), and the dilution to new investors participating in the global offering would be          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS), assuming that the assumed offering price per ADS or ordinary share remains the same, and after deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual offering price, the actual number of ordinary shares offered by us (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs), and other terms of the global offering determined at pricing.

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares in full, the as adjusted net tangible book value after the global offering would be          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS), the increase in the as adjusted net tangible book value to existing shareholders would be          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS), and the dilution to new investors participating in the global offering would be          per ordinary share (equivalent to $         per ADS).

The following table sets forth, as of             , 2017, consideration paid to us in cash for ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) purchased from us by our existing shareholders and by new investors participating in the global offering based on an assumed offering price of $         per ADS (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar) and          per ordinary share, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, and before deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

 

 

     ORDINARY SHARES
PURCHASED (1)
    TOTAL CONSIDERATION     AVERAGE PRICE
PER ORDINARY
SHARE
     AVERAGE PRICE
PER ADS
 
     NUMBER      PERCENT     AMOUNT      PERCENT       

Existing shareholders

                                                            $               

New investors

               
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

Total

                                                            
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

(1)    Including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs.

Each 1.00 ($        ) increase or decrease in the assumed offering price of $         per ADS in the U.S. offering corresponding to              per ordinary share in the European private placement (assuming an exchange rate of          per U.S. dollar), the closing price of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris on                 , 2017, would increase or decrease the total consideration paid by new investors participating in the global offering by          ($            ) million, assuming that the number of ordinary shares offered by us (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs), as set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, remains the same and before deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Subject to applicable law, we may also increase or decrease the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) we are offering. Each increase or decrease in 1,000,000 ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) offered by us would increase or decrease the total consideration paid by new investors participating in the global offering by          ($            ) million, assuming that the assumed offering price per ADS or ordinary share remains the same and before deducting underwriting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual offering price, the actual number of ordinary shares offered by us (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) and other terms of the global offering determined at pricing.

The table above assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares and ADSs in the global offering. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs and/or ordinary shares in full, the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) held by the existing shareholders after the global offering would be reduced to                 , or         % of the total number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) outstanding after the global offering, and the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) held by new investors participating in the global offering would increase to                 , or         % of the total number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) outstanding after the global offering.

 

56


Table of Contents

The tables and calculations above are based on the number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) that will be outstanding after the global offering, which is based on 11,744,448 ordinary shares outstanding as of June 30, 2017 and excludes:

 

    825,527 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of founder’s share warrants (BSPCE), share purchase warrants (BSA), free shares and stock options granted but not exercised as of June 30, 2017 at a weighted average exercise price of 10.2563 ($11.7035) per ordinary share based on the exchange rate in effect as of June 30, 2017 (this weighted average exercise price does not include the 209,388 ordinary shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding free shares that may be issued for free with no exercise price paid);

 

    357,913 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our share-based compensation plans and other delegations of authority from our shareholders; and

 

    13,000,000 ordinary shares reserved to date pursuant to a delegation of authority from our shareholders for share capital increases by us through rights issuances and public or private offerings.

 

57


Table of Contents

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated statement of income (loss) data for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 and selected consolidated statement of financial position data as of December 31, 2015 and 2016 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

The following selected consolidated statement of income (loss) data for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 and selected consolidated statement of financial position data as of June 30, 2017 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 were prepared in accordance with IAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, the standard of IFRS applicable to interim financial statements.

The following selected financial data for the periods and as of the dates indicated are qualified by reference to and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes beginning on page F-1 of this prospectus, as well as the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results and the results for the six months ended June 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of our results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2017 or any future period.

Selected Consolidated Statement of Income (Loss) Data:

 

 

 

     YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,     SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30,  
     2015     2016     2016     2017  
     (in thousands, except share and per share data)  

Revenues

                

Other income

     2,929       4,138       2,403       1,788  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating income

     2,929       4,138       2,403       1,788  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

        

Research and development

     (10,776     (19,720     (8,800     (12,082

General and administrative

     (7,736     (6,808     (4,222     (3,895
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (18,512     (26,528)       (13,022)       (15,977)  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

     (15,583     (22,390     (10,618     (14,189
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Financial income

     567       488       260       113  

Income tax

     3       (10     9       (5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   (15,013   (21,913   (10,349   (14,081

Basic and diluted loss per share

   (2.16   (2.74   (1.31   (1.42
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted number of shares used for computing basic and diluted loss per share (1)

     6,957,654       7,983,642       7,929,309       9,937,252  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

(1)   This number represents the average weighted number of shares in circulation during the relevant period.

 

58


Table of Contents

Selected Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Data:

 

 

 

     AS OF DECEMBER 31,      AS OF JUNE 30,  
     2015      2016      2017  
     (in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   45,634      37,646      88,551  

Total assets

     53,004        44,967        99,307  

Total shareholders’ equity

     47,132        35,638        87,671  

Total non-current liabilities

     251        2,982        2,596  

Total current liabilities

     5,621        6,347        9,040  

Total liabilities

     5,872        9,329        11,636  

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

     53,004        44,967        99,307  

 

 

 

59


Table of Contents

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to historical information, the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this prospectus, particularly in sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” The audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 were prepared in accordance with IAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, the standard of IFRS applicable to interim financial statements. As permitted by the rules of the SEC for foreign private issuers, we do not reconcile our financial statements to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company developing innovative therapies for rare forms of cancer and orphan diseases. Leveraging our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, which uses a novel technology to encapsulate therapeutic drug substances inside erythrocytes, or red blood cells, we have developed a pipeline of product candidates targeting both solid and liquid tumors for patients with high unmet medical needs. We are developing our lead product candidate, eryaspase, for the treatment of solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Based on the initial feedback we received from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, at our pre-IND meeting in October 2017, we plan to initiate a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase for pancreatic cancer in the United States and Europe during the third quarter of 2018. We are also developing eryaspase for the treatment of liquid tumors, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, and acute myeloid leukemia, or AML. We expect to commence a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase as a first-line treatment for adults with ALL by the end of the third quarter of 2018. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, we intend to resubmit a Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, for eryaspase for relapsed or refractory ALL later in October 2017. With respect to eryaspase for the treatment of AML, we are conducting a Phase 2b clinical trial in Europe and expect to report initial results from this trial by the end of 2017.

Recent Developments—Phase 2b Clinical Trial for Eryaspase for the Treatment of Second-Line Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

We recently announced preliminary data from our Phase 2b clinical trial of eryaspase combined with chemotherapy in 141 patients suffering from second-line metastatic pancreatic cancer. The trial met its pre-specified co-primary endpoints of improvement in overall survival rates and progression-free survival rates. The hazard ratio for overall survival in the entire patient population was 0.60, meaning that treatment with eryaspase reduced the risk of death rate by 40% compared to treatment with chemotherapy alone. Our clinical trial represents the first time an asparaginase-based therapy has been reported to have a survival benefit in a solid tumor indication. We presented these results at the European Society for Medical Oncology Congress in Madrid, Spain in September 2017.

Eryaspase - Our Lead Cancer Metabolism-Targeting Product Candidate

Eryaspase consists of the enzyme L-asparaginase encapsulated in red blood cells. L-asparaginase cleaves and reduces intracellular asparagine, a naturally occurring amino acid essential for the survival and proliferation of cells within the body, including cancer cells, and, through osmosis via the treated red blood cells, depletes this protein building block from circulating blood plasma. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells often lack the enzymes necessary to produce asparagine internally and therefore, must obtain this nutrient from circulating blood. While L-asparaginase injections have been used for decades as a cancer metabolism treatment, the toxicity profiles of current commercially available forms of unencapsulated, or free-form, L-asparaginases have generally limited their use to

 

60


Table of Contents

pediatric ALL patients. Encapsulation of L-asparaginase, utilizing our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, is designed to shield the body from the side effects of L-asparaginase, which we believe broadens the potential use of L-asparaginase outside the pediatric ALL setting, including for the treatment of aggressive solid and liquid tumors. Eryaspase has been tested in over 320 patients to date. In our clinical trials, patients treated with eryaspase have achieved improvements in efficacy endpoints compared to treatment with free-form L-asparaginase or standard of care chemotherapy, and treatment has generally been well tolerated.

In addition to our product candidates based on L-asparaginase treatment, we believe that our ERYCAPS platform has broad potential application and can be used to encapsulate within red blood cells a wide range of therapeutic agents for which long-circulating therapeutic activity or rapid and specific targeting is desired.

In 2012, we entered into an exclusive license and distribution agreement with Orphan Europe, a subsidiary of Recordati S.p.A., for the exclusive commercialization and distribution rights to GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in 38 European countries. Under this agreement, we received an upfront payment of 5 million and are entitled to receive up to an aggregate of 37.5 million upon the achievement of specified regulatory and sales milestones. In addition, Orphan Europe is contributing to the development costs of GRASPA for the treatment of AML, and we are also eligible to receive up to 45% of net product sales by Orphan Europe, representing a combined transfer price and royalties. In 2011, we entered into an exclusive distribution agreement with Abic Marketing Limited, a subsidiary of Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., under which Teva acquired the exclusive rights to GRASPA in Israel for the treatment of ALL.

We maintain a commercial-scale, cGMP-certified production facility in Lyon, France that we believe will be sufficient to supply our commercial requirements for at least two years following sales launch in Europe for an ALL indication. We also maintain a smaller production facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the premises of the American Red Cross, which is currently used for clinical trial production. Depending on the design of our potential Phase 3 trial in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, we will likely require additional funds to continue to develop our clinical strategy and increase production capacity in Europe and in the United States.

We have retained the rights to commercialize eryaspase for the treatment of ALL and AML outside of Europe and Israel, including in the United States, and for the treatment of all other indications outside of Israel. We retain the worldwide development and commercialization rights to all of our other product candidates.

We have never generated any revenues from product sales. We do not expect to generate material revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete development of, obtain marketing approval for and commercialize our product candidates. Clinical development, regulatory approval and commercial launch of a product candidate can take several years and are subject to significant uncertainty. Historically, we have financed our operations and growth through issuances of share capital and convertible bonds and through conditional advances and subsidies from Bpifrance Financement (formerly Oséo), part of BPI France, a French public investment bank and from research tax credits. In May 2013, we completed the initial public offering of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris, from which we raised 17.7 million in cash proceeds, and in October 2014, we raised an additional 30 million in gross proceeds from the issuance of additional ordinary shares. We also conducted three private placements with institutional investors in the United States and in Europe in December 2015, December 2016 and April 2017, raising 25.4 million, 9.9 million and 70.5 million in gross proceeds, respectively.

Since our inception in 2004, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our net loss was 15.0 million and 21.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively, and 10.3 million and 14.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. We had an accumulated deficit of 83.6 million as of June 30, 2017, and we expect to incur significant expenses and substantial operating losses over the next several years as we continue our research and development efforts and advance our clinical development program for AML, ALL and in pancreatic cancer in Europe and the United States. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, depending on the timing of our clinical trials, the receipt of milestone payments, if any, under our collaborations with Orphan Europe and Teva, and our expenditures on other research and development activities. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:

 

    initiate and conduct our planned clinical trials of eryaspase in Europe and in the United States;

 

    continue the research and development of our other product candidates, including planned and future clinical trials;

 

61


Table of Contents
    seek to discover and develop additional product candidates;

 

    seek regulatory approvals for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

 

    scale-up our manufacturing capabilities to support the launch of additional clinical studies and the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

 

    establish a sales and marketing infrastructure for the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

 

    maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

 

    hire additional clinical, quality control and scientific personnel; and

 

    add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product development and commercialization efforts and our operations as a public company listed in the United States.

Until such time that we can generate substantial revenue from product sales, we expect to finance these expenses and our operating activities through a combination of our existing liquidity and the proceeds of the global offering. If we are unable to generate revenue from product sales, in particular from GRASPA for ALL in Europe, in accordance with our expected timeframes, we will need to raise additional capital through the issuance of our shares, through other equity or debt financings or through collaborations or partnerships with other companies. However, we may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into other funding arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all, which would have a negative impact on our financial condition and could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our development programs or commercialization efforts or grant others rights to develop or market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Although it is difficult to predict future liquidity requirements, we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents as at June 30, 2017, together with interest thereon, will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. However, our ability to successfully transition to profitability will be dependent upon achieving a level of revenues adequate to support our cost structure. We cannot assure you that we will ever be profitable or generate positive cash flow from operating activities.

As indicated in Note 3 of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, due to the listing of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris and in accordance with the European Union’s regulation No. 1606/2002 of July 19, 2002, statutory consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with IFRS, as adopted by the European Union for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 and were approved and authorized for issuance by our board of directors on February 19, 2016 and March 1, 2017, respectively.

The consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 included in this prospectus have been prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB with no difference with the statutory consolidated financial statements and were approved and authorized for issuance by our board of directors on May 16, 2017.

The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 have been prepared in accordance with IAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, and were approved and authorized for issuance by our board of directors on September 7, 2017.

Financial Operations Overview

Operating Income

Our operating income consists of other income.

Revenues

To date, we have not generated any revenue from the sale of products. Our ability to generate product revenue and to become profitable will depend upon our ability to successfully develop and commercialize GRASPA and our other product candidates. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development and regulatory approval, we are unable to predict the amount or timing of product revenue.

Other Income

Our other income consists of research tax credits, grants from BPI France for our preclinical research programs and reimbursements from Orphan Europe for some of the internal costs we incur under our distribution agreement with them.

 

62


Table of Contents

Research Tax Credit

The research tax credit (crédit d’impôt recherche), or CIR, is granted to companies by the French tax authorities in order to encourage them to conduct technical and scientific research. Companies demonstrating that they have expenses that meet the required criteria, including research expenses located in France or, since January 1, 2005, within the European Union or in another state that is a party to the agreement in the European Economic Area that has concluded a tax treaty with France that contains an administrative assistance clause, receive a tax credit which can be used against the payment of the corporate tax due the fiscal year in which the expenses were incurred and during the next three fiscal years, or, as applicable, can be reimbursed for the excess portion. The expenses taken into account for the calculation of the CIR only involve research expenses.

The main characteristics of the CIR are the following:

 

    the CIR results in a cash inflow from the tax authorities paid directly to us as we are not subject to corporate income tax;

 

    a company’s corporate income tax liability does not limit the amount of the CIR—a company that does not pay any corporate income tax can request direct cash payment of the research tax credit; and

 

    the CIR is not included in the determination of the corporate income tax.

As a result, we have concluded that the CIR meets the definition of a government grant as defined in IAS 20, Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance, and, as a result, it has been classified as other income within operating income in our statement of income (loss).

We have requested the reimbursement of the 2016 CIR under the community tax rules for small and medium firms in compliance with the current regulations.

Subsidies and Conditional Advances

We have received financial assistance from BPI France and other governmental organizations in connection with the development of our product candidates. BPI France’s mission is to provide assistance and support to emerging French enterprises to facilitate the development and commercialization of innovative technologies. Such funding, in the form of non-refundable subsidies and conditional advances, is intended to finance our research and development efforts and the recruitment of specific personnel.

We account for non-refundable subsidies as other income ratably over the duration of the funded project. Funds are recognized in other income in our consolidated statement of income (loss) for the fiscal year in which the financed expenses were recorded. Since our inception in 2004 through December 31, 2016, we have received 3,189 thousand in nonrefundable subsidies, mainly from BPI France. For the six months ended June 30, 2016, we recorded 463 thousand as other income in the condensed consolidated statement of income (loss) based on research and development expenses incurred for the period. We had no similar income for the six months ended June 30, 2017. We record the remaining balance of subsidies received but not yet expended as deferred revenue on our consolidated statement of financial position. There was no deferred revenue balance as of June 30, 2017.

Funds received from BPI France in the form of conditional advances are recognized as financial liabilities, as we are obligated to reimburse BPI France for such conditional advances in cash based on a repayment schedule if specified conditions are met. Our advances from BPI France are summarized below under “Liquidity and Capital Resources— Non-refundable Subsidies and Conditional Advances from BPI France.”

Reimbursements from Orphan Europe

Under our distribution agreement with Orphan Europe, we are reimbursed by Orphan Europe for some of our internal clinical costs, such as personnel costs associated with the management of clinical trials, or personnel involved in the production of batches necessary for our ongoing clinical trial of GRASPA for AML patients and for the NOPHO clinical trial. These invoiced internal costs are classified as “other income” in our consolidated statement of income and amounted to 154 thousand and 52 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively.

 

63


Table of Contents

Operating Expenses

Since our inception in 2004, our operating expenses have consisted primarily of research and development activities and general and administrative costs.

Research and Development

We engage in substantial research and development efforts to develop innovative pharmaceutical product candidates. Research and development expense consists primarily of:

 

    sub-contracting, collaboration and consultant expenses, that primarily include the cost of third-party contractors such as contract research organizations, or CROs, who conduct our non-clinical studies and clinical trials;

 

    personnel costs, including salaries, related benefits and share-based compensation, for our employees engaged in scientific research and development functions;

 

    licensing and intellectual property costs;

 

    purchases, real-estate leasing costs as well as conferences and travel costs; and

 

    depreciation and amortization.

Since 2015, our research and development efforts have been related primarily to our completed and ongoing clinical trials of eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML.

Our direct research and development expenses consist principally of external costs, such as manufacturing expenses, non-clinical studies, fees paid to consultants, laboratories and CROs in connection with our clinical trials, and costs related to our collaborations, which we allocate to our specific research programs. We also allocate some personnel-related costs, depreciation and other indirect costs to specific programs, although costs for some scientific personnel associated with the development of our ERYCAPS platform generally are not allocated to specific programs.

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase in the foreseeable future as we initiate clinical trials for certain product candidates and pursue later stages of clinical development of other product candidates.

We cannot determine with certainty the duration or costs of the current or future clinical trials of our product candidates or if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of any of our product candidates that obtain regulatory approval. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our product candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including:

 

    the scope, rate of progress and expense of our ongoing, as well as any additional, non-clinical studies, clinical trials and other research and development activities;

 

    clinical trial and early-stage results;

 

    the terms and timing of regulatory approvals;

 

    the expense of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property rights; and

 

    the ability to market, commercialize and achieve market acceptance for GRASPA or any other product candidate that we may develop in the future.

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of product candidates that we are developing could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of such product candidates. For example, if the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authority were to require us to conduct non-clinical and clinical studies beyond those which we currently anticipate will be required for the completion of clinical development, or if we experience significant delays in enrollment in any clinical trials, we could be required to spend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development.

 

64


Table of Contents

Agreement with Orphan Europe

Under our exclusive license and distribution agreement with Orphan Europe related to the development of GRASPA for the treatment of AML, we re-invoice, with no margin, some of the clinical costs that we incur from external providers. In application of IAS 18, Revenue, we consider that, within the context of our agreement with Orphan Europe, we act as agent regarding these re-invoiced external costs, as:

 

    We do not have primary responsibility for provision of the goods or services, and the majority of services are provided by third parties. Costs of CROs are the most significant external costs, and such costs are directly invoiced to Orphan Europe. We are directly invoiced only for secondary services.

 

    We bear no inventory risk.

 

    We have no capacity to determine prices, all of the external costs are re-invoiced for the exact amount of the initial invoice, with no margin, and we are not affected by any price changes applied by the suppliers.

 

    We bear a credit risk that we do not consider to be significant.

Consequently, the re-invoicing of these external costs to Orphan Europe is presented as a decrease in corresponding research and development expenses incurred by us. For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, the amount of external costs re-invoiced within the context of our agreement with Orphan Europe totaled 341 thousand and 358 thousand, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, this amounted to 154 thousand and 52 thousand, respectively.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel costs including share-based compensation for personnel other than employees engaged in scientific research and development functions. General and administrative expense also consists of fees for professional services, mainly related to audit, IT, accounting, recruitment and legal services, communication and travel costs, real-estate leasing costs, office furniture and equipment costs, allowance for amortization and depreciation, directors’ attendance fees, insurance costs and overhead costs, such as postal and telecommunications expenses.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we grow our support functions for the expected increase in our research and development activities and the potential commercialization of our product candidates. We also anticipate increased expenses associated with being a public company in the United States, including costs related to audit, legal, regulatory and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with U.S. exchange listing and SEC requirements, director and officer insurance premiums, and investor relations costs.

Financial Income (Expense)

Financial income (expense) relates primarily to interest and other expense for loans and other financial debts, including leases, offset by income received from cash and cash equivalents, as well as foreign exchange gains and losses related to our purchases of services in U.S. dollars.

Our cash and cash equivalents have been deposited primarily in cash accounts, money market funds and term deposit accounts with short maturities and therefore generate only a modest amount of interest income. We expect to continue this investment philosophy in the future. Interest income from short-term deposits was 523 thousand and 545 thousand for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively. Other financial income was 108 thousand and 13 thousand for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively. Financial income was 292 thousand and 160 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively.

 

65


Table of Contents

Results of Operations

Comparisons of the Six Months Ended June 30, 2016 and 2017

Operating Income

We generated operating income of 2,403 thousand in the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 1,788 thousand in the six months ended June 30, 2017, representing a decrease of 25.6%. The components of our operating income are set forth in the table below. Other income was primarily generated by the CIR and by subsidies received from BPI France for our research projects.

 

 

 

     FOR THE
SIX MONTHS
ENDED JUNE 30,
 
       2016          2017    
     (in thousands)  

Revenues

         

Other income

     

Research Tax Credit

     1,787        1,736  

Subsidies

     463         

Other income

     154        52  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating income

   2,403      1,788  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

As no research and development expenditure is capitalized before obtaining a marketing authorization, the CIR related to a research program is entirely recognized as operating income.

Grants recorded in operating income represent non-reimbursable subsidies. The amounts recorded in 2016 relate to grants associated with the preclinical research programs in partnership with BPI France.

Other income totaled 154 thousand and 52 thousand in the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. These amounts represent the sum of internal costs incurred by us within the context of our clinical studies, which were re-invoiced to Orphan Europe.

Research and Development Expenses

From the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2017, our research and development expenses increased from 8,800 thousand to 12,082 thousand, an increase of 37.3%. The increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to the completion of our Phase 2b clinical trial for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer and the preparation of the resubmission of the MAA for eryaspase for relapsed or refractory ALL.

 

66


Table of Contents

Our research and development expenses are broken down by nature as follows:

 

 

 

     FOR THE
SIX MONTHS ENDED
JUNE 30,
     %
CHANGE
 
       2016          2017       
     (in thousands)         

ERYASPASE / GRASPA

   2,172      3,771        73

TEDAC (ERYMETHIONASE / ERYMINASE)

     1,536        1,331        (13 )% 

ERYMMUNE

     16        52        225

ERYZYME

            49         

Total direct research and development expenses

     3,725        5,203        40

Consumables

     626        442        (29 )% 

Rental and maintenance

     280        384        37

Services, subcontracting, and consulting fees

     758        2,236        195

Personnel expenses (1)

     3,002        3,669        22

Depreciation and amortization expense

     129        119        (8 )% 

Other

     280        29        (90 )% 

Total indirect research and development expenses

     5,075        6,879        36
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total research and development expenses (2)

   8,800      12,082        37
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1)    Includes 441 thousand and 376 thousand related to share-based compensation expense for the six month periods ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively.
(2)    Of which 6,168 thousand and 9,101 thousand related to clinical studies for the six month periods ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively.

The increase in research and development expenses from the six months ended June 30, 2016 to the six months ended June 30, 2017 was primarily the result of a 1,600 thousand increase in eryaspase costs due to additional work as requested by the EMA in the MAA and the positive results of our Phase 2b clinical trial for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. Personnel expenses increased from 3,002 thousand to 3,669 thousand from the six months ended June 30, 2016 to the six months ended June 30, 2017. The increase of 667 thousand was mainly due to wages and share-based payments issued to research and development personnel. Services, subcontracting and consulting fees include third-party fees for CROs and other service providers for our manufacturing and clinical trials conducted in the six months ended June 30, 2017 and increased by 1,478 thousand compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016.

General and Administrative Expenses

From the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2017, our general and administrative expenses decreased from 4,222 thousand to 3,895 thousand, a decrease of approximately 7.7%. The decrease of 327 thousand in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to a decrease of 473 thousand in services, subcontracting and fees associated with the development of our clinical strategy in the United States, as well as lower third-party legal, accounting and advisory fees.

 

67


Table of Contents

Our general and administrative expenses are broken down by nature as follows:

 

 

 

     FOR THE
SIX MONTHS

ENDED JUNE 30,
        
         2016              2017          %
CHANGE
 
     (in thousands)         

Consumables

   31      31       

Rental and maintenance

     195        281        44  

Services, subcontracting, and consulting fees

     1,716        1,243        (28

Personnel expenses (1)

     1,487        1,922        29  

Other

     144        140        (3

Depreciation and amortization expense

     649        278        (57
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total general and administrative expenses

   4,222      3,895        (7 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1)    Includes 262 thousand and 362 thousand related to share-based compensation expense for 2016 and 2017, respectively.

Financial Income (Loss)

Our financial income resulted in a profit of 114 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2017, as compared to a profit of 260 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and is broken down as follows:

 

 

 

     FOR THE
SIX MONTHS

ENDED JUNE 30,
 
       2016         2017    
     (in thousands)  

Financial expense

   (32   (47

Financial income

     292       160  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net financial income (loss)

   260     114  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

In the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, our financial income consisted primarily of (i) interest earned on interest-bearing accounts as well as (ii) foreign exchange gains related to purchases of services in U.S. dollars.

Comparisons of the Years Ended December 31, 2015 and 2016

Operating Income

We generated operating income of 2,929 thousand in 2015 and 4,138 thousand in 2016, an increase of 41.3%. The components of our operating income are set forth in the table below. Other income was primarily generated by the CIR and by subsidies received from BPI France for our research projects.

 

 

 

     FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
 
     2015      2016  
     (in thousands)  

Revenues

         

Other income

     

Research Tax Credit

     2,219        3,347  

Subsidies

     368        463  

Other income

     341        327  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating income

   2,929      4,138  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

68


Table of Contents

As no research and development expenditure is capitalized before obtaining a marketing authorization, the CIR related to a research program is entirely recognized as operating income.

The CIR recognized for the year ended December 31, 2016 is expected to be received in cash in 2017.

Grants recorded in operating income represents non-reimbursable subsidies. The amounts recorded in 2015 and 2016 relate to grants associated with the preclinical research programs in partnership with BPI France.

Other income totaled 341 thousand and 327 thousand in 2015 and 2016, respectively. These amounts represent the sum of internal costs incurred by us within the context of our clinical studies, which were re-invoiced to Orphan Europe.

Research and Development Expenses

Between 2015 and 2016, the total amount recorded by us for research and development expenses increased from 10,776 thousand to 19,720 thousand, an increase of 83.0%. While most of our research and development expenses related to completed and ongoing clinical trials of eryaspase, we have also incurred preclinical costs in connection with the discovery of additional enzymes beyond L-asparaginase for development as potential therapies to treat cancers. This research program, known as TEDAC, has resulted in the identification of our early-stage product candidate, erymethionase. We are pursuing the preclinical development of erymethionase and are preparing for the launch of a Phase 1 clinical trial of the product candidate by the end of the third quarter of 2018, subject to receipt of the appropriate funding.

Our research and development expenses are broken down as set forth in the table below. Our direct research and development expenses consist principally of external costs, such as startup fees paid to investigators, consultants, central laboratories and CROs in connection with our clinical studies, and costs related to acquiring and manufacturing clinical study materials. We do not allocate personnel-related costs, costs associated with our general platform improvements, depreciation or other indirect costs to specific projects, as they are deployed across multiple projects under development.

 

 

 

     FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
        
     2015      2016      %
CHANGE
 
     (in thousands)         

ERYASPASE / GRASPA

   1,805      5,636        212

TEDAC (ERYMETHIONASE / ERYMINASE)

     1,523        3,120        105  

ERYMMUNE

            139         

ERYZYME

            15         
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total direct research and development expenses

     3,328        8,910        168  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

Consumables

     805        2,071        157  

Rental and maintenance

     304        645        112  

Services, subcontracting and consulting fees

     1,896        2,499        32  

Personnel expenses (1)

     3,977        5,282        33  

Depreciation and amortization expense

     250        277        11  

Other

     216        35        (84
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total indirect research and development expenses

     7,448        10,810        45  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total research and development expenses (2)

   10,776      19,720        83  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

(1)    Includes 822 thousand and 688 thousand related to share-based compensation expense for 2015 and 2016, respectively.
(2)    Of which 6,745 thousand and 14,397 thousand are related to clinical studies for 2015 and 2016, respectively.

The increase in research and development expenditures from 2015 to 2016 was primarily the result of a 1,597 thousand increase in costs related to the TEDAC program and a 3,831 thousand increase in costs related to eryaspase due to additional work as requested by the EMA in connection with its review of the MAA we submitted for GRASPA in September 2015. Personnel expenses increased from 3,977 thousand to 5,282 thousand from 2015

 

69


Table of Contents

to 2016. The increase of 1,305 thousand was mainly due to wages of research and development personnel. Services, subcontracting and consulting fees, including third-party fees and other service provider fees for our manufacturing and clinical trials, resulted in an increase of 603 thousand as compared to 2015. We also experienced a 1,266 thousand increase in consumables costs, which was primarily the result of increased production batches for use in clinical development.

General and Administrative Expenses

Between 2015 and 2016, our general and administrative expenses decreased from 7,736 thousand to 6,808 thousand, a decrease of 12%. The decrease of 928 thousand in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to a decrease of 2,050 thousand in other costs, as a result of a decrease in share-based compensation for warrants allocated to directors (37 thousand in 2016, compared to 1,593 thousand in 2015). The decrease in our general and administrative costs was also due to a decrease in the amount of services, subcontracting and consulting fees we incurred related to the development of our clinical strategy in the United States.

Our general and administrative expenses are broken down as follows:

 

 

 

     FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
        
         2015              2016          %
CHANGE
 
     (in thousands)         

Consumables

   36      66        83

Rental and maintenance

     304        511        68  

Services, subcontracting, and consulting fees

     3,022        2,793        (8

Personnel expenses (1)

     1,627        2,713        67  

Depreciation and amortization expense

     120        148        23  

Other (2)

     2,627        577        (78
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total general and administrative expenses

   7,736      6,808        (12
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

(1)    Includes 301 thousand and 490 thousand related to share-based compensation expense for 2015 and 2016, respectively.
(2)    Includes 1,593 thousand related to share-based compensation expense (warrants allocated to directors) for 2015.

The significant decrease in our general and administrative costs is primarily due to a decrease in the amount of services, subcontracting and consulting fees we incurred related to the development of our clinical strategy in the United States, as well as other legal expenses, together with a decrease in other costs, primarily the result of a decrease in share-based compensation for warrants allocated to directors in 2015, which amounted to 1,593 thousand.

Financial Income (Loss)

Our financial income resulted in a profit of 488 thousand in 2016, as compared to a profit of 567 thousand in 2015 and is broken down as follows:

 

 

 

     FOR THE
YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
 
       2015         2016    
     (in thousands)  

Financial expense

   (64   (70

Financial income

     631       558  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net financial income (loss)

   567     488  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

In 2015 and 2016, our financial income consisted primarily of (i) interest earned on interest-bearing accounts as well as (ii) foreign exchange gains related to purchases of services in U.S. dollars.

 

70


Table of Contents

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS. Some of the accounting methods and policies used in preparing our consolidated financial statements under IFRS are based on complex and subjective assessments by our management or on estimates based on past experience and assumptions deemed realistic and reasonable based on the circumstances concerned. The actual value of our assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity and of our earnings could differ from the value derived from these estimates if conditions change and these changes had an impact on the assumptions adopted. We believe that the most significant management judgments and assumptions in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016 and our condensed consolidated financial statements for the six months ended June 30, 2017 are described below. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements and Note 3 to our condensed consolidated financial statements for a description of our other significant accounting policies.

Share-Based Compensation

We have four share-based compensation plans for employees and non-employees, the 2012 Plan, the 2014 Plan, the 2016 Plan and the 2017 Plan.

As of December 31, 2016, we have granted share-based compensation under these plans to certain employees as well as to members of our board of directors in the form of free shares (Actions gratuites, or AGA), stock options, or SOs, share warrants (Bons de Souscription d’Actions, or BSA) and founder’s share warrants (Bons de Souscription de Parts de Créateur d’Entreprise, or BSPCE) with the following exercise prices and on each of the grant dates reflected below as of June 30, 2017.

 

 

 

WARRANTS

   GRANT DATE    NUMBER OF
WARRANTS
GRANTED
     EXERCISE PRICE
PER SHARE
     ORDINARY SHARE
FAIR MARKET
VALUE PER SHARE
AT GRANT DATE (1)
 

BSA 2012

   May 31, 2012      2,027        7.362         

BSPCE 2012

   May 31,2012      7,434        7.362         

BSA 2012

   August 3, 2012      1,539        7.362         

BSA 2012

   July 18, 2013      459        7.362        10.27  

BSPCE 2012

   July 18, 2013      13,177        7.362        10.27  

BSPCE 2014

   January 22, 2014      12,000        12.250        12.77  

BSA 2012

   July 17, 2014      1,000        7.362        14.90  

BSPCE 2012

   July 17, 2014      13,176        7.362        14.90  

BSA 2012

   April 29, 2015      2,150        7.362        31.19  

BSPCE 2014

   June 23, 2015      2,500        12.250        32.75  

BSA 2014

   June 23, 2015      3,000        12.250        32.75  

BSA 2012

   August 31, 2015      3,585        7.362        37.52  

BSPCE 2014

   May 6, 2016      5,000        12.250        24.75  

AGA 2016

   October 3, 2016      111,261               18.52  

SO 2016

   October 3, 2016      44,499        18.520        18.52  

BSA 2016

   October 3, 2016      45,000        18.520        18.52  

AGA 2016

   January 8, 2017      15,000               13.60  

BSA 2016

   January 8, 2017      15,000        13.60        13.60  

SO 2016

   January 8, 2017      3,000        15.65        15.65  

AGA 2016

   June 27, 2017      8,652               26.47  

SOP 2016

   June 27, 2017      18,000        26.47        26.47  

AGA 2017

   June 27, 2017      74,475               26.47  

SOP 2017

   June 27, 2017      22,200        26.47        26.47  

BSA 2017

   June 27, 2017      55,000        26.47        26.47  

 

 

The share-based compensation granted under the 2016 Plan by our board of directors at a meeting held on January 8, 2017 was valued using the same methods as the share-based compensation granted under the 2016 Plan during 2016. Assumptions were updated at the grant date.

 

71


Table of Contents

Following the resignation of Yann Godfrin, our former Chief Scientific Officer, in January 2016, 1,000 BSPCE2014 of the 3,000 BSPCE2014 initially allocated on January 22, 2014 were not granted.

We account for share-based compensation in accordance with the authoritative guidance on share-based compensation, IFRS 2 Share-based payment, or IFRS 2. Under the fair value recognition provisions of IFRS 2, share-based compensation is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as an expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the respective award.

Determining the fair value of share-based awards at the grant date requires judgment. We use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of certain warrants and for our stock options. We use the Monte-Carlo and Cox-Ross-Rubinstein option-pricing models to determine the fair value of free shares and certain warrants, respectively. The determination of the grant date fair value of warrants using an option-pricing model is affected by assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include the fair value of our ordinary shares on the date of grant, the expected term of the awards, our share price volatility, risk-free interest rates and expected dividends. We estimate these items as follows:

Fair Value of Our Ordinary Shares. As our ordinary shares are publicly traded on Euronext Paris, for purposes of determining the fair value of our ordinary shares we have established a policy of using the closing sales price per ordinary share as quoted on Euronext Paris on the date of the grant by the Conseil d’Administration or the shareholders’ meeting.

Expected Term. The expected term represents the period that our share-based awards are expected to be outstanding. As we do not have sufficient historical experience for determining the expected term of the warrant awards granted, we have based our expected term on the simplified method, which represents the average period from vesting to the expiration of the award.

Expected Volatility. We use the historical volatility of the Next Biotech index observed on Euronext Paris for the 2012 Plan and the 2014 Plan and the historical volatility of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris for the 2016 Plan.

Risk-Free Interest Rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the yields of French government bonds with maturities similar to the expected term of the warrants for each warrant group.

Dividend Yield. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends and do not presently plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, we have used an expected dividend yield of zero.

If any of the assumptions used in the Black-Scholes, Monte-Carlo and Cox-Ross-Rubinstein models change significantly, share-based compensation for future awards may differ materially compared with the awards granted previously.

The following table presents the weighted-average assumptions used to estimate the fair value of options granted during the periods presented:

 

 

 

    2012 PLAN     2014 PLAN     2016 PLAN     2017 PLAN  
    YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
    YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
    YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
    SIX MONTHS ENDED
JUNE 30,
 
    2015     2015     2016     2016     2017  

Volatility

    20.5% - 22.5     19.59% - 21.55     21.25% - 22.27     45     48

Risk free interest rate

    (0.07)% - (0.08 )%      0.21% - 0.40     (0.18)% - (0.11 )%      0     0

Expected life (in years)

    2.4 - 2.5       4.3 - 5.3        5 - 5.51        6 - 6.5        

Dividend yield

    0                        

 

 

 

72


Table of Contents

For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, we recorded share-based compensation expense of 2,716 thousand and 1,178 thousand, respectively.

For the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, we recorded share-based compensation expense of 703 thousand and 738 thousand, respectively.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We have financed our operations since our inception through several rounds of public and private financings. Through 2012, we raised an aggregate of 17.7 million from the issuance of ordinary and preference shares and an additional 9.0 million from the issuance of convertible bonds. In 2013, we issued ordinary shares in our initial public offering on Euronext Paris, raising net proceeds of 14.7 million and in 2014, we issued additional ordinary shares, raising net proceeds of 28.4 million. In 2015, we raised 23.5 million of net proceeds through the issuance of ordinary shares in our December 2015 offering. In December 2016, we raised an additional 9.2 million of net proceeds through the issuance of ordinary shares. In April 2017, we raised an additional 65.2 million of net proceeds through the issuance of ordinary shares.

We have also financed our operations through an aggregate of 9.2 million in research tax credits since our inception in 2004 through December 31, 2016, as well as 2.7 million in non-refundable grants from BPI France since 2005 and 2.0 million in conditional advances received from BPI France since our inception in 2004 through June 30, 2017.

In 2016, we entered into an unsecured bank loan with Société Génerale for a total amount of 1.9 million. The outstanding amount drawn at June 30, 2017 was 1.9 million.

We are potentially eligible to earn a significant amount of milestone payments and royalties under our agreement with Orphan Europe in the event that we are able to obtain European marketing approval for GRASPA. However, our ability to earn these payments and their timing will, in part, be dependent upon the outcome of Orphan Europe’s activities which is uncertain at this time.

Cash Flows

The table below summarizes our sources and uses of cash for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017:

 

 

 

     FOR THE SIX MONTHS
ENDED JUNE 30,
 
         2016             2017      
     (in thousands)  

Net cash flows used in operating activities

     (8,527   (14,088

Net cash flows used in investing activities

     (683     (720

Net cash flows from financing activities

     47       65,743  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

   (9,163   50,905  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

Our net cash flows used in operating activities were 8,527 thousand and 14,088 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. During the six months ended June 30, 2017, our net cash flows used in operating activities increased due to our efforts to advance our research and development programs in both preclinical and clinical research.

 

73


Table of Contents

The table below summarizes our sources and uses of cash for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016:

 

 

 

     FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31,
 
     2015     2016  
     (in thousands)  

Net cash flows used in operating activities

   (14,578   (17,614

Net cash flows used in investing activities

     (284     (1,786

Net cash flows from financing activities

     23,524       11,393  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

   8,646     (7,988
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

Our net cash flows used in operating activities were 14,578 thousand and 17,614 thousand for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively. During 2016, our net cash flows used in operating activities increased due to our efforts in advancing our research and development programs in both preclinical and clinical research.

Our net cash flows used in investing activities were 284 thousand and 1,786 thousand in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The increase for 2016 mainly reflected fixtures and fittings acquired for our offices in Cambridge and Lyon together with our project to develop and optimize our second-generation production facility.

Our net cash flows from financing activities decreased to 11.4 million in 2016 from 23.5 million in 2015. The amounts in both years were primarily the result of capital raises through the issuance of ordinary shares. We continue to hold 2,500 shares as treasury shares from our former liquidity account.

Our net cash flows used in investing activities were 683 thousand and 720 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. The increase during the six months ended June 30, 2017 mainly reflected our new project to improve our production facility.

Our net cash flows from financing activities increased to 65.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 from 47 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2016. The increase during the six months ended June 30, 2017 was primarily due to capital raises through issuance of our ordinary shares. We still hold 2,500 shares as treasury shares, which will be cancelled.

Non-refundable Subsidies and Conditional Advances from BPI France

Since our inception in 2004 through June 30, 2017, we have received non-refundable subsidies from BPI France in the amount of 2.7 million in connection with our preclinical research programs.

Since our inception in 2004 through December 31, 2016, we have also received three conditional advances from BPI France in relation to the development of our encapsulation platform technology. These conditional advances are recorded under the “proceeds from borrowings” line item in our consolidated statements of cash flows. The TEDAC research program, which is funded by one of these three conditional advances, will be funded according to a specified schedule set forth in the contract, subject to completion of milestones. As the program advances, we will provide BPI France with interim progress reports and a final report when the funded project ends. Based on these reports, we are entitled to conditional advances, each award of an advance being made to help fund a specific development milestone. The total amount of the conditional advances to be granted is 5,711 thousand, of which we have received an aggregate of 1,998 thousand through June 30, 2017. During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, we repaid advances in the amount of 9 thousand and 508 thousand, respectively. During the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, we repaid advances in the amount of 23 thousand and 0, respectively. We recognize advances as current or non-current liabilities, as applicable, in the statement of financial position, based on the repayment schedule.

The remaining milestones that we may achieve generally relate to development of product candidates such as erymethionase and eryminase under the TEDAC research program. If and to the extent that we earn these conditional advances, we will be obligated to make repayments based on the achievement of specified sales levels as well as a percentage of sales.

 

74


Table of Contents

Contractual Obligations

The following table discloses aggregate information about our material contractual obligations and the periods in which payments are due as of June 30, 2017. Future events could cause actual payments and timing of payments to differ from the contractual cash flows set forth below.

 

 

 

     LESS THAN
1 YEAR
     1 TO 3 YEARS      3 TO 5 YEARS      MORE THAN
5 YEARS
     TOTAL  
     (in thousands)  

Bank loans

   733      1,167                1,900  

Conditional advances

                          1,182        1,182  

Pension and employee benefits

                          167        167  

Operating lease agreements

     571        571                      1,142  

Finance lease agreements

     84        77                      161  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   1,388      1,815          —      1,349      4,552  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

The amounts of contractual obligations set forth in the table above are associated with contracts that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, fixed or minimum services to be used, fixed, minimum or variable price provisions, and the approximate timing of the actions under the contracts. The table does not include obligations under agreements that we can cancel without a significant penalty.

Operating Capital Requirements

We believe that the net proceeds of the global offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2016, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months. In addition, we raised 70.5 million in gross proceeds in April 2017 in a private placement to U.S. and European institutional investors. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

Until we can generate a sufficient amount of revenue from our product candidates, if ever, we expect to finance our operating activities through our existing liquidity and the proceeds of the global offering.

Our present and future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including, among other things:

 

    the size, progress, timing and completion of our clinical trials for eryaspase or GRASPA and any other current or future product candidates;

 

    the number of potential new product candidates we identify and decide to develop;

 

    the costs involved in filing patent applications and maintaining and enforcing patents or defending against claims of infringement raised by third parties;

 

    the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approval for our product candidates and any delays we may encounter as a result of evolving regulatory requirements or adverse results with respect to any of these product candidates;

 

    selling and marketing activities undertaken in connection with the anticipated commercialization of eryaspase or GRASPA and any other current or future product candidates, including other product candidates in preclinical development, together with the costs involved in the creation of an effective sales and marketing organization; and

 

    the amount of revenues, if any, we may derive either directly, or in the form of royalty payments from any future potential collaboration agreements, from our ERYCAPS platform or relating to our other product candidates.

For more information as to the risks associated with our future funding needs, see the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors.”

 

75


Table of Contents

Capital Expenditures

Our main capital expenditures in 2015 and 2016 and as of June 30, 2017 were related primarily to the buildup of our fixed assets for our pharmaceutical facility and laboratory and to a lesser extent to the purchase of office and computer equipment. We do not capitalize clinical research and development costs until we obtain marketing authorization for a product candidate.

Our non-current assets are broken down as follows:

 

 

 

     AS OF DECEMBER 31,      AS OF JUNE 30,  
         2015              2016              2017      
     (in thousands)  

Intangible assets

   61      57      43  

Property, plant and equipment

     918        2,245        2,730  

Other non-current financial assets

     97        132        130  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   1,076      2,434      2,903  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

For the year ended December 31, 2016, we capitalized costs related to our new production facility project in the amount of 830 thousand, which have been recognized as tangible assets in progress as of December 31, 2016 and fixtures, fittings and office equipment for our offices in Lyon, France and Cambridge, Massachusetts in the amount of 864 thousand.

For the six months ended June 30, 2017, we capitalized costs mainly related to the development of a new prototype in our production facility.

Non-current financial assets relate to deposits paid on the operating leases for our premises in Lyon, France and in Cambridge, Massachusetts for all periods presented.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

During the periods presented, we did not and do not currently have any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined under Securities and Exchange Commission rules, such as relationships with other entities or financial partnerships, which are often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, established for the purpose of facilitating financing transactions that are not required to be reflected on our balance sheet.

The off-balance sheet commitments related to operating leases as of December 31, 2016 amounted to 442 thousand, of which 295 thousand is due within a year and the balance between one and five years. These commitments relate primarily to leases of buildings. As of June 30, 2017, there have been no new significant off-balance sheet arrangements since December 31, 2016.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Liquidity Risk

We do not believe that we are exposed to short-term liquidity risk, considering the cash and cash equivalents that we had available as of June 30, 2017, amounting to 88.6 million, which was primarily cash and term deposits that are convertible into cash in approximately 30 days without penalty. Management believes that the amount of cash and cash equivalents available at June 30, 2017 is sufficient to fund our planned operations through the next 12 months.

Historically, we have financed our growth by strengthening our shareholders’ equity in the form of capital increases and the issuance of convertible bonds. We believe that the capital increase associated with our initial public offering on Euronext Paris in May 2013, as well as the capital increases we completed in 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, will enable us to continue as a going concern.

 

76


Table of Contents

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We use the euro as our functional currency for our financial communications. However, a portion of our operating expenses is denominated in U.S. dollars as a result of our clinical trials performed in the United States at our office based in Cambridge, Massachusetts and our production facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in conjunction with the American Red Cross. For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, these expenses in U.S. dollars totaled $3,149 thousand and $6,242 thousand, respectively, based on the exchange rate in effect at December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively, or 16% and 23% of our operating expenses for the periods presented. For the six months ended June 30, 2017, these expenses in U.S. dollars totaled $3,989 thousand based on the exchange rate in effect at June 30, 2017, or approximately 25% of our operating expenses for the period presented. As a result, we are exposed to foreign exchange risk inherent in operating expenses incurred. Following our analyses and given the level of these expenditures, the exposure to foreign exchange risk is unlikely to have a material adverse impact on our results of operations or financial position. In addition, we do not currently have revenues in euros, dollars or any other currency. As we advance our clinical development in the United States and potentially commercialize our product candidates in that market, we expect to face greater exposure to exchange rate risk and would then consider using exchange rate hedging techniques at that time.

Interest Rate Risk

We believe we have very low exposure to interest rate risk. Such exposure primarily involves our money market funds and time deposit accounts. Changes in interest rates have a direct impact on the rate of return on these investments and the cash flows generated.

We have no loans or other credit facilities. The repayment flows of the conditional advances from BPI France are not subject to interest rate risk.

Credit Risk

We believe that the credit risk related to our cash and cash equivalents is not significant in light of the quality of the financial institutions at which such funds are held.

JOBS Act Exemptions and Foreign Private Issuer Status

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the U.S. Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. This includes an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. We may take advantage of this exemption for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We will cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in total annual gross revenue, have more than $700.0 million in market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced burdens.

We will not take advantage of the extended transition period provided under Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Since IFRS makes no distinction between public and private companies for purposes of compliance with new or revised accounting standards, the requirements for our compliance as a private company and as a public company are the same.

Upon consummation of the global offering, we will report under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

 

    the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

    the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time;

 

77


Table of Contents
    the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events; and

 

    Regulation FD, which regulates selective disclosures of material information by issuers.

 

78


Table of Contents

BUSINESS

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company developing innovative therapies for rare forms of cancer and orphan diseases. Leveraging our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, which uses a novel technology to encapsulate therapeutic drug substances inside erythrocytes, or red blood cells, we have developed a pipeline of product candidates targeting both solid and liquid tumors for patients with high unmet medical needs. Our lead product candidate, which we refer to as eryaspase or GRASPA, targets the metabolism of cancers by depriving tumor cells of asparagine, an amino acid necessary for their survival and critical in maintaining the cells’ rapid growth rate. We are developing eryaspase for the treatment of solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Based on the initial feedback we received from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, at our pre-IND meeting in October 2017, we plan to initiate a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase for pancreatic cancer in the United States and Europe during the third quarter of 2018. We are also developing eryaspase for the treatment of liquid tumors, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, and acute myeloid leukemia, or AML. We expect to commence a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase as a first-line treatment for adults with ALL by the end of the third quarter of 2018. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, we intend to resubmit a Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, for eryaspase for relapsed or refractory ALL later in October 2017. With respect to eryaspase for the treatment of AML, we are conducting a Phase 2b clinical trial in Europe and expect to report initial results from this trial by the end of 2017.

Eryaspase—Our Lead Cancer Metabolism-Targeting Product Candidate

Eryaspase consists of the enzyme L-asparaginase encapsulated in red blood cells. L-asparaginase cleaves and reduces intracellular asparagine, a naturally occurring amino acid essential for the survival and proliferation of cells within the body, including cancer cells, and, through osmosis via the treated red blood cells, depletes this protein building block from circulating blood plasma. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells often lack the enzymes necessary to produce asparagine internally and, therefore, must obtain this nutrient from circulating blood. While L-asparaginase injections have been used for decades as a cancer metabolism treatment, the toxicity profiles of current commercially available forms of unencapsulated, or free-form, L-asparaginases have generally limited their use to pediatric ALL patients. Encapsulation of L-asparaginase, utilizing our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, is designed to shield the body from the side effects of L-asparaginase, which we believe broadens the potential use of L-asparaginase outside the pediatric ALL setting, including for the treatment of aggressive solid and liquid tumors. Eryaspase has been tested in over 320 patients to date. In our clinical trials, patients treated with eryaspase have achieved improvements in efficacy endpoints compared to treatment with free-form L-asparaginase or standard of care chemotherapy, and treatment has generally been well tolerated.

We are currently developing eryaspase for the treatment of the following types of cancer:

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which solid tumors form in the tissues of the pancreas. We estimate there are approximately 150,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed each year in the United States and Europe. Pancreatic cancer is a particularly aggressive cancer, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%, and is one of the fastest growing cancer indications. According to estimates published by the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth largest cause of cancer deaths in the United States. According to an article published in the scientific journal Cancer Research, pancreatic cancer is projected to surpass colon and breast cancer to become the second largest cause of cancer deaths by 2030.

We recently announced the full results from our Phase 2b clinical trial of eryaspase combined with chemotherapy in 141 patients suffering from second-line metastatic pancreatic cancer. The trial met its pre-specified co-primary endpoints of improvement in overall survival rates and progression-free survival rates, which we defined as achieving hazard ratios of less than 0.85 in patients with no or low asparaginase synthetase expression (ASNS 0/1) irrespective of statistical significance. The hazard ratio for overall survival in the entire patient population was 0.60 (nominal p-value = 0.009), meaning that treatment with eryaspase reduced the risk of death rate by 40% compared to treatment with chemotherapy alone. Our clinical trial represents the first time an asparaginase-based therapy has been reported to have a survival benefit in a solid tumor indication. We presented these results at the European Society for Medical Oncology, or ESMO, Congress in Madrid, Spain in September 2017.

 

79


Table of Contents

In early October, we met with the FDA to discuss further development of eryaspase for the pancreatic cancer indication and we also intend to meet with the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP, of the EMA later in 2017 to discuss our plans. Based on the initial feedback we received from the FDA at our pre-IND meeting in October 2017, we plan to initiate a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase for pancreatic cancer in the United States and Europe during the third quarter of 2018. We retain worldwide rights to commercialize eryaspase for the pancreatic cancer indication.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

ALL is a blood cancer affecting the lymphoid progenitor cells. ALL patients have excess cells derived from the lymphoid lineage, such as lymphoblasts, B-cells, T-cells and natural killer cells. The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 5,970 new cases of ALL will be diagnosed in the United States in 2017, resulting in approximately 1,440 deaths. Based on incidence data published in scientific literature, we estimate that there are at least as many new cases of ALL diagnosed each year in Europe as in the United States.

In 2014, we completed a multi-center, open-label pivotal Phase 2/3 clinical trial in 80 children and adults with relapsed or refractory ALL in which we evaluated the safety and efficacy of GRASPA compared to free-form L-asparaginase derived from the bacteria E. coli, also known as native L-asparaginase. In this European trial, patients without a history of allergies to native L-asparaginase treatments were randomized to receive standard chemotherapy plus either GRASPA or native L-asparaginase. Patients with a known allergy to native L-asparaginase treatments were treated with standard chemotherapy plus GRASPA. The patients treated with GRASPA experienced a mean duration of L-asparaginase activity that was more than twice as long as for patients receiving native L-asparaginase. None of the non-allergic patients who received GRASPA experienced an allergic reaction, compared to 46% of non-allergic patients who received native L-asparaginase. Only 12% of patients with a prior L-asparaginase allergy experienced a new allergic reaction after receiving GRASPA, with no patients in the trial experiencing a severe allergic reaction. Patients in the GRASPA treatment arm also had overall higher complete remission rates during induction, and GRASPA was also associated with fewer drug-related adverse events. After three years of follow-up, a nominal improvement in overall survival rates was observed.

Responding to feedback from the EMA, we are currently conducting activities that are designed to provide data regarding immunogenicity and pharmacodynamics of eryaspase, as well as comparability of eryaspase produced with native versus recombinant asparaginase. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with regulatory authorities, we intend to resubmit an MAA to the EMA for GRASPA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL later in October 2017. If approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL, GRASPA is expected to be marketed in Europe by our commercial partner Orphan Europe, a subsidiary of Recordati S.p.A., an Italian-based pharmaceutical company, and in Israel by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., an Israeli pharmaceutical company, which we refer to in this prospectus as Teva. In the United States, we are conducting a Phase 1 clinical trial of eryaspase as a potential first-line treatment for adult ALL patients, and we expect to complete this trial by the end of 2018. We have retained the rights to commercialize eryaspase for the treatment of ALL outside of Europe and Israel, including in the United States.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

AML is an aggressive cancer of the blood and bone marrow that is particularly fatal if left untreated. The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 21,000 new cases of AML will be diagnosed in the United States in 2017, resulting in over 10,000 deaths. Based on incidence data published in scientific literature, we estimate that there are at least as many new cases of AML diagnosed each year in Europe as there are in the United States. AML is generally a disease of older people and is uncommon before the age of 45, with approximately 95% of new AML cases in the United States occurring in patients over the age of 19. The median age of a patient with AML is approximately 67 years.

We believe the safety profile of eryaspase may also allow it to be developed as a potential treatment for AML patients, many of whom may respond to asparaginase but cannot be treated with L-asparaginase due to its side effects. We are conducting a multinational, randomized Phase 2b clinical trial in Europe of 123 elderly AML patients, which we refer to as the ENFORCE 1 trial. We completed enrollment of the ENFORCE 1 trial in August 2016 and expect to report primary results by the end of 2017. If approved for the treatment of AML, we expect eryaspase to be marketed in Europe by our commercial partner Orphan Europe and in Israel by Teva. We have retained the rights to commercialize eryaspase for the treatment of AML outside of Europe and Israel, including in the United States.

 

80


Table of Contents

Both the FDA and EMA have granted orphan drug designation for eryaspase or GRASPA, as the case may be, for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML. Orphan drug designation provides manufacturers with research grants, tax credits and eligibility for marketing exclusivity of up to seven years in the United States and 10 years in Europe.

Our Additional ERYCAPS Product Candidates

In addition to our product candidates based on L-asparaginase treatment, we believe that our ERYCAPS platform has broad potential application and can be used to encapsulate within red blood cells a wide range of therapeutic agents for which long-circulating therapeutic activity or rapid and specific targeting is desired.

 

    Cancer Metabolism. We have received funding from BPI France for a research program, known as the TEDAC program, and have identified two other enzymes, methionine-g-lyase, or MGL, and arginine deiminase, or ADI, that degrade amino acids necessary for tumor survival. We believe these enzymes can be encapsulated within red blood cells in order to induce tumor starvation. We expect to commence a Phase 1 clinical trial in Europe by the end of the third quarter of 2018 evaluating the safety of erymethionase, our MGL product candidate, and we are currently conducting preclinical studies on eryminase, our ADI product candidate, as a potential treatment for various cancers.

 

    Enzyme Replacement. Outside of the oncology field, we also are studying the use of our ERYCAPS platform to promote long-acting enzyme activity and targeting of specific cells, which we believe may result in attractive product development opportunities for enzyme therapies in the field of metabolic diseases. We refer to this program under the name ERYZYME. We believe that encapsulation of the therapeutic enzymes may reduce the potential for allergic reactions and allow the therapeutic substance to remain in the body longer when compared to non-encapsulated enzymes. In March 2017, we announced our entry into a research collaboration with the Fox Chase Cancer Center to advance the preclinical development of erymethionase for the treatment of homocystinuria, a rare and severe metabolic disorder of methionine metabolism. In July 2017, we announced our entry into a research collaboration with Queen’s University to advance the preclinical development of eryminase specifically for the treatment of arginase-1 deficiency, a rare and severe metabolic disorder related to arginine metabolism.

 

    Immunotherapy. We have also initiated ERYMMUNE, a preclinical development program designed to explore the use of our ERYCAPS platform to encapsulate tumor antigens within red blood cells as an innovative approach to cancer immunotherapy. Based on our preclinical research, we believe that encapsulated tumor antigens can be targeted to key organs, such as the liver or spleen, in order to induce an immune response, resulting in sustained activation of the body’s immune system to fight cancers. We expect to complete preclinical proof-of-concept studies of ERYMMUNE by the end of 2017.

Our ERYCAPS Platform Technology

Our proprietary technology uses transfusion-grade, standard packed red blood cells of all four blood groups (O, A, B and AB), which we obtain from blood banks. We match the red blood cells used to the blood type of the patient receiving treatment. The red blood cells are subjected to osmotic stress, which opens and reseals pores on the surface of the cells and allows therapeutic compounds to be added and then trapped inside the cells. Encapsulation offers a number of benefits as compared to free-form compounds. By protecting the therapeutic substance from detection and clearance by the body’s immune system, encapsulation is designed to reduce the potential for allergic reactions and to allow the therapeutic substance to remain in the body longer. The cellular membranes of the blood cells also protect the body against the direct toxicity of the drug substance, which results in a decreased incidence of side effects. In the case of L-asparaginase, encapsulation has been shown to extend the half-life of free-form L-asparaginase from one day to approximately 30 days, which should lead to fewer injections required for treatment and a lower overall dose. Another form of L-asparaginase derived from the bacteria E. coli, currently marketed under the brand name Oncaspar, has a half-life of eight days. We believe that these features make eryaspase a promising therapy for patients who may not be able to tolerate currently available free-form L-asparaginases.

We have automated our encapsulation process to allow for rapid turnaround and high reproducibility. The process for delivering eryaspase to patients, including the encapsulation of L-asparaginase into red blood cells, typically takes less than 24 hours from end of production to delivery of the product candidate to the hospital. We maintain a commercial-scale, cGMP-certified production facility in Lyon, France that we believe will be sufficient to supply our commercial requirements for approximately the first two years following the sales launch and commercialization of

 

81


Table of Contents

GRASPA in Europe for the treatment of ALL, if it is approved. We also maintain a smaller production facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the premises of the American Red Cross, which is currently used for our clinical trial production requirements.

Our intellectual property portfolio contains issued patents and patent applications in the United States and internationally, including 13 patent families directed to our production process, our ERYCAPS platform, our product candidates and related diagnostic tests. Our core patent covers eryaspase in the United States until 2030, with potential extension to 2035, and in Europe until 2025, with potential extension to 2030.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated as a société par actions simplifiée, or S.A.S., on October 26, 2004 and became a société anonyme, or S.A., on September 29, 2005. In April 2014, we incorporated our wholly-owned U.S. subsidiary, ERYTECH Pharma, Inc. In February 2016, we opened our U.S. office in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In May 2013, we completed the initial public offering of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris, raising 17.7 million in gross proceeds. In October 2014, December 2015, December 2016 and April 2017, we raised 30.0 million, 25.4 million, 9.9 million and 70.5 million, respectively, in gross proceeds from the issuances of additional ordinary shares. Our shares are listed on Euronext Paris under the ticker symbol “ERYP.”

Our Strategy

Our goal is to become a leading biopharmaceutical company focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing innovative therapies to treat rare forms of cancer and other orphan diseases. The key elements of our strategy to achieve this goal include the following:

 

    Rapidly advance the clinical development of eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the United States and in Europe. In March 2017, we reported positive top-line results from our Phase 2b clinical trial for the second-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. We presented the full results of this trial at the ESMO Congress in Madrid, Spain in September 2017. In early October, we met with the FDA to discuss further development of eryaspase for the pancreatic cancer indication and we also intend to meet with EMA later in 2017 to discuss our plans. Based on the initial feedback we received from the FDA at our pre-IND meeting in October 2017, we plan to initiate a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of eryaspase for pancreatic cancer in the United States and Europe during the third quarter of 2018.

 

    Complete the development of, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize eryaspase in Europe and the United States for the treatment of ALL. We are evaluating the potential to broaden the application and use of GRASPA to include first-line treatment of patients with ALL. We have commenced Phase 1 clinical trials of eryaspase in the United States as a potential first-line therapy for the treatment of adults with ALL. We intend to meet with the FDA to discuss our planned pivotal Phase 3 trial in first-line adult ALL patients, including our recommended dose of eryaspase for the trial. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with regulatory authorities, we intend to resubmit an MAA for GRASPA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL to the EMA later in October 2017.

 

    Continue to develop eryaspase for the treatment of other liquid and solid tumor indications. We have completed enrollment of our Phase 2b clinical trial for the treatment of AML in Europe, and we expect to report primary results from this trial by the end of 2017. If the results are positive, we may pursue a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial and seek regulatory approval of eryaspase for AML. We also expect to initiate additional clinical trials and seek regulatory approval of eryaspase in the United States and Europe for other cancer indications, including specific forms of lymphoma and other solid tumors.

 

   

Leverage our ERYCAPS platform to develop additional innovative and novel therapeutics targeting rare forms of cancer and other orphan diseases. In addition to encapsulating L-asparaginase, the active ingredient in eryaspase, we plan to leverage the broad applicability of our ERYCAPS platform to develop additional product candidates that use other therapeutic drug substances. Based on our preclinical research, we have identified two other enzymes, MGL and ADI, which can be encapsulated within red blood cells in order to induce tumor starvation. We expect to commence a Phase 1 clinical trial in Europe by the end of the third quarter of 2018 evaluating the safety of administering encapsulated MGL in cancer patients, and to commence clinical trials of our product candidate eryminase, which consists of ADI encapsulated inside red blood cells, after the completion of preclinical studies. We also plan to expand our product pipeline to

 

82


Table of Contents
 

include other therapeutic approaches, such as cancer immunotherapy and enzyme replacement therapies. To support this strategy, we intend to continue to seek robust worldwide intellectual property protection for our ERYCAPS platform and our resulting product candidates.

 

    Execute on research and development and commercialization opportunities that maximize the value of our proprietary ERYCAPS platform. We will seek to maximize shareholder value from our proprietary platform technology through a combination of in-house development and well-selected partnering opportunities. In some instances, we may elect to continue development and commercialization activities through the expansion of our in-house capabilities, but we will also evaluate and pursue collaborative arrangements with third parties for the development and commercialization of our product candidates for specified indications and in specified territories where appropriate. We believe that we will benefit in this regard from our prior experience negotiating distribution arrangements with Orphan Europe and Teva for ALL and AML in Europe and Israel, respectively. We may also explore co-development or out-licenses of our platform technology to third parties and the creation of spin-out companies. As we move our product candidates through development toward regulatory approval in the United States and Europe, we will evaluate several options for each product candidate’s commercialization strategy, as we have retained all rights to commercialize our product candidates in the United States. These options include building our own internal, targeted sales force for commercialization in the United States or entering into collaborations with third parties for the distribution and marketing of any approved products.

Our ERYCAPS Platform Technology

Our ERYCAPS platform uses our proprietary technology to entrap active drug substances inside red blood cells using reversible hypotonic and hypertonic osmotic stress. Our platform technology uses transfusion-grade, standard packed red blood cells of all four blood groups (O, A, B and AB), taken from blood donors with a specific blood type and compatible with the blood type of the patient to be treated. To allow the therapeutic compounds to enter into the red blood cells, we subject the red blood cells to a hypotonic solution that causes water movement into the cells, which leads to swelling and opening of the pores on the cellular membrane. Once the desired concentration of molecules is reached inside the red blood cells, we subject the red blood cells to a hypertonic solution to restore the osmotic pressure to normal. This step causes water to flow out of the cell and the pores to close, rendering the cellular membrane impermeable to molecules above a specific size, including the molecules that have been trapped inside the cell.

The extent to which a red blood cell can swell, known as osmotic fragility, is not uniform and varies between packages of red blood cells. When we obtain a package of red blood cells from a blood bank, we identify a number of key hematological parameters, including the osmotic fragility of the particular sample. Based on the level of osmotic fragility measured, we are able to calculate the specific amount of osmotic pressure to apply in order to achieve the desired concentration of drug substance in each production batch. This patent-protected process allows us to reduce variations in the amount of drug substance to be encapsulated, which ensures that quantifiable amounts of drug substance can be captured in each batch. Our expertise in understanding osmotic fragility and optimizing the red blood cell encapsulation parameters is the cornerstone of our proprietary ERYCAPS platform.

We believe that our ERYCAPS platform technology is an innovative approach that offers several key benefits:

 

    Prolonged duration of activity. Red blood cells are biocompatible carriers that have a half-life of approximately one month in the body. This long half-life, coupled with the protection from the cellular membrane, allows encapsulated therapeutic drug substances to remain in the body longer, thereby increasing the duration of their therapeutic activity and their potential efficacy with lower dosages and fewer injections.

 

    Decreased risk of side effects. The red blood cell membrane protects the body from toxicities associated with the trapped drug substance, which reduces the potential for adverse side effects from the drug.

 

   

High reproducibility with rapid turnaround on commercial scale. Our encapsulation process is automated and is designed to produce batches of loaded red blood cells in a highly reproducible, reliable and rapid manner, regardless of the initial characteristics and origin of the red blood cells used. At our cGMP-certified production facility, we can deliver the product candidate to the hospital typically within 24 hours of

 

83


Table of Contents
 

initiating production. We have produced over 1,500 bags of eryaspase to date for use in clinical trials, and we estimate our current production facility will be sufficient for approximately the first two years of commercial-scale production of GRASPA following the sales launch and commercialization of GRASPA in Europe for the treatment of ALL, if it is approved.

 

    Stability and ease of administration. Once shipped from our production facility to the hospital, eryaspase has been shown to remain stable for 72 hours in refrigeration followed by six hours at room temperature. This allows hospital staff to administer the required blood transfusion at an optimal time and to retain control over the administration process. Based on stability studies we have performed, we believe we may be able to extend the shelf life of eryaspase to at least five days.

 

    Broad applicability. Our initial efforts have focused on encapsulating enzymes, such as L-asparaginase, that deplete nutrients necessary for the growth and proliferation of tumor cells, resulting in their starvation and death. Based on our preclinical studies and initial clinical experience in the area of hemato-oncology, we believe that a variety of additional therapeutic molecules can be encapsulated within red blood cells to induce tumor starvation, both for blood cancers and solid tumors, and to develop cancer immunotherapy and enzyme replacement therapies.

Our Product Development Pipeline

Using our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, we are developing a pipeline of product candidates to treat rare forms of cancer and other orphan diseases. The following table summarizes our product development pipeline:

 

LOGO

 

84


Table of Contents

Our Lead Product Candidate Eryaspase—A Unique Approach to Cancer Treatment

Eryaspase, our first product candidate developed using our proprietary ERYCAPS platform, is known under the trade name GRASPA in Europe and Israel and consists of the enzyme L-asparaginase encapsulated inside an erythrocyte, or a red blood cell. L-asparaginase breaks down asparagine, a naturally occurring amino acid, into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. Asparagine is produced by healthy cells in the body for their own use in protein synthesis. Cancer cells also need asparagine to grow and proliferate, even more than normal cells, but most cancer cells do not produce asparagine and must rely on circulating asparagine in order to survive. Because L-asparaginase is capable of catalyzing circulating asparagine, thereby depriving cancer cells of a key nutrient and causing them to die, the use of L-asparaginase to deplete asparagine has become a well-established treatment for ALL patients, and L-asparaginase has been a common component of pediatric ALL treatment protocols for several decades. However, the use of L-asparaginase outside of the pediatric ALL setting is limited, due primarily to the toxicity of and allergies associated with free-form asparaginases, which inhibits their use in adult and elderly ALL patients, as well as in children with relapsed ALL. We believe that encapsulating L-asparaginase in red blood cells will expand the population of cancer patients that may be able to be treated with L-asparaginase to include adult or elderly pancreatic cancer, ALL and AML patients.

Eryaspase is administered by intravenous infusion. Once administered, the red blood cells containing L-asparaginase circulate in the bloodstream and remove asparagine through a mechanism of active transportation of asparagine into the red blood cells. Normal red blood cells contain two to three times more asparagine than in the surrounding plasma. When L-asparaginase is encapsulated in the red blood cells, it causes the inner concentration of asparagine to decrease, which activates a natural mechanism of the red blood cell to draw asparagine circulating in the blood plasma into the red blood cell. The asparagine is rapidly degraded inside the red blood cells as well. When maintained long enough, this pumping and degradation activity leads to a systemic depletion of asparagine levels in the bloodstream that induces starvation of the cancer cells without releasing L-asparaginase into the bloodstream. The red blood cell membrane also protects the encapsulated L-asparaginase from antibodies present in the patient’s blood that would substantially lessen or neutralize the enzyme’s activity or cause an allergic reaction. As a result, the enzyme can remain active and potentially effective in the red blood cell for a longer period of time, while at the same time reducing the potential for toxicity and related side effects. Our research indicates that the encapsulation process does not significantly alter the life span of the red blood cell.

The following diagram illustrates the main mode of action of eryaspase:

 

LOGO

 

85


Table of Contents

Clinical Development of Eryaspase

The table below sets forth summary information regarding our clinical trials of eryaspase conducted to date.

COMPLETED CLINICAL TRIALS

 

PHASE

 

TRIAL
REFERENCE

 

# OF
PATIENTS

 

AGE

 

INDICATION

 

PRIMARY ENDPOINTS

 

DOSE

 

REGION

 

DESIGN

Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

2b

  GRASPANC 2013-03   141   18+   Second-line  

•    Efficacy (progression-free survival or overall survival) of eryaspase in patients with low ASNS expression levels

  100 U/kg   EU   Randomized, open label, controlled

1

  GRASPANC 2008-02   12   18+   Second-line  

•    Determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended Phase 2 dosing

  25 / 50 / 100 / 150 U/kg   EU   Non-randomized, open label

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2/3

  GRASPALL 2009-06   80   1 to 55   Relapsed/refractory  

•    Mean duration (days) of ASNase activity >100 U/L

  150 U/kg   EU   Randomized, open label
         

•    Incidence of allergic reactions (induction phase)

     

2a

  GRAALL SA2-2008   30   55+   First-line  

•    Efficacy and safety of eryaspase with combination therapy and determination of the MTD in elderly

  50 / 100 / 150 U/kg   EU   Non-randomized, open label

1/2

  GRASPALL 2005-01   24   1 to 55   Relapsed/refractory  

•    Determination of the MTD and recommended Phase 2 dosing

  50 / 100 / 150 U/kg   EU   Randomized, open label

ONGOING CLINICAL TRIALS

 

PHASE

 

TRIAL
REFERENCE

 

# OF
PATIENTS

 

AGE

 

INDICATION

 

PRIMARY ENDPOINTS

 

DOSE

 

REGION

 

DESIGN

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2

  NOPHO   30   1 to 45   Second-line post
PEG-asparaginase
 

•    PK / PD, safety and immunogenicity

  150 U/kg   EU   Single arm, open label

1

  GRASPALL 2012-09   12 to 18   18+   First-line  

•    Determination of the MTD and recommended Phase 2 dosing

  50 /100 / 150 / 200 U/kg   US   Non-randomized, open label
  GRASPALL 2012-10-EAP   17   Up to 55   At risk - all lines  

•    Safety of eryaspase in combination with polychemotherapy

  150 U/kg   EU   Non-randomized, open label

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2b

  ENFORCE 1   123   65 to 85   First-line, unfit  

•    Overall survival

  100 U/kg   EU   Multicenter, open label, randomized, controlled

Eryaspase for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer and Other Solid Tumors

Researchers have investigated the potential to target asparagine metabolism in solid tumor indications, and based on the observation that many solid tumors, like lymphoblasts, lack the asparagine synthetase, or ASNS, enzyme, a rationale for the use of asparaginase in solid tumors exists. The toxicity profile of existing asparaginase products has, however, been prohibitive for their use in patients. Historically, Phase 1 clinical trials conducted by researchers have been modified or halted because of excess toxicity.

 

86


Table of Contents

We selected pancreatic cancer as the first solid tumor indication for clinical development of eryaspase. We commenced a Phase 2b clinical trial of eryaspase combined with chemotherapy in 141 patients suffering from second-line metastatic pancreatic cancer in 2014. In March 2017, we reported that the trial met its pre-specified co-primary endpoints, showing improvement in survival rates for patients treated with eryaspase in combination with chemotherapy as compared to treatment with eryaspase alone, with hazard ratios of less than 0.85 in patients with no or low asparaginase synthetase expression (ASNS 0/1) irrespective of statistical significance. We presented the full results of this trial at the ESMO Congress in Madrid, Spain in September 2017. This clinical trial represents the first time an asparaginase-based therapy has been reported to have a survival benefit in a solid tumor indication. This trial forms the basis for our strategy to explore the further development of eryaspase for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and other solid tumor indications.

Background and Potential for L-asparaginase as a Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer

We estimate there are approximately 150,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed each year in Europe and the United States. Pancreatic cancer is a particularly aggressive cancer, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%, and is one of the fastest growing cancer indications. According to estimates published by the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth largest cause of cancer deaths in the United States. According to an article published in the scientific journal Cancer Research, pancreatic cancer is projected to surpass colon and breast cancer to become the second largest cause of cancer deaths by 2030. The following table summarizes the number of estimated cases and deaths in the United States in 2017 and 2030 in various solid tumor indications, as well as the five-year survival rate of each type of cancer for the years 2006 through 2012.

 

 

 

INDICATION

   CASES (U.S., IN
THOUSANDS)
     DEATHS (U.S., IN
THOUSANDS)
     5-YEAR
SURVIVAL

RATE
 
     2017      2030      2017      2030     

Lung and bronchus

     223        225        156        156        19

Pancreas

     54        88        43        63        9  

Liver

     41        83        29        51        18  

Colon and rectum

     135        114        50        47        66  

Breast

     255        294        41        37        91 (1) 

Prostate

     161        228        27        24        99  

Bladder

     79        113        17        22        79  

Brain and other nervous system

     24        N/A        17        17        35  

Oesophagus

     17        N/A        16        17        21  

Kidney

     64        69        14        16        75  

Ovary

     22        N/A        14        14        46  

 

 

(1)   Refers to female survival rate.

From over 600 tumor biopsies analyzed in our preclinical studies, approximately 70% of pancreatic tumors had no or low expression of ASNS, indicating that they may be sensitive to L-asparaginase depletion. Our preclinical studies also suggested the potentially positive impact of administering L-asparaginase to pancreatic tumors in mouse models. Based on these preclinical studies and the existence of this important unmet medical need, we began a clinical development program in pancreatic cancer.

Phase 2b Clinical Trial for Eryaspase for the Treatment of Second-Line Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

In 2014, we commenced a multi-center, open-label, randomized Phase 2b clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of eryaspase as a second-line treatment for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. The trial was conducted at 16 sites in France and performed in collaboration with the Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie. Professor Pascal Hammel, a gastroenterologist-oncologist at Beaujon Hospital in Paris, was the principal investigator of the trial. The original recruitment objective was 90 patients. In February 2016, we elected to continue to enroll patients to increase the statistical power of the trial. In September 2016, we completed enrollment of 141 patients in this trial. In March 2017, we reported positive top-line results from this trial, which also included three data safety monitoring board, or DSMB, safety reviews. In September 2017, we presented the full results of this trial at the ESMO Congress in Madrid, Spain.

Trial Design

In this trial, patients in the active arm were treated with eryaspase in addition to the current standard of chemotherapy, consisting of either gemcitabine or FOLFOX, depending on which treatment the patient had received

 

87


Table of Contents

as first-line therapy. Patients in the control arm were patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Patients were randomized at a 2:1 ratio. Prior to enrolling each patient in this trial, we used a diagnostic test to assess the level of ASNS expression in such patient’s cancer cells, indicating whether the cells were likely to respond to treatment with eryaspase. We included both patients with no or low ASNS expression levels and patients with normal or high ASNS expression levels in the trial.

Endpoints

The co-primary endpoints of the Phase 2b clinical trial were progression-free survival and overall survival rates, as measured by the hazard ratio, or HR, for the patients that were enrolled with no or low ASNS expression levels. The HR represents the chance of events occurring in the treatment arm relative to the chance of events occurring in the control arm. An HR of one means that there is no difference in survival between the two groups, while an HR of greater than one or less than one means that survival was better in one of the groups. The outcome of the trial would be considered positive if the HR was below 0.85 for the low or no ASNS expression group, irrespective of statistical significance. The secondary endpoints of the clinical trial included overall progression-free survival and overall survival rates, as measured by HR, in the entire patient population and for the patients enrolled with normal or high ASNS expression levels, as well as objective response rates and safety outcomes.

Efficacy Results

The primary objectives of the trial were met, with an overall survival HR of 0.65 and a progression-free survival HR of 0.72 in the patient population with no or low ASNS expression levels. This sub-group of the patient population constituted approximately 70% of the trial population.

There was also an overall survival benefit in the entire patient population, with a statistically significant overall survival HR of 0.60 (nominal p-value = 0.009), meaning that a reduction in risk of death rate of 40% was observed.

The graph below shows the Kaplan-Meier overall survival curve of the trial. A Kaplan-Meier plot is a graphical statistical method commonly used to describe survival characteristics. Similar results were observed for progression-free survival.

 

LOGO

 

88


Table of Contents

The baseline characteristics and demographics in the patient population were balanced, and overall survival and progression-free survival results appeared to be consistent across different sub-groups, including age, gender and prior treatment.

An unexpected finding from these results was that the ASNS expression level in the patients did not appear to be predictive of treatment efficacy. The top-line results do not indicate that patients with no or low ASNS expression levels are responding more favorably to asparaginase treatment than the patients with normal or high expression levels, as we originally hypothesized. However, ASNS does appear to be a prognostic factor. Patients with high ASNS expression levels appear to have a worse prognosis, and their relative response to eryaspase seems to be relatively higher in this group than the patients with no, low or normal ASNS expression levels. Based on this finding, we believe future clinical trials may be conducted in the entire patient population, independent of ASNS expression levels.

Completed Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Eryaspase for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

In 2011, we completed an open-label Phase 1 clinical trial in 12 patients with pancreatic cancer at four sites in France. The enrolled patients were separated into four cohorts of three subjects each. Eryaspase was administered as one injection of four different doses, 25 Units, or U, per kilogram, 50 U per kilogram, 100 U per kilogram or 150 U per kilogram. The primary endpoint of the trial was the determination of the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary endpoints included assessments of safety and exploratory measures of efficacy. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported, even at the highest dose administered in the trial. The treatment led to L-asparagine depletion, and there was a trend toward longer depletion with an increasing dose.

Next Steps

We presented the full results of our Phase 2b trial at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid, Spain in September 2017. In early October, we met with the FDA to discuss further development of eryaspase for the pancreatic cancer indication and we intend to meet with the EMA to discuss our findings, including the design of a potential Phase 3 clinical trial to be initiated during the third quarter of 2018. We have also initiated further preclinical work to assess compatibility with other compounds used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients.

Planned Clinical Development Program in Other Solid Tumors

We believe the proof-of-concept that we have established with eryaspase in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer can be applied to other solid tumor indications based on eryaspase’s mechanism of action and reduced toxicity. Preclinical work is ongoing to identify the most relevant indications including a review of the use of the product candidate in combination with chemotherapy and immunotherapy compounds, and we plan to launch clinical feasibility studies in the future in one or more indications with a goal of initiating clinical trials in the selected indication in 2018.

Eryaspase for the Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

We are developing eryaspase for the treatment of children and adults with ALL in combination with chemotherapy. We have completed three clinical trials in Europe in which a total of 134 patients with ALL enrolled, of which 102 patients were ultimately treated with eryaspase. We are also conducting additional clinical trials in Europe and in the United States to potentially broaden the application and use of GRASPA to include first-line treatment of patients with ALL.

Based on the positive efficacy and safety results from our Phase 2/3 pivotal trial, we submitted an MAA to the EMA for GRASPA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL in September 2015. CHMP is the EMA committee responsible for reviewing the MAA. In September 2016, we received from CHMP a Day 180 List of Outstanding Issues. Following discussions with the EMA, we determined that the collection of the additional information requested by CHMP would take more time than allowed in the regulatory approval procedures. Accordingly, we decided to withdraw the MAA in November 2016. We are currently conducting activities that are designed to provide data regarding immunogenicity and pharmacodynamics of eryaspase, as well as comparability of eryaspase produced with native versus recombinant asparaginase. Depending on the outcome of these activities and discussions with regulatory authorities, we intend to resubmit our MAA later in October 2017.

The EMA and the FDA have granted orphan drug designation for GRASPA for the treatment of ALL, providing us with the potential for marketing exclusivity for up to seven and 10 years, respectively, upon receipt of marketing approval.

 

89


Table of Contents

Background and Market for ALL

Leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow cells, sometimes called cancer of the blood. Leukemia is characterized by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of blood components that, in the absence of treatment, invade the bone marrow and then the blood. Leukemia characterized by a rapid proliferation of abnormal cells in the bone marrow and requiring urgent treatment is known as acute leukemia. On the other hand, chronic leukemia has a slow proliferation, with a clinical tolerance of cancer cells and a development that may take place over months or years.

ALL is a blood cancer affecting the lymphoid progenitor cells. ALL patients have excess cells derived from the lymphoid lineage, such as lymphoblasts, B-cells, T-cells and natural killer cells. Some mutations in bone marrow progenitors have been directly linked to the development of ALL, although the exact molecular alteration responsible for the disease is often unknown. In general, the development of ALL is difficult to anticipate and few major risk factors are known.

ALL is most prevalent for children between the ages of two and five, although adults are also affected. The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 5,970 new cases of ALL will be diagnosed in the United States in 2017, resulting in approximately 1,440 deaths. Based on incidence data published in scientific literature, we estimate that there are at least as many new cases of ALL diagnosed each year in Europe as in the United States. The risk for developing ALL declines slowly after the age of five until the mid-20s and then begins to rise again slowly after the age of 50. Overall, approximately 40% of ALL cases occur in adults. Although most cases of ALL occur in children, approximately 80% of deaths from ALL occur in adults. Pediatric ALL patients have a five-year survival rate of approximately 90%, while the five-year survival rate for adults drops to approximately 30% and for seniors, to approximately 15%.

L-asparaginase for the Treatment of ALL

The treatment of childhood ALL relies heavily on chemotherapy regimens and the use of L-asparaginase due to a high rate of complete responses observed with these therapies. Adults are also treated with chemotherapy, but L-asparaginase use has generally been limited due to its toxicity, and elderly patients especially cannot tolerate L-asparaginase treatment. Children typically respond better to ALL treatment due to differences in the disease itself and the ability to better handle aggressive treatment regimens. Treatment of children with modern chemotherapy regimens can lead to complete response rates in the 90% range, although that rate significantly drops as patients age. The identification of chromosomal translocations can also narrow down the exact disease subtype and lead to more targeted treatment options. One of these genetic anomalies, known as the Philadelphia chromosome, is present in approximately 5% of children with ALL and 20% to 25% of adults and seniors. For Philadelphia-negative patients, the administration of L-asparaginase has become the standard of care and is used as first-line treatment in conjunction with traditional chemotherapy regimens.

L-asparaginase is currently available in four forms, each described below. The use of each form depends upon the risk profile and age of the patient as well as the availability of a product in a specific market.

 

    Native and recombinant L-asparaginase. L-asparaginase purified from E. coli bacteria, also known as native L-asparaginase, has been part of the standard treatment for pediatric ALL patients since the 1970s. Native L-asparaginase has a half-life of about one day and is typically administered twice per week during the induction phase of chemotherapy treatment. In 2016, a new form of L-asparaginase purified from E. coli bacteria, known as recombinant L-asparaginase and marketed under the brand name Spectrila, was approved in Europe. Native and recombinant L-asparaginase remain the first-line, first-intention treatments for newly diagnosed pediatric ALL patients in many European countries.

 

    PEG-asparaginase. PEG-asparaginase is E. coli L-asparaginase that has been pegylated in order to reduce its toxicity and increase its half-life. In some countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, PEG-asparaginase, marketed under the brand name Oncaspar, has almost completely replaced native L-asparaginase as the first-line, first-intention treatment for pediatric ALL patients, although its use for adults in conjunction with chemotherapy regimens is less universal due to toxicity concerns.

 

   

Chrysantaspase. L-asparaginase can also be produced from the bacteria E. chrysanthemi. This form of L-asparaginase, marketed under the brand names Erwinase and Erwinaze, is typically used as an alternative treatment option in cases of hypersensitivity reactions to either the native or pegylated forms of E. coli

 

90


Table of Contents
 

L-asparaginase. This product was approved in the United Kingdom in 1985 and was approved in the United States in 2011.

Worldwide sales of the above free-form L-asparaginase products totaled approximately $400 million in 2016.

Limitations of Free-Form L-asparaginase Administration

Despite its long history as a treatment for ALL, the direct administration of free-form L-asparaginase suffers from several limitations, including:

 

    Allergic reactions. The use of native L-asparaginase has been associated with the onset of serious and potentially fatal allergic reactions. In addition to safety concerns, allergies can lead to medical costs associated with treating the allergic reaction and switching to another L-asparaginase product. Oncaspar and Erwinaze were created to reduce the incidence of allergic reactions. Allergic reactions have been reported in up to 32% and 37% of patients who received Oncaspar or Erwinaze, respectively. While these products have reduced the frequency of allergic reactions, they have not eliminated them completely.

 

    Multiple injections required. With a half-life of approximately one day, native L-asparaginase requires up to eight injections per month at high doses. In addition, free-form L-asparaginase is often attacked by the body’s immune system before it has had the opportunity to significantly deplete L-asparagine levels, thereby limiting the duration of its therapeutic activity. With its longer half-life, PEG-asparaginase has reduced the number of necessary injections to approximately two injections per month. However, despite its longer treatment duration, Oncaspar has not achieved progression-free survival rates that are superior to native L-asparaginase. The half-life of Erwinaze is less than that of native L-asparaginase, requiring up to 12 injections each month.

 

    Toxicities and other side effects. A significant number of ALL patients suffer from other adverse effects from administration of free-form L-asparaginase, including clotting disorders, pancreatitis, liver damage and brain damage.

In addition to the above limitations, current L-asparaginase treatment options effectively target only a small portion of ALL patients. Eryaspase has been designed to reduce the potential for allergic reactions and other side effects, and to allow the therapeutic substance to remain in the body longer. The encapsulation of L-asparaginase has also been shown to extend the half-life of free-form L-asparaginase from one day to approximately 30 days, which should lead to fewer injections required for treatment and a lower overall dose. Accordingly, we believe eryaspase has the potential to overcome some of the limitations of free-form L-asparaginase and that a large number of additional patients would benefit from an improved L-asparaginase product.

Clinical Development of Eryaspase for the Treatment of ALL

In addition to our three completed clinical trials evaluating eryaspase for the treatment of ALL summarized below, we are currently conducting additional clinical trials in Europe and in the United States to potentially broaden the application and use of GRASPA to include first-line treatment of patients with ALL.

Completed Pivotal Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial in Europe in Adults and Children with Relapsed or Refractory ALL

In 2014, we completed an open-label, randomized, multi-center pivotal Phase 2/3 clinical trial known as the GRASPIVOTALL trial in 80 children and adults with relapsed ALL. The trial began in 2009 and was transitioned into a Phase 3 portion in 2013 upon the positive review by an independent DSMB of the safety results from the first 60 patients. The trial was conducted at 58 investigator sites in France, Belgium and Spain.

Trial Design

Patients between the ages of one year and 55 years who had experienced a first relapse of Philadelphia-negative ALL after treatment with native L-asparaginase were eligible to participate in the trial. There were 52 males and 28 females enrolled. The 80 patients in the trial were divided into three treatment arms, depending on whether or not the patients had a known allergy to native L-asparaginase. The 26 patients enrolled in the trial with a known allergy were treated with chemotherapy plus GRASPA. Of the remaining 54 patients in the trial, 26 patients were treated with chemotherapy plus GRASPA, while a control group consisting of the other 28 patients received chemotherapy plus Kidrolase, a native L-asparaginase. The chemotherapy regimen for all patients was a standard protocol known as COOPRALL. During the induction phase of chemotherapy, patients received one or two injections of GRASPA, depending on the severity of disease. During the consolidation phase of chemotherapy, patients received an injection

 

91


Table of Contents

of GRASPA at each time that a block of chemotherapy was given, for up to eight cycles. For patients randomized to the control group, native L-asparaginase was administered up to eight times per month during the induction phase of chemotherapy, and up to four times per month during the consolidation phase, for up to eight cycles.

Endpoints

The primary endpoints of the trial were the duration of L-asparagine activity and the incidence of allergic reactions with GRASPA as compared to the native L-asparaginase control group. The threshold for L-asparaginase activity was established at 100 U per liter, and the number of continuous days with at least that level of activity in the blood was measured. Secondary efficacy endpoints included complete remission rates, existence of minimal residual disease, progression-free survival rates and overall survival rates.

Efficacy Results

After one year of patient monitoring, researchers concluded that GRASPA had achieved both of its primary endpoints for the trial:

 

    Lower Incidence of Allergic Reactions. Among the non-allergic patients, none of the 26 patients treated with GRASPA experienced an allergic reaction during the induction phase, compared to 13 patients out of 28, or 46%, of those treated with native L-asparaginase in the control group. This result had a statistically significant p-value of less than 0.001. P-value is a conventional statistical method for measuring the statistical significance of clinical trial results. A p-value of less than 0.05 is generally considered to represent statistical significance, meaning that there is a less than five percent likelihood that the observed results occurred by chance. Among the 26 patients with known allergies to L-asparaginase, only three patients, or 12%, experienced an allergy, none of which was determined to be at or above Grade 3 severity.

 

    Superior Duration of L-Asparaginase Activity. Among the non-allergic patients, the patients treated with GRASPA maintained a mean duration of L-asparaginase activity above 100 U per liter for 20.5 days, and a standard deviation of 5.2 days, with at most two injections during the first month of treatment. This result compared to a mean duration of activity of 9.4 days, with a standard deviation of 7.4 days, in the control group, who received up to eight injections of native L-asparaginase. This comparative result was also statistically significant, with a p-value of less than 0.001. The duration of activity was similar in the allergic patient group, with those patients receiving GRASPA having a mean duration of activity of 18.6 days, with a standard deviation of 6.3 days.

GRASPA was also observed to have an improved clinical benefit as compared to native L-asparaginase based on its achievement of the secondary efficacy endpoints:

 

    Higher Complete Remission Rate. At the end of the induction phase, 17 of the 26 non-allergic patients in the GRASPA treatment arm, or 65%, had achieved complete remission, or the disappearance of all signs of cancer in response to treatment, as compared to 11 patients, or 39%, of the non-allergic patients in the control arm. Among the allergic patients, 14 of 26, or 54%, achieved complete remission after treatment with GRASPA.

 

    Improved Minimal Residual Disease Rate. Among the non-allergic patients, nine out of 26, or 35%, achieved low levels of residual leukemic cells classified as minimal residual disease, or MRD, at the end of the induction phase, as compared to seven out of 28, or 25%, of those in the control group. Among the allergic patients, six out of 26, or 23%, achieved MRD after treatment with GRASPA.

 

    Improved Overall Survival Rates. 12-month overall survival rates among the non-allergic patients treated with GRASPA were 76.9%, compared to 67.9%, for those in the control group. 12-month overall survival in the allergic group of patients was 50%. Based on three years of follow-up, a nominal improvement of overall survival was observed (HR = 0.73).

 

    Improved Progression-Free Survival Rates. 12-month progression-free survival rates among the non-allergic patients treated with GRASPA were 64.9%, compared to 48.6% for those in the control group.

Safety Results

Treatment with GRASPA was generally well tolerated. Drug-related adverse events generally consisted of allergic reactions, clotting problems, liver toxicities and pancreas disorders. None of the 52 patients receiving GRASPA during the trial had an adverse event leading to discontinuation of the trial, as compared to 12 out of the

 

92


Table of Contents

28 patients, or 43%, in the control arm. A total of three patients out of the 52 patients treated with GRASPA during the trial experienced serious adverse events determined to be drug-related.

Among the non-allergic patients in the GRASPA treatment arm, nine out of 26, or 35%, experienced study drug-related clotting problems, compared to 23 out of 28, or 82%, in the non-allergic patients in the control group. Similarly, only nine out of the 26 allergic patients, or 35%, experienced clotting problems. Among the non-allergic patients in the GRASPA treatment arm, seven out of 26, or 27%, experienced study drug-related pancreatitis events, compared to 14 out of 28, or 50%, in the non-allergic patients in the control group. Similarly, only seven out of the 26 allergic patients, or 27%, experienced pancreatitis. Among the non-allergic patients in the GRASPA treatment arm, five out of 26, or 19%, experienced study drug-related liver problems, compared to 12 out of 28, or 43%, of the non-allergic patients in the control group. Similarly, only seven out of the 26 allergic patients, or 27%, experienced liver problems.

We believe the safety and efficacy profile of GRASPA, as observed in the Phase 2/3 clinical trial, offers an attractive alternative option for patients who have received prior L-asparaginase therapy and were unable to tolerate it or who have a hypersensitivity to free-form L-asparaginase. Based on the results of our clinical development program, we submitted an MAA in September 2015 for GRASPA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL in Europe. We announced the withdrawal of our MAA for GRASPA in November 2016. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with regulatory authorities, we intend to resubmit our MAA for GRASPA to the EMA later in October 2017.

Completed Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial in Europe in Adults and Children with Relapsed or Refractory ALL

Between 2006 and 2009, we conducted an open-label, multi-center, randomized Phase 1/2 clinical trial of GRASPA in 24 children and adults up to age 55 with relapsed ALL. The trial was conducted at 24 investigator sites in Europe and was designed to evaluate the efficacy of GRASPA compared to native L-asparaginase in terms of duration of L-asparagine depletion, as well as the safety of GRASPA by examining the side effects associated with treatment. Based on these results, we selected a GRASPA dose of 150 U per kilogram for further clinical evaluation in subsequent clinical trials. The results of this Phase 1/2 clinical trial supported our hypothesis that GRASPA could deplete circulating L-asparagine at a similar level as free-form L-asparaginase but with fewer injections and potentially reduced side effects.

Completed Phase 2 Clinical Trial in France in Elderly ALL Patients as First-Line Treatment

In 2009, we commenced a Phase 2, open-label, dose-escalation clinical trial of GRASPA as a first-line treatment in 30 patients over the age of 55 with newly diagnosed, Philadelphia-negative ALL. This trial was conducted at 20 sites in France and was completed in 2012. The main objective of this trial was to determine the maximum tolerated and effective dose of GRASPA in combination with chemotherapy. The trial also evaluated the side effects related to treatment with GRASPA, as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters and the rate of complete remission after treatment. We observed in the trial that GRASPA was generally well tolerated and the frequency of adverse events was similar to what was expected in this fragile population of senior patients. The most frequently reported adverse events were elevated pancreatic enzyme levels and coagulation disorders. No allergic reactions were reported in any of the GRASPA treatment groups.

Ongoing Expanded Access Program in Europe for Allergic ALL Patients

In the course of conducting our European clinical trials in pediatric and adult ALL patients, several clinical investigators identified ALL patients who were unable to be treated in our clinical trials due to allergies to other asparaginase formulations (native L-asparaginase, Oncaspar, or Erwinaze). After discussion with French regulatory authorities, in 2014, we commenced a clinical trial in France to allow these allergic patients to be treated with GRASPA as part of an expanded access program, or EAP. Patients up to 55 years of age, with either newly diagnosed or relapsed or refractory ALL, are eligible to participate in the EAP. Patients in the EAP receive GRASPA in conjunction with a standard chemotherapy regimen and are followed for 12 months after completion of chemotherapy. We have enrolled 17 patients to date in the EAP and have received a favorable review by an independent DSMB of the first seven patients treated. We expect to keep enrollment open in the EAP until we receive regulatory approval and commercialize GRASPA for the treatment of ALL.

 

93


Table of Contents

Ongoing Phase 2 Clinical Trial in the Nordic Countries of Europe for Treatment of Patients Allergic to Pegylated Asparaginase

In April 2017, we commenced an investigator-initiated Phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate GRASPA in patients with ALL, which is expected to enroll approximately 30 patients at 23 sites across seven Nordic and Baltic countries, including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Lithuania and Estonia. This trial will be conducted in collaboration with the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, or NOPHO. The main objectives of this trial are to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity, safety and immunogenicity profile of eryaspase in combination with NOPHO’s 2008 multi-agent chemotherapy protocol for ALL, administered as second-intention treatment for children or adult ALL patients, one to 45 years of age, who experience hypersensitivity reactions to PEG-asparaginase or silent inactivation. This trial is expected to continue for approximately two years.

Ongoing Phase 1 Clinical Trial in the United States in Adult ALL Patients as First-Line Treatment

In March 2013, our Investigational New Drug application with the FDA became effective and we initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial in the United States evaluating eryaspase in escalating doses as a potential first-line therapy in patients over the age of 18 with Philadelphia-negative ALL. We expect to enroll between 12 and 18 patients at approximately five sites. In this trial, eryaspase is being administered starting at 50 U per kilogram, and the dose will increase to 100 U per kilogram and 150 U per kilogram in later cohorts. The primary endpoint of this trial is the number of dose-limiting toxicities. Secondary endpoints include safety, tolerability and serum concentrations of L-asparagine and L-asparaginase.

In June 2015, safety data of the first cohort of three patients dosed at 50 U per kilogram was reviewed by a steering committee consisting of members of the DSMB and investigators in the trial. No safety concerns were identified, and the steering committee recommended escalating the dose to 100 U per kilogram. Further, the trial was amended to lower the age for patient inclusion from 40 to 18 years of age and to remove the waiting periods between each patient. In August 2015, we submitted the protocol amendments to the respective institutional review boards for approval. We determined a recommended dose in September 2017 and we intend to meet with the FDA to discuss our further clinical development plans.

Future Development and Commercialization Plans

Based on the results of our completed clinical trials for the treatment of ALL, we submitted an MAA to the EMA in September 2015 for GRASPA. We announced the withdrawal of our MAA for GRASPA in November 2016. Depending on the outcome of our discussions with regulatory authorities, we intend to resubmit our MAA for GRASPA to the EMA later in October 2017. If approved, we believe that GRASPA can become the form of asparaginase of choice for the treatment of fragile ALL patients, including elderly and other high-risk patients, as well as pediatric and adult ALL patients that have either relapsed or failed first-line treatment or who have an allergic hypersensitivity to free-form L-asparaginases.

In 2012, we entered into an exclusive license and distribution agreement with Orphan Europe for the exclusive commercialization and distribution rights to GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in 38 European countries. In 2011, we entered into an exclusive distribution agreement under which Teva acquired the exclusive rights to GRASPA in Israel. We retain the rights to commercialize eryaspase for the treatment of ALL and AML outside Europe and Israel, including in the United States, and for the treatment of all other indications outside of Israel.

We determined a recommended dose of eryaspase in our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial in first-line adult ALL patients in September 2017. Pending regulatory approval, we expect to commence a pivotal clinical trial in the same population that could become the basis for seeking approval of eryaspase in the United States and broadening our proposed MAA for the approval of GRASPA in Europe to include first-line treatment of patients with ALL.

Eryaspase for the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

We believe that the safety profile of eryaspase may also allow it to be developed as a potential treatment for AML, which is believed to be sensitive to asparaginase but is typically not treated with L-asparaginase due to intolerance among the predominantly elderly AML population. We are conducting the ENFORCE 1 trial, a multinational, randomized Phase 2b clinical trial in Europe in AML patients over the age of 65 who are unfit for treatment with intensive chemotherapy. In August 2016, we completed enrollment of a total of 123 patients in the ENFORCE 1 trial. We expect to report primary results from the ENFORCE 1 trial by the end of 2017.

 

94


Table of Contents

Background and Market for AML

AML is an aggressive cancer of the blood and bone marrow that is particularly fatal if left untreated. AML patients have an outgrowth of cells from the myeloid lineage that accumulate in the bone marrow. The myeloid cells are predominantly immature platelet cells called myeloblasts, or blasts, which are the leukemia cells. Bone marrow cell dysfunction is caused by genetic mutations that impact the normal differentiation of stem cells. Previous treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and radiation exposure are common factors associated with AML, since exposure to mutagenic agents may induce genetic alterations in bone marrow stem cells.

The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 21,000 new cases of AML will be diagnosed in the United States in 2017, resulting in over 10,000 deaths. Based on incidence data published in scientific literature, we estimate that there are at least as many new cases of AML diagnosed each year in Europe as there are in the United States. AML is generally a disease of older people and is uncommon before the age of 45, with approximately 95% of new AML cases in the United States occurring in patients over the age of 19. The median age of a patient with AML is approximately 67 years.

Treatment programs for AML patients are highly individualized and depend on several variables, including age, AML subtype and whether the disease is newly formed, recurrent or resistant. The first-line treatment for AML, which has not changed for three decades, is a chemotherapy regimen intended to reduce leukemic blasts and return the bone marrow to functionality. Due to the damaging effects of induction therapy, mortality from high-intensity chemotherapy ranges from 5% to 15% in younger AML patients to as high as 20% to 50% in elderly patients. Because of the harsh nature of the treatment, a substantial number of patients over 65 years of age opt for palliative care only, underscoring the unmet need for safe and effective therapies in AML. The ultimate goal with current AML treatment protocols is to bridge patients to a hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or HSCT. However, not all patients are eligible for HSCT or matching donors cannot be found. The process of identifying eligible patients and matching donors is so rigorous that the treatment is not feasible for most AML patients.

L-asparaginase as a Potential Treatment for AML

Even though AML blasts are not considered to be as widely responsive to L-asparaginase as ALL blasts, a significant portion of AML blasts are deficient in ASNS, the enzyme necessary to produce asparagine internally, and have been observed in research studies to be sensitive to L-asparaginase as an adjunct therapy to chemotherapy. However, the use of L-asparaginase for the treatment of AML patients has been very limited, primarily due to the product’s potential toxicity in this fragile patient population. We believe that encapsulated L-asparaginase in the form of eryaspase might be a potentially effective combination treatment with low-dose chemotherapy for AML patients who are unfit to receive intensive chemotherapy, and we have commenced a clinical development program for this indication.

Ongoing Phase 2b Clinical Trial in Europe in Elderly AML Patients

In 2013, we initiated the ENFORCE 1 trial, a Phase 2b, open-label, randomized, multi-center clinical trial in newly diagnosed patients with AML over 65 years of age and who are unable to receive intensive chemotherapy. The primary objective of the ENFORCE 1 trial is to evaluate the efficacy of GRASPA when added to a low dose of the standard chemotherapy cytarabine. To accomplish this, we expect to compare overall survival rates between patients receiving GRASPA in combination with low-dose cytarabine against those of patients receiving only low-dose cytarabine. In August 2016, we completed enrollment of a total of 123 patients in the ENFORCE 1 trial, at over 20 sites in Europe, two-thirds of whom will be treated with GRASPA. Patients in the treatment arm will receive one injection of GRASPA per cycle of chemotherapy treatment. The primary overall survival endpoint will be measured after one year of follow-up. All patients in the ENFORCE 1 trial will undergo follow-up for up to 24 months.

Three safety reviews by an independent DSMB have been performed. The first review was performed in November 2013 after the first 30 patients were treated; the second review in August 2014 after 60 patients were treated; and the third review in December 2015 after 105 patients were treated. No safety concerns have been identified. We expect to report primary results from the ENFORCE 1 trial by the end of 2017.

Depending on the results of the ENFORCE 1 trial, we will determine the next steps for the development of this clinical program. The EMA and the FDA have each granted orphan drug designation to eryaspase for the treatment of AML, offering us the potential for marketing exclusivity upon obtaining marketing approval.

 

95


Table of Contents

Other ERYCAPS Development Programs

In addition to our product pipeline centered on L-asparaginase treatment, we are using our proprietary patent-protected ERYCAPS platform to identify additional enzymes that could induce tumor starvation. We have received funding from BPI France for a research program, known as the TEDAC program, intended to identify additional tumor starvation agents and to identify companion diagnostic tests. In preclinical studies performed under the TEDAC program, we have identified two other amino acids, methionine and arginine, and their respective enzymes, methionine-g-lyase, or MGL, and arginine deiminase, or ADI, that we believe may be promising treatments when encapsulated inside red blood cells.

In 2017, we presented preclinical data with our product candidate erymethionase, which consists of MGL in red blood cells, at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium and the American Association for Cancer Research conferences. We are performing preclinical toxicology studies and are planning to start a Phase 1 clinical trial by the end of the third quarter of 2018 with erymethionase. We are also conducting preclinical studies with eryminase, which consists of ADI encapsulated inside red blood cells, and plan to initiate clinical trials for this product candidate.

In addition, we currently have two other preclinical development programs ongoing. ERYZYME is a preclinical development program which is designed to use our proprietary ERYCAPS platform for enzyme-based therapies beyond oncology. We encapsulate therapeutic enzymes inside donor-derived red blood cells using our proprietary ERYCAPS platform in order to create ERYZYME product candidates. We believe that the encapsulation of the therapeutic enzymes in the red blood cells may be able to reduce the potential for allergic reactions and to allow the therapeutic substance to remain in the body longer as compared to non-encapsulated enzymes. We have performed preclinical research with enzymes like phenylalanine hydroxylase in phenylketonuria in collaboration with Genzyme, and we are investigating other potential ERYZYME applications as collaboration opportunities. In 2017, we entered into a research collaboration with Fox Chase Cancer Center to advance the preclinical development of erymethionase for the treatment of homocystinuria.

ERYMMUNE is a preclinical development program exploring the use of our proprietary ERYCAPS platform to encapsulate tumor antigens within red blood cells as an innovative approach to cancer immunotherapy. Based on our preclinical research, we believe that encapsulated tumor antigens can be targeted to key organs, such as the liver or spleen, in order to induce an immune response, resulting in sustained activation of the body’s immune system to fight cancers. In preclinical studies with three different antigens loaded in red blood cells, we have observed promising proof-of-concept data in three different tumor models. In these studies, we observed significantly increased antigen-specific CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses and delays in tumor growth when the encapsulated antigens, modified to target the liver or spleen, were injected in mice with tumors, as compared to the injection of the unloaded antigens alone. We plan to continue incubating this platform in order to confirm our earlier preclinical data and to determine our development strategy for these earlier-stage programs. We expect to complete preclinical proof-of-concept studies of ERYMMUNE by the end of 2017. Among other possibilities, we may consider the creation of a spin-off company for this technology if we believe it can optimize shareholder value.

Manufacturing and Supply

We currently operate two manufacturing facilities to manufacture our product candidates. Our primary production facility is based in Lyon, France. This production facility complies with European cGMP. We estimate that our current manufacturing capacity in Lyon is approximately four thousand bags annually, which we believe will be adequate for approximately the first two years after commercial launch of GRASPA in Europe for the treatment of ALL. For our current and future clinical trials to be conducted in the United States, we use a qualified production unit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in conjunction with the American Red Cross. Our operations at our U.S. production facility are similar to those at our French production facility and are in compliance with FDA regulations. We oversee production and controls for this unit jointly with the American Red Cross. In Europe, we purchase packed red blood cells from Ėtablissement Français du Sang, the French Blood Establishment. In the United States, we buy the packed red blood cells from the American Red Cross.

In the case of eryaspase, we have the manufacturing and logistics in place to deliver our product candidate to hospitals or other treatment centers typically within 24 hours of commencing production. Once a prescription is written, we receive an order for eryaspase from the hospital. We then purchase a pack of red blood cells compatible

 

96


Table of Contents

with the patient’s blood type from a blood bank. We identify the key parameters of the red blood cell sample, including number of cells, blood type, osmotic fragility and other hematological parameters, in order to achieve the desired concentration of L-asparaginase. We encapsulate the L-asparaginase into the red blood cells using an automated process that takes three to eight hours, depending on the number of washing steps required. Before release, the product must meet a number of quality control specifications, including the number of red blood cells in the packed product, the level of L-asparaginase activity, the amount of extracellular L-asparaginase in the blood and the integrity of the container holding the red blood cells. We then deliver the product to the hospital using a third-party commercial overnight delivery service. We ship the product at a refrigerated temperature of between two and eight degrees Celsius, or approximately 36 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature, the product has been shown to remain stable for three days. Once removed and ready for administration, the product remains stable for six hours at room temperature. Based on stability studies we have performed, we believe we may be able to extend the shelf life of eryaspase to at least five days.

For the supply of the L-asparaginase, we entered into a worldwide supply agreement with medac GmbH, or Medac, in December 2008, as subsequently amended on August 19, 2009 and July 25, 2016, which we refer to as the 2008 Medac Agreement. The 2008 Medac Agreement has a term of 20 years and provides for the supply of free-form L-asparaginase at tiered pricing, including a maximum annual number of units at a reduced price for use in our clinical trials. Pursuant to the July 2016 amendment, as of January 1, 2018, Medac may suspend its performance under the 2008 Medac Agreement in the event its supplier of L-asparaginase discontinues supply to Medac and may terminate the 2008 Medac Agreement upon a complete denial of our MAA for GRASPA, upon withdrawal of our MAA for GRASPA or if we substitute L-asparaginase for a recombinant formulation of L-asparaginase.

In May 2011, we entered into a second worldwide supply agreement, as subsequently amended on April 4, 2014 and July 25, 2016, which we refer to as the 2011 Medac Agreement, under which Medac has agreed to supply us with a new, recombinant free-form L-asparaginase that Medac is developing. The 2011 Medac Agreement includes an exclusivity period, starting from the date of commercial authorization of eryaspase/GRASPA for a duration of five years. The term of the 2011 Medac Agreement is until December 2028, provided, that Medac is entitled, upon expiration of the five-year exclusivity period, to terminate the agreement, upon five-years’ notice, in the event its supplier of the recombinant formulation of L-asparaginase discontinues supplying to Medac. The July 2016 amendment nullified the clauses providing that we could have been forced to refrain from any form of promotion of eryaspase/GRASPA if such product was produced from a new formulation of asparaginase registered and marketed prior to eryaspase/GRASPA as a first-line treatment. We have begun using this new recombinant formulation of L-asparaginase in eryaspase for new indications, including our ongoing clinical trials for pancreatic cancer.

Additionally, pursuant to the July 2016 amendment of the 2011 Medac Agreement, we granted Medac a second negotiation right for the marketing of GRASPA in the indications of ALL and AML and in certain territories such as Turkey and Russia, assuming Orphan Europe fails to exercise its right of negotiation or we and Orphan Europe do not enter into a subsequent agreement.

In January 2017, we entered into a collaboration agreement with Invetech, developer of cGMP manufacturing solutions for cell and advanced therapies, under which Invetech is assisting us in the development of certain systems to improve the efficiency of the future commercial-scale manufacture of product candidates based on our proprietary ERYCAPS platform and to accommodate production volume needs for commercialization of our product candidates following the receipt of the necessary regulatory approvals.

Commercialization

We have not yet established a sales, marketing or product distribution infrastructure. With the exception of eryaspase under the brand name GRASPA in Europe and Israel, to which we have granted certain marketing and distribution rights to Orphan Europe and Teva, respectively, as described below, we generally expect to retain commercial rights to our product candidates.

Subject to receiving marketing approvals, we expect to commence commercialization activities by building a focused sales and marketing organization in the United States and abroad to sell our products. We believe that such an organization will be able to target the community of physicians who are the key specialists in treating the patient

 

97


Table of Contents

populations for which our product candidates are being developed. We may enter into additional marketing and distribution agreements with third parties in select geographic territories for any of our product candidates that obtain marketing approval.

We also plan to build a marketing and sales management organization to create and implement marketing strategies for any products that we market through our own sales organization and to oversee and support our sales force. The responsibilities of the marketing organization would include developing educational initiatives with respect to approved products and establishing relationships with thought leaders in relevant fields of medicine.

Agreement with Orphan Europe

In November 2012, we entered into an exclusive license and distribution agreement with Orphan Europe to market and distribute GRASPA for the treatment of ALL and AML in 38 countries in Europe, including all of the countries in the European Union. Under this agreement, we are responsible for obtaining regulatory approval for GRASPA for the treatment of ALL in the European Union, and Orphan Europe is responsible for regulatory activities for the 10 countries not part of the European Union. In addition, Orphan Europe will seek marketing approval for GRASPA in the treatment of AML in all 38 countries. If GRASPA is approved, Orphan Europe will be responsible for obtaining pricing and reimbursement approvals, subject to our reasonable input. Orphan Europe has agreed to, at its expense, use commercially reasonable efforts to market and promote GRASPA after it has been approved. We have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to manufacture and supply GRASPA in the quantities requested by Orphan Europe, based on forecasts that Orphan Europe will provide to us. We are responsible for delivering GRASPA to the customers directly.

We received a payment of 5 million upon signing the agreement. In addition, in 2012, we issued 5 million in convertible bonds to Recordati S.p.A. which, along with accrued interest, converted into 945,018 of our ordinary shares at the time of our 2013 initial public offering on Euronext Paris. Our agreement with Orphan Europe provides for sharing in the development costs for GRASPA in AML, and we may be entitled to receive future payments of up to 37.5 million, subject to our achievement of specified clinical, regulatory and commercial milestones. Once on the market, we will receive a combined supply price and royalties up to 45% of net product sales.

We have granted Orphan Europe rights of first negotiation for the commercialization of GRASPA in additional indications beyond ALL and AML in Europe, and for the commercialization of GRASPA in all indications in additional territories consisting of Turkey, Russia, specified countries in the Middle East and all countries in Africa. Orphan Europe has agreed not to be involved in the development or marketing of any competing products containing L-asparaginase for the treatment of ALL and AML.

The term of the agreement varies on a country-to-country basis. For countries that are part of the European Union, the term is 10 years from the date of marketing approval for GRASPA for the treatment of ALL, and will automatically be extended to 10 years from the date of marketing approval for the treatment of AML if that occurs by the end of 2019. For countries that are not part of the European Union, the term is 10 years from the date of marketing approval for GRASPA in the treatment of either ALL or AML, but not longer than three years after the expiration of the term for the countries in the European Union. At the end of the term, Orphan Europe is entitled to request additional 10-year renewals as long as it is in material compliance with the agreement. If we refuse to renew the agreement in specified circumstances, we may be subject to financial penalties as set forth in the agreement. In addition, the agreement provides that Orphan Europe may automatically terminate the agreement, recoup certain expenses and reduce milestone payments in the event that the intellectual property we license to them under the agreement is deemed invalid.

Agreement with Teva

In March 2011, we entered into an exclusive distribution agreement with Abic Marketing Limited, an affiliate of Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., an Israeli pharmaceutical company, which we refer to in this prospectus as Teva. We granted Teva an exclusive license to seek regulatory approval for and commercialize GRASPA in Israel. We are responsible for the manufacturing and for transporting any products directly to the customer. Teva is responsible for all regulatory and commercial efforts and has agreed to reimburse us for part of our transportation expenses. We do not expect Teva to pursue regulatory approval in Israel until we have obtained marketing approval for GRASPA in the European Union. If we receive European marketing approval for GRASPA in indications other than ALL, Teva may choose to extend its commercial rights within Israel to those additional indications.

 

98


Table of Contents

Under the agreement, we received an upfront payment of 40,000 upon signing the agreement and are eligible to earn up to 45,000 in potential milestone payments upon achievement of specified regulatory milestones as well as a share of Teva’s operating profit if Teva extends its distribution rights to other indications. We will receive a transfer price equal to half of total sales of GRASPA in Israel, calculated as set forth in the agreement. The agreement has a term of 10 years and will automatically renew for successive five-year terms unless either party gives at least six months’ notice of non-renewal.

Intellectual Property

Our patent portfolio includes pending patent applications and issued patents in the United States and foreign countries. These patents and applications include 13 patent families we own in our own name, summarized below:

 

 

 

TECHNOLOGY

   NUMBER OF
PATENT
FAMILIES
  

EXPIRATION YEARS FOR
EACH PATENT FAMILY *

  

COUNTRIES IN WHICH PATENTS ARE ISSUED

Our production process    2   

2024 - 2030

2033 - 2034

   Japan, Europe, Australia, China, United States, Korea, India, Canada
Eryaspase    3   

2027 - 2029

2032 - 2033

2028 - 2029

  

Europe, United States, Australia, Singapore, Israel, Japan,

Korea, China, India

Other tumor starvation enzymes    3   

2026

2034 - 2035

2035 - 2036

   Europe, Japan, China, Canada, Korea, Australia, United States
Immune modulation platform    2   

2030

2027 - 2028

   Australia, Singapore, France, China, Israel, Korea, Europe, United States, Japan
Other technologies/candidates    3   

2028

2028 - 2029

2033 - 2034

   Europe, Israel, China, Australia, Singapore, Korea, Canada

 

 

*   This expiration year does not take into account supplementary patent protection that could be obtained for some of our patents in the United States, Europe and other countries. Expiration dates for U.S. patents not yet granted may be subject to patent term adjustment.

Of our 13 patent families, ten currently include at least one issued patent.

The term of a U.S. patent may be eligible for patent term restoration under the Hatch-Waxman Act to account for at least some of the time the drug or method of manufacture is under development and regulatory review after the patent is granted. With regard to a drug or method of manufacture for which FDA approval is the first permitted marketing of the active ingredient, the Hatch-Waxman Act allows for extension of the term of one U.S. patent. The extended patent term cannot exceed the shorter of five years beyond the non-extended expiration of the patent or 14 years from the date of the FDA approval of the drug or method of manufacture. Some foreign jurisdictions have analogous patent term extension provisions that allow for extension of the term of a patent that covers a device approved by the applicable foreign regulatory agency. In the future, if and when our product candidates receive FDA approval, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on the patents that we believe will provide the best exclusivity position if extended.

In addition to patent protection, we have trademark protection in many countries for our name, logo and several product candidates. None of our trademarks are subject to a third-party license, except under our distribution agreements with Teva and Orphan Europe with respect to the trademark GRASPA.

Patent License from U.S. Public Health Service

In August 2012, we entered into a license agreement with the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States, or PHS, under which PHS has granted us an exclusive license to a patent family including two U.S. patents directed to ASNS and asparaginase therapies in the United States. We intend to

 

99


Table of Contents

use the patent rights licensed from PHS to develop a companion diagnostic test for eryaspase and other product candidates we may develop based on our ERYCAPS platform.

Competition

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are highly competitive and subject to significant and rapid technological change as researchers learn more about diseases and develop new technologies and treatments. Significant competitive factors in our industry include product efficacy and safety; quality and breadth of an organization’s technology; skill of an organization’s employees and its ability to recruit and retain key employees; timing and scope of regulatory approvals; government reimbursement rates for, and the average selling price of, products; the availability of raw materials and qualified manufacturing capacity; manufacturing costs; intellectual property and patent rights and their protection; and sales and marketing capabilities. We cannot ensure you that any of our products that we successfully develop will be clinically superior or scientifically preferable to products developed or introduced by our competitors.

Our competitors may also succeed in obtaining EMA, FDA or other regulatory approvals for their product candidates more rapidly than we are able to do, which could place us at a significant competitive disadvantage or deny us marketing exclusivity rights. Market acceptance of our product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

    potential advantages over existing or alternative therapies or tests;

 

    the actual or perceived safety of similar classes of products;

 

    the effectiveness of our sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities; and

 

    the scope of any approval provided by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities.

Although we believe our product candidates possess attractive attributes, we cannot ensure that our product candidates will achieve regulatory or market acceptance, or that we will be able to compete effectively in the biopharmaceutical drug markets. If our product candidates fail to gain regulatory approvals and acceptance in their intended markets, we may not generate meaningful revenues or achieve profitability.

L-asparaginase is currently available in four forms, each described below.

Native L-asparaginase

Native L-asparaginase has been part of the standard treatment for pediatric ALL patients since the 1970s. Native L-asparaginase remains the first-line, first-intention treatment for newly diagnosed pediatric ALL patients in many European countries. However, because of its general toxicity, this native form is rarely used in fragile patients. In the United States, the native form, with the brand name Elspar, was removed from the market in 2013 due to production problems and competition from other forms of L-asparaginase.

Recombinant L-asparaginase

In 2016, recombinant L-asparaginase was approved in Europe. The product was developed by our partner Medac as a bioequivalent product to native L-asparaginase, and is being launched by Medac under the brand name Spectrila. Recombinant L-asparaginase has a half-life of about one day and is also typically administered twice per week, similar to native L-asparaginase.

PEG-asparaginase

PEG-asparaginase is E. coli L-asparaginase that has been pegylated in order to reduce its toxicity and increase its half-life. Pegylation refers to the attachment of a polyethylene glycol group to the enzyme, which creates a protective shell around the enzyme to partially protect it from immune cell destruction. This pegylation extends the half-life of the L-asparaginase from one day to approximately five to seven days. PEG-asparaginase, currently marketed under the brand name Oncaspar, was approved by the FDA in 1994 and was granted EU marketing authorization in 2016 for the treatment of ALL patients with a hypersensitivity to native L-asparaginase. Oncaspar is typically administered twice per month, with one injection replacing four injections of native L-asparaginase. The label was expanded in 2006 to include first-line treatment of ALL in combination with chemotherapy. In some countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, PEG-asparaginase has almost completely replaced native L-asparaginase as the first-line, first-intention treatment for pediatric ALL patients, although its use for adults in conjunction with

 

100


Table of Contents

chemotherapy regimens is less universal due to toxicity concerns. We estimate that worldwide sales of Oncaspar were approximately $204 million in 2016.

Erwinaze

L-asparaginase can also be produced from the bacteria E. chrysanthemi. This form of L-asparaginase, marketed under the brand names Erwinase and Erwinaze, is typically considered as an alternative treatment in cases of hypersensitivity reactions to either the native or pegylated forms of E. coli L-asparaginase. The product was approved in the United Kingdom in 1985 and was approved in the United States in 2011. Worldwide sales of Erwinaze were approximately $200 million in 2016.

The current market for free-form L-asparaginase primarily includes the following products:

 

    native and recombinant L-asparaginase, marketed under the brand names Kidrolase, Leunase and Spectrila, all of which are produced by the Japanese pharmaceutical company Kyowa Hakko Kirin and distributed in Europe by Jazz Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Medac, as applicable;

 

    PEG-asparaginase, marketed under the brand name Oncaspar by Baxalta International, now part of Shire plc; and

 

    L-asparaginase expressed in E. chrysanthemi bacteria, marketed under the brand names Erwinase and Erwinaze by Jazz Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Each of these products corresponds to a different formulation or different production process and, as a result, has a separate profile, particularly in terms of activity duration, frequency of injections and side effects. We currently do not intend to compete directly with native L-asparaginase or Oncaspar where such treatments are prescribed as first-line treatments for newly diagnosed or relapsed or refractory patients. Our initial target market is for patients who have either relapsed or failed first-line treatment with current forms of asparaginases or who have developed an allergic hypersensitivity to those forms of L-asparaginase.

Medac has developed a recombinant L-asparaginase that has been granted marketing approval in Europe. Medac’s recombinant product was observed in late-stage clinical trials to have efficacy, a life span and a side effect profile similar to that of native L-asparaginase. Medac is also developing a PEG-asparaginase product candidate that is currently in early clinical trials. In addition, Jazz Pharmaceuticals Inc. is developing a pegylated form of Erwinaze, although its clinical development is currently on hold.

In addition to currently available forms of L-asparaginase or new forms in development, our product candidates also compete with other products that could be used in the treatment of ALL or AML. These potential treatments include monoclonal antibodies, bispecific monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor, or CAR, T-cells approaches. Several large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including Amgen Inc., Pfizer, Inc. and Novartis AG, are developing these types of therapies for the treatment of AML and ALL. In December 2014, the FDA granted accelerated approval of Amgen Inc.’s product candidate BLINCYTO (blinatumomab), for the treatment of Philadelphia-negative patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification of clinical benefit in subsequent trials. Amgen Inc. has also recently been granted a conditional MAA from the EMA for BLINCYTO. Other products in later-stage clinical trials include immunotherapy drugs targeting multiple immune mechanisms, such as inotuzumab, an antibody-drug conjugate from Pfizer Inc., and CAR T-cells products from Cellectis S.A., Kite Pharma, Inc. and Novartis AG. These product candidates consist of patients’ own immune cells, engineered to recognize and attack their tumors. These new treatments have yielded positive results when used as salvage therapy, but their use has been restricted to small clinical trials to date.

Many of the companies against which we are competing, or against which we may compete in the future, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved drugs than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and

 

101


Table of Contents

establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

Government Regulation

Government authorities in the United States at the federal, state and local level and in other countries extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, marketing and export and import of drug and biological products, or biologics, such as our product candidates. Generally, before a new drug or biologic can be marketed, considerable data demonstrating its quality, safety and efficacy must be obtained, organized into a format specific to each regulatory authority, submitted for review and approved by the regulatory authority.

U.S. Biological Product Development

In the United States, the FDA regulates biologics under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and the Public Health Service Act, or PHSA, and their implementing regulations. Biologics are also subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or after approval, may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, among other actions, the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, product recalls or withdrawals from the market, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement, reputational harm, and/or civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our product candidates must be approved by the FDA through the Biologics License Application, or BLA, process before they may be legally marketed in the United States. The process required by the FDA before a biologic may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

 

    completion of extensive nonclinical, sometimes referred to as preclinical laboratory tests, preclinical animal studies and formulation studies in accordance with applicable regulations, including the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP, regulations;

 

    submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;

 

    performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND and other clinical trial-related regulations, sometimes referred to as good clinical practices, or GCPs, to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed product candidate for its proposed indication;

 

    submission to the FDA of a BLA;

 

    satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities where the product is produced to assess compliance with the FDA’s cGMP requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality, purity and potency;

 

    potential FDA audit of the preclinical and clinical trial sites that generated the data in support of the BLA; and

 

    FDA review and approval of the BLA prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the product in the United States.

The data required to support a BLA is generated in two distinct development stages: preclinical and clinical. The preclinical development stage generally involves laboratory evaluations of drug chemistry, formulation and stability, as well as studies to evaluate toxicity in animals, which support subsequent clinical testing. The conduct of the preclinical studies must comply with federal regulations, including GLPs. The sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to the FDA as part of the IND. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational drug product to humans. The central focus of an IND submission is on the general

 

102


Table of Contents

investigational plan and the protocol(s) for human trials. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions regarding the proposed clinical trials and places the IND on clinical hold within that 30-day time period. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. The FDA may also impose clinical holds on a product candidate at any time before or during clinical trials due to safety concerns or non-compliance. Accordingly, we cannot be sure that submission of an IND will result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to begin, or that, once begun, issues will not arise that could cause the trial to be suspended or terminated.

The clinical stage of development involves the administration of the product candidate to healthy volunteers or patients under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the trial sponsor’s control, in accordance with GCPs, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria, and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety and assess efficacy. Each protocol, and any subsequent amendments to the protocol, must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. Further, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by an independent institutional review board, or IRB, at or servicing each institution at which the clinical trial will be conducted. An IRB is charged with protecting the welfare and rights of trial participants and considers such items as whether the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the informed consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completed.

There are also requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical trials and completed clinical trial results to public registries. Sponsors of clinical trials of FDA-regulated products, including biologics, are required to register and disclose certain clinical trial information, which is publicly available at www.clinicaltrials.gov. Information related to the product, patient population, phase of investigation, study sites and investigators, and other aspects of the clinical trial is then made public as part of the registration. Sponsors are also obligated to discuss the results of their clinical trials after completion. Disclosure of the results of these trials can be delayed until the new product or new indication being studied has been approved.

Clinical trials are generally conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap, known as Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials. Phase 1 clinical trials generally involve a small number of healthy volunteers who are initially exposed to a single dose and then multiple doses of the product candidate. The primary purpose of these clinical trials is to assess the metabolism, pharmacologic action, side effect tolerability and safety of the product candidate and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. Phase 2 clinical trials typically involve studies in disease-affected patients to determine the dose required to produce the desired benefits. At the same time, safety and further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information is collected, as well as identification of possible adverse effects and safety risks and preliminary evaluation of efficacy. Phase 3 clinical trials generally involve large numbers of patients at multiple sites, in multiple countries, from several hundred to several thousand subjects, and are designed to provide the data necessary to demonstrate the efficacy of the product for its intended use and its safety in use, and to establish the overall benefit/risk relationship of the product and provide an adequate basis for product approval. Phase 3 clinical trials may include comparisons with placebo and/or other comparator treatments. The duration of treatment is often extended to mimic the actual use of a product during marketing. Generally, two adequate and well-controlled Phase 3 clinical trials are required by the FDA for approval of a BLA.

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In some instances, FDA may condition approval of a BLA on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct additional clinical trials to further assess the biologic’s safety and effectiveness after BLA approval.

Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted at least annually to the FDA and written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and the investigators for serious and unexpected suspected adverse events or any finding from tests in laboratory animals that suggests a significant risk for human subjects. Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA, the IRB, or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB

 

103


Table of Contents

can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether or not a trial may move forward at designated intervals based on access to certain data from the trial. We may also suspend or terminate a clinical trial based on evolving business objectives and/or competitive climate. Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the product candidate as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

BLA and FDA Review Process

Following trial completion, trial data is analyzed to assess safety and efficacy. The results of preclinical studies and clinical trials are then submitted to the FDA as part of a BLA, along with proposed labeling for the product and information about the manufacturing process and facilities that will be used to ensure product quality, results of analytical testing conducted on the chemistry of the product candidate, and other relevant information. The BLA is a request for approval to market the biologic for one or more specified indications and must contain proof of safety, purity, potency and efficacy, which is demonstrated by extensive preclinical and clinical testing. The application includes both negative or ambiguous results of preclinical and clinical trials, as well as positive findings. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and efficacy of a use of a product, or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety and efficacy of the investigational product to the satisfaction of the FDA. FDA approval of a BLA must be obtained before a biologic may be offered for sale in the United States.

Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, as amended, each BLA must be accompanied by a significant user fee, which is adjusted on an annual basis. PDUFA also imposes an annual product fee for human drugs and an annual establishment fee on facilities used to manufacture prescription drugs. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances, including a waiver of the application fee for the first application filed by a small business.

Once a BLA has been accepted for filing, which occurs, if at all, 60 days after the BLA’s submission, the FDA’s goal is to review BLAs within 10 months of the filing date for standard review or six months of the filing date for priority review, if the application is for a product intended for a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and the product, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness. The review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification.

After the BLA submission is accepted for filing, the FDA reviews the BLA to determine, among other things, whether the proposed product candidate is safe and effective for its intended use, and whether the product candidate is being manufactured in accordance with cGMP to assure and preserve the product candidate’s identity, strength, quality, purity and potency. The FDA may refer applications for novel drug product candidates or drug product candidates which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions. The FDA will likely re-analyze the clinical trial data, which could result in extensive discussions between the FDA and us during the review process. The review and evaluation of a BLA by the FDA is extensive and time consuming and may take longer than originally planned to complete, and we may not receive a timely approval, if at all.

Before approving a BLA, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether they comply with cGMPs. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure

 

104


Table of Contents

consistent production of the product within required specifications. In addition, before approving a BLA, the FDA may also audit data from clinical trials to ensure compliance with GCP requirements. After the FDA evaluates the application, manufacturing process and manufacturing facilities, it may issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application is not ready for approval. A Complete Response Letter usually describes all of the specific deficiencies in the BLA identified by the FDA. The Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data and/or an additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s), and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies or manufacturing. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the BLA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even if such data and information is submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the BLA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data obtained from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data.

There is no assurance that the FDA will ultimately approve a product for marketing in the United States, and we may encounter significant difficulties or costs during the review process. If a product receives marketing approval, the approval may be significantly limited to specific populations, severities of allergies, and dosages or the indications for use may otherwise be limited, which could restrict the commercial value of the product. Further, the FDA may require that certain contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling or may condition the approval of the BLA on other changes to the proposed labeling, development of adequate controls and specifications, or a commitment to conduct post-market testing or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the effects of approved products. For example, the FDA may require Phase 4 testing, which involves clinical trials designed to further assess the product’s safety and effectiveness and may require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the safety of approved products that have been commercialized. The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, to assure the safe use of the product. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the BLA must submit a proposed REMS. The FDA will not approve the NDA without an approved REMS, if required. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk