10-K 1 pk-10k_20171231.htm 10-K pk-10k_20171231.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ___ to ___

Commission File Number 001-37795

 

Park Hotels & Resorts Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

36-2058176

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

1600 Tysons Boulevard, Suite 1000, McLean, VA

22102

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (703) 584-7979  

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

(Title of Class)

 

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes No 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 (Do not check if a small reporting company)

  

Small reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 

As of June 30, 2017, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $3,863 million (based upon the closing sale price of the common stock on that date on the New York Stock Exchange).

The number of shares of common stock outstanding on February 26, 2018 was 215,131,460.

Documents incorporated by reference: The information called for by Part III will be incorporated by reference from the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A.

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

4

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

14

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

41

Item 2.

Properties

41

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

42

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

43

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

44

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

45

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

47

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

67

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

69

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

102

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

102

Item 9B.

Other Information

102

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

103

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

103

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

103

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

103

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

103

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

104

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

107

 

 

 

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Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements related to our expectations regarding the performance of our business, our financial results, our liquidity and capital resources, the effects of competition and the effects of future legislation or regulations and other non-historical statements. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts, and in some cases, can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as the words “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “seeks,” “projects,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words.

Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements and we urge investors to carefully review the disclosures we make concerning risk and uncertainties in Item 1A: “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

The risk factors discussed in Item 1A: “Risk Factors” could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements. There may be other risks and uncertainties that we are unable to predict at this time or that we currently do not expect to have a material adverse effect on our business. Any such risks could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements.

Definitions

Except where the context suggests otherwise, we define certain terms in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as follows:

 

“Adjusted EBITDA” means EBITDA (as defined below) further adjusted to exclude: (i) gains or losses on sales of assets for both consolidated and unconsolidated investments; (ii) gains or losses on foreign currency transactions; (iii) transition costs related to our establishment as an independent, publicly traded company; (iv) transaction costs associated with the potential acquisition or disposition of hotels; (v) severance costs; (vi) share-based compensation expense; (vii) casualty and impairment losses; and (viii) other items that we believe are not representative of our current or future operating performance. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.

 

“Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders” means NAREIT FFO attributable to stockholders (as defined below) as further adjusted to exclude: (i) gains or losses on foreign currency transactions; (ii) transition costs related to our establishment as an independent, publicly traded company; (iii) transaction costs associated with the potential acquisition or disposition of hotels; (iv) severance costs; (v) share-based compensation expense; (vi) casualty losses, (vii) litigation gains and losses outside the ordinary course of business; and (viii) other items that we believe are not representative of our current or future operating performance. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.

 

“ADR” or “average daily rate” represents rooms revenue divided by total number of room nights sold in a given period.

 

“comparable hotels” represent those hotels that: (i) were active and operating in our portfolio since January 1st of the previous year; and (ii) have not sustained substantial property damage, business interruption, undergone large-scale capital projects or for which comparable results are not available.

 

“EBITDA” reflects net income excluding depreciation and amortization, interest income, interest expense, income taxes and interest expense, income tax and depreciation and amortization included in equity in earnings from investments in affiliates. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.

 

“HGV” refers to Hilton Grand Vacations Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “HGV Parent” refers only to Hilton Grand Vacations Inc., exclusive of its subsidiaries.

 

“Hilton” refers to Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “Hilton Parent” refers only to Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc., exclusive of its subsidiaries.

 

“Hotel Adjusted EBITDA” measures hotel-level results before debt service, depreciation and corporate expenses for our consolidated hotels, including both comparable and non-comparable hotels but excluding hotels owned by unconsolidated

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affiliates. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of Hotel Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.

 

a “luxury” hotel refers to a luxury hotel as defined by Smith Travel Research (“STR”).

 

“NAREIT FFO attributable to stockholders” means net income (loss) attributable to stockholders (calculated in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”)), excluding depreciation and amortization, gains or losses on sales of assets, impairment, and the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles, plus adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures. Adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures are calculated to reflect our pro rata share of the funds from operations (“FFO”) of those entities on the same basis. We calculate NAREIT FFO attributable to stockholders for a given operating period in accordance with the guidelines of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”). See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of NAREIT FFO attributable to stockholders, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.

 

“occupancy” represents the total number of room nights sold divided by the total number of room nights available at a hotel or group of hotels.

 

“Park Hotels & Resorts,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Park Hotels & Resorts Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “Park Parent” refers only to Park Hotels & Resorts Inc., exclusive of its subsidiaries.

 

“RevPAR” or “revenue per available room” represents rooms revenue divided by the total number of room nights available to guests for a given period.

 

“Select Hotels” means the hotels that are managed by us rather than a third-party hotel management company, consisting of the following four hotels: the Hilton Garden Inn LAX/El Segundo in Los Angeles, California; the Hampton Inn & Suites Memphis—Shady Grove in Memphis, Tennessee, the Hilton Suites Chicago/Oak Brook in Chicago, Illinois and the Hilton Garden Inn Chicago/Oak Brook in Chicago, Illinois.

 

“TRS” refers to a taxable REIT subsidiary under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and includes any subsidiaries or other, lower-tier entities of that taxable REIT subsidiary.

 

an “upper midscale” hotel refers to an upper midscale hotel as defined by STR.

 

an “upper upscale” hotel refers to an upper upscale hotel as defined by STR.

 

an “upscale” hotel refers to an upscale hotel as defined by STR.

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PART I

Item 1. Business

Our Company

We are a leading lodging real estate company with a diverse portfolio of market-leading hotels and resorts with significant underlying real estate value. As of February 26, 2018, our portfolio consists of 55 premium-branded hotels and resorts with over 32,000 rooms located in prime United States (“U.S.”) and international markets with high barriers to entry. Over 85% of our rooms are luxury and upper upscale and over 95% are located in the U.S. Over 70% of our rooms are located in the central business districts of major cities and resort/conference destinations. We are focused on consistently delivering superior risk-adjusted returns to stockholders through active asset management and a thoughtful external growth strategy while maintaining a strong and flexible balance sheet.

We were originally formed as a Delaware corporation in 1946 and existed as a part of one of Hilton’s business segments. On January 3, 2017, Hilton Parent completed the spin-off that resulted in our establishment as an independent, publicly traded company. The spin-off transaction, which was effected through a pro rata distribution of Park Parent stock to existing Hilton Parent stockholders, was intended to be tax-free to both Hilton and Hilton’s stockholders. As a result of the spin-off, each holder of Hilton Parent common stock on the record date of December 15, 2016 received one share of our common stock for every five shares of Hilton Parent common stock owned.

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, we intend to elect to be taxed as a real estate investment company (“REIT”), effective January 4, 2017. We are currently, and expect to continue to be, organized and operate in a REIT qualified manner.

From the spin-off date, Park Intermediate Holdings LLC (our “Operating Company”), directly or indirectly, holds all of our assets and conducts all of our operations. Park Parent owns 100% of the interests in our Operating Company.

Our Business and Growth Strategies

Our objective is to be the preeminent lodging REIT, focused on consistently delivering superior, risk-adjusted returns to stockholders through active asset management and a thoughtful external growth strategy while maintaining a strong and flexible balance sheet. We intend to pursue this objective through the following strategies:

 

Maximizing Hotel Profitability through Active Asset Management. We are focused on continually improving the operating performance and profitability of each of our hotels and resorts through our proactive asset management efforts. We will continue to identify revenue-enhancement opportunities and drive cost efficiencies to maximize the operating performance, cash flow and value of each property. As a pure-play lodging real estate company with significant financial resources and an extensive portfolio of large, multi-use assets, including 27 hotels with 400 rooms or more, we believe our ability to implement compelling return on investment initiatives represents a significant embedded growth opportunity. These may include the expansion of meeting platforms in convention and resort markets; the upgrade or redevelopment of existing amenities, including retail platforms, food and beverage outlets, pools and other facilities; the development of vacant land into income-generating uses, including retail or mixed-use properties; or the redevelopment or optimization of underutilized spaces. We also may create value through repositioning select hotels across brands or chain scale segments and exploring adaptive reuse opportunities to ensure our assets achieve their highest and best use. Finally, we are focused on maintaining the competitive strength of our properties and adapting to evolving customer preferences by renovating properties to provide updated guestroom design, open and activated lobby areas, food and beverage and public spaces, and modernized meeting space.

 

Pursuing Growth and Diversification through Prudent Capital Allocation. We intend to leverage our scale, liquidity and mergers and acquisitions expertise to create value throughout all phases of the lodging cycle through opportunistic acquisitions, dispositions and/or corporate transactions, which we believe will enable us to further diversify our portfolio. For example, we recently sold a group of hotels located in lower growth domestic and non-core international markets that accounted for approximately $33 million of our 2017 EBITDA. We will continue to opportunistically seek to expand our presence in target markets and further diversify over time, including by acquiring hotels that are affiliated with other leading hotel brands and operators.

 

Maintaining a Strong and Flexible Balance Sheet. We intend to maintain a strong and flexible balance sheet with continued focus on optimizing our cost of capital by targeting modest leverage levels, which we seek to maintain between three- to five-times net debt (calculated as our long-term debt and our share of investments in affiliates’ debt, both excluding deferred financing costs, reduced by both our cash and cash equivalents and our restricted cash) to Adjusted EBITDA throughout the lodging cycle. We also will focus on maintaining sufficient liquidity with minimal short-dated maturities, and intend to have a mix of debt that will provide us with the flexibility to prepay when desired, dispose of assets, pursue our value enhancement strategies within our existing portfolio, and support acquisition activity. Additionally, we expect to reduce our level of secured debt over time, which will provide additional balance sheet

4


 

 

flexibility. Our senior management team has extensive experience managing capital structures over multiple lodging cycles and has extensive and long-standing relationships with numerous lending institutions and financial advisors to address our capital needs.

Our Properties

The following tables provide summary information regarding our portfolio as of February 26, 2018.

 

Brand Affiliations and Chain Scale

We own and lease hotels and resorts primarily in the upper upscale chain scale segment. The following table sets forth our portfolio by brand affiliations and chain scale segment:

 

Brand

 

Chain Scale

 

Number of Properties

 

 

Total Rooms

 

Conrad Hotels & Resorts

 

Luxury

 

 

1

 

 

 

192

 

DoubleTree by Hilton

 

Upscale

 

 

10

 

 

 

4,093

 

Embassy Suites by Hilton

 

Upper Upscale

 

 

7

 

 

 

1,727

 

Hampton by Hilton

 

Upper Midscale

 

 

1

 

 

 

130

 

Hilton Hotels & Resorts

 

Upper Upscale

 

 

30

 

 

 

25,074

 

Hilton Garden Inn

 

Upscale

 

 

2

 

 

 

290

 

Curio - A Collection by Hilton

 

Upper Upscale

 

 

1

 

 

 

224

 

Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts

 

Luxury

 

 

3

 

 

 

963

 

Total

 

 

 

 

55

 

 

 

32,693

 

 

 Type of Property Interest

The following table sets forth our properties according to the nature of our real estate interest:

 

Types of Interest

 

Number of Properties

 

 

Total Rooms

 

Consolidated Portfolio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fee Simple(1)

 

 

31

 

 

 

21,541

 

Ground Lease

 

 

15

 

 

 

6,069

 

 

 

 

46

 

 

 

27,610

 

Unconsolidated Joint Ventures(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fee Simple

 

 

6

 

 

 

3,238

 

Ground Lease

 

 

3

 

 

 

1,845

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

5,083

 

Total

 

 

55

 

 

 

32,693

 

 

(1) 

Includes certain properties that, while primarily owned fee simple, are subject to ground lease in respect of certain portions of land or facilities. Refer to “—Ground Leases,” Item 2: “Properties,” and Note 10: “Leases” in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.

(2) 

Nine of our hotels are owned by unconsolidated joint ventures in which we hold an interest. Refer to Item 2: “Properties” for the percentage ownership in such unconsolidated joint ventures.

 

Hotel Laundry Operations

As of February 26, 2018, we own and operate three commercial laundry facilities located in Piscataway, New Jersey, Portage, Indiana, and Portland, Oregon that service approximately 40 hotels, including five of our owned hotels, and employ more than 200 full-time employees. Revenue from our hotel laundry operations accounted for less than half a percent of our consolidated revenue in each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

Sustainability

We incorporate sustainability into our investment and asset management strategies, with a focus on minimizing environmental impact. During the acquisition of new properties, we will assess both sustainability opportunities and climate change-related risks as part of our due diligence process. During the ownership of our properties, we seek to invest in proven sustainability practices in our redevelopment projects that can enhance asset value, while also improving environmental performance. In such projects, we target specific environmental efficiency enhancements, equipment upgrades and replacements that reduce energy and water consumption

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and offer appropriate returns on investment. As part of our asset management strategy, we also work with Hilton Parent to monitor environmental performance and support implementation of operational best practices. We are committed to being a responsible corporate citizen and minimizing our impact on the environment. Our approach to corporate citizenship is reinforced by periodic engagement with key stakeholders to understand their corporate responsibility priorities.

Our Principal Agreements

In order for us to qualify as a REIT, independent third parties must operate our hotels. Except for the Select Hotels, we lease substantially all of our hotels to our TRS lessees, which, in turn have engaged third parties to operate these hotels pursuant to management agreements. We operate the Select Hotels pursuant to franchise agreements with Hilton. We may, in the future, re-flag existing properties, acquire properties that operate under other brands and/or engage other third-party hotel managers and franchisors.

Below is a general overview of our management and franchise agreements.

Management Agreements

Our hotel managers, each of which is an affiliate of Hilton, control the day-to-day operations of our hotels that are subject to a management agreement. We have consultative and specified approval rights with respect to certain actions of our hotel managers, including entering into long-term or high value contracts, engaging in certain actions relating to legal proceedings, approving the operating budget, making certain capital expenditures and the hiring of certain management personnel.

As in our franchise agreements described below, we receive a variety of services and benefits under our management agreements with our hotel managers, including the benefit of the name, marks and system of operation of the brand, as well as centralized reservation systems, participation in customer loyalty programs, national advertising, marketing programs and publicity designed to increase brand awareness, as well as training of personnel and payroll and accounting services.

 Term

Our management agreements have terms ranging from 20 to 30 years and most allow for one or more renewal periods at the option of our hotel managers. Assuming all renewal periods are exercised by our hotel managers, the total term of our management agreements range between 30 and 70 years.

Fees

Our management agreements generally contain a two-tiered fee structure, where our hotel managers receive a base management fee and an incentive management fee. The base management fee, for the majority of our hotels, is 3% of gross hotel revenues or receipts. The incentive management fee is generally 6% of a specified measure of hotel earnings calculated in accordance with the management agreement. We also pay certain service fees to our hotel managers and generally reimburse our hotel managers for salaries and wages of its employees at our U.S. hotels, as well as for other certain expenses incurred in connection with the operation of the hotel.

Termination Events

Subject to certain qualifications, notice requirements and applicable cure periods, the management agreements generally are terminable by either party upon a material casualty or condemnation of the hotel or the occurrence of certain customary events of default, including, among others: the bankruptcy or insolvency of either party; the failure of either party to make a payment when due, and failure to cure such non-payment after late payment notice; or breach by either party of covenants or obligations under the management agreement.

Additionally, our hotel managers generally have the right to terminate the management agreement in certain situations, including the occurrence of certain actions with respect to a mortgage or our failing to complete or commence required repair after damage or destruction to the hotel, or our failure to meet minimum brand standards. For certain properties, our management agreements also allow early termination, subject to entering into a franchise agreement with an affiliated brand. If our hotel managers terminate due to our default, our hotel managers may exercise all of their rights and remedies at law or in equity.

Sale of a Hotel

Our management agreements generally provide that we cannot sell a hotel to a person who (i) does not have sufficient financial resources, (ii) is of bad moral character, (iii) is a competitor of our hotel managers or (iv) is a specially designated national or blocked

6


 

person, as set forth in the applicable management agreement. It is generally an event of default if we proceed with a sale or an assignment of the hotel’s management agreement to such a transferee, without receiving consent from our hotel managers.

Franchise Agreements

In connection with the spin-off, we entered into franchise agreements with a franchisor pursuant to which we operate the Select Hotels. Pursuant to the franchise agreements, we were granted a limited, non-exclusive license to use our franchisor’s brand names, marks and system in the operation of the Select Hotels. The franchisor also may provide us with a variety of services and benefits, including centralized reservation systems, participation in customer loyalty programs, national advertising, marketing programs and publicity designed to increase brand awareness, as well as training of personnel. In return, we are required to operate franchised hotels consistent with the applicable brand standards. The franchise agreements specify operational, record-keeping, accounting, reporting and marketing standards and procedures with which we must comply, and will promote consistency across the brand by outlining standards for guest services, products, signage and furniture, fixtures and equipment, among other things. To monitor our compliance, the franchise agreements specify that we must make the hotel available for quality inspections by the franchisor. Currently, all of our franchise agreements are with Hilton.

Term

Our franchise agreements contain an initial term of 20 years and cannot be extended without the franchisor’s consent.

Fees

Our franchise agreements require that we pay a royalty fee on gross rooms revenue at rates ranging from 5% to 6%, plus 3% of food and beverage revenue where applicable. We must also pay certain marketing, reservation, program and other customary fees. In addition, the franchisor will have the right to require that we renovate guest rooms and public facilities from time to time to comply with then-current brand standards.

Termination Events

Our franchise agreements provide for termination at the franchisor’s option upon the occurrence of certain events, including, among others: the failure to maintain brand standards; the failure to pay royalties and fees or to perform other obligations under the franchise license; bankruptcy; and abandonment of the franchise or a change of control, and in the event of such termination, we are required to pay liquidated damages.

Spin-Off Related Agreements

Distribution Agreement

We entered into a distribution agreement (“Distribution Agreement”) with Hilton Parent regarding the principal actions taken or to be taken in connection with the spin-off. The Distribution Agreement provided for certain transfers of assets and assumptions of liabilities by us and Hilton Parent and the settlement or extinguishment of certain liabilities and other obligations among Hilton Parent and us. In particular, the Distribution Agreement provided that, subject to the terms and conditions contained in the Distribution Agreement:

 

all of the assets and liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise, and subject to certain exceptions) associated with the separated real estate business were retained by or transferred to us;

 

all of the assets and liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise, and subject to certain exceptions) associated with the timeshare business were retained by or transferred to HGV Parent or its subsidiaries;

 

all other assets and liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise, and subject to certain exceptions) of Hilton were retained by or transferred to Hilton Parent or its subsidiaries;

 

liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise) related to, arising out of or resulting from businesses of Hilton that were previously terminated or divested were allocated among the parties to the extent formerly owned or managed by or associated with such parties or their respective businesses;

 

each of Park Parent and HGV Parent assumed or retained any liabilities (including under applicable federal and state securities laws) relating to, arising out of or resulting from the Form 10 registering its common stock to be distributed by Hilton Parent in the spin-off and from any disclosure documents that offered for sale securities in transactions related to the spin-off, subject to exceptions for certain information for which Hilton Parent retained liability; and

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except as otherwise provided in the Distribution Agreement or any ancillary agreement, we retained responsibility for any costs or expenses incurred by us following the distribution in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Distribution Agreement, including costs and expenses relating to legal counsel, financial advisors and accounting advisory work related to the distribution.

In addition, notwithstanding the allocation described above, we, HGV and Hilton have agreed that losses related to certain contingent liabilities (and related costs and expenses), which generally are not specifically attributable to any of the separated real estate business, the timeshare business or the retained business of Hilton (“Shared Contingent Liabilities”), will be apportioned among the parties according to fixed percentages of 65%, 26% and 9% for each of Hilton, us and HGV, respectively. Examples of Shared Contingent Liabilities may include uninsured losses arising from actions (including derivative actions) against current or former directors or officers of Hilton or its subsidiaries in respect of acts or omissions occurring prior to the distribution date, or against current or former directors or officers of any of Hilton, HGV or us, or any of their or our respective subsidiaries, arising out of, in connection with, or otherwise relating to, the spin-offs and the distribution, subject to certain exceptions described in the Distribution Agreement. In addition, costs and expenses of, and indemnification obligations to, third party professional advisors arising out of the foregoing actions may also be subject to these provisions. Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, Hilton shall generally be vested with the exclusive management and control of all matters pertaining to any such Shared Contingent Liabilities, including the prosecution of any claim and the conduct of any defense.

The Distribution Agreement also provides for cross-indemnities that, except as otherwise provided in the Distribution Agreement, are principally designed to place financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of each business with the appropriate company.

Employee Matters Agreement

We entered into an employee matters agreement (“Employee Matters Agreement”) with Hilton Parent that governs the respective rights, responsibilities and obligations of Hilton Parent after the spin-off with respect to transferred employees, defined benefit pension plans, defined contribution plans, non-qualified retirement plans, employee health and welfare benefit plans, incentive plans, equity-based awards, collective bargaining agreements and other employment, compensation and benefits-related matters. The Employee Matters Agreement provides for, among other things, the allocation and treatment of assets and liabilities arising out of incentive plans, retirement plans and employee health and welfare benefit plans in which our employees participated prior to the spin-off, and continued participation by our employees in certain of Hilton’s compensation and benefit plans for a specified period of time following the spin-off. Generally, other than with respect to certain specified compensation and benefit plans and liabilities, we assumed or retained sponsorship of, and the liabilities relating to, compensation and benefit plans and employee-related liabilities relating to our current and former employees. The Employee Matters Agreement also provided that outstanding Hilton equity-based awards be equitably adjusted or converted into Park Parent awards, in connection with the spin-off. The number of shares subject to such converted awards were calculated based on adjustments to Hilton Parent equity-based awards using an applicable conversion ratio of approximately 1:1 and assumed a majority of the performance-vesting awards vest at target performance levels. Following the spin-off, our employees no longer actively participated in Hilton’s benefit plans or programs (other than on a transition basis under the Employee Matters Agreement), and we have established plans or programs for our employees as described in the Employee Matters Agreement. Effective as of January 1, 2018, the Company has implemented separate benefit plans for our employees. We have also established or maintained plans and programs outside of the United States as may be required under applicable law or pursuant to the Employee Matters Agreement.

Tax Matters Agreement

We entered into a tax matters agreement (“Tax Matters Agreement”) with Hilton Parent, HGV Parent and Hilton Domestic Operating Company that governs the respective rights, responsibilities and obligations of us, Hilton Parent and HGV Parent after the spin-off with respect to tax liabilities and benefits, tax attributes, tax contests and other tax sharing regarding U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income taxes, other tax matters and related tax returns. Although binding between the parties, the Tax Matters Agreement is not binding on the IRS. We and HGV Parent have joint and several liability with Hilton Parent to the IRS for the consolidated U.S. federal income taxes of the Hilton consolidated group relating to the taxable periods in which we were part of that group. The Tax Matters Agreement specifies the portion, if any, of this tax liability for which we bear responsibility, and each party has agreed to indemnify the other against any amounts for which they are not responsible. The Tax Matters Agreement also provides special rules for allocating tax liabilities in the event that the spin-off is not tax-free. In general, under the Tax Matters Agreement, each party is responsible for any taxes imposed on Hilton that arise from the failure of the spin-off and certain related transactions to qualify as a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, as applicable, and certain other relevant provisions of the Code, to the extent that the failure to qualify is attributable to actions taken by such party (or with respect to such party’s stock). The parties share responsibility in accordance with sharing percentages for any such taxes imposed on Hilton that are not attributable to actions taken by a particular party.

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The Tax Matters Agreement also provides for certain covenants that may restrict our ability to pursue strategic or other transactions that otherwise could maximize the value of our business, including, for two years after the spin-off:

 

engaging in any transaction involving the acquisition of shares of Park Parent stock or in certain issuances of shares of Park Parent stock (other than with respect to the distribution of our estimated share of C corporation earnings and profits attributable to the period prior to spin-off (“E&P Dividend”);

 

merging or consolidating with any other person or dissolving or liquidating in whole or in part;

 

selling or otherwise disposing of, or allowing the sale or other disposition of, more than 35% of our consolidated gross or net assets; or

 

repurchasing our shares, except in certain circumstances.

 

These strategic and other transactions may be allowed within the two-year timeframe in the event that the IRS has granted a favorable ruling to us or in the event that we have received an opinion from a tax advisor that we can take such actions without adversely affecting the tax-free status of the spin-off and related transactions.

Transition Services Agreement

We entered into a transition services agreement (“TSA”) with Hilton Parent to provide us with certain services for a limited time to help ensure an orderly transition following the distribution.

The services that Hilton provided include certain finance, information technology, human resources and compensation, facilities, legal and compliance and other services. We paid Hilton Parent for such services utilized at agreed amounts as set forth in the TSA. In addition, for a term set forth in the TSA, we and Hilton Parent may mutually agree on additional services to be provided by Hilton to us that were provided to us by Hilton prior to the distribution but were omitted from the TSA at pricing based on market rates that are reasonably agreed by the parties.

Stockholders and Registration Rights Agreements

On October 24, 2016, Hilton Parent, The Blackstone Group L.P. and its affiliates (“Blackstone”) and HNA Tourism Group Company Limited (“HNA”) announced that affiliates of Blackstone agreed to sell 247,500,000 shares of common stock of Hilton Parent to HNA, representing approximately 25% of the outstanding shares of common stock of Hilton Parent, pursuant to a stock purchase agreement between HNA and Blackstone (“Sale”). Pursuant to that stock purchase agreement, as the Sale closed after the record date of the spin-off, the Sale also included the shares of common stock of HGV Parent and Park Parent received by Blackstone with respect to the shares of common stock of the Hilton Parent being sold to HNA. The Sale closed on March 15, 2017, resulting in HNA acquiring 53,651,453 shares of Park Parent’s common stock at approximately $25.45 per share. In connection with the Sale, we entered into a stockholders’ agreement and a registration rights agreement with HNA, summarized below.

We also previously entered into a registration rights agreement and a stockholders’ agreement with Blackstone. In accordance with the registration rights agreement with Blackstone, the Company filed a Registration Statement on Form S-11 with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 5, 2017. The Blackstone Selling Stockholders named in our Form S-11 sold 15.0 million shares of Park Parent’s common stock in June 2017 and an additional 16.8 million shares in December 2017. As a result of such sales, the stockholder agreement with Blackstone was terminated in accordance with its terms. The Company will no longer have any obligations under the registration rights agreement with Blackstone once Blackstone no longer owns any of our securities (other than those that can be sold pursuant to Rule 144 or 145 of the Securities Act (or similar provisions) without limitation thereunder on volume or manner of sale).

HNA Stockholders Agreement

In connection with the Sale, we entered into a stockholders agreement with HNA (and with HNA Group Co., Ltd. for purposes of the standstill provision only) that became effective upon the closing of the Sale.

Directors. Under the HNA stockholders agreement, for so long as HNA beneficially owns at least 15% of our outstanding common stock, it will have the right to designate two directors to our board of directors, only one of which may be affiliated with HNA (but not its hospitality business, unless such condition is waived) and the other of which must meet the independence standards of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) with respect to our company and not have been, for two years, an employee, director or officer of, or consultant to, HNA or any of its affiliates. Each of HNA’s director designees must be reasonably satisfactory to our nominating and corporate governance committee. In addition, so long as HNA owns at least 20% of our outstanding common stock, HNA will have the right to designate an additional independent director to fill each third additional director seat above 11 directors; for example, if we were to increase the size of our board of directors in the future to 14, HNA would have the right to designate an

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independent director as the 14th member of the board of directors. HNA’s right to designate directors declines to one director when HNA’s ownership falls below 15% of our outstanding common stock and such right terminates when HNA’s ownership falls below 5% of our outstanding common stock, subject to certain exceptions. Each independent designee will be entitled to serve on at least one standing committee of the board of directors, as determined by the nominating and corporate governance committee.

Voting Requirements. The HNA stockholders agreement generally requires HNA to vote all of its shares in excess of 15% of our total outstanding shares in the same proportion as the shares owned by other stockholders are voted on all matters, except as follows: (i) in uncontested elections of directors, HNA is required to vote all of its shares either in favor of the board’s nominees or all of its shares in the same proportion as the shares owned by other stockholders are voted; (ii) in contested elections of directors, HNA is required to vote all of its shares in the same proportion as the shares owned by other stockholders are voted; (iii) for two years after the closing of the Sale, in third party acquisitions of our company in which both (x) shares of our common stock are exchanged for or are converted into the right to receive (A) solely cash or (B) a mixture of cash and stock of a person other than an HNA entity in which the value of the cash portion of the aggregate consideration is 60% or more of the value of the aggregate consideration and (y) the value of the consideration to be received per share of common stock is less than or equal to a reference price per share of our common stock calculated in accordance with the HNA stockholders agreement, HNA may vote all of its shares as it chooses; (iv) for any acquisition of our company other than an acquisition described in (iii) above or an acquisition by HNA, HNA will vote all of its shares in excess of 15% of our total outstanding shares in proportion to the manner in which non-HNA holders vote their shares; and (v) in the case of any charter or bylaw amendment which adversely affects HNA disproportionally as compared to other stockholders, an issuance of more than 20% of our outstanding shares (other than for an acquisition) at a below-market price, or an acquisition of our company by HNA, HNA may vote all of its shares as it chooses. In a third party tender offer, HNA will be required to tender its shares in excess of 15% of our total outstanding shares in the same proportion as shares held by non-HNA holders are tendered.

Certain Transfers and Right of First Refusal. The stockholder agreement does not generally restrict transfers of shares by HNA, except that if HNA transfers any of its shares to any HNA affiliate, such HNA affiliate must agree to be bound by the terms of the HNA stockholders agreement. In addition, if we propose to issue new equity securities for cash in an offering that is not an underwritten public offering or an offering pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act, HNA will have a right of first refusal over its pro rata portion of such issuance, measured based on HNA’s ownership percentage (which shall be capped at 25% for purposes of the right of first refusal) in us at such time.

Standstill. The HNA stockholders agreement requires HNA and its affiliates not to: acquire, offer or agree to acquire, any beneficial interest in us, subject to certain exceptions; make any public announcement or public offer with respect to any merger, business combination or other similar transaction involving us (except when our board of directors recommends or approves such transaction); make or in any way participate in any “solicitation” of “proxies” to vote or seek to influence voting of securities in a manner inconsistent with our board’s recommendation; seek election or removal of any director other than HNA designees or otherwise act, alone or in concert with others, to control or influence our company; call a meeting of stockholders; participate in a “group” regarding our equity securities; act, alone or in concert with others, to seek to control or influence our management or policies; knowingly assist or encourage, or enter into any discussions or agreements with any third party, in connection with any of the foregoing; publicly disclose any intention, plan or arrangement inconsistent with the foregoing; provide any financing for a purchase of our equity securities or assets, subject to certain exceptions; or take any actions that HNA knows or would reasonably be expected to know would require us to make a public announcement regarding the possibility of an acquisition. HNA will not be prohibited from: (i) transferring shares of our stock to HNA affiliates; (ii) purchasing shares of our stock pursuant to its right of first refusal over its pro rata portion of newly issued equity securities; (iii) making a non-public, confidential acquisition proposal to our board of directors; or (iv) after a public announcement of a definitive agreement for the acquisition of our company by a third party, making a publicly announced alternative acquisition proposal for all of our outstanding shares, which, if a tender or exchange offer, must be on the same terms for all such shares and include a non-waivable condition that a majority of the shares held by non-HNA holders are tendered into such offer. To the extent HNA’s ownership percentage falls below 25% of our total outstanding shares (or a lower percentage that results from sales of shares by HNA) as a result of issuances by us, HNA may purchase our shares in the open market so as to maintain its ownership percentage at 25% (or such lower percentage that results from sales of shares by HNA).

HNA Registration Rights Agreements

In connection with the Sale, we entered into a registration rights agreement with HNA that became effective upon the closing of the Sale. The HNA registration rights agreement provides that, beginning two years after the closing of the Sale, HNA will have customary “demand” and “piggyback” registration rights. The registration rights agreement also will require us to pay certain expenses relating to such registrations and indemnify the registration rights holder against certain liabilities under the Securities Act.

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Ground Leases

The following table summarizes the remaining primary term, renewal rights and purchase rights as of February 26, 2018, associated with land underlying our hotels and meeting facilities that we lease from third parties:

 

Property

 

Current Lease Term Expiration

 

Renewal Rights / Purchase Rights

Leases of U.S. Properties (Excluding Properties Leased by Joint Ventures)

Hilton Boston Logan Airport

 

September 30, 2044

 

2 x 20 years

Hilton Orlando Lake Buena Vista

 

January 31, 2034

 

1 x 25 years

Hilton Seattle Airport Hotel & Conference Center

 

December 31, 2046

 

Purchase Rights (1)                Renewal Rights

2 x 10 years;

1 x 5 years

Hilton Oakland Airport

 

January 19, 2034

 

None

Embassy Suites Kansas City Plaza

 

January 30, 2026

 

Renewal Rights(2)

2 x 25 years

Portfolio of Five Hotels(3)

 

December 31, 2025

 

2 x 5 years (4)

Embassy Suites Phoenix Airport

 

November 30, 2021

 

1 x 10 years

Embassy Suites Austin Downtown Town Lake

 

February 28, 2019

 

2 x 10 years

Hilton Chicago O’Hare Airport (5)

 

December 31, 2018

 

None

Leases of Non-U.S. Properties

Hilton Nuremberg Hotel

 

December 31, 2039

 

Purchase Rights; Renewal Rights 1 x 20 years

Hilton Sheffield Hotel

 

September 14, 2022

 

None

Leases of U.S. Properties by Joint Ventures

Hilton La Jolla Torrey Pines(6)

 

June 30, 2067

 

1 x 10 years;

1 x 20 years(7)

Embassy Suites Secaucus Meadowlands

 

October 31, 2021

 

1 x 10 years

Hilton San Diego Bayfront

 

December 31, 2071

 

None

 

(1) 

Tenant has a right of first offer with respect to the property.

(2) 

Landlord has the option to renew the lease.

(3)

Reflects the terms of a master lease agreement pursuant to which we lease the following five hotels: the Hilton Salt Lake City Center; the DoubleTree Hotel Seattle Airport; the DoubleTree Hotel San Diego—Mission Valley; the DoubleTree Hotel Sonoma Wine Country; and the DoubleTree Hotel Durango.

(4)

The renewal option may be exercised for less than all 5 of the hotels. Minimum rent is reduced if the renewal option is exercised for less than all of the 5 hotels.

(5) 

The city of Chicago has elected not to renew or extend the lease at the end of the contract term.

(6)

The lease is held by CHH Torrey Pines Hotel Partners, LP, which is wholly owned by joint venture entity, Ashford HHC Partners III LP.

(7)

Renewal rights are dependent on the amount of capital expenditures invested in the hotels during the term.

We (or certain joint ventures in which we own an interest) are also party to certain leases for facilities related to certain hotels owned by us (or such joint ventures), including the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Las Vegas Airport, the Hilton Hawaiian Village Beach Resort, the Hilton Waikoloa Village, the Embassy Suites by Hilton Alexandria Old Town, the Hilton New Orleans Riverside and the New York Hilton Midtown. These leases are all triple net leases or modified triple net leases and relate to facilities related to such hotels, including leases for parking, restaurant space, dock space or other hotel-related uses.

Competition

The lodging industry is highly competitive. Our hotels compete with other hotels for guests on the basis of several factors, including the attractiveness of the facility, location, level of service, quality of accommodations, amenities, food and beverage options and outlets, public and meeting spaces and other guest services, consistency of service, room rate, brand reputation and the ability to earn and redeem loyalty program points through a global system. Competition is often specific to the individual markets in which our hotels are located and includes competition from existing and new hotels operated under brands primarily in the upper upscale chain scale segments. Increased competition could have a material adverse effect on the occupancy rate, average daily room rate and RevPAR of our hotels or may require us to make capital improvements that we otherwise would not have to make, which may result in decreases in our profitability. We believe our hotels enjoy certain competitive advantages as a result of being flagged with globally recognized brands, including access to centralized reservation systems and national advertising, marketing and promotional services, strong hotel management expertise and guest loyalty programs.

Our principal competitors include hotel operating companies, ownership companies (including other lodging REITs) and national and international hotel brands. We face increased competition from providers of less expensive accommodations, such as select-service hotels or independently managed hotels, during periods of economic downturn when leisure and business travelers become more sensitive to room rates. We face competition for the acquisition of hotels from other REITs, private equity investors, institutional pension funds, sovereign wealth funds and numerous local, regional and national owners, including franchisors, in each of

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our markets. Some of these entities may have substantially greater financial resources than we do and may be able and willing to accept more risk than we believe we can prudently manage. During the recovery phase of the lodging cycle, competition among potential buyers may increase the bargaining power of potential sellers, which may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities available to us or increase pricing. Similarly, during times when we seek to sell hotels, competition from other sellers may increase the bargaining power of the potential property buyers.

Seasonality

The lodging industry is seasonal in nature, which can be expected to cause fluctuations in our hotel rooms revenues, occupancy levels, room rates, operating expenses and cash flows. The periods during which our hotels experience higher or lower levels of demand vary from property to property, depending principally upon location, type of property and competitive mix within the specific location.

Cyclicality

The lodging industry is cyclical and demand generally follows, on a lagged basis, key macroeconomic indicators. There is a history of increases and decreases in demand for hotel rooms, in occupancy levels and in room rates realized by owners of hotels through economic cycles. Variability of results through some of the cycles in the past has been more severe due to changes in the supply of hotel rooms in given markets or in given segments of hotels. The combination of changes in economic conditions and in the supply of hotel rooms can result in significant volatility in results for owners of hotel properties. As a result, in a negative economic environment the rate of decline in earnings can be higher than the rate of decline in revenues.

Government Regulations

Our business is subject to various foreign and U.S. federal and state laws and regulations. In particular, we are subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) and similar legislation in certain jurisdictions outside of the U.S. Under the ADA, all public accommodations are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. These regulations apply to accommodations first occupied after January 26, 1993; public accommodations built before January 26, 1993 are required to remove architectural barriers to disabled access where such removal is “readily achievable.” The failure of a property to comply with the ADA could result in injunctive relief, fines, an award of damages to private litigants or mandated capital expenditures to remedy such noncompliance. Any imposition of injunctive relief, fines, damage awards or capital expenditures could result in reputational harm or otherwise materially and negatively affect our performance and results of operations.

In addition, a number of states regulate the activities of hospitality properties and restaurants, including safety and health standards, as well as the sale of liquor at such properties, by requiring licensing, registration, disclosure statements and compliance with specific standards of conduct. As an operator of the Select Hotels we are also subject to laws governing our relationship with employees, including minimum wage requirements, overtime, working conditions and work permit requirements. Compliance with, or changes in, these laws could reduce the revenue and profitability of our properties and could otherwise adversely affect our operations.

As a global owner of hotels, we also are subject to the local laws and regulations in each country in which we operate, including employment laws and practices, privacy laws and tax laws, which may provide for tax rates that exceed those of the U.S. including taxation of REIT income and which may provide that our foreign earnings are subject to withholding requirements or other restrictions, unexpected changes in regulatory requirements or monetary policy and other potentially adverse tax consequences.

In addition, our business operations in countries outside the U.S. are subject to a number of laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), as well as trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). The FCPA is intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials and requires us to keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect our transactions. OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign states, organizations and individuals. In addition, some of our operations may be subject to additional laws and regulations of non-U.S. jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act 2010, which contains significant prohibitions on bribery and other corrupt business activities, and other local anti-corruption laws in the countries and territories in which we conduct operations.

Environmental Matters

We are subject to certain requirements and potential liabilities under various foreign and U.S. federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and incur costs in complying with such requirements. These laws and regulations govern actions including air emissions, the use, storage and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances, and wastewater disposal. In addition to investigation and remediation liabilities that could arise under such laws, we may also face personal injury,

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property damage, fines or other claims by third parties concerning environmental compliance or contamination. In addition to our hotel accommodations, we operate certain laundry facilities. We use and store hazardous and toxic substances, such as cleaning materials, pool chemicals, heating oil and fuel for back-up generators at some of our facilities, and we generate certain wastes in connection with our operations. Some of our properties include older buildings, and some may have, or may historically have had, dry-cleaning facilities and underground storage tanks for heating oil and back-up generators. We have from time to time been responsible for investigating and remediating contamination at some of our facilities, such as contamination that has been discovered when we have removed underground storage tanks, and we could be held responsible for any contamination resulting from the disposal of wastes that we generate, including at locations where such wastes have been sent for disposal. In some cases, we may be entitled to indemnification, but there can be no assurance that we would be able to recover all or any costs we incur in addressing such problems. From time to time, we may also be required to manage, abate, remove or contain mold, lead, asbestos-containing materials, radon gas or other hazardous conditions found in or on our properties. We have implemented an on-going operations and maintenance plan that seeks to identify and remediate these conditions as appropriate. Although we have incurred, and expect that we will continue to incur, costs relating to the investigation, identification and remediation of hazardous materials known or discovered to exist at our properties, those costs have not had, and are not expected to have, a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flow.

REIT Qualification

We believe that we are organized in conformity with, and operate in a manner that will allow us to elect to be taxed as, a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes for our tax year ended December 31, 2017, and we expect to continue to be organized and operate so as to qualify as a REIT. To qualify as a REIT, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the real estate qualification of sources of our income, the real estate composition and values of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders and the diversity of ownership of our stock. To the extent we qualify as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal and state income tax on taxable income generated by our REIT activities that we distribute to our stockholders. To comply with REIT requirements, we may need to forego otherwise attractive opportunities and limit our expansion opportunities and the manner in which we conduct our operations. Refer to “Risk Factors—Risks Related to our REIT Status and Certain Other Tax Items.”

Insurance

We maintain insurance coverage for general liability, property, including business interruption, terrorism, workers’ compensation and other risks with respect to our business for all of our hotels. Most of our insurance policies are written with self-insured retentions or deductibles that are common in the insurance market for similar risks. These policies provide coverage for claim amounts that exceed our self-insured retentions or deductibles. Our insurance provides coverage related to any claims or losses arising out of the design, development and operation of our hotels.

Employees

As of December 31, 2017, we had 520 employees, including 84 corporate employees, 189 employees of the Select Hotels, and 247 employees of our hotel laundry operations. This number does not include the hotel employees of certain of our hotels located outside of the United States, who, while legally our employees, are under the direct supervision and control of our third-party hotel managers. Our hotel managers are generally responsible for hiring and maintaining the labor force at each of our hotels, other than the Select Hotels. Although we generally do not manage employees at our hotels (other than the Select Hotels), we still are subject to many of the costs and risks generally associated with the hotel labor force, particularly those hotels with unionized labor. We believe relations are positive between our third-party hotel managers, and their employees. For a discussion of these relationships, refer to “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We are subject to risks associated with the employment of hotel personnel, particularly with hotels that employ unionized labor, which could increase our operating costs, reduce flexibility of our hotel managers to adjust the size of the workforce at our hotels and could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.”

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are currently located at 1600 Tysons Boulevard, Suite 1000, McLean, Virginia 22102. Our telephone number is (703) 584-7979. Our website is located at www.pkhotelsandresorts.com. The information that is found on or accessible through our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report or document that we file with or furnish to the SEC. We have included our website address in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as an inactive textual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.

We make available on our website, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. We also make our Code of

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Conduct, and any amendments or waivers thereto, for our directors, officers and employees available on our website on the Corporate Governance – Governance Documents page under the Investors section of our website.

On or about March 12, 2018, our principal executive offices will be located at 1775 Tysons Boulevard, Suite 700, Tysons, Virginia 22102. Our telephone number will be (571) 302-5757.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Owning our common stock involves a number of significant risks. You should consider carefully the following risk factors. If any of the following risks, as well as additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, occur, our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly, and you could lose all or a part of the value of your ownership in our common stock. In addition, the statements in the following risk factors include forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to Our Business

We face various risks posed by our acquisition, redevelopment, repositioning, renovation and re-branding activities, as well as our disposition activities.

A key element of our business strategy is to invest in identifying and consummating acquisitions of additional hotels and portfolios. We can provide no assurances that we will be successful in identifying attractive hotels or that, once identified, we will be successful in consummating an acquisition. We face significant competition for attractive investment opportunities from other well-capitalized investors, some of which have greater financial resources and a greater access to debt and equity capital to acquire hotels than we do. This competition increases as investments in real estate become increasingly attractive relative to other forms of investment. As a result of such competition, we may be unable to acquire certain hotels or portfolios that we deem attractive or the purchase price may be significantly elevated or other terms may be substantially more onerous. In addition, we expect to finance future acquisitions through a combination of retained cash flows, borrowings and offerings of equity and debt securities, which may not be available on advantageous terms, or at all. Any delay or failure on our part to identify, negotiate, finance on favorable terms, consummate and integrate such acquisitions could materially impede our growth.

In addition, newly acquired, redeveloped, renovated, repositioned or re-branded hotels may fail to perform as expected and the costs necessary to bring such hotels up to brand standards may exceed our expectations, which may result in the hotels’ failures to achieve projected returns.

In particular, these activities could pose the following risks to our ongoing operations:

 

we may abandon such activities and may be unable to recover expenses already incurred in connection with exploring such opportunities;

 

acquired, redeveloped, renovated or re-branded hotels may not initially be accretive to our results, and we and the third-party hotel managers may not successfully manage newly acquired, renovated, redeveloped, repositioned or re-branded hotels to meet our expectations;

 

we may be unable to quickly, effectively and efficiently integrate new acquisitions, particularly acquisitions of portfolios of hotels, into our existing operations;

 

our redevelopment, repositioning, renovation or re-branding activities may not be completed on schedule, which could result in increased debt service and other costs and lower revenues, and defects in design or construction may result in delays and additional costs to remedy the defect or require a portion of a property to be closed during the period required to rectify the defect;

 

we may not be able to meet the loan covenants in any financing obtained to fund the new development, creating default risks;

 

we may issue shares of stock or other equity interests in connection with such acquisitions that could dilute the interests of our existing stockholders; and

 

we may assume various contingent liabilities in connection with such transactions.

We may also divest certain properties or assets, and any such divestments may yield lower than expected returns or otherwise fail to achieve the benefits we expect. For instance, we are exploring sales of some of our non-core hotels, and there can be no assurances that we will be able to recover the current carrying amount of these investments. In some circumstances, sales of properties

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or other assets may result in losses. Upon sales of properties or assets, we may become subject to contractual indemnity obligations, incur unusual or extraordinary distribution requirements or material tax liabilities or, as a result of required debt repayment, face a shortage of liquidity. In addition, we may not be able to reinvest the proceeds from any sales in new hotels at attractive rates of return, which may also impact our future operating results. Finally, any acquisitions, investments or dispositions could demand significant attention from management that would otherwise be available for business operations, which could harm our business. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events, among others, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.

There are inherent risks with investments in real estate, including the relative illiquidity of such investments.

Investments in real estate are subject to varying degrees of risk. For example, an investment in real estate cannot generally be quickly sold, and we cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any hotel we desire to for the price or on the terms set by us or acceptable to us, or the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of the hotel. Moreover, the Code imposes restrictions on a REIT’s ability to dispose of properties that are not applicable to other types of real estate companies. In particular, the tax laws applicable to REITs require that we hold our hotels for use in a trade or business or for investment, rather than primarily for sale in the ordinary course of business, which may cause us to forego or defer sales of hotels that otherwise would be in our best interests. Therefore, we may not be able to adjust the composition of our portfolio promptly in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions or dispose of assets at opportune times or on favorable terms, which may adversely affect our cash flows and our ability to make distributions to stockholders.

 

In addition, our ability to dispose of some of our hotels could be constrained by their tax attributes. Our hotels, including related ancillary personal property, may have low tax bases. If we dispose of these hotels in taxable transactions, we may be required to pay tax on the taxable gain and will be required to distribute the after-tax gain to our stockholders under the requirements of the Code applicable to REITs, either of which, in turn, would impact our cash flow. To dispose of low basis hotels efficiently, we may from time to time use like-kind exchanges, which only qualify for non-recognition of taxable gain related to real property, and can be difficult to consummate and result in the hotel for which the disposed assets are exchanged inheriting their low tax bases and other tax attributes, and could result in taxable gain and a shareholder distribution requirement related to the non-real property associated with the hotel sale.

Our expenses may not decrease even if our revenue decreases.

Many of the expenses associated with owning and operating hotels, such as debt-service payments, property taxes, insurance, utilities, and employee wages and benefits, are relatively inflexible. They do not necessarily decrease in tandem with a reduction in revenue at the hotels and may be subject to increases that are not tied to the performance of our hotels or the increase in the rate of inflation generally. In addition, some of our third-party ground leases require periodic increases in ground rent payments. Our ability to pay these rents could be affected adversely if our hotel revenues do not increase at the same or a greater rate than the increases in rental payments under the ground leases.

Additionally, certain costs, such as wages, benefits and insurance, may exceed the rate of inflation in any given period. In the event of a significant decrease in demand, Hilton or other third-party hotel managers that we may engage in the future may not be able to reduce the size of hotel work forces to decrease wages and benefits. Our hotel managers also may be unable to offset any fixed or increased expenses with higher room rates. Any of our efforts to reduce operating costs also could adversely affect the future growth of our business and the value of our hotel properties.

We are subject to risks associated with the concentration of our portfolio in the Hilton family of brands. Any deterioration in the quality or reputation of the Hilton brands, including changes to the Hilton Honors guest loyalty program, could have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations.

All of our properties currently utilize brands owned by Hilton and participate in the Hilton Honors guest loyalty and rewards program. As a result, our ability to attract and retain guests depends, in part, on the public recognition of the Hilton brands and their associated reputation. If the Hilton brands become obsolete or consumers view them as unfashionable or lacking in consistency and quality, we may be unable to attract guests to our hotels. In addition, any adverse developments in Hilton’s business and affairs or financial condition could impair its ability to manage our properties and could have a material adverse effect on us.

Changes in ownership or management practices, the occurrence of accidents or injuries, force majeure events, crime, individual guest notoriety or similar events at our hotels or other properties managed, owned or leased by Hilton can harm our reputation, create adverse publicity and cause a loss of consumer confidence in our business. Because of the global nature of the Hilton brands and the broad expanse of its business and hotel locations, events occurring in one location could negatively affect the reputation and operations of otherwise successful individual locations, including properties in our portfolio. In addition, the recent expansion of social media has compounded the potential scope of negative publicity. We also could face legal claims related to negative events,

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along with resulting adverse publicity. If the perceived quality of the Hilton brands declines, or if Hilton’s reputation is damaged, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition, Hilton Honors guest loyalty program allows program members to accumulate points based on eligible stays and hotel charges and redeem the points for a range of benefits including free rooms and other items of value. The program is an important aspect of our business and of the affiliation value of our hotels. In addition to the accumulation of points for future hotel stays at the Hilton family of brands, Hilton Honors arranges with third-party service providers, such as airlines and rail companies, to exchange monetary value represented by points for program awards. Currently, the program benefits are not taxed as income to members. We are not the owner of the Hilton Honors loyalty program and changes to the program or our access to it could negatively impact our business. If the program deteriorates or materially changes in an adverse manner, or is taxed such that a material number of Hilton Honors members choose to no longer participate in the program, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Contractual and other disagreements with or involving Hilton or other future third-party hotel managers and franchisors could make us liable to them or result in litigation costs or other expenses.

Our management and franchise agreements with Hilton require us and Hilton to comply with operational and performance conditions that are subject to interpretation and could result in disagreements, and we expect this will be true of any management and franchise agreements that we enter into with future third-party hotel managers or franchisors. At any given time, we may be in disputes with one or more third-party hotel managers or franchisors. Any such dispute could be very expensive for us, even if the outcome is ultimately in our favor. We cannot predict the outcome of any arbitration or litigation, the effect of any negative judgment against us or the amount of any settlement that we may enter into with Hilton or any other third-party. In the event we terminate a management or franchise agreement early and the hotel manager or franchisor considers such termination to have been wrongful, they may seek damages. Additionally, we may be required to indemnify our third-party hotel managers and franchisors against disputes with third parties, pursuant to our management and franchise agreements. An adverse result in any of these proceedings could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

We are dependent on the performance of Hilton and could be materially and adversely affected if Hilton does not properly manage our hotels or otherwise act in our best interests or if we are unable to maintain a good relationship with Hilton and other third-party hotel managers.

In order for us to qualify as a REIT, independent third parties must operate our hotels. Except for the Select Hotels, we lease substantially all of our hotels to our TRS lessees. Our TRS lessees, in turn, have entered into management agreements with Hilton to operate our hotels. We could be materially and adversely affected if Hilton or any other future third-party hotel manager fails to provide quality services and amenities, fails to maintain a quality brand name or otherwise fails to manage our hotels in our best interest, and can be financially responsible for the actions and inactions of our third-party hotel managers pursuant to our management agreements. In addition, Hilton manages, and in some cases may own or lease, or may have invested in or may have provided credit support or operating guarantees to hotels that compete with our hotels, any of which could result in conflicts of interest. As a result, Hilton may make decisions regarding competing lodging facilities that are not in our best interests. Other third-party hotel managers that we engage in the future may also have similar conflicts of interest.

The success of our properties largely depends on our ability to establish and maintain good relationships with Hilton and other third-party hotel managers and franchisors that we may engage in the future. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with Hilton and such other third-party hotel managers and franchisors, we may be unable to renew existing management or franchise agreements or expand relationships with them. Additionally, opportunities for developing new relationships with additional third-party managers or franchisors may be adversely affected. This, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to execute our growth strategy.

In the event that we terminate any of our management agreements, we can provide no assurances that we could find a replacement hotel manager or that any replacement hotel manager will be successful in operating our hotels. If any of the foregoing were to occur, it could materially and adversely affect us.

Restrictive covenants in certain of our hotel management and franchise agreements contain provisions limiting or restricting the sale of our hotels, which could materially and adversely affect our profitability.

Many of our hotel management and franchise agreements with Hilton generally contain restrictive covenants that limit or restrict our ability to sell a hotel free of the management or franchise encumbrance other than to permitted transferees. Generally, we may not agree to sell, lease or otherwise transfer particular hotels unless the transferee executes a new agreement or assumes the related hotel management and franchise agreements. As a result, we may be prohibited from taking actions that would otherwise be in our and our

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stockholders’ best interests. In addition, as noted above, Hilton may have a conflict that results in Hilton’s declining to approve a transfer that would be in our and our stockholders’ best interests.

Costs associated with, or failure to maintain, brand operating standards may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.

The terms of our franchise agreements and management agreements generally require us to meet specified operating standards and other terms and conditions and compliance with such standards may be costly. We expect that Hilton and any other future third-party franchisors will periodically inspect our hotels to ensure that we and any third-party hotel managers follow brand standards. Failure by us, or any hotel management company that we engage, to maintain these standards or other terms and conditions could result in a franchise license being canceled or the franchisor requiring us to undertake a costly property improvement program. If a franchise license is terminated due to our failure to make required improvements or to otherwise comply with its terms, we also may be liable to the franchisor for a termination payment, which varies by franchisor and by hotel. If the funds required to maintain brand operating standards are significant, or if a franchise license is terminated, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.

If we were to lose a brand license, the underlying value of a particular hotel could decline significantly from the loss of associated name recognition, marketing support, participation in guest loyalty programs and the centralized reservation system provided by the franchisor or brand manager, which could require us to recognize an impairment on the hotel. Furthermore, the loss of a franchise license at a particular hotel could harm our relationship with the franchisor or brand manager, which could impede our ability to operate other hotels under the same brand, limit our ability to obtain new franchise licenses or brand management agreements from the franchisor or brand in the future on favorable terms, or at all, and cause us to incur significant costs to obtain a new franchise license or brand management agreement for the particular hotel. Accordingly, if we lose one or more franchise licenses or brand management agreements, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.

Our efforts to develop, redevelop or renovate our properties could be delayed or become more expensive, which could reduce revenues or impair our ability to compete effectively.

If not maintained, the condition of certain of our properties could negatively affect our ability to attract guests or result in higher operating and capital costs, if not sufficiently maintained. These factors could reduce revenues or profits from these properties. There can be no assurance that our planned replacements and repairs will occur, or even if completed, will result in improved performance. In addition, these efforts are subject to a number of risks, including:

 

construction delays or cost overruns (including labor and materials);

 

obtaining zoning, occupancy and other required permits or authorizations;

 

changes in economic conditions that may result in weakened or lack of demand for improvements that we make or negative project returns;

 

governmental restrictions on the size or kind of development;

 

volatility in the debt and capital markets that may limit our ability to raise capital for projects or improvements;

 

lack of availability of rooms or meeting spaces for revenue-generating activities during construction, modernization or renovation projects;

 

force majeure events, including earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods or tsunamis; and

 

design defects that could increase costs.

If our properties are not updated to meet guest preferences, if properties under development or renovation are delayed in opening as scheduled, or if renovation investments adversely affect or fail to improve performance, our operations and financial results could be negatively affected.

Our hotels are geographically concentrated in a limited number of markets and, accordingly, we could be disproportionately harmed by adverse changes to these markets, natural disasters or threat of a terrorist attack.

A significant portion of our room count is located in a concentrated number of markets that exposes us to greater risk to local economic or business conditions, changes in hotel supply in these markets, and other conditions than more geographically diversified hotel companies. As of December 31, 2017, hotels in New York, Washington, D.C., San Francisco, New Orleans, Florida and Hawaii represented approximately 60% of our room count, with our hotels in Hawaii alone representing approximately 12% of our room

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count. An economic downturn, an increase in hotel supply in these markets, a force majeure event, a natural disaster (such as hurricanes, tropical storms, earthquakes, and fires), a terrorist attack or similar disaster in any one of these markets likely would cause a decline in the hotel market and adversely affect occupancy rates, the financial performance of our hotels in these markets and our overall results of operations.

The threat of terrorism also may negatively impact hotel occupancy and average daily rate, due to resulting disruptions in business and leisure travel patterns and concerns about travel safety. Hotels in major metropolitan areas, such as the gateway cities that represent our target markets, may be particularly adversely affected due to concerns about travel safety. The possibility of future attacks may hamper business and leisure travel patterns and, accordingly, the performance of our business and our operations.

If the insurance that we carry does not sufficiently cover damage or other potential losses or liabilities to third parties involving our properties, our profits could be reduced.

We operate in certain areas where the risk of natural disaster or other catastrophic losses vary, and the incidence of such an event could cause substantial damage to our properties or the surrounding area.

 

We carry insurance from solvent insurance carriers that we believe is adequate for foreseeable first- and third-party losses and with terms and conditions that are reasonable and customary. Nevertheless, market forces beyond our control could limit the scope of the insurance coverage that we can obtain or may otherwise restrict our ability to buy insurance coverage at reasonable rates. In the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage that we carry may not be sufficient to pay the full value of our financial obligations, our liabilities or the replacement cost of any lost investment or property.

For example, in 2017, Hurricane Irma forced us to close two of our hotels in Key West, Florida for several weeks, and Hurricane Maria caused significant damage to the Caribe Hilton in Puerto Rico, which we believe will remain closed for all of 2018. While we expect that insurance proceeds, excluding any applicable deductibles, will be sufficient to cover a significant portion of the property damage to the hotels and the near-term loss of business, the damage from Hurricane Maria could result in a reduction of our profits. Additionally, we will continue to experience business disruptions at the Caribe Hilton until we make necessary repairs and reopen the hotel, which could also reduce our profits. The Caribe Hilton represents approximately 1% of Hotel Adjusted EBITDA.

Additionally, because certain types of losses are uncertain, they may be uninsurable or prohibitively expensive. There are also other risks that may fall outside the general coverage terms and limits of our policies. In some cases, these factors could result in certain losses being completely uninsured. As a result, we could lose some or all of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenues, profits, management fees or franchise fees from the property.

Our properties may not be permitted to be rebuilt if destroyed.

Certain of our properties may qualify as legally permissible nonconforming uses and improvements, including certain of our iconic and most profitable properties. If a substantial portion of any such properties were to be destroyed by fire or other casualty, we might not be permitted to rebuild that property as it now exists or at all, regardless of the availability of insurance proceeds. Any loss of this nature, whether insured or not, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and prospects.

We have investments in joint venture projects, which limit our ability to manage third-party risks associated with these projects.

In certain cases, we are minority participants and do not control the decisions of the joint ventures in which we are involved. Therefore, joint venture investments may involve risks such as the possibility that a co-venturer in an investment might become bankrupt, be unable to meet its capital contribution obligations, have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our business interests or goals or take actions that are contrary to our instructions or to applicable laws and regulations. In addition, we may be unable to take action without the approval of our joint venture partners, or our joint venture partners could take actions binding on the joint venture without our consent. Consequently, actions by a co-venturer or other third-party could expose us to claims for damages, financial penalties and reputational harm, any of which could adversely affect our business and operations. In addition, we may agree to guarantee indebtedness incurred by a joint venture or co-venturer or provide standard indemnifications to lenders for loss liability or damage occurring as a result of our actions or actions of the joint venture or other co-venturers. Such a guarantee or indemnity may be on a joint and several basis with a co-venturer, in which case we may be liable in the event that our co-venturer defaults on its guarantee obligation. The non-performance of a co-venturer’s obligations may cause losses to us in excess of the capital we initially may have invested or committed.

Preparing our financial statements requires us to have access to information regarding the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of our joint ventures. Any deficiencies in our joint ventures’ internal controls over financial reporting may affect our ability to report our financial results accurately or prevent or detect fraud. Such deficiencies also could result in restatements of, or other adjustments to, our previously reported or announced operating results, which could diminish investor confidence and reduce the market price for our shares. Additionally, if our joint ventures are unable to provide this information for any meaningful

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period or fail to meet expected deadlines, we may be unable to satisfy our financial reporting obligations or timely file our periodic reports.

Although our joint ventures may generate positive cash flow, in some cases they may be unable to distribute that cash to the joint venture partners. Additionally, in some cases our joint venture partners control distributions and may choose to leave capital in the joint venture rather than distribute it. Because our ability to generate liquidity from our joint ventures depends in part on their ability to distribute capital to us, our failure to receive distributions from our joint venture partners could reduce our cash flow return on these investments.

We own and lease hotels outside the United States, which exposes us to risks related to doing business in international markets.

Our portfolio includes 5 hotels located outside of the United States, including joint venture interests. As a result, we are subject to the risks of doing business outside the United States, including:

 

rapid changes in governmental, economic and political policy, political or civil unrest, acts of terrorism or the threat of international boycotts or U.S. anti-boycott legislation;

 

increases in anti-American sentiment and the identification of the licensed brands as an American brand;

 

recessionary trends or economic instability in international markets;

 

changes in foreign currency exchange rates or currency restructurings and hyperinflation or deflation in the countries in which we operate;

 

the effect of disruptions caused by severe weather, natural disasters, outbreak of disease or other events that make travel to a particular region less attractive or more difficult;

 

the presence and acceptance of varying levels of business corruption in international markets and the effect of various anti-corruption and other laws;

 

the imposition of restrictions on currency conversion or the transfer of funds or limitations on our ability to repatriate non-U.S. earnings in a tax-efficient manner;

 

the ability to comply with or effect of complying with complex and changing laws, regulations and policies of foreign governments that may affect investments or operations, including foreign ownership restrictions, import and export controls, tariffs, embargoes, increases in taxes paid and other changes in applicable tax laws;

 

uncertainties as to local laws regarding, and enforcement of, contract and intellectual property rights;

 

forced nationalization of our properties by local, state or national governments;

 

the difficulties involved in managing an organization doing business in many different countries; and

 

difficulties in complying with U.S. rules governing REITs while operating outside of the United States.

These factors may adversely affect the revenues from and the market value of our properties located in international markets. While these factors and the effect of these factors are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could lower our revenues, increase our costs, reduce our profits or disrupt our business operations.

Failure to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our international operations may increase costs, reduce profits, limit growth or subject us to broader liability.

Our business operations in countries outside the U.S. are subject to a number of laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the FCPA, as well as trade sanctions administered by the OFAC. The FCPA is intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials and requires us to keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect our transactions. OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign states, organizations and individuals. Although we have policies in place designed to comply with applicable sanctions, rules and regulations, it is possible that hotels we own in the countries and territories in which we operate may provide services to persons subject to sanctions. In addition, some of our operations may be subject to the laws and regulations of non-U.S. jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act 2010, which contains significant prohibitions on bribery and other corrupt business activities, and other local anti-corruption laws in the countries and territories in which we conduct operations.

If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we could be exposed to claims for damages, financial penalties, reputational harm and incarceration of employees or restrictions on our operation or ownership of hotels and other properties, including the termination of ownership rights. In addition, in certain circumstances, the actions of parties affiliated with us (including Hilton, or in the future, other hotel managers or franchisors, joint venture partners, and our and their respective employees and agents)

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may expose us to liability under the FCPA, U.S. sanctions or other laws. These restrictions could increase costs of operations, reduce profits or cause us to forgo development opportunities that would otherwise support growth.

We may be subject to unknown or contingent liabilities related to recently acquired hotels and the hotels that we may acquire in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability growth.

Our current hotels, and the hotels that we may acquire in the future, may be subject to unknown or contingent liabilities for which we may have no recourse, or only limited recourse, against the sellers. In general, the representations and warranties provided under the transaction agreements related to the purchase of the hotels we acquire may not survive the completion of the transactions. Furthermore, indemnification under such agreements may be limited and subject to various materiality thresholds, a significant deductible or an aggregate cap on losses. As a result, there is no guarantee that we will recover any amounts with respect to losses due to breaches by the sellers of their representations and warranties. In addition, the total amount of costs and expenses that may be incurred with respect to liabilities associated with these hotels may exceed our expectations, and we may experience other unanticipated adverse effects, all of which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

We depend on external sources of capital for future growth; therefore, any disruption to our ability to access capital at times and on terms reasonably acceptable to us may affect adversely our business and results of operations.

Ownership of hotels is a capital-intensive business that requires significant capital expenditures to acquire, operate, maintain and renovate properties. To qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain), including taxable income recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes but with regard to which we do not receive cash. As a result, we must finance our growth, fund debt repayments and fund these significant capital expenditures largely with external sources of capital. Our ability to access external capital could be hampered by a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:

 

price volatility, dislocations and liquidity disruptions in the U.S. and global equity and credit markets;

 

changes in market perception of our growth potential, including downgrades by rating agencies;

 

decreases in our current and estimated future earnings;

 

decreases or fluctuations in the market price of our common stock;

 

increases in interest rates; and

 

the terms of our existing indebtedness.

Any of these factors, individually or in combination, could prevent us from being able to obtain the external capital we require on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to finance our future growth and our financial condition and results of operations. Potential consequences of disruptions in U.S. and global equity and credit markets and, as a result, an inability for us to access external capital at times, and on terms, reasonably acceptable to us could include:

 

a need to seek alternative sources of capital with less attractive terms, such as more restrictive covenants and shorter maturity;

 

adverse effects on our financial condition and liquidity, and our ability to meet our anticipated requirements for working capital, debt service and capital expenditures;

 

higher costs of capital;

 

an inability to enter into derivative contracts to hedge risks associated with changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates; or

 

an inability to execute on our acquisition strategy.

Cyber threats and the risk of data breaches or disruptions of our hotel managers’ or our own information technology systems could materially adversely affect our business.

Hilton is dependent on information technology networks and systems, including the internet, to access, process, transmit and store proprietary and customer information, and we expect that other hotel managers that we contract with in the future also will be dependent on such networks. These complex networks include reservation systems, vacation exchange systems, hotel management systems, customer databases, call centers, administrative systems, and third-party vendor systems. These systems require the collection and retention of large volumes of personally identifiable information of hotel guests, including credit card numbers.

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These information networks and systems can be vulnerable to threats such as system, network or internet failures; computer hacking or business disruption; cyber-terrorism; viruses, worms or other malicious software programs; and employee error, negligence or fraud. The risks from these cyber threats are significant. We rely on Hilton, and other hotel managers that we contract with in the future, to protect proprietary and customer information from these threats. Any compromise of our hotel manager’s networks could result in a disruption to operations, such as disruptions in fulfilling guest reservations, delayed bookings or sales, or lost guest reservations. Any of these events could, in turn, result in disruption of the operations of our hotels, in increased costs and in potential litigation and liability. In addition, public disclosure, or loss of customer or proprietary information could result in damage to Hilton’s reputation and a loss of confidence among hotel guests and result in reputational harm for our hotels, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition to the information technologies and systems our hotel managers use to operate our hotels, we have our own corporate technologies and systems that are used to access, store, transmit, and manage or support a variety of business processes. There can be no assurance that the security measures we have taken to protect the contents of these systems will prevent failures, inadequacies or interruptions in system services or that system security will not be breached through physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, and attacks by hackers. Disruptions in service, system shutdowns and security breaches in the information technologies and systems we use, including unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, could have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial reporting and compliance, and subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties which could be significant.

The loss of senior executives or key field personnel, such as general managers, could significantly harm our business.

Our ability to maintain our competitive position depends somewhat on the efforts and abilities of our senior executives. Finding suitable replacements for senior executives could be difficult. Losing the services of one or more of these senior executives could adversely affect strategic relationships, including relationships with Hilton or other hotel managers or franchisors, joint venture partners and vendors, and limit our ability to execute our business strategies.

We also rely on the general managers at each of our hotels to manage daily operations and oversee the efforts of employees. These general managers are trained professionals in the hospitality industry and have extensive experience in many markets worldwide. The failure by us, Hilton or other future third-party hotel managers to retain, train or successfully manage the general managers at our hotels could negatively affect our operations.

We are subject to risks associated with the employment of hotel personnel, particularly with hotels that employ unionized labor, which could increase our operating costs, reduce the flexibility of our hotel managers to adjust the size of the workforce at our hotels and could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

We have entered into management agreements with Hilton to operate each of our hotels, with the exception of the Select Hotels. Hilton is generally responsible for hiring and maintaining the labor force at each of the hotels they manage. Although, with the exception of the Select Hotels, we generally do not directly employ or manage employees at our hotels, we are subject to many of the costs and risks generally associated with the hotel labor force. Increased labor costs due to factors like additional taxes or requirements to incur additional employee benefits costs may adversely impact our operating costs. Labor costs can be particularly challenging at those of our hotels with unionized labor, and additional hotels may be subject to new collective bargaining agreements in the future.

From time to time, strikes, lockouts, public demonstrations or other negative actions and publicity may disrupt hotel operations at any of our hotels, negatively impact our reputation or the reputation of our brands, or harm relationships with the labor forces at our hotels. We also may incur increased legal costs and indirect labor costs as a result of contract disputes or other events. Additionally, hotels where our hotel managers have collective bargaining agreements with employees are more highly affected by labor force activities than others. The resolution of labor disputes or new or re-negotiated labor contracts could lead to increased labor costs, either by increases in wages or benefits or by changes in work rules that raise hotel operating costs. Furthermore, labor agreements may limit the ability of our hotel managers to reduce the size of hotel workforces during an economic downturn because collective bargaining agreements are negotiated between the hotel managers and labor unions. We do not have the ability to control the outcome of these negotiations. We are also subject to similar risks where we directly employ labor at our Select Hotels and hotel laundry business.

Our active management and operation of the Select Hotels and the hotel laundry business may expose us to potential liabilities beyond those traditionally associated with lodging REITs.

In addition to owning hotels and engaging hotel managers to operate our hotels, we also manage and operate the Select Hotels and, through a TRS, manage and operate the hotel laundry business. Managing and operating the Select Hotels and the hotel laundry business requires us to employ significantly more people than a REIT that does not operate businesses of such type and scale. In addition, managing and operating both a hotel business and a hotel laundry business exposes us to potential liabilities associated with

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the operation of those businesses. Such potential liabilities are not typically associated with lodging REITs and include potential liabilities for environmental violations, wage and hour violations, workplace injury and other employment violations. In the event that one or more of the potential liabilities associated with managing and operating a hotel and hotel laundry business materializes, such liabilities could damage our reputation, and could adversely affect our financial position and results of operations, possibly to a material degree.

Changes to estimates or projections used to assess the fair value of our assets, or operating results that are lower than our current estimates at certain locations, may cause us to incur impairment losses that could adversely affect our results of operations.

Our total assets include goodwill, intangible assets with finite useful lives and substantial amounts of long-lived assets, principally property and equipment, including hotel properties. We evaluate our goodwill for impairment on an annual basis or at other times during the year if events or circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value is below the carrying value. We evaluate our intangible assets with finite useful lives and long-lived assets for impairment when circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Our evaluation of impairment requires us to make certain estimates and assumptions including projections of future results. After performing our evaluation for impairment, including an analysis to determine the recoverability of long-lived assets, we will record an impairment loss when the carrying value of the underlying asset, asset group or reporting unit exceeds its fair value. If the estimates or assumptions used in our evaluation of impairment change, we may be required to record additional impairment losses on certain of these assets. If these impairment losses are significant, our results of operations would be adversely affected.

Exchange rate fluctuations and foreign exchange hedging arrangements could result in significant foreign currency gains and losses and affect our business results.

Conducting business in currencies other than the U.S. dollar subjects us to fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could have a negative effect on our financial results. We earn revenues and incur expenses in foreign currencies as part of our operations outside of the U.S. As a result, fluctuations in currency exchange rates may significantly increase the amount of U.S. dollars required for foreign currency expenses or significantly decrease the U.S. dollars received from foreign currency revenues. We also have exposure to currency translation risk because, generally, the results of our business outside of the U.S. are reported in local currency and then translated to U.S. dollars for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. As a result, changes between the foreign exchange rates and the U.S. dollar will affect the recorded amounts of our foreign assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and could have a negative effect on our financial results. Our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations will grow if the relative contribution of our operations outside the U.S. increases.

To attempt to mitigate foreign currency exposure, we may enter into foreign exchange hedging agreements with financial institutions. However, these hedging agreements may not eliminate foreign currency risk entirely and involve costs and risks of their own in the form of transaction costs, credit requirements and counterparty risk. The REIT rules impose certain restrictions on our ability to utilize hedges, swaps and other types of derivatives to hedge our liabilities.

We will not recognize any increase in the value of the land or improvements subject to our ground leases and may only receive a portion of compensation paid in any eminent domain proceeding with respect to the hotel.

Unless we purchase a fee interest in the land and improvements subject to our ground leases, we will not have any economic interest in the land or improvements at the expiration of our ground leases and therefore we generally will not share in any increase in value of the land or improvements beyond the term of a ground lease, notwithstanding our capital outlay to purchase our interest in the hotel or fund improvements thereon, and will lose our right to use the hotel. Furthermore, if a governmental authority seizes a hotel subject to a ground lease under its eminent domain power, we may only be entitled to a portion of any compensation awarded for the seizure.

Adverse judgments or settlements resulting from legal proceedings in which we may be involved in the normal course of our business could reduce our profits or limit our ability to operate our business.

In the normal course of our business, we are involved in various legal proceedings. Hilton and other third-party hotel managers that we may engage in the future, whom we indemnify for legal costs resulting from management of our hotels, may also be involved in various legal proceedings relating to the management of our hotels. The outcome of these proceedings cannot be predicted. If any of these proceedings were to be determined adversely to us or our third-party hotel managers or a settlement involving a payment of a material sum of money were to occur, it could materially and adversely affect our profits or ability to operate our business. Additionally, we could become the subject of future claims by third parties, including current or former third-party property owners, guests who use our properties, our employees, our investors or regulators. Any significant adverse judgments or settlements would reduce our profits and could limit our ability to operate our business. Further, we may incur costs related to claims for which we have appropriate third-party indemnity, but such third parties fail to fulfill their contractual obligations.

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Risks Related to Our Industry

We operate in a highly competitive industry.

The lodging industry is highly competitive. Our principal competitors are other owners and investors in upper upscale, full-service hotels, including other lodging REITs, as well as major hospitality chains with well-established and recognized brands. Our hotels face competition for individual guests, group reservations and conference business. We also compete against smaller hotel chains, independent and local hotel owners and operators. Increasingly, we also face competition from peer-to-peer inventory sources that allow travelers to stay at homes and apartments booked from owners, thereby providing an alternative to hotel rooms. We compete for these customers based primarily on brand name recognition and reputation, as well as location, room rates, property size and availability of rooms and conference space, quality of the accommodations, customer satisfaction, amenities and the ability to earn and redeem loyalty program awards. New hotels may be constructed and these additions create new competitors, in some cases without corresponding increases in demand for hotel rooms. Our competitors may have greater commercial, financial and marketing resources and more efficient technology platforms, which could allow them to improve their properties and expand and improve their marketing efforts in ways that could affect our ability to compete for guests effectively and adversely affect our revenues and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.

We are subject to the business, financial and operating risks inherent to the lodging industry, any of which could reduce our revenues, the value of our properties and our ability to make distributions and limit opportunities for growth.

Our business is subject to a number of business, financial and operating risks inherent to the lodging industry, including:

 

significant competition from other lodging businesses and hospitality providers in the markets in which we operate;

 

changes in operating costs, including energy, food, employee compensation and benefits and insurance;

 

increases in costs due to inflation or otherwise, including increases in our operating costs, that may not be fully offset by revenue increases in our business;

 

changes in taxes and governmental regulations that influence or set wages, prices, interest rates or construction and maintenance procedures and costs;

 

the costs and administrative burdens associated with complying with applicable laws and regulations;

 

the costs or desirability of complying with local practices and customs;

 

significant increases in cost for health care coverage for employees, including employees of our hotel managers, and potential government regulation with respect to health care coverage;

 

shortages of labor or labor disruptions;

 

the ability of third-party internet and other travel intermediaries to attract and retain customers;

 

the availability and cost of capital necessary to fund investments, capital expenditures and service debt obligations;

 

delays in or cancellations of planned or future development or refurbishment projects;

 

the quality of services provided by Hilton and any other future third-party hotel managers;

 

the financial condition of Hilton and any other future third-party hotel managers and franchisors, developers and joint venture partners;

 

relationships with Hilton and any other future third-party hotel managers, developers and joint venture partners, including the risk that Hilton or any other future third-party hotel managers or franchisors may terminate our management or franchise agreements and that joint venture partners may terminate joint venture agreements;

 

cyclical over-building in the hotel industry;

 

changes in desirability of geographic regions of the hotels in our portfolio, geographic concentration in our portfolio and shortages of desirable locations for development;

 

changes in the supply and demand for hotel services (including rooms, food and beverage and other products and services); and

 

decreases in the frequency of business travel that may result from alternatives to in-person meetings, including virtual meetings hosted online or over private teleconferencing networks.

Any of these factors could increase our costs or reduce our revenues, adversely impacting our ability to make distributions to our stockholders or otherwise affect our ability to maintain existing properties or develop new properties.

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Macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control can adversely affect and reduce lodging demand.

Macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control can reduce demand for our products and services, including demand for rooms at our hotels. These factors include, but are not limited to:

 

changes in general economic conditions, including low consumer confidence, unemployment levels and depressed real estate prices resulting from the severity and duration of any downturn in the U.S. or global economy;

 

war, political conditions or civil unrest, violence or terrorist activities or threats and heightened travel security measures instituted in response to these events;

 

decreased corporate or government travel-related budgets and spending, as well as cancellations, deferrals or renegotiations of group business such as industry conventions;

 

statements, actions, or interventions by governmental officials related to travel and corporate travel-related activities and the resulting negative public perception of such travel and activities;

 

the financial and general business condition of the airline, automotive and other transportation-related industries and its effect on travel, including decreased airline capacity and routes, as well as the price of crude oil and refined products;

 

conditions that negatively shape public perception of travel, including travel-related accidents and outbreaks of pandemic or contagious diseases, such as Ebola, avian flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 (swine flu) and the Zika virus;

 

cyber-attacks;

 

climate change or availability of natural resources;

 

natural or manmade disasters, such as earthquakes, windstorms, tsunamis, tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, drought, fires, oil spills and nuclear incidents;

 

changes in the desirability of particular locations or travel patterns of customers; and

 

organized labor activities, which could cause a diversion of business from hotels involved in labor negotiations and loss of business for our hotels generally as a result of certain labor tactics.

Any one or more of these factors can adversely affect, and from time to time have adversely affected, individual hotels, particular regions and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Contraction in the global economy or low levels of economic growth could adversely affect our revenues and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.

Consumer demand for products and services provided by the lodging industry is closely linked to the performance of the general economy and is sensitive to business and personal discretionary spending levels. Decreased global or regional demand for products and services provided by the lodging industry can be especially pronounced during periods of economic contraction or low levels of economic growth, and the recovery period in our industry may lag overall economic improvement. Declines in demand for our products and services due to general economic conditions could negatively affect our business by decreasing the revenues and profitability of our properties.

New hotel room supply is also an important factor that can affect the lodging industry’s performance and overbuilding has the potential to further exacerbate the negative impact of an economic downturn. Room rates and occupancy, and thus RevPAR, tend to increase when demand growth exceeds supply growth. A reduction or slowdown in growth of lodging demand or increased growth in lodging supply could result in returns that are substantially below expectations or result in losses, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.

The lodging industry is subject to seasonal volatility, which is expected to contribute to fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations.

The lodging industry is seasonal in nature. The periods during which our properties experience higher revenues vary from property to property, depending principally upon location and the customer base served. This seasonality can be expected to cause periodic fluctuations in a hotel’s rooms revenues, occupancy levels, room rates and operating expenses. We can provide no assurances that our cash flows will be sufficient to offset any shortfalls that occur as a result of these fluctuations. Consequently, volatility in our financial performance resulting from the seasonality of the lodging industry could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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With respect to our leased hotels, we could be materially and adversely affected if we are found to be in breach of a ground lease or are unable to renew a ground lease.

If we are found to be in breach of certain of our third-party ground leases, we could lose the right to use the applicable hotel. In addition, unless we can purchase a fee interest in the underlying land and improvements or extend the terms of these leases before their expiration, as to which no assurance can be given, we will lose our right to operate these properties and our interest in the improvements upon expiration of the leases. Our ability to exercise any extension options relating to our ground leases is subject to the condition that we are not in default under the terms of the ground lease at the time that we exercise such options, and we can provide no assurances that we will be able to exercise any available options at such time. Furthermore, we can provide no assurances that we will be able to renew any ground lease upon its expiration. If we were to lose the right to use a hotel due to a breach or non-renewal of the ground lease, we would be unable to derive income from such hotel and may be required to purchase an interest in another hotel in an attempt to replace that income, which could adversely affect us. As an example of a non-renewal, with respect to our ground lease for the Hilton Chicago O’Hare Airport, the City of Chicago has elected not to renew or extend the lease at the end of the contract term in December 2018. Accordingly, the city of Chicago will assume ownership of the hotel. The Hilton Chicago O’Hare Airport represents 1.7% of Hotel Adjusted EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2017.

The growth of internet reservation channels could adversely affect our business and profitability.

A significant percentage of hotel rooms for individual guests are booked through internet travel intermediaries. Search engines and peer-to-peer inventory sources also provide online travel services that compete with our hotels. If bookings shift to higher cost distribution channels, including internet travel intermediaries and meeting procurement firms, it could materially impact our profits. Additionally, as intermediary bookings increase, these intermediaries may be able to obtain higher commissions, reduced room rates or other significant contract concessions from our brands and management companies. Moreover, hospitality intermediaries generally employ aggressive marketing strategies, including expending significant resources for online and television advertising campaigns to drive consumers to their websites. As a result, consumers may develop brand loyalties to the intermediaries’ offered brands, websites and reservations systems rather than to the Hilton or other brands of hotels we own in the future. If this happens, our business and profitability may be adversely affected. Internet travel intermediaries also have recently been subject to regulatory scrutiny, particularly in Europe. The outcome of this regulatory activity may affect the ability of Hilton and other brand managers to compete for direct bookings through their own internet channels, which could have an adverse impact on occupancy at our hotels in Europe.

In addition, although internet travel intermediaries have traditionally competed to attract individual consumers or “transient” business rather than group and convention business, in recent years they have expanded their business to include marketing to large group and convention business. If that growth continues, it could both divert group and convention business away from our hotels and also increase our cost of sales for group and convention business. Consolidation of internet travel intermediaries, and the entry of major internet companies into the internet travel bookings business, also could divert bookings away from Hilton or other brand manager websites and increase our cost of sales.

Governmental regulation may adversely affect the operation of our properties.

In many jurisdictions, the hotel industry is subject to extensive foreign or U.S. federal, state and local governmental regulations, including those relating to the service of alcoholic beverages, the preparation and sale of food and those relating to building and zoning requirements. We and our hotel managers are also subject to licensing and regulation by foreign or U.S. state and local departments relating to health, sanitation, fire and safety standards, and to laws governing our relationships with employees, including minimum wage requirements, overtime, working conditions status and citizenship requirements. We and our hotel managers may be required to expend funds to meet foreign or U.S. federal, state and local regulations in connection with the continued operation or remodeling of certain of our properties. The failure to meet the requirements of applicable regulations and licensing requirements, or publicity resulting from actual or alleged failures, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Foreign or U.S. laws and regulations may cause us to incur substantial costs or subject us to potential liabilities.

We are subject to certain compliance costs and potential liabilities under various foreign and U.S. federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern actions including air emissions, the use, storage and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances, and wastewater disposal. Our failure to comply with such laws, including any required permits or licenses, could result in substantial fines or possible revocation of our authority to conduct some of our operations. We could also be liable under such laws for the costs of investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances at our currently or formerly owned or leased real property or at third-party locations in connection with our waste disposal operations, regardless of whether or not we knew of, or caused, the presence or release of such substances. From time to time, we may be required to remediate such substances or remove, abate or manage asbestos, mold, radon gas, lead or other hazardous conditions at our properties. The presence or release of such toxic or hazardous substances could result in third-party claims for personal injury, property or natural resource damages, business interruption or other losses. Such claims and the need to investigate, remediate or

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otherwise address hazardous, toxic or unsafe conditions could adversely affect our operations, the value of any affected real property, or our ability to sell, lease or assign our rights in any such property, or could otherwise harm our business or reputation. Environmental, health and safety requirements have also become increasingly stringent, and our costs may increase as a result. New or revised laws and regulations or new interpretations of existing laws and regulations, such as those related to climate change, could affect the operation of our properties or result in significant additional expense and operating restrictions on us or our hotel managers.

In addition, we are subject to the ADA and similar legislation in certain jurisdictions outside of the U.S. Under the ADA, all public accommodations are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. These regulations apply to accommodations first occupied after January 26, 1993; public accommodations built before January 26, 1993 are required to remove architectural barriers to disabled access where such removal is “readily achievable.” The regulations also mandate certain operational requirements that hotel operators must observe. The failure of a property to comply with the ADA could result in injunctive relief, fines, an award of damages to private litigants or mandated capital expenditures to remedy such noncompliance. Any imposition of injunctive relief, fines, damage awards or capital expenditures could adversely impact our business or results of operations. If we fail to comply with the requirements of the ADA, we could be subject to fines, penalties, injunctive action, reputational harm and other business effects which could materially and negatively affect our performance and results of operations.

Terrorist attacks, military conflicts and the availability of terrorism insurance may adversely affect the lodging industry.

The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001 underscore the possibility that large public facilities or economically important assets could become the target of terrorist attacks in the future. In particular, properties that are well-known or are located in concentrated business sectors in major cities where our hotels are located may be subject to the risk of terrorist attacks.

The occurrence or the possibility of terrorist attacks or military conflicts could:

 

cause damage to one or more of our properties that may not be fully covered by insurance to the value of the damages;

 

cause all or portions of affected properties to be shut down for prolonged periods, resulting in a loss of income;

 

generally reduce travel to affected areas for tourism and business or adversely affect the willingness of customers to stay in or avail themselves of the services of the affected properties;

 

expose us to a risk of monetary claims arising out of death, injury or damage to property caused by any such attacks; and

 

result in higher costs for security and insurance premiums or diminish the availability of insurance coverage for losses related to terrorist attacks, particularly for properties in target areas, all of which could adversely affect our results.

The occurrence of a terrorist attack with respect to one of our properties could directly and materially adversely affect our results of operations. Furthermore, the loss of any of our well-known buildings could indirectly affect the value of the brands with which we are affiliated, which would in turn adversely affect our business prospects.

In addition, following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City and the Washington, D.C. area, Congress passed the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, which established the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program (“Program”) to provide insurance capacity for terrorist acts. The Program expired at the end of 2014 but was reauthorized, with some adjustments to its provisions, in January 2015 for six years through December 31, 2020. We carry insurance from solvent insurance carriers to respond to both first-party and third-party liability losses related to terrorism. We purchase our first-party property damage and business interruption insurance from a stand-alone market in place of and to supplement insurance from government run pools. If the Program is not extended or renewed upon its expiration in 2020, or if there are changes to the Program that would negatively affect insurance carriers, premiums for terrorism insurance coverage will likely increase and/or the terms of such insurance may be materially amended to increase stated exclusions or to otherwise effectively decrease the scope of coverage available, perhaps to the point where it is effectively unavailable.

Changes to accounting rules or regulations may adversely affect our reported financial condition and results of operations.

New accounting rules or regulations and varying interpretations of existing accounting rules or regulations have occurred and may occur in the future. A change in accounting rules or regulations may require retrospective application and affect our reporting of transactions completed before the change is effective, and future changes to accounting rules or regulations may adversely affect our reported financial condition and results of operations. Refer to Note 2: “Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a summary of accounting standards issued but not yet adopted.

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

Our indebtedness and other contractual obligations could adversely affect our financial condition, our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, our ability to operate our business, our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and our ability to pay our debts and could divert our cash flow from operations for debt payments.

Our outstanding debt and other contractual obligations could have important consequences, including:

 

requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to debt service payments, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures, distributions to stockholders and to pursue future business opportunities;

 

increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry or competitive developments;

 

exposing us to increased interest expense, as our degree of leverage may cause the interest rates of any future indebtedness (whether fixed or floating rate interest) to be higher than they would be otherwise;

 

exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates because certain of our indebtedness is at variable rates of interest;

 

making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness, and any failure to comply with the obligations of any of our debt instruments, including restrictive covenants, could result in an event of default that accelerates our obligation to repay indebtedness;

 

restricting us from making strategic acquisitions or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures;

 

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, satisfaction of debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes; and

 

limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who may be better positioned to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from exploiting.

Certain of our debt agreements impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries, which may prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities.

The debt agreements that govern our outstanding indebtedness impose, and the credit agreement that governs our senior unsecured credit facilities imposes, significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions may limit our ability and/or the ability of our subsidiaries to, among other things:

 

incur or guarantee additional debt or issue disqualified stock or preferred stock;

 

make certain investments;

 

incur certain liens;

 

enter into transactions with affiliates;

 

merge or consolidate;

 

enter into agreements that restrict the ability of subsidiaries to make dividends or other payments to us or the other subsidiaries; and

 

transfer or sell assets.

In addition, the credit agreement that governs our senior unsecured credit facilities contains certain affirmative covenants that require us to be in compliance with certain leverage and financial ratios and the mortgage-backed loans of our subsidiaries also require them to maintain certain debt service coverage ratios and minimum net worth requirements.

As a result of these restrictions, we are limited as to how we conduct our business and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. We may not be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future and, if we fail to do so, we may not be able to obtain waivers from the lenders and/or amend the covenants.

Our failure to comply with the restrictive covenants described above, as well as other terms of our other indebtedness and/or the terms of any future indebtedness from time to time, could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in our being required to repay these borrowings before their due date. If we are forced to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms or are unable to refinance these borrowings, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

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Servicing our indebtedness will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate sufficient cash depends on many factors, some of which are not within our control.

Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness, to fund planned capital expenditures and to make distributions to our stockholders will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. To a certain extent, this is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt and meet our other commitments, we may need to restructure or refinance all or a portion of our debt, sell material assets or operations or raise additional debt or equity capital. We may not be able to effect any of these actions on a timely basis, on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and these actions may not be sufficient to meet our capital requirements. In addition, the terms of our existing or future debt arrangements may restrict us from effecting any of these alternatives. Our ability to raise additional equity capital may be restricted because the issuance of our stock may cause the spin-off to be a taxable event for Hilton Parent under Section 355(e) of the Code, and under the Tax Matters Agreement, we could be required to indemnify Hilton Parent and/or HGV Parent for that tax and certain covenants may restrict issuances of our stock during the two-year period following the spin-off. See “Spin-off Related Agreements—Tax Matters Agreement.”

We may be able to incur substantially more debt and enter into other transactions, which could further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above. The use of debt to finance future acquisitions could restrict operations, inhibit our ability to grow our business and revenues, and negatively affect our business and financial results.

We may be able to incur significant additional indebtedness, including secured debt, in the future. We may also incur significant additional obligations, such as trade payables without restrictions under our debt instruments. In addition, our organizational documents contain no limitation on the amount of debt we may incur, and our board of directors may change our financing policy at any time without stockholder notice or approval. To the extent new debt is added to our current debt levels, the substantial leverage risks described in the preceding three risk factors would increase.

We intend to incur additional debt in connection with future hotel acquisitions. We may, in some instances, borrow under our senior unsecured revolving credit facility or borrow new funds to acquire hotels. In addition, we may incur mortgage debt by obtaining loans secured by a portfolio of some or all of the hotels that we own or acquire. If necessary or advisable, we also may borrow funds to make distributions to our stockholders to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To the extent that we incur debt in the future and do not have sufficient funds to repay such debt at maturity, it may be necessary to refinance the debt through debt or equity financings, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all and which could be dilutive to our stockholders. If we are unable to refinance our debt on acceptable terms or at all, we may be forced to dispose of hotels at inopportune times or on disadvantageous terms, which could result in losses. To the extent we cannot meet our future debt service obligations, we will risk losing to foreclosure some or all of our hotels that may be pledged to secure our obligation.

For tax purposes, a foreclosure of any of our hotels would be treated as a sale of the hotel for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the hotel, we would recognize taxable gain on foreclosure, but we would not receive any cash proceeds, which could impact our ability to meet the REIT distribution requirements imposed by the Code. In addition, we may give full or partial guarantees to lenders of mortgage debt on behalf of the entities that own our hotels. When we give a guarantee on behalf of an entity that owns one of our hotels, we will be responsible to the lender for satisfaction of the debt if it is not paid by such entity. If any of our hotels are foreclosed on due to a default, our ability to pay cash distributions to our stockholders will be limited.

Hedging against interest rate exposure may adversely affect us and may be limited by REIT requirements.

We intend to manage our exposure to interest rate volatility by using interest rate hedging arrangements, such as cap agreements and swap agreements. These agreements involve the risks that these arrangements may fail to protect or adversely affect us because, among other things:

 

interest rate hedging can be expensive, particularly during periods of rising and volatile interest rates;

 

available interest rate hedges may not correspond directly with the interest rate risk for which protection is sought;

 

the duration of the hedge may not match the duration of the related liability;

 

the credit quality of the hedging counterparty owing money on the hedge may be downgraded to such an extent that it impairs our ability to sell or assign our side of the hedging transaction; and

 

the hedging counterparty owing money in the hedging transaction may default on its obligation to pay.

As a result of any of the foregoing, our hedging transactions, which are intended to limit losses, could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, if we fail to maintain adequate hedging arrangements, an increase in interest rates would increase our interest expense on our floating rate debt, including our anticipated senior unsecured credit facilities, reducing our cash flow available for

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other corporate purposes, including investments and distributions to stockholders. In addition, the REIT rules impose certain restrictions on our ability to utilize hedges, swaps and other types of derivatives to hedge our liabilities.

Covenants applicable to future debt could restrict our ability to make distributions to our stockholders, and as a result, we may be unable to make distributions necessary to qualify as a REIT, which could materially and adversely affect us and the market price of our common shares.

We believe we are organized, have operated, and we intend to continue to operate in a manner that enables us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To qualify as a REIT, we generally are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains) each year to our stockholders. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, including net capital gains, we will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed taxable income and gains. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we distribute to our stockholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount of REIT taxable income and net capital gains as specified under the Code. If, as a result of covenants applicable to our future debt, we are restricted from making distributions to our stockholders, we may be unable to make distributions necessary for us to avoid U.S. federal corporate income and excise taxes and to qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT, which could materially and adversely affect us.

Risks Related to the Spin-Off

We may be responsible for U.S. federal income tax liabilities that relate to the spin-off.

Hilton Parent received a ruling (“IRS Ruling”) from the IRS regarding certain U.S. federal income tax aspects of the spin-off. The IRS Ruling received is binding on the IRS, however, the validity of the IRS Ruling is based upon and subject to the accuracy of factual statements and representations made to the IRS by Hilton Parent. As a result of the IRS’s ruling policy at the time of Hilton Parent’s submission, with respect to transactions under Section 355 of the Code, the IRS Ruling is limited to specified aspects of the spin-off under Section 355 of the Code and does not represent a determination by the IRS that all of the requirements necessary to obtain tax-free treatment to holders of Hilton Parent’s common stock and to Hilton Parent have been satisfied. Moreover, if any statement or representation upon which the IRS Ruling is based is incorrect or untrue in any material respect, or if the facts upon which the IRS Ruling is based are materially different from the facts that prevailed at the time of the spin-off, the IRS Ruling could be invalidated. Additionally, legislation enacted after the ruling was requested denies tax-free treatment to a spin-off if only one of either the distributing corporation or the spun-off corporation is a REIT and prevents a distributing corporation or a spun-off corporation from electing REIT status for a 10-year period following a tax-free spin-off. Moreover, U.S. Treasury regulations would require the recognition of taxable gain in connection with the spin-off of an entity that is a REIT or elects REIT status. Under effective date provisions, the legislation and regulations do not apply to distributions described in a ruling request initially submitted to the IRS before December 7, 2015. Because the initial request for the IRS Ruling was submitted before that date and because we believe the distribution will be considered to have been described in that initial request, we believe the legislation and regulations do not apply to the spin-off. However, no ruling was obtained on the effective date provisions and thus no assurance can be given in that regard. In particular, the IRS or a court could disagree with our view regarding the effective date provisions based on any differences that exist between the description in the ruling request and the actual facts relating to the spin-off. If the effective date provisions did not apply to the spin-off, either the spin-off would not qualify for tax-free treatment or we would not be eligible to elect REIT status for a 10-year period following the spin-off.

In addition, the spin-off was conditioned on the receipt of an opinion of legal counsel to the effect that the distributions of Park Parent (and HGV Parent) common stock will qualify as tax-free distributions under Section 355 of the Code. An opinion of legal counsel is not binding on the IRS. Accordingly, the IRS may reach conclusions with respect to the spin-off that are different from the conclusions reached in the opinion. The opinion was based on certain factual statements and representations, which, if incomplete or untrue in any material respect, could alter legal counsel’s conclusions.

Neither we nor Hilton Parent are aware of any facts or circumstances that would cause any such factual statements or representations to the IRS Ruling or spin-off tax counsel to be incomplete or untrue or cause the facts on which the IRS Ruling and legal opinion are based to be materially different from the facts at the time of the spin-off.

If all or a portion of the spin-off does not qualify as a tax-free transaction for any reason, including because any of the factual statements or representations to the IRS or to spin-off tax counsel are incomplete or untrue, because the facts upon which the IRS Ruling is based are materially different from the facts at the time of the spin-off or because one or more sales of our common stock, Hilton Parent common stock or HGV Parent common stock by our respective stockholders, including Blackstone, after the spin-off cause the spin-off not to qualify as a tax-free transaction, Hilton Parent may recognize a substantial gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In such case, under U.S. Treasury regulations, each member of the Hilton consolidated group at the time of the spin-off (including us) would be jointly and severally liable for the resulting entire amount of any U.S. federal income tax liability. Additionally, if the distribution of HGV Parent common stock and/or the distribution of Park Parent common stock do not qualify as

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tax-free under Section 355 of the Code, Hilton Parent stockholders will be treated as having received a taxable dividend to the extent of Hilton Parent’s current and accumulated earnings and profits and then would have a tax-free basis recovery up to the amount of their tax basis in their shares and then would have taxable gain from the sale or exchange of the shares to the extent of any excess.

Even if the spin-off otherwise qualifies as a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the distribution will be taxable to us, Hilton Parent and HGV Parent (but not to Hilton Parent stockholders) pursuant to Section 355(e) of the Code if there are one or more acquisitions (including issuances) of our stock, the stock of HGV Parent or the stock of Hilton Parent, representing 50% or more, measured by vote or value, of the stock of any such corporation and the acquisition or acquisitions are deemed to be part of a plan or series of related transactions that include the distribution. Any acquisition of our common stock within two years before or after the distribution (with exceptions, including public trading by less-than-5% stockholders and certain compensatory stock issuances) generally will be presumed to be part of such a plan; however, that presumption is rebuttable. The resulting tax liability would be substantial, and under U.S. Treasury regulations, each member of the Hilton consolidated group at the time of the spin-off (including us and our subsidiaries) would be jointly and severally liable for the resulting U.S. federal income tax liability.

Pursuant to the Tax Matters Agreement, we agreed, subject to certain exceptions, not to enter into certain transactions that could cause any portion of the spin-off to be taxable to Hilton Parent, including under Section 355(e) of the Code. Pursuant to the Tax Matters Agreement, we also agreed to indemnify Hilton Parent and HGV Parent for any tax liabilities resulting from such transactions or other actions we take, or fail to take, and Hilton Parent and HGV Parent agreed to indemnify us for any tax liabilities resulting from transactions entered into by Hilton Parent or HGV Parent. These obligations may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company. For additional detail, see “Spin-off Related Agreements—Tax Matters Agreement.”

The spin-off and related transactions may expose us to potential liabilities arising out of state and federal fraudulent conveyance laws and legal distribution requirements.

The spin-off could be challenged under various state and federal fraudulent conveyance laws. An unpaid creditor or an entity vested with the power of such creditor (such as a trustee or debtor-in-possession in a bankruptcy) could claim that Hilton Parent did not receive fair consideration or reasonably equivalent value in the spin-off, and that the spin-off left Hilton Parent insolvent or with unreasonably small capital or that Hilton Parent intended or believed it would incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature. If a court were to agree with such a plaintiff, then such court could void the spin-off as a fraudulent transfer and could impose a number of different remedies, including without limitation, returning our assets or your shares in our company to Hilton Parent or providing Hilton Parent with a claim for money damages against us in an amount equal to the difference between the consideration received by Hilton Parent and the fair market value of our company at the time of the spin-off.

In addition, the E&P Dividend could similarly be challenged as a fraudulent conveyance or transfer. If a court were to find that the E&P Dividend was a fraudulent transfer or conveyance, a court could void the E&P Dividend, require stockholders to return to us some or all of the E&P Dividend or require stockholders to pay as money damages an equivalent of the value of the E&P Dividend. Moreover, stockholders could be required to return any dividends previously paid by us.

The measure of insolvency for purposes of the fraudulent conveyance laws may vary depending on which jurisdiction’s law is applied. Generally, however, an entity would be considered insolvent if the fair saleable value of its assets is less than the amount of its liabilities (including the probable amount of contingent liabilities), and such entity would be considered to have unreasonably small capital if it lacked adequate capital to conduct its business in the ordinary course and pay its liabilities as they become due. No assurance can be given as to what standard a court would apply to determine insolvency or that a court would determine that Hilton Parent were solvent at the time of or after giving effect to the spin-off, including the distribution of our common stock, or that Park Parent was solvent at the time of or after giving effect to the E&P Dividend.

We could be required to assume responsibility for obligations allocated to Hilton Parent or HGV Parent under the Distribution Agreement.

Under the Distribution Agreement and related ancillary agreements, from and after the spin-offs, each of Hilton Parent, Park Parent and HGV Parent are generally responsible for the debts, liabilities and other obligations related to the business or businesses which they own and operate following the spin-off. Although we do not expect to be liable for any obligations that are not allocated to us under the Distribution Agreement, a court could disregard the allocation agreed to between the parties, and require that we assume responsibility for obligations allocated to Hilton Parent or HGV (for example, tax and/or environmental liabilities), particularly if Hilton Parent or HGV Parent were to refuse or were unable to pay or perform the allocated obligations. See “Spin-off Related Agreements—Distribution Agreement.”

In addition, losses in respect of certain shared contingent liabilities, which generally are not specifically attributable to our business, HGV business or the retained business of Hilton, were determined on the date on which the Distribution Agreement was entered into. The percentage of shared contingent liabilities for which we are responsible was fixed in a manner that is intended to approximate our estimated enterprise value on the distribution date relative to the estimated enterprise values of HGV and Hilton.

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Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, Hilton will generally be vested with the exclusive management and control of all matters pertaining to any such shared contingent liabilities, including the prosecution of any claim and the conduct of any defense. See “Spin-off Related Agreements—Distribution Agreement.”

 

Hilton may fail to perform under various transaction agreements that we have executed as part of the spin-offs.

 

In connection with the spin-offs, we, Hilton Parent and HGV Parent entered into the Distribution Agreement and various other agreements, including the Transition Services Agreement, the Tax Matters Agreement, the Employee Matters Agreement and the Management Agreements. Certain of these agreements provide for the performance of services by each company for the benefit of the other following the spin-offs. We are relying on each of Hilton and HGV to satisfy its performance and payment obligations under these agreements. In addition, it is possible that a court would disregard the allocation agreed to between us, Hilton and HGV and require that we assume responsibility for certain obligations allocated to Hilton and to HGV, particularly if Hilton or HGV were to refuse or were unable to pay or perform such obligations. The impact of any of these factors is difficult to predict, but one or more of them could cause reputational harm and could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.

 

In connection with the spin-offs, Hilton and HGV indemnified us for certain liabilities. These indemnities may not be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of the liabilities assumed by Hilton and HGV, and Hilton and HGV may be unable to satisfy their indemnification obligations to us in the future.

 

In connection with the spin-offs, each of Hilton and HGV indemnified us with respect to such parties’ assumed or retained liabilities pursuant to the Distribution Agreement and breaches of the Distribution Agreement or other agreements related to the spin-offs. The assumed or retained liabilities for which we are indemnified by Hilton and HGV include liabilities associated with businesses and assets allocated to Hilton and HGV in connection with the spin-offs. There can be no assurance that the indemnities from each of Hilton and HGV will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of these and other liabilities. Third parties also could seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that Hilton and HGV have agreed to assume. Even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from Hilton or HGV any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear those losses ourselves. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We have a limited operating history as an independent company and our pre-spin financial information does not predict our future results.

 

The pre-spin financial information we have included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for periods prior to the date of the spin-off, have been derived from the consolidated financial statements of Hilton Parent and do not necessarily reflect what our financial position, results of operations and cash flows would have been as a separate, stand-alone entity during periods prior to the date of the spin-off. Hilton Parent did not account for us, and we were not operated, as a single stand-alone entity for the periods prior to the date of the spin-off. The costs and expenses reflected in our pre-spin financial statements include an allocation for certain corporate functions historically provided by Hilton Parent. These allocations were based on what we and Hilton Parent considered to be reasonable reflections of the pre-spin utilization levels of these services required in support of our business. The pre-spin information does not necessarily indicate what our results of operations, financial position, cash flows or costs and expenses will be in the future, and we may incur greater costs as a separate public company than we did when we were part of Hilton. For additional information, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Selected Consolidated Financial Data,” and the notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Failure to maintain an effective system of internal controls could result in our inability to report our financial results accurately or on a timely basis, which could adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.

Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed. As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal controls we may discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls. As a result of weaknesses that may be identified in our internal controls, we may also identify certain deficiencies in some of our disclosure controls and procedures that we believe require remediation. If we discover weaknesses, we will make efforts to improve our internal and disclosure controls. However, there is no assurance that we will be successful. Any failure to maintain effective controls or timely effect any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls could harm operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, which could affect our ability to remain listed with the NYSE. Ineffective internal and disclosure controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which would likely have a negative effect on the per share trading price of our common shares.

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We are dependent on Hilton Parent to provide certain services pursuant to the Transition Services Agreement.

Historically, we relied on Hilton Parent to provide certain corporate and administrative services such as certain information technology, financial and human resource services. We have developed the capability to provide such services internally and most services that were provided by Hilton Parent were concluded by December 31, 2017. However, we will continue to rely on Hilton Parent to provide certain services for a period of time pursuant to a Transition Services Agreement that we entered in connection with the spin-off. If Hilton Parent is unable or unwilling to provide such services pursuant to the Transition Services Agreement, we may be unable to provide such services ourselves or we may have to incur additional expenditures to obtain such services from another provider.

Risks Related to our REIT Status and Certain Other Tax Items

If we do not qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT, we will be subject to tax as a C corporation and could face a substantial tax liability.

We intend to elect to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning January 4, 2017. We are currently structured and operate consistent with the requirements to be a REIT and we expect to continue to operate so as to qualify as a REIT under the Code. However, qualification as a REIT involves the interpretation and application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which no or only a limited number of judicial or administrative interpretations may exist. Notwithstanding the availability of cure provisions in the Code, we could fail to meet various compliance requirements, which could jeopardize our REIT status. Furthermore, new tax legislation, administrative guidance or court decisions, in each instance potentially with retroactive effect, could make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any tax year, then:

 

we would be taxed as a C corporation, which under current laws, among other things, means being unable to deduct dividends paid to stockholders in computing taxable income and being subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at normal corporate income tax rates;

 

any resulting tax liability could be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our value and financial condition;

 

unless we were entitled to relief under applicable statutory provisions, we would be required to pay income taxes, and thus, our cash available for distribution to stockholders would be reduced for each of the years during which we did not qualify as a REIT; and

 

we generally would not be eligible to requalify as a REIT for the subsequent four taxable years.

In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to make distributions to stockholders, and all distributions to stockholders will be subject to tax as dividend income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. As a result of all these factors, our failure to qualify as a REIT could impair our ability to execute our business and growth strategies, as well as make it more difficult for us to raise capital and service our indebtedness.

Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Code and therefore, in certain circumstances, may be subject to uncertainty.

In order to qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy a number of requirements, including requirements regarding the composition of our assets, the sources of our income and the diversity of our share ownership. Also, we must make distributions to stockholders aggregating annually at least 90% of our “REIT taxable income” (determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gain). Compliance with these requirements and all other requirements for qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which there are only limited judicial and administrative interpretations. The complexity of these provisions and of the applicable Treasury regulations that have been promulgated under the Code is greater in the case of a REIT that, like us, conducts significant business operations through one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries (each a “TRS”). Even a technical or inadvertent action could jeopardize our REIT status. In addition, the determination of various factual matters and circumstances relevant to REIT qualification is not entirely within our control and may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that our organization and operation will enable us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

We may face other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flows.

Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, built-in gain tax on the taxable sale of assets, tax on income from some activities conducted as a result of a foreclosure, and non-U.S. income, state or local income, property and transfer taxes. Moreover, if we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” that income will be subject to a 100% tax. In addition, we could, in certain circumstances, be required to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be significant in amount) in order to utilize one or more relief provisions under the Code to maintain our qualification as a REIT. We are subject to U.S. federal and state income tax (and any applicable non-U.S. taxes) on the income earned by our TRSs. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distributions to stockholders.

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Finally, we have substantial operations and assets outside the U.S. that are subject to tax in those countries. Any of these taxes decrease cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

A forced liquidation of assets may jeopardize our REIT qualification and subject us to taxes.

To qualify as a REIT, we must comply with requirements regarding our assets, our sources of income and our distributions. If we are compelled to liquidate our investments to repay obligations to our lenders, we may be unable to comply with these requirements, ultimately jeopardizing our qualification as a REIT, or we may be subject to corporate tax or a 100% tax on any resultant gain if we sell assets that are treated as dealer property or inventory.

We have limited operating history as a REIT, and our inexperience may impede our ability to successfully manage our business or implement effective internal controls.

We have limited operating history as a REIT. We cannot assure you that our past experience will be sufficient to successfully operate our company as a REIT. As a result, we may incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we have not previously incurred, and our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to comply with these rules and regulations and establish the corporate infrastructure and controls demanded of a REIT. These costs and time commitments could be substantially more than we currently expect. Therefore, our historical consolidated financial statements may not be indicative of our future costs and performance as a REIT.

Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forego and/or liquidate otherwise attractive opportunities and limit our expansion opportunities.

To qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, our sources of income, the nature of our investments in real estate and related assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders and the ownership of our stock. We may also be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution.

As a REIT, we must ensure that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our gross assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified real estate assets. The remainder of our investments in securities cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer unless we and such issuer jointly elect for such issuer to be treated as a TRS under the Code. The total value of all of our investments in TRSs cannot exceed 20% (25% for our tax years that began prior to December 31, 2017) of the value of our total assets. No more than 5% of the value of our assets can consist of the securities of any one issuer other than a TRS. In addition, not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs that are “nonqualified” debt instruments. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we must dispose of a portion of our assets within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter in which such discrepancy arises or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT status and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to liquidate from our portfolio, or contribute to a TRS, otherwise attractive investments in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income, increasing our income tax liability, and reducing amounts available for distribution to our stockholders. In addition, we may also be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution, and may be unable to pursue investments (or, in some cases, forego the sale of such investments) that would be otherwise advantageous to us in order to satisfy the source-of-income or asset-diversification requirements for qualifying as a REIT. Thus, compliance with REIT requirements may hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits.

 

Complying with REIT requirements may force us to borrow to make distributions to stockholders.

From time to time, our taxable income may be greater than our cash flow available for distribution to stockholders. If we do not have other funds available in these situations, we may be unable to distribute substantially all of our taxable income as required by the REIT provisions of the Code. Thus, we could be required to borrow funds, raise additional equity capital, sell a portion of our assets at disadvantageous prices or find another alternative to make distributions to stockholders. These options could increase our costs or reduce our equity.

The ownership of our TRSs (including our TRS lessees) increases our overall tax liability.

Our domestic TRSs are subject to U.S. federal, state and local income tax on their taxable income, which in the case of our TRS lessees, consists of the revenues from the hotels leased by our TRS lessees, net of the operating expenses for such hotels and rent payments to us. Accordingly, although our ownership of our TRS lessees allows us to participate in the operating income from our hotels in addition to receiving rent, that operating income is fully subject to income tax. Our TRSs operating outside of the U.S. are subject to tax in those countries. The after-tax net income of our TRSs, including our TRS lessees is available for distribution to us.

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Our ownership of our TRSs, and any other TRSs we form, will be subject to limitations, and our transactions with our TRSs, and any other TRSs we form, may cause us to be subject to a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if those transactions are not conducted on arm’s-length terms.

Overall, no more than 20% (25% for tax years beginning before December 31, 2017) of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. In addition, the Code limits the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS, subject to an exception for an electing real property trade or business. The Code also imposes a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. The 100% tax may apply, for example, to the extent that we were found to have charged our TRS lessees rent in excess of an arm’s-length rent. It is our policy to evaluate material intercompany transactions and to attempt to set the terms of such transactions so as to achieve substantially the same result as they believe would have been the case if they were unrelated parties. As a result, we believe that all material transactions between and among us and the entities in which we own a direct or indirect interest have been and will be negotiated and structured with the intention of achieving an arm’s-length result and that the potential application of the 100% excise tax will not have a material effect on us. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with the TRS limitation or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax.

If the leases of our hotels to our TRS lessees are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

To qualify as a REIT, we must annually satisfy two gross income tests, under which specified percentages of our gross income must be derived from certain sources, such as “rents from real property.” Rents paid to us by our TRS lessees pursuant to the leases of our hotels will constitute substantially all of our gross income. In order for such rent to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, the leases must be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes and not be treated as service contracts, financing arrangements, joint ventures or some other type of arrangement. We have structured our leases, and intend to structure any future leases, so that the leases will be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, but there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with this characterization, not challenge this treatment or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If our leases are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

If any third-party hotel managers do not qualify as “eligible independent contractors,” or if our hotels are not “qualified lodging facilities,” we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

Rent paid by a lessee that is a “related party tenant” of ours will not be qualifying income for purposes of the two gross income tests applicable to REITs. An exception is provided, however, for leases of “qualified lodging facilities” to a TRS so long as the hotels are operated by an “eligible independent contractor” and certain other requirements are satisfied. Substantially all of our hotels are leased to our TRS lessees which have engaged third-party hotel managers (including Hilton, which manages nearly all of our hotels) that we believe qualify as “eligible independent contractors.” Among other requirements, to qualify as an eligible independent contractor (i) the hotel manager cannot own, actually or constructively, more than 35% of our outstanding shares, and (ii) one or more actual or constructive owners of more than 35% of the hotel manager cannot own 35% or more of our outstanding shares (determined by taking into account the shares held by persons owning, actually or constructively, more than 5% of our outstanding shares because our shares are regularly traded on an established securities market and, if the stock of the hotel manager is regularly traded on an established securities market, determined by taking into account only shares held by persons owning, actually or constructively, more than 5% of the publicly traded stock of the hotel manager). The ownership attribution rules that apply for purposes of these 35% thresholds are complex, and monitoring actual and constructive ownership of our shares by our hotel managers and their owners may not be practical. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that these ownership levels will not be exceeded, in particular, with respect to Hilton.

In addition, for a hotel management company to qualify as an eligible independent contractor, such company or a related person must be actively engaged in the trade or business of operating “qualified lodging facilities” (as defined below) for one or more persons not related to the REIT or its TRSs at each time that such company enters into a hotel management contract with a TRS or its TRS lessee. No assurances can be provided that any of our current and future hotel managers will in fact comply with this requirement. Failure to comply with this requirement would require us to find other hotel managers for future contracts, and, if we hired a management company without knowledge of the failure, it could jeopardize our status as a REIT.

Finally, each property with respect to which our TRS lessees pay rent must be a “qualified lodging facility.” A “qualified lodging facility” is a hotel, motel or other establishment more than one-half of the dwelling units in which are used on a transient basis, including customary amenities and facilities, provided that no wagering activities are conducted at or in connection with such facility by any person who is engaged in the business of accepting wagers and who is legally authorized to engage in such business at or in connection with such facility. We believe that the properties that are leased to our TRS lessees are qualified lodging facilities. Although we intend to monitor future acquisitions and improvements of properties, REIT provisions of the Code provide no or only limited guidance for making determinations under the requirements for qualified lodging facilities, and there can be no assurance that these requirements will be satisfied.

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Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation does not permit any person to own more than 4.9% of our outstanding common stock or more than 4.9% of any outstanding class or series of our preferred stock, and attempts to acquire our common stock or any class or series of our preferred stock in excess of these 4.9% limits would not be effective without an exemption from these limits by our board of directors.

For us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% of the value of our outstanding stock may be owned directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (including certain entities treated as individuals for this purpose) during the last half of a taxable year. In addition, for the rental income we receive on the hotels leased to our TRS lessees and operated by Hilton (or another hotel manager) to be qualifying REIT income, Hilton (or the other hotel manager) must qualify as an “eligible independent contractor,” as described above.

For the purpose of assisting our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, among other purposes, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation prohibits beneficial or constructive ownership by any person of more than 4.9%, in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 4.9%, in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of any outstanding class or series of our preferred stock, which we refer to as the “ownership limit.” The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause shares of the outstanding common stock or preferred stock owned by a group of related persons to be deemed to be constructively owned by one person. As a result, the acquisition of less than 4.9% of our outstanding common stock or any class or series of our preferred stock by a person could cause a person to own constructively in excess of 4.9% of our outstanding common stock or any class or series of our preferred stock, respectively, and thus violate the ownership limit. There can be no assurance that our board of directors, as permitted in the amended and restated certificate of incorporation, will not decrease this ownership limit in the future. Any attempt to own or transfer shares of our common stock or preferred stock in excess of the ownership limit without the consent of our board of directors will result either in the shares in excess of the limit being transferred by operation of the amended and restated certificate of incorporation to a charitable trust, and the person who attempted to acquire such excess shares will not have any rights in such excess shares, or in the transfer being void.

Our board of directors has granted exemptions from the ownership limit, including to certain entities affiliated with Blackstone (which exemption terminated on December 1, 2017 when Blackstone sold all of its shares of our common stock) and to HNA. In connection with granting an exemption from the ownership limit to HNA, we agreed that, if the transfer to the charitable trust is attributable to our common stock being aggregated with the members of the HNA group as a result of the ownership, directly or indirectly, by a person or entity that is not a member of the HNA group, the shares of our common stock to be transferred to the charitable trust will come first from all such persons or entities, and only then from a member of the HNA group.

The ownership limit may have the effect of precluding a change in control of us by a third party, even if such change in control would be in the best interests of our stockholders or would result in receipt of a premium to the price of our common stock (and even if such change in control would not reasonably jeopardize our REIT status). The exemptions to the ownership limit granted to date may limit our board of directors’ power to grant further exemptions in the future.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation prohibits any person from owning shares of our stock to the extent such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” and as a result of HNA’s ownership of 25% of our common stock, other foreign persons collectively will be prohibited from owning more than 24.9% of our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation prohibits any person from beneficially owning shares of our stock to the extent such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h) of the Code (a “Domestically Controlled REIT”). A Domestically Controlled REIT is a REIT in which less than 50% in value of the stock is held directly or indirectly by foreign persons. HNA is a foreign person that owns approximately 25% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, other foreign persons collectively will be prohibited from owning more than 24.9% of our common stock. This restriction may have the effect of precluding certain transfers of our stock to a third party, even if such transfer would be in the best interests of our stockholders.

Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.

The REIT provisions of the Code substantially limit our ability to hedge our liabilities. Any income from a hedging transaction we enter into to manage risk of interest rate changes with respect to borrowings made or to be made to acquire or carry real estate assets (each such hedge, a “Borrowings Hedge”), or manage the risk of certain currency fluctuations (each such hedge, a “Currency Hedge”), if clearly identified under applicable Treasury Regulations, does not constitute “gross income” for purposes of the two gross income tests that we must satisfy in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Exclusion from the gross income tests also applies if we previously entered into a Borrowings Hedge or a Currency Hedge, a portion of the hedged indebtedness or property is disposed of, and in connection with such extinguishment or disposition we enter into a new “clearly identified” hedging transaction to offset the prior hedging position. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is

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likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we intend to limit our use of hedging techniques or implement those hedges through a domestic TRS. This could increase the cost of our hedging activities because our TRSs would be subject to tax on gains or it could expose us to greater risks associated with changes in interest rates than we would otherwise want to bear. In addition, losses in our TRSs will generally not provide any tax benefit, except for being carried forward against future taxable income as allowable under the Code in the TRSs, provided, however, losses in our TRSs arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 may only be deducted against 80% of future taxable income in the TRSs.

Dividends payable by REITs are taxed differently than other dividends.

The maximum U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income payable from C corporations to certain non-corporate U.S. stockholders is currently 23.8% (taking into account the 3.8% Medicare tax applicable to net investment income). Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not qualified dividends. Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, noncorporate U.S. stockholders may deduct 20% of their dividends from REITs (excluding qualified dividend income and capital gains dividends). This does not adversely affect the taxation of REITs; however, the more favorable rates applicable to C corporation qualified dividends could cause certain non-corporate investors to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our common stock.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could increase our tax liability, reduce our operating flexibility and reduce the price of our common stock.

In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made in the provisions of U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments similar to an investment in shares of our common stock. Any such changes could have an adverse effect on an investment in our shares or on the market value or the resale potential of our assets. We urge you to consult with your tax advisor with respect to the impact of recent legislation on your investment in our shares and the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on an investment in our shares. Although REITs generally receive certain tax advantages compared to entities taxed as C corporations, it is possible that future legislation would result in a REIT having fewer tax advantages, and it could become more advantageous for a company that invests in real estate to elect to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a C corporation. As a result, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides our board of directors with the power, under certain circumstances, to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election and cause us to be taxed as a C corporation, without the approval of our stockholders.

H.R. 1, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”), was enacted on December 22, 2017 and generally takes effect for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2018 (subject to certain exceptions). The Act makes many significant changes to the federal income tax laws that will profoundly impact the taxation of all taxpayers. These changes will impact us and our stockholders in various ways, some of which may be adverse compared to prior law. To date, the IRS has issued only limited guidance with respect to certain of the new provisions, and there are numerous interpretive issues that will require guidance. Technical corrections legislation may be needed to clarify certain aspects of the new law and give proper effect to Congressional intent. There can be no assurance, however, that technical clarifications or changes needed to prevent unintended or unforeseen tax consequences will be enacted by Congress in the near future.

 

The ability of our board of directors to revoke our REIT election without stockholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our stockholders.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides our board of directors with the power, under certain circumstances, to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election and cause us to be taxed as a regular corporation, without the approval of our stockholders. If we cease to qualify as a REIT, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our net taxable income and we generally would no longer be required to distribute any of our net taxable income to our stockholders, which may have adverse consequences on our total return to our stockholders.

Even if we qualify to be subject to tax as a REIT, we could be subject to tax on any realized net built-in gains in our assets held before electing to be treated as a REIT.

We own appreciating assets that were held by Hilton Parent, a C corporation, and were acquired by us in the spin-off from Hilton Parent in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands was determined by reference to the adjusted basis of the assets in the hands of Hilton Parent. If we dispose of any such appreciated assets during the five-year period following the effective date of our REIT election, we will be subject to tax at the highest corporate tax rates on the lesser of (i) the amount of gain that we recognize at the time of the sale or disposition; and (ii) the amount of gain that we would have recognized if we had sold the assets at the time that we acquired them  (i.e., the effective date of our REIT election ) (such gain referred to as “built-in gains”). We would be subject to this tax liability even if we qualify and maintain our status as a REIT. The amount of tax could be significant. Any

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recognized built-in gain will retain its character as ordinary income or capital gain and will be taken into account in determining REIT taxable income and our REIT distribution requirement. Any tax on the recognized built-in gain will reduce our REIT taxable income. We may choose not to sell in a taxable transaction appreciated assets we might otherwise sell during the five-year period in which the built-in gain tax applies to avoid the built-in gain tax. However, there can be no assurances that such a taxable transaction will not occur. If we sell such assets in a taxable transaction, the amount of corporate tax that we will pay will vary depending on the actual amount of net built-in gain or loss present in those assets as of the time we became a REIT. The amount of tax could be significant. The same rules would apply to any assets we acquire in the future from a C corporation in a carryover basis transaction with built-in gain at the time of the acquisition by us. If we choose to dispose of any assets within the specified period, we will attempt to utilize various tax planning strategies, including Section 1031 of the Code like-kind exchanges, to mitigate the exposure to the built-in-gains tax. However, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, personal property including ancillary hotel furniture, fixtures and equipment is no longer eligible for Section 1031 treatment. Gain from a sale of an asset occurring after the specified period ends will not be subject to this corporate level tax.

There are uncertainties relating to the E&P Dividend.

Hilton Parent allocated its accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) for periods prior to the spin-off between Hilton Parent, HGV Parent and us in a manner that, in its best judgment, was in accordance with the provisions of the Code. To comply with certain REIT qualification requirements, we declared a dividend to our stockholders to distribute our accumulated earnings and profits attributable to non-REIT years, including the earnings and profits allocated to us in connection with the spin-off. The calculation of the amount of earnings and profits was a complex factual and legal determination. We believe that our E&P Dividend satisfies the requirements relating to the distribution of our pre-REIT accumulated earnings and profits. No assurance can be given, however, that the IRS will agree with our or Hilton Parent’s calculation or allocation of earnings and profits to us. If the IRS is successful in asserting that we have additional amounts of pre-REIT earnings and profits, there are procedures generally available to cure any failure to distribute all of our pre-REIT earnings and profits, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully implement such procedures.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

 

The interests of certain of our stockholders may conflict with ours or yours in the future.

 

HNA beneficially owns approximately 25% of our common stock. Moreover, under our bylaws and the stockholders’ agreement with HNA, for so long as HNA retains specified levels of ownership of us, we have agreed to nominate to our board individuals designated by HNA. For so long as HNA continues to own specified percentages of our stock, it will be able to influence the composition of our board of directors and the approval of actions requiring stockholder approval. Accordingly, during that period of time, HNA will have influence with respect to our management, business plans and policies, including the appointment and removal of our officers. The concentration of ownership could deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your shares of common stock as part of a sale of the Company and ultimately might affect the market price of our common stock.

 

HNA and its respective affiliates engage in a broad spectrum of activities, including investments in real estate generally and in the hospitality industry in particular. In the ordinary course of their business activities, HNA and its respective affiliates may engage in activities where their interests conflict with our interests or those of our stockholders. For example, all of the hotels that we own or lease as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K utilize brands licensed from Hilton, and each of these hotels, other than the Select Hotels, will be operated by Hilton under management agreements with Hilton. HNA owns a significant portion of the outstanding stock of Hilton Parent and has significant influence with respect to the management, business plans and policies of Hilton Parent. In addition, HNA and its respective affiliates own certain other investments in the hotel industry and may pursue ventures that compete directly or indirectly with us. As well, affiliates of HNA may directly and indirectly own interests in other third-party hotel management companies and franchisors with whom we may engage in the future, may compete with us for investment opportunities and may enter into other transactions with us, including hotel development projects, that could result in their having interests that could conflict with ours. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that neither HNA, any of its affiliates nor any director who is not employed by us (including any non-employee director who serves as one of our officers in both his or her director and officer capacities) or his or her affiliates will have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. HNA also may pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may be unavailable to us. In addition, HNA may have an interest in pursuing acquisitions, divestitures and other transactions that, in its judgment, could enhance its respective investments, even though such transactions might involve risks to you.

Our board of directors may change significant corporate policies without stockholder approval.

Our investment, financing, borrowing and dividend policies and our policies with respect to all other activities, including growth, debt, capitalization and operations, will be determined by our board of directors. These policies may be amended or revised at

37


 

any time and from time to time at the discretion of our board of directors without a vote of our stockholders. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT. In addition, our board of directors may change our policies with respect to conflicts of interest provided that such changes are consistent with applicable legal requirements. A change in these policies or the termination of our REIT election could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, our results of operations, our cash flow, the per share trading price of our common stock and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay dividends to our stockholders.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law might discourage or delay acquisition attempts for us that you might consider favorable.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contains provisions that may make the merger or acquisition of our company more difficult without the approval of our board of directors. Among other things:

 

the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed under the caption “Description of Capital Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” prevent any person from acquiring more than 4.9% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or more than 4.9% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any outstanding class or series of our preferred stock without the approval of our board of directors;

 

although we do not have a stockholder rights plan, and would either submit any such plan to stockholders for ratification or cause such plan to expire within a year, these provisions would allow us to authorize the issuance of undesignated preferred stock in connection with a stockholder rights plan or otherwise, the terms of which may be established and the shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval, and which may include super voting, special approval, dividend, or other rights or preferences superior to the rights of the holders of common stock;

 

these provisions prohibit stockholder action by written consent unless such action is recommended by all directors then in office;

 

these provisions provide that our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws and that our stockholders may only amend our bylaws with the approval of 80 percent or more of all the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote; and

 

these provisions establish advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

Further, as a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, which may impair a takeover attempt that our stockholders may find beneficial. These anti-takeover provisions and other provisions under Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company, including actions that our stockholders may deem advantageous, or negatively affect the trading price of our common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire.

The market price and trading volume of our common stock may fluctuate widely.

The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, depending upon many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including, but not limited to:

 

a shift in our investor base;

 

our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of comparable companies;

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;

 

our ability to obtain financing as needed;

 

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant investments, acquisitions or dispositions;

 

changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;

 

the operating performance and stock price of comparable companies;

 

overall market fluctuations;

38


 

 

a decline in the real estate markets; and

 

general economic conditions and other external factors.

Moreover, securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could reduce the market price of shares without regard to our operating performance. For example, the trading prices of equity securities issued by REITs historically have been affected by changes in market interest rates. One of the factors that may influence the market price of our common stock is the annual yield from distributions on our common stock as compared to yields on other financial instruments. An increase in market interest rates, or a decrease in our distributions to stockholders, may lead prospective purchasers of shares of our common stock to demand a higher distribution rate or seek alternative investments. As a result, if interest rates rise, it is likely that the market price of our common stock will decrease as market rates on interest-bearing securities increase. In addition, our operating results could be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors, and in response the market price of our shares could decrease significantly. The market value of the equity securities of a REIT is also based upon the market’s perception of the REIT’s growth potential and its current and potential future cash distributions, whether from operations, sales or refinancings, and is secondarily based upon the real estate market value of the underlying assets. For that reason, our common stock may trade at prices that are higher or lower than our net asset value per share. To the extent we retain operating cash flow for investment purposes, working capital reserves or other purposes, these retained funds, while increasing the value of our underlying assets, may not correspondingly increase the market price of our common stock. Our failure to meet the market’s expectations with regard to future earnings and cash distributions likely would adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Future issuances of common stock by us, and the availability for resale of shares held by HNA and its affiliates, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could substantially decrease the market price of our common stock. The market price of our common stock could drop significantly if the holders of these shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.

Park Parent entered into a registration rights agreement with HNA that was effective upon the closing of the Sale. The registration rights agreement provides that, beginning two years after the closing of the Sale, HNA will have customary “demand” and “piggyback” registration rights. See “Spin-off Related Agreements—Registration Rights Agreements” for additional information. In addition, none of the shares outstanding upon consummation of the spin-off, including those held by HNA and its affiliates, will be “restricted securities” within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, and will be freely tradable subject to certain restrictions in the case of shares held by persons deemed to be our affiliates. Accordingly, the market price of our stock could decline if HNA or its affiliates sell their shares in the open market or otherwise or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.

In connection with the spin-off, we adopted an Omnibus Incentive Plan, under which an aggregate of 8,000,000 shares of common stock are available for future issuance. In addition, in connection with the spin-off, we adopted a Non-Employee Director Stock Plan, under which an aggregate of 450,000 shares of Park Parent common stock are available for future issuance. We filed a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock issued pursuant to our Omnibus Incentive Plan and Non-Employee Director Stock Plan. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements are available for sale in the open market.

The cash available for distribution to stockholders may not be sufficient to pay dividends at expected levels, nor can we assure you of our ability to make distributions in the future. We may use borrowed funds to make distributions.

We intend to elect and to continue to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The Code generally requires that a REIT annually distribute at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain, and imposes tax on any taxable income retained by a REIT, including capital gains. We anticipate making quarterly distributions to our stockholders. We expect that the cash required to fund our dividends will be covered by cash generated by operations. However, our ability to make distributions to our stockholders will depend upon the performance of our asset portfolio. If our operations do not generate sufficient cash flow to allow us to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements, we may be required to fund distributions from working capital, borrow funds, raise additional equity capital, sell assets or reduce such distributions. If such cash available for distribution decreases in future periods from expected levels, our inability to make the expected distributions could result in a decrease in the market price of our common stock. In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation allows us to issue preferred stock that could have a preference over our common stock as to distributions. See “Distribution Policy.” All distributions will be made at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our earnings, our financial condition, maintenance of our REIT qualification and other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant from time to time. We may not be able to make distributions in the future. In addition, some of our distributions may include a return of capital. To the extent that we decide to make distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits,

39


 

such distributions would generally be considered a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent of the stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in their shares. A return of capital is not taxable, but it has the effect of reducing the stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in its investment. To the extent that distributions exceed the adjusted tax basis of a stockholder’s shares, they will be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of such stock. If we borrow to fund distributions, our future interest costs would increase, thereby reducing our earnings and cash available for distribution from what they otherwise would have been.

The stock ownership limits imposed by the Code for REITs and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation restrict stock transfers and/or business combination opportunities.

In order for us to qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) at any time during the last half of each taxable year following our first year. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, with certain exceptions, authorizes our board of directors to take the actions that are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. Unless exempted by our board of directors, no person or entity (other than a person or entity who has been granted an exception) may directly or indirectly, beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 4.9%, in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding common stock, or more than 4.9%, in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of any outstanding class or series of our preferred stock.

Our board may, in its sole discretion, grant an exemption to the ownership limits, subject to certain conditions and the receipt by our board of certain representations and undertakings. In addition, our board of directors may change the share ownership limits. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also prohibits any person from: (1) beneficially or constructively owning, as determined by applying certain attribution rules of the Code, our stock if that would result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; (2) beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would cause any person, including Hilton Parent, to fail to qualify as our eligible independent contractor; (3) transferring stock if such transfer would result in our stock being owned by fewer than 100 persons; and (4) beneficially owning shares of our stock to the extent such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h) of the Code. The stock ownership limits contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation key off the ownership at any time by any “person,” which term includes entities, and take into account direct and indirect ownership as determined under various ownership attribution rules in the Code. The stock ownership limits also might delay or prevent a transaction or a change in our control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and shares of preferred stock may prevent a change in our control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common or preferred stock. In addition, our board of directors may, without stockholder approval, amend our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to increase the aggregate number of our shares of common stock or the number of shares of any class or series of preferred stock that we have authority to issue and classify or reclassify any unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and set the preferences, rights and other terms of the classified or reclassified stock. As a result, our board of directors may establish a series of common stock or preferred stock that could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in our control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

 

 

40


 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

 

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Our Properties

The following table provides a list of our portfolio as of February 26, 2018:

 

Location

 

Type(1)

 

Ownership Percentage

 

 

Rooms

 Arizona

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Pointe Hilton Squaw Peak Resort

 

FS(2)

 

100%

 

 

 

563

 

 

 Embassy Suites Phoenix Airport

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

182

 

 

 California

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton San Francisco Union Square

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

1,919

 

 

 Hilton San Diego Bayfront

 

JV, GL

 

25%

 

 

 

1,190

 

 

 Parc 55 San Francisco - a Hilton Hotel

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

1,024

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel San Jose

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

505

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel Ontario Airport

 

FS

 

67%

 

 

 

482

 

 

 Hilton La Jolla Torrey Pines

 

JV, GL

 

25%

 

 

 

394

 

 

 The Fess Parker Santa Barbara Hotel - a DoubleTree Resort

 

FS

 

50%

 

 

 

360

 

 

 Hilton Oakland Airport

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

360

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel San Diego – Mission Valley

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

300

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel Sonoma Wine Country

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

245

 

 

 Juniper Hotel Cupertino, Curio Collection

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

224

 

 

 Hilton Garden Inn LAX/El Segundo

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

162

 

 

 Colorado

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel Durango

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

159

 

 

 District of Columbia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Capital Hilton

 

JV

 

25%

 

 

 

550

 

 

 Embassy Suites Washington DC Georgetown

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

197

 

 

 Florida

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Orlando

 

JV

 

20%

 

 

 

1,417

 

 

 Hilton Orlando Bonnet Creek

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

1,009

 

 

 Hilton Orlando Lake Buena Vista

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

814

 

 

 Hilton Miami Airport

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

508

 

 

 Waldorf Astoria Orlando

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

502

 

 

 Casa Marina, A Waldorf Astoria Resort

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

311

 

 

 The Reach, A Waldorf Astoria Resort

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

150

 

 

 Georgia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Atlanta Airport

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

507

 

 

 Hawaii

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Hawaiian Village Beach Resort

 

FS(2)

 

100%

 

 

 

2,860

 

 

 Hilton Waikoloa Village

 

FS(2)

 

100%

 

 

 

1,110

 

(3)

 Illinois

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Chicago

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

1,544

 

 

 Hilton Chicago O’Hare Airport

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

860

 

 

 Hilton Chicago/Oak Brook Suites

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

211

 

 

 Hilton Garden Inn Chicago/Oak Brook Terrace

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

128

 

 

 


41


 

Location

 

Type(1)

 

Ownership Percentage

 

 

Rooms

 Louisiana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton New Orleans Riverside

 

FS(2)

 

100%

 

 

 

1,622

 

 

 Hilton New Orleans Airport

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

317

 

 

 Massachusetts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Boston Logan Airport

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

599

 

 

 Missouri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Embassy Suites Kansas City Plaza

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

266

 

 

 Nevada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel Las Vegas Airport

 

JV(2)

 

50%

 

 

 

190

 

 

 New Jersey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Short Hills

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

304

 

 

 Embassy Suites Parsippany

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

274

 

 

 Embassy Suites Secaucus Meadowlands

 

JV, GL

 

50%

 

 

 

261

 

 

 New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 New York Hilton Midtown

 

FS(2)

 

100%

 

 

 

1,907

 

 

 Puerto Rico

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Caribe Hilton

 

FS(2)

 

100%

 

 

 

748

 

 

 Tennessee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hampton Inn & Suites Memphis – Shady Grove

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

130

 

 

 Texas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Embassy Suites Austin Downtown Town Lake

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

259

 

 

 Utah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Salt Lake City Center

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

499

 

 

 Virginia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel Washington DC - Crystal City

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

627

 

 

 Hilton McLean Tysons Corner

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

458

 

 

 Embassy Suites Alexandria Old Town

 

JV(2)

 

50%

 

 

 

288

 

 

 Washington

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel Seattle Airport

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

850

 

 

 Hilton Seattle Airport & Conference Center

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

396

 

 

 DoubleTree Hotel Spokane City Center

 

FS

 

10%

 

 

 

375

 

 

 Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton São Paulo Morumbi

 

FS

 

100%

 

 

 

503

 

 

 Germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Berlin

 

JV

 

40%

 

 

 

601

 

 

 Hilton Nuremberg Hotel

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

152

 

 

 Ireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Conrad Dublin

 

JV

 

48%

 

 

 

192

 

 

 United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Hilton Sheffield Hotel

 

GL

 

100%

 

 

 

128

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32,693

 

 

 

(1)

“FS” refers to fee simple ownership interest; “GL” refers to ground lease; “JV” refers to unconsolidated joint venture.

(2)

Certain portions of land or facilities are subject to lease.

(3)

Includes approximately 466 rooms transferred to HGV in October 2016 that we reserved exclusive rights to occupy and operate through December 2019; refer to Note 5: “Property and Equipment” in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

We are involved in various claims and lawsuits arising in the ordinary course of business, some of which include claims for substantial sums, including proceedings involving tort and other general liability claims, employee claims and consumer protection claims. Most occurrences involving liability, claims of negligence and employees are covered by insurance with solvent insurance carriers. For those matters not covered by insurance, which include commercial matters, we recognize a liability when we believe the loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. The ultimate results of claims and litigation cannot be predicted with certainty. We believe we have adequate reserves against such matters. We currently believe that the ultimate outcome of such lawsuits and

42


 

proceedings will not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity. However, depending on the amount and timing, an unfavorable resolution of some or all of these matters could materially affect our future results of operations in a particular period.

On February 5, 2018, we, along with Hilton and related individuals, were named in a claim in the High Court of Justice in England and Wales filed by Top Zinc Limited, the alleged ultimate parent company for landlord entities of ten Hilton hotels retained by Hilton as part of the spin-off. We are the guarantor on the applicable leases for these hotels. The claim alleges damages in excess of £600 million from breach of lease obligations, collusion by Hilton and other parties to destroy the claimant’s equity in assets and unlawful interference in a sale process. As of March 1, 2018, the claim had not been served. In a related matter, on May 12, 2016, we, along with certain tenant entities, were named as defendant in a suit filed by the landlord entities of these hotels in the High Court of Justice in England and Wales seeking either an order for specific performance for work to be performed on the hotels or to collect £113 million in damages plus litigation costs related to alleged failure to keep the assets in the condition required by the applicable leases.

Because the assets were retained by Hilton as part of the spin-off, any associated liabilities with respect to these matters are expected to be fully indemnified by Hilton pursuant to the Distribution Agreement. See “Spin-off Related Agreements—Distribution Agreement.”  To date, we have not incurred any costs or losses related to either of these matters.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information

 

Our common stock began “regular way” trading on the NYSE under the symbol "PK" on January 4, 2017.

 

The following table presents the high and low prices for our common stock as reported by the NYSE and the cash dividends we declared with respect to each quarterly period for the year ended December 31, 2017:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividends

 

 

 

Stock Price

 

 

Declared per

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

Share

 

Year ended December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter(1)

 

$

30.74

 

 

$

25.40

 

 

$

0.99

 

Second Quarter

 

 

28.01

 

 

 

24.65

 

 

 

0.43

 

Third Quarter

 

 

28.07

 

 

 

25.49

 

 

 

0.43

 

Fourth Quarter

 

 

29.90

 

 

 

26.90

 

 

 

0.55

 

 

(1)

In addition to our first quarter dividend of $0.43, we declared a special dividend of $2.79 per share, which consisted of $110 million in cash, equating to approximately $0.56 per share, and the issuance of 16.6 million shares of our common stock.

 

Shareholder Information

 

At February 26, 2018, we had 24 holders of record of our common stock. However, because our common stock is held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we believe there are substantially more beneficial holders of our common stock than record holders.

 

In order to comply with certain requirements related to our qualification as a REIT, subject to certain exceptions, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that no person may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, more than 4.9% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or more than 4.9% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any outstanding class or series of our preferred stock.

 

Distribution Information

In order to qualify and maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT, we intend to distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain). To avoid paying tax on our income, we intend to make distributions of all, or substantially all, of our REIT taxable income (including net capital gains) to our stockholders. We declared regular quarterly cash dividends beginning in the first quarter of 2017 and expect to continue paying regular dividends on a quarterly basis. In January 2017, we declared a special dividend of $2.79 per share (“E&P Dividend”), or approximately $551 million in cash and shares of our common stock, to stockholders of record as of January 19, 2017. The E&P Dividend was paid on March 9, 2017 and consisted of $110 million in cash and the issuance of 16.6 million shares of our common stock. The E&P Dividend that was paid related to our estimated share of C corporation earnings and profits attributable to the period prior to January 4, 2017, in which we were required to pay our stockholders in connection with our election to be taxed as a REIT.

Our future distributions will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. When determining the amount of future distributions, we expect that our board of directors will consider, among other factors, (1) the amount required to be distributed to qualify and maintain our status as a REIT, (2) the amount of cash generated from our operating activities, (3) our expectations of future cash flows, (4) our determination of near-term cash needs for debt repayments, existing or future share repurchases, and selective acquisitions of new properties, (5) the timing of significant capital investments and expenditures and the establishment of any cash reserves, (6) our ability to continue to access additional sources of capital, (7) any limitations on our distributions contained in our debt agreements, including, without limitation, in our anticipated senior unsecured credit facilities, and (8) the sufficiency of legally available assets.

44


 

Share Performance Graph

The following graph compares our cumulative total stockholder return since January 4, 2017 against the cumulative total returns of the Standard and Poor’s Corporation Composite 500 Index (“S&P 500 Index”) and the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trust (“NAREIT”) Equity Index. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 in our common stock and each of the indexes on January 4, 2017, and that all dividends and other distributions were reinvested.

 

 

 

1/4/2017

 

 

12/31/2017

 

Park Hotels and Resorts Inc.

$

100.00

 

 

$