10-K 1 lbrd-20141231x10k.htm 10-K lbrda_Current folio_10K

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014

OR

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                             to

Commission File Number 001-36713

LIBERTY BROADBAND CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

State of Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

47-1211994 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

12300 Liberty Boulevard

Englewood, Colorado

(Address of principal executive offices)

80112

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (720) 875-5700

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

Title of each class

 

Name of exchange on which registered

Series A Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series C Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

(do not check if

smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No 

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of Liberty Broadband Corporation computed by reference to the last sales price of such stock, as of the closing of trading on the last trading day prior to June 30, 2014, was zero. As of June 30, 2014, Liberty Broadband Corporation was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Liberty Media Corporation.

The number of outstanding shares of Liberty Broadband Corporation common stock as of February 28, 2015 was:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A

 

Series B

 

Series C

 

Liberty Broadband Corporation common stock

 

26,126,943 

 

2,467,547 

 

74,468,091 

 

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

The Registrant's definitive proxy statement for its 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is hereby incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

 

LIBERTY BROADBAND

CORPORATION

2014 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10K

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Part I

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. 

 

Business

 

I-1

Item 1A. 

 

Risk Factors

 

I-24

Item 1B. 

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

I-55

Item 2. 

 

Properties

 

I-55

Item 3. 

 

Legal Proceedings

 

I-56

Item 4. 

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

I-57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. 

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

II-1

Item 6. 

 

Selected Financial Data

 

II-2

Item 7. 

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

II-4

Item 7A. 

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

II-17

Item 8. 

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

II-18

Item 9. 

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

II-18

Item 9A. 

 

Controls and Procedures

 

II-18

Item 9B. 

 

Other Information

 

II-18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10. 

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

III-1

Item 11. 

 

Executive Compensation

 

III-1

Item 12. 

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

III-1

Item 13. 

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

III-1

Item 14. 

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

III-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15. 

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

IV-1

 

 

 


 

 

PART I.

 

Item 1.  Business.

 

(a)General Development of Business

 

During May 2014, the board of directors of Liberty Media Corporation and its subsidiaries (Liberty, formerly named Liberty Spinco, Inc.) authorized management to pursue a plan to spin-off to its stockholders common stock of a wholly-owned subsidiary, Liberty Broadband Corporation (Liberty Broadband), and to distribute subscription rights to acquire shares of Liberty Broadbands common stock (the Broadband Spin-Off). At 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on November 4, 2014 the Broadband Spin-Off was completed and shares of Liberty Broadband common stock were distributed to the shareholders of Liberty as of a record date of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on October 29, 2014. Liberty Broadband is comprised of, among other things, (i) Liberty’s former interest in Charter Communications, Inc. (“Charter”), (ii) Liberty’s former wholly-owned subsidiary TruePosition, Inc. (“TruePosition”), (iii) Liberty’s former minority equity investment in Time Warner Cable, Inc. (“Time Warner Cable”), (iv) certain deferred tax liabilities, as well as liabilities related to the Time Warner Cable written call option and (v) initial indebtedness, pursuant to margin loans entered into prior to the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The Broadband Spin-Off was accounted for at historical cost due to the pro rata nature of the distribution to holders of Liberty common stock.

In the Broadband Spin-Off, record holders of Liberty Series A, Series B and Series C common stock received one-fourth of a share of the corresponding series of Liberty Broadband common stock for each share of Liberty common stock held by them as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on October 29, 2014 (the record date) for the Broadband Spin-Off, with cash paid in lieu of fractional shares. In addition, following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off, on December 10, 2014, stockholders received a subscription right to acquire one share of Series C Liberty Broadband common stock for every five shares of Liberty Broadband common stock they held as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time on December 4, 2014 (the rights record date) at a per share subscription price of $40.36, which was a 20% discount to the 20-trading day volume weighted average trading price of the Series C Liberty Broadband common stock following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The rights offering was fully subscribed on January 9, 2015, with 17,277,224 shares of Series C common stock issued to those rightsholders exercising basic and, as applicable, oversubscription privileges. The Broadband Spin-Off and rights offering are intended to be tax-free to stockholders of Liberty. The subscription rights were issued to raise capital for general corporate purposes of Liberty Broadband.

Spin-Off of Liberty Broadband from Liberty Media Corporation

Following the Broadband Spin-Off, Liberty and Liberty Broadband operate as separate, publicly traded companies, and neither has any stock ownership, beneficial or otherwise, in the other. In connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, Liberty and Liberty Broadband entered into certain agreements in order to govern certain of the ongoing relationships between the two companies after the Broadband Spin-Off and to provide for an orderly transition. These agreements include a reorganization agreement, a services agreement, a facilities sharing agreement and a tax sharing agreement.

The reorganization agreement provides for, among other things, the principal corporate transactions (including the internal restructuring) required to effect the Broadband Spin-Off, certain conditions to the Broadband Spin-Off and provisions governing the relationship between Liberty Broadband and Liberty with respect to and resulting from the Broadband Spin-Off. The tax sharing agreement provides for the allocation and indemnification of tax liabilities and benefits between Liberty and Liberty Broadband and other agreements related to tax matters. Pursuant to the tax sharing agreement, Liberty Broadband has agreed to indemnify Liberty, subject to certain limited exceptions, for losses and taxes resulting from the Broadband Spin-Off to the extent such losses or taxes result primarily from, individually or in the aggregate, the breach of certain restrictive covenants

I-1


 

made by Liberty Broadband (applicable to actions or failures to act by Liberty Broadband and its subsidiaries following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off). Pursuant to the services agreement, Liberty will provide Liberty Broadband with general and administrative services including legal, tax, accounting, treasury and investor relations support. Under the facilities sharing agreement, Liberty Broadband shares office space with Liberty and related amenities at Libertys corporate headquarters. Liberty Broadband will reimburse Liberty for direct, out-of-pocket expenses incurred by Liberty in providing these services and for costs that will be negotiated semi-annually.

Acquisition of Skyhook Wireless, Inc.

On February 14, 2014, TruePosition acquired 100% of the outstanding common shares of Skyhook Wireless, Inc. (Skyhook), a Delaware corporation, for approximately $57.5 million in cash. Skyhook is a provider of hybrid wireless positioning technology and contextual location intelligence. TruePosition used its cash plus a capital contribution of $49.4 million from Liberty during 2014 to fund the acquisition. Upon the acquisition of Skyhook, TruePosition placed $6.0 million of the cash consideration into an escrow account for use to settle any indemnification claims made by TruePosition during the 12 months subsequent to closing the acquisition. There were no claims made against the escrow account, and the full amount was released to the selling parties during February 2015.

* * * * *

Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements regarding our business, product and marketing strategies; new service offerings; the recoverability of our goodwill and other long-lived assets; our projected sources and uses of cash; and the anticipated impact of certain contingent liabilities related to legal and tax proceedings and other matters arising in the ordinary course of business. In particular, statements under Item 1. "Business," Item 1A. "Risk-Factors," Item 2. "Properties," Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Item 7A. "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" contain forward-looking statements.  Forward-looking statements inherently involve many risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in these statements. Where, in any forward-looking statement, we express an expectation or belief as to future results or events, such expectation or belief is expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but such statements necessarily involve risks and uncertainties and there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. The following include some but not all of the factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those anticipated:

·

Charters ability to sustain and grow revenues and cash flow from operations by offering video, Internet, voice, advertising and other services to residential and commercial customers, to adequately meet the customer experience demands in its markets and to maintain and grow its customer base, particularly in the face of increasingly aggressive competition, the need for innovation and the related capital expenditures;

·

the impact of competition from other market participants, including but not limited to incumbent telephone companies, direct broadcast satellite operators, wireless broadband and telephone providers, digital subscriber line (“DSL”)  providers, video provided over the Internet and providers of advertising over the Internet;

·

general business conditions, economic uncertainty or downturn, high unemployment levels and the level of activity in the housing sector;

·

Charters ability to obtain programming at reasonable prices or to raise prices to offset, in whole or in part, the effects of higher programming costs (including retransmission consents);

·

the development and deployment of new products and technologies, including cloud-based user interface, Spectrum Guide®, downloadable security for set top boxes;

I-2


 

·

failure to protect the security of personal information about the customers of our operating subsidiary and equity affiliate, subjecting us to costly government enforcement actions or private litigation and reputational damage;

·

changes in, or failure or inability to comply with, government regulations, including, without limitation, regulations of the FCC, and adverse outcomes from regulatory proceedings;

·

the effects of governmental regulation on our business or potential business combination transactions;

·

the ability of suppliers and vendors to deliver products, equipment, software and services;

·

the outcome of any pending or threatened litigation;

·

availability of qualified personnel;

·

changes in the nature of key strategic relationships with partners, vendors and joint venturers;

·

the availability and access, in general, of funds to meet debt obligations prior to or when they become due and to fund operations and necessary capital expenditures, either through (i) cash on hand, (ii) free cash flow, or (iii) access to the capital or credit markets;

·

the ability of Charter and our company to comply with all covenants in our respective debt instruments, any violation of which, if not cured in a timely manner, could trigger a default of other obligations under cross-default provisions;

·

the ultimate outcome of the proposed transaction between Charter and Comcast including the possibility that such transaction may not occur if closing conditions are not satisfied; and if a transaction were to occur, the ultimate outcome and results of integrating the operations and application of Charter’s operating strategies to the acquired assets and the ultimate ability to realize synergies and the resulting increase in indebtedness;

·

our ability to successfully monetize certain of our assets; and

·

our ability to successfully deploy the use of proceeds from the rights offering, including the availability of investment opportunities.

These forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Annual Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to disseminate any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.  When considering such forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the factors described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors" and other cautionary statements contained in this Annual Report.  Such risk factors and statements describe circumstances which could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.

This Annual Report includes information concerning public companies in which we have controlling and non-controlling interests that file reports and other information with the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).  Information in this Annual Report concerning those companies has been derived from the reports and other information filed by them with the SEC.  If you would like further information about these companies, the reports and other information they file with the SEC can be accessed on the Internet website maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov.  Those reports and other information are not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report.

I-3


 

 

(b)Financial Information About Operating Segments

 

Through our ownership of interests in subsidiaries and other companies, we are primarily engaged in the cable and mobile location technology industries.  Each of these businesses is separately managed.

 

We identify our reportable segments as (A) those consolidated subsidiaries that represent 10% or more of our annual consolidated revenue, Adjusted OIBDA or total assets and (B) those equity method affiliates whose share of earnings represent 10% or more of our annual pre-tax earnings.  Financial information related to our operating segments can be found in note 15 to our consolidated financial statements found in Part II of this report.

 

(c)Narrative Description of Business

 

Charter Communications, Inc.

Introduction

Charter is among the largest providers of cable services in the United States, offering a variety of entertainment, information and communications solutions to residential and commercial customers. Charters infrastructure consists of a hybrid of fiber and coaxial cable plant with approximately 12.9 million estimated passings, with 97% at 550 MHz or greater,  98% of plant miles two-way active and 99% of plant all-digital. A national Internet Protocol IP infrastructure interconnects Charters markets. Charter was organized as a Delaware corporation in 1999.

As of December 31, 2014, Charter served approximately 6.2 million residential and commercial customers. Charter sells its video, Internet and voice services primarily on a subscription basis, often in a bundle of two or more services, providing savings and convenience to its customers. As of December 31, 2014 bundled services are available to approximately 98% of Charters passings, and approximately 62% of Charters customers subscribe to a bundle of services.

Charter served approximately 4.2 million residential video customers as of December 31, 2014. Charter completed its all-digital rollout in 2014 and substantially all of its markets now offer over 200 HD channels and faster Internet speeds. Charter launched its Charter Spectrum® brand in its all-digital markets.  Digital video enables Charters customers to access advanced video services such as high definition “HD” television, video on demand programming, an interactive program guide and digital video recorder DVR” service.

Charter also served approximately 4.8 million residential Internet customers as of December 31, 2014. Its Internet service is available in a variety of download speeds up to 100 megabits per second Mbps”,  and up to 120 Mbps in certain markets, and upload speeds of up to 5 Mbps. As of December 31, 2014, approximately 80% of Charters residential Internet customers have at least 60 Mbps download speed.

Charter provided voice service to approximately 2.4 million residential customers as of December 31, 2014. Its voice services typically include unlimited local and long distance calling to the U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico, plus other features, including voicemail, call waiting and caller ID.

Through Charter Business®,  Charter provides scalable, tailored broadband communications solutions to business and carrier organizations, such as video entertainment services, Internet access, business telephone services, data networking and fiber connectivity to cellular towers and office buildings. As of December 31, 2014, Charter served approximately 619,000 commercial primary service units, primarily small- and medium-sized commercial customers. Charters advertising sales

I-4


 

division, Charter Media®, provides local, regional and national businesses with the opportunity to advertise in individual markets on cable television networks.

For the year ended December 31, 2014, Charter generated approximately $9.1 billion in revenue, of which approximately 83% was generated from Charters residential video, Internet and voice services. Charter also generated revenue from providing video, Internet, voice and fiber connectivity services to commercial businesses and from the sale of advertising. Sales from residential triple play customers (customers receiving all three service offerings, video, internet and voice) and from commercial services have contributed to the majority of Charters recent revenue growth.

Charter has a history of net losses. Charters net losses are principally attributable to insufficient revenue to cover the combination of operating expenses, interest expenses that Charter incurs on its debt, depreciation expenses resulting from the capital investments Charter has made, and continues to make, in its cable properties, amortization expenses related to its customer relationship intangibles and non-cash taxes resulting from increases in its deferred tax liabilities.

On April 25, 2014, Charter entered into a binding definitive agreement (the “Comcast Agreement”) with Comcast Corporation (“Comcast”) which contemplates the following transactions: (1) an asset purchase, (2) an asset exchange and (3) a contribution and spin-off transaction (collectively, the “Comcast Transactions”) as described in more detail below.  The Comcast Agreement calls for the Comcast Transactions to be consummated substantially contemporaneously with each other as promptly as practicable following the merger of a subsidiary of Comcast with Time Warner Cable Inc. (“Time Warner Cable” or “TWC”) as previously announced by Comcast and Time Warner Cable.  The completion of the Comcast Transactions will result in Charter acquiring approximately a net 1.3 million existing Time Warner Cable residential and commercial video customers. At closing, the Comcast Agreement calls for Charter to acquire from Comcast certain cable systems currently owned by Time Warner Cable serving approximately 1.4 million video customers and all other assets and liabilities primarily related to such cable systems for cash consideration (the "Asset Purchase").  The Comcast Agreement calls for Charter to pay to Comcast the tax benefit of the step-up Charter receives in the tax basis of the assets.  The Comcast Agreement calls for such tax benefit to Charter to be paid as realized by Charter over an eight-year period, with an additional payment to be made at the end of such eight-year period in the amount of any remaining tax benefit (on a present value basis) not previously realized by Charter. At closing, Charter and Comcast will exchange certain cable systems currently serving approximately 1.5 million Time Warner Cable video customers and approximately 1.6 million Charter video customers and all other assets and liabilities primarily related to such cable systems (the "Asset Exchange").  Most tax gains associated with the Asset Exchange are expected to be offset by Charter’s existing net operating losses.

Pursuant to the Comcast Agreement, a wholly owned subsidiary of Charter (New Charter) will convert into a corporation and thereafter, a newly formed, wholly owned subsidiary of New Charter will merge with and into Charter with the effect that all shares of Charter will be converted into shares of New Charter and New Charter will survive as the publicly-traded parent company of Charter and Charter Communications Holding Company, LLC (Charter Holdco) (Charter Reorganization).  Another newly formed, wholly owned subsidiary of New Charter will merge with and into a former wholly owned subsidiary of Comcast, GreatLand Connections Inc. (GreatLand Connections or Spinco) which will hold and operate certain systems currently owned by Comcast and which will be spun-off (the Comcast Spin-Off) as described in clause (1) of the definition of Comcast Transactions above, with GreatLand Connections surviving (the Merger). In the Merger, (i) New Charter will acquire certain GreatLand Connections shares, and (ii) in exchange for such GreatLand Connections shares, the GreatLand Connections shareholders will receive New Charter shares (the Stock Issuance).

On April 25, 2014, concurrently with the execution of the Comcast Agreement, Comcast entered into a voting agreement (the Voting Agreement) with Liberty (which was assigned to us in the Broadband Spin-Off). Pursuant to the Voting Agreement, we are obligated, among other things, to vote all of our shares of Charter common stock in favor of the Stock Issuance and any other matters for which the approval of Charter's stockholders is reasonably necessary to consummate the transactions

I-5


 

contemplated by the Comcast Agreement, and against any actions that would reasonably be expected to prevent or delay the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Comcast Agreement.

Following the assignment of the Voting Agreement, we have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, not to transfer our shares of Charter common stock during the term of the Voting Agreement. We and Liberty (which is still subject to certain provisions of the Voting Agreement) have agreed that, subject to certain exceptions, neither we nor Liberty, respectively, nor certain related entities will knowingly acquire ownership of any GreatLand Connections stock until the second anniversary of the Merger.

Products and Services

Through its hybrid fiber and coaxial cable network, Charter offers its customers traditional cable video services, as well as advanced video services (such as OnDemand, HD television, and DVR service), Internet services and voice services. Charters voice services are primarily provided using VoIP technology, to transmit digital voice signals over its systems. Charters video, Internet, and voice services are offered to residential and commercial customers on a subscription basis, with prices and related charges based on the types of service selected, whether the services are sold as a bundle or on an individual basis, and the equipment necessary to receive the services.

Video Services

In 2014, residential video services represented approximately 49% of Charters total revenues. Charters video service offerings include the following:

·

Video.  All of Charters video customers receive a package of basic programming which generally consists of local broadcast television, local community programming, including governmental and public access, and limited satellite-delivered or non-broadcast channels, such as weather, shopping and religious programming, along with a digital set-top box that provides an interactive electronic programming guide with parental controls, access to pay-per-view channels, including OnDemand (available nearly everywhere), digital quality music channels and the option to also receive a cable card. Customers have the option to purchase additional tiers of services including premium channels which provide original programming, commercial-free movies, sports, and other special event entertainment programming. Although Charter offers subscriptions to premium channels on an individual basis, it also offers premium channels combined with its internet and voice services. Much of Charters programming is now offered OnDemand and increasingly over the Internet.

·

Video OnDemand, Subscription OnDemand and Pay-Per-View.  In most areas, Charter offers OnDemand service which allows customers to select from 10,000 or more titles at any time. Video OnDemand includes standard definition, HD and three dimensional 3D content. Video OnDemand programming options may be accessed for free if the content is associated with the customers linear subscription, or for a fee on a transactional basis. Video OnDemand services may also be offered on a subscription basis included in a digital tier premium channel subscription or for a monthly fee. Pay-per-view channels allow customers to pay on a per-event basis to view a single showing of a recently released movie, a one-time special sporting event, music concert, or similar event on a commercial-free basis.

·

High Definition Television.  HD television offers Charters digital customers certain video programming at a higher resolution to improve picture and audio quality versus standard basic or digital video images. In 2014, Charter completed its transition to all-digital transmission of channels which allowed it to increase the number of HD channels offered to more than 200 in substantially all of its markets. Charter is also rolling out HD auto-tune in its markets which is a feature that ensures HD set tops tune to the HD version of a channel even when the standard definition version is selected.

I-6


 

·

Digital Video Recorder.  DVR service enables customers to digitally record programming and to pause and rewind live programming. Charter customers may lease multiple DVR set-top boxes to maximize recording capacity on multiple televisions in the home. Most Charter customers also have the ability to program their DVRs remotely via tablet and phone applications or its website.

·

Charter TV App.  The Charter TV App enables Charter video customers to search and discover content on a variety of customer owned devices, including the iPhone®, iPad®, and iPod Touch®, as well as the most popular Android based tablets. The Charter TV App allows customers to watch over 100 channels of cable TV and use the device as a remote to control their digital set-top box while in their home. It also allows customers the ability to browse Charters program guide, search for programming, and schedule DVR recordings from inside and outside the home. Charters online offerings include many of its largest and most popular networks. Charter also currently offers content already available online through Charter.net such as HBO Go® and WatchESPN® with other online content. Charter is currently testing Spectrum Guide®, a network based user interface with the same look and feel of the Charter TV App. The user interface is being designed to work with all of Charters existing and future set-top boxes. Spectrum Guide® was launched in one market in 2014 and will be more widely deployed in 2015.

Internet Services

 

In 2014, residential Internet services represented approximately 28% of Charter’s total revenues. Approximately 95% of Charter’s estimated passings have DOCSIS 3.0 wideband technology, allowing Charter to offer its residential customers multiple tiers of Internet services with download speeds of up to 100 Mbps, and up to 120 Mbps in certain markets. Charters Internet services also include a new and improved Internet portal, Charter.net, making it easier for customers to manage their account, seek self-help and watch TV online.  Charter.net also provides multiple e-mail addresses, as well as variety of content and media from local, national and international providers including entertainment, games, news and sports. Finally, Charter Security Suite is included with Charter’s Internet services and protects computers from viruses and spyware and provides parental control features.

 

Accelerated growth in the number of IP devices and bandwidth used in homes has created a need for faster speeds and greater reliability.  Charter is focused on providing services to fill those needs.  Charter offers an in-home WiFi product permitting customers to lease a high performing wireless router to maximize their wireless Internet experience.  Since going all-digital, Charter’s base Internet download speed offering is 60 Mbps, and 100 Mbps in certain markets.

Voice Services

In 2014, residential voice services represented approximately 6% of Charters total revenues. Charter provides voice communications services primarily using VoIP technology to transmit digital voice signals over its network. Charter Voice includes unlimited local and long distance calling to the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico, voicemail, call waiting, caller ID, call forwarding and other features and offers international calling either by the minute or through packages of minutes per month. For Charter Voice and video customers, caller ID on TV is also available in most areas.

Commercial Services

In 2014, commercial services represented approximately 11% of Charters total revenues. Commercial services offered through Charter Business include scalable broadband communications solutions for businesses and carrier organizations of all sizes such as Internet access, data networking, fiber connectivity to cellular towers and office buildings, video entertainment services and business telephone services.

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·

Small Business.  Charter offers small businesses (1 - 19 employees) services similar to its residential offerings including a full range of video programming tiers and music services, coax Internet speeds of up to 100 Mbps, 200 Mbps in certain markets, downstream and up to 7 Mbps upstream in its DOCSIS 3.0 markets, a set of business cloud services including web hosting, e-mail and security, and multi-line telephone services with more than 30 business features including web-based service management.

·

Medium Business.  In addition to its other offerings, Charter also offers medium sized businesses (20-199 employees) more complex products such as fiber Internet with symmetrical speeds of up to 10 Gbps and voice trunking services such as Primary Rate Interface (PRI”) and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP”) Trunks which provide higher-capacity voice services. Charter also offers Metro Ethernet service that connects two or more locations for commercial customers with geographically dispersed locations with services up to 10 Gbps. Metro Ethernet service can also extend the reach of the customers local area network or LAN within and between metropolitan areas.

·

Large Business.  Charter offers large businesses (200+ employees) with multiple sites more specialized solutions such as custom fiber networks, Metro and long haul Ethernet, PRI and SIP Trunk services.

·

Carrier Wholesale.  Charter offers high-capacity last-mile data connectivity services to wireless and wireline carriers, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and other competitive carriers on a wholesale basis.

Sale of Advertising

In 2014, sales of advertising represented approximately 4% of Charters total revenues. Charter receives revenues from the sale of local advertising on satellite-delivered networks such as MTV®, CNN® and ESPN®. In any particular market, Charter generally inserts local advertising on approximately 40 channels. In most cases, the available advertising time is sold by Charters sales force, however in some markets, Charter enters into representation agreements with contiguous cable system operators under which another operator in the area will sell advertising on its behalf for a percentage of the revenue. In some markets, Charter sells advertising on behalf of other operators.

Charter has deployed Enhanced TV Binary Interchange Format (EBIF”) technology to set-top boxes in most service areas within the Charter footprint. EBIF is a technology foundation that will allow Charter to deliver enhanced and interactive television applications for advertising. From time to time, certain of Charter’s vendors, including programmers and equipment vendors, have purchased advertising from Charter.

Pricing of Charters Products and Services

Charters revenues are derived principally from the monthly fees customers pay for the services it provides. Charter typically charges a one-time installation fee which is sometimes waived or discounted during certain promotional periods. The prices Charter charges for its products and services vary based on the level of service the customer chooses and in some cases the geographic market. In accordance with FCC rules, the prices Charter charges for video cable-related equipment, such as set-top boxes and remote control devices, and for installation services, are based on actual costs plus a permitted rate of return in regulated markets.

In mid-2012, Charter launched a new pricing and packaging approach which emphasizes the triple play products of video, Internet and voice services and combines Charters most popular and competitive services in core packages at what Charter believes is a fair price. Charter believes the benefits of this approach are:

·

simplicity for both Charters customers in understanding its offers, and its employees in service delivery;

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·

the ability to package more services at the time of sale and include more product in each service, thus increasing revenue per customer;

·

higher product offering quality through more HD channels, improved pricing for HD and HD/DVR equipment and faster Internet speeds;

·

lower expected churn as a result of higher customer satisfaction; and

·

gradual price increases at the end of promotional periods.

As of December 31, 2014, approximately 83% of Charters customers are in the new pricing and packaging plan, or 86% excluding those acquired in the acquisition of Bresnan Broadband Holdings, LLC and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Bresnan”). 

Charter’s Network Technology and Customer Premise Equipment

Charters network includes three components: the national backbone, regional/metro networks and the last-mile network. Both Charters national backbone and regional/metro network components utilize or plan to utilize a redundant Internet Protocol (IP”) ring/mesh architecture. The national backbone provides connectivity from the regional demarcation points to nationally centralized content, connectivity and services. The regional/metro network components provide connectivity between the regional demarcation points and headends within a specific geographic area and enable the delivery of content and services between these network components.

Charters last-mile network utilizes a hybrid fiber coaxial cable (HFC”) architecture, which combines the use of fiber optic cable with coaxial cable. In most systems, Charter delivers its signals via fiber optic cable from the headend to a group of nodes, and uses coaxial cable to deliver the signal from individual nodes to the homes served by that node. For Charters fiber Internet, Ethernet, carrier wholesale, SIP and PRI commercial customers, fiber optic cable is extended from the individual nodes all the way to the customers site. Charter’s design standard is six strands of fiber to each node, with two strands activated and four strands reserved for spares and future services. Charter believes that this hybrid network design provides high capacity and signal quality. The design also provides two-way signal capabilities for the support of interactive services.

HFC architecture benefits include:

·

bandwidth capacity to enable traditional and two-way video and broadband services;

·

dedicated bandwidth for two-way services; and

·

signal quality and high service reliability.

Approximately 97% of Charters estimated passings are served by systems that have bandwidth of 550 megahertz or greater and 98% are two-way activated as of December 31, 2014. This bandwidth capacity enables Charter to offer digital television, Internet services, voice services and other advanced video services.

In 2014, Charter completed its transition from analog to digital transmission of the channels it distributes which allows Charter to recapture bandwidth. The all-digital platform enables Charter to offer a larger selection of HD channels, faster Internet speeds and better picture quality while providing greater plant security and lower transaction costs.

In 2014,  Charter launched, in one market, Spectrum Guide®, a network, or “cloud,” based user interface designed to enable its customers to enjoy a common user interface with a state-of-the-art video experience on all existing and future set-top boxes. Charter plans to continue to deploy and enhance this technology in 2015.

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For set-top boxes, Charter is implementing a video conditional access strategy utilizing its downloadable security on a set-top box specified by Charter which can be manufactured by many different manufacturers. Charter expects to roll out downloadable security throughout its current systems to be retained after the Comcast Transactions. Where Charter rolls out downloadable security, it will utilize the Worldbox, and it expects to introduce Spectrum Guide®  at that time as well. Spectrum Guide® will deliver an improved guide on all boxes. Charter believes Worldbox utilizing downloadable security along with the introduction of Spectrum Guide® will reduce its incremental set top box costs and allow for a consistent service for all of its customers and on all of their televisions with a service that is rich in HD, has modern search and discovery features and is capable of improved implementation of future enhancements.

Management, Customer Care and Marketing

Charters operations are centralized with its corporate office responsible for coordinating and overseeing operations including establishing company-wide strategies, policies and procedures. Sales and marketing, network operations, field operations, customer care, engineering, advertising sales, human resources, legal, government relations, information technology and finance are all directed at the corporate level. Regional and local field operations are responsible for servicing customers and maintenance and construction of outside plants.

Charter continues to focus on improving the customer experience through improvements to its customer care processes, product offerings and the quality and reliability of its service. Charter’s customer care centers are managed centrally. Charter has twelve internal customer care locations which route calls to the appropriate agents, plus several third-party call center locations that through technology and procedures function as an integrated system. Charter increased the portion of service calls handled by Charter employees in 2014 and intends to continue to do so in 2015. Charter also utilizes its website to enable its customers to view and pay their bills on-line, obtain information regarding their account or services, and perform various equipment troubleshooting procedures. Charters customers may also obtain support through its on-line chat functionality.

Charters marketing strategy emphasizes its bundled services through targeted direct response marketing programs to existing and potential customers and increases awareness and value of the Charter brand. In 2014, Charter rolled out Charter Spectrum®, Charter’s new, national brand platform.  Charter Spectrum® represents Charter’s combined video, Internet and voice offering for residential customers. This new brand reflects Charter’s comprehensive approach to industry-leading products, driven by speed, performance and innovation. Marketing expenditures increased by $41 million, or 8%, over the year ended December 31, 2013 to $529 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 as a result of the acquisition of Bresnan in July 2013, heavier sales activity and sales channel development and higher commercial marketing. Charters marketing organization creates and executes marketing programs intended to increase customers, retain existing customers and cross-sell additional products to current customers. Charter monitors the effectiveness of its marketing efforts, customer perception, competition, pricing, and service preferences, among other factors, to increase its customer responsiveness. Charters marketing organization also manages and directs several sales channels including direct sales, on-line, outbound telemarketing and Charter stores.

Programming

General

Charter believes that offering a wide variety of programming influences a customers decision to subscribe to and retain its cable services. Charter relies on its experience in programming cable systems, which includes market research, customer demographics and local programming preferences to determine channel offerings in each of its markets. Charter obtains basic and premium programming from a number of suppliers, usually pursuant to written contracts. Charters programming contracts generally continue for a fixed period of time, usually from three to eight years, and are subject to negotiated renewal. Some programming suppliers offer financial incentives to support the launch of a channel and/or ongoing marketing support. Charter

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also negotiates volume discount pricing structures. Charter has more recently negotiated for additional content rights, allowing it to provide programming on-line to its authenticated customers.

Costs

Programming is usually made available to Charter for a license fee, which is generally paid based on the number of customers to whom Charter makes such programming available. Programming costs are usually payable each month based on calculations performed by it and are generally subject to annual cost escalations and may be subject to audits by the programmers. Programming license fees may include volume discounts available for higher numbers of customers, as well as discounts for channel placement or service penetration. Some channels are available without cost to Charter for a limited period of time, after which Charter pays for the programming. For home shopping channels, Charter receives a percentage of the revenue attributable to its customers purchases, as well as, in some instances, incentives for channel placement.

Charters programming costs have increased in every year it has operated in excess of customary inflationary and cost-of-living type increases. Charter expects them to continue to increase due to a variety of factors including amounts paid for retransmission consent, annual increases imposed by programmers with additional selling power as a result of media consolidation and carriage of incremental programming, including new sports services and on-line linear services and video on demand programming. In particular, programming costs are increasing as a result of significant sports programming cost increases over the past several years and the demands of large media companies who link carriage of their most popular networks to carriage and cost increases for all of their networks. In addition, contracts to purchase sports programming sometimes provide for optional additional games to be added to the service and made available on a surcharge basis during the term of the contract. Programmers continue to create new networks and migrate popular programming, such as sporting events to those networks.  Spreading popular programming across more networks often results in Charter having to pay more for a suite of networks offered by any one programmer.  Finally, programmers have experienced declines in demand for advertising as advertisers shift more of their marketing spend online.  Charter believes this results in programmers demanding higher programming fees from them as programmers seek to recover revenue they are losing to online advertising.

Federal law allows commercial television broadcast stations to make an election between must-carry rights and an alternative retransmission-consent regime. When a station opts for the retransmission-consent regime, Charter is not allowed to carry the stations signal without the stations permission. Continuing demands by owners of broadcast stations for cash payments at substantial increases over amounts paid in prior years in exchange for retransmission consent will increase Charters programming costs or require it to cease carriage of popular programming, potentially leading to a loss of customers in affected markets.

Over the past several years, increases in Charters video service rates have not fully offset increasing programming costs, and with the impact of increasing competition and other marketplace factors, Charter does not expect them to do so in the foreseeable future. Although Charter passes along a portion of amounts paid for retransmission consent to the majority of its customers, its inability to fully pass these programming cost increases on to its video customers has had and is expected in the future to have an adverse impact on Charters cash flow and operating margins associated with the video product. In order to mitigate reductions of Charters operating margins due to rapidly increasing programming costs, Charter continues to review its pricing and programming packaging strategies, and plans to continue to migrate certain program services from its basic level of service to its digital tiers, remove underperforming services and limit the launch of non-essential, new networks.

Charter has programming contracts that have expired and others that will expire at or before the end of 2015. Charter will seek to renegotiate the terms of these agreements. There can be no assurance that these agreements will be renewed on favorable or comparable terms. To the extent that Charter is unable to reach agreement with certain programmers on terms that it

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believes are reasonable, Charter has been, and may in the future be, forced to remove such programming channels from its line-up, which may result in a loss of customers.

Franchises

As of December 31, 2014, Charters systems operated pursuant to a total of approximately 3,300 franchises, permits, and similar authorizations issued by local and state governmental authorities. Such governmental authorities often must approve a transfer to another party. Most franchises are subject to termination proceedings in the event of a material breach. In addition, most franchises require Charter to pay the granting authority up to 5.0% of revenues as defined in the various agreements, which is the maximum amount that may be charged under the applicable federal law. Charter is entitled to and generally does pass this fee through to the customer.

Prior to the scheduled expiration of most franchises, Charter generally initiates renewal proceedings with the granting authorities. This process usually takes three years but can take a longer period of time. The Communications Act of 1934, as amended (the Communications Act”), which is the primary federal statute regulating interstate communications, provides for an orderly franchise renewal process in which granting authorities may not unreasonably withhold renewals. In connection with the franchise renewal process, many governmental authorities require the cable operator to make certain commitments, such as building out certain of the franchise areas, customer service requirements, and supporting and carrying public access channels. Historically Charter has been able to renew its franchises without incurring significant costs, although any particular franchise may not be renewed on commercially favorable terms or otherwise. If Charter failed to obtain renewals of franchises representing a significant number of its customers, it could have a material adverse effect on Charters consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or its liquidity, including Charters ability to comply with its debt covenants.

Markets

Charter operates in geographically diverse areas which are organized in regional clusters it calls key market areas. These key market areas are managed centrally on a consolidated level. Charters twelve key market areas and the customer relationships within each market as of December 31, 2014 are as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

    

Total

 

 

 

Customer

 

Key Market Area

 

Relationships

 

Alabama/Georgia

 

666 

 

California

 

638 

 

Carolinas

 

614 

 

Central States

 

643 

 

Michigan

 

658 

 

Minnesota/Nebraska

 

359 

 

Mountain States

 

394 

 

New England

 

371 

 

Northwest

 

531 

 

Tennessee/Louisiana

 

553 

 

Texas

 

205 

 

Wisconsin

 

595 

 

 

Ownership Interests

We own an approximate 26% ownership interest in Charter. Under the stockholders agreement with Liberty assigned to Liberty Broadband in the Broadband Spin-Off (the Charter Stockholders Agreement”), we have the right to nominate four directors to the Charter board of directors, subject to certain exclusions and requirements. We also have the right to cause one of

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our nominees to serve on the nominating and corporate governance, audit and compensation and benefits committees of the board, provided they meet the independence and other qualifications for membership on those committees.

TruePosition, Inc.

TruePosition was incorporated on November 24, 1992. TruePosition develops and markets technology for locating wireless phones and other wireless devices on a cellular network, enabling wireless carriers and government agencies to provide public safety E-9-1-1 services domestically and services in support of national security and law enforcement worldwide. E-9-1-1 or Enhanced 9-1-1 refers to an FCC mandate requiring wireless carriers to implement wireless location capability. TruePositions location system is a passive network overlay system designed to enable mobile wireless service providers to determine the location of all network wireless devices, including cellular and PCS telephones. Using its patented U-TDOA and other technologies, TruePositions location system calculates the latitude and longitude of a designated wireless telephone or transmitter and forwards the information in real time to application software.

TruePosition earns revenue from the sale of hardware and licensing of software required to generate location records for wireless phones and other wireless devices on a cellular network and from the design, installation, testing and commissioning of such hardware and software. In addition, TruePosition earns software maintenance revenue through the provision of ongoing technical and software support. Since 2012, TruePosition has been largely dependent on one wireless carrier, which accounted for approximately 90% of TruePosition’s overall revenue and this contract expires on January 1, 2016.

TruePositions location system competes against a number of other satellite and terrestrial based location technology offerings. In addition, there are a number of new location technologies in development which may further increase competition to be a location solution for new air interfaces and to meet more stringent accuracy standards.

On February 14, 2014, TruePosition completed the acquisition of Skyhook.  Skyhook operates a global location network with more than 1 million geocoded access points, providing hybrid wireless positioning technology and contextual location intelligence solutions worldwide.  The large amount of data collected by Skyhook powers all of its products, providing Skyhook the ability to offer location and geo-informed context to any mobile app or device.  Skyhook's location-based context solutions provide a way for companies and agencies to understand consumers' mobile behavior and improve mobile customer experience, while also allowing advertisers to reach their audiences in new and relevant ways.

Skyhook earns revenue from device manufacturers and application providers by enabling devices and applications to access and utilize location information from Skyhooks location system. In addition, Skyhook’s technology could be extended to provide public safety E-9-1-1 services and other uses in support of national security or law enforcement. In mid-November 2014, Skyhook was notified that one of its significant customers is not expected to renew its contract for 2015. As a result, approximately 30-40% of Skyhook's revenue may not be recurring for 2015.  

Regulatory Matters

Charter

The following summary addresses the key regulatory and legislative developments affecting the cable industry and Charters three primary services for both residential and commercial customers: video service, Internet service, and voice service. Cable system operations are extensively regulated by the federal government (primarily the FCC), certain state governments, and many local governments. A failure to comply with these regulations could subject Charter to substantial penalties. Charters business can be significantly impacted by changes to the existing regulatory framework, whether triggered by legislative,

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administrative, or judicial rulings. Congress and the FCC have frequently revisited the subject of communications regulation and are likely to do so again in the future.

Video Service

Cable Rate Regulation

Federal regulations currently restrict the prices that cable systems charge for the minimum level of video programming service, referred to as basic service, and associated equipment. All other video service offerings are now universally exempt from rate regulation. Although basic service rate regulation operates pursuant to a federal formula, local governments, commonly referred to as local franchising authorities, are primarily responsible for administering this regulation. The majority of Charters local franchising authorities have never been certified to regulate basic service cable rates (and order rate reductions and refunds), but they generally retain the right to do so (subject to potential regulatory limitations under state franchising laws), except in those specific communities facing effective competition, as defined under federal law. Charter has secured FCC recognition of effective competition, and become rate deregulated, in many of its communities.

Congress may adopt new constraints on the retail pricing or packaging of cable programming. Any such constraints could adversely affect Charters operations.

Must Carry/Retransmission Consent

There are two alternative legal methods for carriage of local broadcast television stations on cable systems. Federal must carry regulations require cable systems to carry local broadcast television stations upon the request of the local broadcaster. Alternatively, federal law includes retransmission consent regulations, by which popular commercial television stations can prohibit cable carriage unless the cable operator first negotiates for retransmission consent, which may be conditioned on significant payments or other concessions. Popular stations invoking retransmission consent have been demanding substantial compensation increases in their recent negotiations with cable operators, thereby significantly increasing Charters operating costs.

Access Channels

Local franchise agreements often require cable operators to set aside certain channels for public, educational, and governmental access programming. Federal law also requires cable systems to designate up to 15% of their channel capacity for commercial leased access by unaffiliated third parties, who may offer programming that Charters customers do not particularly desire. The FCC adopted rules in 2007 reducing the rates that operators can charge commercial leased access users. The effect of the FCCs new rules was stayed by a federal court, pending a cable industry appeal and an adverse finding by the Office of Management and Budget. Although commercial leased access activity historically has been relatively limited, increased activity in this area could further burden the channel capacity of Charters cable systems.

Pole Attachments

The Communications Act requires most utilities owning utility poles to provide cable systems with access to poles and conduits and simultaneously subjects the rates charged for this access to either federal or state regulation. In 2011, the FCC amended its existing pole attachment rules to promote broadband deployment. The 2011 order maintains the favorable basic rate formula applicable to cable attachments, but reduces the rate formula previously applicable to “telecommunications” attachments. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (D.C. Circuit) affirmed the new rules. Although the order maintains the status quo treatment of cable- provided VoIP service as an unclassified service eligible for the favorable cable rate, any change in classification of cable-provided VoIP service could adversely impact Charter’s pole attachment rates.

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Cable Equipment

The FCC has adopted regulations to assure the development of an independent retail market for “navigation devices,” such as cable set-top boxes. As a result, the FCC generally requires cable operators to make a separate offering of security modules (i.e., a CableCARD) that can be used with retail navigation devices, and to use these separate security modules even in their own set-top boxes. The FCC commenced a proceeding in 2010 to adopt standards for a successor technology to CableCARD that would involve the development of smart video devices that are compatible with any multichannel video programming distributor service in the United States. Some of the FCCs rules requiring support for CableCARDs were vacated by the D.C. Circuit in 2013, and the FCC is considering the adoption of replacement rules. Either of the above proceedings could result in additional equipment-related obligations. In April 2013, Charter received a two-year waiver from the FCCs  integration ban, which otherwise requires all new leased cable set-top boxes to have separable security such as CableCARDs. A condition to the waiver is the requirement for Charter to meet certain milestones regarding downloadable security. By the end of the waiver period, Charter intends to have deployed a downloadable security system that will comply with the integration ban without the use of CableCARDs. The STELA Reauthorization Act of 2014 (STELAR), which was signed into law on December 4, 2014, eliminates the integration ban from the FCC’s rules effective one year after the enactment of STELAR.  Any waivers of the integration ban in effect as of the enactment of STELAR, such as Charter’s waiver, are extended through December 31, 2015.

MDUs / Inside Wiring

The FCC has adopted regulations to foster competition with established cable operators in MDU complexes. These regulations allow Charters competitors to access certain existing cable wiring inside MDUs. The FCC regulations also limit the ability of established cable operators, like Charter, to enter into exclusive service contracts for MDU complexes.

Privacy and Information Security Regulation

The Communications Act limits Charters ability to collect and disclose subscribers personally identifiable information for its video, voice, and Internet services and provides requirements to safeguard such information. Charter is subject to additional federal, state, and local laws and regulations that impose additional restrictions on the collection, use and disclosure of consumer, subscriber and employee information. Further, the FCC, the Federal Trade Commission “FTC”, and many states regulate and restrict the marketing practices of cable operators, including telemarketing and online marketing efforts. Various federal agencies, including the FTC, are now considering new restrictions affecting the use of personal and profiling data for online advertising. Charters operations are also subject to federal and state laws governing information security, including rules requiring customer notification in the event of an information security breach. Congress is considering the adoption of new data security and cybersecurity legislation that could result in additional network and information security requirements for Charters business.

Other FCC Regulatory Matters

Additional FCC regulations affect Charters operations to varying degrees, including, among other things: (1) equal employment opportunity obligations; (2) customer service standards; (3) technical service standards; (4) mandatory blackouts of certain network and syndicated programming; (5) restrictions on political advertising; (6) restrictions on advertising in childrens programming; (7) licensing of systems and facilities; (8) maintenance of public files; (9) emergency alert systems; and (10) disability access, including requirements governing video-description and new closed-captioning quality standards which take effect this year. Congress or the FCC may expand or modify its regulation of cable systems in the future, which could further impact Charters businesses.

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Copyright

Cable systems are subject to a federal copyright compulsory license covering carriage of television and radio broadcast signals. The possible modification or elimination of this compulsory copyright license is the subject of continuing legislative proposals and administrative review and could adversely affect Charters ability to obtain desired broadcast programming. Pursuant to the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010, the Copyright Office, the Government Accountability Office and the FCC all issued reports to Congress in 2011 that generally support an eventual phase-out of the compulsory licenses, although they also acknowledge the potential adverse impact on cable subscribers and the absence of any clear marketplace alternative to the compulsory license. If adopted, a phase-out plan could adversely affect Charters ability to obtain certain programming and substantially increase its programming costs. STELAR requires the U.S. Comptroller General to conduct a study analyzing the changes to the current signal carriage obligations that would be required or beneficial to consumers if Congress were to phase-out the compulsory license.  The Comptroller General must complete the study by June 3, 2016.

Copyright clearances for non-broadcast programming services are arranged through private negotiations. Cable operators also must obtain music rights for locally originated programming and advertising from the major music performing rights organizations.

Franchise Matters

Cable systems generally are operated pursuant to nonexclusive franchises granted by a municipality or other state or local government entity in order to utilize and cross public rights-of-way. Cable franchises generally are granted for fixed terms and in many cases include monetary penalties for noncompliance and may be terminable if the franchisee fails to comply with material provisions. The specific terms and conditions of cable franchises vary significantly between jurisdictions. Cable franchises generally contain provisions governing cable operations, franchise fees, system construction, maintenance, technical performance, customer service standards, and changes in the ownership of the franchisee. Although local franchising authorities have considerable discretion in establishing franchise terms, there are certain federal protections that benefit cable operators, such as federal caps on local franchise fees and franchise renewal procedures designed to protect incumbent franchisees from arbitrary denials of renewal. Even if a franchise is renewed, however, the local franchising authority may seek to impose new and more onerous requirements as conditions of renewal, or may impose such requirements as conditions to approval of the purchase or sale of a cable system.

The traditional cable franchising regime has undergone significant change as a result of various federal and state actions. The FCC has adopted rules that streamline entry for new competitors (particularly those affiliated with telephone companies) and reduce certain franchising burdens for these new entrants. The FCC adopted more modest relief for existing cable operators. A substantial number of states have adopted new franchising laws to streamline entry for new competitors. These new franchising laws often provide advantages for new entrants that are not immediately available to existing cable operators until, for example, the existing franchise expires or a competitor directly enters the franchise territory. The exact nature of these state franchising laws, and their varying application to new and existing video providers, will impact Charters franchising obligations and its competitive position.

Internet Service

On January 14, 2014, the D.C. Circuit, in Verizon v. FCC, struck down major portions of the FCCs 2010 net neutrality rules governing the operating practices of broadband Internet access providers such as Charter. The FCC originally designed the rules to ensure an open Internet and included three key requirements for broadband providers: 1) a prohibition against blocking websites or other online applications; 2) a prohibition against unreasonable discrimination among Internet users or among different websites or other sources of information; and 3) a transparency requirement compelling the disclosure of network management policies. The Court struck down the first two requirements, concluding that they constitute “common carrier”

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restrictions that are not permissible given the FCC’s earlier decision to classify Internet access as an “information service,” rather than a “telecommunications service.”  The Court upheld the FCC’s transparency requirement and the FCC's authority to adopt regulations regarding the Internet.

On May 15, 2014, the FCC initiated a new rulemaking to issue new network neutrality regulations, potentially including a reclassification of broadband services as Title II common carrier services, which could subject our services to far more extensive and burdensome federal and state regulation.  On February 26, 2015, the FCC adopted open Internet rules that reclassify wireline and wireless broadband services as Title II common carrier services and regulate broadband services offered by Internet service providers (ISPs) under Title II, Title III and Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act.  The regulations prohibit ISPs from: (1) blocking access to, or impairing or degrading, legal content, applications, services or non-harmful devices; and (2) favoring selected Internet traffic in exchange for consideration.  The rules also allow the FCC to hear complaints and take enforcement action if it determines that the interconnection agreements of ISPs are not just and reasonable, or if ISPs fail to meet a new general obligation not to unreasonably interfere with or unreasonably disadvantage consumers or edge providers.  The rules also require greater transparency by ISPs, including increased disclosure of promotional rates, fees and surcharges, and data caps.  The FCC forbears, or refrains from, imposing certain Title II regulation on ISPs, such as rate regulation, tariffs, and last-mile unbundling, and does not assess Universal Service Fund fees on broadband at this time.  Several broadband providers previously indicated their intention to challenge any utility-style regulations adopted by the FCC in court. We do not know at the current time if the new regulations adopted by the FCC as formulated by the Chairman will go into effect, nor do we know how they would be administered. However, such rules could interfere with the efficient management of Charter’s cable systems and their ability to respond to operational and competitive challenges.

As the Internet has matured, it has become the subject of increasing regulatory interest. Congress and federal regulators have adopted a wide range of measures directly or potentially affecting Internet use, including, for example, consumer privacy, copyright protections, defamation liability, taxation, obscenity, and unsolicited commercial e-mail. Charters Internet services are subject to the CALEA requirements regarding law enforcement surveillance. Content owners are now seeking additional legal mechanisms to combat copyright infringement over the Internet. Pending and future legislation in this area could adversely affect Charters operations as an Internet service provider and its relationship with its Internet customers. State and local governmental organizations have also adopted Internet-related regulations. These various governmental jurisdictions are also considering additional regulations in these and other areas, such as privacy, pricing, service and product quality, and taxation. The adoption of new Internet regulations or the adaptation of existing laws to the Internet could adversely affect Charters business.

The FCC is now considering whether online video distributors “OVDs” that offer programming to customers with a broadband Internet connection should be classified as multichannel video programming distributors “MVPDs”, and thereby subject to the program access protections available to MVPDs, as well as some of the regulatory requirements applicable to MVPDs.  The outcome of this proceeding, which could impact how OVDs compete in the future with traditional cable service, cannot be determined at the current time.

 

On January 29, 2015, the FCC, in a nation-wide proceeding evaluating whether “advanced broadband” is being deployed in a reasonable and timely fashion, increased the minimum connection speeds required to qualify as advanced broadband service to 25 Mbps for downloads and 3 Mbps for uploads.  As a result, the FCC concluded that advanced broadband was not being sufficiently deployed and initiated a new inquiry into what steps it might take to encourage broadband deployment.  This action may lead the FCC to adopt additional measures affecting our broadband business.  At the same time, the FCC has ongoing proceedings to allocate additional spectrum for advanced wireless service, which could provide additional wireless competition to Charter’s broadband business.

 

On February 26, 2015, the FCC adopted a memorandum opinion and order (Order) granting two petitions from municipalities in North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and preempted the challenged state laws that restrict the ability of

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municipalities to construct and deploy broadband systems in competition with private offerings. Although the Order only preempts the North Carolina and Tennessee laws at issue, municipalities in other states may seek similar relief.  There are approximately 20 such state laws now in effect.  The Order likely will be subject to appeal regarding the FCC’s preemptive authority, and Congress might also adopt legislation expressly limiting the FCC’s authority in this area. If the Order is upheld, it could lead to increased competition from municipal-provided broadband.

Voice Service

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 created a more favorable regulatory environment for Charter to provide telecommunications and/or competitive voice services than had previously existed. In particular, it established requirements ensuring that competitive telephone companies could interconnect their networks with those providers of traditional telecommunications services to open the market to competition. The FCC has subsequently ruled that competitive telephone companies that support VoIP services, such as those Charter offers its customers, are entitled to interconnection with incumbent providers of traditional telecommunications services, which ensures that Charters VoIP services can compete in the market. New rules or obligations arising from ongoing FCC rulemaking proceedings regarding interconnection and IP technology matters may affect Charters ability to compete in the provision of voice services. On November 18, 2011, the FCC released an order, which was affirmed by the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals on May 23, 2014, significantly changing the rules governing intercarrier compensation payments for the origination and termination of telephone traffic between carriers. The new rules will result in a substantial decrease in intercarrier compensation payments over a multi-year period, which will affect both the amounts that Charter pays to other carriers and the amounts that Charter receives from other carriers. The schedule and magnitude of these decreases, however, will vary depending on the nature of the carriers and the telephone traffic at issue, and the FCCs new ruling initiates further implementation rulemakings.

Further regulatory changes are being considered that could impact Charters voice business and that of its primary telecommunications competitors. The FCC and state regulatory authorities are considering, for example, whether certain common carrier regulations traditionally applied to incumbent local exchange carriers should be modified or reduced, and the extent to which common carrier requirements should be extended to VoIP providers. The FCC has already determined that certain providers of voice services using IP technology must comply with requirements regarding E-9-1-1, the CALEA regarding law enforcement surveillance of communications, Universal Service Fund contributions, customer privacy and Customer Proprietary Network Information issues, number portability, disability access, regulatory fees, and discontinuance of service. In March 2007, a federal appeals court affirmed the FCCs decision concerning federal regulation of certain VoIP services, but declined to specifically find that VoIP service provided by cable companies should be regulated only at the federal level. As a result, some states have begun proceedings to subject cable VoIP services to state level regulation. Although Charter has registered with, or obtained certificates or authorizations from, the FCC and the state regulatory authorities in those states in which it offers competitive voice services in order to ensure the continuity of its services and to maintain needed network interconnection arrangements, it is unclear whether and how these and other ongoing regulatory matters ultimately will be resolved.

In addition, in 2013 the FCC issued a broad data collection order that will require providers of point to point transport (“special access”) services, such as Charter, to produce information to the agency concerning the rates, terms and conditions of these services.  The FCC will use the data to evaluate whether the market for such services is competitive, or whether the market should be subject to further regulation, which may increase Charter’s costs or constrain its ability to compete in this market.  The FCC is also considering recommendations to select a new national local number portability administrator after the current administrator’s contract expires in June 2015.  Any such change may impact Charter’s ability to manage number porting and related tasks.

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TruePosition

TruePositions wireless phone and device location technology enables wireless carriers, governments and other enterprises to provide E-9-1-1 services domestically and other location-based services domestically and worldwide. The FCCs wireless E-9-1-1 rules apply to all wireless licensees, broadband personal communications services licensees, and certain specialized mobile radio licensees. Such carriers must provide a 911 call center, called a local public safety answering point (PSAP”) under FCC rules, with the telephone number of the originator of a wireless 9-1-1 call and the location of the cell site or base station transmitting the call. In addition, upon a valid request by a PSAP, such carriers must provide more precise information to the PSAP, such as the latitude and longitude of the caller.

The E-9-1-1 location accuracy requirements originally adopted by the FCC in 1996 applied only to 911 calls originating outdoors.  Recognizing the increased use of wireless phones indoors, on January 29, 2015, the FCC adopted indoor location accuracy rules its Fourth Report and Order in its E-9-1-1 location accuracy proceeding to assist first responders.  Under the new rules, all wireless providers generally must provide horizontal location information for 40 percent of all wireless 911 calls within two years of the effective date of the Fourth Report and Order (April 30, 2015), and for 80 percent of all wireless calls, within six years of the effective date.  Wireless providers also must meet specific requirements for the provision of vertical location information for wireless 911 calls within three-to-eight years of the effective date.  Smaller wireless providers may have additional time to comply with certain of the horizontal and vertical benchmarks.

Various U.S and foreign regulatory requirements apply, or may apply in the future, to the global positioning technologies and services offered by Skyhook. Skyhooks use of personal information must comply with all applicable consumer and data protection laws in the United States and abroad. Legislatures and regulatory agencies in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere continue to implement additional consumer and data protection requirements.

Competition

Charter

Charter faces competition for both residential and commercial customers in the areas of price, service offerings, and service reliability. In its residential business, Charter competes with other providers of video, high-speed Internet access, voice services, and other sources of home entertainment. In its commercial business, Charter competes with other providers of video, high-speed Internet access and related value-added services, fiber solutions, business telephony, and Ethernet services. Charter operates in a competitive business environment, which can adversely affect the results of its business and operations. Charter cannot predict the impact on it of broadband services offered by its competitors.

In terms of competition for customers, Charter views itself as a member of the broadband communications industry, which encompasses multi-channel video for television and related broadband services, such as high-speed Internet, voice, and other interactive video services. In the broadband communications industry, Charters principal competitors for video services are DBS and telephone companies that offer video services. Charters principal competitors for high-speed Internet services are the broadband services provided by telephone companies, including both traditional DSL, fiber-to-the-node, and fiber-to-the-home offerings. Charters principal competitors for voice services are established telephone companies, other telephone service providers, and other carriers, including VoIP providers. At this time, Charter does not consider other traditional cable operators to be significant competitors in its overall market, as overbuilds are infrequent and geographically spotty (although in any particular market, a cable operator overbuilder would likely be a significant competitor at the local level). Charter could, however, face additional competition from other cable operators if they began distributing video over the Internet to customers residing outside their current territories.

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Charter’s key competitors include:

DBS

Direct broadcast satellite is a significant competitor to cable systems. The two largest DBS providers now serve more than 34 million subscribers nationwide. DBS service allows the subscriber to receive video services directly via satellite using a dish antenna.

Video compression technology and high powered satellites allow DBS providers to offer more than 280 digital channels. In 2014, major DBS competitors were especially competitive with promotional pricing for more basic services. While Charter continues to believe that the initial investment by a DBS customer exceeds that of a cable customer, the initial equipment cost for DBS has decreased substantially, as the DBS providers have aggressively marketed offers to new customers of incentives for discounted or free equipment, installation, and multiple units. DBS providers are able to offer service nationwide and are able to establish a national image and branding with standardized offerings, which together with their ability to avoid franchise fees of up to 5% of revenues and property tax, leads to greater efficiencies and lower costs in the lower tiers of service. Charter believes that cable-delivered Video OnDemand and Subscription OnDemand services, which include HD programming, are superior to DBS service, because cable headends can provide communication to deliver many titles which customers can access and control independently, whereas DBS technology can only make available a much smaller number of titles with DVR-like customer control. DBS providers have also made attempts at deployment of Internet access services via satellite, but those services have been technically constrained and of limited appeal.

Telephone Companies and Utilities

Incumbent telephone companies, including AT&T, Inc. (“AT&T”) and Verizon Communications Inc. (“Verizon”), offer video and other services in competition with Charter, and Charter expects they will increasingly do so in the future. These companies are able to offer and provide two-way video, data services and digital voice services that are similar to Charter’s in various portions of their networks. In the case of Verizon, FiOS high-speed data services offer speeds as high as or higher than Charter’s. In addition, these companies continue to offer their traditional telephone services, as well as service bundles that include wireless voice services provided by affiliated companies. Based on internal estimates, Charter believes that AT&T and Verizon are offering video services in areas serving approximately 30% and 4%, respectively, of its estimated passings and Charter has experienced customer losses in these areas. AT&T and Verizon have also launched campaigns to capture more of the multiple dwelling unit (“MDU”) market. When AT&T or Verizon have introduced or expanded their offering of video products in Charter’s market areas, Charter has seen a decrease in its video revenue as AT&T and Verizon typically roll out aggressive marketing and discounting campaigns to launch their products. Additionally, in May 2014, AT&T announced its intention to acquire DirectTV, the nation’s largest DBS provider.  If completed, this transaction will create an even larger competitor for Charter’s video services that will have the ability to expand its service offerings to include bundled wireless offerings.

In addition to incumbent telephone companies obtaining video franchises or alternative authorizations in some areas, and seeking them in others, they have been successful through various means in reducing or streamlining the video franchising requirements applicable to them. They have had significant success at the federal and state level in securing FCC rulings and numerous statewide video franchise laws that facilitate telephone company entry into the video marketplace. Because telephone companies have been successful in avoiding or reducing franchise and other regulatory requirements that remain applicable to cable operators like Charter, their competitive posture has often been enhanced. The large scale entry of incumbent telephone companies as direct competitors in the video marketplace has adversely affected the profitability and valuation of Charter’s cable systems.

Most telephone companies, including AT&T and Verizon, which already have plant, an existing customer base, and other operational functions in place (such as billing and service personnel), offer Internet access via traditional DSL service. DSL

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service allows Internet access to subscribers at data transmission speeds greater than those formerly available over conventional telephone lines. Charter believes DSL service is an alternative to its high-speed Internet service and is often offered at prices lower than its Internet services, although typically at speeds lower than the speeds Charter offers. DSL providers may currently be in a better position to offer voice and data services to businesses since their networks tend to be more complete in commercial areas. Charter expects DSL to remain a significant competitor to its high-speed Internet services.

Many large telephone companies also provide fiber-to-the-node or fiber-to-the-home services in select areas of their footprints. Fiber-to-the-node networks can provide faster Internet speeds than conventional DSL, but still cannot typically match Charter’s Internet speeds. Charter’s primary fiber-to-the-node competitor is AT&T’s U-verse. The competition from U-verse is expected to intensify over time as AT&T completes an expansion plan announced in late 2012 by the end of 2015. Fiber-to-the-home networks, however, can provide Internet speeds equal to or greater than Charter’s current Internet speeds. Verizon’s FiOS is the primary fiber-to-the-home competitor, although AT&T has also begun fiber-to-the-home builds as well.

Charter’s voice service competes directly with incumbent telephone companies and other carriers, including Internet-based VoIP providers, for both residential and commercial voice service customers. Because Charter offers voice services, it is subject to considerable competition from such companies and other telecommunications providers, including wireless providers with an increasing number of consumers choosing wireless over wired telephone services. The telecommunications and voice services industry is highly competitive and includes competitors with greater financial and personnel resources, strong brand name recognition, and long-standing relationships with regulatory authorities and customers. Moreover, mergers, joint ventures and alliances among Charter’s competitors have resulted in providers capable of offering cable television, Internet, and voice services in direct competition with Charter.

Additionally, Charter is subject to limited competition from utilities and/or municipal utilities (collectively, Utilities) that possess fiber optic transmission lines capable of transmitting signals with minimal signal distortion. Certain Utilities are also developing broadband over power line technology, which may allow the provision of Internet, phone and other broadband services to homes and offices.

Traditional Overbuilds

Cable systems are operated under non-exclusive franchises historically granted by state and local authorities. More than one cable system may legally be built in the same area. Franchising authorities may grant a second franchise to another cable operator that may contain terms and conditions more favorable than those afforded to Charter. Well-financed businesses from outside the cable industry, such as public utilities that already possess fiber optic and other transmission lines in the areas they serve, have in some cases become competitors. There are a number of cities that have constructed their own cable systems, in a manner similar to city-provided utility services. There also has been interest in traditional cable overbuilds by private companies not affiliated with established local exchange carriers. Constructing a competing cable system is a capital intensive process which involves a high degree of risk. Charter believes that in order to be successful, a competitors overbuild would need to be able to serve the homes and businesses in the overbuilt area with equal or better service quality, on a more cost-effective basis than Charter can. Any such overbuild operation would require access to capital or access to facilities already in place that are capable of delivering cable television programming. Charter cannot predict the extent to which additional overbuild situations may occur.

Broadcast Television

Cable television has long competed with broadcast television, which consists of television signals that the viewer is able to receive without charge using an off-air antenna. The extent of such competition is dependent upon the quality and quantity of broadcast signals available through off-air reception, compared to the services provided by the local cable system. Traditionally, cable television has provided higher picture quality and more channel offerings than broadcast television. However, the recent licensing of digital spectrum by the FCC now provides traditional broadcasters with the ability to deliver HD television

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pictures and multiple digital-quality program streams, as well as advanced digital services such as subscription video and data transmission.

Internet Delivered Video

Internet access facilitates the streaming of video, including movies and television shows, into homes and businesses. Online video services include those offered by Hulu, Netflix, Amazon and Apple. Increasingly, content owners are using Internet-based delivery of content directly to consumers, some without charging a fee to access the content. Further, due to consumer electronic innovations, consumers are able to watch such Internet-delivered content on televisions, personal computers, tablets, gaming boxes connected to televisions and mobile devices. Recently, HBO and CBS announced plans to sell their programming direct to consumers over the Internet. DISH Network has also announced Sling TV which will include ESPN among other programming, and Sony has announced Playstation Vue which is expected to include 75 channels to be launched in the first quarter of 2015.  Charter believes some customers have chosen or will choose to receive video over the Internet rather than through its video on demand and subscription video services, thereby reducing Charters video revenues. Charter cannot predict the impact that Internet delivered video will have on its revenues and adjusted EBITDA as technologies continue to evolve.

Private Cable

Additional competition is posed by satellite master antenna television systems, or SMATV systems, serving MDUs, such as condominiums, apartment complexes, and private residential communities. Private cable systems can offer improved reception of local television stations, and many of the same satellite-delivered program services that are offered by cable systems. Although disadvantaged from a programming cost perspective, SMATV systems currently benefit from operating advantages not available to franchised cable systems, including fewer regulatory burdens and no requirement to service low density or economically depressed communities. The FCC previously adopted regulations that favor SMATV and private cable operators serving MDU complexes, allowing them to continue to secure exclusive contracts with MDU owners. This regulatory disparity provides a competitive advantage to certain of Charters current and potential competitors.

Other Competitors

Local wireless Internet services operate in some markets using available unlicensed radio spectrum. Various wireless phone companies are now offering third and fourth generation (3G and 4G) wireless high-speed Internet services. In addition, a growing number of commercial areas, such as retail malls, restaurants and airports, offer Wi-Fi Internet service. Numerous local governments are also considering or actively pursuing publicly subsidized Wi-Fi Internet access networks. Operators are also marketing PC cards and personal hotspots offering wireless broadband access to their cellular networks. These service options offer another alternative to cable-based Internet access.

TruePosition

TruePosition faces competition from a second provider of UTDOA, Commscope, and from the suppliers of other wireless location technologies and solutions, such as GPS, OTDOA and Terrestrial Beacons, which provide similar location-based product and services to TruePosition. Although TruePosition’s products are in part complementary to GPS, in that UTDOA operates in areas where GPS is not currently available due to lack of connection to satellites, solutions such as OTDOA and Terrestrial Beacons also can operate in environments where GPS signals are blocked. In addition, Skyhook faces competition from Google, HERE (a division of Nokia) and smaller regional or niche market competitors as providers of location-based services and products.

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Seasonality and Cyclicality

Charter

Charter’s business is subject to seasonal and cyclical variations. Its results are impacted by the seasonal nature of customers receiving its cable services in college and vacation markets. Charter’s revenue is subject to cyclical advertising patterns and changes in viewership levels. Its U.S. advertising revenue is generally higher in the second and fourth calendar quarters of each year, due in part to increases in consumer advertising in the spring and in the period leading up to and including the holiday season. U.S. advertising revenue is also cyclical, benefiting in even-numbered years from advertising related to candidates running for political office and issue-oriented advertising.

Employees

Liberty Broadband

Liberty Broadband (on a nonconsolidated basis) currently does not have any corporate employees. Liberty provides Liberty Broadband with certain transitional services pursuant to a services agreement, and certain of Libertys corporate employees and executive officers serve as corporate employees and executive officers of Liberty Broadband.

Charter

As of December 31, 2014, Charter had approximately 23,200 full-time equivalent employees. As of December 31, 2014, approximately 140 Charter employees were represented by collective bargaining agreements. Charter has never experienced a work stoppage.

TruePosition

As of December 31, 2014, TruePosition had approximately 148 full and part-time employees, including Skyhook employees. None of these employees is represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. Broadband believes that these employee relations are good.

(d)Financial Information About Geographic Areas

 

For financial information related to the geographic areas in which we do business, see note 15 to our consolidated financial statements found in Part II of this report.

 

(e)Available Information

 

All of our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), including our Form 10-Ks, Form 10-Qs and Form 8-Ks, as well as amendments to such filings are available on our Internet website free of charge generally within 24 hours after we file such material with the SEC.  Our website address is www.libertybroadband.com.

 

Our corporate governance guidelines, code of business conduct and ethics, compensation committee charter, nominating and corporate governance committee charter, and audit committee charter are available on our website.  In addition, we will provide a copy of any of these documents, free of charge, to any shareholder who calls or submits a request in writing to Investor Relations, Liberty Broadband Corporation, 12300 Liberty Boulevard, Englewood, Colorado 80112, Tel. No. (877) 772-1518.

 

The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference herein.    

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

The risks described below and elsewhere in this annual report are not the only ones that relate to our businesses or our capitalization.  The risks described below are considered to be the most material.  However, there may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that also could have material adverse effects on our businesses.  Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods.  If any of the events described below were to occur, our businesses, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Factors Relating to Our Corporate History and Structure

The consolidated financial information of Liberty Broadband included in this annual report is not necessarily representative of Liberty Broadbands future financial position, future results of operations or future cash flows nor does it reflect what Liberty Broadbands financial position, results of operations or cash flows would have been as a stand-alone company during the periods presented.

Because the historical consolidated financial information of Liberty Broadband included in this annual report largely reflects the historical results of TruePosition and other businesses, assets and liabilities of Liberty, it is not representative of Liberty Broadbands future financial position, future results of operations or future cash flows, nor does it reflect what Liberty Broadbands financial position, results of operations or cash flows would have been as a stand-alone company, pursuing independent strategies, during the periods presented, especially in light of the fact that the future results of operations will be significantly affected by the results of Charter.

We are a holding company, and we could be unable to obtain cash in amounts sufficient to service our financial obligations or meet our other commitments.

Our ability to meet our current and future financial obligations, including to make debt service obligations under the Margin Loan Agreements (defined below), and other contractual commitments depends upon our ability to access cash. We are a holding company, and our sources of cash include our available cash balances, net cash from the operating activities of our wholly-owned subsidiary TruePosition, any dividends and interest we may receive from our investments, available funds under the Margin Loan Agreements (which as of December 31, 2014 was equal $28 million) and proceeds from any asset sales we may undertake in the future. The proceeds from the rights offering, which closed in the first quarter of 2015, is our current primary source of cash. In addition, the ability of our only operating subsidiary to pay dividends or to make other payments or advances to us depends on its operating results and any statutory, regulatory or contractual restrictions to which it may be or may become subject.

We do not have access to the cash that Charter generates from its operating activities.

Charter generated approximately $2,158 million, $1,876 million and $1,737 million of cash from its operations during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Charter uses the cash it generates from its operations primarily to fund its business operations and to service its debt and other financial obligations. We do not have access to the cash that Charter generates unless Charter declares a dividend on its capital stock payable in cash, repurchases any or all of its outstanding shares of capital stock for cash (subject to any contractual restrictions on our ability to participate in any such repurchase) or otherwise distributes or makes payments to its stockholders, including us. Historically, Charter has not paid any dividends on its capital stock or, with limited exceptions, otherwise distributed cash to its stockholders and instead has used all of its available cash in the expansion of its business and to service its debt obligations. Covenants in Charters existing debt instruments also

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restrict the payment of dividends and cash distributions to stockholders. We expect that Charter will continue to apply its available cash to the expansion of its business.

Our company may have future capital needs and may not be able to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms.

In connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, a wholly owned subsidiary of Liberty Broadband (“BroadbandSPV”) entered into two margin loan agreements (the Margin Loan Agreements”) pursuant to which BroadbandSPV borrowed $320 million prior to the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off and we had $80 million available to be drawn immediately following the Broadband Spin-Off, of which approximately $52 million was used to fund the exercise of our warrants to acquire additional shares of Charter common stock following the Broadband Spin-Off. The obligations under the Margin Loan Agreements are guaranteed solely by our company and are secured by a portion of our ownership interest in Charter. Such equity interests are held through BroadbandSPV. The terms of the Margin Loan Agreements limit our companys ability to secure additional financing on favorable terms, and our cash flow from operations may be insufficient to satisfy our financial obligations under indebtedness outstanding from time to time. Our ability to secure additional financing and satisfy our financial obligations will depend upon the operating performance of our subsidiary, TruePosition, the value of our investment in Charter, prevailing general economic and credit market conditions, including interest rate levels and the availability of credit generally, and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. There can be no assurance that sufficient financing will be available on desirable terms or at all. If financing is not available when needed or is not available on favorable terms, we may be unable to take advantage of business or market opportunities as they arise, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We have significant indebtedness, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

As discussed above, in connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, BroadbandSPV entered into the Margin Loan Agreements, pursuant to which BroadbandSPV has borrowed $372 million. As a result of this significant indebtedness, our company may:

·

Experience increased vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

·

Be required to dedicate a substantial portion of its cash flow from operations to principal and interest payments on its indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions and investments and other general corporate purposes;

·

Be handicapped in its ability to optimally capitalize and manage the cash flow for its businesses; and

·

Be exposed to the risk of increased interest rates with respect to any variable rate portion of its indebtedness.

In addition, it is possible that we may need to incur additional indebtedness in the future. If new debt is added to the current debt levels, the risks described above could intensify. For additional limitations on our companys ability to potentially service our direct debt obligations, see We are a holding company, and we could be unable to obtain cash in amounts sufficient to service our financial obligations or meet our other commitments and We do not have access to the cash that Charter generates from its operating activities above.

The agreements that govern our current and future indebtedness may contain various affirmative and restrictive covenants that will limit our discretion in the operation of our business.

As discussed above, in connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, BroadbandSPV entered into the Margin Loan Agreements, pursuant to which BroadbandSPV borrowed $372 million and has  $28 million available to be drawn. The Margin

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Loan Agreements contain various covenants, including those that limit our ability to, among other things, incur indebtedness by BroadbandSPV, enter into financing arrangements with respect to the portion of stock of Charter pledged to secure the loans under the Margin Loan Agreements, and cause BroadbandSPV to enter into unrelated businesses or otherwise conduct business other than owning common stock of Charter and other assets as permitted under the Margin Loan documents. We may also enter into certain other indebtedness arrangements in the future. The instruments governing such indebtedness, often contain covenants that, among other things, place certain limitations on our ability to incur more debt, exceed specified leverage ratios, pay dividends, make distributions, make investments, repurchase stock, create liens, enter into transactions with affiliates, merge or consolidate, and transfer or sell assets. Any failure to comply with such covenants could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We have no operating history as a separate company upon which you can evaluate our performance.

We do not have an operating history as a separate public company. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that our business strategy will be successful on a long-term basis. We may not be able to grow our businesses as planned and may not be profitable.

We rely on Charter to provide us with the financial information that we use in accounting for our ownership interest in Charter as well as information regarding Charter that we include in our public filings.

We account for our approximately 26% ownership interest in Charter using the equity method of accounting and, accordingly, in our financial statements we record our share of Charters net income or loss. Within the meaning of U.S. accounting rules, we rely on Charter to provide us with financial information prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, which we use in the application of the equity method. We also rely on Charter to provide us with the information regarding their company that we include in our public filings. In addition, we cannot change the way in which Charter reports its financial results or require Charter to change its internal controls over financial reporting. No assurance can be given that Charter will provide us with the information necessary to enable us to complete our public filings on a timely basis or at all. Furthermore, any material misstatements or omissions in the information Charter provides to us or publicly files could have a material adverse effect on our financial statements and filing status under federal securities laws.

We may become subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940.

We do not believe we are currently subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940, because our investment in Charter enables us to exercise significant influence over Charter. We have substantial involvement in the management and affairs of Charter, including through our board nominees. Liberty nominated four of Charters ten current directors, and we have assumed Libertys nomination right under the terms of the Charter Stockholders Agreement. If, however, our investment in Charter were deemed to become passive (such as in the event that our equity interest were significantly diluted, including in connection with the Comcast Transactions, and our nominees ceased to serve as directors of Charter), we could become subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940. In such event, we would be required to register as an investment company, which could result in significant registration and compliance costs, could require changes to our corporate governance structure and financial reporting, could restrict our activities going forward and could adversely impact our existing capital structure. For example, we would not be permitted to keep our dual class capital structure. Our restated charter includes a provision that would enable us, at the option of our board of directors, to automatically convert each outstanding share of our Series B common stock into one share of our Series A common stock at such time as we have outstanding less than 20% of the total number of shares of our Series B common stock issued in the Broadband Spin-Off. In addition, if we were to become inadvertently subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940, any violation of this act could subject us to material adverse consequences, including potentially significant regulatory penalties and the possibility that our contracts would be deemed unenforceable.

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Factors Relating to Charter

The following risks relate specifically to our equity affiliate Charter. If any of these risks were realized, they could have a material adverse effect on the value of our equity interests in Charter, which could negatively impact our stock price and our financial prospects.

Charter has a significant amount of debt and may incur significant additional debt, including secured debt, in the future, which could adversely affect its financial health and ability to react to changes in its business.

Charter has a significant amount of debt and may (subject to applicable restrictions in each of its debt instruments) incur additional debt in the future. As of December 31, 2014, Charters total principal amount of debt was approximately $21.1 billion including $7.0 billion of debt for which proceeds are held in escrow pending consummation of the Comcast Transactions.

As a result of this significant indebtedness, Charter may:

·

Be impacted in its ability to raise additional capital at reasonable rates, or at all;

·

Be vulnerable to interest rate increases because approximately 28% of its borrowings is, and may continue to be, subject to variable rates of interest;

·

Be exposed to increased interest expense to the extent it refinances existing debt with higher cost debt;

·

Be required to dedicate a significant portion of its cash flow from operating activities to make payments on its debt, reducing funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, and other general corporate expenses;

·

Experience limited flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in Charters business, the cable and telecommunications industries, and the economy at large;

·

Be placed at a disadvantage compared to its competitors that have proportionately less debt; and

·

Be adversely affected by Charters relationship with customers and suppliers.

If current debt amounts increase, the related risks that Charter faces will intensify.

The agreements and instruments governing Charters debt contain restrictions and limitations that could significantly affect Charters ability to operate its business, as well as significantly affect its liquidity.

Charters credit facilities and the indentures governing its debt contain a number of significant covenants that could adversely affect Charters ability to operate its business, liquidity and results of operations. These covenants restrict, among other things, Charter and its subsidiaries ability to:

·

incur additional debt;

·

repurchase or redeem equity interests and debt;

·

issue equity;

·

make certain investments or acquisitions;

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·

pay dividends or make other distributions;

·

dispose of assets or merge;

·

enter into related party transactions; and

·

grant liens and pledge assets.

Additionally, the Charter Communications Operating, LLC (Charter Operating”) credit facilities require Charter Operating to comply with a maximum total leverage covenant and a maximum first lien leverage covenant. The breach of any covenants or obligations in its indentures or credit facilities, not otherwise waived or amended, could result in a default under the applicable debt obligations and could trigger acceleration of those obligations, which in turn could trigger cross defaults under other agreements governing Charter’s long-term indebtedness. In addition, the secured lenders under the Charter Operating credit facilities could foreclose on their collateral, which includes equity interests in Charters subsidiaries, and exercise other rights of secured creditors.

Charter depends on generating sufficient cash flow to fund its debt obligations, capital expenditures, and ongoing operations.

Charter is dependent on its cash on hand and cash flow from operations to fund its debt obligations, capital expenditures and ongoing operations.

Charters ability to service its debt and to fund its planned capital expenditures and ongoing operations will depend on its ability to continue to generate cash flow and its access (by dividend or otherwise) to additional liquidity sources at the applicable obligor. Charters ability to continue to generate cash flow is dependent on many factors, including:

·

its ability to sustain and grow revenues and cash flow from operations by offering video, Internet, voice, advertising and other services to residential and commercial customers, to adequately meet the customer experience demands in its markets and to maintain and grow its customer base, particularly in the face of increasingly aggressive competition, the need for innovation and the related capital expenditures;

·

the impact of competition from other market participants, including but not limited to incumbent telephone companies, direct broadcast satellite operators, wireless broadband and telephone providers, digital subscriber line “DSL” providers, video provided over the Internet and providers of advertising over the Internet;

·

general business conditions, economic uncertainty or downturn, high unemployment levels and the level of activity in the housing sector;

·

Charters ability to obtain programming at reasonable prices or to raise prices to offset, in whole or in part, the effects of higher programming costs (including retransmission consents);

·

the development and deployment of new products and technologies; and

·

the effects of governmental regulation on its business or potential business combination transactions.

Some of these factors are beyond Charters control. If it is unable to generate sufficient cash flow or it is unable to access additional liquidity sources, Charter may not be able to service and repay its debt, operate its business, respond to competitive challenges, or fund its other liquidity and capital needs.

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Restrictions in Charters subsidiaries debt instruments and under applicable law limit their ability to provide funds to Charter and its subsidiaries that are debt issuers.

Charters primary assets are its equity interests in its subsidiaries. Charters operating subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and are not obligated to make funds available to their debt issuer holding companies for payments on its notes or other obligations in the form of loans, distributions, or otherwise. Charter Operatings ability to make distributions to Charter CCOH Safari, LLC (“CCOH Safari”) or CCO Holdings, its other primary debt issuers, to service debt obligations is subject to its compliance with the terms of its credit facilities, and restrictions under applicable law. Under the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act (the DLLCA), Charters subsidiaries may only make distributions if the relevant entity has surplus as defined in the DLLCA. Under fraudulent transfer laws, Charters subsidiaries may not pay dividends if the relevant entity is insolvent or is rendered insolvent thereby. The measures of insolvency for purposes of these fraudulent transfer laws vary depending upon the law applied in any proceeding to determine whether a fraudulent transfer has occurred. Generally, however, an entity would be considered insolvent if:

·

the sum of its debts, including contingent liabilities, was greater than the fair saleable value of all its assets;

·

the present fair saleable value of its assets was less than the amount that would be required to pay its probable liability on its existing debts, including contingent liabilities, as they become absolute and mature; or

·

it could not pay its debts as they became due.

While Charter believes that its relevant subsidiaries currently have surplus and are not insolvent, these subsidiaries may become insolvent in the future. Charters direct or indirect subsidiaries include the borrowers under the CCO Safari credit facility and the borrowers and guarantors under the Charter Operating credit facilities. CCOH Safari and CCO Holdings are each an obligor under their respective senior notes. As of December 31, 2014, Charters total principal amount of debt was approximately $21.1 billion,  including $7.0 billion of debt for which proceeds are held in escrow pending consummation of the Comcast Transactions.

In the event of bankruptcy, liquidation, or dissolution of one or more of its subsidiaries, that subsidiarys assets would first be applied to satisfy its own obligations, and following such payments, such subsidiary may not have sufficient assets remaining to make payments to its parent company as an equity holder or otherwise. In that event:

·

the lenders under Charter Operatings credit facilities, whose interests are secured by substantially all of Charters operating assets, and all holders of other debt of CCOH Safari, CCO Holdings, CCO Safari and Charter Operating, will have the right to be paid in full before Charter from any of its subsidiaries assets; and

·

CCH I, LLC “CCH I”, the holder of preferred membership interests in Charter’s subsidiary, CC VIII, LLC
CC VIII” would have a claim on a portion of CC VIIIs assets that may reduce the amounts available for repayment to holders of CCO Holdings’ and CCOH Safari’s outstanding notes.

All of Charters outstanding debt is subject to change of control provisions. It may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to fulfill its obligations under its indebtedness following a change of control, which would place Charter in default under the applicable debt instruments.

Charter may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to fulfill its obligations under its notes and its credit facilities following a change of control. Under the indentures governing Charters notes, upon the occurrence of specified change of control events, the debt issuer is required to offer to repurchase all of its outstanding notes. However, Charter may not have sufficient access to funds at the time of the change of control event to make the required repurchase of the applicable notes and Charter

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Operating is limited in its ability to make distributions or other payments to any debt issuer to fund any required repurchase. In addition, a change of control under the Charter Operating credit facilities would result in a default under those credit facilities. Because such credit facilities are obligations of Charter Operating, the credit facilities would have to be repaid before Charter Operatings assets could be available to CCO Holdings or CCOH Safari to repurchase their notes. Any failure to make or complete a change of control offer would place CCO Holdings or CCOH Safari in default under its notes. The failure of Charters subsidiaries to make a change of control offer or repay the amounts accelerated under their notes and credit facilities would place them in default.

Charter operates in a very competitive business environment, which affects its ability to attract and retain customers and can adversely affect its business, operations and financial results.

The industry in which Charter operates is highly competitive and has become more so in recent years. In some instances, Charter competes against companies with fewer regulatory burdens, better access to financing, greater personnel resources, greater resources for marketing, greater and more favorable brand name recognition, and long-established relationships with regulatory authorities and customers. Increasing consolidation in the cable industry and the repeal of certain ownership rules have provided additional benefits to certain of its competitors, either through access to financing, resources, or efficiencies of scale. Charter could also face additional competition from multi-channel video providers if they began distributing video over the Internet to customers residing outside their current territories.

Charters principal competitors for video services throughout its territory are direct broadcast satellite (DBS”) providers. The two largest DBS providers are DirecTV and DISH Network. Competition from DBS, including intensive marketing efforts with aggressive pricing, exclusive programming and increased HD broadcasting has had an adverse impact on Charter’s ability to retain customers. DBS companies have also expanded their activities in the multi-dwelling unit (MDU”) market.

Telephone companies, including two major telephone companies, AT&T and Verizon, offer video and other services in competition with Charter, and it expects they will increasingly do so in the future. Upgraded portions of these networks carry two-way video, data services and provide digital voice services similar to Charter’s. In the case of Verizon, high-speed data services (fiber optic service “FiOS”) offer speeds as high as or higher than Charter’s. In addition, these companies continue to offer their traditional telephone services, as well as service bundles that include wireless voice services provided by affiliated companies. Based on its internal estimates, Charter believes that AT&T and Verizon are offering video services in areas serving approximately 30% and 4%, respectively, of its estimated passings and it has experienced customer losses in these areas. AT&T and Verizon have also launched campaigns to capture more of the MDU market. AT&T has publicly stated that it expects to roll out its video product beyond the territories currently served although it is unclear where and to what extent. When AT&T or Verizon have introduced or expanded their offering of video products in Charters market areas, Charter has seen a decrease in its video revenue as AT&T and Verizon typically roll out aggressive marketing and discounting campaigns to launch their products. Additionally, in May 2014, AT&T announced its intention to acquire DirectTV, the nation’s largest DBS provider. If completed, this transaction will create an even larger competitor for Charter’s video services that will have the ability to expand its video service offerings to include bundled wireless offerings.

Due to consumer electronic innovations, content owners are allowing consumers to watch Internet-delivered content on televisions, personal computers, tablets, gaming boxes connected to televisions and mobile devices, some without charging a fee to access the content.  Technological advancements, such as video-on-demand, new video formats, and Internet streaming and downloading, have increased the number of entertainment and information delivery choices available to consumers, and intensified the challenges posed by audience fragmentation. For example, online video services continue to offer consumers alternatives including Hulu, Netflix, Amazon and Apple.  Recently, HBO and CBS announced plans to sell their programming direct to consumers over the Internet.  DISH has also announced Sling TV which will include ESPN among other programming,

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and Sony has announced PlayStation Vue which is expected to include 75 TV channels to be launched in the first quarter of 2015.  The increasing number of choices available to audiences could also negatively impact advertisers’ willingness to purchase advertising from Charter, as well as the price they are willing to pay for advertising.

With respect to Charters Internet access services, Charter faces competition, including intensive marketing efforts and aggressive pricing, from telephone companies, primarily AT&T and Verizon, and other providers of DSL, fiber-to-the-node and fiber-to-the-home services. DSL service competes with its Internet service and is often offered at prices lower than its Internet services, although often at speeds lower than the speeds Charter offers. Fiber-to-the-node networks can provide faster Internet speeds than conventional DSL, but still cannot typically match Charters Internet speeds. Fiber-to-the-home networks, however, can provide Internet speeds equal to or greater than Charters current Internet speeds. In addition, in many of its markets, DSL providers have entered into co-marketing arrangements with DBS providers to offer service bundles combining video services provided by a DBS provider with DSL and traditional telephone and wireless services offered by the telephone companies and their affiliates. These service bundles offer customers similar pricing and convenience advantages as Charters bundles.

Continued growth in the residential voice business faces risks. The competitive landscape for residential and commercial telephone services is intense; Charter faces competition from providers of Internet telephone services, as well as incumbent telephone companies. Further, Charter faces increasing competition for residential voice services as more consumers in the United States are replacing traditional telephone service with wireless service. Charter expects to continue to price its voice product aggressively as part of its triple play strategy which could negatively impact its revenue from voice services to the extent it does not increase volume.

The existence of more than one cable system operating in the same territory is referred to as an overbuild. Overbuilds could adversely affect Charters growth, financial condition, and results of operations, by creating or increasing competition. Charter is aware of traditional overbuild situations impacting certain of its markets, however, it is unable to predict the extent to which additional overbuild situations may occur.

In order to attract new customers, from time to time Charter makes promotional offers, including offers of temporarily reduced price or free service. These promotional programs result in significant advertising, programming and operating expenses, and also may require it to make capital expenditures to acquire and install customer premise equipment. Customers who subscribe to Charters services as a result of these offerings may not remain customers following the end of the promotional period. A failure to retain customers could have a material adverse effect on Charters business.

Mergers, joint ventures, and alliances among franchised, wireless, or private cable operators, DBS providers, local exchange carriers, and others, may provide additional benefits to some of Charters competitors, either through access to financing, resources, or efficiencies of scale, or the ability to provide multiple services in direct competition with Charter.

In addition to the various competitive factors discussed above, Charters business competes with all other sources of entertainment and information delivery, including broadcast television, movies, live events, radio broadcasts, home video products, console games, print media, and the Internet. If Charter does not respond appropriately to further increases in the leisure and entertainment choices available to consumers, its competitive position could deteriorate, and its financial results could suffer.

Charters services may not allow them to compete effectively. Competition may reduce its expected growth of future cash flows which may contribute to future impairments of Charter franchises and goodwill and its ability to meet cash flow requirements, including debt service requirements.

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Charters exposure to the economic conditions of its current and potential customers, vendors and third parties could adversely affect its cash flow, results of operations and financial condition.

Charter is exposed to risks associated with the economic conditions of its current and potential customers, the potential financial instability of its customers and their financial ability to purchase Charter’s products. If there were a general economic downturn, Charter may experience increased cancellations by its customers or to unfavorable changes in the mix of products purchased. These events have adversely affected Charter in the past, and may adversely affect Charters cash flow, results of operations and financial condition if a downtown were to occur.

In addition, Charter is susceptible to risks associated with the potential financial instability of the vendors and third parties on which it relies to provide products and services or to which it outsources certain functions. The same economic conditions that may affect Charters customers, as well as volatility and disruption in the capital and credit markets, also could adversely affect vendors and third parties and lead to significant increases in prices, reduction in output or the bankruptcy of Charters vendors or third parties upon which it relies. Any interruption in the services provided by its vendors or by third parties could adversely affect Charters cash flow, results of operation and financial condition.

Charter faces risks inherent in its commercial business.

Charter may encounter unforeseen difficulties as it increases the scale of its service offerings to businesses. Charter sells Internet access, data networking and fiber connectivity to cellular towers and office buildings, video and business voice services to businesses and has increased its focus on growing this business. In order to grow its commercial business, Charter expects to continue to invest in technology, equipment and personnel focused on the commercial business. Commercial business customers often require service level agreements and generally have heightened customer expectations for reliability of services. If Charters efforts to build the infrastructure to scale the commercial business are not successful, the growth of its commercial services business would be limited. Charter depends on interconnection and related services provided by certain third parties for the growth of its commercial business. As a result, its ability to implement changes as the services grow may be limited. If Charter is unable to meet these service level requirements or expectations, its commercial business could be adversely affected. Finally, Charter expects advances in communications technology, as well as changes in the marketplace and the regulatory and legislative environment. Consequently, Charter is unable to predict the effect that ongoing or future developments in these areas might have on its voice and commercial businesses and operations.

Programming costs are rising at a much faster rate than wages or inflation, and Charter may not have the ability to reduce or moderate the growth rates of, or pass on to its customers, its increasing programming costs, which would adversely affect its cash flow and operating margins.

Programming has been, and is expected to continue to be, Charters largest operating expense item. In recent years, the cable industry has experienced a rapid escalation in the cost of programming. Charter expects programming costs to continue to increase because of a variety of factors including amounts paid for retransmission consent, annual increases imposed by programmers with additional selling power as a result of media consolidation, additional programming, including new sports services, out-of-home or non-linear programming and attempts by programmers to replace advertising revenue they are losing to online marketing options and as a result of declining viewership ratings. The inability to fully pass these programming cost increases on to its customers has had an adverse impact on Charters cash flow and operating margins associated with the video product. Charter has programming contracts that have expired and others that will expire at or before the end of 2015. There can be no assurance that these agreements will be renewed on favorable or comparable terms. To the extent that Charter is unable to reach agreement with certain programmers on terms that it believes are reasonable, Charter may be forced to remove such programming channels from its line-up, which could result in a further loss of customers.

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Increased demands by owners of some broadcast stations for carriage of other services or payments to those broadcasters for retransmission consent are likely to further increase Charters programming costs. Federal law allows commercial television broadcast stations to make an election between must-carry rights and an alternative retransmission-consent regime. When a station opts for the latter, cable operators are not allowed to carry the stations signal without the stations permission. In some cases, Charter carries stations under short-term arrangements while it attempts to negotiate new long-term retransmission agreements. If negotiations with these programmers prove unsuccessful, they could require Charter to cease carrying their signals, possibly for an indefinite period. Any loss of stations could make its video service less attractive to customers, which could result in less subscription and advertising revenue. In retransmission-consent negotiations, broadcasters often condition consent with respect to one station on carriage of one or more other stations or programming services in which they or their affiliates have an interest. Carriage of these other services, as well as increased fees for retransmission rights, may increase Charters programming expenses and diminish the amount of capacity it has available to introduce new services, which could have an adverse effect on its business and financial results.

Charters inability to respond to technological developments and meet customer demand for new products and services could limit its ability to compete effectively.

Charters business is characterized by rapid technological change and the introduction of new products and services, some of which are bandwidth-intensive. Charter may not be able to fund the capital expenditures necessary to keep pace with technological developments, execute the plans to do so, or anticipate the demand of its customers for products and services requiring new technology or bandwidth. The implementation of its network-based user interface, Spectrum Guide®, and downloadable security necessary for Charter’s Worldbox set-top box strategy, may ultimately be unsuccessful or more expensive than anticipated.  In order to realize the benefits of its Worldbox technology, Charter must implement its downloadable conditional access security in its regional video networks. Charters inability to maintain and expand its upgraded systems and provide advanced services such as a state of the art user interface in a timely manner, or to anticipate the demands of the marketplace, could materially adversely affect its ability to attract and retain customers. Consequently, Charters growth, financial condition and results of operations could suffer materially.

Charter depends on third party service providers, suppliers and licensors; thus, if it is unable to procure the necessary services, equipment, software or licenses on reasonable terms and on a timely basis, its ability to offer services could be impaired, and Charters growth, operations, business, financial results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Charter depends on third party service providers, suppliers and licensors to supply some of the services, hardware, software and operational support necessary to provide some of its services. Charter obtains these materials from a limited number of vendors, some of which do not have a long operating history or which may not be able to continue to supply the equipment and services it desires. Some of Charters hardware, software and operational support vendors, and service providers represent its sole source of supply or have, either through contract or as a result of intellectual property rights, a position of some exclusivity. If demand exceeds these vendors capacity or if these vendors experience operating or financial difficulties, or are otherwise unable to provide the equipment or services it needs in a timely manner, at its specifications and at reasonable prices, Charters ability to provide some services might be materially adversely affected, or the need to procure or develop alternative sources of the affected materials or services might delay its ability to serve its customers. These events could materially and adversely affect Charters ability to retain and attract customers, and have a material negative impact on its operations, business, financial results and financial condition. A limited number of vendors of key technologies can lead to less product innovation and higher costs. Charters cable systems have historically been restricted to using one of two proprietary conditional access security systems, which it believes has limited the number of manufacturers producing set-top boxes for such systems. As an alternative, Charter has developed a conditional access security system which may be downloaded into set-top boxes with specified features that could be provided by a variety of manufacturers. Charter refers to its specified set top box as its Worldbox. In order to realize the benefits of its Worldbox technology, Charter must implement a conditional access security system. Charter cannot provide

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assurances that this implementation will ultimately be successful or completed in the expected timeframe or at the expected budget.

Charter further depends on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and licenses to establish and maintain its intellectual property rights in technology and the products and services used in its operating activities. Any of its intellectual property rights could be challenged or invalidated, or such intellectual property rights may not be sufficient to permit Charter to continue to use certain intellectual property, which could result in discontinuance of certain product or service offerings or other competitive harm, it incurring substantial monetary liability or being enjoined preliminarily or permanently from further use of the intellectual property in question.

Various events could disrupt Charters networks, information systems or properties and could impair its operating activities and negatively impact its reputation.

Network and information systems technologies are critical to Charters operating activities, as well as its customers access to its services. Charter may be subject to information technology system failures and network disruptions. Malicious and abusive activities, such as the dissemination of computer viruses, worms, and other destructive or disruptive software, computer hackings, social engineering, process breakdowns, denial of service attacks and other malicious activities have become more common in industry overall. If directed at Charter or technologies upon which it depends, these activities could have adverse consequences on its network and its customers, including degradation of service, excessive call volume to call centers, and damage to its or its customers equipment and data. Further, these activities could result in security breaches, such as misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or accidental release or loss of information maintained in Charters information technology systems and networks, and in its vendors systems and networks, including customer, personnel and vendor data. System failures and network disruptions may also be caused by natural disasters, accidents, power disruptions or telecommunications failures. If a significant incident were to occur, it could damage Charters reputation and credibility, lead to customer dissatisfaction and, ultimately, loss of customers or revenue, in addition to increased costs to service its customers and protect its network. These events also could result in large expenditures to repair or replace the damaged properties, networks or information systems or to protect them from similar events in the future. System redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate, and Charters disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Any significant loss of customers or revenue, or significant increase in costs of serving those customers, could adversely affect Charters growth, financial condition and results of operations.

For tax purposes, Charter could experience a deemed ownership change in the future that could limit its ability to use its tax loss carryforwards.

As of December 31, 2014, Charter had approximately $9.5 billion of federal tax net operating loss carryforwards resulting in a gross deferred tax asset of approximately $3.3 billion. Federal tax net operating loss carryforwards expire in the years 2020 through 2034. These losses resulted from the operations of Charter Holdco and its subsidiaries. In addition, as of December 31, 2014, Charter had state tax net operating loss carryforwards resulting in a gross deferred tax asset (net of federal tax benefit) of approximately $321 million. State tax net operating loss carryforwards generally expire in the years 2015 through 2034. Due to uncertainties in projected future taxable income, valuation allowances have been established against the gross deferred tax assets for book accounting purposes, except for future taxable income that will result from the reversal of existing temporary differences for which deferred tax liabilities are recognized. Such tax loss carryforwards can accumulate and be used to offset its future taxable income.

In the past, Charter has experienced “ownership changes” as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).  In general, an “ownership change” occurs whenever the percentage of the stock of a corporation owned, directly or indirectly, by “5-percent stockholders” (within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code) increases by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of the stock of such corporation owned, directly or indirectly, by such “5-percent stockholders” at any time over the preceding three years. As a result, Charter is subject to an annual limitation on the use

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of its loss carryforwards which existed at November 30, 2009 for the first "ownership change" and those that existed at May 1, 2013 for the second "ownership change."  The limitation on Charter’s ability to use its loss carryforwards, in conjunction with the loss carryforward expiration provisions, could reduce its ability to use a portion of its loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income, which could result in Charter being required to make material cash tax payments.  Charter’s ability to make such income tax payments, if any, will depend at such time on its liquidity or its ability to raise additional capital, and/or on receipt of payments or distributions from Charter Holdco and its subsidiaries.

If Charter were to experience a third ownership change in the future (as a result of purchases and sales of stock by its 5-percent stockholders, new issuances or redemptions of its stock, certain acquisitions of its stock and issuances, redemptions, sales or other dispositions or acquisitions of interests in its 5-percent stockholders), Charters ability to use its loss carryforwards could become subject to further limitations. Charters common stock is subject to certain transfer restrictions contained in its amended and restated certificate of incorporation. These restrictions, which are designed to minimize the likelihood of an ownership change occurring and thereby preserve its ability to utilize its loss carryforwards, are not currently operative but could become operative in the future if certain events occur and the restrictions are imposed by Charters board of directors. However, there can be no assurance that its board of directors would choose to impose these restrictions or that such restrictions, if imposed, would prevent an ownership change from occurring.

If Charter is unable to retain key employees, its ability to manage its business could be adversely affected.

Charters operational results have depended, and its future results will depend, upon the retention and continued performance of its management team. Charters ability to retain and hire new key employees for management positions could be impacted adversely by the competitive environment for management talent in the broadband communications industry. The loss of the services of key members of management and the inability or delay in hiring new key employees could adversely affect Charters ability to manage its business and its future operational and financial results.

Charters inability to successfully acquire and integrate other businesses, assets, products or technologies could harm its operating results.

Charter continuously evaluates and pursues large and small acquisitions and strategic investments in businesses, products or technologies that it believes could complement or expand its business or otherwise offer growth or cost-saving opportunities. From time to time, including in the near term, Charter may enter into letters of intent with companies with which it is negotiating for potential acquisitions or investments, or as to which it is conducting due diligence. An investment in, or acquisition of, complementary businesses, products or technologies in the future could materially decrease the amount of Charters available cash or require it to seek additional equity or debt financing. Charter may not be successful in negotiating the terms of any potential acquisition, conducting thorough due diligence, financing the acquisition or effectively integrating the acquired business, product or technology into its existing business and operations. Charters due diligence may fail to identify all of the problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges of an acquired business, product or technology, including issues related to intellectual property, product quality or product architecture, regulatory compliance practices, revenue recognition or other accounting practices, or employee or customer issues.

Additionally, in connection with any acquisitions Charter completes, it may not achieve the growth, synergies or other benefits it expected to achieve, and Charter may incur write-downs, impairment charges or unforeseen liabilities that could negatively affect its operating results or financial position or could otherwise harm its business. Further, contemplating or completing an acquisition and integrating an acquired business, product or technology, individually or across multiple opportunities, could divert management and employee time and resources from other matters.

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Charters business is subject to extensive governmental legislation and regulation, which could adversely affect its business.

Regulation of the cable industry has increased cable operators operational and administrative expenses and limited their revenues. Cable operators are subject to various laws and regulations including those covering the following:

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the provisioning and marketing of cable equipment and compatibility with new digital technologies;

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subscriber and employee privacy and data security;

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limited rate regulation of video service;

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copyright royalties for retransmitting broadcast signals;

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when a cable system must carry a broadcast station or obtain retransmission consent to carry a broadcast station;

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the provision of channel capacity to unaffiliated commercial leased access programmers;

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limitations on the ability to enter into exclusive agreements with multiple dwelling unit complexes and control inside wiring;

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the provision of high-speed Internet service, including net neutrality rules;

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the provision of voice communications;

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cable franchise renewals and transfers;

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equal employment opportunity, emergency alert systems, disability access, technical standards, marketing practices, customer service, and consumer protection; and

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approval for mergers and acquisitions often accompanied by the imposition of restrictions and requirements on an applicant's business in order to secure approval of the proposed transaction.

Additionally, many aspects of these laws and regulations are often the subject of judicial proceedings and administrative or legislative proposals. There are also ongoing efforts to amend or expand the federal, state, and local regulation of some of the services offered over Charters cable systems, which may compound the regulatory risks it already faces, and proposals that might make it easier for its employees to unionize. Some states are considering adopting energy efficiency regulations governing the operation of equipment (such as broadband modems) that Charter uses to deliver Internet services, which could constrain innovation in broadband services and equipment. Congress is considering whether to rewrite the entire Communications Act of 1934, as amended, to account for changes in the communications marketplace. Congress and various federal agencies are also considering more focused changes, such as new privacy restrictions and new restrictions on the use of personal and profiling information for behavioral advertising. In response to recent global data breaches, malicious activity and cyber threats, as well as the general increasing concerns regarding the protection of consumers personal information, Congress and various federal agencies are also considering the adoption of new data security and cybersecurity legislation that could result in additional network and information security requirements for Charters business. These new laws, as well as existing legal and regulatory obligations, could affect Charters operations and require significant expenditures. In addition, federal, state, and local regulators could deny necessary approval of the Comcast Transactions or impose additional regulatory conditions in connection with their review of the Comcast Transactions that could affect its operations.

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Charters cable system franchises are subject to non-renewal or termination. The failure to renew a franchise in one or more key markets could adversely affect its business.

Charters cable systems generally operate pursuant to franchises, permits, and similar authorizations issued by a state or local governmental authority controlling the public rights-of-way. Many franchises establish comprehensive facilities and service requirements, as well as specific customer service standards and monetary penalties for non-compliance. In many cases, franchises are terminable if the franchisee fails to comply with significant provisions set forth in the franchise agreement governing system operations. Franchises are generally granted for fixed terms and must be periodically renewed. Franchising authorities may resist granting a renewal if either past performance or the prospective operating proposal is considered inadequate. Franchise authorities often demand concessions or other commitments as a condition to renewal. In some instances, local franchises have not been renewed at expiration, and Charter has operated and is operating under either temporary operating agreements or without a franchise while negotiating renewal terms with the local franchising authorities.

The traditional cable franchising regime has undergone significant change as a result of various federal and state actions. Some state franchising laws do not allow Charter to immediately opt into favorable statewide franchising as quickly as new entrants, and often require Charter to retain certain franchise obligations that are more burdensome than those applied to new entrants.

There can be no assurance that Charter will be able to comply with all significant provisions of its franchise agreements and certain of its franchisers have from time to time alleged that Charter has not complied with these agreements. Additionally, although historically Charter has renewed its franchises without incurring significant costs, there can be no assurance that Charter will be able to renew, or to renew as favorably, its franchises in the future. A termination of or a sustained failure to renew a franchise in one or more key markets could adversely affect Charters business in the affected geographic area.

Charters cable system franchises are non-exclusive. Accordingly, local and state franchising authorities can grant additional franchises and create additional competition for Charter’s products, resulting in overbuilds, which could adversely affect results of operations.

Charters cable system franchises are non-exclusive. Consequently, local and state franchising authorities can grant additional franchises to competitors in the same geographic area or operate their own cable systems. In some cases, local government entities and municipal utilities may legally compete with Charter on more favorable terms. As a result, competing operators may build systems in areas in which Charter holds franchises.

The FCC has adopted rules that streamline entry for new competitors (particularly those affiliated with telephone companies) and reduce franchising burdens for these new entrants. At the same time, a substantial number of states have adopted new franchising laws, principally designed to streamline entry for new competitors, and often provide advantages for these new entrants that are not immediately available to existing operators. Broadband delivery of video content is not necessarily subject to the same franchise obligations applicable to Charter’s traditional cable systems.

The FCC administers a program that collects Universal Service Fund contributions from telecommunications service providers and uses them to subsidize the provision of telecommunications services in high-cost areas and to low- income consumers and the provision of Internet and telecommunications services to schools, libraries and certain health care providers in the future.  Although the FCC decided in the net neutrality proceeding not to require such contributions at this time, a variety of regulatory changes may lead the FCC to expand the collection of Universal Service Fund contributions to encompass Internet service providers. The FCC has begun to redirect some of this funding to broadband deployment in ways that could assist competitors in competing with Charters services.

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Local franchise authorities have the ability to impose additional regulatory constraints on Charters business, which could further increase its expenses.

In addition to the franchise agreement, cable authorities in some jurisdictions have adopted cable regulatory ordinances that further regulate the operation of cable systems. This additional regulation increases the cost of operating Charters business. Local franchising authorities may impose new and more restrictive requirements. Local franchising authorities who are certified to regulate rates in the communities where they operate generally have the power to reduce rates and order refunds on the rates charged for basic service and equipment.

Tax legislation and administrative initiatives or challenges to Charters tax positions could adversely affect its results of operations and financial condition.

Charter operates cable systems in locations throughout the United States and, as a result, is subject to the tax laws and regulations of federal, state and local governments. From time to time, various legislative and/or administrative initiatives may be proposed that could adversely affect Charters tax positions. There can be no assurance that its effective tax rate or tax payments will not be adversely affected by these initiatives. Certain states and localities have imposed or are considering imposing new or additional taxes or fees on Charters services or changing the methodologies or base on which certain fees and taxes are computed. The federal Internet Tax Freedom Act, which prohibits many taxes on Internet access service, will expire October 1, 2015, unless it is renewed by Congress. Potential changes include additional taxes or fees on Charters services which could impact its customers, combined reporting and other changes to general business taxes, central/unit-level assessment of property taxes and other matters that could increase Charters income, franchise, sales, use and/or property tax liabilities. In addition, federal, state and local tax laws and regulations are extremely complex and subject to varying interpretations. There can be no assurance that Charters tax positions will not be challenged by relevant tax authorities or that it would be successful in any such challenge.

Further regulation of the cable industry could impair Charters ability to raise rates to cover its increasing costs, resulting in increased losses.

Currently, rate regulation of cable systems is strictly limited to the basic service tier and associated equipment and installation activities. However, the FCC and Congress continue to be concerned that cable rate increases are exceeding inflation. It is possible that either the FCC or Congress will further restrict the ability of cable system operators to implement rate increases for Charters video services or even for its high-speed Internet and voice services. Should this occur, it would impede Charters ability to raise its rates. If Charter is unable to raise its rates in response to increasing costs, its losses would increase.

There has been legislative and regulatory interest in requiring companies that own multiple cable networks to make each of them available on a standalone, rather than a bundled basis to cable operators, and in requiring cable operators to offer historically bundled programming services on an à-la-carte basis to consumers. While any new regulation or legislation designed to enable cable operators to purchase programming on a stand-alone basis could be beneficial to Charter, any such new regulation or legislation that limits how Charter sells programming could adversely affect its business.

Actions by pole owners might subject Charter to significantly increased pole attachment costs.

Pole attachments are cable wires that are attached to utility poles. Cable system attachments to investor-owned public utility poles historically have been regulated at the federal or state level, generally resulting in favorable pole attachment rates for attachments used to provide cable service. In contrast, utility poles owned by municipalities or cooperatives are not subject to federal regulation and are generally exempt from state regulation. In 2011, the FCC amended its pole attachment rules to promote broadband deployment. The order overall strengthens the cable industrys ability to access investor-owned utility poles on reasonable rates, terms and conditions. It also allows for new penalties in certain cases involving unauthorized attachments

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that could result in additional costs for cable operators. The new rules were affirmed in 2013. Future regulatory changes in this area could impact the pole attachment rates Charter pays utility companies.

Increasing regulation of Charters Internet service product could adversely affect its ability to provide new products and services.

On February 26, 2015, the FCC adopted open Internet rules that reclassify wireline and wireless broadband services as Title II common carrier services and regulate broadband services offered by Internet service providers (ISPs) under Title II, Title III and Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act. The regulations prohibit ISPs from: (1) blocking access to, or impairing, or degrading, legal content, applications, services or non-harmful devices; and (2) favoring selected Internet traffic in exchange for consideration. The rules also allow the FCC to hear complaints and take enforcement action if it determines that the interconnection agreements of ISPs are not just and reasonable, or if ISPs fail to meet a new general obligation not to unreasonably interfere with or unreasonably disadvantage consumers or edge providers. The rules also require greater transparency by ISPs, including increased disclosure of promotional rates, fees and surcharges. The FCC forbears, or refrains from, imposing certain Title II regulation on ISPs, such as state regulation, tariffs, and last-mile unbundling, and does not assess Universal Service Fund fees on broadband at this time. Several broadband providers previously indicated their intention to challenge any utility-style regulations adopted by the FCC in court. We do not know at the current time if the new regulations adopted by the FCC actually will go into effect or be struck down by a legal appeal, or how the new rules actually would be administered by the FCC, but such rules could limit Charter’s ability to efficiently manage its cable systems and respond to operational and competitive challenges.

Changes in channel carriage regulations could impose significant additional costs on Charter.

Cable operators also face significant regulation of their video channel carriage. Charter can be required to devote substantial capacity to the carriage of programming that it might not carry voluntarily, including certain local broadcast signals; local public, educational and governmental access programming; and unaffiliated, commercial leased access programming (required channel capacity for use by persons unaffiliated with the cable operator who desire to distribute programming over a cable system). The FCC adopted revised commercial leased access rules which would dramatically reduce the rate Charter can charge for leasing this capacity and dramatically increase its administrative burdens, but these remained stayed while under appeal. Legislation has been introduced in Congress in the past that, if adopted, could impact Charters carriage of broadcast signals by simultaneously eliminating the cable industrys compulsory copyright license and the retransmission consent requirements governing cables retransmission of broadcast signals. The FCC also continues to consider changes to the rules affecting the relationship between programmers and multichannel video distributors. Future regulatory changes could disrupt existing programming commitments, interfere with Charters preferred use of limited channel capacity, increase its programming costs, and limit its ability to offer services that would maximize its revenue potential. It is possible that other legal restraints will be adopted limiting Charters discretion over programming decisions.

Charter’s voice service is subject to additional regulatory burdens which may increase, causing it to incur additional costs.

Charter offers voice communications services over its broadband network using voice over Internet protocol (VoIP”) services. The FCC has ruled that competitive telephone companies that support VoIP services, such as those Charter offers its customers, are entitled to interconnect with incumbent providers of traditional telecommunications services, which ensures that Charters VoIP services can compete in the market. The scope of these interconnection rights is being reviewed in a current FCC proceeding, which may affect Charters ability to compete in the provision of voice services or result in additional costs. The FCC has also declared that certain VoIP services are not subject to traditional state public utility regulation. The full extent of the FCC preemption of state and local regulation of VoIP services is not yet clear. Telecommunications companies generally are subject to other significant regulation which could also be extended to VoIP providers. If additional telecommunications

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regulations are applied to Charters VoIP service, it could cause Charter to incur additional costs. The FCC has already extended certain traditional telecommunications carrier requirements to many VoIP providers such as Charter, including E-9-1-1, Universal Service Fund collection, Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA”) obligations, privacy of Customer Proprietary Network Information, number porting, rural call completion reporting, disability access and discontinuance of service requirements. In November 2011, the FCC released an order significantly changing the rules governing intercarrier compensation payments for the origination and termination of telephone traffic between carriers, including VoIP service providers like Charter. The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the rules in May 2014. The new rules will result in a substantial decrease in intercarrier compensation payments over a multi-year period. Charter received intercarrier compensation of approximately $23 million, $21 million and $19 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

Factors Relating to the Comcast Transactions

As a result of the Comcast Transactions, current Charter stockholders’ ownership interest in Charter will be diluted from 100% to approximately 92%.

Immediately following the Comcast Transactions, it is expected that the current stockholders of Charter, who presently own 100% of Charter, will own approximately 92% of the outstanding common stock of Charter.  The Comcast Transactions therefore will result in substantial dilution of the ownership interest of the current Charter stockholders.  Additionally, due to the ownership dilution, Charter’s current stockholders as a group will be able to exercise less influence after the Comcast Transactions than they currently exercise over the management, operations and policies for Charter.  If GreatLand Connections raises less proceeds in the related financing transactions than currently contemplated, Charter is obligated pursuant to the Merger Agreement and the financing arrangements to increase its stock consideration paid in the Charter Merger, which would further dilute existing Charter stockholders.  Also, if the price at which shares of Charter trade were to be lower during the 60 days leading up to the closing of the Transactions, Charter would have to issue more shares further diluting existing Charter stockholders.

Completion of the Comcast Transactions is subject to many conditions and if these conditions are not satisfied or waived, the Comcast Transactions will not be completed.

Charters obligation and the obligation of Comcast to complete the Comcast Transactions are subject to satisfaction or waiver of a number of conditions, including, among others:

·

completion of Comcasts acquisition of TWC;

·

expiration or termination of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvement Act (“HSR Act”) waiting period and receipt of certain regulatory approvals for the Comcast Transactions, in most cases without the imposition of a burdensome condition;

·

unless not required under applicable law, approval by Charters stockholders;

·

receipt of opinions of counsel as to the tax-free nature of certain of the Comcast Transactions;

·

absence of injunction or legal impediment on any of the Comcast Transactions;

·

effectiveness of a registration statement for GreatLand Connections shares to be issued in the Comcast Transactions and approval for the listing on NASDAQ of those shares;

·

effectiveness of a registration statement for New Charter shares to be issued in the Comcast Transactions and approval for listing on NASDAQ of those shares;

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·

accuracy of the representations and warranties with respect to each of the Comcast Transactions, subject to certain materiality thresholds;

·

performance of covenants with respect to each of the Comcast Transactions, subject to certain materiality thresholds;

·

with respect to Charters obligations, absence of a material adverse change with respect to the assets and liabilities transferred to Spinco and the assets and liabilities transferred by Comcast to Charter, taken as a whole, and with respect to Comcasts obligations, absence of a material adverse change with respect to the assets and liabilities transferred by Charter to Comcast and absence of a material adverse effect with respect to Charter, and also with respect to Charters obligations, absence of the assertion by Charters financing sources of a material adverse effect with respect to Charter;

·

Spincos ability to incur indebtedness in an amount equal to at least 2.5 times its 2014 pro forma EBITDA of the Spinco cable systems; and

·

completion of the debt-for-debt exchange contemplated in connection with the GreatLand Connections spin-off from Comcast.

There can be no assurance that the conditions to closing of the Comcast Transactions will be satisfied or waived or that the Comcast Transactions will be completed.

In order to complete the Comcast Transactions, Charter along with Comcast must obtain certain governmental authorizations, and if such authorizations are not granted or are granted with conditions to the parties, completion of the Comcast Transactions may be jeopardized or the anticipated benefits of the Comcast Transactions could be reduced.

Completion of the Comcast Transactions is conditioned upon the expiration or early termination of the waiting periods relating to the Comcast Transactions under the HSR Act and the required governmental authorizations, including an order of the FCC, having been obtained and being in full force and effect. Although Charter and Comcast have agreed in the Comcast Agreement to use reasonable best efforts, subject to certain limitations, to obtain the required governmental authorizations, there can be no assurance that the relevant waiting periods will expire or that the relevant authorizations will be obtained. In addition, the governmental authorities with or from which these authorizations are required have broad discretion in administering the governing regulations. As a condition to authorization of the Comcast Transactions, these governmental authorities may impose requirements, limitations or costs or require divestitures or place restrictions on the conduct of Charters business after completion of the Comcast Transactions. There can be no assurance that regulators will not impose conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions and that such conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions will not have the effect of delaying completion of the Comcast Transactions or imposing additional material costs on or materially limiting the revenues of New Charter following the Comcast Transactions, or otherwise adversely affect Comcasts business and results of operations after completion of the Comcast Transactions. In addition, there can be no assurance that these conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions will not result in the delay or abandonment of the Comcast Transactions.

Charter has relied on publicly available information and ongoing diligence on the systems being acquired by Charter and by Spinco.

Charter has relied on publicly available information and ongoing diligence regarding the systems being acquired by Charter and by Spinco. The transaction terms accordingly provide for assumption by Charter and by Spinco of only those liabilities that are primarily related to the systems acquired by each of them respectively, and for valuation terms that will depend on actual carveout 2014 EBITDA (as defined in the Comcast Agreement) produced by such systems, including true-up adjustment

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payments related to EBITDA and, in some cases, working capital. However, it is possible that significant liabilities, present, future or contingent, may be assumed by Charter or Spinco that are not fully reflected in the valuation terms, and accordingly could have a material adverse effect on Charter and/or its investment in Spinco. Similarly, it is possible that certain assets required to operate the systems acquired by Spinco and/or Charter, such as licenses, technologies and/or employees, may not be transferred in the Comcast Transactions, requiring Spinco and/or Charter to incur additional costs and invest additional resources to procure such assets and/or hire employees with expertise in the transferred business, which may adversely affect Charters ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Comcast Transactions. As Charter has already entered into the Comcast Agreement without any diligence conditions, its ongoing diligence is not expected to give rise to any material adjustments in the Comcast Transactions, and its ongoing diligence continues to focus on the transition of the to be acquired systems to its ownership or the provision of services in the case of GreatLand Connections.

Charter may not realize anticipated cost synergies and growth opportunities.

Charter expects that it will realize cost synergies, growth opportunities and other financial and operating benefits as a result of the Comcast Transactions.  Its success in realizing these cost synergies, growth opportunities and other financial and operating benefits, and the timing of this realization, depends on the successful integration of the business operations obtained in the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase and its ability to provide certain services to GreatLand Connections effectively pursuant to a services agreement.  Even if Charter is able to integrate the business operations obtained in the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase successfully, Charter cannot predict with certainty if or when these cost synergies, growth opportunities and benefits will occur, or the extent to which they actually will be achieved.  For example, the benefits from the Comcast Transactions may be offset by costs incurred in integrating the new business operations or in obtaining or attempting to obtain regulatory approvals for the Comcast Transactions, or negatively impacted by potential programming dis-synergies that Charter may experience as a result of the Comcast Transactions.  Realization of any benefits and cost synergies could be affected by the factors described in other risk factors and a number of factors beyond Charter’s control, including, without limitation, general economic conditions, increased operating costs, the response of competitors and regulatory developments.

In addition, certain license and customer contracts which are required to be transferred to GreatLand Connections or Charter by Comcast require the consent of the licensor or customer party to the contract to effect this assignment.  Comcast, GreatLand Connections and Charter may be unable to obtain these consents on terms favorable to GreatLand Connections or Charter, respectively, or at all, which could have a material adverse impact on GreatLand Connections’ (and hence on us) or on Charter’s business, financial condition and results of operations after the Comcast Transactions.  There can be no assurance that third-party consents will be obtained prior to completion of the Comcast Transactions or at all.

The integration of the business acquired in the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase with the businesses Charter operated prior to the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase may not be successful or the anticipated benefits from the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase may not be realized.

After consummation of the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase, Charter will have significantly more systems, assets, investments, businesses, customers and employees than it did prior to the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase. The process of integrating these assets with the businesses Charter operated prior to the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase will require it to expend significant capital and significantly expand the scope of its operations and operating and financial systems. Charters management will be required to devote a significant amount of time and attention to the process of integrating the operations of the acquired assets with Charters operations before the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase. There is a significant degree of difficulty and management involvement inherent in that process. These difficulties include:

·

integrating the operations of the acquired assets while carrying on the ongoing operations of the businesses Charter operated prior to the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase;

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·

integrating information, purchasing, provisioning, accounting, finance, sales, billing, payroll, reporting and regulatory compliance systems;

·

integrating and unifying the product offerings and services available to customers, including customer premise equipment and video user interfaces;

·

completing the conversion of analog systems to all-digital for the systems to be acquired;

·

managing a significantly larger company than before consummation of the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase;

·

integrating separate business cultures;

·

attracting and retaining the necessary personnel associated with the acquired assets;

·

creating uniform standards, controls, procedures, policies and information systems and controlling the costs associated with such matters; and

·

the impact on Charters business of providing services to Spinco which will also face the foregoing difficulties.

Charter and Comcast have agreed to provide each other with transition services in connection with the transferred systems and relevant assets. Providing such services could divert management attention and result in additional costs, particularly as Charter starts up infrastructure and staff to take over transition services and provides transition services to Comcast for former Charter systems. In addition, the inability to procure such services could negatively impact Charters expected results of operations.

There is no assurance that the assets acquired in the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase will be successfully or cost-effectively integrated into the businesses Charter operated prior to the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase. The process of integrating the acquired assets into Charter’s operations prior to the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase may cause an interruption of, or loss of momentum in, the activities of its business. If Charters management is not able to effectively manage the integration process, or if any significant business activities are interrupted as a result of the integration process, Charters business could suffer and its liquidity, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely impacted.

Even if Charter is able to successfully integrate the new assets, it may not be possible to realize the benefits that are expected to result from the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase, or realize these benefits within the time frame that is expected. For example, the elimination of duplicative costs may not be possible or may take longer than anticipated, or the benefits from the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase may be offset by costs incurred or delays in integrating the companies. Programming dis-synergies could also be larger than expected. If Charter fails to realize the benefits it anticipates from the acquisition, its liquidity, results of operations or financial condition may be adversely affected.

The value of Charter’s interests in GreatLand Connections following the Comcast Transactions may fluctuate from time to time based on factors beyond its control.

Following the Comcast Transactions, the value of Charter’s interests in GreatLand Connections will depend on GreatLand Connections’ operational performance and fluctuations in its share price.  Charter will not control the management and operations of GreatLand Connections, and will therefore not be able to prevent or address any decline in the operational performance or trading value of GreatLand Connections.  In addition, the operational performance and trading value of GreatLand Connections may be influenced by other factors outside Charter’s control, including risks resulting from the separation of the

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cable systems from Comcast; changes in earnings estimated by securities analysts or GreatLand Connections’ ability to meet those estimates; and domestic and foreign economic conditions.

 

If the operating results for GreatLand Connections following the Comcast Transactions are poor, Charter may not achieve the increases in revenues and earnings per share that it expects as a result of the Comcast Transactions.

Charter has projected that it will derive a portion of its revenues and earnings per share from GreatLand Connections after the Comcast Transactions, through receipt of a services fee of 4.25% of GreatLand Connections’ revenues pursuant to a services agreement.  In addition, it will record 33% of GreatLand Connections’ net income, which will also have an impact on its operating results.  Therefore, any negative impact on GreatLand Connections or the operations of GreatLand Connections' business could harm Charter’s operating results.  Some of the significant factors that could harm GreatLand Connections and the operations of the GreatLand Connections' business, and therefore harm Charter’s future operating results after the Comcast Transactions, include competitive pressure from existing or new companies and a decline in the markets served by GreatLand Connections.

 

If the operating results of the TWC assets acquired in the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase are less than Charter’s expectations, or an increase in the capital expenditures to upgrade and maintain those assets as well as to keep pace with technological developments is necessary, Charter may not achieve the expected level of financial results from the Comcast Transactions.

Charter has projected that it will derive a portion of its revenues and earnings per share from the operation of the TWC assets that Charter will acquire in the Asset Exchange and Asset Purchase.  Therefore, any negative impact on the TWC assets to be acquired by Charter or the operating results derived from such exchanged and purchased assets could harm Charter’s operating results.

Charter’s business is characterized by rapid technological change and the introduction of new products and services.  Charter intends to make all-digital investments in the TWC assets acquired in the Comcast Transactions and transition toward only using two-way interactive set-top boxes. The increase in capital expenditures necessary for the all-digital investment and the transition toward two-way set-top boxes in the TWC assets may negatively impact the expected financial results from the Comcast Transactions. Charter may not be able to fund the capital expenditures necessary to keep pace with technological developments, execute the plans to do so, or anticipate the demand of its customers for products and services requiring new technology or bandwidth.  Charter’s inability to maintain, expand and upgrade its existing or acquired assets, including through all-digital initiatives for the TWC assets, could materially adversely affect Charter’s financial condition and results of operations.

Because of high debt levels, Charter may not be able to service its debt obligations in accordance with its terms after the Comcast Transactions.

Charter’s ability to meet its expense and debt service obligations contained in the agreements governing its indebtedness will depend on its future performance, which will be affected by financial, business, economic and other factors, including potential changes in customer preferences, the success of product and marketing innovation and pressure from competitors.  Should its sales decline after the Comcast Transactions, Charter may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to pay its debt service obligations when due. If Charter is unable to meet its debt service obligations after the Comcast Transactions or should it fail to comply with its financial and other restrictive covenants contained in the agreements governing its indebtedness, Charter may be required to refinance all or part of its debt, sell important strategic assets at unfavorable prices or borrow more money.  Charter may not be able to, at any given time, refinance its debt, sell assets or borrow more money on terms acceptable to Charter or at all.  Charter’s inability to refinance its debt could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results from operations after the Comcast Transactions.

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Charter may have difficulty attracting, motivating and retaining executives and other employees in light of the Comcast Transactions.

Uncertainty about the effect of the Comcast Transactions on its employees may have an adverse effect on Charter.  This uncertainty may impair its ability to attract, retain and motivate personnel until the Comcast Transactions are completed.  Employee retention may be particularly challenging during the pendency of the Comcast Transactions, as employees may feel uncertain about their future roles with Charter after the Comcast Transactions.  If Charter’s employees depart because of issues relating to the uncertainty and difficulty of integration, its ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Comcast Transactions could be reduced.  Similar challenges exist for Charter in retaining employees being transferred to Charter in the Comcast Transactions and in attracting any additional personnel it may need after the Comcast Transactions.

A delay in the completion of the Comcast Transactions may diminish the anticipated benefits of the Comcast Transactions.

Completion of the Comcast Transactions is conditioned upon the receipt of certain governmental consents and approvals, orders, authorizations, and rulings, including the expiration or termination of any applicable waiting period (or extension thereof) under the HSR Act and the adoption of an order by the FCC granting its consent to the transfer of control or assignment of certain licenses and authorizations issued by the FCC.  The requirement to receive these consents and approvals, orders, authorizations and rulings before the Comcast Transactions could delay the completion of the Comcast Transactions if, for example, government agencies request additional information from the parties in order to facilitate their review of the Comcast Transactions or require any conditions precedent to granting their approval of the Comcast Transactions.  In addition, these governmental agencies may attempt to condition their approval of the Comcast Transactions on the imposition of conditions that could have a material adverse effect on Charter after the Comcast Transactions, including but not limited to its operating results or the value of Charter Class A common stock.  Any delay in the completion of the Comcast Transactions could diminish the anticipated benefits of the Comcast Transactions or result in additional transaction costs, loss of revenue or other effects associated with uncertainty about the Comcast Transactions.  Any uncertainty over the ability of the companies to complete the Comcast Transactions could make it more difficult for Charter and GreatLand Connections to retain key employees or to pursue business strategies.  In addition, until the Comcast Transactions are completed, the attention of its management may be diverted from ongoing business concerns and regular business responsibilities to the extent management is focused on matters relating to the Comcast Transactions.

Failure to complete the Comcast Transactions could negatively impact Charters stock price and its future business and financial results.

If the Comcast Transactions are not completed for any reason, Charters ongoing business may be adversely affected and, without realizing any of the benefits of having completed the Comcast Transactions, Charter would be subject to a number of risks such as:

·

Negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on its stock price;

·

Negative reactions from its customers, regulators and employees;

·

A requirement to pay significant costs relating to the Comcast Transactions, and will have significant costs related to the Comcast Transactions, such as interest on the $7.0 billion of debt incurred to fund the Comcast Transactions;

·

The Comcast Agreement places certain restrictions on the conduct of Charters business with respect to its assets being transferred to Comcast prior to completion of the Comcast Transactions. Such restrictions, the waiver of which is subject to the consent of the other party (in certain cases, not to be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or

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delayed), may have prevented Charter from taking certain specified actions or otherwise pursuing business opportunities during the pendency of the Comcast Transactions; and

·

Matters relating to the Comcast Transactions (including integration planning) will require substantial commitments of time and resources by Charters management and expenditures, which would otherwise have been devoted to day-to-day operations and other opportunities that may have been beneficial to Charter in the absence of the Comcast Transactions.

If the Comcast Transactions are not completed, the risks described above may materialize and they may adversely affect Charters business, financial condition, financial results and stock price.

In addition, Charter could be subject to litigation related to any failure to complete the Comcast Transactions or related to any enforcement proceeding commenced against Charter to perform its obligations under the Comcast Agreement.

If the Comcast Spin-Off does not qualify as a tax-free reorganization under Sections 368(a)(1)(D) and 355 of the Code, including as a result of subsequent acquisitions of stock of Spinco, then Comcast may recognize a very substantial amount of taxable gain and Spinco (and in certain circumstances, Charter) may be obligated to indemnify Comcast for these taxes.

The completion of the Comcast Transactions is conditioned upon the receipt of opinions from counsel as to the tax-free nature of certain of the Comcast Transactions, including the Comcast Spin-Off. The opinions of counsel will be based on, among other things, current law and certain assumptions and representations as to factual matters made by Comcast, Spinco and Charter. Any change in currently applicable law, which may be retroactive, or the failure of any representation to be true, correct and complete, could adversely affect the conclusions reached by counsel in the opinions. Moreover, the opinions will not be binding on the IRS or the courts, and the IRS or the courts may not agree with the conclusions reached in the opinions.

Even if the Comcast Spin-Off otherwise qualifies as a tax-free spin-off for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Comcast Spin-Off will be taxable to Comcast pursuant to Section 355(e) of the Code if 50% or more of the stock of either Comcast or Spinco is acquired, directly or indirectly (taking into account the stock of Spinco acquired by New Charter in the Merger and the stock of Comcast and Spinco acquired by TWC stockholders in the transaction between Comcast and TWC and in the Comcast Spin-Off, respectively), as part of a plan or series of related transactions that includes the Comcast Spin-Off. Because Spinco stockholders that are former Comcast stockholders (exclusive of former TWC stockholders) will own more than 50% of the common stock of Spinco immediately after the Merger, the Merger, standing alone, is not expected to cause the Comcast Spin-Off to be taxable to Comcast under Section 355(e) of the Code. However, if the IRS were to determine that other acquisitions of Spinco common stock or Comcast common stock, either before or after the Comcast Spin-Off, are part of a plan or series of related transactions that includes the Comcast Spin-Off, such determination could result in the recognition of gain by Comcast under Section 355(e) of the Code. If Section 355(e) of the Code applied, Comcast might recognize a very substantial amount of taxable gain.

Under the tax sharing agreement that will be entered into by Comcast, Spinco and, to a limited extent, New Charter, in certain circumstances, and subject to certain limitations, Spinco will be required to indemnify Comcast against taxes on the Comcast Spin-Off that arise as a result of certain actions or failures to act by Spinco or as a result of certain changes in ownership of the stock of Spinco after the completion of the Comcast Transactions. Spinco will be unable to take certain actions after the Comcast Transactions because such actions could adversely affect the tax-free status of the Comcast Spin-Off, and such restrictions could be significant. If Spinco is required to indemnify Comcast in the event the Comcast Spin-Off is taxable, this indemnification obligation would be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on Spinco.

Moreover, under the tax sharing agreement, in certain circumstances, and subject to certain limitations, New Charter will be required to indemnify Comcast against taxes on the Comcast Spin-Off that arise from New Charter taking any actions

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that would result in New Charter holding Spinco shares in excess of the percentage of Spinco shares acquired in the Merger during the two-year period following the Comcast Spin-Off. If New Charter is required to indemnify Comcast in the event the Comcast Spin-Off is taxable, this indemnification obligation would be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on New Charter.

New Charter and Spinco will be unable to take certain actions after the Comcast Transactions because such actions could adversely affect the tax-free status of the Comcast Spin-Off, and the impact of such restrictions could be significant.

The tax sharing agreement will prohibit Spinco and New Charter from taking actions that could cause the Comcast Spin-Off to be taxable to Comcast.

In particular, for two years after the completion of the Comcast Transactions, Spinco and New Charter will not be permitted to take actions that would result in New Charter holding (or being treated as holding) Spinco shares in excess of the percentage of Spinco acquired by New Charter in the Merger and the stock of Comcast and Spinco acquired by TWC stockholders in the transaction between Comcast and TWC and in the Comcast Spin-Off, respectively), as part of a plan or series of related transactions that includes the Comcast Spin-Off. These actions could include entering into certain merger or consolidation transactions, certain stock issuances and certain other desirable strategic transactions.

Because of these restrictions, Spinco may be limited in the amount of stock that it can issue to make acquisitions or raise additional capital in the two years subsequent to the completion of the Charter Merger, which could have a material adverse effect on its liquidity and financial condition.

The tax sharing agreement will also provide that in certain circumstances, and subject to certain limitations, Spinco and New Charter will be required to indemnify Comcast against taxes on the Comcast Spin-Off that arise as a result of actions in violation of the prohibitions and limitations described above.  If Spinco or New Charter is required to indemnify Comcast in the event the Comcast Spin-Off is taxable, this indemnification obligation would be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on Spinco or New Charter, as applicable.

Charter will incur significant transaction-related costs in connection with the Comcast Transactions.

Charter expects to incur a number of non-recurring costs associated with the Comcast Transactions before, at and after closing the Comcast Transactions. Charter also will incur transaction fees and costs related to formulating and implementing integration plans, including facilities and systems implementation costs and employment-related costs. Charter continues to assess the magnitude of these costs, and additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the Comcast Transactions and integration. Although Charter expects that the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the businesses, should allow Charter to offset integration-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, or at all. In addition, if the Comcast Transactions are not consummated, Charter would bear some or all of these costs without the benefit of efficiencies from the integration of the businesses. Such costs could have a material adverse impact on Charter’s financial results.

Sales of Charter’s common stock after the Comcast Transactions may negatively affect the market price of New Charter common stock.

The shares of Charter’s common stock to be issued in the Comcast Transactions to holders of Spinco common stock (initially, the Comcast shareholders) will generally be eligible for immediate resale. The market price of Charter’s common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of Charter’s common stock in the market after the consummation of the Comcast Transactions or even the perception that these sales could occur.

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Currently, Comcast stockholders may include index funds that have performance tied to the Standard & Poors 500 Index or other stock indices, and institutional investors subject to various investing guidelines. Because New Charter may not be included in these indices following the consummation of the Comcast Transactions or may not meet the investing guidelines of some of these institutional investors, these index funds and institutional investors may decide to or may be required to sell the common stock that they receive in the Comcast Transactions. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, may also make it more difficult for New Charter to obtain additional capital by selling equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that it deems appropriate.

Factors Relating to TruePosition

There can be no assurance that the recent acquisition of Skyhook will be beneficial.

On February 14, 2014, TruePosition completed the acquisition of Skyhook, a global location network with more than 1 billion geocoded access points. There can be no assurance that the Skyhook acquisition will achieve the desired benefits of the transaction, which include increasing TruePositions competitive position and other potential synergies, or that Skyhook will continue to expand its customer base as anticipated, which is critical to Skyhooks revenue generation. In addition, TruePosition incurred significant transaction and acquisition-related fees and costs. If the Skyhook acquisition is not accretive to TruePositions business and operations, it could materially adversely affect the financial condition of TruePosition.

TruePosition and its subsidiary Skyhook face competition from multiple sources.

TruePosition faces competition from a second provider of Uplink Time Difference of Arrival “UTDOA”, Commscope, and from the suppliers of other wireless location technologies and solutions, such as GPS, Observed Time Difference of Arrival “OTDOA” and Terrestrial Beacons, which provide similar location-based products and services to TruePosition. Skyhook faces competition from Google, Inc. “Google”, HERE (a division of Nokia) and smaller regional or niche market competitors, as providers of location-based services and products. Certain of these competitors are substantially larger than TruePosition or Skyhook, as applicable, and have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources. Thus, many of these large enterprises are in a better position to withstand any significant reduction in spending by customers in its markets, and often have broader product lines and market focus, have greater brand recognition and may not be as susceptible to downturns in a single market. These competitors may also be able to bundle their products together to meet the needs of a particular customer, may be able to respond more rapidly to new or emerging technologies or changes in customer requirements and may be capable of delivering more complete solutions than TruePosition or Skyhook is able to provide. If large enterprises that currently do not compete directly with TruePosition or Skyhook choose to enter its markets by acquisition or otherwise, competition would likely intensify. In addition, the growth of new location technologies currently in development may further increase competition to provide these new technologies. If TruePosition and Skyhook are not able to compete successfully for customers, the financial position of TruePosition may be materially adversely affected.

The revenue of TruePosition and Skyhook each depend on a limited number of customers, and the loss of their more significant customers could adversely affect the business of TruePosition.

TruePosition and its operating subsidiary Skyhook derive a significant amount of their respective revenue from a limited number of customers, and it is anticipated that these customers will continue to represent a significant portion of the revenue of TruePosition and Skyhook individually and in the aggregate. Because they depend on a limited number of customers, the loss of any one of these customers could have a material adverse effect on the operating results of TruePosition. Certain of these customers may fail to renew their contracts with TruePosition or Skyhook from time to time, creating additional risk with respect to the potential loss of revenue from these customers. For example, one of TruePosition’s former largest clients, T-Mobile USA “T-Mobile”, failed to renew its contract with TruePosition and ceased using TruePositions services at the end of 2011, which resulted in a material reduction in TruePositions revenue. In addition, TruePosition has been largely dependent since 2012 on

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one wireless carrier, which accounted for approximately 90% of TruePosition’s overall revenue, and this contract expires on January 1, 2016. The loss or reduction of business from one or a combination of these existing customers of True Position or Skyhook would materially adversely affect revenue, financial condition and results of operations of TruePosition.

The revenue of TruePosition and Skyhook each depend on the commercial deployment of wireless and other communications technologies and their ability to continue to drive customer demand for their products and services in a rapidly evolving and developing industry.

TruePosition and Skyhook each develop, patent and commercialize products and services based on wireless and other communications technologies. They depend on their customers, licensees, operators of these wireless technologies and networks and other industries to use and timely deploy their products and services. TruePosition and Skyhook also depend on their customers and licensees to develop products and services with value-added features to drive sales as well as consumer demand for new wireless devices. As a result, TruePosition and Skyhook must stay abreast of rapidly evolving technological developments and offerings to remain competitive and increase the utility of their products and services, and they must be able to incorporate new technologies into their products and services in order to address the needs of their customers. The failure to successfully introduce new or enhanced products and services on a timely and cost-competitive basis that comply with evolving industry standards and regulations or the inability to continue to market existing products on a cost-competitive basis could have a material adverse effect on TruePositions results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, in order to successfully develop and market certain of TruePositions or Skyhooks products and services, TruePosition or Skyhook may be required to enter into technology development or licensing agreements with third parties. TruePosition and Skyhook cannot provide assurances that they will be able to timely enter into any necessary technology development or licensing agreements on reasonable terms, or at all.

Changes to the regulatory environment in which TruePosition or Skyhooks customers operate may negatively impact their business.

In the U.S., the FCC regulates wireless carriers, wireless services and E- 9-1-1 requirements. FCC regulatory actions affecting wireless carriers and services and E-9-1-1 requirements may adversely affect TruePosition’s wireless phone and device location technology and the positioning services offered by Skyhook. The E-9-1-1 location accuracy requirements originally adopted by the FCC in 1996 applied only to 911 calls originating outdoors, but the new rules adopted by the FCC on January 29, 2015 extend location accuracy requirements to E-9-1-1 calls. However, because of the increased use of wireless phones indoors, on January 29, 2015, the FCC adopted indoor location accuracy rules its Fourth Report and Order in its E-9-1-1 location accuracy proceeding. Under the new rules, all wireless providers generally must provide horizontal location information for 40% of all wireless 911 calls within 2 years of the effective date of the Fourth Report and Order (April 30, 2015), 50% within 3 years, 70% within 5 years and 80 % within 6 years of the effective date. Wireless providers also must meet specific requirements for the provision of vertical location information for wireless 911 calls within three-to-eight years of the effective date.  Smaller wireless providers may have additional time to comply with certain of the horizontal and vertical benchmarks. Implementation of the rules may be delayed if a party to the rulemaking proceeding challenges the rules in federal court.

A distinguishing characteristic of TruePosition’s UTDOA and Skyhook’s WiFi technologies are their ability to locate wireless devices indoors, where GPS signals may be compromised or blocked. As the rules currently stand, they may offer opportunity to TruePosition’s and/or Skyhook’s technologies. However, even if TruePosition and/or Skyhook is able to produce and provide products and services compliant with these regulations, much uncertainty exists as to whether TruePosition or Skyhook will be able to successfully compete for carrier contracts.

TruePosition will be actively competing for carrier contracts required to comply with the regulations. Even if TruePosition is able to produce and provide products and services compliant with these regulations, until information regarding

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any compliant products and services offered by TruePositions competitors becomes available, much uncertainty exists as to whether TruePosition will be able to successfully compete for carrier contracts.

Other U.S. regulatory agencies also may seek to regulate aspects of the services provided by TruePosition and Skyhook. Further, to the extent TruePosition and Skyhook operate abroad, both businesses are subject to potential action by foreign regulatory agencies. TruePosition cannot anticipate how such additional regulation by the FCC, another U.S. Government agency, or any foreign regulator will affect its businesses.

The success of TruePosition and Skyhook depends on the integrity of their systems and infrastructures.

TruePosition and Skyhook rely on their enterprise resource planning systems to support such critical business operations as processing sales orders and invoicing, purchasing and supply chain management, human resources and financial reporting. Portions of TruePositions or Skyhooks IT infrastructure may experience interruptions of service or produce errors in connection with systemic failures, systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. TruePosition and Skyhook may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time consuming, disruptive and resource-intensive. If TruePosition and Skyhook are unable to successfully implement major systems initiatives and maintain critical information systems, they could encounter difficulties that could have a material adverse impact on TruePositions business.

Furthermore, the businesses of TruePosition and Skyhook depend on delivering products and services to customers of consistently high quality and reliability. If the services offered by TruePosition or Skyhook were to fail or not to perform as expected, their services could be rendered ineffective, and any significant or systemic service failure could also result in a loss of customer confidence, as well as reputational damage, resulting in a material adverse impact on TruePositions business.

Privacy concerns relating to the technology of TruePosition and Skyhook could damage their reputations and deter current and potential users from using their products and applications.

Concerns about the practices of TruePosition and Skyhook with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of personal information, user location information or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage their reputations and operating results. While TruePosition and Skyhook strive to comply with all applicable data protection laws and regulations, as well as their own posted privacy policies, any failure or perceived failure to comply may result in proceedings or actions against TruePosition or Skyhook by government entities or others, or could cause them to lose users and customers, which could potentially have an adverse effect on TruePositions business.

Regulatory authorities around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with the data practices of TruePosition and Skyhook. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, this could result in an order requiring changes in the data practices of TruePosition and Skyhook, which could have an adverse effect on the business and results of operations of TruePosition. Complying with these various laws could result in the incurrence of substantial costs or require changes to business practices in a manner adverse to the business of TruePosition and Skyhook.

Security breaches and other disruptions, including as a result of cyber attacks, could compromise the information collected and stored by TruePosition and Skyhook and expose them to liability, which would cause business and reputational damage.

In the ordinary course of their respective businesses, each of TruePosition and Skyhook collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, their proprietary business information and that of their customers and suppliers, and potentially personally identifiable information of their users and employees, in their facilities and on their networks. The secure processing,

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maintenance and transmission of this information is important to their operations. Despite security measures in place at TruePosition and Skyhook, their information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise their networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, disruption of operations, reputational damage, and cause a loss of confidence, which could adversely affect TruePositions business and revenue.

Actions taken by TruePosition and Skyhook to adequately protect their respective intellectual property rights, such as litigation to defend against alleged infringement of intellectual property rights or to enforce their intellectual property rights, could result in substantial costs, and their ability to compete could be harmed if they fail to take such actions or are unsuccessful in doing so.

TruePosition and Skyhook rely primarily on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secrets, employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, licensing arrangements and other methods to protect their intellectual property in the United States and internationally. TruePosition and Skyhook have numerous patents issued, allowed and pending in the United States and/or in foreign jurisdictions which primarily relate to products and the technology used in connection with the products and services offered by TruePosition and Skyhook. TruePosition and Skyhook cannot be certain that the steps they have taken, or may take in the future, will prevent the misappropriation or unauthorized use of their proprietary information and technologies, particularly in foreign countries where international treaties, organizations and foreign laws may not protect their proprietary intellectual property rights as fully or as readily as United States laws or where the enforcement of such laws may be lacking or ineffective. Any pending patent applications and any future applications may not be approved, and any issued patents may not provide TruePosition or Skyhook with competitive advantages or may be challenged, invalidated, infringed, circumvented or misappropriated by third parties. Other companies, including some of TruePositions and Skyhooks largest competitors, hold intellectual property rights in its industry and the intellectual property rights of others could inhibit TruePositions and Skyhooks ability to introduce new products and services unless it secures necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms. Furthermore, as the number of issued patents increases and as competition intensifies, the volume of intellectual property infringement claims and lawsuits may also increase. TruePosition and Skyhook may in the future become involved in lawsuits or other legal proceedings alleging patent infringement or other intellectual property rights violations by TruePosition or Skyhook or parties that they have agreed to indemnify for certain claims of infringement. Third parties may also claim that employees of TruePosition or Skyhook have misappropriated or divulged their former employers trade secrets or confidential information. An unfavorable ruling in any such intellectual property related litigation could include significant damages, invalidation of a patent or family of patents, indemnification of customers, payment of lost profits, or, when it has been sought, injunctive relief.

In addition, TruePosition and Skyhook have been required and may be required in the future to initiate litigation in order to assert claims of infringement of their intellectual property, enforce patents issued or licensed to them, protect their trade secrets or know-how or to determine the scope and/or validity of a third partys patent or other proprietary rights. TruePosition and Skyhook also have been and may in the future be subject to lawsuits by third parties seeking to enforce their own intellectual property rights. Any such litigation, regardless of outcome, could subject TruePosition or Skyhook to significant costs or liabilities or require them to cease using proprietary third party technology and, consequently, could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations and financial condition of TruePosition. Any such litigation could also result in rulings impacting the validity or enforceability of TruePositions or Skyhooks patents, which could result in new or increased competition that could have a material adverse effect on TruePositions results of operations and financial condition. For example, Skyhook is currently involved in litigation with Google, in which Skyhook is alleging the infringement by Google of eight of Skyhooks patents involving location technology. See “Item 3 – Legal Proceedings. If infringement claims are made against TruePosition or Skyhook or their products are found to infringe a third parties patent or intellectual property, TruePosition, Skyhook or one of their indemnitees may have to seek a license to the third parties patent or other intellectual property rights. However, TruePosition and Skyhook may not be able to obtain licenses at all or on terms acceptable to them particularly from their competitors. If they

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or one of their indemnitees is unable to obtain a license from a third party for technology that TruePosition or Skyhook use or that is used in one of their products, TruePosition or Skyhook could be subject to substantial liabilities or have to suspend or discontinue the manufacture and sale of one or more of their products. They may also have to make royalty or other payments, cross license their technology or make payments pursuant to third party indemnitees. See “Item 3 – Legal Proceedings” for additional information about pending litigation and indemnification claims.

In addition, TruePosition maintains as its trade secrets certain data compilations and other information. Breach of one or more of these trade secrets could have a material adverse effect on TruePositions results of operations and financial condition.

Factors Relating to the Broadband Spin-Off

We may have a significant indemnity obligation to Liberty if the Broadband Spin-Off is treated as a taxable transaction.

In connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, Liberty received an opinion of tax counsel to the effect that the Broadband Spin-Off will qualify as a tax-free transaction to Liberty and its stockholders under Section 355, Section 368(a)(1)(D) and related provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), except with respect to the receipt of cash in lieu of fractional shares.  An opinion of tax counsel is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and the conclusions expressed in such opinion could be challenged by the IRS, and a court could sustain such challenge.  In December 2014, the IRS completed its review of the Broadband Spin-Off and notified Liberty that it agreed with the nontaxable characterization of the transaction.  If it is determined however, for whatever reason, that the Broadband Spin-Off does not qualify for tax-free treatment, Liberty and/or its stockholders could incur significant tax liabilities. 

Prior to the Broadband Spin-Off, we entered into a tax sharing agreement with Liberty.  Under this agreement, Liberty is generally responsible for any taxes and losses resulting from the failure of the Broadband Spin-Off to qualify as a tax-free transaction; however, we are required to indemnify Liberty for any taxes and losses which (i) result primarily from, individually or in the aggregate, the breach of certain covenants made by us (applicable to actions or failures to act by our company and our subsidiaries following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off), or (ii) result from the application of Section 355(e) of the Code to the Broadband Spin-Off as a result of the treatment of the Broadband Spin-Off as part of a plan (or series of related transactions) pursuant to which one or more persons acquire, directly or indirectly, a 50-percent or greater interest (measured by either vote or value) in the stock of our company or any successor corporation.  Our indemnification obligations to Liberty are not limited in amount or subject to any cap.  If we are required to indemnify Liberty for taxes and losses resulting from the failure of the Broadband Spin-Off to qualify as tax-free, we may be subject to substantial liabilities, which could materially adversely affect our financial position. 

To preserve the tax-free treatment of the Broadband Spin-Off, we may determine to forego certain transactions that might have otherwise been advantageous to our company, including certain asset dispositions or other strategic transactions for some period of time following the Broadband Spin-Off.  In addition, our indemnity obligation related to the Broadband Spin-Off under the tax sharing agreement might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control transaction for some period of time following the Broadband Spin-Off.

Our company has overlapping directors and officers with Liberty, Liberty Interactive and Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc., which may lead to conflicting interests.

As a result of the Broadband Spin-Off, the September 2011 separation of Starz from Liberty and the January 2013 spin-off of Liberty from Starz, most of the executive officers of Broadband also serve as executive officers of Liberty, Liberty Interactive and Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. (TripCo”) and there are overlapping directors. None of these companies has any ownership interest in any of the others. Our executive officers and members of our companys board of directors have fiduciary duties to our stockholders. Likewise, any such persons who serve in similar capacities at Liberty, Liberty Interactive,

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TripCo or any other public company have fiduciary duties to that companys stockholders. For example, there may be the potential for a conflict of interest when our company, Liberty, Liberty Interactive or TripCo pursues acquisitions and other business opportunities that may be suitable for each of them. Therefore, such persons may have conflicts of interest or the appearance of conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving or affecting more than one of the companies to which they owe fiduciary duties. Our company has renounced its rights to certain business opportunities and our restated certificate of incorporation will provide that no director or officer of our company will breach their fiduciary duty and therefore be liable to our company or its stockholders by reason of the fact that any such individual directs a corporate opportunity to another person or entity (including Liberty, Liberty Interactive and TripCo) instead of our company, or does not refer or communicate information regarding such corporate opportunity to our company, unless (x) such opportunity was expressly offered to such person solely in his or her capacity as a director or officer of our company or as a director or officer of any of our subsidiaries, and (y) such opportunity relates to a line of business in which our company or any of its subsidiaries is then directly engaged. In addition, any potential conflict that qualifies as a related party transaction (as defined in Item 404 of Regulation S-K) is subject to review by an independent committee of the applicable issuers board of directors in accordance with its corporate governance guidelines. Any other potential conflicts that arise will be addressed on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind the applicable fiduciary duties owed by the executive officers and directors of each issuer. From time to time, we may enter into transactions with Liberty or Liberty Interactive and/or their respective subsidiaries or other affiliates. There can be no assurance that the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to our company, Liberty, Liberty Interactive or any of their respective subsidiaries or affiliates as would be the case where there is no overlapping officer or director.

Our inter-company agreements were negotiated while we were a subsidiary of Liberty.

We entered into a number of inter-company agreements covering matters such as tax sharing and our responsibility for certain liabilities previously undertaken by Liberty for certain of our businesses. In addition, we entered into a services agreement with Liberty pursuant to which it will provide to us certain management, administrative, financial, treasury, accounting, tax, legal and other services, for which we will reimburse them on a fixed fee basis. The terms of all of these agreements were established while we were a wholly-owned subsidiary of Liberty, and hence may not be the result of arms’ length negotiations. We believe that the terms of these inter-company agreements are commercially reasonable and fair to all parties under the circumstances; however, conflicts could arise in the interpretation or any extension or renegotiation of the foregoing agreements after the Broadband Spin-Off.

Factors Relating to our Common Stock and the Securities Market

Our stock price may be affected by the results of operation of Charter and developments in its business.

The fair value of our investment in Charter, on an as-converted basis, was approximately $4.8 billion as of December 31, 2014, which represents all of our total market value following the Broadband Spin-Off. As a result of the Spin-Off, our stock price will be directly affected by the results of operations of Charter and the developments in its business.

Although our Series B common stock is quoted on the OTC Markets, there is no meaningful trading market for the stock.

Our Series B common stock is not widely held, with approximately 95% of the outstanding shares immediately following the Broadband Spin-Off beneficially owned by John C. Malone, the Chairman of the board and a director of our company. Although it is quoted on the OTC Markets, it is sparsely traded and does not have an active trading market. The OTC Markets tend to be highly illiquid, in part, because there is no national quotation system by which potential investors can track the market price of shares except through information received or generated by a limited number of broker-dealers that make markets in particular stocks. There is also a greater chance of market volatility for securities that trade on the OTC Markets as opposed to a national exchange or quotation system. This volatility is due to a variety of factors, including a lack of readily available price quotations, lower trading volume, absence of consistent administrative supervision of "bid" and "ask" quotations, and market

I-53


 

conditions. Each share of the Series B common stock is convertible, at any time at the option of the holder, into one share of our Series A common stock, which is listed and traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "LBRDA."

If we are unable to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or our internal control over financial reporting is not effective, the reliability of our financial statements may be questioned and our stock price may suffer.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires any company subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. securities laws to do a comprehensive evaluation of its and its consolidated subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting. To comply with this statute, we are required to document and test our internal control procedures; our management is required to assess and issue a report concerning our internal control over financial reporting; and our independent auditors are required to issue an opinion on management’s assessment of those matters. Our compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act will first be tested in connection with the filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2015. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation to meet the detailed standards under the rules. During the course of its testing, our management may identify material weaknesses or deficiencies which may not be remedied in time to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If our management cannot favorably assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting or our auditors identify material weaknesses in our internal controls, investor confidence in our financial results may weaken, and our stock price may suffer.

It may be difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so may be beneficial to our stockholders.

Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company that a stockholder may consider favorable. These provisions include the following:

·

authorizing a capital structure with multiple series of common stock: a Series B that entitles the holders to ten votes per share, a Series A that entitles the holders to one vote per share and a Series C that, except as otherwise required by applicable law, entitles the holders to no voting rights;

·

authorizing the issuance of blank check preferred stock, which could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;

·

classifying our board of directors with staggered three-year terms, which may lengthen the time required to gain control of our board of directors;

·

limiting who may call special meetings of stockholders;

·

prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders;

·

establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings;

·

requiring stockholder approval by holders of at least 80% of our voting power or the approval by at least 75% of our board of directors with respect to certain extraordinary matters, such as a merger or consolidation of our company, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or an amendment to our certificate of incorporation; and

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·

the existence of authorized and unissued stock which would allow our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, thereby protecting the continuity of its management, or which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of persons seeking to obtain control of us.

In addition, John C. Malone currently beneficially owns shares representing the power to direct approximately 47.1% of the aggregate voting power in our company, due to his beneficial ownership approximately 95% of the outstanding shares of our Series B common stock as of February 28, 2015.

Holders of a single series of our common stock may not have any remedies if an action by our directors has an adverse effect on only that series of our common stock.

Principles of Delaware law and the provisions of our certificate of incorporation may protect decisions of our board of directors that have a disparate impact upon holders of any single series of our common stock. Under Delaware law, the board of directors has a duty to act with due care and in the best interests of all of our stockholders, including the holders of all series of our common stock. Principles of Delaware law established in cases involving differing treatment of multiple classes or series of stock provide that a board of directors owes an equal duty to all common stockholders regardless of class or series and does not have separate or additional duties to any group of stockholders. As a result, in some circumstances, our directors may be required to make a decision that is viewed as adverse to the holders of one series of our common stock. Under the principles of Delaware law and the business judgment rule, holders may not be able to successfully challenge decisions that they believe have a disparate impact upon the holders of one series of our stock if our board of directors is disinterested and independent with respect to the action taken, is adequately informed with respect to the action taken and acts in good faith and in the honest belief that the board is acting in the best interest of all of our stockholders.

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 2.  Properties.

 

Liberty Broadband

In connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Liberty entered into a facilities sharing agreement with Liberty Broadband, pursuant to which Liberty Broadband shares office facilities with Liberty, Liberty Interactive and Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. located at 12300 Liberty Boulevard, Englewood, Colorado.

Charter

Charters principal physical assets consist of cable distribution plant and equipment, including signal receiving, encoding and decoding devices, headend reception facilities, distribution systems, and customer premise equipment for each of its cable systems.

Charters cable plant and related equipment are generally attached to utility poles under pole rental agreements with local public utilities and telephone companies, and in certain locations are buried in underground ducts or trenches. Charter owns or leases real property for signal reception sites, and owns its service vehicles.

Charters subsidiaries generally lease space for business offices. Charters headend and tower locations are located on owned or leased parcels of land, and it generally owns the towers on which its equipment is located. Charter Holdco owns the

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land and building for its St. Louis corporate office. Charter leases space for its offices in Denver, Colorado and for its corporate headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.

The physical components of Charters cable systems require maintenance as well as periodic upgrades to support the new services and products Charter introduces. Charter believes that its properties are generally in good operating condition and are suitable for its business operations.

TruePosition

TruePosition has its corporate headquarters in Berwyn, Pennsylvania. TruePosition leases its 70,000 square foot facility for its headquarters and research and development operations pursuant to a lease agreement which expires in 2017.

Skyhook has its corporate headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. Skyhook leases its 7,900 square foot facility for its headquarters pursuant to a lease agreement which expires in 2018.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Charter

On January 15, 2014, the California Department of Justice, in conjunction with the Alameda County, California District Attorneys Office, initiated an investigation into whether Charters waste disposal policies, practices, and procedures violate the provisions of the California Health and Safety Code, the California Hazardous Waste Control Law, and any of their related regulations. Charter is cooperating with the investigation. At this time Charter does not expect that its outcome will have a material effect on its operations, financial condition, or cash flows.

Charter is a defendant or co-defendant in several unrelated lawsuits involving alleged infringement of various patents relating to various aspects of its businesses. Other industry participants are also defendants in certain of these cases. In the event that a court ultimately determines that Charter infringes on any intellectual property rights, Charter may be subject to substantial damages and/or an injunction that could require Charter or its vendors to modify certain products and services it offers to its subscribers, as well as negotiate royalty or license agreements with respect to the patents at issue. While Charter believes the lawsuits are without merit and intends to defend the actions vigorously, no assurance can be given that any adverse outcome would not be material to Charters consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

Charter is also a party to other lawsuits and claims that arise in the ordinary course of conducting its business, including lawsuits claiming violation of anti-trust laws and violation of wage and hour laws. The ultimate outcome of these other legal matters pending against Charter or its subsidiaries cannot be predicted, and although such lawsuits and claims are not expected individually to have a material adverse effect on our or Charters consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity, such lawsuits could have in the aggregate a material adverse effect on ours or Charters consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity. Whether or not Charter ultimately prevails in any particular lawsuit or claim, litigation can be time consuming and costly and injure its reputation.

TruePosition

On July 21, 2011, TruePosition filed an antitrust lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania against LM Ericsson Telephone Company “Ericsson”, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and certain other defendants arising from the standard setting processes for LTE wireless data communication technology as it pertains to location technology. The case has been settled, in cash and for other considerations, and was formally dismissed in its entirety on July 30, 2014. Defendants 3GPP and Ericsson did not contribute to the cash settlement. With respect to the defendants that contributed to

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the cash portion of the settlement, such cash was provided with no finding or implication of liability to avoid the expenditure of litigation costs exceeding the settlement amount, and in consideration for TruePositions withdrawal of accusations of wrongdoing.

On September 10, 2010, Skyhook filed a patent infringement lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts against Google. In March 2014, Skyhook amended its lawsuit to add additional claims. In total, Skyhook alleges that Google is infringing on eight Skyhook patents involving location technology and seeks an injunction and/or award of damages in an amount to be determined at trial. The case had been scheduled to be tried before a jury commencing March 9, 2015. On March 5, 2015, the District Court issued an order that states that the court was advised by the parties that the case has been settled and thereby dismissed the action without costs and without prejudice to the right person, upon good cause shown within 45 days, to reopen the action if settlement is not consummated. In addition, on September 10, 2010, Skyhook filed a companion case in State Superior Court in Massachusetts alleging that Google improperly interfered with contracts that Skyhook entered into with a number of important Android OEM manufacturers. In October 2013, the state court granted summary judgment to Google. On November 16, 2014, the Appeals Court of Massachusetts affirmed the Superior Court’s dismissal and that judgment is now final.

In the normal course of business, TruePosition provides indemnification to certain customers against specified claims that might arise against those customers from the use of TruePositions products. To date, TruePosition has not had to reimburse any of its customers for any losses related to these indemnification provisions. Although six such claims are currently pending, no legal proceedings have been instituted with respect to such claims. TruePosition is unable to estimate the maximum potential impact of these indemnification provisions on its future results of operations, although TruePositions liabilities in certain of those arrangements are customarily limited in various respects, including monetarily.

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable.

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PART II

 Item 5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters of Equity Securities.

 

Market Information

Our Series A and Series C common stock have been outstanding since November 2014.   Each series of our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.  The following table sets forth the range of high and low sales prices of shares of our common stock for the year ended December 31, 2014, for the period they were outstanding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liberty Broadband Corporation

 

 

 

Series A

 

Series B

 

Series C

 

 

 

(LBRDA)

 

(LBRDB)

 

(LBRDK)

 

 

    

High

    

Low

    

High

    

Low

    

High

    

Low

 

2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth quarter (after November 4, 2014)

 

$

55.35 

 

44.63 

 

50.00 

 

48.00 

 

54.74 

 

42.12 

 

 

On November 5, 2014, our Series B common stock became eligible for quotation on the OTC Markets under the symbol "LBRDB," but it is not actively traded. There can be no assurance that a regular trading market will develop for our Series B common stock or, if such a market is developed, that it will be sustained. Since our Series B common stock began quotation on the OTC Markets, the range of high and low last reported prices was $50.00 to $48.00, as reported by the OTC Markets. The quotations represent inter-dealer prices without retail mark-ups, mark-downs or commissions, and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.

Holders

As of February 28, 2015, there were approximately 1,024, 72 and 1,287 holders of our Series A, Series B and Series C common stock, respectively.  The foregoing numbers of record holders do not include the number of stockholders whose shares are held nominally by banks, brokerage houses or other institutions, but include each such institution as one shareholder.

Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and we have no present intention of so doing.  Payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future will be determined by our board of directors in light of our earnings, financial condition and other relevant considerations.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

Information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement for our 2015 Annual Meeting of stockholders.

 

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Item 6.Selected Financial Data.

 

The following tables present selected historical information relating to our financial condition and results of operations for the past five years. The following data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2011 (3)

 

2010

 

Summary Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

amounts in thousands

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

44,809 

    

9,251 

    

10,031 

    

30,890 

    

31,677 

 

Investments in available for sale securities

 

$

360,762 

 

326,700 

 

232,648 

 

151,581 

 

157,852 

 

Investment in affiliates, accounted for using the equity method (2)

 

$

2,498,804 

 

2,402,024 

 

 

 

 

Intangible assets not subject to amortization (1)

 

$

27,166 

 

20,669 

 

20,669 

 

20,669 

 

20,669 

 

Intangible assets subject to amortization, net (1)

 

$

12,915 

 

429 

 

1,562 

 

3,645 

 

5,540 

 

Total assets

 

$

3,003,932 

 

2,909,379 

 

315,634 

 

254,784 

 

719,073 

 

Long-term debt

 

$

372,000 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 —

 

 —

 

Deferred income tax liabilities, noncurrent

 

$

 —

 

24,338 

 

43,014 

 

21,422 

 

57,330 

 

Total equity (deficit)

 

$

2,494,769 

 

2,779,194 

 

196,459 

 

161,128 

 

(440,587)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2011 (3)

 

2010

 

Summary Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

amounts in thousands, except per share amounts

 

Revenue

 

$

69,045 

    

77,363 

    

83,098 

    

1,136,934 

    

136,186 

 

Operating income (loss)

 

$

(42,974)

 

(88)

 

7,879 

 

640,359 

 

60,048 

 

Share of earnings (losses) of affiliates (2)

 

$

(127,573)

 

(76,090)

 

 —

 

 

(2,321)

 

Realized and unrealized gains (losses) on financial instruments

 

$

51,189 

 

97,860 

 

57,582 

 

(4,150)

 

58,019 

 

Gain (loss) on dilution of investment in affiliate

 

$

(87,158)

 

(92,933)

 

 —

 

 

 

Net earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty Broadband shareholders

 

$

(134,605)

 

(41,728)

 

44,196 

 

607,374 

 

62,342 

 

Basic and diluted earnings (loss) per common share (4)

 

$

(1.52)

 

(0.47)

 

0.50 

 

6.88 

 

0.71 

 

 


(1)

As discussed in note 2 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, TruePosition acquired 100% of the outstanding common shares of Skyhook, a Delaware corporation, on February 14, 2014 for approximately $57.5 million in cash.

(2)

As discussed in note 6 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, in May 2013, Liberty acquired approximately 26.9 million shares of common stock and approximately 1.1 million warrants in Charter for approximately $2.6 billion, which represented an approximate 27% beneficial ownership in Charter at the time of purchase.

(3)

In 2011 TruePosition recognized $1,014 million of previously deferred revenue and $405 million of deferred costs associated with two separate contracts.

(4)

The Company issued 85,761,332 common shares, which is the aggregate number of shares of Series A, Series B and Series C common stock outstanding upon the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off on November 4, 2014. Additionally, Liberty Broadband distributed subscription rights, which were priced at a discount to the market value, to all holders of Liberty Broadband common stock as of the rights record dateBecause of the discount, the rights offering is considered a stock dividend which requires retroactive treatment for prior periods for the weighted average shares outstanding based on a factor determined by the fair value per share immediately prior to the rights exercise and the theoretical fair value after the rights exercise. The number of shares issued upon completion of the Broadband Spin-Off, adjusted for the rights factor, was used to determine both basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share for the years ended December 31,

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2013 and 2012 and for the period from January 1, 2014 through the date of the Broadband Spin-Off, as no Company equity awards were outstanding prior to the Broadband Spin-Off. Basic earnings (loss) per share subsequent to the Broadband Spin-Off was computed using the weighted average number of shares outstanding (“WASO”) from the date of the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off through December 31, 2014, adjusted for the rights factor. Diluted earnings per share subsequent to the Broadband Spin-Off was computed using the WASO from the date of the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off through December 31, 2014, adjusted for the rights factor and potentially dilutive equity awards outstanding during the same period. 

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Item 7.  Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis provides information concerning our results of operations and financial condition. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our accompanying consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto.

Overview

During May 2014, the board of directors of Liberty Media Corporation and its subsidiaries (Liberty, formerly named Liberty Spinco, Inc.) authorized management to pursue a plan to spin-off to its stockholders common stock of a wholly-owned subsidiary, Liberty Broadband Corporation (Liberty Broadband), and to distribute subscription rights to acquire shares of Liberty Broadbands common stock (the Broadband Spin-Off). At 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on November 4, 2014, the Broadband Spin-Off was completed and shares of Liberty Broadband common stock were distributed to the shareholders of Liberty as of a record date of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on October 29, 2014. Liberty Broadband is comprised of, among other things, (i) Liberty’s former interest in Charter Communications, Inc. (“Charter”), (ii) Liberty’s former wholly-owned subsidiary TruePosition, Inc. (“TruePosition”), (iii) Liberty’s former minority equity investment in Time Warner Cable, Inc. (“Time Warner Cable”), (iv) certain deferred tax liabilities, as well as liabilities related to the Time Warner Cable written call options and (v) initial indebtedness, pursuant to margin loans entered into prior to the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The Broadband Spin-Off was accounted for at historical cost due to the pro rata nature of the distribution to holders of Liberty common stock.

In the Broadband Spin-Off, record holders of Liberty Series A, Series B and Series C common stock received one-fourth of a share of the corresponding series of Liberty Broadband common stock for each share of Liberty common stock held by them as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time on October 29, 2014 (the record date) for the Broadband Spin-Off, with cash paid in lieu of fractional shares. In addition, following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off, on December 10, 2014, stockholders received a subscription right to acquire one share of Series C Liberty Broadband common stock for every five shares of Liberty Broadband common stock they held as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on December 4, 2014 (the rights record date) at a per share subscription price of $40.36, which was a 20% discount to the 20-trading day volume weighted average trading price of the Series C Liberty Broadband common stock following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The rights offering was fully subscribed on January 9, 2015, with 17,277,224 shares of Series C common stock issued to those rightsholders exercising basic and, as applicable, oversubscription privileges. The Broadband Spin-Off and rights offering are intended to be tax-free to stockholders of Liberty. The subscription rights were issued to raise capital for general corporate purposes of Liberty Broadband. 

The financial information represents a combination of the historical financial information of TruePosition, Liberty Broadband’s interest in Charter, Liberty’s minority equity investment in Time Warner Cable and certain deferred tax liabilities, as well as liabilities related to the Time Warner Cable written call options. This financial information refers to the combination of the aforementioned subsidiary, investments, and financial instruments, as “Liberty Broadband,” “the Company,” “us,” “we” and “our” here and in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

Strategies and Challenges

Executive Summary

Our results prior to May 2013 were largely dependent on the operating performance of TruePosition. In 2013 and future periods, results for Liberty Broadband will be largely dependent upon the operating performance of Charter. Therefore, the executive summary below contains the strategies and challenges of TruePosition and Charter.

TruePosition was incorporated on November 24, 1992. TruePosition develops and markets technology for locating wireless phones and other wireless devices on a cellular network, enabling wireless carriers and government agencies to provide

II-4


 

public safety E-9-1-1 services domestically and services in support of national security and law enforcement worldwide. “E-9-1-1” or “Enhanced 9-1-1” refers to a FCC mandate requiring wireless carriers to implement wireless location capability. TruePosition’s location system is a passive network overlay system designed to enable mobile wireless service providers to determine the location of all network wireless devices, including cellular and PCS telephones. Using its patented U-TDOA and other technologies, TruePosition’s location system calculates the latitude and longitude of a designated wireless telephone or transmitter and forwards the information in real time to application software. TruePosition’s offerings cover major wireless air interfaces.

On February 14, 2014, TruePosition completed the acquisition of Skyhook.  Skyhook operates a global location network with more than 1 million geocoded access points, providing hybrid wireless positioning technology and contextual location intelligence solutions worldwide.  The large amount of data collected by Skyhook powers all of its products, providing Skyhook the ability to offer location and geo-informed context to any mobile app or device.  Skyhook's location-based context solutions provide a way for companies and agencies to understand consumers' mobile behavior and improve mobile customer experience, while also allowing advertisers to reach their audiences in new and relevant ways. The FCC recently passed certain indoor accuracy standards for E-9-1-1 services that TruePosition believes its services would meet or exceed which could provide further opportunity for work with wireless carriers in the future.

Charter is one of the largest providers of cable services in the United States with approximately 6.2 million residential and commercial customers at December 31, 2014, offering a variety of entertainment, information and communications solutions to residential and commercial customers, including traditional cable video programming, Internet services, and voice services, as well as advanced video services such as OnDemandTM, HD television and DVR service. Charter also sells local advertising on cable networks and provides fiber connectivity to cellular towers. Its infrastructure consists of a hybrid of fiber and coaxial cable plant with approximately 12.9 million estimated passings, with 97% at 550 MHz or greater and 98% of plant miles two-way active and 99% of plant all-digital. A national IP infrastructure interconnects Charter markets. Liberty acquired its interest in Charter on May 1, 2013. At December 31, 2014, Liberty Broadband owned approximately 28.8 million shares of Charter common stock, representing an approximate 26% ownership interest in the issued and outstanding shares. Under the Charter Stockholders Agreement, Liberty has the right to nominate four directors to the Charter board of directors, subject to certain exclusions and requirements. Liberty Broadband also has the right to cause one of its nominees to serve on the nominating and corporate governance, audit and compensation and benefits committees of the board, provided they meet the independence and other qualifications for membership on those committees. These rights were transferred from Liberty to Liberty Broadband in connection with the Broadband Spin-Off.

Key Drivers of Revenue

TruePosition earns revenue from the sale of hardware and licensing of software required to generate location records for wireless phones and other wireless devices on a cellular network and from the design, installation, testing and commissioning of such hardware and software. In addition, TruePosition earns software maintenance revenue through the provision of ongoing technical and software support. Through its Skyhook subsidiary, TruePosition earns revenue from device manufacturers, application providers and advertising networks by licensing access to Skyhook’s location and geo-informed context network.

Charter revenue is derived principally from the monthly fees customers pay for the residential and commercial video, Internet and voice services provided. Charter also earns revenue from one-time installation fees and advertising sales. Charter expects to continue to grow revenue by increasing the number of products in the company’s current customer homes and obtaining new customers with an improved value offering. In addition, Charter expects to increase revenue by expanding the sales of services to its commercial customers.

II-5


 

Current Trends Affecting Our Business

TruePosition’s location system competes against a number of other satellite and terrestrial based location technology offerings. In addition, there are a number of new location technologies in development which may further increase competition to be a location solution for new air interfaces to provide commercial location based services and to meet more stringent commercial and governmental accuracy standards. Other large technology companies, such as Google, similarly facilitate the provision of location information to devices and applications operating on their mobile platforms.

Charter faces competition for both residential and commercial customers in the areas of price, service offerings, and service reliability. With respect to its residential business, Charter competes with other providers of video, high-speed Internet access, telephone services, and other sources of home entertainment. With respect to its commercial business, Charter competes with other providers of video, high-speed Internet access and related value-added services, fiber solutions, business telephony, and Ethernet services. In the broadband communications industry, Charter’s principal competitors for video services are DBS and telephone companies that offer video services. Charter’s principal competitors for high-speed Internet services are the broadband services provided by telephone companies, including both traditional DSL, fiber-to-the-node, and fiber-to-the-home offerings. Charter’s principal competitors for telephone services are established telephone companies, other telephone service providers, and other carriers, including VoIP providers. At this time, Charter does not consider other traditional cable operators to be significant competitors in the overall market, as overbuilds are infrequent and geographically spotty (although in any particular market, a cable operator overbuilder would likely be a significant competitor at the local level). Charter could, however, face additional competition from multi-channel video providers if they began distributing video over the Internet to customers residing outside their current territories.

TruePosition and Charter must stay abreast of rapidly evolving technological developments and offerings to remain competitive and increase the utility of their products and services. These companies must be able to incorporate new technologies into their products and services in order to address the needs of their customers.

Results of Operations—Consolidated

Consolidated operating results:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

amounts in thousands

 

Revenue

    

$

69,045 

    

77,363 

    

83,098 

 

Operating expenses, excluding stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

829 

 

15,993 

 

20,358 

 

Operating expense

 

 

6,670 

 

7,449 

 

9,223 

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

46,946 

 

33,317 

 

25,881 

 

Research and development

 

 

18,311 

 

15,314 

 

16,301 

 

Adjusted OIBDA

 

 

(3,711)

 

5,290 

 

11,335 

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

999 

 

996 

 

(2,383)

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

9,043 

 

4,382 

 

5,839 

 

Gain on legal settlement

 

 

(6,000)

 

 —

 

 —

 

Impairment of intangible assets

 

 

35,221 

 

 —

 

 —

 

Operating income (loss)

 

$

(42,974)

 

(88)

 

7,879 

 

 

Revenue

Revenue decreased $8.3 million and $5.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. The decrease in 2014 is primarily due to reduced domestic hardware and

II-6


 

software license sales, due to the uncertainty around recently issued FCC indoor accuracy mandates. Due to the uncertainty many wireless carrier companies delayed investments in location technologies. Additionally, TruePosition experienced reduced hardware and software license sales in the international markets which was partially offset by Skyhook revenue subsequent to its acquisition in early 2014. In mid November 2014, Skyhook was notified that one of its significant customers is not expected to renew its contract for 2015. As a result, it is expected that approximately 30-40% of Skyhook's revenue will not be recurring for 2015. The decrease in revenue during 2013 was primarily due to reduced hardware and software license sales of $2.9 million and reduced services revenue of $2.5 million. Sales of hardware and services to existing customers with installed networks can vary from year to year as such sales are dependent on any expansion or maintenance of the networks.

Adjusted OIBDA

We define Adjusted OIBDA as revenue less operating expenses and selling, general and administrative expenses (excluding stock compensation). Our chief operating decision maker and management team use this measure of performance in conjunction with other measures to evaluate our businesses and make decisions about allocating resources among our businesses. We believe this is an important indicator of the operational strength and performance of our businesses, including each business’s ability to service debt and fund capital expenditures. In addition, this measure allows us to view operating results, perform analytical comparisons and benchmarking between businesses and identify strategies to improve performance. This measure of performance excludes such costs as depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, separately reported litigation settlements and restructuring and impairment charges that are included in the measurement of operating income pursuant to GAAP. Accordingly, Adjusted OIBDA should be considered in addition to, but not as a substitute for, operating income, net income, cash flow provided by operating activities and other measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP. See note 15 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for a reconciliation of Adjusted OIBDA to Earnings (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes.

Adjusted OIBDA decreased $9.0 million and $6.0 million in the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. The decrease in Adjusted OIBDA during 2014 was primarily a result of increased legal expenses, cost of the Skyhook acquisition and Skyhook generating negative Adjusted OIBDA, partially offset by the full year impact of cost reduction measures undertaken in 2013. The reduction in overall revenue, discussed above, of $8.3 million was offset by lower cost of goods sold of $15.2 million, primarily due to reduced international sales, which have lower margins than domestic sales. During 2013 TruePosition entered into an international project for which revenue was only recognized to the extent cash was received, as future collectability of revenue was unsure. Therefore, the gross margin on that particular project was dependent on the payments received from the customer. This project has been canceled as of the end of 2013 and therefore there is less revenue and cost of goods sold for the year ended December 31, 2014. The decrease in Adjusted OIBDA in 2013 was primarily due to lower revenue, increased legal expenses and the cost of the Skyhook acquisition partially offset by lower cost of goods sold and the impacts of cost reduction initiatives. During 2013 TruePosition entered into an international project for which revenue was only recognized to the extent cash was received, as future collectability was unsure. Gross margins on this particular project were impacted negatively throughout the year ended December 31, 2013. The decrease in cost of goods sold during 2013 is primarily the result of an $11.2 million inventory obsolescence adjustment recorded in 2012.

Legal expenses increased $5.8 million and $8.7 million in the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the prior years. The increase in legal costs during 2014 and 2013 is primarily a result of TruePosition's antitrust lawsuit arising from the standard setting processes for LTE wireless data communication technology as it pertains to location technology. Legal expenses are included in selling, general and administrative expenses. Additionally, approximately $3 million of lobbying costs were incurred during each of the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 related to the indoor accuracy regulations described above. Lobbying expenses are also included in selling, general and administrative expenses. These costs are not anticipated to continue significantly beyond the first quarter of 2015 based on potential rulemaking timelines.

II-7


 

Merger costs of $958 thousand and $624 thousand related to the Skyhook acquisition were incurred in 2014 and 2013, respectively. Merger costs are included in selling, general and administrative costs.

Operating expenses, research and development, and selling, general and administrative, excluding legal expenses and merger costs, discussed above, increased by $9.7 million and decreased by $4.7 million in the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. The increase in the current year was primarily due to operating and selling, general and administrative expenses related to Skyhook of $13.5 million against revenue of $8.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The decrease in 2013 was primarily the result of the Company’s implementation of cost reduction initiatives, including personnel and contractor headcount reductions and curtailment of other expenses.

Operating Income (Loss)

Operating income decreased $42.9 million and $8.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. In addition to those items impacting Adjusted OIBDA, operating income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2014 was further impacted by an increase in depreciation and amortization of $4.7 million and a $35.2 million impairment of goodwill and intangible assets, partially offset by a $6.0 million favorable legal settlement of the antitrust lawsuit in July 2014. In addition to those items impacting Adjusted OIBDA, operating income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2013 was further impacted by an increase in stock-based compensation of $3.4 million partially offset by a decrease in depreciation and amortization of $1.5 million as compared to the same period in 2012.

Stock-based compensation expense increased $3 thousand and $3.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The increase in 2013 is primarily a result of a significant reduction in the estimated fair value of TruePosition during 2012. The decrease in the estimated fair value of TruePosition was driven, in part, by the determination of one of Skyhook’s two major customers’ not to renew its contract and general uncertainty about the domestic market.

Depreciation and amortization increased by $4.7 million and decreased $1.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. The increase in 2014 was due to the acquisition of Skyhook during the year, and the decrease in 2013 was the result of certain assets becoming fully amortized.

As discussed above, Skyhook was notified that one of its significant customers was not expected to renew its contract for 2015. As a result, approximately 30-40% of Skyhook's revenue will not be recurring for 2015. Due to this anticipated decline in Skyhook's operations, the Company performed a Step 2 impairment test to determine the fair value of Skyhook and recorded a $35.2 million impairment loss related to TruePosition’s goodwill and intangible assets related to Skyhook during December 2014. See note 7 in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for additional discussion regarding this impairment loss.  

II-8


 

Other Income and Expense

Components of Other Income (Expense) are presented in the table below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

amounts in thousands

 

Other income (expense):

    

 

    

    

    

    

    

 

Interest expense

 

$

(1,138)

 

 —

 

 —

 

Dividend and interest income

 

 

5,426 

 

6,878 

 

5,415 

 

Share of earnings (losses) of affiliates

 

 

(127,573)

 

(76,090)

 

 —

 

Realized and unrealized gains (losses) on financial instruments, net

 

 

51,189 

 

97,860 

 

57,582 

 

Gain (loss) on dilution of investment in affiliate

 

 

(87,158)

 

(92,933)

 

 

Other, net

 

 

(63)

 

(53)

 

(117)

 

 

 

$

(159,317)

 

(64,338)

 

62,880 

 

Interest expense

Interest expense during the year ended December 31, 2014 is attributable to two margin loans entered into with each of the lenders party thereto by BroadbandSPV on October 30, 2014, in connection with and prior to the effectiveness of the Broadband Spin-Off. See note 8 in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for additional information on the margin loan agreements.

Dividend and interest income

Dividend and interest income decreased  $1.5 million and increased $1.5 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. Although the Time Warner Cable dividend rate increased from $0.65 per share per quarter in 2013 to $0.75 per share per quarter in 2014, interest and dividend income decreased in 2014 due to contractual commitments on the Time Warner Cable shares, as a portion of the dividends were passed through to the counterparty in 2014 based on the written call option contracts on Time Warner Cable shares. The increase in 2013 was primarily due to increasing dividend rates paid on Time Warner Cable shares from $0.56 per share in 2012 to $0.65 per share in 2013.

Share of earnings (losses) of affiliates

Share of losses from affiliates increased $51.5 million and $76.1 million during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. Share of losses from affiliates is attributable to the Company’s ownership interest in Charter. In May 2013, the Company acquired approximately 26.9 million shares of common stock and approximately 1.1 million warrants in Charter for approximately $2.6 billion, which represented an approximate 27% beneficial ownership (including the warrants on an as if converted basis) in Charter at the time of purchase. Upon acquisition, the Company allocated the excess basis, between the book basis of Charter and fair value of the shares acquired, and ascribed remaining useful lives of 7 years and 13 years to property and equipment and customer relationships, respectively, and indefinite lives to franchise fees, trademarks and goodwill. Outstanding debt is amortized over the contractual period using the effective interest rate method. Amortization related to debt and intangible assets with identifiable useful lives is included in the Company’s share of earnings (losses) from affiliates line item in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and aggregated $81.2 million and $44.3 million, net of related taxes, for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. See note 6 in the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional discussion of the Company’s investment in Charter.

II-9


 

The following is a discussion of Charter’s stand alone results of operations. In order to provide a better understanding of Charter’s operations, we have included a summarized presentation of Charter’s results from operations. Charter is a separate publicly traded company and additional information about Charter can be obtained through its website and public filings. The amounts included in the table below represent Charter’s results for each of the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012. However, the portion of Charter’s share of earnings (losses) included in the consolidated financial statements of Broadband only includes Charter’s results from the time of acquisition (May 2013) through December 31, 2014.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

amounts in millions

 

Revenue

    

$

9,108 

    

8,155 

    

7,504 

 

Operating expenses, excluding stock-based compensation

 

 

(5,980)

 

(5,344)

 

(4,825)

 

Adjusted OIBDA

 

 

3,128 

 

2,811 

 

2,679 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

(2,102)

 

(1,854)

 

(1,713)

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

(55)

 

(48)

 

(50)

 

Operating income

 

 

971 

 

909 

 

916 

 

Other expenses, net

 

 

(918)

 

(958)

 

(963)

 

Net loss before income taxes

 

 

53 

 

(49)

 

(47)

 

Income tax expense

 

 

(236)

 

(120)

 

(257)

 

Net loss

 

$

(183)

 

(169)

 

(304)

 

Charter had net losses of approximately $183 million, $169 million and $304 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

Charter’s revenue increased $953 million and $651 million during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior years. Revenue growth primarily reflects increases in the number of residential Internet and triple play customers and in commercial business customers, growth in expanded basic and digital penetration, promotional and annual rate increases, and higher advanced services penetration, partially offset by a decrease in basic video customers. Charter’s acquisition of Bresnan on July 1, 2013 also increased revenue by approximately $276 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 and approximately $270 million in 2013 as compared to 2012.

The increase in revenue during 2014 was partially offset by the net impact of a $636 million increase in operating expenses, a $248 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense, a $7 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, a $40 million decrease in other expenses and a $116 million increase in income tax expense. The increase in operating expenses is primarily attributable to a full year of costs associated with Charter’s acquisition of Bresnan on July 1, 2013, increases in programming costs as a result of annual contractual rate adjustments, including increases in amounts paid for retransmission consents and for new programming, offset in part by video customer losses. Transition costs related to transactions with Comcast accounted for $14 million of total 2014 operating costs. The increase in depreciation expense is primarily attributable to the acquisition of Bresnan and depreciation on recent capital expenditures, partially offset by certain assets becoming fully depreciated. The decrease in other expenses is primarily attributable to a $123 million loss on extinguishment of debt that was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2013. Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2013 included a step-up in basis of indefinite-lived assets for tax, but not GAAP purposes, resulting from the effects of partnership gains related to financing transactions, which decreased Charter's net deferred tax liability related to indefinite-lived assets resulting in a benefit of $67 million.

The increase in revenue during 2013 was partially offset by the net impact of a $519 million increase in operating expenses, a $141 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense, a $2 million decrease in stock-based compensation expense, a $5 million increase in other expenses and a decrease in income tax expense of $137 million. The increase in operating expense is primarily attributable to the acquisition of Bresnan, higher spending on labor to deliver improved products and service levels, and an increase in programming costs as a result of annual contractual rate adjustments, including increases in amounts

II-10


 

paid for retransmission consents and for new programming, offset in part by video customer losses. The increase in depreciation expense is primarily attributable to the acquisition of Bresnan and depreciation on recent capital expenditures, partially offset by certain assets becoming full depreciated. Income tax expense decreased during 2013, primarily as a result of step-ups in basis of indefinite-lived assets for tax, but not GAAP purposes, as discussed above.

Realized and unrealized gains (losses) on financial instruments, net

Realized and unrealized gains on financial instruments, net decreased  $46.7 million and increased $40.3 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. Realized and unrealized gains on financial instruments, net during 2014 is attributable to a $32.8 million gain in the fair value of the Charter warrants acquired during May 2013 which was the result of an increase in the trading price of Charter common stock during the year ended December 31, 2014. Charter warrants have an exercise price lower than the current trading price of the common stock therefore an asset is recorded for an increase in stock price. Additionally, a $39.2 million net gain was recorded on the investment in Time Warner Cable shares which was partially offset by a loss of $20.8 million on outstanding written call options, both primarily resulting from an increase in the trading price of Time Warner Cable shares. The increase in the gain during 2013 is attributable to a $38.2 million gain in the fair value of the Charter warrants owned by Liberty Broadband as the result of an increase in the trading price of Charter common stock between the date they were acquired and December 31, 2013. Additionally, an increase in the gain on the investment Time Warner Cable shares and outstanding written call options as compared to the prior year.

Gain (loss) on dilution of investment in equity affiliate

The losses in 2014 and 2013 are the result of the issuance of Charter common stock from the exercise of warrants and stock options, held by outside investors (employees and other third parties), at prices below Broadband’s book basis per share. As Broadband’s ownership in Charter changes due to exercises of Charter warrants and stock options, a loss is recorded with the effective sale of common stock, because the exercise price of Charter warrants or stock options is typically lower than the book value of the Charter shares held by Broadband.

Other, net

Other expenses increased $10 thousand and decreased $64 thousand for each of the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, as compared to the corresponding prior year periods. The current year increase is primarily attributable to an increase in income tax penalties during 2014. The decrease in 2013 is primarily attributable to a decrease in income tax penalties during 2013, partially offset by a decrease in the loss on disposition of property, plant and equipment and increases in other expenses.

Income taxes    

 

Our effective tax rate for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 was 33%, 35% and 38%, respectively. During 2014, our effective tax rate was lower than the federal tax rate of 35% primarily due to the non-deductible impairment of goodwill and other amortizable intangible assets related to Skyhook.  During 2012, our effective tax rate was higher than the federal tax rate of 35% primarily due to tax expense related to a change in valuation allowance.

Net earnings (losses)

We had net losses of $134.6 million, $41.7 million and $44.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The change in net losses was the result of the above-described fluctuations in our revenue, expenses and other gains and losses.

II-11


 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2014 substantially all of our cash and cash equivalents are invested in U.S. Treasury securities, other government securities or government guaranteed funds, AAA rated money market funds and other highly rated financial and corporate debt instruments.

The following are potential sources of liquidity: available cash balances, cash generated by the operating activities of our privately-owned subsidiaries (to the extent such cash exceeds the working capital needs of the subsidiaries and is not otherwise restricted), proceeds from asset sales, monetization of our other investments, outstanding debt facilities, debt and equity issuances, and dividend and interest receipts.

As of December 31, 2014, Liberty Broadband had a cash balance of $44.8 million. In addition, Liberty Broadband had $169.5 million of unencumbered available for sale securities. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

amounts in thousands

 

Cash flow information

    

 

    

    

    

    

    

 

Net cash provided (used) by operating activities

 

$

2,728 

 

5,475 

 

6,438 

 

Net cash provided (used) by investing activities

 

$

(209,986)

 

(2,624,868)

 

(21,999)

 

Net cash provided (used) by financing activities

 

$

242,816 

 

2,618,613 

 

(5,298)

 

 

During the year ended December 31, 2014, our primary uses of cash were $175.9 million to acquire additional shares of Charter and net distributions to Liberty of $129.2 million.  

The projected use of our cash will be the continued operational needs of our subsidiary and potential investment in location technology at TruePosition or other investment opportunities. Additionally, funds raised by the rights offering are expected to fund parent level cash needs which could include the repayment of parent level credit arrangements and the further investment in new or existing businesses.

On December 10, 2014, stockholders received a subscription right to acquire one share of Series C Liberty Broadband common stock for every five shares of Liberty Broadband common stock they held on the rights record date at a per share subscription price of $40.36, which was a 20% discount to the 20-trading day volume weighted average trading price of our Series C common stock following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The rights offering was fully subscribed on January 9, 2015, with 17,277,224 shares of Series C common stock issued to those rightsholders exercising basic and, as applicable, oversubscription privileges. The net proceeds received as a result of the rights offering was $697 million.