10-K 1 keys-10312017x10k.htm 10-K Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________________________
Form 10-K
_____________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
x
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017
or
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the transition period from                 to
Commission File Number: 001-36334
_____________________________________________________________
Keysight Technologies, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
46-4254555
State or other jurisdiction of
Incorporation or organization
 
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.
Address of principal executive offices: 1400 Fountaingrove Parkway, Santa Rosa, CA 95403
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (800) 829-4444
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock
par value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange, Inc.
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_____________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o

Emerging growth company o
 
(do not check if a smaller reporting company)
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of common equity held by non-affiliates as of April 30, 2017 was approximately $5 billion, based upon the closing price of the Registrant's common stock as quoted on New York Stock Exchange on such date. Shares of stock held by officers, directors and 5 percent or more stockholders have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of December 15, 2017, there were 187,284,245 shares of our common stock outstanding.
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DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Document Description
 
10-K Part 
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "Proxy Statement") to be held on March 22, 2018 and to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after registrant's fiscal year ended October 31, 2017 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.
 
III


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
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Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains forward-looking statements including, without limitation, statements regarding trends, seasonality, cyclicality and growth in, and drivers of, the markets we sell into, our strategic direction, our future effective tax rate and tax valuation allowance, earnings from our foreign subsidiaries, remediation activities, new product and service introductions, the ability of our products to meet market needs, changes to our manufacturing processes, the use of contract manufacturers, the impact of local government regulations on our ability to pay vendors or conduct operations, our liquidity position, our ability to generate cash from operations, growth in our businesses, our investments, the potential impact of adopting new accounting pronouncements, our financial results, our purchase commitments, our contributions to our pension plans, the selection of discount rates and recognition of any gains or losses for our benefit plans, our cost-control activities, savings and headcount reduction recognized from our restructuring programs and other cost saving initiatives, and other regulatory approvals, the integration of our completed acquisitions and other transactions, our transition to lower-cost regions, the existence of economic instability, and our and the combined group's estimated or anticipated future results of operations, that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to various factors, including but not limited to those risks and uncertainties discussed in Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
PART I
Item 1.  Business
Overview
Keysight Technologies, Inc. ("we," "us," "Keysight" or the "company”), incorporated in Delaware on December 6, 2013, is a measurement company providing electronic design and test solutions to communications and electronics industries. We provide electronic design and test instrumentation systems and related software, software design tools, and services that are used in the design, development, manufacture, installation, deployment, validation, optimization and secure operation of electronics systems. Related services include start-up assistance, instrument productivity, application services and instrument calibration and repair. We also offer customization, consulting and optimization services throughout the customer's product lifecycle.
On April 18, 2017, pursuant to the terms of an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated January 30, 2017, between Keysight and Ixia (the "Merger Agreement"), we acquired all of the outstanding common stock of Ixia for $1,622 million, net of $72 million of cash acquired, pursuant to an exchange offer for $19.65 per share (the "Merger Consideration"). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, any outstanding and unexercised Ixia stock options with an exercise price below the Merger Consideration and any outstanding Ixia restricted stock awards were cancelled and converted into the right to receive a cash payment equal to the merger consideration of $19.65 per share (minus the exercise price for the Ixia stock options). The vested portion of the awards associated with prior service of Ixia employees represented approximately $47 million of the total consideration. We funded the acquisition with a combination of cash and proceeds from debt and equity financings.
On August 31, 2017, we acquired all of the outstanding common stock of ScienLab for $60 million, net of $2 million of cash acquired. ScienLab is a Germany-based company that provides test solutions to automotive original equipment manufacturers and Tier 1 suppliers in the automotive and energy markets. This acquisition complements our portfolio, allowing end-to-end solutions for hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles, and battery test solutions that address e-mobility market dynamics. We funded the acquisition using existing cash. As a result of the acquisition, ScienLab has become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Keysight.
We have a comprehensive sales strategy that uses our direct sales force, distributors, resellers and manufacturer's representatives. The strategy varies based on the size of customer, the complexity of products and geographical coverage. We generated $3.2 billion of net revenue in 2017 and $2.9 billion of net revenue in fiscal year 2016 and 2015. Of our total net revenue of $3.2 billion for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017, we generated 33 percent in the United States and 67 percent outside the United States. As of October 31, 2017, we had approximately 12,600 employees worldwide. Our primary research and development sites are in California, Colorado, Georgia and Texas in the United States and outside of the United States in China, Finland, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Malaysia, Romania, Singapore and Spain.

Net revenue, income from operations and assets by business segment as of and for the fiscal years ended October 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 are shown in Note 20, "Segment Information," to our consolidated financial statements, which we incorporate by reference herein.
We had more than 16,000 direct customers for our products and services in fiscal year 2017 and greater than 32,000 customers including indirect channels. No single customer represented 10 percent or more of our net revenue. Many of our customers acquire products and services across multiple segments.

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Strategies
With a singular focus on electronic design and test, we deliver market-leading solutions across a wide range of industries, including commercial communications, aerospace, defense and government, automotive, energy, semiconductor and electronic industrial. Additionally, we provide test, security and visibility solutions that validate, secure and optimize networks and applications from engineering concept to live deployment. Our research and development focuses on our customers' design and test challenges, from design simulation to prototype validation to manufacturing test, to optimization in the network. Our company’s goal is to increase the productivity of our customers by speeding their product "time-to-market.” Market and customer opportunities are driven by evolving technology standards, as well as the need for faster data rates and new form factors, from feature-rich solutions to modular solutions to handheld instruments. Our strategic focus is to deliver market-leading solutions and growth by investing in the following areas: 
New wireless communication measurement solutions.  We are investing in the development of new wireless communications test solutions to satisfy the commercial communications end market that is being driven by growth in mobile data and evolving wireless standards, particularly 5G. The acquisition of Anite in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015 strengthened our wireless software design and test portfolio, and its Network Test business expanded our served addressable market. Our early 5G solutions have also been gaining tangible traction. With our technical breadth and expertise and strategic engagement with market-leading customers and partners around the world, we have leading-edge solutions for 5G applications available when needed, even as development schedules accelerate. 
Industry-focused solutions across form factors.  With our focus on industry solutions, we provide customers with solutions that utilize our leading-edge technology across form factors, from feature-rich solutions to modular solutions to handheld instruments. We have the broadest portfolio of software, hardware and service solutions in the industry and continue to leverage our strength in feature-rich instrumentation into a portfolio of modular and handheld measurement solutions to address our customers’ complex design and measurement needs.
New automotive design and measurement solutions.  We are actively investing in the development of new automotive test solutions to address the rapidly emerging electric, hybrid electric, connected and autonomous vehicle segments. In support of this strategy we successfully completed the acquisition of ScienLab, an automotive electrical energy test provider, during fiscal 2017.
First to market network test solutions. The rapidly growing number of high-speed, connected devices requires service providers and data center operators to continuously update their networks to deliver higher levels of data transfer performance, improve customer quality of service and enhance network security. The acquisition of Ixia in the second quarter of FY17 established Keysight Technologies as a market leader in next generation network test and network visibility solutions.
Enhanced and expanded software solutions.  An increasing percentage of measurement science and functionality is delivered through software solutions. Our portfolio of software solutions and software productivity tools is extensive and represents a significant corporate asset. We continue to invest in software development to capitalize on its growth potential and provide industry-leading measurement applications, electronic design automation ("EDA") software and software protocol design and test solutions.
New services solutions. Our services business represents a meaningful growth opportunity as we invest in expanding our services solutions portfolio. Our focus on growing services through multi-vendor managed services and asset management builds upon a strong foundation of global repair and calibration capabilities. In addition, our used equipment remarking business provides an excellent foundation to grow our technology refresh programs. We are also expanding our services solutions into new areas, such as tiered product and solution technical support.
Strengths
Our Electronic Measurement Business originated in 1939. Our legacy encompasses more than 75 years of innovation, measurement science expertise and deep customer relationships. We do business with most Fortune 1000 companies that are developing electronic products. We help accelerate innovation to connect and secure the world. The following strengths are significant:

Technology Leadership as a Competitive Differentiator. Proprietary software and hardware technologies unavailable on the commercial market and developed by our fourteen R&D centers around the world enable many Keysight products to deliver the best design and measurement solution capability available for our customers’ engineering requirements. Built on an intellectual property foundation developed over several decades, Keysight’s EDA computer aided design software for radio and microwave frequency designs is the premiere tool used by over two-thirds of the world’s engineers doing

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design work in this field. Some of Keysight’s hardware technologies are designed and manufactured in our own in-house integrated circuit fabrication facilities, which were purpose-built and optimized to deliver unmatched performance and capabilities across the broad portfolio of Keysight instruments. Once developed, these technologies can be deployed into multiple instrument form factors, which includes benchtop instruments, modular instruments and handheld portable instruments. For Keysight, deploying technology across all the instrument form factors provides multiple revenue streams from a single technology investment. The result is that Keysight is recognized as being a product leader in five core engineering instrumentation categories; RF and Microwave Design Simulation software, Network Test, Network Analyzers, Signal Analyzers, and Signal Sources.
Broad Portfolio of Solutions to Address Customer Needs. Keysight has the broadest portfolio of electronic design and test solutions in the industry. Our hardware product portfolio spans many technologies, price points and form factors. We address time and frequency domain applications with RF, microwave, high-speed digital and general instrumentation. In addition, we have a broad portfolio of software products including EDA software for RF and high-speed digital design, hundreds of measurement application solutions to help customers make specific measurements quickly and consistently, and software tools for programming.
Industry-Leading Commitment to Product Quality and Reliability. Keysight has a reputation in the industry for high-quality and high-reliability electronic measurement instrumentation and software. Ensuring quality and reliability is an integral part of our new product development processes.
Large Installed Base. We have a large installed base of equipment because of the breadth of our product portfolio and our long history of producing high-performance and high-quality products. This installed base enables a strong and growing Services Solutions Group that provides a wide range of calibration and repair services, on both a per incident and contract basis, and provides a significant source of loyal customers for future sales.
Sales Channel with Global Reach. We have a worldwide and comprehensive sales channel. We have experienced management teams and highly technical sales and application engineers in all parts of the world, including a strong local presence in emerging markets. Our sales channel strategy is segmented by customer size, customer location and product characteristics. We deploy a direct sales organization focused on selling higher performance products and industry solutions to global and geographic accounts. Approximately 77 percent of our business comes from customer interactions with our direct sales organization. To ensure broad geographic coverage and further drive growth, we maintain a network of over 700 channel partners to complement our direct sales force.
Centralized Order Fulfillment. Our order fulfillment organization allows us to leverage the scale and scope of our business to provide high-quality, market-leading instrument solutions to our customers while generating competitive gross margins. Keysight has a central order fulfillment organization that supplies solutions to customers across geographies. Our Penang, Malaysia site is our largest manufacturing facility, with a proven track record of operational excellence, technology capability and quality. We have an established network of suppliers and subcontractors, especially in Asia, that complements our in-house capabilities.
Business Model. Our operating model incorporates a substantial amount of cost structure flexibility with the intent to be materially profitable across the business cycle. Our variable compensation programs, sales channel strategy and the outsourced components of our supply chain have been implemented to improve the flexibility of our cost structure.
Operating Segments
In fiscal 2016, we completed an organizational change to align our organization with the industries we serve which resulted in three reportable operating segments, Communications Solutions Group (“CSG”), Electronic Industrial Solutions Group (“EISG”), and Services Solutions Group (“SSG”). CSG and EISG are from our previous Measurement Solutions segment, while SSG was formerly reported as the company's Customer Support and Services segment. Prior period amounts were revised in 2016 to conform to the presentation. On April 18, 2017, we completed the acquisition of Ixia, which became our fourth reportable segment, the Ixia Solutions Group (“ISG”). The new organizational structure continues to include centralized enterprise functions that provide support across the groups.
Communications Solutions Group
The Communications Solutions Group serves customers spanning the worldwide commercial communications end market, which includes internet infrastructure, and the aerospace, defense and government end market. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, and systems used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment. This business generated revenue of $1.7 billion in fiscal 2017, $1.8 billion in fiscal 2016 and $1.7 billion in fiscal 2015.

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Communications Solutions Group Markets
Our Communications Solutions Group serves the following two markets:
Commercial Communications Market
We market our electronic design and test solutions to network equipment manufacturers (“NEMs”), wireless device manufacturers, and communications service providers, including the component manufacturers within the supply chain for these customers. Growth in mobile data traffic and increasing complexity in semiconductors and components are drivers of test demand across the communications market.
NEMs manufacture and sell products to enable the transmission of voice, data and video traffic. The NEMs’ customers are communications service providers that deploy and operate the networks and services, as well as distribute end‑user subscriber devices, including wireless personal communication devices and set‑top boxes. To meet their customers’ demands, NEMs require test and measurement instruments, systems and solutions for the development, production and installation of each optical, electrical and wireless network technology.
Wireless device manufacturers require design and test solutions for the design, development, manufacture and repair of a variety of mobile devices. These mobile devices are used for voice, data and video delivery to individuals who connect wirelessly to the service provider’s network. The device manufacturers’ customers are large and small service providers, enterprises and consumers who purchase devices directly from retailers. Wireless device manufacturers require design and test solutions that enable technology development in conformance with the latest standards.
Communications service providers require reliable data center and network equipment that enables new service offerings and allows their networks to operate with ever‑increasing capacities. To achieve this, communications service providers require a range of sophisticated test instruments and systems to ensure conformance to communication standards and network requirements and to evaluate network performance.
Component manufacturers design, develop and manufacture electronic and optical components and modules used in network equipment and mobile devices. The component manufacturers require test and measurement products to verify that the performance of their components and modules meets the specifications of their customers.
Aerospace, Defense and Government Market
We market our electronic design and test solutions to manufacturers and research laboratories within the aerospace and defense industries. This market includes commercial and government customers and their contracted suppliers. The modernization of satellite, radar and surveillance systems worldwide is a driver of test demand within the aerospace and defense market.
Government customers include departments or ministries of defense and related agencies around the world. Contractors support the government and commercial customers by providing design and manufacturing capabilities for a variety of programs. We also sell to sub‑contractors and component manufacturers within the supply chain.
Customers use our electronic measurement instruments to develop and manufacture a wide variety of electronic components and systems used in aerospace and defense industries, including commercial and military aircraft, space, satellite, radar, intelligence and surveillance. Customers test the electrical parameters of a broad spectrum of components and assemblies and final products and often require large systems containing multiple electronic instruments.
Communications Solutions Group Products
Our electronic design and test solutions include RF and microwave instruments, digital instruments and various other general purpose test instruments and targeted test solutions. We offer these products and related software in a variety of form factors, including benchtop, modular and handheld, depending on the specific requirements of the customer application.
Software Solutions
Our high-frequency EDA software tools are used to model, simulate and analyze communications product designs at the circuit and system levels. Our measurement application software is an extension of our hardware solutions and enables a wide range of measurement capability used across all end markets to design and manufacture next-generation electronic components and products. The acquisition of Anite provides the software tools used to design and test the software portion of wireless devices and test the performance of networks.

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RF and Microwave Products
Our RF and microwave test instruments and related software and EDA software tools are used mainly in wireless and aerospace and defense applications. These products are required for the design and production of wireless network products, communications links, mobile devices and base stations. RF and microwave test instruments include signal analyzers, signal generators, network analyzers, one-box testers and power meters. The acquisition of Anite provides the software and hardware tools used to design and test the software portion of wireless devices and test the performance of networks.
Digital Products
Our digital test products are used by research and development engineers across a broad range of industries to validate the function and performance of their digital product and system designs. These designs include a wide range of products from simple digital control circuits to complex high-speed systems such as computer servers and the latest generation gaming consoles. The test products offered include oscilloscopes, logic and serial protocol analyzers, logic‑signal sources, arbitrary waveform generators, and bit error rate testers. Our customers also use our high‑frequency EDA software tools to model signal integrity problems in digital design applications as digital speeds continue to increase.
Other Products
Our suite of fiber optic test products measure and analyze a wide variety of critical optical and electrical parameters in fiber optic networks and their components. Components which can be tested with our solutions include source lasers, optical amplifiers, filters and other passive components. Test products include optical modulation analyzers, optical component analyzers, optical power meters, and optical laser source products.
Communications Solutions Group Customers
Our customers include commercial companies and government agencies around the world. We have customers across the lifecycle that design, develop, manufacture, install and monitor a variety of commercial and government communications networks. Commercial customers include original equipment and contract manufacturers of electronic components, semiconductors, wireless devices and network equipment, as well as network service providers that implement, maintain and manage communication networks and services. Other commercial customers include defense contractors and sub-contractors. Government customers include departments or ministries of defense, government agencies and related research institutes.
Our customers use our products to conduct research and development to manufacture, and to install and maintain radio frequency, microwave frequency, digital, semiconductor, and optical products and systems. Many of our customers purchase solutions across several of our major product lines for their different business units.
No single customer represented 10 percent or more of the group's net revenue.
In general, the orders and revenues from many of the Communications Solutions Group markets and product categories are seasonal, traditionally marked by lower business levels in the first and third quarters of the fiscal year and higher volumes in the second and fourth quarters of the fiscal year. The seasonal impact of our business is tempered by broader economic trends and the diversity of our electronic measurement products and customers, which span multiple industries.
Communications Solutions Group Sales and Support
We have a comprehensive sales strategy, using a direct sales force, resellers, manufacturer’s representatives and distributors to meet our customers’ needs.
Our direct sales force focuses on addressing our largest customer needs and recommending solutions involving the effective use and deployment of our equipment, systems and capabilities. Some of our direct sales force concentrates on more complex products such as our high‑performance instruments, where customers require strategic consultation. Our direct sales force consists of field and application engineers who have in‑depth knowledge of the customers’ business and technology needs. Our application engineers provide a combination of consulting, systems integration and application and software engineering services that are pervasive across all stages of the sale, implementation and support of our complex systems and solutions.
To complement our direct sales force, we have agreements with channel partners around the world. These partners, including resellers, manufacturer’s representatives and distributors, serve customers across both the commercial communications and the aerospace, defense and government end markets and are expected to provide the same level of service and support as our direct sales force. Lower dollar sales transactions are also served by our tele‑sales and electronic commerce channels.

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Communications Solutions Group Manufacturing
We concentrate our Communications Solutions Group manufacturing efforts primarily on final assembly and test of our products. To maximize our productivity and our ability to respond to market conditions, we use contract manufacturers for the production of printed circuit boards, sheet metal fabrication, metal die-casting, plastic molding and standard electronic components. We also manufacture proprietary devices and assemblies in our own fabrication facilities for competitive advantage. We have manufacturing facilities in California and Colorado in the United States. Outside of the United States we have manufacturing centralized in Malaysia with other manufacturing facilities in China, Germany and Japan. Our Penang, Malaysia site is our largest test and measurement manufacturing facility with proven operational excellence through scale, scope and expertise.
Within our business, there are three Technology Centers that collectively provide key components and sub‑systems. The three Technology Centers are located in Boeblingen, Germany, Colorado Springs, Colorado and Santa Rosa, California. These technologies include optical components and sub‑systems, Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (“ASICs”), thick and thin film circuits, high speed probes and precision machining. These Technology Centers provide a competitive advantage by developing unique technologies for our solutions.
We generally only manufacture products when we have received firm orders for delivery and do not generally hold large stocks of finished inventory.
Communications Solutions Group Competition
The market for electronic design and test solutions is highly competitive across our targeted markets. In the commercial communications market, our primary competitors are Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Tektronix, Inc. (a subsidiary of Fortive Corporation), Anritsu Corporation, Cobham plc, LeCroy Corporation (a subsidiary of Teledyne Technologies), National Instruments Corporation and Teradyne, Inc. In the aerospace, defense and government market, our primary competitors are Rohde & Schwarz GmbH, & Co. KG, Cobham plc, LeCroy Corporation and Tektronix, Inc.
Our electronic design and test solutions offer a wide range of products and related software, and these products compete primarily on the basis of product quality, differentiated capability, leading-edge technology and long-term value to our customers.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group
The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides test and measurement solutions across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets, focusing on high-growth applications in the automotive and energy industry and measurement solutions for semiconductor design and manufacturing, consumer electronics, education and general electronics manufacturing. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, and systems used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment. This business generated revenue of $836 million in fiscal 2017, $776 million in fiscal 2016 and $758 million in fiscal 2015.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Markets
We market our electronic design and test solutions to customers with significant electronic content across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets. These industries design, develop and manufacture a wide range of products, including those produced in high volumes, such as computers, computer peripherals, electronic components, consumer electronics, enterprise servers, storage networks and automotive electronics. The components, printed circuit assemblies and functional devices for these products may be designed, developed and manufactured by electronic components companies, by original equipment manufacturers or by contract manufacturers. Other industrial applications for our products include power, energy, automotive, medical, research and education.
Customers use test solutions in developing and manufacturing a wide variety of electronic components and systems. These customers’ test requirements include testing the electrical parameters of digital, radio frequency, and microwave frequency components and assemblies; testing multiple parameters of the printed circuit boards used in almost every electronic device; testing of the final product; and testing of systems containing multiple electronic instruments. For semiconductor and board test applications, customers use our solutions in the design, development, manufacture, installation, deployment, and operation of semiconductor and printed circuit assemblies.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Products
Our electronic industrial products include design and design verification tools, a broad range of electronic test and measurement instruments, comprehensive manufacturing systems, material analysis and university education solutions to train the next generation of engineers and scientists.

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Design tools include design-for-test (“DFT”) for printed circuit assemblies and automotive radar, and EDA software for wireless and wired communication links in industrial, automotive and power semiconductor devices.
Design verification solutions include physical signal characterization and protocol compliance, notably for those links used in industrial, energy and automotive devices and products. Major industry forces are electrifying transportation and changing how electrical energy is generated, stored and controlled. Examples of verification solutions include those that help design engineers qualify and characterize power semiconductor devices, photo-voltaic/electrical vehicle/storage inverters, AC power analysis, DC battery cells/modules and automotive body/safety/engine electronic modules. High-precision and higher-bandwidth power analysis products address the increased power efficiency required with the proliferation of battery-powered and energy-efficient devices. With the recent acquisition of ScienLab, EISG now has the solutions required to test the components in the electrified drive train.
General purpose test and measurement products include hand-held (portable), benchtop instrument and modular forms. Capability includes Digital Multi-Meters, Function Generators, Waveform Synthesizers, Counters, Data Acquisition (“DAQ”), Audio Analyzers, LCR Meters, thermal imaging, low-cost USB modular, precision SMU (“Source Measurement Units”), ultra-high precision device current analyzers, test executive software platforms and a wide variety of power supplies ranging from bench to highly scalable AC/DC modular supplies and electronically programmable loads. These products are increasingly integrated with solution-specific software that enable our customers to dramatically accelerate and improve the effectiveness of their product design, design validation, manufacturing and support activities. Our products also support fundamental measurement science for voltage, current, frequency, signal pulse width, sub-nano-meter distance and complex electronic measurements. This enables industry and government agencies to determine fundamental electrical parameters and ensure customers can calibrate and ensure traceability measurement metrology.
Comprehensive manufacturing systems include: printed-circuit-board-assembly (“PCBA”) testers that ensure complex boards and components are assembled properly, IC parametric testers that ensure semiconductor wafers are processed consistently with high-precision and sub-nano-meter positioning systems for semiconductor wafer manufacturing. We provide effective and efficient manufacturing test solutions for complex transportation electronic control/safety systems that include radar, autonomous capability, and state-of-the-art wired and wireless components. Our flexible and scalable manufacturing systems offer the best-in-class value to enable our manufacturing customers to deliver outstanding yield, quality and productivity resulting in lower overall cost of test.
Material analysis products include atomic-force and scanning-electron microscopy to enable deeper understanding of materials that are driving breakthroughs in new semiconductor devices and sensors used in Internet of Things (“IoT”) and electronic manufacturing processes.
Our highly regarded test and measurement products and software have a long history of broad adoption and use in universities and research centers that teach the next generation of engineers and scientists and enable basic research to flourish. Increasing global competition in education is driving the need for efficient and timely education solutions and we are making those available in areas such as IoT, 5G communications technology and smart devices.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Customers
Our customers include original equipment and contract manufacturers of electronic industrial products and services. These customers use our solutions to perform research and development, manufacturing and support their products and services. Customer products include semiconductor devices, printed circuit assemblies, electronic modules and systems. Our customers range from the largest multi-national global companies to the smallest start-ups and include universities and government agencies around the world.
No single customer represented 10 percent or more of the group's net revenue.
In general, the orders and revenues from many of the electronic industrial measurement markets and product categories are seasonal, traditionally marked by lower business levels in the first and third quarters of the fiscal year and higher volumes in the second and fourth quarters of the fiscal year. The seasonal impact of our business is tempered by broader economic trends and the diversity of our electronic measurement products and customers, which span multiple industries.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Sales and Support
We have a comprehensive sales strategy, using a direct sales force, resellers, manufacturer’s representatives and distributors to meet our customers’ needs.
Our direct sales force focuses on addressing our largest customer needs and recommending solutions involving the effective use and deployment of our equipment, systems and capabilities. Some of our direct sales force concentrates on more complex products, such as our high‑performance instruments, where customers require strategic consultation. Our direct sales force consists

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of field and application engineers who have in‑depth knowledge of the customers’ business and technology needs. Our application engineers provide a combination of consulting, systems integration and application and software engineering services that are pervasive across all stages of the sale, implementation and support of our complex systems and solutions.
To complement our direct sales force, we have agreements with channel partners around the world. These partners, including resellers, manufacturer’s representatives and distributors, serve customers across the automotive and energy, general electronics measurement and semiconductor measurement markets and are expected to provide the same level of service and support as our direct sales force. Lower dollar sales transactions are also served by our tele‑sales and electronic commerce channels.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Manufacturing
We concentrate our electronic industrial measurement manufacturing efforts primarily on final assembly and test of our products. To maximize our productivity and our ability to respond to market conditions, we use contract manufacturers for the production of printed circuit boards, sheet metal fabrication, metal die-casting, plastic molding and standard electronic components.  We also manufacture proprietary devices and assemblies in our own fabrication facilities for competitive advantage. We have manufacturing facilities in California and Colorado in the United States. Outside of the United States we have manufacturing centralized in Malaysia, with other manufacturing facilities in China, Germany and Japan. Our Penang, Malaysia site is our largest test and measurement manufacturing facility, with proven operational excellence through scale, scope and expertise.
Within our business, there are three Manufacturing Technology Centers that collectively provide key components and sub‑systems. The three Manufacturing Technology Centers are located in Boeblingen, Germany, Colorado Springs, Colorado and Santa Rosa, California. These technologies include optical components and sub‑systems, ASICs, thick and thin film circuits, high speed probes and precision machining. These Manufacturing Technology Centers provide a competitive advantage by developing unique technologies for our solutions.
We generally only manufacture products when we have received firm orders for delivery and do not generally hold large stocks of finished inventory.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Competition
The market for electronic industrial design and test solutions is highly competitive across our targeted markets. In the electronic industrial test market, our primary competitors are Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Anritsu Corporation, Keithley/Tektronix/Fluke, Inc. (subsidiaries of Fortive Corporation), LeCroy Corporation (a subsidiary of Teledyne Technologies), National Instruments Corporation, Teradyne, Inc. and Advantest.
Our electronic industrial design and test solutions offer a wide range of products, solutions and related software, and these compete primarily on the basis of product quality, differentiated capability, leading edge technology and long-term value to our customers.
Ixia Solutions Group
The Ixia Solutions Group helps customers validate the performance and security resilience of their networks and associated applications. The group’s test, visibility, and security products help organizations and their customers strengthen their physical and virtual networks. Enterprises, service providers, network equipment manufacturers, and governments worldwide rely on the group's solutions to validate new products before shipping and secure ongoing operation of their networks with better visibility and security. The group’s product solutions consist of high-performance hardware platforms, software applications, and services, including warranty and maintenance offerings. From the date of acquisition, this business generated revenue of $256 million in fiscal 2017.
Ixia Solutions Group Markets
We market our network test hardware platforms, software applications and services, and our network visibility products to network equipment manufacturers, service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide. Our network test customers use our products to evaluate the performance of their equipment and networks during the design, manufacture, and pre-deployment stages, as well as after the equipment is deployed in a network. Our network visibility products improve the way our customers manage their data centers, save valuable IT time and maximize return on IT investments.
Ixia Solutions Group Products and Services
Our product solutions consist of our hardware platforms, such as our chassis, interface cards and appliances, software application tools, and services, including our warranty and maintenance offerings and professional services. Our highly scalable and flexible products enable our customers to configure solutions based on their specific networks and use cases.

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ISG Test Products
We offer a comprehensive suite of software applications in conjunction with our network test hardware platforms that provide customers with the ability to perform a broad range of data, signaling, voice, video, and application testing for layers 1-7 of the network stack. These solutions measure and analyze the performance, functionality, interoperability, service quality, and conformance of networks, network equipment and applications that run on these networks. Our technology-specific application test suites are targeted at a wide range of popular application and security performance and conformance requirements across various protocols, interfaces and types of devices. These include automated and targeted delivery, functionality and performance test for technologies and devices, including storage, video, voice, intelligent networks, specific applications, routing, switching, Wi-Fi, broadband, wireless, software defined networks, and virtual networks and functions. Our application and security load modules recreate cyber security attacks, including exploits, malware, denial of service ("DoS") and mobile malware. These load modules provide application and threat assessment solutions at Internet-scale, and create massive-scale, high fidelity simulation and testing conditions for battle-testing infrastructures, devices, applications and people. All of these technologies are used in a variety of physical and virtual environments, including (but not limited to) R&D test environments, change management and scenario planning for production networks.
ISG Visibility Products
Our visibility solutions provide real-time, end-to-end visibility, insight and security into physical, virtual, Software Defined Networking ("SDN") and Network Functions Virtualization ("NFV") networks; delivering the control, coverage, intelligence and performance customers need in a seamless fashion to protect and improve crucial networking, data center and cloud business assets. Our comprehensive network visibility platform ranges from network test access points ("TAPs"), to high-density, high-availability, cutting edge solutions designed for large and complex data centers and networks. Our proprietary software includes patented filtering and content handling technology that ensures each monitoring tool gets exactly the right data needed for analysis, all powered by the easy to use, drag-and-drop management system. Our advanced processing technologies enable additional intelligence and functionality, including de-duplication, packet slicing, time-stamping, real-time application and threat data, network flow, and session aware mobility load balancing. Our Hawkeye solution quickly and effectively validates network performance, isolates problems, and proactively detects issues by running scheduled verification tests on any site using wireline or wireless connections. Using a combination of hardware and software agents called Performance Endpoints, Hawkeye simulates application traffic and sends key performance metrics to a central console for fast action.
Services
Our service revenues primarily consist of our technical support, warranty and software maintenance services. We also offer training and professional services.
We offer technical support, warranty, and software maintenance services with the sale of our hardware and software products. Many of our products include up to one year of these services with the initial product purchase. Our customers may choose to extend the services for annual or multi-year periods. Our technical support services are delivered by our global team of technically knowledgeable and responsive customer service and support staff, and include assistance with the set-up, configuration, and operation of Ixia products. Our warranty and software maintenance services include the repair or replacement of defective product, bug fixes, and unspecified when and if available software upgrades.
Our technical support and software maintenance services also include our Application Threat Intelligence ("ATI") subscription service for our application and security platforms, which provides a comprehensive suite of application protocols, threat intelligence, software updates and responsive technical support. The ATI subscription service provides full access to the latest security attacks, global malicious site and geolocation data, and application updates for use in real-world test, visibility, security and assessment scenarios. Our customers may choose to purchase the ATI subscription service for annual or multi-year periods.
Ixia Solutions Group Customers
Today’s networks and data centers are continuously improving their performance and scale in order to accommodate the plethora of applications and services we now rely upon to do business, communicate, capture memories, plan, travel and more. Applications drive network capacity, influence quality of experience, introduce potential vulnerabilities, and lead to more innovations. Every organization from device manufacturers, to service providers, to enterprise and government organizations, seeks to optimize networks and data centers in order to accelerate, secure, and scale the delivery of these applications.
Our solutions provide the insight needed for organizations to make real-time decisions that optimize performance, harden security and increase the scalability of networks facing constantly changing requirements. Our line of hardware, software, and other services cater to the needs of network equipment manufacturers ("NEMs"), service providers, and enterprise and government organizations. Our solutions provide an end-to-end approach for our customers to test devices and systems prior to deployment,

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validate the performance and security of networks and data centers after every change, and help them continuously monitor network application and security behavior to manage performance.
We provide solutions and services to each of our customer segments, including those set forth below:
NEMs. NEMs provide voice, video, and data and service infrastructure equipment to customer network operators, service providers and network users. Such users require high standards of functionality, performance, security, and reliability. To meet these higher standards, NEMs must ensure the quality of their products during development and manufacturing (prior to deployment). Failure to ensure the consistent functionality and performance of their products may result in the loss of customers, increased research and development costs, increased support costs, and losses resulting from the return of products. These equipment manufacturers are also, in many cases, large enterprises, and therefore have the same challenges that can be met using our assessment and monitoring solutions within their own internal network.
Service Providers. Service providers seek to deliver a growing variety of high quality, advanced network services ranging from traditional telecommunications and Internet services, to social networking, cloud storage and entertainment streaming. Failure to provide a quality experience to the end user can be costly through high subscriber churn rates and reduced revenues. To ensure quality of experience and service assurance, service provider R&D and network engineering groups must verify the performance and functionality of staged networks during equipment selection and network design, prior to deployment and after any change to the production network. Our network test systems emulate millions of mobile subscribers to realistically predict end-user quality of experience delivered by providers’ infrastructure and services. Post-deployment, service providers depend on our visibility solutions to help monitor and secure their networks and ensure user experience and services performance.
Enterprises and Government. Enterprise and government organizations depend on their networks and data centers to get business done, and they devote enormous resources to ensure applications and services run optimally and securely. These customers rely on our solutions to help evaluate equipment during selection, optimize and harden their network designs in labs prior to roll-out, and once rolled out, continuously monitor the production network to ensure optimal performance and security of the contents flowing through it. Our security solutions are also used by major organizations to train their staff on the new generation of “cyber warfare and mitigation techniques” to recognize and defend against massive cyber-attacks.
No single customer represented 10 percent or more of the group’s net revenue.
We do not have long-term or volume purchase contracts that commit our customers to future product purchases, and as a result our customers may reduce or discontinue purchasing from us at any time.
Ixia Solutions Group Sales and Support
Sales. We use our global direct sales force to market and sell our products and solutions. In addition, we use distributors, value added resellers, system integrators, and other partners to complement our direct sales and marketing efforts for certain vertical and geographical markets. We depend on many of our distributors, resellers, and other partners to generate sales opportunities and manage the sales process. Our direct sales force maintains close contact with our customers and supports our distributors, resellers, and other partners. Another key component of our go-to-market strategy for certain products is strategic relationships with technical partners, consisting of network monitoring and management companies to complement their monitoring or security solutions. We work with technical partners in two main ways: (i) through customer referrals and recommendations and (ii) through automation integration/interoperability that provides a differentiated solution for our customers.
Ixia Technical Support. Our global team of technical support and field engineers have a high level of networking and product expertise. We enable our customers to make the best use of our products to accomplish their goals, help answer questions and resolve issues they encounter, and minimize downtime. Customers can reach our technical support team by phone, email or website. We have regional support offices in the United States, Europe and multiple countries in Asia.

Support services our team provides for our customers often include:
assisting new customers with product installation and licensing,
providing configuration assistance and expert advice on best practices,
investigating and quickly solving user issues,
troubleshooting and quickly repairing or replacing hardware as needed, and

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providing access to our self-service portal where customers can report new cases and access our extensive knowledge base articles.
We also offer premium support options for customers who require even higher levels of service. We have invested in developing our case management system, support phone system, and other tools to increase our global support capability thereby allowing us to respond quickly, route customers to the best support engineer, and effectively manage their requests to resolution.
Ixia Solutions Group Manufacturing
Our manufacturing and supply operations consist primarily of new product introduction, test and manufacturing, test engineering, supply chain management, procurement, quality assurance, order management, final assembly, configuration testing, fulfillment and logistics. We outsource the manufacture, assembly and testing of printed circuit board assemblies, certain interface cards, and certain chassis to third-party contract manufacturers and assembly companies, the most significant of which are located in Malaysia and Mexico. This manufacturing process enables us to operate without dedicating substantial space and personnel solely to manufacturing operations.
Ixia Solutions Group Competition
The market for providing network test and monitoring systems is highly competitive, and we expect this competition to continue in the future. We currently compete with network test and monitoring solution vendors such as Spirent Communications, Gigamon and NetScout. We also compete either directly or indirectly with large Ethernet switch vendors and network management, analysis, compliance and test tool vendors that offer point solutions that address a subset of the issues that we solve. Additionally, some of our significant customers have developed or may develop in-house products for their own use or for sale to others.
We believe that we compete favorably in the markets we serve. We intend to remain competitive through ongoing research and development efforts that enhance existing systems and result in the development of new products and features. We will also seek to expand our market presence through marketing and sales efforts.
Services Solutions Group
The Services Solution Group provides worldwide integrated service solutions to optimize customers test equipment and productivity, including repair and calibration services, professional services and remanufactured equipment. This business generated revenue of $419 million in fiscal 2017, $402 million in fiscal 2016 and $401 million in fiscal 2015.
Services Solutions Group Markets
Services Solutions Group broadly addresses the same markets as the Communications Solutions Group and Electronic Industrial Solutions Group, which includes commercial communications, aerospace, defense and government, internet infrastructure, automotive and energy, semiconductor manufacturing and general electronics and manufacturing industries.
Services Solutions Group Products
Keysight offers the following general types of services and products under the Services Solutions Group:
Accredited Product Support Services. Comprehensive product support services that include repair, parts, and accredited calibrations of Keysight and non-Keysight test equipment.
Professional Services. Training and engineering services to optimize equipment adoption, utilization, and design and test processes.
Remanufactured Equipment. Refurbished used equipment, including Keysight Premium Used, which ensures the same high quality as our new equipment.
Asset Management Program. Full service solution to optimize customer’s asset tracking, servicing and utilization requirements throughout the product life cycle.
Services Solutions Group Customers
The customers for our Services Solutions Group include customers of the Communications Solutions Group and Electronic Industrial Solutions Group. No single customer represented 10 percent or more of the group's net revenue.

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Services Solutions Group Sales and Operations
Services Solutions Group shares the same industry‑leading sales, marketing and support resources as the Communications Solutions Group and Electronic Industrial Solutions Group, including the same direct sales force and complementary channel partners.
Customer demand is fulfilled through regional service centers by trained technicians and engineers, located in close proximity to customers at 70 Keysight service locations in more than 30 countries. Our global presence, with localized service proximity, is an important factor in sustaining our customers’ equipment uptime and utilization requirements.
Services Solutions Group Competition
The Services Solutions Group competes with independent test equipment service providers, government measurement laboratories and other original equipment manufacturers. Many of these competitors offer a wide range of services and can support instruments from multiple manufacturers. Service quality, cost and turn‑around time drive competitiveness within our served industries. In addition, some of our instrument customers have in‑house calibration and repair capabilities. Our primary service competitors are Trescal Limited, Fortive Corporation, and Ceprei Laboratories. Due to differing country and regulatory accreditation standards, the services provided may vary greatly from country to country.
The following discussions of Research and Development, Marketing, Backlog, Intellectual Property, Materials, Environmental and International Operations include information common to each of our businesses.
Research and Development
Research and development ("R&D") expenditures were $498 million in fiscal 2017, $425 million in fiscal 2016 and $387 million in fiscal 2015. We anticipate that we will continue to have significant R&D expenditures in order to maintain our competitive position with a continuous flow of innovative, high-quality customer solutions, products and services. We are committed to investing in R&D and have focused our development efforts on key strategic opportunities in order to align our business with available markets and position ourselves for growth.
Our R&D efforts focus on improvements to existing products and development to support new product introductions and complete customer solutions aligned to our industry. We conduct R&D in four principal areas: enabling technologies, system design, simulation and measurement. Our R&D seeks to improve on various technical competencies in electronics, software, systems and solution delivery. R&D investments are focused on delivering technology and solutions to market in the short term, as well as building a strong foundation for future solutions over a longer time horizon.
Marketing
We have several ongoing programs to support the sale and distribution of our products and solutions and to inform existing and potential customers, partners and distributors about the capabilities and benefits of our expansive product, solution and service portfolio. Our marketing efforts promote the Keysight business through participating in industry trade shows and technical conferences, sponsoring technical seminars and webinars that highlight our solutions and advertising in digital media publications and physical locations. Additionally, we write and distribute various forms of marketing collateral including brochures, white papers, application notes, solutions briefs and articles for online and print journals. Finally, we communicate to our existing and potential customers through our corporate website and various social media outlets such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter and our corporate blog.
Backlog
Backlog represents the amount of revenue expected from orders that have already been booked, including orders for goods and services that have not been delivered to customers, orders invoiced but not yet recognized as revenue, and orders for goods that were shipped but not invoiced, awaiting acceptance by customers.
At October 31, 2017, our unfilled backlog was approximately $950 million, as compared to approximately $807 million at October 31, 2016. Consistent with our strategy, we are seeing an increase in solution sales, which have a longer order-to-revenue conversion cycle; however, we expect that a majority of the unfilled backlog will be recognized as revenue within six months. We believe backlog on any particular date, while indicative of short-term revenue performance, is not necessarily a reliable indicator of medium or long-term revenue performance.
Intellectual Property
We generate patent and other intellectual property rights covering significant inventions and other innovations in order to

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create a competitive advantage. Although we believe that our licenses, patents and other intellectual property rights have value, in general no single license, patent or other intellectual property right is in itself material, other than the Keysight mark. In addition, our intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented or may otherwise not provide significant competitive advantage.
Materials
Our manufacturing operations employ a wide variety of semiconductors, electromechanical components and assemblies and raw materials such as plastic resins and sheet metal. We purchase materials from thousands of suppliers on a global basis. Some of the parts that require custom design work are not readily available from alternate suppliers due to their unique design or the length of time necessary for design work. Our long-term relationships with suppliers allow us to proactively manage technology road maps and product discontinuance plans and monitor their financial health. Even so, some suppliers may still extend their lead times, limit supplies, increase prices or cease to produce necessary parts for our products. If these are unique components, we may not be able to find a substitute quickly or at all. To address the potential disruption in our supply chain, we use a number of techniques, including qualifying multiple sources of supply and redesign of products for alternative components. In addition, while we generally attempt to keep our inventory at minimal levels, we do purchase incremental inventory as circumstances warrant to protect the supply chain.
Environmental
Our R&D, manufacturing and distribution operations involve the use of hazardous substances and are regulated under international, federal, state and local laws governing health and safety and the environment. We apply strict standards for protection of the environment and occupational health and safety to sites inside and outside the United States, even if not subject to regulation imposed by foreign governments. We believe that our properties and operations at our facilities comply in all material respects with applicable environmental laws and occupational health and safety laws. However, the risk of environmental liabilities cannot be completely eliminated and there can be no assurance that the application of environmental and health and safety laws will not require us to incur significant expenditures. We are also regulated under a number of international, federal, state, and local laws regarding recycling, product packaging and product content requirements. The environmental, product content/disposal and recycling laws are gradually becoming more stringent and may cause us to incur significant expenditures in the future.
Some of our properties are undergoing remediation by HP Inc. ("HP") for subsurface contaminations that were known at the time of Agilent’s separation from HP in 1999. In connection with Agilent’s separation from HP, HP and Agilent entered into an agreement pursuant to which HP agreed to retain the liability for this subsurface contamination, perform the required remediation and indemnify Agilent with respect to claims arising out of that contamination. Agilent has assigned its rights and obligations under this agreement to Keysight in respect of facilities transferred to Keysight in our separation from Agilent on November 1, 2014 ("the separation"). As a result, HP has access to a limited number of our properties to perform remediation. Although HP agreed to minimize interference with on-site operations at such properties, remediation activities and subsurface contamination may require us to incur unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties. In connection with the separation, Agilent will indemnify us directly for any liabilities related thereto. We cannot be sure that HP will continue to fulfill its remediation obligations or that Agilent will continue to fulfill its indemnification obligations.
In connection with the separation, Agilent also agreed to indemnify us for any liability associated with contamination from past operations at all properties transferred from Agilent to us. We cannot be sure that Agilent will fulfill its indemnification obligations.
We maintain a comprehensive Environmental Site Liability insurance policy which may cover certain clean-up costs or legal claims related to environmental contamination. This policy covers specified active, inactive and divested locations.
International Operations
Our net revenue originating outside the United States, as a percentage of our total net revenue, was approximately 67 percent in fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015, the majority of which was from customers other than foreign governments. Revenues from external customers are generally attributed to regions based upon the location of our sales representative.
Long-lived assets located outside of the United States as a percentage of our total long-lived assets was approximately 66 percent in fiscal year 2017 and 57 percent in fiscal year 2016, with the increase primarily driven by acquisitions. Approximately 29 percent and 30 percent of our long-lived assets were located in Japan in fiscal years 2017 and 2016, respectively. Approximately 9 percent and 13 percent of our long-lived assets were located in Malaysia in fiscal years 2017 and 2016, respectively.

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Most of our sales in international markets are made by foreign sales subsidiaries. In countries with low sales volumes, sales are made through various representatives and distributors. However, we also sell into international markets directly from the United States.
Our international business is subject to risks customarily encountered in foreign operations, including interruption to transportation flows for delivery of parts to us and finished goods to our customers, changes in a specific country's or region's political or economic conditions, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, consequences from changes in tax laws and regulatory requirements, difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations, differing labor regulations, differing protection of intellectual property and geopolitical turmoil, including terrorism and war. We are also exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk inherent in our sales commitments, anticipated sales and expenses, and assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the local functional currency, and may also become subject to interest rate risk inherent in any debt we incur, or investment portfolios we hold. There may be an increased risk of political unrest in regions where we have significant manufacturing operations such as Southeast Asia. However, we believe that our international diversification provides stability to our worldwide operations and reduces the impact on us of adverse economic changes in any single country. Financial information about our international operations is contained in Note 20, "Segment Information," to our consolidated financial statements.
Acquisition of Material Assets
On April 18, 2017, pursuant to the terms of an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated January 30, 2017, between Keysight and Ixia (the "Merger Agreement"), we acquired all of the outstanding common stock of Ixia for $1,622 million, net of $72 million of cash acquired, pursuant to an exchange offer for $19.65 per share (the "Merger Consideration"). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, any outstanding and unexercised Ixia stock options with an exercise price below the Merger Consideration and any outstanding Ixia restricted stock awards were cancelled and converted into the right to receive a cash payment equal to the merger consideration of $19.65 per share (minus the exercise price for the Ixia stock options). The vested portion of the awards associated with prior service of Ixia employees represented approximately $47 million of the total consideration. We funded the acquisition with a combination of cash and proceeds from debt and equity financings.
On August 31, 2017, we acquired all of the outstanding common stock of ScienLab for $60 million, net of $2 million of cash acquired. ScienLab is a Germany-based company that provides test solutions to automotive original equipment manufacturers and Tier 1 suppliers in the automotive and energy markets. This acquisition complements our portfolio, allowing end-to-end solutions for hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles, and battery test solutions that address e-mobility market dynamics. We funded the acquisition using existing cash. As a result of the acquisition, ScienLab has become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Keysight.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The names of our executive officers and their ages, titles and biographies as of December 1, 2017 appear below:
Ronald S. Nersesian, 58, has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Keysight since December 2013 and, prior to the Separation, served as Executive Vice President of Agilent. Mr. Nersesian served as President of Agilent from November 2012 to September 2013 and as Chief Operating Officer, Agilent from November 2011 to September 2013. From November 2011 to November 2012, Mr. Nersesian served as Agilent’s Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Nersesian serves on the Board of Directors of Trimble Inc.
Neil Dougherty, 48, has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Keysight since December 2013 and, prior to the Separation, served as Vice President and Treasurer of Agilent, since 2012. He served as Senior Director in Agilent’s Corporate Development Group from 2010 to 2012, and from 2006 to 2010, he served as Agilent’s Assistant Treasurer.
Jay Alexander, 54, has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of Keysight since May 2014 and, from October 2009 until prior to the Separation, he served as Vice President and General Manager for the Oscilloscope and Protocol Division of Agilent.
Ingrid Estrada, 53, has served as Senior Vice President, Chief People & Administrative Officer and Chief of Staff since August 2017. Previously, she served as Keysight’s senior vice president, Human Resources, from December 2013 until August 2017. Prior to the Separation, she served as Vice President and General Manager of Global Sourcing of Agilent from 2011.

Satish Dhanasekaran, 45, has served as Senior Vice President and president of the Communications Solutions Group (CSG) since July 2017. Previously, he served as Keysight's vice president and general manager, Wireless Devices and Operators business segment, as well as a variety of customer-facing leadership positions.

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Bethany Mayer, 56, has served as Senior Vice President and president of the Ixia Solutions Group (ISG) since April 2017. Previously, she served as a director of Ixia, and as Ixia's President and Chief Executive Officer, from September 2014 until April 2017. Prior to Ixia, she served in various executive roles with HP. Ms. Mayer resigned from Keysight effective December 1, 2017.
Soon Chai Gooi, 56, has served as Senior Vice President and President of the Electronic Industrial Solutions Group since November 2015. From December 2013 to November 2015, Mr. Gooi served as Senior Vice President of Order Fulfillment and Infrastructure for Keysight. Prior to the Separation, Mr. Gooi served as President, from November 2012 to September 2013, and as Senior Vice President, from December 2011 to November 2012, of Agilent's Order Fulfillment and Supply Chain.
John Page, 53, has served as Senior Vice President and President of Services Solutions Group since November 2015 and most recently served as vice president of business finance of Keysight from February 2014 to November 2015. Prior to joining Keysight, Mr. Page served as the Chief Financial Officer of Nanosys, Inc. from 2010 to 2014.
Mark Wallace, 52, has served as Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales since November 2016. From November 2014 to November 2016, Mr. Wallace served as Vice President and General Manager of Americas Field Operations, and prior to the Separation from Agilent, as Americas Field Operations Vice President of Agilent's Electronic Measurement Group since November 2011.
Stephen Williams, 45, has served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Keysight since December 2013 and, prior to the Separation, served as Agilent’s Vice President, Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary since November 2009.
John Skinner, 55, has served as Vice President, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer of Keysight since December 2013 and, prior to the Separation, Mr. Skinner served as Vice President, Agilent and Controller of Global Infrastructure and Enterprise Financial Planning and Analysis from April 2012 to December 2013.
Investor Information
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”). Therefore, we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Such reports, proxy statements and other information may be read and copied by visiting the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.
You can access financial and other information at our Investor Relations website. The address is www.investor.keysight.com. We make available, free of charge, copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material electronically or otherwise furnishing it to the SEC.
Our Corporate Governance Standards, the charters of our Audit and Finance Committee, our Compensation Committee, our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, our Executive Committee as well as our Standards of Business Conduct are available on our website at www.investor.keysight.com under “Corporate Governance.” These items are also available in print to any stockholder in the United States and Canada who requests them by calling (800) 829-4444. This information is also available by writing to the company at the address on the cover of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Item 1A.  Risk Factors
Risks, Uncertainties and Other Factors That May Affect Future Results
Risks Related to Our Business
Depressed and uncertain general economic conditions may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
        Our business is sensitive to negative changes in general economic conditions, both inside and outside the United States. The continued economic downturn may adversely impact our business, resulting in:
reduced demand for our products, delays in the shipment of orders or increases in order cancellations;
increased risk of excess and obsolete inventories;
increased price pressure for our products and services; and
greater risk of impairment to the value, and a detriment to the liquidity, of our future investment portfolio.
In addition, macroeconomic developments, such as the recent downturn in Europe, the economic slowdown in Asia and the results of the recent U.S. and other national elections, economic uncertainties caused by the result of the United Kingdom's referendum advising for its exit from the European Union could negatively affect our ability to conduct business in those geographies. Financial difficulties experienced by our suppliers and customers, including distributors, could result in product delays and inventory issues. Risks to accounts receivable could result in delays in collection and greater bad debt expense.
Our operating results and financial condition could be harmed if the markets into which we sell our products decline or do not grow as anticipated.
        Visibility into our markets is limited. Our quarterly sales and operating results are highly dependent on the volume and timing of technology-related spending and orders received during the fiscal quarter, which are difficult to forecast and may be cancelled by our customers. In addition, our revenues and earnings forecasts for future fiscal quarters are often based on the expected seasonality or cyclicality of our markets. However, the markets we serve do not always experience the seasonality or cyclicality that we expect. Any decline in our customers' markets would likely result in a reduction in demand for our products and services. The broader semiconductor market is one of the drivers for our business, and therefore, a decrease in the semiconductor market could harm our business. Also, if our customers' markets decline, we may not be able to collect on outstanding amounts due to us. Such declines could harm our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and stock price, and could limit our profitability. Also, in such an environment, pricing pressures could intensify. Since a significant portion of our operating expenses is relatively fixed in nature due to sales, R&D and manufacturing costs, if we were unable to respond quickly enough, these pricing pressures could further reduce our operating margins.
If we do not introduce successful new products and services in a timely manner to address increased competition, rapid technological changes and changing industry standards, our products and services will become obsolete, and our operating results will suffer.
        We generally sell our products in industries that are characterized by increased competition through frequent new product and service introductions, rapid technological changes and changing industry standards. In addition, many of the markets in which we operate are seasonal and cyclical. Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our products and services will become technologically obsolete over time, in which case our revenue and operating results would suffer. The success of new products and services will depend on several factors, including but not limited to our ability to:
properly identify customer needs;
innovate and develop new technologies, services and applications;
successfully commercialize new technologies in a timely manner;
manufacture and deliver our products in sufficient volumes and on time;
differentiate our offerings from our competitors' offerings;
price our products competitively;
anticipate our competitors' development of new products, services or technological innovations; and control product quality in our manufacturing process.

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Dependence on contract manufacturing and outsourcing other portions of our supply chain may adversely affect our ability to bring products to market and damage our reputation. Dependence on outsourced information technology and other administrative functions may impair our ability to operate effectively.
        As part of our efforts to streamline operations and to cut costs, we outsource aspects of our manufacturing processes and other functions and continue to evaluate additional outsourcing. If our contract manufacturers or other outsourcers fail to perform their obligations in a timely manner or at satisfactory quality levels, our ability to bring products to market and our reputation could suffer. For example, during a market upturn, our contract manufacturers may be unable to meet our demand requirements, which may preclude us from fulfilling our customers' orders on a timely basis. The ability of these manufacturers to perform is largely outside of our control. Additionally, changing or replacing our contract manufacturers or other outsourcees could cause disruptions or delays. In addition, we outsource significant portions of our information technology ("IT") and other administrative functions. Since IT is critical to our operations, any failure of our IT providers to perform could impair our ability to operate effectively. In addition to the risks outlined above, problems with manufacturing or IT outsourcing could result in lower revenues and unrealized efficiencies, and could impact our results of operations and stock price. Much of our outsourcing takes place in developing countries and, as a result, may be subject to geopolitical uncertainty.
Failure to adjust our purchases due to changing market conditions or failure to estimate our customers' demand could adversely affect our income.
        Our income could be harmed if we are unable to adjust our purchases to market fluctuations, including those caused by the seasonal or cyclical nature of the markets in which we operate. The sale of our products and services are dependent, to a large degree, on customers whose industries are subject to seasonal or cyclical trends in the demand for their products. For example, the consumer electronics market is particularly volatile, making demand difficult to anticipate. During a market upturn, we may not be able to purchase sufficient supplies or components to meet increasing product demand, which could materially affect our results. In the past, we have seen a shortage of parts for some of our products. In addition, some of the parts that require custom design are not readily available from alternate suppliers due to their unique design or the length of time necessary for design work. Should a supplier cease manufacturing such a component, we would be forced to reengineer our product. In addition to discontinuing parts, suppliers may also extend lead times, limit supplies or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors. In order to secure components for the production of products, we may continue to enter into non-cancellable purchase commitments with vendors, or at times make advance payments to suppliers, which could impact our ability to adjust our inventory to declining market demands. Prior commitments of this type have resulted in an excess of parts when demand for electronic products has decreased. If demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience additional excess and obsolete inventories and be forced to incur additional charges.
Our operating results may suffer if our manufacturing capacity does not match the demand for our products.
Because we cannot immediately adapt our production capacity and related cost structures to rapidly changing market conditions, when demand does not meet our expectations, our manufacturing capacity will likely exceed our production requirements. If, during a general market upturn or an upturn in our business, we cannot increase our manufacturing capacity to meet product demand, we will not be able to fulfill orders in a timely manner, which could lead to order cancellations, contract breaches or indemnification obligations. This inability could materially and adversely limit our ability to improve our income, margin and operating results. By contrast, if, during an economic downturn, we had excess manufacturing capacity, then our fixed costs associated with excess manufacturing capacity would adversely affect our income, margins and operating results.
Industry consolidation and consolidation among our customer base may lead to increased competition and may harm our operating results.
There is potential for industry consolidation in our markets. As companies attempt to strengthen or hold their market positions in an evolving industry, companies could be acquired or may be unable to continue operations. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us. We believe that industry consolidation may result in stronger competitors and could lead to more variability in our operating results and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Furthermore, particularly in the communications market, rapid consolidation would lead to fewer customers, with the effect that loss of a major customer could have a material impact on results not anticipated in a customer marketplace composed of more numerous participants.
Additionally, if there is consolidation among our customer base, our customers may be able to command increased leverage in negotiating prices and other terms of sale, which could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, if, as a result of increased leverage, customer pressures require us to reduce our pricing such that our gross margins are diminished, we could decide not to sell our products under such less favorable terms, which would decrease our revenue. Consolidation among our customer base may also lead to reduced demand for our products, replacement of our products by the combined entity with those of our competitors and cancellations of orders, each of which could harm our operating results.

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Economic, political and other risks associated with international sales and operations could adversely affect our results of operations.
        Because we sell our products worldwide, our business is subject to risks associated with doing business internationally. We anticipate that revenue from international operations will continue to represent a majority of our total revenue. However, there can be no assurances that our international sales will continue at existing levels or grow in accordance with our effort to increase foreign market penetration. In addition, many of our employees, contract manufacturers, suppliers, job functions and manufacturing facilities are located outside the United States. Accordingly, our future results could be harmed by a variety of factors, including but not limited to:
interruption to transportation flows for delivery of parts to us and finished goods to our customers;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
changes in a specific country's or region's political, economic or other conditions;
trade protection measures, sanctions, and import or export licensing requirements or restrictions;
negative consequences from changes in tax laws;
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations;
differing labor regulations;
differing protection of intellectual property;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements; and
volatile political environments or geopolitical turmoil, including regional conflicts, terrorism, and war.
        We centralize most of our accounting processes at two locations: India and Malaysia. These processes include general accounting, inventory cost accounting, accounts payable and accounts receivables functions. If conditions change in those countries, it may adversely affect operations, including impairing our ability to pay our suppliers. Our results of operations, as well as our liquidity, may be adversely affected and possible delays may occur in reporting financial results.
        Additionally, we must comply with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, and anti-competition regulations. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, restrictions on our business conduct and on our ability to offer our products in one or more countries, and could also materially affect our brand, ability to attract and retain employees, international operations, business and operating results. Although we actively maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure ongoing compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate these policies and procedures.
        In addition, although a substantial amount of our products are priced and paid for in U.S. Dollars, many of our products are priced in local currencies and a significant amount of certain types of expenses, such as payroll, utilities, tax and marketing expenses, are paid in local currencies. Our hedging programs are designed to reduce, but not entirely eliminate, within any given 12-month period, the impact of currency exchange rate movements, including those caused by currency controls, which could impact our business, operating results and financial condition by resulting in lower revenue or increased expenses. However, for expenses beyond a 12-month period, our hedging strategy will not mitigate our exchange rate risk. In addition, our currency hedging programs involve third-party financial institutions as counterparties. The weakening or failure of these counterparties may adversely affect our hedging programs and our financial condition through, among other things, a reduction in the number of available counterparties, increasingly unfavorable terms or the failure of counterparties to perform under hedging contracts.
Key customers or large orders may expose us to additional business and legal risks that could have a material adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition.
        Certain key customers have substantial purchasing power and leverage in negotiating contractual arrangements with us. These customers may demand contract terms that differ considerably from our standard terms and conditions. Large orders may also include severe contractual liabilities for us if we fail to provide the quantity and quality of product at the required delivery times. While we attempt to contractually limit our potential liability under such contracts, we may have to agree to some or all of these types of provisions to secure these orders and to continue to grow our business. Such actions expose us to significant additional risks, which could result in a material adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition.
Our business will suffer if we are not able to retain and hire key personnel.
        Our future success depends partly on the continued service of our key research, engineering, sales, marketing, manufacturing, executive and administrative personnel. If we fail to retain and hire a sufficient number of these personnel, we may not be able to maintain or expand our business. The markets in which we operate are dynamic, and we may need to respond with reorganizations, workforce reductions and site closures from time to time. We believe our pay levels are competitive within the regions that we

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operate. However, there is also intense competition for certain highly technical specialties in geographic areas in which we operate, and it may become more difficult to retain key employees.
Any inability to complete acquisitions on acceptable terms could negatively impact our growth rate and financial performance.
Our ability to grow revenues, earnings and cash flow depends in part upon our ability to identify and successfully acquire and integrate businesses at appropriate prices and realize anticipated synergies and business performance. Appropriate targets for acquisition are difficult to identify and complete for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, limited due diligence, high valuations, business and intellectual property evaluations, other interested parties, negotiations of the definitive documentation, satisfaction of closing conditions, the need to obtain antitrust or other regulatory approvals on acceptable terms, and availability of funding. The inability to close appropriate acquisitions on acceptable terms could adversely impact our growth rate, revenue, and financial performance.
Our acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and divestitures may result in financial results that are different than expected.
        In the normal course of business, we may engage in discussions with third parties relating to possible acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and divestitures. As a result of such transactions, our financial results may differ from our own or the investment community's expectations in a given fiscal quarter, or over the long term. If market conditions or other factors lead us to change our strategic direction, we may not realize the expected value from such transactions. Further, such transactions often have post-closing arrangements, including, but not limited to, post-closing adjustments, transition services, escrows or indemnifications, the financial results of which can be difficult to predict. In addition, acquisitions and strategic alliances may require us to integrate a different company culture, management team and business infrastructure. We may have difficulty developing, manufacturing and marketing the products of a newly acquired company in a way that enhances the performance of our businesses or product lines to realize the value from expected synergies. Depending on the size and complexity of an acquisition, the successful integration of the entity depends on a variety of factors, including but not limited to:
the retention of key employees and/or customers;
the management of facilities and employees in different geographic areas; and
the compatibility of our infrastructure, policies and organizations with those of the acquired company.
If we do not realize the expected benefits or synergies of such transactions, our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows and stock price could be negatively impacted.        
In addition, effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable and accurate financial reports and to effectively prevent fraud. We are devoting significant resources and time to comply with the internal control over financial reporting requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. However, we cannot be certain that these measures will ensure that we design, implement and maintain adequate control over our financial processes and reporting in the future, especially in the context of acquisitions of other businesses. Any difficulties in the assimilation of acquired businesses into our control system could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our stock and our access to capital. All of these efforts require varying levels of management resources, which may divert our attention from other business operations.
We have outstanding debt and may incur other debt in the future, which could adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
We currently have outstanding debt as well as availability to borrow under a revolving credit facility. We may borrow additional amounts in the future and use the proceeds from any future borrowing for general corporate purposes, future acquisitions, expansion of our business or repurchases of our outstanding shares of common stock.
Our incurrence of this debt, and increases in our aggregate levels of debt, may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition by, among other things:
requiring a portion of our cash flow from operations to make interest payments on this debt;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
reducing the cash flow available to fund capital expenditures and other corporate purposes and to grow our business; and
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry.
Our current revolving credit facility and term loan imposes restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to create liens on our assets and the ability of our subsidiaries to incur indebtedness, and requires us to maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. Our ability to comply with these ratios may be affected by events beyond our control. In addition, the indenture governing our senior notes contains covenants that may adversely affect our ability to incur certain liens or engage in certain types

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of sale and leaseback transactions. If we breach any of the covenants and do not obtain a waiver from the lenders, then, subject to applicable cure periods, our outstanding indebtedness could be declared immediately due and payable.
Environmental contamination from past operations could subject us to unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties involved, and environmental contamination caused by ongoing operations could subject us to substantial liabilities in the future.
        Some of our properties are undergoing remediation by HP Inc. ("HP") for subsurface contaminations that were known at the time of Agilent's separation from HP in 1999. In connection with Agilent's separation from HP, HP and Agilent entered into an agreement pursuant to which HP agreed to retain the liability for this subsurface contamination, perform the required remediation and indemnify Agilent with respect to claims arising out of that contamination. Agilent has assigned its rights and obligations under this agreement to Keysight in respect of facilities transferred to us in the separation. As a result, HP will have access to a limited number of our properties to perform remediation. Although HP agreed to minimize interference with on-site operations at such properties, remediation activities and subsurface contamination may require us to incur unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties. In connection with the separation, Agilent will indemnify us directly for any liabilities related thereto. We cannot be sure that HP will continue to fulfill its remediation obligations or that Agilent will continue to fulfill its indemnification obligations.
        In connection with the separation from Agilent, Agilent also agreed to indemnify us for any liability associated with contamination from past operations at all properties transferred from Agilent to Keysight. We cannot be sure that Agilent will fulfill its indemnification obligations.
        Our current manufacturing processes involve the use of substances regulated under various international, federal, state and local laws governing the environment. As a result, we may become subject to liabilities for environmental contamination, and these liabilities may be substantial. Although our policy is to apply strict standards for environmental protection at our sites inside and outside the United States, even if the sites outside the United States are not subject to regulations imposed by foreign governments, we may not be aware of all conditions that could subject us to liability.
We and our customers are subject to various governmental regulations, compliance with which may cause us to incur significant expenses, and if we fail to maintain satisfactory compliance with certain regulations, we may be forced to recall products and cease their manufacture and distribution, and we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties.
        We and our customers are subject to various significant international, federal, state and local regulations, including, but not limited to, health and safety, packaging, product content, labor and import/export regulations. These regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. We may be required to incur significant expenses to comply with these regulations or to remedy violations of these regulations. Any failure by us to comply with applicable government regulations could also result in cessation of our operations or portions of our operations, product recalls or impositions of fines and restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations. If demand for our products is adversely affected or our costs increase, our business would suffer.
        Our products and operations are also often subject to the rules of industrial standards bodies, like the International Standards Organization, as well as regulation by other agencies such as the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. We also must comply with work safety rules. If we fail to adequately address any of these regulations, our businesses could be harmed.
Third parties may claim that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, and we could suffer significant litigation or licensing expenses or be prevented from selling products or services.
        From time to time, third parties may claim that one or more of our products or services infringe their intellectual property rights. We analyze and take action in response to such claims on a case-by-case basis. Any dispute or litigation regarding patents or other intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming due to the complexity of our technology and the uncertainty of intellectual property litigation and could divert our management and key personnel from business operations. A claim of intellectual property infringement could cause us to enter into a costly or restrictive license agreement (which may not be available under acceptable terms, or at all), require us to redesign certain of our products (which would be costly and time-consuming) and/or subject us to significant damages or an injunction against the development and sale of certain products or services. In certain of our businesses, we rely on third-party intellectual property licenses, and we cannot ensure that these licenses will be available to us in the future on terms favorable to us or at all.

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Third parties may infringe our intellectual property rights, and we may suffer competitive injury or expend significant resources enforcing our intellectual property rights.
        Our success depends in part on our proprietary technology, including technology we obtained through acquisitions. We rely on various intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as confidentiality provisions and licensing arrangements, to establish our proprietary rights. If we do not enforce our intellectual property rights successfully, our competitive position may suffer, which could harm our operating results.
        Our pending patent, copyright and trademark registration applications may not be allowed or competitors may challenge the validity or scope of our patents, copyrights or trademarks. In addition, our patents, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property rights may not provide us with a significant competitive advantage. In preparation for the separation and distribution, we have applied for trademarks related to our new global brand name in various jurisdictions worldwide. Any successful opposition to our applications in material jurisdictions could impose material costs on us or make it more difficult to protect our brand. Different jurisdictions vary widely in the level of protection and priority they give to trademark and other intellectual property rights.
        We may be required to spend significant resources monitoring our intellectual property rights, and we may or may not be able to detect infringement of such rights by third parties. Our competitive position may be harmed if we cannot detect infringement and enforce our intellectual property rights in a timely manner, or at all. In some circumstances, we may choose to not pursue enforcement due to a variety of reasons. In addition, competitors may avoid infringement by designing around our intellectual property rights or by developing non-infringing competing technologies. Intellectual property rights and our ability to enforce them may be unavailable or limited in some countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture market share and could result in lost revenues to the company. Furthermore, some of our intellectual property is licensed to others, which allows them to compete with us using that intellectual property.
We are or will be subject to ongoing tax examinations of our tax returns by the IRS and other tax authorities. An adverse outcome of any such audit or examination by the IRS or other tax authority could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
        We are or will be subject to ongoing tax examinations of our tax returns by the IRS and other tax authorities in various jurisdictions. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from ongoing tax examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. These assessments can require considerable estimates and judgments. Intercompany transactions associated with the sale of inventory, services, intellectual property and cost sharing arrangements are complex and affect our tax liabilities. The calculation of our tax liabilities involves uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in multiple jurisdictions. The outcomes of any tax examinations could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Due to the complexity of tax contingencies, the ultimate resolution of any tax matters related to operations may result in payments greater or less than amounts accrued.
Our operations may be adversely impacted by changes in our business mix or changes in the tax legislative landscape.
        Our effective tax rate may be adversely impacted by, among other things, changes in the mix of our earnings among countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets, and changes in tax laws. We cannot give any assurance as to what our effective tax rate will be in the future because, among other things, there is uncertainty regarding the tax policies of the jurisdictions where we operate. Changes in tax laws, such as tax reform in the United States or changes in tax laws resulting from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (“OECD”) multi-jurisdictional plan of action to address “base erosion and profit shifting” and the taxation of the “Digital Economy” could impact our effective tax rate.
If tax incentives change or cease to be in effect, our income taxes could increase significantly.
        We benefit from tax incentives extended to certain of our foreign subsidiaries to encourage investment or employment. Several jurisdictions have granted us tax incentives that require renewal at various times in the future, the most significant being Singapore. We do not expect incentives granted by other jurisdictions to have a material impact on our financial statements. The Singapore tax incentive requires that specific conditions be satisfied, which include achieving thresholds of employment, ownership of certain assets, as well as specific types of investment activities within Singapore. We believe that we will satisfy such conditions in the future as needed, but cannot guarantee that such conditions will be satisfied. Our Singapore tax incentive is due for renewal in fiscal 2024, but we cannot guarantee that Singapore will not revoke the tax incentive earlier.
Singapore announced potential changes to its IP incentive programs in its 2017 budget. Such potential changes could result in a reduction in tax incentive benefits and an early termination of or changes to our existing Singapore incentive in 2021. No changes have been finalized, and it is unclear to what extent, if at all, changes will be made to the tax incentives or any specific conditions. We cannot guarantee that we will qualify for any new incentive regime or that such conditions will be satisfied.

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        Our taxes could increase if the incentives are not renewed upon revocation or expiration. If we cannot or do not wish to satisfy all or portions of the tax incentive conditions, we may lose the related tax incentive and could be required to refund the benefits that the tax incentives previously provided. As a result, our effective tax rate could be higher than it would have been had we maintained the benefits of the tax incentives and could harm our operating results.
If we suffer a loss to our factories, facilities or distribution system due to a catastrophic event, our operations could be significantly harmed.
        Our factories, facilities and distribution system are subject to catastrophic loss due to fire, flood, terrorism or other natural or manmade disasters. In particular, several of our facilities could be subject to a catastrophic loss caused by earthquake or other natural disasters due to their locations. For example, our production facilities, headquarters and laboratories in California and our production facilities in Japan are all located in areas with above-average seismic activity. If any of these facilities were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could disrupt our operations, delay production, shipments and revenue and result in large expenses to repair or replace the facility. If such a disruption were to occur, we could breach our agreements, our reputation could be harmed and our business and operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, since we have consolidated our manufacturing facilities, we are more likely to experience an interruption to our operations in the event of a catastrophe in any one location. Although we carry insurance for property damage and business interruption, we do not carry insurance or financial reserves for interruptions or potential losses arising from earthquakes or terrorism. Also, our third-party insurance coverage will vary from time to time in both type and amount depending on availability, cost and our decision with respect to risk retention. Economic conditions and uncertainties in global markets may adversely affect the cost and other terms upon which we are able to obtain third-party insurance. If our third-party insurance coverage is adversely affected, or to the extent we have elected to self-insure, we may be at a greater risk that our operations will be harmed by a catastrophic loss.
If we experience a significant disruption in, or breach in security of, our information technology systems, our business could be adversely affected.
       We rely on several centralized information technology systems to provide products and services, maintain financial records, process orders, manage inventory, process shipments to customers and operate other critical functions. If we experience a prolonged system disruption in the information technology systems that involve our interactions with customers or suppliers, it could result in the loss of sales and customers and significant incremental costs, which could adversely affect our business. In addition, our information technology systems may be susceptible to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to power outages, hardware failures, computer viruses, attacks by computer hackers, telecommunication failures, user errors, catastrophes or other unforeseen events. Furthermore, security breaches of our information technology systems could result in the misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information belonging to the company or our employees, partners, customers or suppliers, which could result in significant financial or reputational damage to the company.
Man-made problems such as cybersecurity attacks, computer viruses or terrorism may disrupt our operations and harm our business, reputation and operating results
Despite our implementation of network security measures, our network may be vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks, computer viruses, break-ins and similar disruptions. Cybersecurity attacks, in particular, are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
 Our daily business operations require us to retain sensitive data such as intellectual property, proprietary business information and data related to customers, suppliers and business partners within our networking infrastructure. The ongoing maintenance and security of this information is pertinent to the success of our business operations and our strategic goals, and organizations like Keysight are susceptible to multiple variations of attacks on our networks on a daily basis.
 Our networking infrastructure and related assets may be subject to unauthorized access by hackers, employee errors, or other unforeseen activities. Such issues could result in the disruption of business processes, network degradation and system downtime, along with the potential that a third party will exploit our critical assets such as intellectual property, proprietary business information and data related to our customers, suppliers and business partners. To the extent that such disruptions occur, they may cause delays in the manufacture or shipment of our products and the cancellation of customer orders and, as a result, our business operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected resulting in a possible loss of business or brand reputation.
In addition, the effects of war or acts of terrorism could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. The continued threat of terrorism and heightened security and military action in response to this threat, or any future acts of terrorism, may cause further disruption to the economy and create further uncertainties in the economy. Energy shortages, such as gas or electricity shortages, could have similar negative impacts. To the extent that such disruptions or uncertainties result in delays or cancellations of customer orders or the manufacture or shipment of our products, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

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Our business and financial results may be adversely affected by various legal and regulatory proceedings.
        We are subject to legal proceedings, lawsuits and other claims in the normal course of business and could become subject to additional claims in the future, some of which could be material. The outcome of existing proceedings, lawsuits and claims may differ from our expectations because the outcomes of litigation are often difficult to reliably predict. Various factors or developments can lead us to change current estimates of liabilities and related insurance receivables where applicable, or permit us to make such estimates for matters previously not susceptible to reasonable estimates, such as a significant judicial ruling or judgment, a significant settlement, significant regulatory developments or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement or unfavorable development could result in charges that could adversely affect our business, operating results or financial condition.
We have substantial cash requirements in the United States, although most of our cash is generated outside of the United States. The failure to maintain a level of cash sufficient to address our cash requirements in the United States could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
        Although the cash generated in the United States from our operations, including any cash and non-permanently invested earnings repatriated to the United States, is expected to cover our normal operating requirements and debt service requirements, a substantial amount of additional cash may be required for special purposes such as the maturity of our current and future debt obligations, any dividends that may be declared, any future stock repurchase programs and any acquisitions. If we encounter a significant need for liquidity domestically that we cannot fulfill through borrowings, equity offerings or other internal or external sources, the transfer of cash into the United States may incur an overall tax rate higher than our tax rates have been in the past and negatively impact after-tax earnings.
We may need additional financing in the future to meet our capital needs or to make opportunistic acquisitions, and such financing may not be available on terms favorable to us, if at all, and may be dilutive to existing shareholders.
        We may need to seek additional financing for our general corporate purposes. For example, we may need to increase our investment in R&D activities or need funds to make acquisitions. We may be unable to obtain any desired additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to fund our expansion, successfully develop or enhance products or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could negatively affect our business. If we finance acquisitions by issuing additional convertible debt or equity securities, our existing stockholders may experience share dilution, which could affect the market price of our stock. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity securities, our shareholders will experience dilution of their ownership interest. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt, we may be subject to further limitations on our operations and ability to pay dividends due to restrictive covenants.
Adverse conditions in the global banking industry and credit markets may adversely impact the value of our cash investments or impair our liquidity.
        Our cash and cash equivalents are invested or held in a mix of money market funds, time deposit accounts and bank demand deposit accounts. Disruptions in the financial markets may, in some cases, result in an inability to access assets such as money market funds that traditionally have been viewed as highly liquid. Any failure of our counterparty financial institutions or funds in which we have invested may adversely impact our cash and cash equivalent positions and, in turn, our results and financial condition.
Future investment returns on pension assets may be lower than expected or interest rates may decline, requiring us to make significant additional cash contributions to our future plans.
        We sponsor several defined benefit pension plans that cover many of our salaried and hourly employees. The Federal Pension Protection Act of 2006 requires that certain capitalization levels be maintained in each of the U.S. plans, and there may be similar funding requirements in the plans outside the United States. Because it is unknown what the investment return on and the fair value of our pension assets will be in future years or what interest rates and discount rates may be at any point in time, no assurances can be given that applicable law will not require us to make future material plan contributions. Any such contributions could adversely affect our financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our share price may fluctuate significantly.
Our common stock is listed on NYSE under the ticker symbol “KEYS.” The market price of our common stock may fluctuate widely, depending on many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including but not limited to:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results due to factors related to our business;
success or failure of our business strategy;

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our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other companies in our industry;
our ability to obtain third-party financing as needed;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions or dispositions;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
the operating and share price performance of other comparable companies;
investor perception of our company;
natural or other disasters that investors believe may affect us;
overall market fluctuations;
results from any material litigation or government investigations;
changes in laws or regulations affecting our business; and
general economic conditions and other external factors.
Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

In addition, when the market price of a company’s shares drops significantly, shareholders often institute securities class action lawsuits against the company. A lawsuit against us could cause us to incur substantial costs and could divert the time and attention of management and other resources.
We do not currently pay dividends on our common stock.
        We do not currently pay dividends on our common stock. The payment of any dividends in the future, and the timing and amount thereof, to our stockholders fall within the discretion of our board of directors. The board's decisions regarding the payment of dividends will depend on many factors, such as our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, debt service obligations, restrictive covenants in our debt, industry practice, legal requirements, regulatory constraints and other factors that the board deems relevant. We cannot guarantee that we will pay a dividend in the future or continue to pay any dividends if we commence paying dividends.
Certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and of Delaware law, may prevent or delay an acquisition of the company, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.
        Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain, and Delaware law contains, provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the bidder and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include but are not limited to:
the inability of our shareholders to call a special meeting;
the inability of our shareholders to act without a meeting of shareholders;
rules regarding how shareholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at shareholder meetings;
the right of our board to issue preferred stock without shareholder approval;
the division of our board of directors into three classes of directors, with each class serving a staggered three-year term, and this classified board provision could have the effect of making the replacement of incumbent directors more time consuming and difficult;
a provision that shareholders may only remove directors with cause;
the ability of our directors, and not shareholders, to fill vacancies on our board of directors; and
the requirement that the affirmative vote of shareholders holding at least 80% of our voting stock is required to amend certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation (relating to the number, term and removal of our directors, the filling of our board vacancies, the advance notice to be given for nominations for elections of directors, the calling of special meetings of shareholders, shareholder action by written consent, the ability of the board of directors to amend the bylaws, elimination of liability of directors to the extent permitted by Delaware law, exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our shareholders and amendments of the certificate of incorporation) and certain provisions in our amended and restated bylaws (relating to the calling of special meetings of shareholders, the business that may be conducted or considered at annual or special meetings, the advance notice of shareholder business and nominations, shareholder action by written consent, the number, tenure, qualifications and removal of our directors, the filling of our board vacancies, director and officer indemnification and amendments of the bylaws).

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        In addition, because we have not chosen to be exempt from Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the "DGCL"), this provision could also delay or prevent a change of control that some shareholders may favor. Section 203 provides that, subject to limited exceptions, persons that acquire, or are affiliated with a person that acquires, more than 15% of the outstanding voting stock of a Delaware corporation (an "interested stockholder") shall not engage in any business combination with that corporation, including by merger, consolidation or acquisitions of additional shares, for a three-year period following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder, unless (i) prior to such time, the board of directors of such corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder; (ii) upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of such corporation at the time the transaction commenced (excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) the voting stock owned by directors who are also officers or held in employee benefit plans in which the employees do not have a confidential right to tender or vote stock held by the plan); or (iii) on or subsequent to such time the business combination is approved by the board of directors of such corporation and authorized at a meeting of shareholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock of such corporation not owned by the interested stockholder.
        We believe these provisions will protect our shareholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors and by providing our board of directors with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make us immune from takeovers. However, these provisions will apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some shareholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our board of directors determines is not in the best interests of the company and our shareholders. These provisions may also prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates that the state courts in the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal court for the District of Delaware, as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our shareholders, which could discourage lawsuits against the company and our directors and officers.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provide that unless the board of directors otherwise determines, the state courts in the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal court for the District of Delaware, will be the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors or officers to the company or our shareholders, any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or Keysight's amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This exclusive forum provision may limit the ability of our shareholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum that such shareholders find favorable for disputes with us or our directors or officers, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors and officers.
Risks Related to the Acquisition of Ixia
We may not realize all of the anticipated benefits of the Merger or those benefits may take longer to realize than expected. We may also encounter significant unexpected difficulties in integrating the two businesses.
Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Merger will depend, to a large extent, on our ability to integrate our and Ixia’s businesses. The combination of two independent businesses is a complex, costly and time-consuming process. As a result, we will be required to devote significant management attention and resources to integrating Ixia’s business practices and operations with our existing business practices and operations. The integration process may disrupt the businesses and, if implemented ineffectively or if impacted by unforeseen negative economic or market conditions or other factors, we may not realize the full anticipated benefits of the Merger. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in integrating the two businesses to realize the anticipated benefits of the Merger could cause an interruption of, or a loss of momentum in, our activities and could adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, the overall integration of the businesses may result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses, loss of customer relationships, and diversion of management's attention. The difficulties of combining the operations of the companies include but are not limited to:
the diversion of management's attention to integration matters;
difficulties in achieving anticipated cost savings, synergies, business opportunities and growth prospects from combining Ixia’s business with our business;
difficulties entering new markets or manufacturing in new geographies where we have no or limited direct prior experience;
difficulties in the integration of operations and systems;
difficulties in the assimilation of employees;

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difficulties in managing the expanded operations of a significantly larger and more complex company;
successfully managing relationships with our strategic partners and supplier and customer base; and
challenges in maintaining existing, and establishing new, business relationships.

Many of these factors will be outside of our control and any one of them could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management's time and energy, which could materially impact the business, financial condition and our results of operations. In addition, even if the operations of our business and Ixia’s business are integrated successfully, we may not realize the full benefits of the Merger, including the synergies, cost savings or sales or growth opportunities that we expect. These benefits may not be achieved within the anticipated time frame, or at all. Furthermore, additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the integration of the businesses. All of these factors could decrease or delay the expected accretive effect of the Merger and negatively impact us. As a result, we cannot be certain that the combination of our and Ixia’s businesses will result in the realization of the full benefits anticipated from the Merger.
Uncertainties associated with the Merger may cause a loss of employees and may otherwise materially adversely affect the future business and operations of the combined company.
The combined company’s success after the Merger will depend in part upon the ability of the combined company to retain executive officers and key employees. In some of the fields in which we and Ixia operate, there are only a limited number of people in the job market who possess the requisite skills and it may be increasingly difficult for the combined company to hire personnel over time.
Current and prospective employees of each company may experience uncertainty about their roles with the combined company following the Merger. In addition, key employees may depart because of issues relating to the uncertainty and difficulty of integration or a desire not to remain with the combined company following the Merger. The loss of services of any key personnel or the inability to hire new personnel with the requisite skills could restrict the ability of the combined company to develop new products or enhance existing products in a timely manner, to sell products to customers or to manage the business of the combined company effectively. Also, the business, financial condition and results of operations of the combined company could be materially adversely affected by the loss of any of its key employees, by the failure of any key employee to perform in his or her current position, or by the combined company’s inability to attract and retain skilled employees.
We and Ixia will incur direct and indirect costs as a result of the Merger.
We and Ixia will incur substantial expenses in connection with and as a result of completing the Merger and, over a period of time following the completion of the Merger, we further expect to incur substantial expenses in connection with coordinating our businesses, operations, policies and procedures and Ixia’s. While we have assumed that a certain level of transaction expenses will be incurred, factors beyond our control could affect the total amount or the timing of these expenses. Many of the expenses that will be incurred, by their nature, are difficult to estimate accurately.

Risks Related to the Separation
We will be subject to continuing contingent liabilities of Agilent following the separation.
        After the separation, there are several significant areas where the liabilities of Agilent may become our obligations. For example, under the Internal Revenue Code and the related rules and regulations, each corporation that was a member of the Agilent U.S. consolidated group during a taxable period or portion of a taxable period ending on or before the effective time of the distribution is severally liable for the U.S. federal income tax liability of the entire Agilent U.S. consolidated group for that taxable period. Consequently, if Agilent is unable to pay the consolidated U.S. federal income tax liability for a prior period, we could be required to pay the entire amount of such tax, which could be substantial and in excess of the amount allocated to it as agreed between us and Agilent at the time of separation. Other provisions of federal law establish similar liability for other matters, including laws governing tax-qualified pension plans, as well as other contingent liabilities.
There could be significant liability if the distribution is determined to be a taxable transaction.
        A condition to the distribution is that Agilent received an opinion of Baker & McKenzie LLP, tax counsel to Agilent, regarding the qualification of the separation and the distribution as a reorganization within the meaning of Sections 355(a) and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code. The opinion relies on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings from Agilent and Keysight, including those regarding the past and future conduct of the companies' respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are incorrect or not satisfied, Agilent and its shareholders may not be able to rely on the opinion, and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the opinion of tax counsel, the IRS could determine

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on audit that the distribution is taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinion.
        If the distribution were determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Agilent and its shareholders that are subject to U.S. federal income tax could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities. For example, if the distribution failed to qualify for tax-free treatment, Agilent would for U.S. federal income tax purposes be treated as if it had sold the Keysight common stock in a taxable sale for its fair market value, and Agilent's shareholders, who are subject to U.S. federal income tax, would be treated as receiving a taxable distribution in an amount equal to the fair market value of the Keysight common stock received in the distribution. In addition, if the separation and distribution failed to qualify for tax-free treatment under federal, state and local tax law and/or foreign tax law, Agilent and Keysight could each incur significant tax liabilities under U.S. federal, state, local and/or foreign tax law.
        Under the agreement between Agilent and Keysight pertaining to tax matters, as finalized at the time of separation, we are generally required to indemnify Agilent against taxes incurred by Agilent that arise as a result of our taking or failing to take, as the case may be, certain actions that result in the distribution failing to meet the requirements of a tax-free distribution under Section 355 of the Code. Under the agreement between Agilent and Keysight, as finalized at the time of separation, we may also be required to indemnify Agilent for other contingent tax liabilities, which could materially adversely affect our financial position.

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Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our executive offices are located in the United States in an owned facility in Santa Rosa, California. We own or lease a total of approximately 160 operating facilities located throughout the world that handle manufacturing production, research and development, administration, assembly, sales, quality, assurance testing, distribution and packaging of our products. These facilities are primarily located in the following countries: China, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom and the United States. As of October 31, 2017, we own or lease a total of approximately 6.3 million square feet of space worldwide, of which we own approximately 4.2 million square feet and lease 2.1 million square feet. Our sales and support facilities occupy a total of approximately 0.6 million square feet. Our manufacturing plants, R&D facilities and warehouse and administrative facilities occupy approximately 5.7 million square feet. All of these facilities are well maintained and suitable for the operations conducted in them.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are involved in lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings, including, but not limited to, patent, commercial and environmental matters, which arise in the ordinary course of business. There are no matters pending that we currently believe are reasonably possible of having a material impact to our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


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PART II

Item 5. Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") with the ticker symbol "KEYS.’’ The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices per quarter for the fiscal years 2017 and 2016 as reported in the consolidated transaction reporting system for the New York Stock Exchange:
Fiscal 2017
High
Low
Dividends
First Quarter (ended January 31, 2017)
$
38.28

$
31.81

Second Quarter (ended April 30, 2017)
$
39.36

$
35.05

Third Quarter (ended July 31, 2017)
$
42.98

$
35.62

Fourth Quarter (ended October 31, 2017)
$
44.79

$
39.21

 
 
 
 
Fiscal 2016
High
Low
Dividends
First Quarter (ended January 31, 2016)
$
33.48

$
22.15

Second Quarter (ended April 30, 2016)
$
28.39

$
21.07

Third Quarter (ended July 31, 2016)
$
31.87

$
25.49

Fourth Quarter (ended October 31, 2016)
$
33.14

$
26.87

There were 23,622 shareholders of record of Keysight common stock as of December 15, 2017.
We have not paid any dividends, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. All decisions regarding the declaration and payment of dividends and repurchase stock are at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be evaluated regularly in light of our financial condition, earnings, growth prospects, funding requirements, applicable law, and any other factors that our Board deems relevant.
The information required by this item with respect to equity compensation plans will be included under the caption Equity Compensation Plans in our proxy statement for the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A, and is incorporated herein by reference.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

The table below summarizes information about the company’s purchases, based on trade date; of its equity securities registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act during the quarterly period ended October 31, 2017. The total number of shares of common stock purchased by the company during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017 is 2,288,516 shares.
 Period
 
Total Number of Shares of Common Stock Purchased (1)
 
Weighted Average Price Paid per Share of Common Stock (2)
 
Total Number of Shares of Common Stock Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
 
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares of Common Stock that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
August 1, 2017 through August 31, 2017
 

 
N/A
 

 
$
138,515,618

September 1, 2017 through September 30, 2017
 

 
N/A
 

 
$
138,515,618

October 1, 2017 through October 31, 2017
 

 
N/A
 

 
$
138,515,618

Total
 

 
N/A
 

 
 
(1)
On February 18, 2016, the Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing the purchase of up to $200 million of the company’s common stock. Under the program, shares may be purchased from time to time, subject to general business and market conditions and other investment opportunities, through open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or other means. The stock repurchase program may be commenced, suspended or discontinued at any time at the company’s discretion and does not have an expiration date. All such shares and related costs are held as treasury stock and accounted for using the cost method.
(2)
The weighted average price paid per share of common stock does not include the cost of commissions.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data (Unaudited)
The following table presents the selected combined and consolidated financial data, which should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. We derived the selected financial data as of October 31, 2017 and for each of the fiscal years in the three-year period ended October 31, 2017 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. We derived the selected financial data as of October 31, 2013 from audited combined financial statements that are not included in this Form 10-K.
Our historical combined and consolidated financial statements before November 1, 2014 include certain expenses of Agilent that were allocated to us for certain functions, including general corporate expenses related to information technology, research and development, finance, legal, insurance, compliance and human resources activities. These costs may not be representative of the costs we have incurred or will incur as an independent public company. The historical financial information included here may not necessarily reflect our financial position and results of operations or what our financial position and results of operations would have been had we been an independent, publicly-traded company during the historical periods presented or be indicative of our future performance as an independent company.
 
Years Ended October 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in millions, except per share data)
Combined and Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
$
3,189

 
$
2,918

 
$
2,856

 
$
2,933

 
$
2,888

Income before taxes
$
179

 
$
366

 
$
388

 
$
475

 
$
501

Net income
$
102

 
$
335

 
$
513

 
$
392

 
$
457

Net income per share(a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.57

 
$
1.97

 
$
3.04

 
$
2.35

 
$
2.74

Diluted
$
0.56

 
$
1.95

 
$
3.00

 
$
2.35

 
$
2.74

Weighted average shares used in computing net income per share(a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
180

 
170

 
169

 
167

 
167

Diluted
182

 
172

 
171

 
167

 
167

(a)On November 1, 2014, Agilent Technologies, Inc. distributed 167 million shares of Keysight common stock to existing holders of Agilent common stock. Basic and diluted net income per share for all periods through October 31, 2014 is calculated using the shares distributed on November 1, 2014. Refer to Note 6 of the consolidated financial statements for information regarding earnings per common share.
 
 
October 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in millions)
Combined and Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments
$
818

 
$
783

 
$
483

 
$
810

 
$

Working capital
$
1,358

 
$
1,210

 
$
893

 
$
1,081

 
$
412

Total assets
$
5,933

 
$
3,796

 
$
3,501

 
$
3,041

 
$
2,028

Long-term debt
$
2,038

 
$
1,093

 
$
1,092

 
$
1,090

 
$

Stockholders'/Invested equity
$
2,310

 
$
1,513

 
$
1,302

 
$
769

 
$
1,245



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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained herein include, without limitation, statements regarding trends, seasonality, cyclicality and growth in, and drivers of, the markets we sell into, our strategic direction, our future effective tax rate and tax valuation allowance, earnings from our foreign subsidiaries, remediation activities, new product and service introductions, the ability of our products to meet market needs, changes to our manufacturing processes, the use of contract manufacturers, the impact of local government regulations on our ability to pay vendors or conduct operations, our liquidity position, our ability to generate cash from operations, growth in our businesses, our investments, the potential impact of adopting new accounting pronouncements, our financial results, our purchase commitments, our contributions to our pension plans, the selection of discount rates and recognition of any gains or losses for our benefit plans, our cost-control activities, savings and headcount reduction recognized from our restructuring programs and other cost saving initiatives, and other regulatory approvals, the integration of our acquisitions and other transactions, our transition to lower-cost regions, the existence of economic instability, and our and the combined group's estimated or anticipated future results of operations, that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to various factors, including those discussed in Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Overview and Executive Summary
Keysight Technologies, Inc. ("we," "us," "Keysight" or the "company") incorporated in Delaware on December 6, 2013 and became an independent publicly-traded company following the separation from Agilent Technologies, Inc. ("Agilent") on November 1, 2014. We are a measurement company providing electronic test and design solutions to communications and electronics industries. Following the acquisition of Ixia, we also provide testing, visibility, and security solutions, strengthening applications across physical and virtual networks for enterprises, service providers, and network equipment manufacturers.
We provide electronic design and test instrumentation systems and related software, software design tools, and services that are used in the design, development, manufacture, installation, deployment, validation, optimization and secure operation of electronics systems. Related services include start-up assistance, instrument productivity, application services and instrument calibration and repair. We also offer customization, consulting and optimization services throughout the customer's product lifecycle.
We invest in product development to address the changing needs of the market and facilitate growth. We are investing in research and development to design measurement solutions that will satisfy the changing needs of our customers. These opportunities are being driven by evolving technology standards and the need for faster data rates and new form factors.
In fiscal year 2016, we completed an organizational change to align our organization with the industries we serve which resulted in three reportable operating segments: Communications Solutions Group, Electronic Industrial Solutions Group and Services Solutions Group. The Communications Solutions Group serves customers spanning the worldwide commercial communications end market, which includes internet infrastructure, and the aerospace, defense and government end market. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides test and measurement solutions across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets. The Services Solutions Group provides repair, calibration and consulting services, and remarkets used Keysight equipment. On April 18, 2017, we completed the acquisition of Ixia, which became our fourth reportable segment, the Ixia Solutions Group (“ISG”). The group provides testing, visibility and security solutions, strengthening applications across physical and virtual networks for enterprises, service providers and network equipment manufacturers. In addition, our global team of experts provides startup assistance, consulting, optimization and application support across all of our end markets.
Years ended October 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
Keysight’s total orders in 2017 were $3,406 million, an increase of 15 percent when compared to 2016. Foreign currency movements had a negligible impact on the year-over-year comparison. Orders associated with acquisitions accounted for 9 percentage points of order growth for the year ended October 31, 2017 when compared to 2016. Total orders in 2016 were $2,953 million, an increase of 3 percent when compared to 2015. Foreign currency movements had an unfavorable impact of 1 percent on the year-over-year comparison. Orders associated with acquisitions accounted for 5 percentage points of order growth for the year ended October 31, 2016 when compared to 2015.
Net revenue of $3,189 million for the year ended October 31, 2017 increased 9 percent when compared to 2016. Foreign currency movements had a negligible impact on the year-over-year comparison. Revenue associated with acquisitions accounted for 7 percentage points of revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2017 when compared to 2016. Excluding acquisitions, revenue grew year-over-year with growth in the Electronic Industrial Solutions Group, driven by semiconductor measurement and automotive and energy markets and growth in the Services Solutions Group. The Communications Solution Group revenue was

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flat as gains in the commercial communications market were offset by declines in the aerospace, defense and government market. Net revenue of $2,918 million in 2016 increased 2 percent when compared to 2015. Foreign currency movements had no impact on the year-over-year comparison. The revenue increase associated with acquisitions accounted for approximately 5 percentage points for the year ended October 31, 2016 when compared to 2015. Excluding acquisitions, revenue declined year-over-year as weakness in the smartphone supply chain and restructuring and consolidation activities in the industry offset strength in 5G technologies and data center expansion.
Net income was $102 million in 2017 compared to net income of $335 million and $513 million in 2016 and 2015, respectively. In 2017, 2016 and 2015, we generated operating cash flows of $313 million, $416 million and $376 million, respectively. The decline in net income for the year ended October 31, 2017 is primarily driven by the unfavorable impact from amortization of acquisition-related balances.
In fiscal 2015, we initiated a phased program associated with our separation from Agilent to resize and optimize our infrastructure from the one that had been established to serve a diversified technology company. The focus of the first phase of the program was on the IT infrastructure to support finance, sales and human resources. The second phase of the program, which was initiated in the third quarter of fiscal 2016, primarily addressed the optimization of the IT infrastructure to support the services business. We recognized costs related to this program of $20 million, $24 million and $20 million in the years ended October 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. We expect to recognize additional costs estimated to range from $2 million to $3 million through fiscal 2018.
Impact of Northern California Wildfires
During the week of October 8, 2017, wildfires in northern California adversely impacted the Keysight corporate headquarters site in Santa Rosa, CA. Our headquarters was under mandatory evacuation for more than three weeks, and while direct damage to our core facilities was limited, our buildings did experience some smoke and other fire-related impacts. Cleaning and additional restoration efforts are ongoing in both production and non-production areas of the site. To ensure business continuity, the company has leased temporary office space that will support Santa Rosa employees who are not immediately re-occupying the site. Keysight is insured for the damage caused by the fire, including business interruption insurance, and though we do not expect the fire to have a net impact on our business results, the disruption will impact the seasonality of revenue in the first half of fiscal 2018.
 For the three and twelve months ended October 31, 2017, we recognized costs of $16 million, net of $2 million of estimated insurance recovery, including the write-off of damaged fixed assets, unabsorbed overhead costs, cleaning and other direct costs related to the impact of this event.
As we are still in the investigation phase, we have only recognized an insurance receivable for known losses for which we believe insurance reimbursement is probable in excess of our self-insured retention amount of $10 million. In many cases, our insurance coverage exceeds the amount of these covered losses, but no gain contingencies have been recognized as our ability to realize those gains remains uncertain for financial reporting purposes. We currently estimate that total losses and expenses related to the fire will range from $80 million to $110 million, primarily including cleaning and recovery costs, and believe that the expenses will be recoverable under our insurance policy. There may be a difference in timing of costs incurred and the related insurance reimbursement.
Outlook
Looking forward, we believe our increased investments in R&D combined with our completed acquisitions, which have expanded of our technology portfolio and the size of our addressable market, positions Keysight for growth. We remain focused on delivering value through innovative solutions targeted at faster growing markets where customers are investing in next-generation digital and electronic technologies. Internally, we are continuously working to improve operational efficiency within, and across, all functions. 

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Currency Exchange Rate Exposure
Our revenues, costs and expenses, and monetary assets and liabilities are exposed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates as a result of our global operating and financing activities. We hedge revenues, expenses and balance sheet exposures that are not denominated in the functional currencies of our subsidiaries on a short-term and anticipated basis. The result of the hedging has been included in our consolidated statement of operations. We experience some fluctuations within individual lines of the consolidated balance sheet and consolidated statement of operations because our hedging program is not designed to offset the currency movements in each category of revenues, expenses, monetary assets and liabilities. Our hedging program is designed to hedge currency movements on a relatively short-term basis of up to a rolling twelve-month period. Therefore, we are exposed to currency fluctuations over the longer term. To the extent that we are required to pay for all, or portions, of an acquisition price in foreign currencies, we may enter into foreign exchange contracts to reduce the risk that currency movements will impact the U.S. dollar cost of the transaction.

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Results from Operations-Years ended October 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
Orders and Net Revenue
In general, recorded orders represent firm purchase commitments from our customers with established terms and conditions for products and services that will be delivered within six months. Consistent with our strategy, we are seeing an increase in solution sales, which have a longer order-to-revenue conversion cycle; however, the majority of recorded orders will be delivered within six months.
Revenue reflects the delivery and acceptance of the products and services as defined on the customer’s terms and conditions. Cancellations are recorded in the period received from the customer and historically have not been material.
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
Orders
$
3,406

 
$
2,953

 
$
2,853

 
15%
 
3%
Net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Products
$
2,664

 
$
2,440

 
$
2,408

 
9%
 
1%
Services and other
525

 
478

 
448

 
10%
 
7%
Total net revenue
$
3,189

 
$
2,918

 
$
2,856

 
9%
 
2%
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
% of total net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Products
84
%
 
84
%
 
84
%
 
 
Services and other
16
%
 
16
%
 
16
%
 
 
Total
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
 
 
 
Orders
Total orders for the year ended October 31, 2017 were $3,406 million, an increase of 15 percent when compared to 2016. Foreign currency movements had a negligible impact on the year-over-year comparison. Orders associated with acquisitions accounted for 9 percentage points of order growth for the year ended October 31, 2017 when compared to 2016. Orders grew across all operating segments with growth in all regions. Total orders for the year ended October 31, 2016 were $2,953 million, an increase of 3 percent when compared to 2015. Foreign currency movements had an unfavorable impact of 1 percentage point on the year-over-year compare. Orders associated with acquisitions accounted for 5 percentage points of order growth for the year ended October 31, 2016 when compared to 2015. Orders grew across all operating segments with growth in all regions.
Net Revenue
The following table provides the percent change in revenue for the years ended October 31, 2017 and 2016 by geographic region, including and excluding the impact of currency changes, as compared to the respective prior year.
 
Year over Year % Change
 
2017 over 2016
 
2016 over 2015
Geographic Region
actual
 
currency adjusted
 
actual
 
currency adjusted
Americas
11
%
 
11
%
 
%
 
1
 %
Europe
6
%
 
7
%
 
3
%
 
5
 %
Japan
5
%
 
6
%
 
5
%
 
(1
)%
Asia Pacific ex-Japan
11
%
 
11
%
 
3
%
 
4
 %
Total revenue
9
%
 
10
%
 
2
%
 
2
 %
Net revenue of $3,189 million for the year ended October 31, 2017 increased 9 percent when compared to 2016. Foreign currency movements had a negligible impact on the year-over-year comparison. Revenue associated with acquisitions accounted for 7 percentage points of revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2017 when compared to 2016. Net revenue of $2,918 million for the year ended October 31, 2016 increased 2 percent when compared to 2015. Foreign currency movements

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had a negligible impact on the year-over-year comparison. Revenue associated with acquisitions accounted for 5 percentage points of revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2016 when compared to 2015.
Revenue from the Communications Solutions Group represented approximately 54 percent of total revenue in 2017 and was flat when compared to 2016. The Communications Solutions Group contribution to total revenue growth was negligible in 2017, with growth in Japan and Asia Pacific excluding Japan offset by declines in the Americas and Europe when compared to 2016. The Communications Solutions Group revenue remained flat as strength in 5G technologies and data center technologies was offset by decline in the aerospace, defense and government market. In 2016, the Communications Solutions Group represented approximately 60 percent of total revenue and increased 3 percent when compared to 2015. The Communications Solutions Group contributed 1 percentage point to total revenue growth in 2016, with growth in Europe, Japan and Asia Pacific excluding Japan, while the Americas revenue was flat when compared to 2015. Excluding revenue from Anite, the Communications Solutions Group revenue declined year-over-year as weakness in the smartphone supply chain and restructuring and consolidation activities in the industry offset strength in 5G technologies and data center expansion.
Revenue from the Electronic Industrial Solutions Group represented approximately 27 percent of total revenue in 2017 and grew 8 percent year-over-year when compared to the same period last year, driven by strong growth in semiconductor measurement and automotive and energy markets. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group contributed 2 percentage points to total revenue growth in 2017, with growth in Asia Pacific excluding Japan and Europe, partially offset by declines in Japan, while revenue from the Americas remained flat. Revenue from the Electronic Industrial Solutions Group represented approximately 26 percent of total revenue in 2016 and grew 2 percent year-over-year when compared to the same period last year. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group contributed 1 percentage point to total revenue growth in 2016, with growth in Asia Pacific excluding Japan and Japan, partially offset by declines in Europe and the Americas.
Revenue from the Ixia Solutions Group represented approximately 6 percent of total revenue in 2017. Revenue from the Ixia Solutions Group contributed 7 percentage points to total revenue growth in 2017.
Revenue from the Services Solutions Group represented approximately 13 percent of total revenue in 2017 and grew 4 percent when compared year-over-year. The Services Solutions Group contribution to the total revenue growth was negligible in 2017, with growth in all regions. Revenue from the Services Solutions Group represented approximately 14 percent of total revenue in 2016 and was flat when compared year-over-year. The Services Solutions Group contribution to total revenue growth was negligible in 2016, with growth in the Americas and Japan, partially offset by decline in Asia Pacific excluding Japan, while Europe was flat.
Backlog
Backlog represents the amount of revenue expected from orders that have already been booked, including orders for goods and services that have not been delivered to customers, orders invoiced but not yet recognized as revenue, and orders for goods that were shipped but not invoiced, awaiting acceptance by customers.
At October 31, 2017, our unfilled backlog was approximately $950 million as compared to approximately $807 million at October 31, 2016. Consistent with our strategy, we are seeing an increase in solution sales, which have a longer order-to-revenue conversion cycle; however, we expect that a majority of the unfilled backlog will be recognized as revenue within six months. We believe backlog on any particular date, while indicative of short-term revenue performance, is not necessarily a reliable indicator of medium or long-term revenue performance.

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Costs and Expenses
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Gross margin on products
54.7
%
 
57.3
%
 
57.4
%
 
(3) ppts
 
— ppt
Gross margin on services and other
46.5
%
 
47.4
%
 
45.6
%
 
(1) ppts
 
2 ppts
Total gross margin
53.4
%
 
55.7
%
 
55.6
%
 
(2) ppts
 
— ppt
Operating margin
7.5
%
 
13.9
%
 
15.1
%
 
(6) ppts
 
(1) ppt
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
498

 
$
425

 
$
387

 
17%
 
10%
Selling, general and administrative
$
1,049

 
$
818

 
$
787

 
28%
 
4%
Other operating expense (income), net
$
(84
)
 
$
(25
)
 
$
(18
)
 
237%
 
37%

Gross margin declined 2 percentage points in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily driven by the unfavorable impacts from amortization of acquisition-related assets, fire-related costs at our corporate headquarters, an increase in people-related costs and an increase in warranty expense due to a lower compare as a result of a one-time reduction in the standard warranty accrual during the three months ended July 31, 2016. Gross margin remained flat in 2016 compared to 2015 as the favorable impacts from a higher percentage of revenue from software and R&D solutions, lower inventory and warranty charges were offset by unfavorable impacts from acquisition-related intangible amortization.
Excess and obsolete inventory charges were $16 million in 2017, $17 million in 2016 and $28 million in 2015. Sales of previously written-down inventory were $1 million in 2017, $2 million in 2016 and $2 million in 2015.
Research and development expense increased 17 percent in 2017 compared to 2016 primarily driven by the addition of Ixia to the cost structure, an increase in people-related costs, acquisition-related compensation costs and our continued investment in research and development programs. As a percentage of total revenue, research and development expenses increased 1 percentage point to 16 percent in 2017 from 15 percent in 2016. Research and development expense increased 10 percent in 2016 compared to 2015 due to increased expenses associated with acquired companies and our continued investment in research and development programs. As a percentage of total revenue, research and development expenses increased 1 percentage point to 15 percent in 2016 from 14 percent in 2015. We expect investment in research and development to continue at current levels and have focused our development efforts on strategic growth opportunities.
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 28 percent for 2017, compared to the same period last year, primarily driven by the addition of Ixia to our cost structure, increases in amortization of acquisition-related assets, acquisition and integration costs, acquisition-related compensation costs, investments in sales resources, people-related costs and the unfavorable impact from fire-related costs at our corporate headquarters and restructuring-related costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 4 percent for 2016, compared to the same period last year, primarily driven by increased expenses associated with acquired companies, higher field selling costs, higher intangible amortization and higher separation-related costs, partially offset by the favorable impact from foreign currency movements and lower share-based compensation expense.
Other operating expense (income), net for 2017 was income of $84 million, which primarily includes a $68 million gain from a settlement related to our Japan pension fund and rental income. Other operating expense (income), net for 2016 was income of $25 million, which primarily includes rental income.
Operating margin decreased 6 percentage points in 2017 when compared to 2016, primarily driven by increases in amortization of acquisition-related assets, acquisition and integration costs, investments in sales resources and people-related costs, partially offset by favorable impact from higher revenue and revenue mix. Operating margin decreased 1 percentage point in 2016 when compared to 2015, primarily driven by the impacts of acquisition-related intangible amortization, higher integration costs and the addition of the Anite cost structure, partially offset by favorable impacts from foreign currency movements and lower share-based compensation expense.
As of October 31, 2017, our headcount was approximately 12,600 compared to 10,300 in 2016. The increase is primarily driven by acquisition of Ixia.

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Interest Expense
Interest expense for the year ended October 31, 2017 and 2016 was $80 million and $47 million, respectively, and relates to interest on our senior notes issued in October 2014 and April 2017. The increase in interest expense for the year ended October 31, 2017 is primarily due to costs related to a bridge loan facility that expired in April, interest expense and amortization of debt issuance costs on $700 million of senior notes issued in April 2017, and new borrowings under a senior unsecured term loan and revolving credit facility. The new debt issuances provided partial funding for the acquisition of Ixia.
Income Taxes
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in millions)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
$
77

 
$
31

 
$
(125
)
For 2017, the effective tax rate was 43 percent, which is higher than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to the payment of a prior year Malaysia tax assessment of $68 million, including tax and penalties, which we are currently in the process of appealing to the Special Commissioners of Income Tax (“SCIT”) in Malaysia.
For 2016, the effective tax rate was 8 percent, which is lower than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to a higher percentage of earnings in the non-U.S. jurisdictions taxed at lower statutory tax rates. Also, the tax rate was lower than the U.S. statutory rate due to the net tax benefit of $45 million resulting from the repatriation of earnings from Japan, which includes a U.S. tax expense of $27 million offset by $72 million of foreign tax credits recorded in connection with the repatriation.
For 2015, the effective tax rate was a benefit of 32 percent, which is lower than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to the retroactive benefit of two tax incentives in Singapore approved during 2015. Also, the tax rate was lower than the U.S. statutory rate due to a higher percentage of earnings in the non-U.S. jurisdictions taxed at lower statutory tax rates.
We benefit from tax incentives in several different jurisdictions, most significantly in Singapore, and several jurisdictions have granted tax incentives that require renewal at various times in the future. The tax incentives provide lower rates of taxation on certain classes of income and require various thresholds of investment and employment or specific types of income in those jurisdictions. The tax incentives are due for renewal between 2024 and 2025. The impact of the tax incentives decreased income taxes by $49 million, $34 million and $250 million in 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively.
In accordance with the guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, for all U.S. and other tax jurisdictions, we recognize potential liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes and interest will be due. If our estimate of income tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would be required. If events occur and the payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. We include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within the provision for income taxes in the consolidated statements of operations. Accrued interest and penalties are included on the related tax liability line in the consolidated balance sheet.
For the majority of our entities, the open tax years for the IRS, state and most foreign audit authorities are from August 1, 2014 through the current tax year. For certain foreign entities, the tax years generally remain open, at most, back to the year 2007. Given the number of years and numerous matters that remain subject to examination in various tax jurisdictions, we are unable to estimate the range of possible changes to the balance of our unrecognized tax benefits.
The company is being audited in Malaysia for the 2008 tax year. Although this tax year pre-dates our spin-off from Agilent, pursuant to the agreement between Agilent and Keysight pertaining to tax matters, as finalized at the time of separation, for certain entities including Malaysia, any historical tax liability is the responsibility of Keysight. In the fourth quarter of this year, Keysight paid income taxes and penalties of $68 million on gains related to intellectual property rights, although we are currently in the process of appealing to the Special Commissioners of Income Tax (“SCIT”) in Malaysia. The company believes there are numerous defenses to the current assessment; the statute of limitations for the 2008 tax year in Malaysia is closed and the income in question is exempt from tax in Malaysia. The company is disputing this assessment and pursuing all avenues to resolve this issue favorably for the company.
On December 15, 2017, the conference committee comprised of representatives of both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate approved proposed U.S. tax reform legislation entitled Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act will become law if passed by both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and signed by the U.S. President. If this tax

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reform is enacted as currently drafted, it will have numerous impacts on our financial statements.  For example, we would expect impacts to tax expense, deferred tax assets and liabilities. These impacts would primarily result from the proposed deemed repatriation of foreign earnings as well as the proposed reduction in the U.S. corporate tax rate. In addition, the current version of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act contains numerous, complex provisions impacting U.S. multinational companies, and we continue to review and assess the proposed legislative language and its potential impact to Keysight.
Segment Overview
In fiscal 2016, we completed an organizational change to align our organization with the industries we serve which resulted in three reportable operating segments: Communications Solutions Group, Electronic Industrial Solutions Group and Services Solutions Group. The Communications Solutions Group serves customers spanning the worldwide commercial communications end market, which includes internet infrastructure, and the aerospace, defense and government end market. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides test and measurement solutions across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets. The Services Solutions Group provides repair, calibration and consulting services, and remarkets used Keysight equipment. On April 18, 2017, we completed the acquisition of Ixia, which became our fourth reportable segment, the Ixia Solutions Group (“ISG”). The group provides testing, visibility and security solutions, strengthening applications across physical and virtual networks for enterprises, service providers and network equipment manufacturers. In addition, our global team of experts provides startup assistance, consulting, optimization and application support across all of our end markets.
The profitability of each segment is measured after excluding, among other things, charges related to the amortization of acquisition-related assets, the impact of restructuring and related costs, asset impairments, acquisition and integration costs, share-based compensation, separation and related costs, interest income and interest expense.
Communications Solutions Group
The Communications Solutions Group serves customers spanning the worldwide commercial communications end market and the aerospace, defense and government end market. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, and systems used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment.
Net Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
Total net revenue
$
1,738

 
$
1,752

 
$
1,703

 
(1)%
 
3%

The Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2017 decreased 1 percent when compared to 2016, primarily driven by decline in the aerospace, defense and government market, partially offset by growth in the commercial communications market. Revenue declines in the Americas and Europe were partially offset by growth in Asia Pacific excluding Japan and Japan. The Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2016 increased 3 percent when compared to 2015, primarily driven by growth in the commercial communications market, while the aerospace, defense and government market remained flat. Revenue grew in all regions except the Americas, which was flat when compared to 2015. Acquisitions added approximately 8 percentage points to the 2016 revenue growth.
Revenue from the commercial communications market represented approximately 60 percent and 58 percent of total Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2017 and 2016, respectively, and increased 3 percent and 5 percent year-over-year, respectively. In 2017, revenue grew in Asia Pacific excluding Japan, the Americas and Japan, partially offset by a decline in Europe. Revenue from the commercial communications market grew year-over-year, driven by growth in 5G and next-generation data center technologies, partially offset by lower 4G-related investments. In 2016, revenue grew in Europe, Asia Pacific excluding Japan and Japan, partially offset by a decline in the Americas. Excluding acquisitions, revenue from the commercial communications market declined year-over-year as weakness in the smartphone supply chain and restructuring and consolidation activities in the industry offset strength in 5G technologies and data center expansion.
Revenue from the aerospace, defense and government market represented approximately 40 percent of total Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2017 and declined 6 percent year-over-year. The decline in revenue from the aerospace, defense and government market was driven by continued weakness in the U.S. combined with lower spending in China. For the year ended October 31, 2017, revenue declines in the Americas and Asia Pacific excluding Japan was partially offset by growth in Europe and Japan. Revenue from the aerospace, defense and government market represented approximately 42 percent of total Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2016 and was flat year-over-year. For the year ended October 31, 2016, growth in the Americas and Japan was partially offset by declines in Europe and Asia Pacific excluding Japan.

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Gross Margin and Operating Margin
The following table shows the Communications Solutions Group margins, expenses and income from operations for 2017 versus 2016, and 2016 versus 2015.
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Total gross margin
61.5
%
 
60.8
%
 
59.7
%
 
1 ppt
 
1 ppt
Operating margin
17.9
%
 
17.9
%
 
19.3
%
 
 
(1) ppt
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
302

 
$
303

 
$
263

 
—%
 
15%
Selling, general and administrative
$
463

 
$
457

 
$
432

 
1%
 
6%
Other operating expense (income), net
$
(7
)
 
$
(9
)
 
$
(9
)
 
(27)%
 
5%
Income from operations
$
311

 
$
314

 
$
329

 
(1)%
 
(5)%
Gross margin in 2017 increased 1 percentage point compared to 2016, primarily due to a higher percentage of revenue from software, lower inventory charges and lower infrastructure-related costs, partially offset by higher warranty costs. Gross margin in 2016 increased 1 percentage point compared to 2015, primarily due to a higher percentage of revenue from software and R&D solutions, lower warranty and lower inventory charges.
Research and development expenses were flat when compared to 2016. Increased investments in R&D engineers and programs were offset by reduction in infrastructure-related costs and discretionary spending. In 2016, research and development expenses increased 15 percent, primarily driven by acquisitions and increased investments in R&D engineers and programs. We remain committed to investment in research and development and have focused our development efforts on strategic opportunities in order to capture future growth.
Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2017 increased 1 percent when compared to 2016, primarily driven by investments in sales resources. Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2016 increased 6 percent when compared to 2015, primarily driven by the acquisitions and higher field selling expenses.
Other operating expense (income) in 2017 and 2016 was income of $7 million and $9 million, respectively.
Income from Operations
Income from operations for 2017 decreased $3 million on a corresponding revenue decline of $14 million. Income from operations for 2016 decreased $15 million on a corresponding revenue increase of $49 million.
Operating margin in 2017 was flat when compared to 2016, as improvement in gross margin was offset by investments in sales resources. Operating margin decreased 1 percentage point in 2016 compared to 2015, driven by investments in research and development and field selling costs.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group
The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides test and measurement solutions across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets, focusing on high-growth applications in the automotive and energy industry and measurement solutions for semiconductor design and manufacturing, consumer electronics, education and general electronics manufacturing. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, and systems used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment.
Net Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
Total net revenue
$
836

 
$
776

 
$
758

 
8%
 
2%


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The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group revenue in 2017 increased 8 percent when compared to 2016, driven by strong growth in semiconductor measurement, automotive and energy markets. Strong revenue growth in Asia Pacific excluding Japan and Europe was partially offset by declines in Japan and the Americas. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group revenue in 2016 increased 2 percent when compared to 2015 with growth in Asia Pacific excluding Japan and Japan, partially offset by declines in the Americas and Europe. The revenue increase associated with acquisitions accounted for approximately 1 percentage point in 2016.
Gross Margin and Operating Margin
The following table shows the Electronic Industrial Solutions Group margins, expenses and income from operations for 2017 versus 2016, and 2016 versus 2015.
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Total gross margin
61.1
%
 
59.2
%
 
58.0
%
 
2 ppts
 
1 ppt
Operating margin
23.8
%
 
21.8
%
 
20.9
%
 
2 ppts
 
1 ppt
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
121

 
$
108

 
$
104

 
12%
 
5%
Selling, general and administrative
$
194

 
$
186

 
$
181

 
4%
 
2%
Other operating expense (income), net
$
(3
)
 
$
(4
)
 
$
(4
)
 
(13)%
 
(8)%
Income from operations
$
199

 
$
169

 
$
158

 
18%
 
7%
Gross margin in 2017 increased 2 percentage points compared to 2016, primarily driven by higher revenue and favorable revenue mix. Gross margin in 2016 increased 1 percentage point compared to 2015, primarily driven by higher revenue, lower warranty expenses and higher system sales for new semiconductor process technology.
Research and development expenses in 2017 and 2016 increased 12 percent and 5 percent, respectively, primarily driven by increased investments in leading-edge technologies and key growth opportunities in our end markets. We remain committed to investment in research and development and have focused our development efforts on strategic opportunities in order to capture future growth.
Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2017 and 2016, increased 4 percent and 2 percent, respectively, primarily driven by our focus on solution selling and market expansion activities.
Other operating expense (income) in 2017 and 2016 was income of $3 million and $4 million, respectively.
Income from Operations
Income from operations for 2017 increased $30 million on a corresponding revenue increase of $60 million. Income from operations for 2016 increased $11 million on a corresponding revenue increase of $18 million.
Operating margin increased 2 percentage points in 2017 compared to 2016, driven by higher gross margin. Operating margin increased 1 percentage point in 2016 compared to 2015, driven by higher gross margin, partially offset by increased investments in R&D programs and market expansion activities.
Ixia Solutions Group
The Ixia Solutions Group helps customers validate the performance and security resilience of their networks and associated applications. The test, visibility and security products help organizations and their customers strengthen their physical and virtual networks. Enterprises, service providers, network equipment manufacturers, and governments worldwide rely on the group's solutions to validate new products before shipping and secure ongoing operation of their networks with better visibility and security. The group’s product solutions consist of our high-performance hardware platforms, software applications, and services, including warranty and maintenance offerings.

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Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Total gross margin
76.6
%
 
%
 
%
 
n/a
 
n/a
Operating margin
16.4
%
 
%
 
%
 
n/a
 
n/a
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
$
256

 
$

 
$

 
n/a
 
n/a
Research and development
$
50

 
$

 
$

 
n/a
 
n/a
Selling, general and administrative
$
103

 
$

 
$

 
n/a
 
n/a
Other operating expense (income), net
$

 
$

 
$

 
n/a
 
n/a
Income from operations
$
42

 
$

 
$

 
n/a
 
n/a
The above table represents the Ixia Solution Group's results from the date of acquisition.
Services Solutions Group
The Services Solutions Group provides repair, calibration and consulting services, and remarkets used Keysight equipment. In addition to providing repair and calibration support for Keysight equipment, we also calibrate non-Keysight equipment. The group serves the same markets as Keysight’s Communications Solutions and Electronic Industrial Solutions Groups, providing industry-specific services to deliver complete Keysight solutions and help customers reduce their total cost of ownership for their design and test equipment. This segment was formerly reported as the company’s Customer Support and Services segment.
Net Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
Total net revenue
$
419

 
$
402

 
$
401

 
4%
 
—%

The Services Solutions Group revenue in 2017 grew 4 percent compared to 2016. Acquisitions accounted for approximately 1 percentage point of total revenue growth. An increase in revenue from sales of used equipment and calibration services was partially offset by a decline in revenue from repair services. Revenue grew in all regions, led by strong growth in Asia Pacific excluding Japan and the Americas. Services Solutions Group revenue in 2016 remained flat compared to 2015. Acquisitions accounted for approximately 2 percentage points of total revenue growth. An increase in revenue from calibration services and used equipment was partially offset by a decline in revenue from repair services. Growth in the Americas and Japan was partially offset by a decline in Asia Pacific excluding Japan, while Europe remained flat.
Gross Margin and Operating Margin
The following table shows the Services Solutions Group margins, expenses and income from operations for 2017 versus 2016, and 2016 versus 2015.
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017 over 2016
% Change
 
2016 over 2015
% Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Total gross margin
41.2
%
 
40.9
%
 
42.9
%
 
— ppt
 
(2) ppts
Operating margin
16.3
%
 
15.6
%
 
17.9
%
 
1 ppt
 
(2) ppts
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
2

 
$
5

 
$
9

 
(67)%
 
(40)%
Selling, general and administrative
$
105

 
$
99

 
$
94

 
7%
 
5%
Other operating expense (income), net
$
(3
)
 
$
(2
)
 
$
(3
)
 
25%
 
(14)%
Income from operations
$
68

 
$
63

 
$
72

 
8%
 
(12)%

Gross margin in 2017 was flat compared to 2016, primarily driven by higher volume and favorable revenue mix offset by higher expenses associated with the investments we are making in additional capacity to expand our multi-vendor calibration and asset management services. Gross margin in 2016 decreased 2 percentage points compared to 2015, primarily driven by flat volume

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and higher expenses associated with the investments we are making in additional capacity to expand our multi-vendor calibration and asset management services.
Research and development expenses for the Services Solutions Group represent the segment’s share of centralized investment. Research and development expenses declined 67 percent when compared to 2016 and declined 40 percent in 2016 when compared to 2015, primarily driven by a change in the Services Solutions Group’s share of centralized investments in research and development.
For 2017, selling, general and administrative expense increased 7 percent compared to 2016 due to increased investment in sales resources, higher people-related costs and acquisitions. Selling, general and administrative expense increased 5 percent in 2016 compared to 2015 due to higher field selling costs, an increase in infrastructure-related costs and acquisitions.
Other operating expense (income) in 2017 and 2016 was income of $3 million and $2 million, respectively.
Income from Operations
Income from operations for 2017 increased $5 million on a corresponding revenue increase of $17 million. Income from operations for 2016 decreased $9 million on a corresponding revenue increase of $1 million.
Operating margin increased 1 percentage point in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily driven by higher revenue and lower share in R&D expenses, partially offset by increased investment in sales resources. Operating margin decreased 2 percentage points in 2016 compared to 2015, driven by flat revenue, lower gross margins, higher infrastructure-related costs and field selling costs.
Financial Condition
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our financial position as of October 31, 2017 consisted of cash and cash equivalents of $818 million as compared to $783 million as of October 31, 2016.
As of October 31, 2017, approximately $767 million of our cash and cash equivalents was held outside of the U.S. in our foreign subsidiaries. Under current tax laws, most of the cash could be repatriated to the U.S., but it would be subject to U.S. federal and state income taxes, less applicable foreign tax credits. Cash held outside of the U.S. can be used for non-U.S. growth and expansion. Our cash and cash equivalents mainly consist of short-term deposits held at major global financial institutions, investments in institutional money market funds, and similar short duration instruments with original maturities of 90 days or less. We continuously monitor the creditworthiness of the financial institutions in which we invest our funds. We utilize a variety of funding strategies in an effort to ensure that our worldwide cash is available in the locations in which it is needed. Most significant international locations have access to internal funding through an offshore cash pool for working capital needs, in addition to temporary local overdraft and short-term working capital lines of credit for a few locations which are unable to access internal funding.
We believe our cash and cash equivalents, cash generated from operations, and ability to access capital markets and credit lines will satisfy, for at least the next twelve months, our liquidity requirements, both globally and domestically, including the following: working capital needs, capital expenditures, business acquisitions, contractual obligations, commitments, principal and interest payments on debt, and other liquidity requirements associated with our operations.
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
Cash flows from operating activities can fluctuate significantly from period to period as working capital needs and the timing of payments for income taxes, restructuring activities, pension funding, variable pay and other items impact reported cash flows.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $313 million for the year ended October 31, 2017 as compared to $416 million provided in 2016 and $376 million provided in 2015.
Net income in 2017 decreased by $233 million as compared to 2016. Changes to non-cash income and expenses in 2017 as compared to 2016 included a $91 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense, a $64 million decrease in deferred tax expense, a $69 million gain due to pension curtailment and settlement, a $9 million fee associated with a bridge loan facility, an impairment charge of $7 million related to cancellation of an in-process R&D project, a $7 million increase in share-based compensation expense, a $2 million decline in gain from sale of land, a $1 million decline in excess and obsolete inventory-related charges and a $6 million increase in other miscellaneous non-cash expenses as compared to the same period last year. Additionally, we paid $28 million of acquisition-related compensation expense to redeem certain of Ixia's outstanding unvested stock awards as of the date of the Merger Agreement that were determined

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to relate to post-merger service periods and expensed in Keysight's consolidated financial statements. Further, during fiscal 2017, we paid $68 million to the Malaysia tax authority associated with a tax assessment, including penalties, on gains related to intellectual property transfers that we are currently in the process of appealing to the Special Commissioners of Income Tax (“SCIT”) in Malaysia.
The aggregate of accounts receivable, inventory and accounts payable provided net cash of zero during 2017, compared to net cash used of $72 million in 2016 and $27 million in 2015. The fiscal 2017 inventory change included $61 million of amortization related to the fair value adjustment to inventory due to the Ixia acquisition. The amount of cash flow generated from or used by the aggregate of accounts receivable, inventory and accounts payable depends upon the cash conversion cycle, which represents the number of days that elapse from the day we pay for the purchase of raw materials and components to the collection of cash from our customers and can be significantly impacted by the timing of shipments and purchases, as well as collections and payments in a period.
Net cash paid to Agilent under separation and distribution agreement was zero in 2017 and 2016 as compared to payments to Agilent of $28 million in 2015.
The aggregate of employee compensation and benefits, income taxes payable, deferred revenue, and other assets and liabilities provided net operating cash of $30 million during 2017 as compared to net cash used of $31 million and $67 million in 2016 and 2015, respectively. The difference between 2017 and 2016 activities is primarily due to an increase in deferred revenue balances as a result of acquisition activity, partially offset by an increase in variable compensation payments and other differences due to timing of accruals and collections versus payments between the periods.
We contributed $34 million to our non-U.S. defined benefit plans during 2017 compared to $38 million in 2016 and $48 million in 2015. We did not contribute to our U.S. Defined Benefit Plans in 2017, 2016 and 2015. We did not contribute to the U.S. Post-Retirement Benefit Plan in 2017, and we contributed $1 million in 2016 and $1 million in 2015.
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $1,722 million in 2017, $90 million in 2016 and $671 million in 2015. Investments in property, plant and equipment were $72 million in 2017, $91 million in 2016 and $92 million in 2015.
In 2017, we paid $1,622 million, net of $72 million of cash acquired, for the acquisition of Ixia, $60 million for the acquisition of ScienLab, net of $2 million of cash acquired, and $20 million, net, for other acquisition activity. The purchase consideration includes approximately $47 million paid to Ixia employees for vested equity awards. In 2016, we used $10 million, net of cash acquired, for the acquisition of a small business and a contingent payment related to the Anite acquisition as compared to $574 million for the acquisitions of Anite and Electroservices in 2015.
We received $8 million of proceeds from the sale of land in 2017 compared to $10 million in 2016. We also received $45 million of proceeds from the sale of investments in 2017 as compared to $1 million in 2016 and $1 million in 2015.
In 2015, we invested $7 million in preferred stock of a privately held radio frequency microstructure company, accounted for using the cost method.
Net Cash Used in Financing Activities
Cash flows related to financing activities consist primarily of cash flows associated with the issuance of common stock, proceeds from and repayments of borrowings, issuance of common stock under employee stock plans, treasury stock repurchases and debt issuance cost. Net cash provided by financing activities in 2017 was $1,440 million compared to cash used of $25 million in 2016 and cash used of $19 million in 2015, primarily due to proceeds used to fund the acquisition of Ixia, including the issuance of long-term debt of $1,069 million, short-term borrowings of $212 million, and the issuance of common stock under public offering of $444 million, net of issuance costs. We repaid $323 million of the borrowings in 2017, including $182 million of the revolving facility, $140 million of the term loan and a $1 million short-term loan acquired with the acquisition of ScienLab. In addition, during 2017, we issued common stock under employee stock plans of $51 million compared to $43 million during 2016 and $26 million during 2015.
On February 18, 2016, our Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program under which the company is authorized to repurchase up to $200 million of the company’s outstanding common stock through open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or other means. The repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued at any time at the company’s discretion. In fiscal 2016, the company used $62 million to repurchase shares.
Financing activities in 2015 also reflects $49 million of cash returned to Agilent in accordance with the separation and distribution agreement.

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Short-term debt
Revolving Credit Facility
On February 15, 2017, we entered into an amended and restated credit agreement (the “Revolving Credit Facility”) that replaced our existing $450 million unsecured credit facility dated September 15, 2014. The Revolving Credit Facility provides for a $450 million, five-year unsecured revolving credit facility that will expire on February 15, 2022 and bears interest at an annual rate of LIBOR + 1.30%. In addition, the Revolving Credit Facility permits us to increase the total commitments under this credit facility by up to $150 million in the aggregate on one or more occasions upon request. We may use amounts borrowed under the facility for general corporate purposes. During the year ended October 31, 2017, we borrowed and repaid $182 million of borrowings outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility. As of October 31, 2017, we had no borrowings outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility. We were in compliance with the covenants of the Revolving Credit Facility during the year ended October 31, 2017.
Bridge Facility 
On January 30, 2017, we entered into a commitment letter, pursuant to which certain lenders agreed to provide a senior unsecured 364-day bridge loan facility of up to $1.684 billion (“the Bridge Facility”) for the purpose of providing the financing to support Keysight's acquisition of Ixia. Under the terms of commitment letter, the Bridge Facility was automatically terminated upon the Ixia acquisition on April 18, 2017. For the year ended October 31, 2017, we incurred costs in connection with the Bridge Facility of $9 million that were amortized to interest expense.
Long-term debt
Senior Notes
In April 2017, the company issued an aggregate principal amount of $700 million in senior notes ("2027 Senior Notes"). The 2027 Senior Notes were issued at 99.873 percent of their principal amount. The notes will mature on April 6, 2027 and bear interest at a fixed rate of 4.60 percent per annum. The interest is payable semi-annually on April 6 and October 6 of each year, commencing on October 6, 2017. We incurred issuance costs of $6 million in connection with the 2027 Senior Notes that, along with the debt discount of $1 million, are being amortized to interest expense over the term of the senior notes. The 2027 Senior Notes are unsecured and rank equally in right of payment with all of our other senior unsecured indebtedness.
In October 2014, the company issued an aggregate principal amount of $500 million in senior notes ("2019 Senior Notes"). The 2019 Senior Notes were issued at 99.902 percent of their principal amount. The notes will mature on October 30, 2019, and bear interest at a fixed rate of 3.30 percent per annum. The interest is payable semi-annually on April 30 and October 30 of each year.
In October 2014, the company issued an aggregate principal amount of $600 million in senior notes ("2024 Senior Notes"). The 2024 Senior Notes were issued at 99.966 percent of their principal amount. The notes will mature on October 30, 2024, and bear interest at a fixed rate of 4.55 percent per annum. The interest is payable semi-annually on April 30 and October 30 of each year.
Senior Unsecured Term Loan
On February 15, 2017, we entered into a term credit agreement that provides for a three-year $400 million senior unsecured term loan that bears interest at an annual rate of LIBOR + 1.50%. The term loan was drawn upon the closing of the Ixia acquisition. During the year ended October 31, 2017, we repaid $140 million of the term loan. As of October 31, 2017, we had borrowings outstanding under the term loan of $260 million, of which $10 million is due in the next twelve months. In connection with the term loan, we incurred issuance costs of $1 million that are being amortized to interest expense over the term of loan.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements and Other
We have contractual commitments for non-cancellable operating leases. See Note 17, "Commitments and Contingencies," to our consolidated financial statements for further information on our non-cancellable operating leases.
Our liquidity is affected by many factors, some of which are based on normal ongoing operations of our business and some of which arise from fluctuations related to global economics and markets. Our cash balances are generated and held in many locations throughout the world. Local government regulations may restrict our ability to move cash balances to meet cash needs under certain circumstances. We do not currently expect such regulations and restrictions to impact our ability to pay vendors and conduct operations throughout our global organization.

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Contractual Commitments
Our cash flows from operations are dependent on a number of factors, including fluctuations in our operating results, accounts receivable collections, inventory management, and the timing of tax and other payments. As a result, the impact of contractual obligations on our liquidity and capital resources in future periods should be analyzed in conjunction with such factors.
The following table summarizes our total contractual obligations at October 31, 2017 (in millions). The amounts presented in the table do not reflect $41 million of liabilities for uncertain tax positions as of October 31, 2017. We are unable to accurately predict when these amounts will be realized or released. However, it is reasonably possible that there could be significant changes to our unrecognized tax benefits in the next 12 months due to either the expiration of a statute of limitations or a tax audit settlement.
 
Total
 
Less than one
year
 
One to three years
 
Three to five years
 
More than five years
 
(in millions)
Debt obligations
$
2,060

 
$
10

 
$
750

 
$

 
$
1,300

Interest payments on long-term debt
547

 
84

 
147

 
119

 
197

Operating lease commitments
222

 
51

 
75

 
43

 
53

Capital lease commitments
5

 
1

 
1

 
1

 
2

Commitments to contract manufacturers and suppliers
336

 
332

 
4

 

 

Retirement plans
35

 
35

 

 

 

Other purchase commitments
42

 
42

 

 

 

Total
$
3,247

 
$
555

 
$
977

 
$
163

 
$
1,552

Interest on senior notes.  We have contractual obligations for interest payments on our senior notes. Interest rates and payment dates are detailed above under "Long-term debt."
Operating leases.  Commitments under operating leases relate primarily to leasehold property, See Note 17, "Commitments and Contingencies."
Commitments to contract manufacturers and suppliers.  We purchase components from a variety of suppliers and use several contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for our products. During the normal course of business, we issue purchase orders with estimates of our requirements several months ahead of the delivery dates. Our agreements with these suppliers usually provide us with the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust our requirements based on business needs prior to firm orders being placed. Purchase orders outstanding with delivery dates within 30 days are typically non-cancellable. The majority of our reported purchase commitments arising from these agreements are firm, non-cancellable, and unconditional commitments. We expect to fulfill most of our purchase commitments for inventory within one year.
In addition to the commitments to contract manufacturers and suppliers referenced above, we record a liability for firm, non-cancellable and unconditional purchase commitments for quantities in excess of our future demand forecasts consistent with our policy relating to excess inventory. As of October 31, 2017, the liability for our excess firm, non-cancellable and unconditional purchase commitments was $10 million, compared to $9 million as of October 31, 2016. These amounts are included in other accrued liabilities in our consolidated balance sheet.
Retirement plans.  Commitments under the retirement plans relate to expected contributions to be made to our non-U.S. defined benefit plans for the next year only. Contributions beyond the next year are impractical to estimate.
We also have benefit payments due under our defined benefit retirement plans and post-retirement benefit plan that are not required to be funded in advance, but are paid in the same period that benefits are provided. See Item 8-Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 15, "Retirement Plans and Post-Retirement Benefit Plans," for additional information.
Other purchase commitments. Other purchase commitments relate to contracts with professional services suppliers. We can typically cancel these contracts within 90 days without penalties. For those contracts that are not cancellable within 90 days without penalties, we disclose the amounts we are obligated to pay to a supplier under each contract in that period before such contract can be canceled. As of October 31, 2017, our contractual obligations with these suppliers was approximately $42 million within the next fiscal year, as compared to approximately $35 million as of October 31, 2016.
We had no material off-balance sheet arrangements as of October 31, 2017 or October 31, 2016.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions believed to be reasonable. Although these estimates are based on management's best knowledge of current events and actions that may impact the company in the future, actual results may be different from the estimates. An accounting policy is deemed to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, and if different estimates that reasonably could have been used or changes in the accounting estimate that are reasonably likely to occur could materially change the financial statements. Our critical accounting policies are those that affect our financial statements materially and involve difficult, subjective or complex judgments by management. Those policies are revenue recognition, inventory valuation, share-based compensation, retirement and post-retirement plan assumptions, valuation of goodwill and other intangible assets, warranty, restructuring and accounting for income taxes.
Revenue recognition.  We enter into agreements to sell products (hardware and/or software), services, and other arrangements (multiple-element arrangements) that include combinations of products and services. Revenue from product sales, net of trade discounts and allowances, is recognized provided that persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. Delivery is considered to have occurred when title and risk of loss have transferred to the customer, for products, or when the service has been provided. Revenue is reduced for estimated product returns, when appropriate. For sales that include customer-specified acceptance criteria, revenue is recognized after the acceptance criteria have been met. For products that include installation, if the installation meets the criteria to be considered a separate element, product revenue is recognized upon delivery, and recognition of installation revenue occurs when the installation is complete. Otherwise, neither the product nor the installation revenue is recognized until the installation is complete. Revenue from services is deferred and recognized over the contractual period or as services are rendered. We allocate revenue to each element in our multiple-element arrangements based upon their relative selling prices. We determine the selling price for each deliverable based on a selling price hierarchy. The selling price for a deliverable is based on our vendor specific objective evidence ("VSOE") if available, third-party evidence ("TPE") if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price ("ESP") if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. Revenue from the sale of software products that are not required to deliver the tangible product's essential functionality are accounted for under software revenue recognition rules. Revenue allocated to each element is then recognized when the basic revenue recognition criteria for that element have been met. The amount of product revenue recognized is affected by our judgments as to whether an arrangement includes multiple elements.
We use VSOE of selling price in the selling price allocation in all instances where it exists. VSOE of selling price for products and services is determined when a substantial majority of the selling prices fall within a reasonable range when sold separately. TPE of selling price can be established by evaluating largely interchangeable competitor products or services in standalone sales to similarly situated customers. As our products contain a significant element of proprietary technology and the solution offered differs substantially from that of competitors, it is difficult to obtain the reliable standalone competitive pricing necessary to establish TPE. ESP represents the best estimate of the price at which we would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a standalone basis. We determine ESP for a product or service by using historical selling prices which reflect multiple factors including, but not limited to customer type, geography, market conditions, competitive landscape, gross margin objectives and pricing practices. The determination of ESP is made through consultation with and approval by management. We may modify or develop new pricing practices and strategies in the future. As these pricing strategies evolve, changes may occur in ESP. The aforementioned factors may result in a different allocation of revenue to the deliverables in multiple-element arrangements, which may change the pattern and timing of revenue recognition for these elements but will not change the total revenue recognized for the arrangement.
Inventory valuation.  We assess the valuation of our inventory on a periodic basis and make adjustments to the value for estimated excess and obsolete inventory based upon estimates about future demand and actual usage. Such estimates are difficult to make under most economic conditions. The excess balance determined by this analysis becomes the basis for our excess inventory charge. Our excess inventory review process includes analysis of sales forecasts, managing product rollovers and working with manufacturing to maximize recovery of excess inventory. If actual market conditions are less favorable than those projected by management, additional write-downs may be required. If actual market conditions are more favorable than anticipated, inventory previously written down may be sold to customers, resulting in lower cost of sales and higher income from operations than expected in that period.
Share-based compensation.  We account for share-based awards in accordance with the provisions of the authoritative accounting guidance, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to our employees and directors. The fair value of share-based awards for employee stock option awards was estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Awards granted under the LTP Program are based on a variety of targets, such as total shareholder return (TSR) or financial metrics such as operating margin, cost synergies and others. The awards based on TSR

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were valued using a Monte Carlo simulation model and those based on financial metrics were valued based on the market price of Keysight’s common stock on the date of grant. Both the Black-Scholes and Monte Carlo simulation fair value models require the use of highly subjective and complex assumptions, including the option’s expected life and the price volatility of the underlying stock. The estimated fair value of restricted stock awards is determined based on the market price of Keysight’s common stock on the date of grant. We did not grant any option awards in 2017 and 2016. For the year ended October 31, 2015, we used the average historical volatility of eleven peer companies to estimate the volatility for our stock option awards. We considered our ability to find traded options of peer companies in the current market with similar terms and prices to our options. In estimating the expected life of our options, we considered the historical option exercise behavior of our executives, which we believe is representative of future behavior.
Retirement and post-retirement benefit plan assumptions.  Retirement and post-retirement benefit plan costs are a significant cost of doing business. They represent obligations that will ultimately be settled sometime in the future and therefore are subject to estimation. Pension accounting is intended to reflect the recognition of future benefit costs over the employees' average expected future service to Keysight based on the terms of the plans and investment and funding decisions. To estimate the impact of these future payments and our decisions concerning funding of these obligations, we are required to make assumptions using actuarial concepts within the framework of accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. Two critical assumptions are the discount rate and the expected long-term return on plan assets. Other important assumptions include, expected future salary increases, expected future increases to benefit payments, expected retirement dates, employee turnover, retiree mortality rates, and investment portfolio composition. We evaluate these assumptions at least annually.
The discount rate is used to determine the present value of future benefit payments at the measurement date, which is October 31 for both U.S. and non-U.S. plans. The U.S. discount rates as of October 31, 2017 and 2016 were determined based on the results of matching expected plan benefit payments with cash flows from a hypothetically constructed bond portfolio. The non-U.S. discount rates as of October 31, 2017 and 2016 were determined using spot rates along the yield curve to calculate disaggregated discount rates. In addition, we used this method to calculate two components of the periodic benefit cost: service cost and interest cost. If we changed our discount rate by 1 percent, the impact would be $4 million on U.S. net periodic benefit cost and $7 million on non-U.S. net periodic benefit cost. Lower discount rates increase the present value of the liability and subsequent year pension expense; higher discount rates decrease the present value of the liability and subsequent year pension expense.
The company uses alternate methods of amortization, as allowed by the authoritative guidance, that amortizes the actuarial gains and losses on a consistent basis for the years presented. For U.S. plans, gains and losses are amortized over the average future working lifetime. For most non-U.S. plans and U.S. post-retirement benefit plans, gains and losses are amortized using a separate layer for each year's gains and losses. The expected long-term return on plan assets is estimated using current and expected asset allocations as well as historical and expected returns. Plan assets are valued at fair value. If we changed our estimated return on assets by 1 percent, the impact would be $6 million on U.S. net periodic benefit cost and $13 million on non-U.S. net periodic benefit cost.
Goodwill and other intangible assets. We review goodwill for impairment annually during our fourth fiscal quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. As defined in the authoritative guidance, a reporting unit is an operating segment, or one level below an operating segment. We aggregated components of an operating segment that have similar economic characteristics into our reporting units. At the time of an acquisition, we assign goodwill to the reporting unit that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
Companies have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether performing the two-step quantitative test is necessary. If an entity believes, as a result of its qualitative assessment, that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test will be required. Otherwise, no further testing will be required.
The guidance includes examples of events and circumstances that might indicate that a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount. These examples include macro-economic conditions such as deterioration in the entity's operating environment or industry or market considerations; entity-specific events such as increasing costs, declining financial performance, or loss of key personnel; or other events such as an expectation that a reporting unit will be sold or a sustained decrease in the stock price on either an absolute basis or relative to peers. The qualitative indicators replace those previously used to determine whether an interim goodwill impairment test is required. If it is determined, as a result of the qualitative assessment, that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the provisions of authoritative guidance require that we perform a two-step impairment test on goodwill. In the first step, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. The second step, if necessary, measures the amount of impairment by applying fair-value-based tests to the individual assets and liabilities within each reporting unit.
In 2016, we implemented changes in our organizational structure designed to align our organization with the industries we

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serve, which resulted in the formation of three reportable operating segments that are also our reporting units. On April 18, 2017, we completed the acquisition of Ixia, which became our fourth reportable operating segment. In 2017, we assessed goodwill impairment by performing a qualitative test for our four reporting units. Based on the results of our testing, it was determined that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair values of the reporting units are greater than their carrying values. There was no impairment of goodwill during the years ended October 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015. Each quarter we review the events and circumstances to determine if goodwill impairment is indicated.
Other intangible assets consist primarily of developed technologies, proprietary know-how, trademarks, customer relationships, non-compete agreements, and backlog and are amortized using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives ranging from 3 months to 10 years. No impairments of purchased intangible assets were recorded during the years ended October 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
We review other intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable or that the useful lives of these assets are no longer appropriate. The authoritative accounting guidance allows a qualitative approach for testing indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment, similar to the impairment testing guidance for goodwill. It allows the option to first assess qualitative factors (events and circumstances) that could have affected the significant inputs used in determining the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset. The qualitative factors assist in determining whether it is more-likely-than-not that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. An organization may choose to bypass the qualitative assessment for any indefinite-lived intangible asset in any period and proceed directly to calculating its fair value. Our indefinite-lived intangible assets are in-process research and development ("IPR&D") intangible assets. In 2017, we assessed impairment by performing a qualitative test and recorded an impairment charge of $7 million related to the cancellation of an IPR&D project. There were no impairments in fiscal years 2016 and 2015.
Warranty.  Our standard warranty term for most of our products from the date of delivery is typically three years. We accrue for standard warranty costs based on historical trends in warranty charges. The accrual is reviewed regularly and periodically adjusted to reflect changes in warranty cost estimates. Estimated warranty charges are recorded within cost of products at the time related product revenue is recognized.
We also sell extended warranties that provide warranty coverage beyond the standard warranty term. Revenue associated with extended warranties is deferred and recognized over the extended coverage period.
Restructuring.  The main component of our restructuring plan is related to workforce reductions. Workforce reduction charges are accrued when payment of benefits becomes probable and the amounts can be estimated. If the amounts and timing of cash flows from restructuring activities are significantly different from what we have estimated, the actual amount of restructuring and other related charges could be materially different, either higher or lower, than those we have recorded.
Accounting for income taxes.  We must make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of tax credits, benefits and deductions, and in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for tax and financial statement purposes, as well as interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions. Significant changes to these estimates may result in an increase or decrease to our tax provision in a subsequent period.
Significant management judgment is also required in determining whether deferred tax assets will be realized in full or in part. When it is more-likely-than-not that all or some portion of specific deferred tax assets such as net operating losses or foreign tax credit carryforwards will not be realized, a valuation allowance must be established for the amount of the deferred tax assets that cannot be realized. We consider all available positive and negative evidence on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis when assessing whether it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets are recoverable. We consider evidence such as our past operating results, the existence of losses in recent years and our forecast of future taxable income. At October 31, 2017, the company maintains a valuation allowance mainly related to deferred tax assets for capital losses in the U.K., California research credits, and net operating losses in the U.K. and Netherlands. We intend to maintain a valuation allowance in these jurisdictions until sufficient positive evidence exists to support their reversal.
We have provided for all U.S. federal income and foreign withholding taxes on the undistributed earnings of some of our foreign subsidiaries for the portion of earnings we do not intend to reinvest permanently. For the amount of foreign earnings that we consider reinvested permanently, should we decide to remit this income to the U.S. in a future period, our provision for income taxes will increase materially in that period.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax law and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions. Although the guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes the use of a recognition and measurement model, the determination of whether an uncertain tax position has met those thresholds will continue to require significant judgment by management. In accordance with the guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income

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taxes, for all U.S. and other tax jurisdictions, we recognize potential liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes and interest will be due. The ultimate resolution of tax uncertainties may differ from what is currently estimated, which could result in a material impact on income tax expense. If our estimate of income tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would be required. If events occur and the payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. We include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within the provision for income taxes in the consolidated statements of operations.
New Accounting Standards
See Note 2, "New Accounting Pronouncements," to the consolidated financial statements for a description of new accounting pronouncements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
At various times, we use derivative financial instruments to limit exposure to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Because derivative instruments are used solely as hedges and not for speculative trading purposes, fluctuations in the market values of such derivative instruments are generally offset by reciprocal changes in the underlying economic exposures that the instruments are intended to hedge. For further discussion of derivative financial instruments, refer to Note 13, "Derivatives."
Currency exchange rate risk
We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risks inherent in our sales commitments, anticipated sales, and assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of our subsidiaries. We hedge future cash flows denominated in currencies other than the functional currency using sales and expense forecasts up to twelve months in advance. Our exposure to exchange rate risks is managed on an enterprise-wide basis. This strategy utilizes derivative financial instruments, including option and forward contracts, to hedge certain foreign currency exposures with the intent of offsetting gains and losses that occur on the underlying exposures with gains and losses on the derivative contracts hedging them. We do not currently and do not intend to utilize derivative financial instruments for speculative trading purposes.
Our operations generate non-functional currency cash flows such as revenue, third-party vendor payments and inter-company payments. In anticipation of these foreign currency cash flows and in view of the volatility of the currency market, we enter into such foreign exchange contracts as described above to substantially mitigate our currency risk. Approximately 71 percent of our revenues in 2017 and 2016 and 75 percent of our revenues in 2015 were generated in U.S. dollars.
We performed a sensitivity analysis assuming a hypothetical 10 percent adverse movement in foreign exchange rates to the hedging contracts and the underlying exposures described above. As of October 31, 2017 and 2016, the analysis indicated that these hypothetical market movements would not have a material effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Interest rate risk
As of October 31, 2017, we had $2,060 million in principal amount of senior debt outstanding. The carrying amount of the fixed-rate senior notes was $1,799 million, and the related fair value based on quoted prices was $1,890 million. A change in interest rates on long-term debt impacts the fair value of the company’s fixed-rate long-term debt but not the company’s earnings or cash flow because the interest on such debt is fixed. Generally, the fair market value of fixed-rate debt will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise.
As of October 31, 2017, a hypothetical 10 percent increase in interest rates would have decreased the fair value of the company’s fixed-rate long-term debt by approximately $36 million. However, since the company currently has no plans to repurchase its outstanding fixed-rate instruments before their maturity nor do the investors in our fixed-rate debt obligations have the right to demand we pay off these obligations prior to maturity, the impact of market interest rate fluctuations on the company’s fixed-rate long-term debt does not affect the company’s results of operations or stockholders’ equity.

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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data



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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Keysight Technologies, Inc.:
In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and the related consolidated statements of operations, of comprehensive income, of equity and of cash flows present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Keysight Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries at October 31, 2017 and October 31, 2016, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended October 31, 2017 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, in 2017 the Company changed the manner in which it presents debt issuance costs on the consolidated balance sheet due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, as well as the manner in which it recognizes the income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers due to the adoption of ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory.
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
As described in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A, management has excluded Ixia and ScienLab from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2017, because they were acquired by the Company in purchase business combinations during 2017. We have also excluded Ixia and ScienLab from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. Ixia and ScienLab are wholly-owned subsidiaries whose total assets and total revenues excluded from management’s assessment and our audit of internal control over financial reporting collectively represent approximately 6% and less than 1% of total assets, respectively and approximately 6% and less than 1% of total revenues, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended October 31, 2017.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

San Jose, California
December 20, 2017

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KEYSIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
(in millions, except per share data)
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
Products
$
2,664

 
$
2,440

 
$
2,408

Services and other
525

 
478

 
448

Total net revenue
3,189

 
2,918

 
2,856

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products
1,206

 
1,042

 
1,025

Cost of services and other
281

 
252

 
244

Total costs
1,487

 
1,294

 
1,269

Research and development
498

 
425

 
387

Selling, general and administrative
1,049

 
818

 
787

Other operating expense (income), net
(84
)
 
(25
)
 
(18
)
Total costs and expenses
2,950

 
2,512

 
2,425

Income from operations
239

 
406

 
431

Interest income
7

 
3

 
1

Interest expense
(80
)
 
(47
)
 
(46
)
Other income (expense), net
13

 
4

 
2

Income before taxes
179

 
366

 
388

Provision (benefit) for income taxes
77

 
31

 
(125
)
Net income
$
102

 
$
335

 
$
513

 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.57

 
$
1.97

 
$
3.04

Diluted
$
0.56

 
$
1.95

 
$
3.00

 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares used in computing net income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
180

 
170

 
169

Diluted
182

 
172

 
171


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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KEYSIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in millions)


 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Net income
$
102

 
$
335

 
$
513

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on investments, net of tax benefit (expense) of $(1), $2 and $(2)
4

 
(11
)
 
5

Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments, net of tax benefit (expense) of $(2), $2 and $5
4

 
(5
)
 
(10
)
Amounts reclassified into earnings related to derivative instruments, net of tax benefit (expense) of $(1), $(4) and zero

 
8

 
1

Foreign currency translation, net of tax benefit (expense) of zero
(10
)
 
19

 
(54
)
Net defined benefit pension cost and post retirement plan costs:
 
 
 
 
 
Change in actuarial net gain (loss), net of tax benefit (expense) of $(68), $53 and $25
178

 
(135
)
 
(67
)
Change in net prior service credit, net of tax benefit of $9, $10 and $11
(15
)
 
(15
)
 
(18
)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
161

 
(139
)
 
(143
)
Total comprehensive income
$
263

 
$
196

 
$
370


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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Table of Contents            

KEYSIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(in millions, except par value and share data)

 
October 31,
 
2017
 
2016
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
818

 
$
783

Accounts receivable, net
547

 
437

Inventory
588

 
474

Other current assets
224

 
160

Total current assets
2,177

 
1,854

Property, plant and equipment, net
530

 
512

Goodwill
1,882

 
736

Other intangible assets, net
855

 
208

Long-term investments
63

 
55

Long-term deferred tax assets
186

 
392

Other assets
240

 
39

Total assets
$
5,933

 
$
3,796

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Current portion of long-term debt
$
10

 
$

Accounts payable
211

 
189

Employee compensation and benefits
217

 
183

Deferred revenue
291

 
180

Income and other taxes payable
28

 
41

Other accrued liabilities
62

 
51

Total current liabilities
819

 
644

Long-term debt
2,038

 
1,093

Retirement and post-retirement benefits
309

 
405

Long-term deferred revenue
101

 
72

Other long-term liabilities
356

 
69

Total liabilities
3,623

 
2,283

Commitments and contingencies (Note 17)


 


Stockholders' equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock; $0.01 par value; 100 million shares authorized; none issued and outstanding

 

Common stock; $0.01 par value; 1 billion shares authorized; 188 million shares at October 31, 2017, and 172 million shares at October 31, 2016 issued
2

 
2

Treasury stock at cost; 2.3 million shares at October 31, 2017 and 2.3 million shares at October 31, 2016
(62
)
 
(62
)
Additional paid-in-capital
1,786

 
1,242

Retained earnings
1,041

 
949

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(457
)
 
(618
)
Total stockholders' equity
2,310

 
1,513

Total liabilities and equity
$
5,933

 
$
3,796

   The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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KEYSIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
(in millions)
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
102

 
$
335

 
$
513

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
225

 
134

 
99

Share-based compensation
56

 
49

 
55

Excess tax (benefit) deficiency from share-based plans
(3
)
 
5

 
(4
)
Debt issuance expense
9

 

 

Deferred tax expense (benefit)
(47
)
 
17

 
(163
)
Excess and obsolete inventory related charges
16

 
17

 
28

Gain on sale of land
(8
)
 
(10
)
 

Asset impairment
7

 

 

Pension curtailment and settlement gains
(69
)
 

 

Other non-cash expenses (income), net
10

 
4

 
14

Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(11
)
 
(42
)
 
(20
)
Inventory
(4
)
 
(22
)
 
(25
)
Accounts payable
15

 
(8
)
 
18

Payment (to)/from Agilent, net

 

 
(28
)
Employee compensation and benefits
(1
)
 
16

 
6

Deferred revenue
90

 
15

 
(24
)
Income taxes payable
3

 
(9
)
 
2

Retirement and post-retirement benefits
(15
)
 
(32
)
 
(44
)
Other assets and liabilities
(62
)
 
(53
)
 
(51
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
313

 
416

 
376

 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Purchases of property, plant and equipment
(72
)
 
(91
)
 
(92
)
Proceeds from the sale of property, plant and equipment
8

 
10

 
1

Acquisitions of businesses and intangible assets, net of cash acquired
(1,702
)
 
(10
)
 
(574
)
Purchase of investments
(1
)
 

 
(7
)
Proceeds from the sale of investments
45

 
1

 
1

Net cash used in investing activities
(1,722
)
 
(90
)
 
(671
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows from financing activities: