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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
For the fiscal year ended April 24, 2020.
  
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
For the transition period from __________ to __________
Commission File No. 1-36820
mdt-20200424_g1.jpg®
MEDTRONIC PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ireland 98-1183488
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
20 On Hatch, Lower Hatch Street
Dublin 2, Ireland
(Address of principal executive offices)
+353 1 438-1700
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per shareMDTNew York Stock Exchange
Floating Rate Notes due 2021MDT/21New York Stock Exchange
0.000% Senior Notes due 2021MDT/21ANew York Stock Exchange
0.000% Senior Notes due 2022MDT/22BNew York Stock Exchange
0.375% Senior Notes due 2023MDT/23BNew York Stock Exchange
0.25% Senior Notes due 2025MDT/25New York Stock Exchange
1.125% Senior Notes due 2027MDT/27New York Stock Exchange
1.625% Senior Notes due 2031MDT/31New York Stock Exchange
1.00% Senior Notes due 2031MDT/31ANew York Stock Exchange
2.250% Senior Notes due 2039MDT/39ANew York Stock Exchange
1.50% Senior Notes due 2039MDT/39BNew York Stock Exchange
1.75% Senior Notes due 2049MDT/49New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§229.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer  Non-accelerated filer  Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company


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If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No 
Aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity of Medtronic plc held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of October 25, 2019, based on the closing price of $105.44 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange: approximately $141.3 billion. Number of Ordinary Shares outstanding on June 17, 2020: 1,341,298,882

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for its 2020 Annual General Meeting are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.




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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, and other written reports of Medtronic public limited company, organized under the laws of Ireland (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, Medtronic, the Company, or we, us, or our), and oral statements made by or with the approval of one of the Company’s executive officers from time to time, may include “forward-looking” statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans, objectives of management for future operations and current expectations or forecasts of future results, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements may include statements related to our growth and growth strategies, developments in the markets for our products, therapies and services, financial results, product development launches and effectiveness, research and development strategy, regulatory approvals, competitive strengths, the potential or anticipated direct or indirect impact of COVID-19 on our business, results of operations and/or financial condition, restructuring and cost-saving initiatives, intellectual property rights, litigation and tax matters, governmental proceedings and investigations, mergers and acquisitions, divestitures, market acceptance of our products, therapies and services, accounting estimates, financing activities, ongoing contractual obligations, working capital adequacy, value of our investments, our effective tax rate, our expected returns to shareholders, and sales efforts. In some cases, such statements may be identified by the use of terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “looking ahead,” “may,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “project,” “should,” “will,” and similar words or expressions. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our ability to drive long-term shareholder value, development and future launches of products and continued or future acceptance of products, therapies and services in our segments; expected timing for completion of research studies relating to our products; market positioning and performance of our products, including stabilization of certain product markets; divestitures and the potential benefits thereof; the costs and benefits of integrating previous acquisitions; anticipated timing for United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) and non-U.S. regulatory approval of new products; increased presence in new markets, including markets outside the U.S.; changes in the market and our market share; acquisitions and investment initiatives, as well as integration of acquired companies into our operations; the resolution of tax matters; the effectiveness of our development activities in reducing patient care costs and hospital stay lengths; our approach towards cost containment; our expectations regarding healthcare costs, including potential changes to reimbursement policies and pricing pressures; our expectations regarding changes to patient standards of care; our ability to identify and maintain successful business partnerships; the elimination of certain positions or costs related to restructuring initiatives; outcomes in our litigation matters and governmental proceedings and investigations; general economic conditions; the adequacy of available working capital and our working capital needs; our payment of dividends and redemption of shares; the continued strength of our balance sheet and liquidity; our accounts receivable exposure; and the potential impact of our compliance with governmental regulations and accounting guidance.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. One must carefully consider forward-looking statements and understand that such forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, and involve a variety of risks and uncertainties, known and unknown, including, among others, those discussed in the sections entitled “Government Regulation and Other Considerations” within “Item 1. Business” and “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as those related to:

the COVID-19 pandemic and the actions of businesses, communities and governments in response;
competition in the medical device industry;
reduction or interruption in our supply;
laws and governmental regulations;
quality problems;
liquidity shortfalls;
decreasing prices and pricing pressure;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
changes in applicable tax rates;
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positions taken by taxing authorities;
adverse regulatory action;
delays in regulatory approvals;
litigation results;
self-insurance;
commercial insurance;
healthcare policy changes;
international operations;
cybersecurity incidents;
failure to complete or achieve the intended benefits of acquisitions or divestitures; or
disruption of our current plans and operations.

Consequently, no forward-looking statement may be guaranteed and actual results may vary materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. We intend to take advantage of the Safe Harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 regarding our forward-looking statements, and are including this sentence for the express purpose of enabling us to use the protections of the safe harbor with respect to all forward-looking statements. While we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, whether as a result of any new information, future events, or otherwise, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law.

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PART I
Item 1. Business
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Medtronic plc, headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, is among the world's largest medical technology, services, and solutions companies - alleviating pain, restoring health, and extending life for millions of people around the world. Medtronic was founded in 1949 and today serves hospitals, physicians, clinicians, and patients in more than 150 countries worldwide. We remain committed to a mission written by our founder in 1960 that directs us “to contribute to human welfare by the application of biomedical engineering in the research, design, manufacture, and sale of products to alleviate pain, restore health, and extend life.”
With innovation and market leadership, we have pioneered advances in medical technology. Our commitment to enhance our offerings by developing and acquiring new products, wrap-around programs, and solutions to meet the needs of a broader set of stakeholders is driven by the following primary strategies:
Therapy Innovation: Delivering a strong launch cadence of meaningful therapies and procedures.
Globalization: Addressing the inequity in healthcare access globally, primarily in emerging markets.
Economic Value: Becoming a leader in value-based healthcare by offering new services and solutions to improve outcomes and efficiencies, lower costs by reducing hospitalizations, improve remote clinical management, and increase patient engagement.
Our primary customers include hospitals, clinics, third-party healthcare providers, distributors, and other institutions, including governmental healthcare programs and group purchasing organizations (GPOs).
Medtronic plc is the successor to Medtronic, Inc., a Minnesota corporation. Medtronic, Inc. and Covidien plc (Covidien) were combined under and became subsidiaries of Medtronic plc on January 26, 2015.
On July 29, 2017, we completed the divestiture of our Patient Care, Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Nutritional Insufficiency businesses (the Divestiture). Among the product lines included in the divestiture were the dental and animal health, chart paper, wound care, incontinence, electrodes, SharpSafety, thermometry, perinatal protection, blood collection, compression, and enteral feeding offerings. Prior to the divestiture, these businesses were included within the Minimally Invasive Therapies Group segment.
We have four operating and reportable segments that primarily develop, manufacture, distribute, and sell device-based medical therapies and services: the Cardiac and Vascular Group, the Minimally Invasive Therapies Group, the Restorative Therapies Group, and the Diabetes Group. For more information regarding our segments, please see Note 21 to the consolidated financial statements in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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CARDIAC AND VASCULAR GROUP

The Cardiac and Vascular Group is made up of the Cardiac Rhythm & Heart Failure, Coronary & Structural Heart, and Aortic, Peripheral & Venous divisions. The primary medical specialists who use our Cardiac and Vascular products include electrophysiologists, implanting cardiologists, heart failure specialists, cardiovascular, cardiothoracic, and vascular surgeons, and interventional cardiologists and radiologists.

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Cardiac Rhythm & Heart Failure
Our Cardiac Rhythm & Heart Failure division develops, manufactures, and markets products for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of heart rhythm disorders and heart failure. Our products include implantable devices, leads and delivery systems, products for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), products designed to reduce surgical site infections, information systems for the management of patients with Cardiac Rhythm & Heart Failure devices, ventricular assist systems, and an integrated health solutions business. Principal products and services offered include:
Implantable cardiac pacemakers including the Azure MRI SureScan, Adapta, Advisa MRI SureScan, Micra Transcatheter Pacing System, which is leadless and does not have a subcutaneous device pocket like a conventional pacemaker, and Micra AV, which can treat patients with atrioventricular block.
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), including the Visia AF, Evera MRI SureScan, and the Cobalt and Chrome portfolio of BlueSync-enabled ICDs, as well as defibrillator leads, including the Sprint Quattro Secure lead.
Implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy devices (CRT-Ds and CRT-Ps) including the Claria/Amplia/Compia family of MRI Quad CRT-D SureScan systems and the Cobalt and Chrome portfolio of BlueSync-enabled CRT-Ds, as well as the Percepta/Serena/Solara family of MRI Quad CRT-P SureScan systems.
AF ablation products including the Arctic Front Cardiac CryoAblation Catheter System, designed for pulmonary vein isolation in the treatment of patients with drug refractory paroxysmal AF.
Insertable cardiac monitoring systems including the Reveal LINQ, which is used to record the heart’s electrical activity before, during, and after transient symptoms such as syncope (i.e. fainting) and palpitations to assist in diagnosis.
Mechanical circulatory support products including miniaturized implantable heart pumps, or ventricular assist devices, patient accessories and surgical tools to treat patients suffering from advanced heart failure.
TYRX products including the Cardiac and Neuro Absorbable Antibacterial Envelopes, which are designed to stabilize electronic implantable devices and help prevent infection associated with implantable pacemakers, and defibrillators.
Remote monitoring services and patient-centered software to enable efficient care coordination and specialized telehealth nurse support as well as services related to hospital operational efficiency.
Coronary & Structural Heart
Our Coronary & Structural Heart division includes therapies to treat coronary artery disease and heart valve disorders. Our products include coronary stents and related delivery systems, including a broad line of balloon angioplasty catheters, guide catheters, guide wires, diagnostic catheters, and accessories, as well as products for the repair and replacement of heart valves, perfusion systems, positioning and stabilization systems for beating heart revascularization surgery, and surgical ablation products. Principal products offered include:
CoreValve family of aortic valves, including the Evolut R, Evolut PRO, and Evolut PRO+ systems for transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention stent products including our Resolute Onyx drug-eluting stent.
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Surgical valve replacement and repair products for damaged or diseased heart valves, including both tissue and mechanical valves, blood-handling products that form a circulatory support system to maintain and monitor blood circulation and coagulation status, oxygen supply, and body temperature during arrested heart surgery, and surgical ablation systems and positioning and stabilization technologies.
Aortic, Peripheral & Venous
Our Aortic, Peripheral & Venous division is comprised of a comprehensive line of products and therapies to treat aortic disease, such as aneurysms, dissections, and transections, as well as peripheral vascular disease, and venous disease. Our products include endovascular stent graft systems, peripheral drug coated balloons, stent and angioplasty systems, and carotid embolic protection systems for the treatment of vascular disease outside the heart, and products for superficial and deep venous disease. Principal products offered include:
Endovascular stent grafts and accessories including the Endurant II Stent Grant System for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, the Valiant Navion Thoracic Stent Grant System for thoracic endovascular aortic repair procedures, and the Heli-FX EndoAnchor System.
Percutaneous angioplasty balloons including the IN.PACT family of drug-coated balloons, vascular stents, directional atherectomy products, and other procedure support tools.
Products to treat superficial venous diseases in the lower extremities including the ClosureFast radiofrequency ablation system and the VenaSeal medical adhesive closure system.

MINIMALLY INVASIVE THERAPIES GROUP

The Minimally Invasive Therapies Group is made up of the Surgical Innovations and Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, & Renal divisions. Products and therapies of this group are used primarily by hospitals, physicians' offices, ambulatory care centers, and other alternate site healthcare providers. While less frequent, some products and therapies are also used in home settings.
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Surgical Innovations
Our Surgical Innovations division develops, manufactures, and markets advanced and general surgical products including surgical stapling devices, vessel sealing instruments, wound closure, electrosurgery products, hernia mechanical devices, mesh implants, and gynecology products and therapies to treat diseases and conditions that are typically, but not exclusively, addressed by surgeons. Principal products and services offered include:
Advanced stapling and energy products, including the Tri-Staple technology platform for endoscopic stapling, including the Endo GIA reloads and reinforced reloads with Tri-Staple Technology and the Endo GIA ultra universal stapler, the LigaSure Exact Dissector and L-Hook Laparoscopic Sealer/Divider, and the Sonicision curved jaw cordless ultrasonic dissection system.
Electrosurgical hardware and instruments, including the Valleylab FT10 energy platform, and the Force TriVerse electrosurgical pencils, and surgical artificial intelligence (AI), data and analytics, and digital education and training to support robotic assisted surgery platform.
Products designed for the treatment of hernias, including the AbsorbaTack absorbable mesh fixation device for hernia repair, the Symbotex composite mesh for surgical laparoscopic and open ventral hernia repair, and Parietex ProGrip, a self-gripping, biocompatible solution for inguinal hernias.
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Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, & Renal
Our Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, & Renal division develops, manufactures, and markets products in the emerging fields of minimally invasive gastrointestinal and hepatologic diagnostics and therapies, patient monitoring, respiratory interventions including airway management and ventilation therapies, and for the treatment of renal disease. Principal products and services offered include:
Gastrointestinal and endoscopy products, including the PillCam portfolio, the Bravo calibration-free reflux testing systems, the EndoFLIP imaging systems, the Emprint ablation system with Thermosphere Technology, the Barrx platform through ablation with the Barrx 360 Express catheter, the Cool-tip radiofrequency ablation system, and the HET Bipolar System.
Airway, ventilation, and inhalation therapies products, including the Puritan Bennett 980, 840, and 560 ventilators, the Newport e360 and HT70 ventilators, the TaperGuard Evac tube, Shiley Endotracheal Tubes, Shiley Tracheostomy Tubes, McGRATH MAC video laryngoscopes, and DAR Filters.
Products focused on patient monitoring, including Capnostream capnography monitors, Nellcor pulse oximetry monitors, INVOS cerebral/somatic oximetry systems, and Bispectral Index (BIS) brain monitoring technology.
Products providing solutions for the treatment of renal disease, including Palindrome, Mahurkar and Mahurkar Elite Dialysis Access Catheters for renal therapy, and other products designed for use in treatment of both acute and chronic renal failure conditions.

RESTORATIVE THERAPIES GROUP

The Restorative Therapies Group is made up of the Brain Therapies, Spine, Specialty Therapies, and Pain Therapies divisions. The primary medical specialists who use the products of this group include spinal surgeons, neurosurgeons, neurologists, pain management specialists, anesthesiologists, orthopedic surgeons, urologists, colorectal surgeons, urogynecologists, interventional radiologists, and ear, nose, and throat specialists.          
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Brain Therapies
Our Brain Therapies division develops, manufactures, and markets an integrated portfolio of devices and therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders and diseases, as well as surgical technologies designed to improve the precision and workflow of neuro procedures. Principal products and services offered include:
Neurovascular products to treat diseases of the vasculature in and around the brain. This includes coils, neurovascular stent retrievers, and flow diversion products, as well as access and delivery products to support procedures. Products also include the Pipeline Flex Embolization Devices, endovascular treatments for large or giant wide-necked brain aneurysms, the portfolio of Solitaire revascularization devices for treatment of acute ischemic stroke, the Riptide Aspiration System and a portfolio of associated access catheters including our React aspiration catheters also for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
Brain modulation products, including those for the treatment of the disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, refractory epilepsy, severe, treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (approved under a Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) in the U.S.), and chronic, intractable primary dystonia (approved under a HDE in the U.S.). Specifically, this includes our family of Activa Neurostimulators, including Activa SC (single-channel primary cell battery), Activa PC (dual channel primary cell battery), and Activa RC (dual channel rechargeable battery). This also includes our Percept PC Neurostimulator DBS system with BrainSense technology, which received CE Mark approval in January of 2020.
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Neurosurgery products, including platform technologies, implant therapies, and advanced energy products. Our StealthStation S8 Navigation System, Stealth Autoguide cranial robotic guidance platform, and O-arm Imaging System are platforms used in cranial, spinal, sinus, and orthopedic procedures. Our Mazor X robotic guidance systems are used in robot-assisted spine procedures and combine the best-in-class robotics and navigation capability. Our Midas Rex Surgical Drills, including our new MR8 high-speed drill system, are used in cranial, spinal, ENT, and orthopedic procedures. Our CSF Management Portfolio is used in treating hydrocephalus and other conditions impacting the intracranial pressure, and our Visualase MRI-guided laser ablation is used in cranial procedures. Our PEAK Surgery System and Aquamantys Sealers are advanced energy products. Our PEAK Surgery System is a tissue dissection system that consists of the PEAK PlasmaBlade and PULSAR Generator and is cleared for use in a variety of settings, including plastic reconstructive surgery, general surgery, and certain conditions of ENT. Our Aquamantys Sealers use patented transcollation technology to provide haemostatic sealing of soft tissue and bone and are cleared for use in a variety of surgical procedures, including orthopedic surgery, spine, solid organ resection and thoracic procedures.
Spine            
Our Spine division develops, manufactures, and markets a comprehensive line of medical devices and implants used in the treatment of the spine and musculoskeletal system. Our Spine division also provides biologic solutions for the orthopedic and dental markets and, in concert with our Neurosurgery business, offers unique and highly differentiated imaging, navigation, power instruments, nerve monitoring, and Mazor robotic guidance systems used in robot assisted spine procedures. Principal products and services offered include:
Products to treat a variety of conditions affecting the spine, including degenerative disc disease, spinal deformity, spinal tumors, fractures of the spine, and stenosis. These products include our CD HORIZON SOLERA system, T2 Strastosphere, and the CLYDESDALE, and ELEVATE interbody spacers. These products also include titanium interbody implants and surface technologies from Titan Spine, acquired in June of 2019.
Products that facilitate less invasive thoracolumbar surgeries, including the CD HORIZON SOLERA VOYAGER and LONGITUDE Percutaneous Fixation Systems.
Products to treat conditions in the cervical region of the spine, including the ZEVO Anterior Cervical Plate System, the INFINITY OCT System, and PRESTIGE LP Cervical Artificial Discs.
Biologic solutions products, including our INFUSE Bone Graft (InductOs in the European Union (E.U.)), which contains a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, rhBMP-2, for certain spinal, trauma, and oral maxillofacial applications.
Demineralized Bone Matrix products, including MagniFuse, GRAFTON/GRAFTON PLUS, COREX, and PROGENIX, and the MASTERGRAFT family of synthetic bone graft products - Matrix, Putty, and Granules.
Specialty Therapies
Our Specialty Therapies division develops, manufactures, and markets products and therapies to treat diseases of the ear, nose and throat (ENT), help control the systems of overactive bladder, (non-obstructive) urinary retention, and chronic fecal incontinence. Principal products and services offered include:
Pelvic health and gastric therapies products, including our Interstim, InterStim Micro, and InterStim II neurostimulators, and InterStim SureScan MRI leads, to help control the systems of overactive bladder, (non-obstructive) urinary retention, and chronic fecal incontinence. Our NURO System delivers Percutaneous Tibial Neuromodulation therapy to treat overactive bladder and associated symptoms of urinary urgency, urinary frequency, and urge incontinence. Our Enterra gastric neurostimulator is approved as a humanitarian device and is used for the treatment of chronic, intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastroparesis.
ENT products, including the Straightshot M5 Microdebrider Handpiece, the IPC system, NIM Nerve Monitoring Systems, FUSION Compact and StealthStation ENT Navigation System, as well as products for hearing restoration and obstructive sleep apnea.
Pain Therapies
Our Pain Therapies division develops, manufactures, and markets spinal cord stimulation systems, implantable drug infusion systems for chronic pain, as well as interventional products. Principal products and services offered include:
Spinal cord stimulation products, including rechargeable and non-rechargeable devices and a large selection of leads used to treat chronic back and/or limb pain. This includes the Intellis Spinal Cord Stimulation System, with
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AdaptiveStim and SureScan MRI Technology, DTM (differential target multiplexed) proprietary waveform, the Evolve workflow algorithm, and Snapshot reporting. Products also include our RestoreSensor (rechargeable) SureScan MRI neurostimulation system, with its proprietary AdaptiveStim technology.
Implantable drug infusion systems, including our SynchroMed II Implantable Infusion System, that deliver small quantities of drug directly into the intrathecal space surrounding the spinal cord.
Interventional products, including the Xpander II Balloon Kyphoplasty system, the Kyphon-V vertebroplasty system and the OsteoCool RF Tumor ablation system.
The Accurian nerve ablation system, which conducts radio frequency ablation of nerve tissues.

DIABETES GROUP

The Diabetes Group develops, manufactures, and markets products and services for the management of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The primary medical specialists who use and/or prescribe our Diabetes products are endocrinologists and primary care physicians.
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Principal products and services offered include:
Insulin pumps, including the MiniMed 670G system, which is the world's first hybrid closed loop system. The system, powered by SmartGuard technology, mimics some of the functions of a healthy pancreas by providing two levels of automated insulin delivery to maximize Time in Range with reduced user input.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, including the Guardian Connect smart CGM system, the iPro2 professional CGM, and the Envision PRO professional CGM, are products worn by patients capturing glucose data to reveal patterns and potential problems, such as hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic episodes.

OTHER FACTORS IMPACTING OUR OPERATIONS
COVID-19 Pandemic
The global COVID-19 pandemic, together with the preventative and precautionary measures taken by businesses, communities and governments, is impacting, and we expect will continue to impact significant aspects of our Company and business, including demand for our products, our operations, supply chains and distribution systems, and our ability to research and develop and bring new products and services to market. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Research and Development
The markets in which we participate are subject to rapid technological advances. Constant improvement of existing products and introduction of new products is necessary to maintain market leadership. Our research and development (R&D) efforts are directed toward maintaining or achieving technological leadership in each of the markets we serve in order to help ensure that patients using our devices and therapies receive the most advanced and effective treatment possible. We remain committed to developing technological enhancements and new indications for existing products, and less invasive and new technologies for new and emerging markets to address unmet patient needs. That commitment leads to our initiation and participation in many clinical trials each fiscal year as the demand for clinical and economic evidence remains high. Furthermore, our development activities are intended to help reduce patient care costs and the length of hospital stays in the future. We have not engaged in significant customer or government-sponsored research.
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Our R&D activities include improving existing products and therapies, expanding their indications and applications for use, and developing new therapies and procedures. We continue to focus on optimizing innovation, improving our R&D productivity, driving growth in emerging markets, clinical evidence generation, and assessing our R&D programs based on their ability to deliver economic value to our customers.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, tradenames, copyrights, trade secrets, and agreements (non-disclosure and non-competition agreements) to protect our business and proprietary technology. In addition, we have entered into exclusive and non-exclusive licenses relating to a wide array of third-party technologies. In the aggregate, these intellectual property assets and licenses are of material importance to our business; however, we believe that no single intellectual property asset or license is material in relation to any segment of our business or to our business as a whole.
We operate in an industry characterized by extensive patent litigation. Patent litigation may result in significant damage awards and injunctions that could prevent the manufacture and sale of affected products or result in significant royalty payments in order to continue selling the products. At any given time, we are involved as both a plaintiff and a defendant in a number of patent infringement actions, the outcomes of which may not be known for prolonged periods of time. For additional information, see Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Sales and Distribution
We sell most of our medical devices and therapies through direct sales representatives in the U.S. and a combination of direct sales representatives and independent distributors in markets outside the U.S. For certain portions of our business, we also sell through distributors in the U.S. Our medical supplies products are used primarily in hospitals, surgi-centers and alternate care facilities, such as home care and long-term care facilities, and are marketed to materials managers, GPOs and integrated delivery networks (IDNs). We often negotiate with GPOs and IDNs, which enter into supply contracts for the benefit of their member facilities. Our four largest markets are the U.S., Western Europe, China, and Japan. Emerging markets are an area of increasing focus and opportunity, as we believe they remain under-penetrated.
Our marketing and sales strategy is focused on rapid, cost-effective delivery of high-quality products to a diverse group of customers worldwide. To achieve this objective, we organize our marketing and sales teams around physician specialties. This focus enables us to develop highly knowledgeable and dedicated sales representatives who are able to foster strong relationships with physicians and other customers and enhance our ability to cross-sell complementary products.
We are not dependent on any single customer for more than 10 percent of our total net sales.
Competition, Industry and Cost Containment
We compete in both the therapeutic and diagnostic medical markets in more than 150 countries throughout the world. These markets are characterized by rapid change resulting from technological advances and scientific discoveries. Our product lines face a mix of competitors ranging from large manufacturers with multiple business lines to small manufacturers offering a limited selection of products. In addition, we face competition from providers of other medical therapies, such as pharmaceutical companies.
Major shifts in industry market share have occurred in connection with product problems, physician advisories, safety alerts, results of clinical trials to support superiority claims, and publications about our products, reflecting the importance of product quality, product efficacy and quality systems in the medical device industry. In the current environment of managed care, economically motivated customers, consolidation among healthcare providers, increased competition, and declining reimbursement rates, we have been increasingly required to compete on the basis of price. In order to continue to compete effectively, we must continue to create or acquire advanced technology, incorporate this technology into proprietary products, obtain regulatory approvals in a timely manner, maintain high-quality manufacturing processes, and successfully market these products.
Government and private sector initiatives to limit the growth of healthcare costs, including price regulation, competitive pricing, bidding and tender mechanics, coverage and payment policies, comparative effectiveness of therapies, technology assessments and managed-care arrangements, are continuing in many countries where we do business, including the U.S. These initiatives put increased emphasis on the delivery of more cost-effective medical devices and therapies. Government programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, private healthcare insurance and managed-care plans have attempted to control costs by limiting the amount of reimbursement they will pay for particular procedures or treatments, tying reimbursement to outcomes, shifting to population health management, and other mechanisms. Hospitals, which purchase our technology, are also seeking to reduce
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costs through a variety of mechanisms, including, for example, centralized purchasing, and in some cases, limiting the number of vendors that may participate in the purchasing program. Hospitals are also aligning interests with physicians through employment and other arrangements, such as gainsharing, where a hospital agrees with physicians to share any realized cost savings resulting from changes in practice patterns such as device standardization. This has created an increased level of price sensitivity among customers for our products.
Worldwide Operations
Our global operations are accompanied by certain financial and other risks. Relationships with customers and effective terms of sale vary by country. Exchange rate fluctuations may affect revenues, earnings, and cash flows from operations. We use operational and economic hedges, as well as derivative contracts, to manage the impact of currency exchange rate changes on earnings and cash flow. See “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” and Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Net sales and property, plant, and equipment attributable to significant geographic areas are presented in Note 21 to the consolidated financial statements in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Production and Availability of Raw Materials
We manufacture products at manufacturing facilities located in various countries throughout the world. We purchase many of the components and raw materials used in manufacturing our products from numerous suppliers in various countries. Certain components and raw materials are available only from a sole supplier. We work closely with our suppliers to help ensure continuity of supply while maintaining high quality and reliability. Generally, we have been able to obtain adequate supplies of such raw materials and components. However, due to the U.S. FDA’s manufacturing requirements, we may not be able to quickly establish additional or replacement sources for certain components or materials if we experience a sudden or unexpected reduction or interruption in supply and are unable to develop alternative sources.
For additional information related to our manufacturing facilities refer to “Item 2. Properties” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Quality Management and Product Liability
Our business success depends on the quality of our products, and we have global processes, procedures and programs, including our “Quality Begins with Me” program, that are intended to help us maintain the highest possible level of quality in all products. We operate in an industry susceptible to significant product liability claims. These claims may be brought by individuals seeking relief on their own behalf or purporting to represent a class.
Working Capital
Our goal is to carry sufficient levels of inventory to meet the product delivery needs of our customers. We also provide payment terms to customers in the normal course of business and rights to return product under warranty to meet the operational demands of our customers.
Employees
On April 24, 2020, we employed more than 90,000 full-time employees. Our employees are vital to our success. We believe we have been successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel in a highly competitive labor market due to our competitive compensation and benefits and our rewarding work environment.
Seasonality
Worldwide sales do not reflect a significant degree of seasonality. However, the number of medical procedures incorporating Medtronic products is generally lower during summer months in the northern hemisphere due to summer vacation schedules, particularly in European countries.
Government Regulation
Our operations and products are subject to extensive regulation by numerous government agencies, including the U.S. FDA, European regulatory authorities such as the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices in Germany, the China National Medical Product Administration (NMPA), and other government agencies inside and outside the U.S. To varying degrees, each of these agencies requires us to comply with laws and regulations governing the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, marketing,
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distribution and post-marketing surveillance of our products. Our business is also affected by patient privacy laws and government payer cost containment initiatives, as well as environmental health and safety laws and regulations.
Product Approval and Monitoring
Many countries where we sell medical devices subject such medical devices and technologies to their own approval and other regulatory requirements regarding performance, safety, and quality of our products. Authorization to commercially distribute a new medical device in the U.S. is generally obtained in one of two ways. The first, known as pre-market notification or the 510(k) process, requires us to demonstrate that our medical device is substantially equivalent to a legally marketed medical device. The second, more rigorous process, known as pre-market approval, requires us to independently demonstrate that a medical device is safe and effective for its intended use. This process is generally much more time-consuming and expensive than the 510(k) process.
In the E.U., a single regulatory approval process exists, and conformity with the legal requirements is represented by the CE Mark. To obtain a CE Mark, defined products must meet minimum standards of performance, safety, and quality (i.e., the essential requirements), and then, according to their classification, comply with one or more of a selection of conformity assessment routes. The competent authorities of the E.U. countries separately regulate the clinical research for medical devices and the market surveillance of products once they are placed on the market. A new Medical Device Regulation was published by the E.U. in 2017 which imposes significant additional premarket and postmarket requirements (EU MDR). The regulation initially provided a three-year implementation period to May 2020, but that timeline has been delayed to May 2021 due to COVID-19 and its impact on audits and technical file review by Notified Bodies. After that time, medical devices marketed in the E.U. will require certification according to these new requirements, except that devices with valid CE certificates, issued pursuant to the Medical Device Directives before May 2020, can be placed on the market until May 2024.
The global regulatory environment is increasingly stringent and unpredictable. Several countries that did not have regulatory requirements for medical devices have established such requirements in recent years, and other countries have expanded, or plan to expand, their existing regulations. While harmonization of global regulations has been pursued, requirements continue to differ significantly among countries. We expect this global regulatory environment will continue to evolve, which could impact the cost, the time needed to approve, and ultimately, our ability to maintain existing approvals or obtain future approvals for our products. Regulations of the U.S. FDA and other regulatory agencies in and outside the U.S. impose extensive compliance and monitoring obligations on our business. These agencies review our design and manufacturing practices, labeling, record keeping, and manufacturers’ required reports of adverse experiences and other information to identify potential problems with marketed medical devices. We are also subject to periodic inspections for compliance with applicable quality system regulations, which govern the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the design, manufacture, packaging, and servicing of finished medical devices intended for human use. In addition, the U.S. FDA and other regulatory bodies, both in and outside the U.S. (including the Federal Trade Commission, the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Justice, and various state Attorneys General), monitor the promotion and advertising of our products. Any adverse regulatory action, depending on its magnitude, may limit our ability to effectively market and sell our products, limit our ability to obtain future premarket approvals or result in a substantial modification to our business practices and operations. For additional information, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors" We are subject to costly and complex laws and governmental regulations and any adverse regulatory action may materially adversely affect our financial condition and business operations.
In April 2015, we entered into a consent decree with the U.S. FDA relating to our Pain Therapies division's SynchroMed II drug infusion system and its associated quality system. The consent decree requires us to complete certain corrections and enhancements to the SynchroMed pump and the Neuromodulation quality system. The consent decree’s limitations on our ability to manufacture and distribute the SynchroMed drug infusion system were lifted by the U.S. FDA in September 2017. Following the successful completion of the required third-party expert audits and subsequent FDA inspection, and in coordination with the FDA, Medtronic can move to have the consent decree vacated. The Company must undergo third-party audits and submit audit reports to the U.S. FDA through calendar 2020.
In June 2016, TYRX received a Warning Letter from the U.S. FDA following an inspection at the TYRX facility in Monmouth Junction, New Jersey. The U.S. FDA completed its follow up inspection to the Warning Letter in March 2018 and issued a Form-483 with observations. FDA completed its Warning Letter reinspection at the TYRX facility in Minneapolis, since the manufacturing operations at Monmouth Junction have ceased. The inspection concluded in March 2020 with zero observations, and in April 2020 the Warning Letter was lifted by FDA. In June 2014, HeartWare Inc. received a Warning Letter from the U.S. FDA following an inspection at the HeartWare facility in Miami Lakes, Florida. Medtronic acquired HeartWare in August 2016, and implemented corrective actions and process improvements to address the items in the Warning Letter. In July 2018, HeartWare received a Form-483 after a U.S. FDA inspection and is implementing additional corrective actions, primarily related to the Pioneer 2.0 Controller, in response to the observations. We have been communicating monthly with the U.S. FDA on the progress of the actions and the timing for reinspection. In August 2018, we received two FDA Warning Letters, one
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issued to the CRHF facility in Mounds View, MN, and the other issued to the Juncos facility in Puerto Rico. The letters were limited to the Blackwell ICD and focused on the manufacturing and design processes for Blackwell. Reinspection was completed at Juncos in November 2019 and resulted in four 483 observations. Reinspection was completed at Mounds View in January 2020 and resulted in zero 483 observations. Both the Juncos and Mounds View Warning Letters were lifted in February 2020.
Trade Regulations
The movement of products, services, and investment across borders subject us to extensive trade regulations. A variety of laws and regulations in the countries in which we transact business apply to the sale, shipment and provision of goods, services and technology across borders. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, our import, export and other business activities. We are also subject to the risk that these laws and regulations could change in a way that would expose us to additional costs, penalties or liabilities. Some governments also impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons or entities. In addition to our need to comply with such regulations in connection with our direct activities, we also sell and provide goods, technology and services to agents, representatives and distributors who may export such items to customers and end-users. If we, or the third parties through which we do business, are not in compliance with applicable import, export control or economic sanctions laws and regulations, we may be subject to civil or criminal enforcement action, and varying degrees of liability. Such actions may disrupt or delay sales of our products or services or result in restrictions on our distribution and sales of products or services that may materially impact our business.
Anti-Boycott Laws
Under U.S. laws and regulations, U.S. companies and their subsidiaries and affiliates outside the U.S. are prohibited from participating or agreeing to participate in unsanctioned foreign boycotts in connection with certain business activities, including the sale, purchase, transfer, shipping or financing of goods or services within the U.S. or between the U.S. and countries outside of the U.S. If we, or certain third parties through which we sell or provide goods or services, violate anti-boycott laws and regulations, we may be subject to civil or criminal enforcement action and varying degrees of liability.
Data Privacy and Security Laws and Regulations
As a business with a significant global footprint, compliance with evolving regulations and standards in data privacy and cybersecurity has resulted, and may continue to result, in increased costs, new compliance challenges, and the threat of increased regulatory enforcement activity. Our business relies on the secure electronic transmission, storage and hosting of sensitive information, including personal information, protected health information, financial information, intellectual property and other sensitive information related to our customers and workforce.
For example, in the U.S., the collection, maintenance, protection, use, transmission, disclosure and disposal of certain personal information and the security of medical devices are regulated at the U.S. federal and state, international and industry levels. U.S. federal and state laws protect the confidentiality of certain patient health information, including patient medical records, and restrict the use and disclosure of patient health information by healthcare providers. Privacy and Security Rules under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), as amended, and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (HITECH), govern the use, disclosure, and security of protected health information by “Covered Entities,” (which are healthcare providers that submit electronic claims, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses) and by their “Business Associates” (which is anyone that performs a service on behalf of a Covered Entity involving the use or disclosure of protected health information and is not a member of the Covered Entity’s workforce). Rules under HIPAA and HITECH include specific security standards and breach notification requirements. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) (through the Office of Civil Rights) has direct enforcement authority against Covered Entities and Business Associates with regard to both the Security and Privacy Rules, including civil and criminal liability. With the exception of certain of its operations in its Diabetes and care management services businesses, Medtronic is generally not a Covered Entity. Medtronic also operates as a Business Associate to Covered Entities in a limited number of instances. There are comparable state laws governing the use and protection of personal health information by healthcare providers, and Medtronic may be subject to these laws in certain of its businesses.
In addition to the regulation of personal health information, a number of states have also adopted laws and regulations that may affect our privacy and data security practices for other kinds of personally identifiable information, such as state laws that govern the use, disclosure and protection of sensitive personal information, such as social security numbers, or that are designed to protect credit card account data. State consumer protection laws may also establish privacy and security standards for use and management of personally identifiable information, including information related to consumers and care providers.
Outside the U.S., we are impacted by the privacy and data security requirements at the international, national and regional level, and on an industry specific basis. We serve customers in more than 150 countries. Legal requirements in these countries relating to the collection, storage, handling and transfer of personal data and potentially intellectual property continue to evolve
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with increasingly strict enforcement regimes. More privacy and security laws and regulations are being adopted, and more are being enforced, with potential for significant financial penalties. In the E.U., stringent data protection and privacy rules which substantially impact the use of patient data across the healthcare industry became effective in May 2018. The E.U. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) applies uniformly across the E.U. and includes, among other things, a requirement for prompt notice of data breaches to data subjects and supervisory authorities in certain circumstances and significant fines for non-compliance. The GDPR also requires companies processing personal data of individuals residing in the E.U. to comply with E.U. privacy and data protection rules.
Because the laws and regulations continue to expand, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and are subject to evolving (and at times inconsistent) governmental interpretation, compliance with these laws and regulations may require significant additional cost expenditures or changes in products or business that increase competition or reduce revenue. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of fines, penalties, or orders to stop noncompliant activities.
Regulations Governing Reimbursement
The delivery of our devices is subject to regulation by HHS and comparable state and non-U.S. agencies responsible for reimbursement and regulation of healthcare items and services. U.S. laws and regulations are imposed primarily in connection with federally funded healthcare programs, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, as well as the government’s interest in regulating the quality and cost of healthcare. Other governments also impose regulations in connection with their healthcare reimbursement programs and the delivery of healthcare items and services.
U.S. federal healthcare laws apply when we or customers submit claims for items or services that are reimbursed under federally-funded healthcare programs, including laws related to kickbacks, false claims, self-referrals and healthcare fraud. There are often similar state false claims, anti-kickback, and anti-self-referral and insurance laws that apply to state-funded Medicaid and other healthcare programs and private third-party payers. In some circumstances, insurance companies attempt to bring a private cause of action against a manufacturer for a pattern of causing false claims. In addition, as a manufacturer of U.S. FDA-approved devices reimbursable by federal healthcare programs, we are subject to the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires us to annually report certain payments and other transfers of value we make to U.S.-licensed physicians or U.S. teaching hospitals. Any failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us or our officers and employees to criminal and civil financial penalties.
Implementation of further legislative or administrative reforms to reimbursement systems, or adverse decisions relating to our products by administrators of these systems in coverage or reimbursement, could significantly reduce reimbursement or result in the denial of coverage, which could have an impact on the acceptance of and demand for our products and the prices that our customers are willing to pay for them. Further, as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the “ACA”), the U.S. is implementing value-based payment methodologies and seeking to create alternate payment models, such as bundled payments, to continue to drive improved value.
Environmental Health and Safety Laws
We are also subject to various environmental health and safety laws and regulations both within and outside the U.S. Like other companies in our industry, our manufacturing and other operations involve the use and transportation of substances regulated under environmental health and safety laws including those related to the transportation of hazardous materials.
Available Information
We maintain a website at www.medtronic.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act) are made available under the “About Medtronic - Investors” caption and “Financial Information - SEC Filings” subcaption of our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Information relating to our corporate governance, including our Principles of Corporate Governance, Code of Conduct (including our Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers), Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Members of the Board of Directors, and information concerning our executive officers, directors and Board committees (including committee charters) is available through our website at www.medtronic.com under the “About Medtronic - Corporate Governance” caption. Information relating to transactions in Medtronic securities by directors and officers is available through our website at www.medtronic.com under the “About Medtronic - Investors” caption and the “Financial Information - SEC Filings” subcaption.
The information listed above may also be obtained upon request from the Medtronic Investor Relations Department, 710 Medtronic Parkway, Minneapolis, MN 55432 USA.
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Our website and the information contained on or connected to our website are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The public may obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. We file annual reports, quarterly reports, proxy statements, and other documents with the SEC under the Exchange Act.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Investing in our securities involves a variety of risks and uncertainties, known and unknown, including, among others, those discussed below. Each of the following risks should be carefully considered, together with all the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and in our other filings with the SEC. Furthermore, additional risks and uncertainty not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business. Our business, financial condition, operating results, cash flow and prospects could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks or uncertainties.
Risks Relating to the Company
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had, and we expect will continue to have, an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, the nature and extent of which are highly uncertain and unpredictable.
Our global operations and interactions with healthcare systems, providers and patients around the world expose us to risks associated with public health crises, including epidemics and pandemics such as COVID-19. In particular, the continuing global spread of COVID-19, including corresponding preventative and precautionary measures that we and other businesses, communities and governments are taking to mitigate the spread of the disease, has led to unprecedented restrictions on, disruptions in, and other related impacts on business and personal activities. Further, in addition to travel restrictions put in place in early 2020, countries, states and governments may continue to close borders, impose prolonged quarantines or other restrictions and requirements on travel, and further limit our ability to conduct business in-person as we did prior to COVID-19, requiring businesses, including our business, to use alternative methods of communication. It is likely the COVID-19 pandemic will cause an economic slowdown of potentially extended duration, and it is possible that it could cause a global recession.
Together with the preventative and precautionary measures being taken, as well as the corresponding need to adapt to new and different methods of communication and conducting business, COVID-19 is having, and will likely continue to have, an adverse impact on significant aspects of our Company and business, including on demand for and supply of our products, operations, supply chains and distribution systems, our ability to research and develop and bring to market new products and services, and our ability to generate cash flow, and may have an adverse impact on our ability to access capital. Some of our products are particularly sensitive to reductions in deferrable and emergent medical procedures, and, as hospital systems prioritize treatment of COVID-19 patients and otherwise comply with government guidelines, certain medical procedures have been suspended or postponed in many of the markets where our products are marketed and sold, which has caused a reduction in sales of these products. The Company has certain product lines that are in higher demand as a result of COVID-19 such as ventilators, pulse oximetry, capnography, advanced parameter monitoring, and extracorporeal life support products. It is not possible to predict the timing of a broad resumption of deferrable medical procedures and, to the extent individuals and hospital systems continue to de-prioritize, delay or cancel these procedures, or if unemployment or loss of insurance coverage adversely impacts an individual’s ability to pay for our products and services, our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations would continue to be negatively affected. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic is straining hospital systems around the world, resulting in adverse financial impacts to those systems that could result in reduced future expenditures for capital equipment and other products and services we provide, as well as disruption of product launches of our recently approved products. Clinical trials generally have suspended enrollment due to facility closures and governmental restrictions, which we expect will delay the results from those clinical trials and will impact our ability to timely develop and bring to market new products.
In addition, a significant number of our global suppliers, vendors, distributors and manufacturing facilities have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, including by adversely impacting the ability of their employees to get to their places of work and maintain the continuity of their on-site operations. These impacts could impair our ability to move our products through distribution channels to end customers, and any such delay or shortage in the supply of components or materials may result in our inability to satisfy consumer demand for our products in a timely manner or at all, which could harm our reputation, future sales and profitability.
In addition, COVID-19 has impacted and may further impact the global economy and capital markets, including by negatively impacting demand for a number of our products, access to capital markets (including the commercial paper market), foreign
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currency exchange rates, and interest rates, each of which may adversely impact our business and liquidity. We could experience loss of sales and profits due to delayed payments or insolvency of healthcare professionals, hospitals and other customers, suppliers and vendors facing liquidity issues. As a result, we may be compelled to take additional measures to preserve our cash flow.
In addition, COVID-19 could adversely impact our ability to retain key employees and the continued service and availability of skilled personnel necessary to run our complex productions and operations, including our executive officers and other members of our management team, as well as the ability of our third-party suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and vendors to retain their key employees. To the extent our management or other personnel are impacted in significant numbers by COVID-19 and are not available to perform their job duties, we could experience delays in, or the suspension of, our manufacturing operations, research and product development activities, regulatory work streams, clinical development programs and other important commercial functions.
While the impact of COVID-19 has had, and we expect it to continue to have, an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, the nature and extent of such impact is highly uncertain and unpredictable.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and we may be unable to compete effectively.
We compete in both the therapeutic and diagnostic medical markets in more than 150 countries throughout the world. These markets are characterized by rapid change resulting from technological advances and scientific discoveries. In the product lines in which we compete, we face a range of competitors from large companies with multiple business lines to small, specialized manufacturers that offer a limited selection of niche products. Development by other companies of new or improved products, processes, technologies, or the introduction of reprocessed products or generic versions when our proprietary products lose their patent protection may make our existing or planned products less competitive. In addition, we face competition from providers of alternative medical therapies, such as pharmaceutical companies.
We believe our ability to compete depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including:

product performance and reliability,
product technology and innovation,
product quality and safety,
breadth of product lines,
product support services,
customer support,
cost-effectiveness and price,
reimbursement approval from healthcare insurance providers, and
changes to the regulatory environment.
Competition may increase as additional companies enter our markets or modify their existing products to compete directly with ours. In addition, academic institutions, governmental agencies and other public and private research organizations also may conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for discovery, research, clinical development and marketing of products similar to ours. These companies and institutions compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, as well as in acquiring necessary product technologies. From time to time we have lost, and may in the future lose, market share in connection with product problems, physician advisories, safety alerts and publications about our products, which highlights the importance of product quality, product efficacy and quality systems to our business. In the current environment of managed care, consolidation among healthcare providers, increased competition, and declining reimbursement rates, we have been increasingly required to compete on the basis of price. Further, our continued growth and success depend on our ability to develop, acquire and market new and differentiated products, technologies and intellectual property, and as a result we also face competition for marketing, distribution, and collaborative development agreements, establishing relationships with academic and research institutions and licenses to intellectual property. In order to continue to compete effectively, we must continue to create, invest in or acquire advanced technology, incorporate this technology into our proprietary products, obtain regulatory approvals in a timely manner, and manufacture and successfully market our products. Given these factors, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to compete effectively or continue our level of success.
Reduction or interruption in supply or other manufacturing difficulties may adversely affect our manufacturing operations and related product sales.
The manufacture of our products requires the timely delivery of a sufficient amount of quality components and materials and is highly exacting and complex, due in part to strict regulatory requirements. We manufacture the majority of our products and procure important third-party services, such as sterilization services, at numerous facilities worldwide. We purchase many of
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the components, raw materials and services needed to manufacture these products from numerous suppliers in various countries. We have generally been able to obtain adequate supplies of such raw materials, components and services. However, for reasons of quality assurance, cost effectiveness, or availability, certain components, raw materials and services needed to manufacture our products are obtained from a sole supplier. Although we work closely with our suppliers to try to ensure continuity of supply while maintaining high quality and reliability, the supply of these components, raw materials and services may be interrupted or insufficient. In addition, due to the stringent regulations and requirements of regulatory agencies, including the U.S. FDA, regarding the manufacture of our products, we may not be able to quickly establish additional or replacement sources. Furthermore, the prices of commodities and other materials used in our products, which are often volatile and outside of our control, could adversely impact our supply. We use resins, other petroleum-based materials and pulp as raw materials in some of our products, and the prices of oil and gas also significantly affect our costs for freight and utilities. A reduction or interruption in supply, and an inability to develop alternative sources for such supply, could adversely affect our ability to manufacture our products in a timely or cost-effective manner and could result in lost sales.
Other disruptions in the manufacturing process or product sales and fulfillment systems for any reason, including equipment malfunction, failure to follow specific protocols and procedures, supplier facility shut-downs, defective raw materials, natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes or wildfires, property damage from riots, and other environmental factors and the impact of epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19, and actions by businesses, communities and governments in response, could lead to launch delays, product shortage, unanticipated costs, lost revenues and damage to our reputation. For example, in the past we have experienced a global information technology systems interruption that affected our customer ordering, distribution, and manufacturing processes, and we are currently adversely impacted by, and expect to continue to be adversely impacted by, the global COVID-19 pandemic and the responses of governments and of our partners, including suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and other businesses. Furthermore, any failure to identify and address manufacturing problems prior to the release of products to our customers could result in quality or safety issues.
In addition, several of our key products are manufactured or sterilized at a particular facility, with limited alternate facilities. If an event occurs that results in damage to or closure of one or more of such facilities, such as the damage caused by Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico in September 2017, we may be unable to manufacture or sterilize the relevant products at the previous levels or at all. Because of the time required to approve and license a manufacturing or sterilization facility, a third-party may not be available on a timely basis to replace production capacity in the event manufacturing or sterilization capacity is lost.
We are subject to costly and complex laws and governmental regulations and any adverse regulatory action may materially adversely affect our financial condition and business operations.
Our medical devices and technologies, as well as our business activities, are subject to a complex set of regulations and rigorous enforcement, including by the U.S. FDA, U.S. Department of Justice, Health and Human Services-Office of the Inspector General, and numerous other federal, state, and non-U.S. governmental authorities. To varying degrees, each of these agencies requires us to comply with laws and regulations governing the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, marketing and distribution of our products. As a part of the regulatory process of obtaining marketing clearance for new products and new indications for existing products, we conduct and participate in numerous clinical trials with a variety of study designs, patient populations, and trial endpoints. Unfavorable or inconsistent clinical data from existing or future clinical trials or the market’s or U.S. FDA’s perception of this clinical data, may adversely impact our ability to obtain product approvals, our position in, and share of, the markets in which we participate, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain marketing clearance for our new products or enhancements or modifications to existing products, and the failure to maintain approvals or obtain approval or clearance could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Even if we are able to obtain approval or clearance, it may:
take a significant amount of time,
require the expenditure of substantial resources,
involve stringent clinical and pre-clinical testing, as well as increased post-market surveillance,
involve modifications, repairs or replacements of our products, and
limit the proposed uses of our products.
Both before and after a product is commercially released, we have ongoing responsibilities under the U.S. FDA and other applicable non-U.S. government agency regulations. For instance, many of our facilities and procedures and those of our suppliers are also subject to periodic inspections by the U.S. FDA to determine compliance with applicable regulations. The results of these inspections can include inspectional observations on the U.S. FDA’s Form-483, warning letters, or other forms of enforcement. If the U.S. FDA were to conclude that we are not in compliance with applicable laws or regulations, or that any of our medical products are ineffective or pose an unreasonable health risk, the U.S. FDA could ban such medical products, detain or seize adulterated or misbranded medical products, order a recall, repair, replacement, or refund of such products, refuse to grant pending pre-market approval applications or require certificates of non-U.S governments for exports, and/or
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require us to notify health professionals and others that the devices present unreasonable risks of substantial harm to the public health. The U.S. FDA and other non-U.S. government agencies may also assess civil or criminal penalties against us, our officers or employees and impose operating restrictions on a company-wide basis. The U.S. FDA may also recommend prosecution to the U.S. Department of Justice. Any adverse regulatory action, depending on its magnitude, may restrict us from effectively marketing and selling our products and limit our ability to obtain future pre-market clearances or approvals, and could result in a substantial modification to our business practices and operations. Furthermore, we occasionally receive subpoenas or other requests for information from state and federal governmental agencies, and while these investigations typically relate primarily to financial arrangements with healthcare providers, regulatory compliance and product promotional practices, we cannot predict the timing, outcome or impact of any such investigations. Any adverse outcome in one or more of these investigations could include the commencement of civil and/or criminal proceedings, substantial fines, penalties, and/or administrative remedies, including exclusion from government reimbursement programs and/or entry into Corporate Integrity Agreements (CIAs) with governmental agencies. In addition, resolution of any of these matters could involve the imposition of additional, costly compliance obligations. These potential consequences, as well as any adverse outcome from government investigations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
In addition, the U.S. FDA has taken the position that device manufacturers are prohibited from promoting their products other than for the uses and indications set forth in the approved product labeling, and any failure to comply could subject us to significant civil or criminal exposure, administrative obligations and costs, and/or other potential penalties from, and/or agreements with, the federal government.
Governmental regulations outside the U.S. have, and may continue to, become increasingly stringent and common. In the European Union, for example, a new Medical Device Regulation was published in 2017 which, when it enters into force in May 2021, will include significant additional premarket and post-market requirements. Penalties for regulatory non-compliance could be severe, including fines and revocation or suspension of a company’s business license, mandatory price reductions and criminal sanctions. Future laws and regulations may have a material adverse effect on us.
Our failure to comply with laws and regulations relating to reimbursement of healthcare goods and services may subject us to penalties and adversely impact our reputation, business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our devices, products and therapies are purchased principally by hospitals or physicians that typically bill various third-party payers, such as governmental healthcare programs (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid and comparable non-U.S. programs), private insurance plans and managed care plans, for the healthcare services provided to their patients. The ability of our customers to obtain appropriate reimbursement for products and services from third-party payers is critical because it affects which products customers purchase and the prices they are willing to pay. As a result, our devices, products and therapies are subject to regulation regarding quality and cost by HHS, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), as well as comparable state and non-U.S. agencies responsible for reimbursement and regulation of health are goods and services, including laws and regulations related to kickbacks, false claims, self-referrals and healthcare fraud. Many states have similar laws that apply to reimbursement by state Medicaid and other funded programs as well as in some cases to all payers. In certain circumstances, insurance companies attempt to bring a private cause of action against a manufacturer for causing false claims. In addition, as a manufacturer of U.S. FDA-approved devices reimbursable by federal healthcare programs, we are subject to the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires us to annually report certain payments and other transfers of value we make to U.S.-licensed physicians or U.S. teaching hospitals. Any failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us or our officers and employees to criminal and civil financial penalties.
We are also subject to risks relating to changes in government and private medical reimbursement programs and policies, and changes in legal regulatory requirements in the U.S. and around the world. Implementation of further legislative or administrative reforms to these reimbursement systems, or adverse decisions relating to coverage of or reimbursement for our products by administrators of these systems, could have an impact on the acceptance of and demand for our products and the prices that our customers are willing to pay for them.
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We are substantially dependent on patent and other proprietary rights and failing to protect such rights or to be successful in litigation related to our rights or the rights of others may result in our payment of significant monetary damages and/or royalty payments, negatively impacting our ability to sell current or future products.
We are substantially dependent on patent and other proprietary rights and rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, tradenames, copyrights, trade secrets, and agreements (such as employee, non-disclosure and non-competition agreements) to protect our business and proprietary intellectual property. We also operate in an industry characterized by extensive patent litigation. Patent litigation can result in significant damage awards and injunctions that could prevent our manufacture and sale of affected products or require us to pay significant royalties in order to continue to manufacture or sell affected products. At any given time, we are generally involved as both a plaintiff and a defendant in a number of patent infringement actions, the outcomes of which may not be known for prolonged periods of time. While it is not possible to predict the outcome of patent litigation, it is possible that the results of such litigation could require us to pay significant monetary damages and/or royalty payments, negatively impact our ability to sell current or future products, or that enforcement actions to protect our patent and proprietary rights against others could be unsuccessful, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
While we intend to defend against any threats to our intellectual property, our patents, trademarks, tradenames, copyrights, trade secrets or agreements (such as employee, non-disclosure and non-competition agreements) may not adequately protect our intellectual property. Further, pending patent applications may not result in patents being issued to us, patents issued to or licensed by us may be challenged or circumvented by competitors and such patents may be found invalid, unenforceable or too limited in scope to protect our technology or provide us with any competitive advantage. Third parties could obtain patents that may require us to negotiate licenses to conduct our business, and such licenses may not be available on reasonable terms or at all. We also rely on non-disclosure and non-competition agreements with certain employees, consultants and other parties to protect, in part, trade secrets and other proprietary rights. We cannot be certain that these agreements will not be breached, that we will have adequate remedies for any breach, that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information, or that third parties will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or proprietary knowledge.
In addition, the laws of certain countries in which we market or manufacture some of our products do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S., which could make it easier for competitors to capture market position. Competitors also may harm our sales by designing products that mirror the capabilities of our products or technology without infringing our intellectual property rights. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property in these countries, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Quality problems and product liability claims could lead to recalls or safety alerts, reputational harm, adverse verdicts or costly settlements, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Quality is extremely important to us and our customers due to the impact on patients, and the serious and potentially costly consequences of product failure. Our business exposes us to potential product liability risks that are inherent in the design, manufacture, and marketing of medical devices. In addition, many of our products are often used in intensive care settings with seriously ill patients and some of the medical devices we manufacture and sell are designed to be implanted in the human body for long periods of time or indefinitely. Component failures, manufacturing nonconformances, design defects, off-label use, or inadequate disclosure of product-related risks or product-related information with respect to our products, if they were to occur, could result in an unsafe condition or injury to, or death of, a patient. These problems could lead to recall of, or issuance of a safety alert relating to, our products, and could result in product liability claims and lawsuits, including class actions, which could ultimately result, in certain cases, in the removal from the body of such products and claims regarding costs associated therewith. Due to the strong name recognition of the Medtronic and Covidien brands, a material adverse event involving one of our products could result in reduced market acceptance and demand for all products within that brand, and could harm our reputation and ability to market products in the future. Further, we may be exposed to additional potential product liability risks related to products designed, manufactured and/or marketed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and unpredictable or accelerated changes in demand for certain of our products in connection with COVID-19 and its related impacts could impact development and production of products and services and could increase the risk of regulatory enforcement actions, product defects or related claims, as well as adversely impact our customer relationships and reputation.
Strong product quality is critical to the success of our goods and services. If we fall short of these standards and our products are the subject of recalls or safety alerts, our reputation could be damaged, we could lose customers and our revenue and results of operations could decline. Our success also can depend on our ability to manufacture to exact specification precision-engineered components, subassemblies and finished devices from multiple materials. If our components fail to meet these standards or fail to adapt to evolving standards, our reputation, competitive advantage and market share could be harmed. In certain situations, we may undertake a voluntary recall of products or temporarily shut down production lines based on performance relative to our own internal safety and quality monitoring and testing data.
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Any of the foregoing problems, including future product liability claims or recalls, regardless of their ultimate outcome, could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our research and development efforts rely upon investments and investment collaborations, and we cannot guarantee that any previous or future investments or investment collaborations will be successful.
Our mission is to provide a broad range of therapies to restore patients to fuller, healthier lives, which requires a wide variety of technologies, products and capabilities. The rapid pace of technological development in the medical industry and the specialized expertise required in different areas of medicine make it difficult for one company alone to develop a broad portfolio of technological solutions. In addition to internally generated growth through our research and development efforts, historically we have relied, and expect to continue to rely, upon investments and investment collaborations to provide us access to new technologies both in areas served by our existing businesses as well as in new areas.
We expect to make future investments where we believe that we can stimulate the development or acquisition of new technologies and products to further our strategic objectives and strengthen our existing businesses. Investments and investment collaborations in and with medical technology companies are inherently risky, and we cannot guarantee that any of our previous or future investments or investment collaborations will be successful or will not materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Healthcare policy changes may have a material adverse effect on us.
In response to perceived increases in healthcare costs in recent years, there have been and continue to be proposals by several governments, regulators and third-party payers globally, including the U.S. federal and state governments, to control these costs and, more generally, to reform healthcare systems, including U.S. healthcare reform legislation. Certain of these proposals could, among other things, limit the prices we are able to charge for our products or the amounts of reimbursement available for our products and could limit the acceptance and availability of our products. The adoption of some or all of these proposals could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our insurance program may not be adequate to cover future losses.
We have elected to self-insure most of our insurable risks across the Company, and we made this decision based on cost and availability factors in the insurance marketplace. We manage and maintain a portion of our self-insured program through a wholly-owned captive insurance company. We continue to maintain a directors and officers liability insurance policy with third-party insurers that provides coverage for the directors and officers of the Company. We continue to monitor the insurance marketplace to evaluate the value of obtaining insurance coverage for other categories of losses in the future. Although we believe, based on historical loss trends, that our self-insurance program accruals and our existing insurance coverage will be adequate to cover future losses, historical trends may not be indicative of future losses. The absence of third-party insurance coverage for other categories of losses increases our exposure to unanticipated claims and these losses could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
If we experience decreasing prices for our goods and services and we are unable to reduce our expenses, there may be a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We have experienced, and may continue to experience, decreasing prices for certain of our goods and services due to pricing pressure from managed care organizations and other third-party payers on our customers, increased market power of our customers as the medical device industry consolidates and increased competition among medical engineering and manufacturing services providers. If the prices for our goods and services decrease and we are unable to reduce our expenses, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows will be adversely affected.
We are subject to a variety of risks associated with global operations that could adversely affect our profitability and operating results.
We develop, manufacture, distribute and sell our products globally. We intend to continue to expand our operations and to pursue growth opportunities outside the U.S., especially in emerging markets. Operations in different countries including emerging markets could expose us to additional and greater risks and potential costs, including:
fluctuations in currency exchange rates,
healthcare reform legislation,
the need to comply with different regulatory regimes worldwide that are subject to change and that could restrict our ability to manufacture and sell our products,
local product preferences and product requirements,
longer-term receivables than are typical in the U.S.,
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trade protection measures, tariffs and other border taxes, and import or export licensing requirements,
less intellectual property protection in some countries outside the U.S. than exists in the U.S.,
different labor regulations and workforce instability,
political and economic instability,
the expiration and non-renewal of foreign tax rulings and/or grants,
potentially negative consequences from changes in or interpretations of tax laws, and
economic instability and inflation, recession or interest rate fluctuations.
The escalating global economic competition and trade tensions between the U.S. and China present risk to Medtronic. Although we have been able to mitigate some of the impact on Medtronic from increased duties imposed by both sides (through petitioning both governments for tariff exclusions and other mitigations), the risk remains of additional tariffs and other kinds of restrictions. Tariff exclusions awarded to Medtronic by the U.S. Government require annual renewal, and policies for granting exclusions could shift. The U.S. and China could impose other types of restrictions such as limitations on government procurement or technology export restrictions, which could affect Medtronic’s access to the markets. China comprises approximately seven percent of our total revenues.
More generally, several governments including the U.S. have raised the possibility of policies to induce “re-shoring” of supply chains, less reliance on imported supplies, and greater national production. One example would be stronger “Buy America” requirements in the U.S. or U.S. withdrawal from the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). If such steps triggered retaliation in other markets restricting access to foreign products in purchases by their government-owned healthcare systems, the result could be a significant impact on Medtronic.
Other significant changes or disruptions to international trade arrangements, such as termination or modifications of other existing trade agreements or the final terms of the “Brexit” arrangement between the United Kingdom and European Union, may adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, a significant amount of our trade receivables are with national healthcare systems in many countries. Repayment of these receivables is dependent upon the political and financial stability of those countries. In light of these global economic fluctuations, we continue to monitor the creditworthiness of customers. Failure to receive payment of all or a significant portion of these receivables could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, COVID-19, and the responses of business and governments to COVID-19, have resulted in reduced availability of air transport, port closures, increased border controls or closures, increased transportation costs and increased security threats to our supply chain, and countries may continue to close borders, impose prolonged quarantines, and further restrict travel and other activities. Our business could be adversely impacted if we are unable to successfully manage these and other risks of global operations.
Finally, changes in currency exchange rates may impact the reported value of our revenues, expenses, and cash flows. We cannot predict changes in currency exchange rates, the impact of exchange rate changes, nor the degree to which we will be able to manage the impact of currency exchange rate changes.
The failure to comply with anti-corruption laws could materially adversely affect our business and result in civil and/or criminal sanctions.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), the Irish Criminal Justice (Corruption Offences) Act 2018, and similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Because of the predominance of government-administered healthcare systems in many jurisdictions around the world, many of our customer relationships outside of the U.S. are with governmental entities and are therefore potentially subject to such laws. We also participate in public-private partnerships and other commercial and policy arrangements with governments around the globe.
Global enforcement of anti-corruption laws has increased in recent years, including investigations and enforcement proceedings leading to assessment of significant fines and penalties against companies and individuals. Our international operations create a risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of our employees, consultants, sales agents, or distributors. We maintain policies and programs to implement safeguards to educate our employees and agents on these legal requirements, and to prevent and prohibit improper practices. However, existing safeguards and any future improvements may not always be effective, and our employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors may engage in conduct for which we could be held responsible. In addition, regulators could seek to hold us liable for conduct committed by companies in which we invest or that we acquire. Any alleged or actual violations of these regulations may subject us to government scrutiny, criminal or civil sanctions and other liabilities, including exclusion from government contracting, and could disrupt our business, adversely affect our reputation and result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
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Laws and regulations governing international business operations could adversely impact our business.
The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), and the Bureau of Industry and Security at the U.S. Department of Commerce (BIS), administer certain laws and regulations that restrict U.S. persons and, in some instances, non-U.S. persons, in conducting activities, transacting business with or making investments in certain countries, governments, entities and individuals subject to U.S. economic sanctions. Our international operations subject us to these laws and regulations, which are complex, restrict our business dealings with certain countries, governments, entities, and individuals, and are constantly changing. Further restrictions may be enacted, amended, enforced or interpreted in a manner that materially impacts our operations.
From time to time, certain of our subsidiaries have limited business dealings in countries subject to comprehensive sanctions, including Iran, Sudan, Syria, Cuba and the region of Crimea. Certain of our subsidiaries sell medical devices, and may provide related services, to distributors and other purchasing bodies in such countries. These business dealings represent an insignificant amount of our consolidated revenues and income, but expose us to a heightened risk of violating applicable sanctions regulations. Violations of these regulations are punishable by civil penalties, including fines, denial of export privileges, injunctions, asset seizures, debarment from government contracts and revocations or restrictions of licenses, as well as criminal fines and imprisonment. We have established policies and procedures designed to assist with our compliance with such laws and regulations. However, there can be no assurance that our policies and procedures will prevent us from violating these regulations in every transaction in which we may engage, and such a violation could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Consolidation in the healthcare industry could have an adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations.
Many healthcare industry companies, including healthcare systems, distributors, manufacturers, providers, and insurers, are consolidating or have formed strategic alliances. As the healthcare industry consolidates, competition to provide goods and services to industry participants will become more intense. Further, this consolidation creates larger enterprises with greater negotiating power, which they can use to negotiate price concessions. If we must reduce our prices because of industry consolidation, or if we lose customers as a result of consolidation, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Healthcare industry cost-containment measures could result in reduced sales of our medical devices and medical device components.
Most of our customers, and the healthcare providers to whom our customers supply medical devices, rely on third-party payers, including government programs and private health insurance plans, to reimburse some or all of the cost of the procedures in which medical devices that incorporate components we manufacture or assemble are used. The continuing efforts of governmental authorities, insurance companies and other payers of healthcare costs to contain or reduce these costs could lead to patients being unable to obtain approval for payment from these third-party payers. If third-party payer payment approval cannot be obtained by patients, sales of finished medical devices that include our components may decline significantly and our customers may reduce or eliminate purchases of our components. The cost-containment measures that healthcare providers are instituting, both in the U.S. and outside of the U.S., could harm our ability to operate profitably. For example, managed care organizations have successfully negotiated volume discounts for pharmaceuticals, and GPOs and IDNs have also concentrated purchasing decisions for some customers, which has led to downward pricing pressure for medical device companies, including us.
We are subject to environmental laws and regulations and the risk of environmental liabilities, violations and litigation.
We are subject to numerous U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. environmental, health and safety laws and regulations concerning, among other things, the health and safety of our employees, the generation, storage, use and transportation of hazardous materials, emissions or discharges of substances into the environment, investigation and remediation of hazardous substances or materials at various sites, chemical constituents in medical products and end-of-life disposal and take-back programs for medical devices. Our operations and those of certain third-party suppliers involve the use of substances subject to these laws and regulations, primarily those used in manufacturing and sterilization processes. If we or our suppliers violate these environmental laws and regulations, facilities could be shut down and violators could be fined, criminally charged or otherwise sanctioned. Furthermore, environmental laws outside of the U.S. are becoming more stringent, resulting in increased costs and compliance burdens.
In addition, certain environmental laws assess liability on current or previous owners or operators of real property for the costs of investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous substances or materials at their properties or at properties which they have disposed of hazardous substances. In addition to cleanup actions brought by governmental authorities, private parties could bring personal injury or other claims due to the presence of, or exposure to, hazardous substances. The ultimate cost of
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site cleanup and timing of future cash outflows is difficult to predict, given the uncertainties regarding the extent of the required cleanup, the interpretation of applicable laws and regulations, and alternative cleanup methods.
The costs of complying with current or future environmental protection and health and safety laws and regulations, or liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposures to, hazardous substances, may exceed our estimates, or have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
The continuing development of many of our products depends upon us maintaining strong relationships with healthcare professionals.
If we fail to maintain our working relationships with healthcare professionals, many of our products may not be developed and marketed in line with the needs and expectations of the professionals who use and support our products, which could cause a decline in our earnings and profitability. The research, development, marketing and sales of many of our new and improved products depends on our maintaining working relationships with healthcare professionals. We rely on these professionals to provide us with considerable knowledge and experience regarding the development, marketing and sale of our products. Physicians assist us as researchers, marketing and product consultants, inventors and public speakers. In addition, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our access to these professionals has been limited, and travel restrictions, shutdowns and similar measures have impacted our ability to maintain these relationships, thereby affecting our ability to develop, market and sell new and improved products. If we are unable to maintain strong relationships with these professionals, the development and marketing of our products could suffer, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We rely on the proper function, security and availability of our information technology systems and data to operate our business, and a breach, cyber-attack or other disruption to these systems or data could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation or competitive position.
We are increasingly dependent on sophisticated information technology systems to operate our business, including to process, transmit and store sensitive data, and many of our products and services include integrated software and information technology that collects data regarding patients or connects to our systems. Like other large multi-national corporations, we could experience, and in the past have experienced, attempted or actual interference with the integrity of, and interruptions in, our technology systems, as well as data breaches, such as cyber-attacks, malicious intrusions, breakdowns, interference with the integrity of our products and data or other significant disruptions. Furthermore, we rely on third-party vendors to supply and/or support certain aspects of our information technology systems. These third-party systems could also become vulnerable to cyber-attack, malicious intrusions, breakdowns, interference or other significant disruptions, and may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could result in system disruption or compromise the information security of our own systems. In addition, we continue to grow in part through new business acquisitions and, as a result, may face risks associated with defects and vulnerabilities in their systems, or difficulties or other breakdowns or disruptions in connection with the integration of the acquisitions into our information technology systems.
Our worldwide operations mean that we are subject to laws and regulations, including data protection and cybersecurity laws and regulations, in many jurisdictions. The variety of U.S. and international privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations impacting our operations are described in “Item 1. Business" - Other Factors Impacting Our Operations - Data Privacy and Security Laws and Regulations. For example, GDPR requires us to manage personal data in the E.U. and may impose fines of up to four percent of our global revenue in the event of certain violations. Furthermore, there has been a developing trend of civil lawsuits and class actions relating to breaches of consumer data held by large companies or incidents arising from other cyber-attacks. Any data security breaches, cyber-attacks, malicious intrusions or significant disruptions could result in actions by regulatory bodies and/or civil litigation, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation or competitive position.
In addition, our information technology systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect, and enhance existing systems and develop new systems to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving legal and regulatory standards, the increasing need to protect patient and customer information, changes in the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to data and information systems, and the information technology needs associated with our changing products and services. There can be no assurance that our process of consolidating, protecting, upgrading and expanding our systems and capabilities, continuing to build security into the design of our products, and developing new systems to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology will be successful or that additional systems issues will not arise in the future. Further, a greater number of our employees are working remotely in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and related government actions, which could expose us to greater risks related to cybersecurity and our information technologies systems.
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If our information technology systems, products or services or sensitive data are compromised, patients or employees could be exposed to financial or medical identity theft or suffer a loss of product functionality, and we could lose existing customers, have difficulty attracting new customers, have difficulty preventing, detecting, and controlling fraud, be exposed to the loss or misuse of confidential information, have disputes with customers, physicians, and other healthcare professionals, suffer regulatory sanctions or penalties under federal laws, state laws, or the laws of other jurisdictions, experience increases in operating expenses or an impairment in our ability to conduct our operations, incur expenses or lose revenues as a result of a data privacy breach, product failure, information technology outages or disruptions, or suffer other adverse consequences including lawsuits or other legal action and damage to our reputation.
Our substantial leverage and debt service obligations could adversely affect our business.
At April 24, 2020, we had approximately $2.8 billion of current debt obligations and $22.0 billion of long-term debt outstanding. We may also incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our substantial indebtedness could have adverse consequences, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our financial obligations,
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, regulatory and industry conditions, and placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged,
limiting our ability to compete and our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate,
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes, and
exposing us to greater interest rate risk since the interest rate on floating rate borrowings is variable.
Our debt service obligations require us to use a portion of our operating cash flow to pay interest and principal on indebtedness instead of for other corporate purposes, including funding future expansion of our business, acquisitions, and ongoing capital expenditures, which could impede our growth. If our operating cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to service our debt obligations, we may be forced to sell assets, seek additional equity or debt financing or restructure our debt, which could harm our long-term business prospects. Our failure to comply with the terms of our revolving credit facility and other indebtedness could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all of our debt.
Failure to integrate acquired businesses into our operations successfully, as well as liabilities or claims relating to such acquired businesses, could adversely affect our business.
As part of our strategy to develop and identify new products and technologies, we have made several significant acquisitions in recent years, and may make additional acquisitions in the future. Our integration of the operations of acquired businesses requires significant efforts, including the coordination of information technologies, research and development, sales and marketing, operations, manufacturing, and finance. These efforts result in additional expenses and involve significant amounts of management’s time that cannot then be dedicated to other projects. Our failure to manage and coordinate the growth of acquired companies successfully could also have an adverse impact on our business. Further, acquired businesses may have liabilities, or be subject to claims, litigation or investigations, that we did not anticipate or which exceed our estimates at the time of the acquisition. In addition, we cannot be certain that the businesses we acquire will become profitable or remain so. Factors that will affect the success of our acquisitions include:
the presence or absence of adequate internal controls and/or significant fraud in the financial systems of acquired companies,
our ability or inability to integrate information technology systems of acquired companies in a secure and reliable manner,
liabilities, claims, litigation, investigations or other adverse developments relating to acquired businesses or the business practices of acquired companies, including investigations by governmental entities, potential FCPA or product liability claims or other unanticipated liabilities,
any decrease in customer loyalty and product orders caused by dissatisfaction with the combined companies’ product lines and sales and marketing practices, including price increases,
our ability to retain key employees, and
the ability to achieve synergies among acquired companies, such as increasing sales of the integrated company’s products, achieving cost savings, and effectively combining technologies to develop new products.
We also could experience negative effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows from acquisition-related charges, amortization of intangible assets and asset impairment charges. These effects, individually or in the aggregate, could cause a deterioration of our credit rating and result in increased borrowing costs and interest expense.
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Changes in tax laws or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could have a material impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to income taxes, as well as non-income based taxes, in the U.S., Ireland, and various other jurisdictions in which we operate. The tax laws in the U.S., Ireland and other countries in which we and our affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could materially adversely affect our business and our effective tax rate. For example, on December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted comprehensive tax legislation, commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"), which resulted in a significant charge to tax expense during our fiscal year 2018 associated with the U.S. taxation of accumulated foreign earnings as well as the requirement to revalue U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities resulting from the reduction in the U.S. corporate tax rate. The U.S. Treasury is expected to issue additional subsequent guidance and interpretation of the Tax Act. This guidance could have a material impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
In 2013, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) published an action plan called Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) with a view to tackling perceived tax abuse and inconsistency between taxing authorities and their respective approach to International tax matters. The final BEPS action plan was published in October 2015 and subsequent to this many taxing authorities have adopted the guidelines provided within their local laws. The EU expanded upon these guidelines with the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (ATAD 1 & 2) to be applied by all member states by 2020. The OECD announced its intention to expand the scope of BEPS in March 2018 and in January 2019 they issued a short policy note that announced agreement on the way forward for developing a long term solution to the tax challenges thrown up by the global digital economy and is commonly referred to as BEPS2.0. The OECD has set a very aggressive timetable for releasing final agreed BEPS2.0 guidelines on taxing the digital economy for December 2020. The proposals as currently drafted are very wide ranging and could affect all multinational enterprises across all industries without regard to their level of engagement with the digital economy. The aggressive nature of the timeline set by the OECD may mean that all implications for business may not have been fully worked through or fully understood by the OECD before final guidelines are issued. We continue to monitor any and all implications potentially resulting from this guidance. This action together with other legislative changes on the mandatory sharing of company information (financial and operational) with taxing authorities on a local and global basis under various information sharing initiatives, could lead to disagreements between jurisdictions associated with the proper allocation of profits between such jurisdictions.
We are subject to ongoing tax audits in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken and assess additional taxes. We regularly assess the likely outcomes of these audits in order to determine the appropriateness of our tax provision. However, there can be no assurance that we will accurately predict the outcomes of these audits, and the actual outcomes of these audits could have a material impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We have recorded reserves for potential payments of tax to various tax authorities related to uncertain tax positions. However, the calculation of such tax liabilities involves the application of complex tax regulations in many jurisdictions. Therefore, any dispute with a tax authority may result in a payment that is significantly different from current estimates. If payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be less than the recorded amounts, the reversal of the liabilities generally would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. If our estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the amount for which it is ultimately liable, we would incur additional charges, and such charges could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
The Medtronic, Inc. tax court proceeding outcome could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition.
In March 2009, the IRS issued its audit report for Medtronic Inc. for fiscal years 2005 and 2006. Medtronic, Inc. reached agreements with the IRS on some, but not all matters related to these fiscal years. The remaining unresolved issue for fiscal years 2005 and 2006 relates to the allocation of income between Medtronic, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary operating in Puerto Rico, which is one of our key manufacturing sites. An adverse outcome in this matter could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Future potential changes to the U.S. tax laws could result in us being treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal tax purposes, and the IRS may not agree with the conclusion that we should be treated as a foreign corporation for U.S federal income tax purposes.
Because Medtronic plc is organized under the laws of Ireland, we would generally be classified as a foreign corporation under the general rule that a corporation is considered tax resident in the jurisdiction of its organization or incorporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Even so, the IRS may assert that we should be treated as a U.S. corporation (and, therefore, a U.S. tax resident) for U.S. federal income tax purposes pursuant to Section 7874 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code).
Under Section 7874 of the Code, if Medtronic Inc.’s shareholders immediately prior to the Covidien transaction held 80% or more of the vote or value of our shares by reason of holding stock in Medtronic, Inc. immediately after the transaction (the ownership test), and our expanded affiliated group after the transaction did not have substantial business activities in Ireland relative to its worldwide activities (the substantial business activities test), we would have been treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Based on the rules for determining share ownership under Section 7874 of the Code, Medtronic, Inc.’s shareholders received approximately 70% of our ordinary shares (by both vote and value) by reason of holding stock in Medtronic, Inc. Therefore, under current law, Medtronic plc should not be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, there is limited guidance regarding the application of Section 7874, including the application of the ownership test. If we were to be treated as a U.S. corporation for federal tax purposes, we could be subject to substantially greater U.S. tax liability than currently contemplated as a non-U.S. corporation.
Legislative or other governmental action relating to the denial of U.S. federal or state governmental contracts to U.S. companies that redomicile abroad could adversely affect our business.
Various U.S. federal and state legislative proposals that would deny governmental contracts to U.S. companies that move their corporate location abroad may affect us. We are unable to predict the likelihood that, or final form in which, any such proposed legislation might become law, the nature of the regulations that may be promulgated under any future legislative enactments, or the effect such enactments and increased regulatory scrutiny may have on our business.
Risks Relating to Our Jurisdiction of Incorporation
We are incorporated in Ireland, and Irish law differs from the laws in effect in the U.S. and may afford less protection to holders of our securities.
Our shareholders may have more difficulty protecting their interests than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction of the United States. It may not be possible to enforce court judgments obtained in the U.S. against us in Ireland based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws. In addition, there is some uncertainty as to whether the courts of Ireland would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers based on the civil liabilities provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws or hear actions against us or those persons based on those laws. We have been advised that the U.S. currently does not have a treaty with Ireland providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any U.S. federal or state court based on civil liability, whether or not based solely on U.S. federal or state securities laws, would not automatically be enforceable in Ireland.
As an Irish company, we are governed by the Irish Companies Act 2014, which differs in some material respects from laws generally applicable to U.S. corporations and shareholders, including, among others, differences relating to interested director and officer transactions and shareholder lawsuits. Likewise, the duties of directors and officers of an Irish company generally are owed to the company only. Shareholders of Irish companies generally do not have a personal right of action against directors or officers of the company and may exercise such rights of action on behalf of the company only in limited circumstances. Accordingly, holders of our securities may have more difficulty protecting their interests than would holders of securities of a corporation incorporated in the U.S.
As an Irish public limited company, certain capital structure decisions require shareholder approval, which may limit Medtronic’s flexibility to manage its capital structure.
Under Irish law, our authorized share capital can be increased by an ordinary resolution of our shareholders and the directors may issue new ordinary or preferred shares, without shareholder approval, once authorized to do so by our articles of association or by an ordinary resolution of our shareholders. Additionally, subject to specified exceptions, Irish law grants statutory preemption rights to existing shareholders where shares are being issued for cash consideration but allows shareholders to disapply such statutory preemption rights either in our articles of association or by way of special resolution. Such disapplication can either be generally applicable or be in respect of a particular allotment of shares. Accordingly, at our 2019 Annual General Meeting, our Shareholders authorized our Board of Directors to issue up to 33% of our issued ordinary
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shares and further authorized our Board of Directors to issue up to 10% of such shares for cash without first offering them to our existing shareholders (provided that with respect to 5% of such shares, such allotment is to be used for the purposes of a specified capital investment). Both of these authorizations will expire on June 6, 2021, unless renewed by shareholders for a further period. We anticipate seeking new authorizations at our 2020 Annual General Meeting and in subsequent years. We cannot provide any assurance that these authorizations will always be approved, which could limit our ability to issue equity and thereby adversely affect the holders of our securities.
A transfer of our shares, other than ones effected by means of the transfer of book-entry interests in the Depository Trust Company, may be subject to Irish stamp duty.
Transfers of our shares effected by means of the transfer of book entry interests in the Depository Trust Company (DTC) will not be subject to Irish stamp duty. However, if a shareholder holds our shares directly rather than beneficially through DTC, any transfer of shares could be subject to Irish stamp duty (currently at the rate of 1% of the higher of the price paid or the market value of the shares acquired). Payment of Irish stamp duty is generally a legal obligation of the transferee. The potential for stamp duty could adversely affect the price of shares.
In certain limited circumstances, dividends we pay may be subject to Irish dividend withholding tax and dividends received by Irish residents and certain other shareholders may be subject to Irish income tax.
In certain limited circumstances, dividend withholding tax (currently at a rate of 25%) may arise in respect of dividends paid on our shares. A number of exemptions from dividend withholding tax exist such that shareholders resident in the U.S. and other specified countries that have a tax treaty with Ireland may be entitled to exemptions from dividend withholding tax.
Shareholders resident in the U.S. that hold their shares through DTC will not be subject to dividend withholding tax, provided the addresses of the beneficial owners of such shares in the records of the brokers holding such shares are recorded as being in the U.S. (and such brokers have further transmitted the relevant information to a qualifying intermediary appointed by us). However, other shareholders may be subject to dividend withholding tax, which could adversely affect the price of their shares.
Shareholders entitled to an exemption from Irish dividend withholding tax on dividends received from us will not be subject to Irish income tax in respect of those dividends unless they have some connection with Ireland other than their shareholding in our Company (for example, they are resident in Ireland). Shareholders who receive dividends subject to Irish dividend withholding tax generally have no further liability to Irish income tax on those dividends.
Our shares received by means of a gift or inheritance could be subject to Irish capital acquisitions tax.
Irish capital acquisitions tax (CAT) could apply to a gift or inheritance of our shares irrespective of the place of residence, ordinary residence or domicile of the parties. This is because our shares will be regarded as property situated in Ireland. The person who receives the gift or inheritance has primary liability for CAT. Gifts and inheritances passing between spouses are exempt from CAT. Children have a tax-free threshold which Irish Revenue typically updates annually in respect of taxable gifts or inheritances received from their parents.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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Item 2. Properties
Medtronic's principal executive office is located in Dublin, Ireland and is leased by the Company, while its main operational offices are located in the Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area and are owned by the Company.
The Company's total manufacturing and research space is approximately 9.4 million square feet. Approximately 37 percent of the manufacturing or research facilities are owned by Medtronic and the balance is leased. The following is a summary of the Company's largest manufacturing and research facilities by location:
Location Country or StateSquare Feet (in thousands)
Connecticut1,138  
Minnesota985  
Puerto Rico831  
China823  
Mexico762  
Italy454  
Ireland446  
California410  
Colorado320  
Arizona319  
Dominican Republic304  
Switzerland283  
Israel297  
India254  
Massachusetts217  
Medtronic also maintains sales and administrative offices in the U.S. at 4 locations in 4 states and outside the U.S. at 145 locations in 64 countries. Most of these locations are leased. The Company is using substantially all of its currently available productive space to develop, manufacture, and market products. The Company's facilities are well-maintained, suitable for their respective uses, and adequate for current needs.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
A discussion of the Company’s legal proceedings is contained in Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Medtronic’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company’s ordinary shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “MDT.”
The following table provides information about the shares repurchased by the Company during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020:
Fiscal PeriodTotal Number of
Shares Purchased
Average Price
Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as a Part of
Publicly Announced
Program
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that may yet be Purchased Under the Program
1/25/2020-2/21/2020950,308  $118.23  950,308  $5,950,169,124  
2/22/2020-3/27/2020—  —  —  5,950,169,124  
3/28/2020-4/24/2020—  —  —  5,950,169,124  
Total950,308  $118.23  950,308  5,950,169,124  

In June 2017, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of $5.0 billion of the Company’s ordinary shares. In March 2019, the Company's Board of Directors authorized an incremental $6.0 billion for repurchase of the Company's ordinary shares. There is no specific time-period associated with these repurchase authorizations. The Company has deprioritized repurchases of ordinary shares as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
On June 17, 2020, there were approximately 24,933 shareholders of record of the Company’s ordinary shares. Ordinary cash dividends declared and paid totaled 54.0 cents per share for each quarter of fiscal year 2020 and 50.0 cents per share for each quarter of fiscal year 2019.
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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on Medtronic’s ordinary shares with the cumulative total shareholder return on the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index and the S&P 500 Health Care Equipment Index for the last five fiscal years. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at market close on April 24, 2015 in Medtronic’s ordinary shares, the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P 500 Health Care Equipment Index and that all dividends were reinvested.
          mdt-20200424_g21.jpg
Company/IndexApril 2015April 2016April 2017April 2018April 2019April 2020
Medtronic plc$100.00  $104.10  $111.62  $111.69  $122.69  $142.51  
S&P 500 Index100.00  99.69  117.55  134.24  150.80  148.44  
S&P 500 Health Care Equipment Index100.00  105.96  124.14  149.40  175.35  199.55  
For information on the Company's equity compensation plans, see "Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Irish Restrictions on Import and Export of Capital
Except as indicated below, there are no restrictions on non-residents of Ireland dealing in Irish domestic securities, which includes ordinary shares of Irish companies. Except as indicated below, dividends and redemption proceeds also continue to be freely transferable to non-resident holders of such securities. The Financial Transfers Act, 1992, provides that the Irish Minister for Finance can make provision for the restriction of financial transfers between Ireland and other countries. For the purposes of this Act, “financial transfers” include all transfers which would be movements of capital or payments within the meaning of the treaties governing the E.U. if they had been made between Member States of the E.U. This Act has been used by the Minister for Finance to implement European Council Directives, which provide for the restriction of financial transfers to certain countries, organizations and people including the Al-Qaeda network and the Taliban, Afghanistan, Belarus, Burma (Myanmar), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Republic of Guinea, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe.
Any transfer of, or payment in respect of, a share or interest in a share involving the government of any country that is currently the subject of United Nations sanctions, any person or body controlled by any of the foregoing, or by any person acting on behalf of the foregoing, may be subject to restrictions pursuant to such sanctions as implemented into Irish law.
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Irish Taxes Applicable to U.S. Holders
Dividends paid by Medtronic will generally be subject to Irish dividend withholding tax (currently at a rate of 25 percent) unless an exemption applies.
Dividends paid to U.S. residents will not be subject to Irish dividend withholding tax provided that:

in the case of a beneficial owner of Medtronic shares held in the Depository Trust Company (DTC), the address of the beneficial owner in the records of his or her broker is in the United States and this information is provided by the broker to the Company’s qualifying intermediary; or

in the case of a record owner, the record owner has provided to the Company’s transfer agent a valid U.S. Certification of Residence (Form 6166) or valid Irish Non-Resident Form V2.
Irish income tax may also arise with respect to dividends paid on Medtronic’s ordinary shares. A U.S. resident who meets one of the exemptions from dividend withholding tax described above and who does not hold Medtronic shares through a branch or agency in Ireland through which a trade is carried on generally will not have any Irish income tax liability on a dividend paid by Medtronic. In addition, if a U.S. shareholder is subject to the dividend withholding tax, the withholding payment discharges any Irish income tax liability, provided the shareholder furnishes to the Irish Revenue authorities a statement of the dividend withholding tax imposed.
While the U.S./Ireland Double Tax Treaty contains provisions regarding withholding, due to the wide scope of the exemptions from dividend withholding tax available under Irish domestic law, it would generally be unnecessary for a U.S. resident shareholder to rely on the treaty provisions.
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Our fiscal year-end is the last Friday in April, and therefore, the total weeks in a fiscal year fluctuates between 52 and 53 weeks. Fiscal years 2017 through 2020 were 52-week years. Fiscal year 2016 was a 53-week year, as will be fiscal year 2021, with the additional week occurring in the first quarter. The table below illustrates operating results and other selected financial data for fiscal years 2016 to 2020. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year selected financial data to conform to classifications used in the current year.
Fiscal Year
(in millions, except per share data and additional information)20202019201820172016
Operating Results:
Net sales$28,913  $30,557  $29,953  $29,710  $28,833  
Cost of products sold9,424  9,155  9,067  9,294  9,128  
Research and development expense2,331  2,330  2,256  2,193  2,211  
Selling, general, and administrative expense10,109  10,418  10,238  10,018  9,770  
Amortization of intangible assets1,756  1,764  1,823  1,980  1,931  
Restructuring charges, net118  198  30  303  290  
Certain litigation charges313  166  61  300  26  
Gain on sale of businesses—  —  (697) —  —  
Other operating expense, net71  258  535  239  93  
Operating profit4,791  6,268  6,640  5,383  5,384  
Other non-operating income, net(356) (373) (181) (313) (338) 
Interest expense1,092  1,444  1,146  1,094  1,386  
Income before income taxes4,055  5,197  5,675  4,602  4,336  
Income tax (benefit) provision(751) 547  2,580  578  798  
Net income4,806  4,650  3,095  4,024  3,538