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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
_____________________________________________________
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2023

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-36853
 
_____________________________________________________
ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_____________________________________________________
Washington47-1645716
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
                    
1301 Second Avenue, Floor 31,
Seattle, Washington 98101
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(206) 470-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 _____________________________________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareZGThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Class C Capital Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareZThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of April 26, 2023, 57,181,148 shares of Class A common stock, 6,217,447 shares of Class B common stock and 170,619,796 shares of Class C capital stock were outstanding.



Table of Contents
ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 6.
 
i

Table of Contents
As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the terms “Zillow Group,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Zillow Group, Inc., unless the context indicates otherwise.
NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including Part I, Item 2 (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations), contains forward-looking statements based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts and generally may be identified by terms such as “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “expect” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions.
These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in Part I, Item 1A (Risk Factors) in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, including, but not limited to risks related to:
the current and future health and stability of the economy and United States residential real estate industry, including changes in inflationary conditions, interest rates, housing availability and affordability, labor shortages and supply chain issues;
our ability to manage advertising inventory and pricing and maintain relationships with our real estate partners;
our ability to establish or maintain relationships with listing and data providers, which affects traffic to our mobile applications and websites;
our ability to comply with current and future multiple listing service (“MLS”) rules and requirements;
our ability to continue to innovate and compete successfully to attract customers and real estate partners;
our ability to operate and grow Zillow Home Loans, our mortgage origination business, including the ability to obtain or maintain sufficient financing to fund its origination of mortgages, meet customers’ financing needs with its product offerings, continue to grow the origination business and resell originated mortgages on the secondary market;
the duration and impact of natural disasters and other catastrophic events (including public health crises) on our ability to operate, demand for our products or services, or general economic conditions;
our ability to maintain adequate security measures or technology systems, or those of third parties on which we rely, to protect data integrity and the information and privacy of our customers and other third parties;
the impact of pending or future litigation and other disputes or enforcement actions;
our ability to attract and retain a highly skilled workforce;
acquisitions, investments, strategic partnerships, capital-raising activities, or other corporate transactions or commitments by us or our competitors;
our ability to continue relying on third-party services to support critical functions of our business;
our ability to protect and continue using our intellectual property and prevent others from copying, infringing upon, or developing similar intellectual property;
our ability to comply with domestic and international laws, regulations, rules, contractual obligations, policies and other obligations, or to obtain or maintain required licenses to support our business and operations;
our ability to pay debt, settle conversions of our convertible senior notes, or repurchase our convertible senior notes upon a fundamental change;
our ability to raise additional capital or refinance on acceptable terms, or at all;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in quarterly and annual results of operations and financial position;
the assumptions, estimates and internal or third-party data that we use to calculate business, performance and operating metrics; and
volatility of our Class A common stock and Class C capital stock prices.
Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the effect of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
1

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You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. Moreover, except as required by law, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements, and we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this report to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.
In addition, statements such as “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. While we believe that such information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
Our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, are available on the “Investors” section of our website at www.zillowgroup.com, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after the electronic filing of these reports with the SEC. The information contained on our website is not a part of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or any other document we file with the SEC.
Investors and others should note that Zillow Group announces material financial information to its investors using its press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. Zillow Group intends to also use the following channels as a means of disclosing information about Zillow Group, its services and other matters, and for complying with its disclosure obligations under Regulation FD:
Zillow Group Investor Relations Webpage (https://investors.zillowgroup.com)
Zillow Group Blog (https://www.zillowgroup.com/news/)
Zillow Group Twitter Account (https://twitter.com/zillowgroup)
The information Zillow Group posts through these channels may be deemed material. Accordingly, investors should monitor these channels, in addition to following Zillow Group’s press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. This list may be updated from time to time and reflects current updated channels as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The information we post through these channels is not a part of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or any other document we file with the SEC, and the inclusion of our website addresses and Twitter account are as inactive textual references only.
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PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements (unaudited)
ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except share data, unaudited)
March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$1,394 $1,466 
Short-term investments
1,975 1,896 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts
75 72 
Mortgage loans held for sale48 41 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets152 126 
Restricted cash2 2 
Total current assets3,646 3,603 
Contract cost assets23 23 
Property and equipment, net290 271 
Right of use assets114 126 
Goodwill2,374 2,374 
Intangible assets, net154 154 
Other assets13 12 
Total assets$6,614 $6,563 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$21 $20 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities101 90 
Accrued compensation and benefits45 48 
Borrowings under credit facilities42 37 
Deferred revenue49 44 
Lease liabilities, current portion29 31 
Total current liabilities287 270 
Lease liabilities, net of current portion133 139 
Convertible senior notes1,661 1,660 
Other long-term liabilities13 12 
Total liabilities2,094 2,081 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)
Shareholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized — 30,000,000 shares; no shares issued and outstanding
  
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized — 1,245,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding — 57,181,148 and 57,494,698 shares as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
  
Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized — 15,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding — 6,217,447 shares
  
Class C capital stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized — 600,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding — 170,595,563 and 170,555,565 shares as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
  
Additional paid-in capital6,157 6,109 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(3)(15)
Accumulated deficit(1,634)(1,612)
Total shareholders’ equity4,520 4,482 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$6,614 $6,563 
See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
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ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in millions, except share data, which are presented in thousands, and per share data, unaudited)

 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20232022
Revenue$469 $536 
Cost of revenue92 92 
Gross profit377 444 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing156 174 
Technology and development137 108 
General and administrative123 112 
Impairment and restructuring costs6 14 
Total operating expenses422 408 
Income (loss) from continuing operations
(45)36 
Other income32 2 
Interest expense(9)(8)
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes(22)30 
Income tax expense (5)
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
(22)25 
Net loss from discontinued operations, net of income taxes (9)
Net income (loss)$(22)$16 
Net income (loss) from continuing operations per share:
Basic$(0.09)$0.10 
Diluted$(0.09)$0.10 
Net income (loss) per share:
Basic$(0.09)$0.06 
Diluted$(0.09)$0.06 
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic234,425 248,542 
Diluted234,425 265,945 
See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

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ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in millions, unaudited)

 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20232022
Net income (loss)$(22)$16 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Unrealized gains (losses) on investments12 (8)
Total other comprehensive income (loss)12 (8)
Comprehensive income (loss)
$(10)$8 
See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
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ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in millions, except share data, which are presented in thousands, unaudited)

Class A Common
Stock, Class B
Common Stock and
Class C Capital Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance at January 1, 2023234,268 $ $6,109 $(1,612)$(15)$4,482 
Issuance of common and capital stock upon exercise of stock options373 — 13 — — 13 
Vesting of restricted stock units1,365 — — — — — 
Share-based compensation expense— — 121 — — 121 
Repurchases of Class A common stock and Class C capital stock(2,012)— (86)— — (86)
Net loss— — — (22)— (22)
Other comprehensive income— — — — 12 12 
Balance at March 31, 2023
233,994 $ $6,157 $(1,634)$(3)$4,520 


Class A Common
Stock, Class B
Common Stock and
Class C Capital Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance at January 1, 2022250,630 $ $7,001 $(1,667)$7 $5,341 
Cumulative-effect adjustment from adoption of guidance on accounting for convertible instruments and contracts in an entity’s own equity— — (492)156 — (336)
Issuance of common and capital stock upon exercise of stock options807 — 36 — — 36 
Vesting of restricted stock units689 — — — — — 
Share-based compensation expense— — 101 — — 101 
Repurchases of Class A common stock and Class C capital stock(5,858)— (348)— — (348)
Net income— — — 16 — 16 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (8)(8)
Balance at March 31, 2022246,268 $ $6,298 $(1,495)$(1)$4,802 
See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

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ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in millions, unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20232022
Operating activities
Net income (loss)$(22)$16 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization40 43 
Share-based compensation103 91 
Amortization of right of use assets6 6 
Amortization of contract cost assets6 8 
Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs1 23 
Loss on extinguishment of debt
 14 
Other adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to cash provided by operating activities
(2)2 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(3)56 
Mortgage loans held for sale(7)14 
Inventory 3,414 
Prepaid expenses and other assets(27)(247)
Contract cost assets(6)(4)
Lease liabilities(8)(9)
Accounts payable 6 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities10 (43)
Accrued compensation and benefits(3)(6)
Deferred revenue5 5 
Other long-term liabilities 3 
Net cash provided by operating activities93 3,392 
Investing activities
Proceeds from maturities of investments433  
Purchases of investments(490)(525)
Purchases of property and equipment(31)(33)
Purchases of intangible assets(9)(5)
Net cash used in investing activities(97)(563)
Financing activities
Repayments of borrowings on credit facilities (2,205)
Net borrowings (repayments) on warehouse line of credit and repurchase agreements5 (25)
Repurchases of Class A common stock and Class C capital stock(86)(348)
Settlement of long-term debt (439)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options13 36 
Net cash used in financing activities(68)(2,981)
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash during period(72)(152)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period1,468 2,838 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$1,396 $2,686 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Noncash transactions:
Capitalized share-based compensation$18 $10 
Write-off of fully depreciated property and equipment7 18 
Write-off of fully amortized intangible assets2 168 
Recognition of operating right of use assets and lease liabilities 16 
See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
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ZILLOW GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)
Index to Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
 
  Page
Note 1.
Note 2.
Note 3.
Note 4.
Note 5.
Note 6.
Note 7.
Note 8.
Note 9.
Note 10.
Note 11.
Note 12.
Note 13.
Note 14.
Note 1. Organization and Description of Business
Zillow Group is reimagining real estate to make home a reality for more and more people. As the most visited real estate website in the United States, Zillow and its affiliates help people find and get the home they want by connecting them with digital solutions, great partners, and easier buying, selling financing and renting experiences.
Our portfolio of affiliates, subsidiaries and brands includes Zillow, Zillow Premier Agent, Zillow Home Loans (our affiliate lender), Zillow Closing Services, Zillow Rentals, Trulia, StreetEasy, HotPads and Out East. In addition, Zillow Group provides a comprehensive suite of marketing software and technology solutions for the real estate industry which include Mortech, New Home Feed and ShowingTime+, which includes ShowingTime, Bridge Interactive and dotloop.

In the fourth quarter of 2021, we began to wind down the operations of Zillow Offers, our iBuying business which purchased and sold homes directly in markets across the country. The wind down was completed in the third quarter of 2022, and we have presented the financial results of Zillow Offers as discontinued operations in our condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022. No assets or liabilities were classified as discontinued operations as of December 31, 2022. See Note 3 for additional information.
Certain Significant Risks and Uncertainties
We operate in a dynamic industry and, accordingly, can be affected by a variety of factors. For example, we believe that changes in any of the following areas could have a significant negative effect on us in terms of our future financial position, results of operations or cash flows: current and future health and stability of the economy and United States residential real estate industry, including changes in inflationary conditions, interest rates, housing availability and affordability, labor shortages and supply chain issues; our ability to manage advertising inventory and pricing and maintain relationships with our real estate partners; our compliance with multiple listing service rules and requirements to access and use listing data, and to maintain or establish relationships with listings and data providers; our investment of resources to pursue strategies and develop new products and services that may not prove effective or that are not attractive for customers and real estate partners or that do not allow us to compete successfully; our ability to operate and grow Zillow Home Loans, our mortgage origination business, including the ability to obtain or maintain sufficient financing and resell originated mortgages on the secondary market; the duration and impact of natural disasters and other catastrophic events (including public health crises) on our ability to operate, demand for our products or services or general economic conditions; outcomes of legal proceedings; our ability to attract and retain a highly skilled workforce; protection of Zillow’s information and systems against security breaches or disruptions in
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operations; reliance on third-party services to support critical functions of our business; protection of our brand and intellectual property; and changes in laws or government regulation affecting our business, among other things.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include Zillow Group, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and accompanying notes included in Zillow Group, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, which was filed with the SEC on February 15, 2023. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022, included herein, was derived from the audited financial statements of Zillow Group, Inc. as of that date.
The unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present fairly our financial position as of March 31, 2023 and our results of operations, comprehensive loss, shareholders’ equity and cash flows for the three month periods ended March 31, 2023 and 2022. The results for the three months ended March 31, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023, or for any interim period, or for any other future year. Certain reclassifications of prior period amounts have been made to conform to the current period presentation. Unless indicated otherwise, the information in the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements relates to the Company’s continuing operations and does not include the results of discontinued operations.
There were no significant changes to the significant accounting policies disclosed in Note 2 in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, except for the updates noted below. Such updates were made due to our determination that we have a single operating and reportable segment, as well as certain changes to how we disaggregate our revenue into categories, beginning in the first quarter of 2023.
Recoverability of Goodwill
Goodwill is measured as the excess of consideration transferred for an acquired business over the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, and is not amortized. We assess the impairment of goodwill at the reporting unit level on an annual basis, in our fourth quarter, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired. In our evaluation of goodwill, we initially perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances indicates that it is more likely than not that the carrying value of each reporting unit is greater than its fair value. If it is more likely than not that the carrying value of a reporting unit is greater than its fair value, we perform a quantitative assessment and an impairment charge is recorded in our statements of operations if the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value.
Beginning in 2023, our chief operating decision maker, who is our chief executive officer, manages our business, makes operating decisions and evaluates operating performance on the basis of the company as a whole, instead of on a segment basis as he did prior to 2023. This aligns to our ongoing growth strategy and our intent to provide integrated customer solutions for all tasks and services related to facilitating real estate transactions. This resulted in revisions to the nature and substance of information regularly provided to and used by the chief operating decision maker. Accordingly, we have realigned our operating structure, resulting in a single operating and reportable segment. In line with this, the nature and substance of the information regularly provided to our segment manager similarly changed and we determined that we have only one reporting unit. Because the segment change impacted the structure of our reporting units, we performed a qualitative goodwill impairment assessment immediately before and immediately after the change in reporting units. Based on those assessments, we determined it was more likely than not that the fair value of our current and legacy reporting units exceeded their respective carrying values. Therefore, we concluded that it was not necessary to perform a quantitative impairment test.
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Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue when or as we satisfy our performance obligations by transferring control of the promised products or services to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those products or services.
As a practical expedient, we do not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component as the period between our transfer of a promised product or service to a customer and when the customer pays for that product or service is generally one year or less.
We do not disclose the transaction price related to remaining performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected duration of one year or less or (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for performance completed to date. The remaining duration over which we satisfy our performance obligations is generally less than one year.
We disaggregate our revenue into the following categories: Residential, Rentals, Mortgages and Other, described below.
Residential. Residential revenue includes revenue generated by our Premier Agent and new construction marketplaces, as well as revenue from the sale of advertising and business technology solutions for real estate professionals through StreetEasy for-sale product offerings and ShowingTime+. Residential revenue also includes revenue from title and escrow services performed by Zillow Closing Services.
Our Premier Agent program offers a suite of marketing and technology products and services to help real estate agents and brokers achieve their advertising goals while growing and managing their businesses and brands. All Premier Agent partners receive access to a dashboard portal on our mobile application and website that provides individualized program performance analytics, our customer relationship management tool that captures detailed information about each contact made with a Premier Agent partner through our mobile and web platforms and our account management tools. The marketing and business technology products and services promised to Premier Agent partners are delivered over time, as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefit of the performance obligations.
Premier Agent advertising products, which include the delivery of validated customer connections, or leads, are primarily offered on a share of voice basis. Payment is received prior to the delivery of connections. Connections are delivered when consumer contact information is provided to Premier Agent partners. We do not promise any minimum or maximum number of connections to customers, but instead control when and how many connections to deliver based on a customer’s share of voice. We determine the number of connections to deliver to Premier Agent partners in each zip code using a market-based pricing method in consideration of the total amount spent by Premier Agent partners to purchase connections in the zip code during the month. This results in the delivery of connections over time in proportion to each Premier Agent partners’ share of voice. A Premier Agent partners’ share of voice in a zip code is determined by their proportional monthly prepaid spend in that zip code as a percentage of the total monthly prepaid spend of all Premier Agent partners in that zip code, and determines the proportion of consumer connections a Premier Agent partner receives. The number of connections delivered for a given spend level is dynamic - as demand for advertising in a zip code increases or decreases, the number of connections delivered to a Premier Agent partner in that zip code decreases or increases accordingly.
We primarily recognize revenue related to the Premier Agent products and services based on the monthly prepaid spend recognized on a straight-line basis during the monthly billing period over which the products and services are provided. This methodology best depicts how we satisfy our performance obligations to customers, as we continuously transfer control of the performance obligations to the customer over time. Given a Premier Agent partner typically prepays their monthly spend and the monthly spend is refunded on a pro-rata basis upon cancellation of the contract by a customer, we have determined that Premier Agent partner contracts are effectively daily contracts, and each performance obligation is satisfied over time as each day lapses. We have not allocated the transaction price to each performance obligation within our Premier Agent partner arrangements, as the amounts recognized would be the same irrespective of any allocation.
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We also offer a pay for performance pricing model called “Flex” for Premier Agent advertising services in certain markets. Flex is available to select partners alongside our legacy market-based pricing model. With the Flex model, Premier Agent partners are provided with validated leads at no initial cost and pay a performance advertising fee only when a real estate transaction is closed with one of the leads, generally within two years. With this pricing model, the transaction price represents variable consideration, as the amount to which we expect to be entitled varies based on the number of validated leads that convert into real estate transactions and the value of those transactions. We estimate variable consideration and record revenue as performance obligations, or validated leads, are transferred. We do not believe that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will occur once the uncertainty related to the number of transactions closed is subsequently resolved. We record a contract asset for our estimate of the consideration to which we will be entitled when the right to the consideration is conditional. When the right to consideration becomes unconditional, upon the close of a real estate transaction, we reclassify amounts to accounts receivable.
Our new construction marketing solutions allow home builders to showcase their available inventory to home shoppers. New construction revenue primarily includes revenue generated by advertising sold to builders on a cost per residential community basis whereby we recognize revenue on a straight-line basis during the contractual period over which the communities are advertised on our mobile applications and websites. New construction revenue also includes revenue generated on a cost per impression basis whereby we recognize revenue as impressions are delivered to users interacting with our mobile applications and websites, which is the amount for which we have the right to invoice. Consideration for new construction products is billed in arrears.
StreetEasy for-sale revenue primarily consists of our pay for performance pricing model available in the New York City market for which agents and brokers are provided with leads at no initial cost and pay a performance referral fee only when a real estate purchase transaction is closed with one of the leads. Under the StreetEasy pricing model, the transaction price represents variable consideration, as the amount to which we expect to be entitled varies based on the number of leads that convert into real estate transactions and the value of those transactions. We estimate variable consideration based on the expected number of closed transactions during the period. We do not believe that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will occur once the uncertainty related to the number of transactions closed is subsequently resolved. We record a corresponding contract asset for the estimate of variable consideration for StreetEasy Experts when the right to the consideration is conditional. When the right to consideration becomes unconditional upon the close of a real estate transaction, we reclassify amounts to accounts receivable.
Our dotloop real estate transaction management software-as-a-service solution is primarily billed in advance on a monthly basis and revenue is recognized ratably over the contract period which aligns to our satisfaction of performance obligations.
ShowingTime revenue is primarily generated by Appointment Center, a software-as-a-service and call center solution allowing real estate agents, brokerages and multiple listing services to efficiently schedule real estate viewing appointments on behalf of their customers. Appointment Center revenue is primarily billed in advance on a monthly basis and recognized ratably over the contract period which aligns to our satisfaction of performance obligations.
Zillow Closing Services offers title and escrow services to home buyers and sellers, including title search procedures for title insurance policies, escrow and other closing services. Title insurance, which is recorded net of amounts remitted to third-party underwriters, and title and escrow closing fees, are recognized as revenue upon closing of the underlying real estate transaction.
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Rentals. Rentals revenue includes the sale of advertising and a suite of tools to rental professionals, landlords and other market participants under the Zillow and StreetEasy brands. Rentals revenue includes revenue generated by advertising sold to property managers, landlords and other rental professionals on a cost per lead, click, lease, listing or impression basis or for a fixed fee for certain advertising packages. We recognize revenue as leads, clicks and impressions are provided to rental professionals, or as rental listings are published on our mobile applications and websites, which is the amount for which we have the right to invoice. We recognize revenue related to our fixed fee rentals product on a straight-line basis over the contract term as the performance obligations, rental listings on our mobile applications and websites, are satisfied over time based on time elapsed. The number of leases generated through our rentals pay per lease product, Zillow Lease Connect, during the period is accounted for as variable consideration, and we estimate the amount of variable consideration based on the expected number of qualified leases secured during the period. We do not believe that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will occur once the uncertainty related to the number of leases secured is subsequently resolved. We record a corresponding contract asset for the estimate of variable consideration for Zillow Lease Connect when the right to the consideration is conditional. When the right to consideration becomes unconditional upon the execution of a lease, we reclassify amounts to accounts receivable. Rentals revenue also includes revenue generated from our rental applications product, through which potential renters can submit applications to multiple properties for a flat service fee. We recognize revenue for the rental applications product on a straight-line basis during the contractual period over which the customer has the right to access and submit the rental application.
Mortgages. Mortgages revenue primarily includes revenue generated by Zillow Home Loans, our affiliated mortgage lender, and marketing products sold to mortgage professionals on a cost per lead basis, including our Custom Quote and Connect services.
Mortgage origination revenue reflects origination fees on purchase or refinance mortgages and the corresponding sale, or expected future sale, of a loan. When an interest rate lock commitment (“IRLC”) is made to a customer, we record the expected gain on sale of the mortgage, plus the estimated earnings from the expected sale of the associated servicing rights, adjusted for a pull-through percentage (which is defined as the likelihood that an interest rate lock commitment will be originated), as revenue. Revenue from loan origination fees is recognized at the time the related purchase or refinance transactions are completed, usually upon the close of escrow and when we fund the purchase or refinance mortgage loans. Once funded, mortgage loans held for sale are recorded at fair value based on either sale commitments or current market quotes and are adjusted for subsequent changes in fair value until the loan is sold. Origination costs associated with originating mortgage loans are recognized as incurred. We sell substantially all of the mortgages we originate and the related servicing rights to third-party purchasers.
Mortgage loans are sold with limited recourse provisions, which can result in repurchases of loans previously sold to investors or payments to reimburse investors for loan losses. Based on historical experience, discussions with our mortgage purchasers, analysis of the volume of mortgages we originated and current housing and credit market conditions, we estimate and record a loss reserve for mortgage loans held in our portfolio and mortgage loans held for sale, as well as known and projected mortgage loan repurchase requests. These have historically not been significant to our financial statements.
Zillow Group operates Custom Quote and Connect through its wholly owned subsidiary, Zillow Group Marketplace, Inc., a licensed mortgage broker. For our Connect and Custom Quote cost per lead marketing products, participating qualified mortgage professionals typically make a prepayment to gain access to consumers interested in connecting with mortgage professionals. Mortgage professionals who exhaust their initial prepayment prepay additional funds to continue to participate in the marketplace. In Zillow Group’s Connect platform, consumers answer a series of questions to find a local lender, and mortgage professionals receive consumer contact information, or leads, when the consumer chooses to share their information with a lender. Consumers who request rates for mortgage loans in Custom Quotes are presented with customized quotes from participating mortgage professionals. For our cost per lead mortgages products, we recognize revenue when a user contacts a mortgage professional through our mortgages platform, which is the amount for which we have the right to invoice.
Other. Other revenue includes revenue generated from display products, which consist of graphical mobile and web advertising sold on a cost per thousand impressions or cost per click basis to advertisers promoting their brands on our mobile applications and websites. We recognize display revenue as clicks occur or as impressions are delivered to users interacting with our mobile applications or websites, which is the amount for which we have the right to invoice.
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Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In June 2022, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued guidance to improve existing measurement and disclosure requirements for equity securities that are subject to a contractual sale restriction. This guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023 on a prospective basis, with early adoption permitted. We expect to adopt this guidance on January 1, 2024. We have not yet determined the impact the adoption of this guidance will have on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Note 3. Discontinued Operations

Zillow Offers Wind Down
In November 2021, the Board of Directors of Zillow Group (the “Board”) made the determination to wind down Zillow Offers operations. This decision was made in light of home pricing unpredictability, capacity constraints and other operational challenges faced by Zillow Offers that were exacerbated by an unprecedented housing market, a global pandemic and a difficult labor and supply chain environment, all of which led us to conclude that, despite its initial promise in earlier quarters, Zillow Offers was unlikely to be a sufficiently stable line of business to meet our goals going forward.
The wind down of Zillow Offers was completed in the third quarter of 2022, at which time Zillow Offers met the criteria for discontinued operations. Accordingly, we have presented the results of operations, excluding allocation of any general corporate expenses, of Zillow Offers as discontinued operations in our condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022. No assets or liabilities were classified as discontinued operations as of December 31, 2022.
The following table presents the major classes of line items of the discontinued operations included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 (in millions):
Revenue$3,721 
Cost of revenue3,530 
Gross profit191 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing133 
Technology and development6 
General and administrative7 
Restructuring costs24 
Total operating expenses170 
Income from discontinued operations21 
Loss on extinguishment of debt(14)
Other income6 
Interest expense(36)
Loss from discontinued operations before income taxes(23)
Income tax benefit 14 
Net loss from discontinued operations$(9)
Net loss from discontinued operations per share:
Basic$(0.04)
Diluted$(0.04)
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The following table presents significant non-cash items and capital expenditures of the discontinued operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 (in millions):
Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs$21 
Loss on debt extinguishment14 
Share-based compensation12 
Inventory valuation adjustment5 
Depreciation and amortization4 
Restructuring
Restructuring charges attributable to continuing operations relate to employee termination costs and certain indirect costs that do not qualify as discontinued operations. These costs totaled $14 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. Cumulative restructuring charges attributable to continuing operations as of March 31, 2022 totaled $23 million.
Note 4. Fair Value Measurements
We apply the following methods and assumptions in estimating our fair value measurements:
Cash equivalents — The fair value measurement of money market funds is based on quoted market prices in active markets (Level 1). The fair value measurement of other cash equivalents is based on observable market-based inputs principally derived from or corroborated by observable market data (Level 2).
Short-term investments — The fair value measurement of our short-term investments is based on observable market-based inputs or inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means (Level 2).
Restricted cash — The carrying value of restricted cash approximates fair value due to the short period of time amounts are held in escrow (Level 1).
Mortgage loans held for sale — The fair value of mortgage loans held for sale is generally calculated by reference to quoted prices in secondary markets for commitments to sell mortgage loans with similar characteristics (Level 2).
Forward contracts — The fair value of mandatory loan sales commitments and derivative instruments such as forward sales of mortgage-backed securities that are utilized as economic hedging instruments is calculated by reference to quoted prices for similar assets (Level 2).
Interest rate lock commitments — The fair value of IRLCs is calculated by reference to quoted prices in secondary markets for commitments to sell mortgage loans with similar characteristics. Expired commitments are excluded from the fair value measurement. Since not all IRLCs will become closed loans, we adjust our fair value measurements for the estimated amount of IRLCs that will not close. This adjustment is effected through the pull-through rate, which represents the probability that an IRLC will ultimately result in a closed loan. For IRLCs that are cancelled or expire, any recorded gain or loss is reversed at the end of the commitment period (Level 3).
The pull-through rate is based on estimated changes in market conditions, loan stage and historical borrower behavior. Pull-through rates are directly related to the fair value of IRLCs as an increase in the pull-through rate, in isolation, would result in an increase in the fair value measurement. Conversely, a decrease in the pull-through rate, in isolation, would result in a decrease in the fair value measurement. Changes in the fair value of IRLCs are included within revenue in our condensed
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consolidated statements of operations. The following table presents the range and weighted-average pull-through rates used in determining the fair value of IRLCs as of the dates presented:
March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Range
58% - 100%
47% - 100%
Weighted-average82%87%
The following tables present the balances of assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, by level within the fair value hierarchy, as of the dates presented (in millions):
 March 31, 2023
TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$1,309 $1,309 $ $ 
Short-term investments:
U.S. government treasury securities1,762  1,762  
Corporate bonds203  203  
Commercial paper10  10  
Mortgage origination-related:
Mortgage loans held for sale48  48  
IRLCs - other current assets2   2 
Forward contracts - other current liabilities(1) (1) 
        Total$3,333 $1,309 $2,022 $2 
 December 31, 2022
 TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$1,338 $1,338 $ $ 
Short-term investments:
U.S. government treasury securities1,716  1,716  
Corporate bonds161  161  
Commercial paper10  10  
U.S. government agency securities9  9  
Mortgage origination-related:
Mortgage loans held for sale41  41  
Forward contracts - other current assets1  1  
Total$3,276 $1,338 $1,938 $ 
At March 31, 2023, the notional amounts of the economic hedging instruments related to our mortgage loans held for sale were $92 million and $123 million for our IRLCs and forward contracts, respectively. At December 31, 2022, the notional amounts of the economic hedging instruments related to our mortgage loans held for sale were $62 million and $90 million for our IRLCs and forward contracts, respectively. We do not have the right to offset our forward contract derivative positions.
See Note 8 for the carrying amounts and estimated fair values of our convertible senior notes.
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Note 5. Cash and Cash Equivalents, Investments and Restricted Cash
The following table presents the amortized cost and estimated fair market value of our cash and cash equivalents, investments, and restricted cash as of the dates presented (in millions):
 March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
 Amortized
Cost
Estimated
Fair Market
Value
Amortized
Cost
Estimated
Fair Market
Value
Cash$85 $85 $128 $128 
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds1,309 1,309 1,338 1,338 
Short-term investments:
U. S. government treasury securities (1)1,765 1,762 1,731 1,716 
Corporate bonds203 203 162 161 
Commercial paper10 10 10 10 
U.S. government agency securities  9 9 
Restricted cash2 2 2 2 
        Total$3,374 $3,371 $3,380 $3,364 
(1) The estimated fair market value includes $4 million of gross unrealized gains and $7 million of gross unrealized losses as of March 31, 2023 and $15 million of gross unrealized losses as of December 31, 2022.
The following table presents available-for-sale investments by contractual maturity date as of March 31, 2023 (in millions):
Amortized CostEstimated Fair
Market Value
Due in one year or less$883 $878 
Due after one year 1,095 1,097 
Total $1,978 $1,975 
Note 6. Property and Equipment, net
The following table presents the detail of property and equipment as of the dates presented (in millions):
March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Website development costs$334 $291 
Leasehold improvements90 90 
Office equipment, furniture and fixtures23 24 
Computer equipment18 18 
Construction-in-progress3 7 
Property and equipment468 430 
Less: accumulated amortization and depreciation(178)(159)
Property and equipment, net$290 $271 
We recorded depreciation expense related to property and equipment (other than website development costs) of $6 million and $7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
We capitalized $45 million and $33 million in website development costs for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Amortization expense for website development costs included in cost of revenue was $22 million and $13 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
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Note 7. Intangible Assets, net
The following tables present the detail of intangible assets as of the dates presented (in millions):
 March 31, 2023
 CostAccumulated AmortizationNet
Customer relationships$59 $(12)$47 
Software62 (17)45 
Developed technology49 (19)30 
Trade names and trademarks46 (16)30 
Purchased content9 (7)2 
Total$225 $(71)$154 
 December 31, 2022
 CostAccumulated AmortizationNet
Customer relationships$59 $(10)$49 
Software54 (15)39 
Developed technology49 (15)34 
Trade names and trademarks45 (15)30 
Purchased content8 (6)2 
Total$215 $(61)$154 
Amortization expense recorded for intangible assets for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 was $12 million and $19 million, respectively. Amortization expense for trade names and trademarks and customer relationships intangible assets is included in sales and marketing expenses. Amortization expense for all other intangible assets is included in cost of revenue.
We did not record any impairment costs related to our intangible assets for the three months ended March 31, 2023 or 2022.
Note 8. Debt
The following table presents the carrying values of Zillow Group’s debt as of the dates presented (in millions):
March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Credit facilities
Repurchase agreements:
Credit Suisse AG, Cayman Islands$25 $23 
Citibank, N.A. 3 
Warehouse line of credit:
Comerica Bank17 11 
Total credit facilities42 37 
Convertible senior notes
1.375% convertible senior notes due 2026
495 495 
2.75% convertible senior notes due 2025
560 560 
0.75% convertible senior notes due 2024
606 605 
Total convertible senior notes1,661 1,660 
Total debt$1,703 $1,697 
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Credit Facilities
To provide capital for Zillow Home Loans, we utilize master repurchase agreements and a warehouse line of credit. The following table summarizes certain details related to our repurchase agreements and warehouse line of credit (in millions, except interest rates):
LenderMaturity DateMaximum Borrowing CapacityWeighted-Average Interest Rate
Credit Suisse AG, Cayman Islands    March 11, 2024$50 6.81 %
Citibank, N.A.June 9, 2023100 6.64 %
Comerica BankJune 24, 202350 6.76 %
Total$200 
On March 13, 2023, Zillow Home Loans amended its Credit Suisse AG, Cayman Islands (“Credit Suisse”) master repurchase agreement to decrease the uncommitted total maximum borrowing capacity to $50 million from $100 million, with a maturity date of March 11, 2024.
In accordance with the master repurchase agreements, Credit Suisse and Citibank (together the “Lenders”) have agreed to pay Zillow Home Loans a negotiated purchase price for eligible loans, and Zillow Home Loans has simultaneously agreed to repurchase such loans from the Lenders under a specified timeframe at an agreed upon price that includes interest. The master repurchase agreements contain margin call provisions that provide the Lenders with certain rights in the event of a decline in the market value of the assets purchased under the master repurchase agreements. At both March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, $28 million in mortgage loans held for sale were pledged as collateral under the master repurchase agreements.
Borrowings on the repurchase agreements and warehouse line of credit bear interest either at a floating rate based on Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) plus an applicable margin, as defined by the governing agreements, or Bloomberg Short-Term Bank Yield Index Rate (“BSBY”) plus an applicable margin, as defined by the governing agreements. The repurchase agreements and warehouse line of credit include customary representations and warranties, covenants and provisions regarding events of default. As of March 31, 2023, Zillow Home Loans was in compliance with all financial covenants and no event of default had occurred. The repurchase agreements and warehouse line of credit are recourse to Zillow Home Loans, and have no recourse to Zillow Group or any of its other subsidiaries.
For additional details related to our repurchase agreements and warehouse line of credit, see Note 13 in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
Convertible Senior Notes
Effective January 1, 2022, we adopted guidance which simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts in an entity’s own equity. Refer to Note 2 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 for additional information regarding the adoption of this guidance.
The following tables summarize certain details related to our outstanding convertible senior notes as of the dates presented or for the periods ended (in millions, except interest rates):
March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Maturity DateAggregate Principal AmountStated Interest RateEffective Interest RateSemi-Annual Interest Payment DatesUnamortized Debt Issuance CostsFair ValueUnamortized Debt Issuance CostsFair Value
September 1, 2026$499 1.375 %1.57 %March 1; September 1$4 $590 $4 $504 
May 15, 2025565 2.75 %3.20 %May 15; November 155 571 5 531 
September 1, 2024608 0.75 %1.02 %March 1; September 12 699 3 629 
Total$1,672 $11 $1,860 $12 $1,664 
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Three Months Ended
March 31, 2023
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Maturity DateContractual Coupon InterestAmortization of Debt Issuance CostsInterest ExpenseContractual Coupon InterestInterest Expense
September 1, 2026$2 $ $2 $2 $2 
May 15, 20254  4 4 4 
September 1, 20241 1 2 1 1 
Total$7 $1 $8 $7 $7 
The convertible notes are senior unsecured obligations. The convertible senior notes maturing in 2026 (“2026 Notes”), 2025 (“2025 Notes”) and 2024 (“2024 Notes”) (together, the “Notes”) are classified as long-term debt in our condensed consolidated balance sheets based on their contractual maturity dates. Interest on the convertible notes is paid semi-annually in arrears. The estimated fair value of the convertible senior notes is classified as Level 2 and was determined through consideration of quoted market prices in markets that are not active.
The Notes are convertible into cash, shares of Class C capital stock or a combination thereof, at our election, and may be settled as described below. They will mature on their respective maturity date, unless earlier repurchased, redeemed or converted in accordance with their terms.
The following table summarizes the conversion and redemption options with respect to the Notes:

Maturity DateEarly Conversion DateConversion RateConversion PriceOptional Redemption Date
September 1, 2026March 1, 202622.9830$43.51 September 5, 2023
May 15, 2025November 15, 202414.881067.20 May 22, 2023
September 1, 2024March 1, 202422.983043.51 September 5, 2022
The following table summarizes certain details related to the capped call confirmations with respect to the convertible senior notes:
Maturity DateInitial Cap PriceCap Price Premium
September 1, 2026$80.5750 150 %
September 1, 202472.5175 125 %
July 1, 2023105.45 85 %
There were no conversions of the Notes during the three months ended March 31, 2023 or 2022.
The last reported sale price of our Class C capital stock did not exceed 130% of the conversion price of each series of the Notes for more than 20 trading days during the 30 consecutive trading days ended March 31, 2023. Accordingly, each series of the Notes is not redeemable or convertible at the option of the holders from April 1 through June 30, 2023.
For additional details related to our convertible senior notes, see Note 13 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
Note 9. Income Taxes
We are primarily subject to income taxes in the United States (federal and state), as well as certain foreign jurisdictions. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, we have provided a valuation allowance against our net deferred tax assets that we believe, based on the weight of available evidence, are not more likely than not to be realized. We have accumulated federal tax losses of approximately $1.8 billion as of December 31, 2022, which are available to reduce future taxable income. We have accumulated state tax losses of approximately $63 million (tax effected) as of December 31, 2022.
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Our income tax expense or benefit for interim periods is determined using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items, if any, that are taken into account for the relevant period. We update our estimate of the annual effective tax rate on a quarterly basis and make year-to-date adjustments to the tax provision or benefit, as applicable. Income tax expense was not material for the three months ended March 31, 2023. We recorded income tax expense of $5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, primarily driven by state income taxes.
Note 10. Share Repurchase Authorizations
The Board has authorized the repurchase of up to $1.8 billion of our Class A common stock, Class C capital stock, outstanding convertible senior notes or a combination thereof (together the “Repurchase Authorizations”). For additional information on these authorizations, see Note 13 to our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
Repurchases of stock under the Repurchase Authorizations may be made in open-market transactions or privately negotiated transactions, or in such other manner as deemed appropriate by management, and may be made from time to time as determined by management depending on market conditions, share price, trading volume, cash needs and other business factors, in each case as permitted by securities laws and other legal requirements. As of March 31, 2023, $414 million remained available for future repurchases pursuant to the Repurchase Authorizations.
The following table summarizes, on a settlement date basis, our Class A common stock and Class C capital stock repurchase activity under the Repurchase Authorizations for the periods presented (in millions, except share data, which are presented in thousands, and per share amounts):
 Three Months Ended
March 31, 2023
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Class A common stock