10-K 1 vray-10k_20161231.htm 10K vray-10k_20161231.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number: 001-37725

 

ViewRay, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

42-1777485

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

2 Thermo Fisher Way

Oakwood Village, OH

44146

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (440) 703-3210

 

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

None

 

N/A

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:

None

(Title of class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  (Do not check if a small reporting company)

  

Small reporting company

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

At June 30, 2016, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $68,268,877 based on the closing sale price as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market. As of March 14, 2017, the registrant had 55,489,939 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Registrant's 2017 Annual Meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

 


 

VIEWRAY, INC.

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item  1.

Business

 

4

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

31

 

 

 

 

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

70

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

Properties

 

70

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

 

70

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

70

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

71

 

 

 

 

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

 

72

 

 

 

 

Item 7.

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results

 

74

 

 

 

 

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk

 

90

 

 

 

 

Item 8.

Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

91

 

 

 

 

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure and Supplementary Data

 

123

 

 

 

 

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

 

123

 

 

 

 

Item 9B.

Other Information

 

124

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

124

 

 

 

 

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

 

124

 

 

 

 

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

124

 

 

 

 

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

125

 

 

 

 

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

125

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

125

 

 

 

 

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

 

125

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or this Report, contains forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, in the sections captioned “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and elsewhere. Any and all statements contained in this Report that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed forward-looking statements. Terms such as “may,” “might,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “project,” “estimate,” “pro-forma,” “predict,” “potential,” “strategy,” “anticipate,” “attempt,” “develop,” “plan,” “help,” “believe,” “continue,” “intend,” “expect,” “future” and terms of similar import (including the negative of any of the foregoing) may be intended to identify forward-looking statements. However, not all forward-looking statements may contain one or more of these identifying terms. Forward-looking statements in this Report may include, without limitation, statements regarding (i) the plans and objectives of management for future operations, including plans or objectives relating to the development of commercially viable products, (ii) a projection of income (including income/loss), earnings (including earnings/loss) per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items, (iii) our future financial performance, including any such statement contained in a discussion and analysis of financial condition by management or in the results of operations included pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and (iv) the assumptions underlying or relating to any statement described in points (i), (ii) or (iii) above.

The forward-looking statements are not meant to predict or guarantee actual results, performance, events or circumstances and may not be realized because they are based upon our current projections, plans, objectives, beliefs, expectations, estimates and assumptions and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties and other influences, many of which we have no control over. Actual results and the timing of certain events and circumstances may differ materially from those described by the forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties. Factors that may influence or contribute to the inaccuracy of the forward-looking statements or cause actual results to differ materially from expected or desired results may include, without limitation:

 

market acceptance of MRI-guided radiation therapy;

 

the benefits of MRI-guided radiation therapy;

 

our ability to successfully sell and market MRIdian in our existing and expanded geographies;

 

the performance of MRIdian in clinical settings;

 

competition from existing technologies or products or new technologies and products that may emerge;

 

the pricing and reimbursement of MRI-guided radiation therapy;

 

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and MRIdian;

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering MRIdian;

 

our ability to obtain regulatory approval in targeted markets for MRIdian;

 

estimates of our future revenue, expenses, capital requirements and our need for additional financing;

 

our financial performance;

 

our expectations related to the MRIdian Linac technology;

 

developments relating to our competitors and the healthcare industry; and

 

other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the section titled “Risk Factors.”

Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because of the risks and uncertainties related to them and to the risk factors. We disclaim any obligation to update the forward-looking statements contained in this Report to reflect any new information or future events or circumstances or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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PART I

Item 1. BUSINESS

Company Overview

We design, manufacture and market MRIdian, the first and only MRI-guided radiation therapy system that simultaneously images and treats cancer patients. There are currently seven installed MRIdian with cobalt systems worldwide, with two other MRIdian with cobalt systems delivered and expected to be installed in early 2017. In March 2016, we announced the development of a linear accelerator version of MRIdian technology, or MRIdian Linac. In September 2016, we received CE mark approval in the European Union, or EU, and in February 2017, we received 510(k) clearance from the FDA to market the MRIdian Linac system in the United States.

We believe MRIdian Linac will:

 

broaden our addressable market;

 

accelerate our sales cycle;

 

reduce our backlog conversion time; and

 

improve our gross margins.

MRI is a broadly used imaging tool which has the ability to differentiate clearly between types of soft tissue, unlike X-ray or computed tomography, or CT, the most commonly used imaging technologies in radiation therapy today. The value of combining MRI with radiation therapy has been recognized for approximately 20 years, with many academic and commercial research efforts attempting to integrate the two technologies. MRIdian is the first system that has successfully integrated MRI technology and radiation delivery to locate, target and track the position and shape of soft-tissue tumors while radiation is delivered. These capabilities allow MRIdian to deliver radiation to the tumor accurately while delivering less radiation to healthy tissue than existing radiation therapy treatments. We believe this leads to improved patient outcomes and reduced side effects from off-target radiation delivery. In August 2016, we received Shonin approval from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to market MRIdian in Japan. In August 2016, we also received approval from the China Food and Drug Administration, or CFDA, to market MRIdian in China.

We received 510(k) marketing clearance from the FDA for MRIdian with cobalt in May 2012 and for MRIdian Linac in February 2017 and have the right to affix the CE mark to MRIdian with cobalt since November 2014 and MRIdian Linac since September 2016.

Cancer is a leading cause of death globally and the second leading cause of death in the United States. Radiation therapy is a common method used to treat cancer that uses lethal doses of ionizing energy to damage genetic material in cells. Nearly two-thirds of all treated cancer patients in the United States will receive some form of radiation therapy during the course of their illness, according to estimates by the American Society for Radiation Oncology, or ASTRO. In 2016, IMV Medical Information Division, Inc., or IMV, reported that 97% of patients receiving radiation therapy in the United States were treated by a linear accelerator, or linac. The global linac market was estimated at approximately $4.6 billion in 2015 and was expected to grow to approximately $6.3 billion by 2020 according to a 2015 Markets and Markets report. IAEA Human Health Campus reported that there are over 11,000 linacs installed at over 7,500 centers worldwide. We believe the addressable market for MRIdian is the annual market for linacs due to MRIdian’s ability to treat a broad spectrum of disease sites. However, we believe that MRIdian may be used more frequently for complex cancer cases that may be difficult to treat on a standard linac due to the location of the tumor in relation to the surrounding soft tissues. We currently estimate the annual market for linacs to be 1,100 units per year globally, the majority of which are replacement units.

Despite the prevalence of MRI for diagnostic purposes and its ability to image soft tissue clearly, the radiation therapy industry has been unable to integrate MRI into external-beam radiation therapy systems. Existing radiation therapy systems use X-ray-based imaging technologies, such as CT, which cannot differentiate between types of soft tissue or provide an accurate visualization of a tumor and its position in relation to critical organs. In addition, existing systems that offer imaging during the course of a treatment are limited by the rate at which they can image

 

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due to the level of radiation to which they expose the patient. These constraints make it difficult for a clinician to locate a tumor accurately, track its motion in real-time or adapt treatment as anatomy changes. It is very difficult to irradiate a tumor while minimizing the amount of radiation hitting critical organs without the ability to see the tumor’s exact location and shape. If a tumor is insufficiently irradiated, it may not respond to treatment, resulting in a lower probability of survival for the patient. If organs and other healthy soft tissues are irradiated, side effects can be severe, including organ failure and secondary cancers.

MRIdian is a next-generation, radiation therapy solution that enables treatment and real-time imaging of a patient’s anatomy simultaneously. The high-quality images that it generates clearly differentiate the targeted tumor, surrounding soft tissue and nearby critical organs. MRIdian also records the level of radiation dose that the treatment area has received, enabling physicians to adapt the prescription between treatments as needed. We believe this improved visualization and accurate dose recording will enable better treatment, improve patient outcomes and reduce side effects. Key benefits to users and patients include improved imaging and patient alignment, on-table adaptive treatment planning, motion management and an accurate recording of the delivered radiation dose. Physicians have already used MRIdian to treat a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients with more than 45 different types of cancer, as well as patients for whom radiation therapy was previously not an option.

In March 2016, we announced the development of a linear accelerator version of our MRIdian technology. In September 2016, we received CE mark approval in the European Union. In February 2017, we received 510(k) clearance from the FDA to market the MRIdian Linac system. We believe the MRIdian Linac will broaden our addressable market, accelerate our sales cycle, reduce our backlog conversion time and improve our gross margins.

We currently market MRIdian through a direct sales force in the United States and distributors in the rest of the world. At December 31, 2016, we had installed or delivered nine MRIdian systems worldwide and had 23 signed orders for new systems for a backlog value of $133.2 million. We generated revenue of $22.2 million, $10.4 million and $6.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We had net losses of $50.6 million, $45.0 million and $33.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Nevada on September 6, 2013 under the name “Mirax Corp”. Prior to the Merger and Split-Off (each as defined below), we were in the business of selling cell phone cases to retailers.

On July 8, 2015, we completed a 1.185763-for-1 forward stock split of our common stock in the form of a dividend with the result that 4,343,339 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding immediately prior to the stock split became 5,150,176 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding immediately thereafter. On July 15, 2015, we changed our name to ViewRay, Inc. by filing the Certificate of Amendment to our Articles of Incorporation. Additionally, on July 21, 2015, we changed our domicile from the State of Nevada to the State of Delaware by reincorporation, or the Conversion, and as a result of the Conversion, increased our authorized capital stock from 75,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, to 300,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share and 10,000,000 shares of “blank check” preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. Upon effectiveness of the Conversion, our corporate matters and affairs ceased to be governed by the Nevada Revised Statutes and became subject to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. All share and per share numbers in this Report relating to our common stock have been adjusted to give effect to this forward stock split and the Conversion, unless otherwise stated. On July 23, 2015, we amended and restated our certificate of incorporation by filing the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware and adopted the Amended and Restated Bylaws.

On July 23, 2015, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Vesuvius Acquisition Corp., a corporation formed in the State of Delaware on July 16, 2015, or the Acquisition Sub, merged with and into ViewRay Technologies, Inc., a corporation incorporated in 2004 in the State of Florida originally under the name of ViewRay Incorporated, subsequently reincorporated in the State of Delaware in 2007. Pursuant to this transaction, or the Merger, ViewRay Technologies, Inc. was the surviving corporation and became our wholly-owned subsidiary. All of the outstanding capital stock of ViewRay Technologies, Inc. was converted into shares of our common stock, as described in more detail below.

 

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Immediately prior to the closing of the Merger, under the terms of a split-off agreement, or the Split-Off Agreement, and a general release agreement, we transferred all of our pre-Merger operating assets and liabilities to our wholly-owned special-purpose subsidiary, Mirax Enterprise Corp., a Nevada corporation, or the Split-Off Subsidiary, formed on July 16, 2015. Thereafter, pursuant to the Split-Off Agreement, we transferred all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Split-Off Subsidiary to our pre-Merger majority stockholders, and our former sole officer and director, in consideration of and in exchange for (i) the surrender and cancellation of an aggregate of 4,150,171 shares of our common stock and (ii) certain representations, covenants and indemnities, together referred to as the Split-Off.

As a result of the Merger and Split-Off, we discontinued our pre-Merger business, acquired the business of ViewRay Technologies, Inc. and continue the business operations of ViewRay Technologies, Inc. as a publicly-traded company under the name ViewRay, Inc.

On March 31, 2016, our shares of common stock commenced trading on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “VRAY.”  Prior to this time, our common stock was quoted on the OTC Markets, OTCQB tier of OTC Markets Group, Inc. under the same symbol.  

We continue to be a “smaller reporting company,” as defined under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the “Exchange Act,” following the Merger. As a result of the Merger we have ceased to be a “shell company” (as such term is defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act).

As used in this Report henceforward, unless otherwise stated or the context clearly indicates otherwise, the terms the “Company,” the “Registrant,”  “ViewRay,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to ViewRay, Inc., incorporated in Delaware, after giving effect to the Merger and the Split-Off.

ViewRay, Inc. is the sole stockholder of ViewRay Technologies, Inc., which commenced operations as a Florida corporation in 2004, subsequently reincorporated in Delaware in in 2007, and changed its name to ViewRay Technologies, Inc. in July 2015.

Our authorized capital stock currently consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, and 10,000,000 shares of the preferred stock. Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “VRAY.”

Our principal corporate headquarters are located at 2 Thermo Fisher Way, Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146. Our telephone number is (440) 703-3210. Our website address is www.viewray.com. (The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.)

Cancer and Radiation Therapy Market

Incidence of Cancer

Cancer is a leading cause of death globally and the second leading cause of death in the United States behind cardiovascular disease. According to the American Cancer Society, nearly 1.7 million people were expected to be diagnosed with cancer in the United States during 2016 and approximately 0.6 million were expected to die from cancer, accounting for nearly one of every four deaths. As a result of a growing and aging population, the World Health Organization’s, or WHO, Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development estimates that the number of new cancer cases worldwide will grow from 14.1 million in 2008 to 19.3 million in 2025.

Cancer Therapy

The primary goal of cancer therapy is to kill cancerous tissues while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. There are three main ways to treat cancer: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Surgery attempts to physically remove the tumor from the body, while minimizing trauma to healthy tissue and preventing the spread or translocation of the disease to other parts of the body. Surgery is particularly effective because the surgeon can directly observe the tumor and surrounding healthy tissue throughout the course of the procedure and adapt his or her plan mid-procedure accordingly. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Unlike surgery, most forms of chemotherapy circulate systemically to reach cancer cells almost anywhere in the body. Chemotherapy is most effective at

 

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destroying microscopic levels of disease. Radiation is used to damage genetic material in cells with a lethal dose of ionizing energy. Effective radiation therapy balances destroying cancer cells with minimizing damage to normal cells. It can be used at high doses to ablate a tumor, an effect similar to surgery, or at moderate doses to target local microscopic disease, as is done with chemotherapy. Other, more recently developed ways of treating cancer include hormone therapy and targeted therapy, such as immunotherapy.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy has become widespread, with nearly two-thirds of all treated cancer patients in the United States receiving some form of radiation therapy during the course of their treatment, according to estimates by ASTRO. For most cancer types treated with radiation therapy, at least 75% of the patients are treated with the intent to cure the cancer. For lung and brain cancers, that number is somewhat lower, with 59% of lung cancer patients and 50% of brain cancer patients being treated with the goal of curing cancer. The remainder of cases are treated with palliative intent to relieve pain. Radiation therapy is a non-invasive outpatient procedure with little or no recovery time and can be used on patients who are inoperable. According to IMV, 97% of patients receiving radiation therapy in the United States are treated using a linac.

Radiation is used to kill cancer cells primarily by damaging their DNA, but can also kill healthy cells in the same way or cause them to become cancerous themselves. As a result, the goal of curative radiation therapy is to balance delivery of a sufficiently high dose of radiation to a tumor to kill the cancer cells while, at the same time, minimizing damage to healthy cells, particularly those in critical organs. Normal cells are better able to repair themselves after radiation than tumor cells, so doses of radiation are often fractionated, or delivered in separate sessions with rest periods in between. As a result, standard radiation therapy is often given once a day, five times a week, for one to seven weeks. In 2015, patients made an estimated 19.1 million radiation therapy treatment visits in the United States.

Radiation Therapy Equipment Market

The global linac market was estimated at approximately $4.6 billion in 2015 and was expected to grow to approximately $6.3 billion by 2020 according to a 2015 Markets and Markets report. According to IAEA Human Health Campus, there are 11,000 linacs installed at over 7,500 centers worldwide. In the United States, there are 3,855 linacs installed at approximately 2,300 centers. The annual market for linacs is estimated to be 1,100 units per year globally, the majority of which are replacement units.

In the radiation therapy market, new technologies have historically been adopted at a rapid rate. According to IMV, the percentage of centers performing intensity modulated radiation therapy, or IMRT, grew from 30% in 2002 to 96% in 2012. The percentage of sites utilizing image guided radiation therapy, or IGRT, grew more quickly: from 15% in 2004 to 83% in 2012. The majority of IGRT uses on-board X-ray systems. As leading cancer centers adopt and study MRI-guided radiation therapy, we believe that our next-generation system will also follow a rapid adoption curve in the broader linac replacement market.

Radiation Therapy Treatment Process

Following diagnosis of the disease state, radiation treatment generally consists of the following steps:

 

Imaging and tumor contouring. To design the treatment plan, physicians obtain initial images of the tumor. This is done most commonly using a CT scan, often supplemented by an MRI, a positron emission tomography, or PET, scan, or both. These images, also known as simulation scans, are then imported into a treatment planning software system and aligned to each other. Based on clinical experience, a physician will manually draw, or contour, specific areas on the aligned images to characterize the location and extent of the tumor highlighting the following:

 

Gross tumor volume, or GTV, a volumetric region encompassing the visible tumor.

 

Clinical target volume, or CTV, a larger area encompassing the GTV, where the cancer may have already or may be likely to spread.

 

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Planning target volume, or PTV, a further enlarged area to allow for inexact imaging, patient movement during treatment or tumor movement between planning and treatment. The PTV may be sized multiple times larger than the CTV, risking radiation damage to healthy tissue, including in many cases critical organs.

 

Treatment planning and dose prescription. Once the clinician has a three-dimensional map of the tumor, surrounding healthy tissues and nearby critical organs, a physician determines a treatment plan using one of the methods below. Creation of these plans typically takes one to two weeks. A typical curative radiation therapy treatment dose will be delivered over the course of several weeks with 10 to 35 radiation therapy sessions, referred to as fractions, lasting from a few minutes to an hour or more depending on the treatment plan.

 

3D-CRT planning. Using a method called three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, or 3D-CRT, a clinician will decide what beam angles and shapes to use to target a tumor and how long each beam will irradiate it. A computer will then calculate the potential dose delivered, and a clinician will manually adjust the plan to arrive at an acceptable dose.

 

IMRT planning. Using a method called intensity modulated radiation therapy, or IMRT, a physician will use computer software to optimize a treatment plan to achieve a more precise dose distribution than 3D-CRT by using thousands of beamlets, IMRT has been shown to result in better patient outcomes than 3D-CRT.

 

SRS and SBRT planning. Stereotactic radiosurgery, or SRS, and stereotactic body radiation therapy, or SBRT, are methods of delivery using 3D-CRT or IMRT designed to deliver high doses of precisely targeted radiation in a reduced number of sessions, usually one to five fractions. SRS is used in brain and spine applications, and has been shown to be particularly effective in those areas, while SBRT is used in the rest of the body, and has been shown to be particularly effective in early-stage lung cancer.

 

Alignment. Prior to radiation delivery, clinicians typically take images to assist with patient alignment. Most systems use a form of on-board CT called cone-beam CT to image, which delivers inferior contrast and a higher radiation dose than diagnostic CT. A less commonly used imaging technology is fluoroscopy, a real-time 2D X-ray system that can expose a patient to even higher doses of radiation than cone-beam CT. Because of the limited soft tissue contrast of X-ray-based imaging, clinicians often use registration markers such as nearby bone structures or surgically implanted fiducial markers to align patients with the treatment beams. Patients may also be immobilized by restraining devices, or techniques such as respiratory control or abdominal compression, which are employed to minimize motion due to breathing. To track breathing and other body motions during treatment, specific trackers may be used, also known as 4D radiation therapy. Use of any image or registration marker to help with alignment is called image-guided radiation therapy, or IGRT.

 

Delivery. Based on alignment with these images, markers or other radiation therapy trackers, treatment begins and radiation is delivered to the patient. In some cases, additional 2D X-ray images are taken intermittently or registration makers are monitored during treatment to try to account for tumor movement.

 

Review. After a treatment session, a physician will review the delivered treatment to ensure that it is proceeding according to plan. Currently, there are no methods to record the actual dose that was delivered to the tumor and nearby critical structures. In those rare occasions when a physician is able to observe changes in the size or shape of a tumor, he or she may decide to adjust the treatment plan. However, revising a treatment plan may take several days and delays treatment.

 

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Limitations of Radiation Therapy

Limitations with radiation therapy arise as a result of imaging technologies that make accurate visualization of a tumor and its relation to critical organs difficult or impossible during treatment. As a result, we believe treatments are not as effective or safe as they could be.

 

Inability to accurately locate a tumor for treatment alignment. To locate a tumor, current radiation therapy systems rely on on-table CT scans which are unable to differentiate between types of soft tissue. Therefore, surrogate registration markers, including existing bone structures, external marks and surgically implanted fiducials, are frequently used to align a patient to the treatment beams prior to commencing treatment.

Comparison of On-Table CT Images to On-Table MRIdian Images

 

 

 

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The spatial relationship between the tumors, particularly those in soft tissue, and registration markers is likely to change between initial imaging and the first treatment session. By relying on a proxy for tumor location rather than the tumor itself, clinicians risk missing the tumor when they deliver treatment beams into a patient’s body. Furthermore, fiducial markers can migrate inside the body, are unable to track changes in the tumor shape, may interfere with imaging, are invasive, require time to heal and have a high incidence of side effects and complications.

 

Inability to adapt treatment on table. A physician designs a treatment plan and dose prescription based on images that are captured at the beginning of therapy. Creating a treatment plan can take one to two weeks, and treatment itself can take up to seven weeks. However, during the course of therapy, tumors often change size, orientation or shape and patient anatomy can change for reasons such as weight loss or gain. Adjusting for these changes would require re-planning which may take several days and is resource intensive. In addition, due to limitations in imaging technologies, physicians may be unaware of changes in the tumor and surrounding anatomy and continue to dose according to the original treatment plan. As a result of these limitations, re-planning is infrequently performed.

 

Inability to track tumor and organ motion accurately. In addition to difficulty locating a tumor accurately in a patient’s body, a further challenge is accounting for ongoing tumor movement during treatment. Tumors have been shown to move multiple centimeters relative to surrogate registration markers over the course of only a few seconds. Although physicians use internal markers and external cameras and blocks to track respiratory and other motion, they are unable to track the tumor itself and its location relative to other soft tissues. This limitation increases the probability of missing the targeted treatment area. As a result, physicians usually enlarge the total region to be irradiated, causing an additional risk of side effects.

 

Inability to record cumulative radiation delivered. In order to determine treatment effectiveness, it is important to track how much radiation has been delivered to a tumor or surrounding healthy tissue. Currently, there are no methods to record the actual dose of radiation that was delivered to the tumor and nearby critical structures. Therefore, physicians must assume that the radiation is delivered according to plan, rather than making decisions based on actual dose delivered.

Each of these limitations increases the risk of missing a tumor and hitting healthy tissue during treatment. If a tumor is insufficiently irradiated, it may not respond to treatment, resulting in a lower probability of survival for the patient. The ability to avoid irradiating healthy tissue has been shown to reduce side effects. If healthy tissues, particularly critical organs, are irradiated, the side effects can be severe, including scarring of lung tissue, fibrosis and cardiotoxicity in lung and breast cancers, incontinence and sexual dysfunction in pelvic and prostate cancers, infertility in pediatric cancers, memory loss, seizures and necrosis in brain cancer and secondary cancers.

Although MR technology is an imaging tool broadly used to differentiate between types of soft tissue in diagnostic settings, to date such technology has not been used with radiation therapy because the magnetic field generated by an MRI interferes with the linac’s ability to accelerate electrons and the linac produces radio frequencies that distort the MR images. Current forms of CT have improved over time, but issues with radiation dose and image quality limit the utility of these technologies. Fluoroscopy and cone-beam CT involve the use of X-rays, a form of ionizing radiation, and pose an increased risk of radiation-induced cancer to the patient.

Our Solution

We have developed MRIdian to address the key limitations of existing external-beam radiation therapy technologies. MRIdian employs MRI-based technology to provide real-time imaging that clearly defines the targeted tumor from the surrounding soft tissue and other critical organs during radiation treatment. MRIdian allows physicians to record the level of radiation exposure that the tumor has received and adapt the prescription between fractions as needed. We believe this combination of enhanced visualization and accurate dose recording will significantly improve the safety and efficacy of radiation therapy, leading to better outcomes for patients.

 

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We believe that MRIdian provides the following clinical and commercial benefits to physicians, hospitals and patients:

 

Improved tumor visibility and patient alignment. The soft-tissue contrast of MRidian’s on-board MRI enables clinicians to locate, target and track the tumor and healthy tissues and accurately align a patient to the treatment beams without the use of X-ray, CT or surrogate registration markers. If the clinician prefers, the software has the ability to automatically map the patient’s soft tissue anatomy each treatment session in less than one minute, and MRIdian can use that information to automatically align the patient.

 

On-table adaptive planning. Due to changing anatomy the clinician may be unable to obtain an optimal match between the patient on the table and the treatment plan. Using an MR image captured at the beginning of each therapy session, MRIdian automatically maps each patient’s soft tissue anatomy in 3D and calculates the dose that would be delivered using the current treatment plan. If the prescribed treatment is not clinically acceptable to the physician, MRIdian has the ability to automatically recalculate and adapt the plan to changing anatomy at the time of treatment. Utilizing our proprietary algorithm and software, replanning can be done while the patient is on the table. We believe hospitals will be able to bill incrementally for this re-planning.

 

Ability to track tumors and manage patient motion. MRIdian can capture multiple soft-tissue imaging planes concurrently during treatment, refreshing the image multiple times per second. This real-time imaging enables the physician to track the movement of the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue directly, rather than relying on registration markers such as existing bones or implanted fiducials. If a tumor or critical organ moves beyond a physician-defined boundary, the treatment beam automatically pauses. This beam control becomes especially important in the situations where a tumor may be in close proximity to a critical organ, such as the heart during lung and breast cancer treatments or the rectum during prostate cancer treatments. This knowledge of the tumor location has enabled physicians to treat patients who would not previously have been considered radiation therapy candidates.

 

Record and evaluate the delivered dose. Using our proprietary algorithm and advanced MR imaging, MRIdian calculates the dose delivered after each treatment, enabling the physician to review and re-optimize the patient’s treatment session if needed. In addition, MRIdian can utilize diagnostic CT images that are fused with the MR images at each treatment in order to more accurately calculate dose. MRIdian also captures and records a video, known as a MRIdian Movie™, of the delivered treatments which can be evaluated by the physician or shared with patients.

 

Fits into existing treatment paradigms and workflow. MRIdian can be used for 3D-CRT, IMRT, IGRT, SBRT and SRS and can also be used to treat a broad spectrum of disease sites. In addition, we believe MRIdian’s increased target accuracy will allow physicians to treat patients with higher doses over fewer treatment fractions and potentially improve patient throughput and efficiency. MRIdian fits inside most standard radiation therapy vaults without significant modifications and is supported by existing codes that are available for linac reimbursement.

We believe the ability to image with MRI and treat cancer patients simultaneously will lead to improved patient outcomes and reduced side effects from off-target radiation delivery.

 

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Our Strategy

Our objective is to make MRI-guided radiation delivery the standard of care for radiation therapy. To achieve this goal, we intend to do the following:

 

Transition MRIdian toward MRIdian Linac. In August 2016, we submitted an application for the MRIdian Linac for 510(k) marketing clearance to the FDA and in September 2016, we received authorization to affix the CE mark in the EU as required for the commercial launch of this technology. In February 2017, we received 510(k) clearance from the FDA to market the MRIdian Linac system. MRIdian Linac is now commercially available in the key markets of the EU and the United States. We believe MRIdian Linac will obviate the need for the inspection, replacement, and disposal of Cobalt-60, and will not require oversight from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or the corresponding regulatory agency outside of the United States) that is required for MRIdian with Cobalt-60. Further, we believe that MRIdian Linac will allow for higher dose, faster electronic variation of dose and electronic beam activation and deactivation compared to MRIdian with Cobalt-60. We believe the MRIdian Linac will broaden our addressable market, accelerate our sales cycle, reduce our backlog conversion time and improve our gross margins.

 

Commercialize MRIdian with a targeted sales force in the United States and through distributors in international markets. We market MRIdian through a combination of direct sales and distributors. We are adding to a small, specialty sales force for the United States and Canada and are using distributors in international markets. At December 31, 2016, we had ten signed orders with U.S. customers and thirteen signed orders with customers outside the United States for new MRIdian systems. We intend to continue to expand our presence in key markets to capitalize on the growing international opportunity for MRIdian.

 

Target top-tier hospitals in initial global sales efforts to influence and increase market adoption. We intend to market MRIdian to a broad range of customers worldwide, including university research and teaching hospitals, private practices, community hospitals, government institutions and freestanding cancer centers. We are initially focusing on the leading hospitals worldwide which are typically early adopters of best-in-class technology and are able to influence and promote adoption by other centers both locally and globally. We plan to continue to work with these institutions to promote broader market awareness of the benefits of MRI-guided radiation therapy.

 

Broaden awareness of MRIdian’s capabilities and clinical benefits to expand our share of the radiation therapy market. We intend to educate radiation oncologists about the capabilities and resulting benefits of MRIdian over traditional radiation therapy systems. In order to drive awareness and adoption, we also intend to support the publication of clinical and scientific data and analysis, work with key opinion leaders, present at leading academic conferences and engage in outreach at leading hospitals worldwide. We also plan to leverage our existing customer network as a reference for new potential users to experience our technology in use in the clinical setting.

 

Maintain our competitive lead in MRI-guided radiation therapy through continued innovation. We plan to continue to invest in our technology to maintain our leadership position in the emerging MRI-guided radiation therapy market. We intend to develop and introduce enhancements to the system and software to provide improved capabilities for MRIdian users and patients. In addition, we plan to explore potential benefits of integrating our MRI technology with alternative beam technologies. We believe we have a strong intellectual property portfolio that covers the MRIdian system as well as critical design elements and key aspects of its subsystem and components.

 

Continue to work with leading hospitals to optimize efficiency and patient throughput. We strive to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of the MRIdian system for our customers. We plan to continue to work closely with key opinion leaders, clinicians and hospitals in a proactive manner to determine how best to refine and improve MRIdian’s features, optimize workflow and maximize patient throughput.

 

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Drive cost reductions in the design and manufacture of MRIdian and improve our margins. We plan to continue to explore ways to bring down our cost of goods to improve margins for MRIdian. We believe we can significantly reduce costs in the design and manufacturing by switching from MRIdian with cobalt to the MRIdian Linac.

MRIdian

MRIdian is a next-generation, MRI-guided radiation therapy system that is comprised of four major components, (i) the MRI system, (ii) the radiation delivery system, (iii) integrated treatment planning and delivery software and (iv) a safety and control system.

 

MRIdian Cobalt-60

  

MRIdian Linac

 

 

 

  

 

MRI System

The MRI system is the component of MRIdian that captures soft tissue images of the patient’s body. To address the technical complications that arise from combining an MRI with a linac, we have designed a proprietary split superconducting magnet that will allow treatment through a central gap, eliminating MRI components in the path of the beam. Our MRI system captures and displays live, high-quality images in three planes at two frames per second or in one plane at four frames per second. The images are used to track tissues and control radiation treatment beam delivery.

We have engineered our MRI system to be able to produce clear images using a low field strength 0.35 tesla magnet which enables us to avoid the image and dose distortions that are a result of using a higher field strength magnet. In addition, MRIdian’s 0.35 tesla field strength prevents heating of the patient during uninterrupted imaging, which could occur in a higher field strength magnet requiring the imaging to be discontinued or interrupted.

 

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MRI System

 

MRIdian Radiation Delivery System

In the first generation version of the MRIdian, radiation is delivered from three Cobalt-60 radiation therapy heads symmetrically mounted on a rotating ring gantry, providing full 360 degree coverage and simultaneous dose delivery, as opposed to prior Cobalt-60 systems that have historically been limited by imprecise radiation dose applications. Each head is equipped with a double-focused multi-leaf collimator, designed to overcome the wide-beam edge of previous-generation Cobalt-60 systems and shape the beam for precision radiation therapy treatments. It allows the delivery of treatment plans for 3D-CRT, IMRT and SBRT that are clinically equivalent to those produced on the most advanced linear accelerators available today. Stereotactic procedures are possible with a positioning accuracy of less than one millimeter. Cobalt-60 is used because it does not create any radio frequency which interferes with the MRI.

MRIdian Linear Accelerator Technology Radiation Delivery System

We have developed solutions to two long-standing problems that had prevented compact integration of a linac beam with an MRI system: 1) linac radiofrequency interference with the operation of the MRI and 2) MRI magnetic interference with the operation of the linac. First, linacs utilize high-powered microwave generators similar to equipment used in radar at airports.  These “radar stations” inside the linac create noise that can corrupt the delicate signals measured from the patient’s body to generate MR images.  ViewRay solved this problem by introducing technology similar to that used in stealth aircraft.  Stealth aircraft can hide from radar by using a coating that reflects and absorbs microwaves, thus preventing radar beams that strike the aircraft from bouncing back to the radar station.  In a similar manner, we reflect and absorb the output of the linac “radar station” to hide it from the MRI, producing images as noise-free as MRI images with no integrated linac. Second, MRIs utilize high-powered superconducting magnets that are required to image the patient’s tissues.  Many linac components will not operate properly when placed close to or inside these strong magnetic fields, and such placement is necessary to produce a compact system like the MRIdian Linac.  ViewRay overcame this challenge by creating magnetic shielding shells that create voids in the magnetic field without significantly disturbing the magnetic field used for imaging.  This allows the linac to operate on the MRIdian gantry as if there were no magnetic field present. MRIdian Linac uses the same split-magnet MRI system used in the MRIdian with cobalt system and is designed to fit in standard radiotherapy vaults replacing X-ray guided linear accelerators.

The MRIdian Linac can provide continuous MR based soft-tissue imaging during linac-based radiation treatment. Being able to constantly see both the tumor and surrounding organs means you can accurately align the tumor to the treatment beams, adapt or reshape the treatment volume to accommodate changes in the shape and location of the tumor and healthy tissues, and track soft tissues in real time to avoid missing a moving tumor or irradiating sensitive internal structures.

 

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Integrated Treatment Planning and Delivery Software

Our treatment planning and delivery software can create treatment plans and manage the treatment delivery process. It is designed to create optimized 3D-CRT, IMRT and SBRT plans for delivery of MRIdian. Using this software, the on-table adaptive planning process typically takes less than two minutes, and includes: auto-contouring, dose prediction and treatment plan optimization. For contouring, the software will automatically draw the outline of the tumor and nearby organs. The clinician can then make refinements before treatment, if necessary. Dose prediction can be calculated immediately before treatment, allowing the current state of the patient’s anatomy to be taken into account. The software can generate an optimal treatment plan solution in less than one minute, allowing it to re-plan while the patient is on the treatment couch.

MRIdian has soft-tissue tracking beam control capability. While the radiation dose is being delivered, the software analyzes the acquired images and can determine tumor or organ location relative to set tolerances. If the targeted tumor or a critical organ moves beyond a physician-defined boundary, the treatment beams will automatically pause. When the tumor moves back into the target zone, the treatment will automatically resume. Physicians can set both spatial and time thresholds for pausing treatment delivery. This enables the system to account for tumor and patient motion during treatment.

The software archives all the information generated during treatment and builds a database of patient-specific planning, delivery and imaging data. It also includes a review tool which provides clinicians with a visual comparison of the delivered versus planned treatment. At the end of each treatment, the software determines the delivered dose by combining the recorded actions of the radiation delivery system with the daily image and auto-contouring of the patient. With this information, clinicians can fine-tune prescriptions based on the actual dose delivered. In addition, it provides a MRIdian Movie™ of each delivered treatment which can be evaluated by the physician or exported and shared with the patient.

Safety and Control System

In addition to complying with the applicable FDA and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or NRC, requirements, the radiation delivery subsystem also meets a double fault tolerant design standard and has redundant safety systems. If any two components in the radiation delivery subsystem fail simultaneously, such as power and pneumatics, the system reverts to a safe state. MRIdian also contains redundant computer control for safety and system logging and double encoders on all axes of motion for safety. The control system continuously monitors performance to ensure all systems are performing and communicating appropriately.

Installed Base and Clinical Use

We received initial 510(k) marketing clearance from the FDA for our treatment planning and delivery software in January 2011 and for MRIdian in May 2012. Since November 2014 we also have the right to affix the CE mark to MRIdian, allowing MRIdian to be sold within the European Economic Area, or EEA. We received a license and permission to import MRIdian into the United Arab Emirates in December 2014. We received regulatory approval in Italy in January 2015, Korea in September 2015, as well as Japan and China in August 2016. We may also seek required approvals in other countries in the future.

At December 31, 2016, we have four units installed at four leading cancer centers in the United States and three units installed outside the United States. The four units in the United States include Washington University and Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, or Washington University in St. Louis; University of California, Los Angeles Health System and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, or University of California, Los Angeles; University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, or the University of Wisconsin–Madison; and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami. The three units installed outside the United States are at Seoul National University in Seoul, South Korea; VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, Netherlands; and Policlinico “A. Gemelli” Hospital in Rome, Italy. In addition, we have also delivered two MRIdian systems to our Japanese distributor and they are in the process of being installed at the National Cancer Center, Tokyo and the Edogawa Hospital, Tokyo, respectively.

 

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In January 2014, Washington University in St. Louis, a National Cancer Institute Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center, became the first center to treat patients with MRIdian. Washington University in St. Louis has since scaled up its use of MRIdian in its clinical practice, and is now treating as many as 15 patients per day. In September 2014, Washington University in St. Louis used MRIdian to perform the first on-table adaptive treatments as part of an ongoing clinical service. Also in September 2014, the University of Wisconsin–Madison treated its first patients with MRIdian and became the first center to employ the soft-tissue tracking beam control capability unique to MRIdian. In October 2014, University of California, Los Angeles, became the third center to use MRIdian in clinical practice. In September 2015, the Seoul National University became the first international cancer center to install a MRIdian system. In December 2015, the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami became the fourth hospital in the United States to install a MRIdian system. In March 2016, the VU University Medical Center in Netherlands became the second hospital outside the United States to install a MRIdian system. In December 2016, Policlinico “A. Gemelli” Hospital in Italy became the third center outside the United States to install a MRIdian system. In addition, we shipped two MRIdian systems to Japan in December 2016 under the distribution agreement with Itochu Corporation, and these systems are expected to be installed by third-party certified technicians at National Cancer Center and Edogawa Hospital in early 2017. We are working with each of these centers to determine how best to refine and improve MRIdian’s features, optimize workflow and maximize patient throughput.

As of December 31, 2016, almost 1200 patients have been treated by MRIdian systems. These included cancers of the prostate, breast, lung, colorectal and bladder, which are among the most prevalent types of cancer in the United States according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, as well as the liver, stomach, esophagus and pancreas, which are among the most prevalent types of cancer outside of the United States according to the WHO.

Backlog

In 2016 we executed 13 new sales contracts with a total value of $77.0 million; in 2015 we executed seven new sales contracts with a total value of $40.1 million and in 2014 we executed seven new sales contracts with a total value of $37.6 million. At December 31, 2016, we had nine MRIdian systems installed or delivered and 23 signed orders for new systems for a backlog value of $133.2 million.

We define backlog as the accumulation of all orders for which revenue has not been recognized and we consider valid. Backlog includes customer deposits or letters of credit, except when the product order is to a government entity or when the product order is from an existing customer with credit to cover the deposit. Deposits received are recorded as a liability on the balance sheet. Orders may be revised or cancelled according to their terms or upon mutual agreement between the parties. Therefore, it is difficult to predict with certainty the amount of backlog that will ultimately result in revenue. The determination of backlog includes objective and subjective judgment about the likelihood of an order contract becoming revenue. We perform a quarterly review of backlog to verify that outstanding orders in backlog remain valid, and based upon this review, orders that are no longer expected to result in revenue are removed from backlog. Among other criteria, to consider a transaction to be in backlog we must possess an outstanding and effective written agreement for the delivery of a MRIdian signed by a customer and receipt of a minimum customer deposit or a letter of credit, except when the product order is to a government entity or when the product order is from an existing customer with credit to cover the deposit. For removal of an order from our backlog, the following criteria are considered: changes in customer or distributor plans or financial conditions; the customer’s or distributor’s continued intent and ability to fulfill the order contract; changes to regulatory requirements; the status of regulatory approval required in the customer’s jurisdiction, if any; and other reasons for potential cancellation of order contracts.

Installation Process

Following execution of a contract, it generally takes nine to 12 months for a customer to prepare an existing facility or construct a new vault, although in some cases customers may request installation for a date later in the future to meet their own clinical or business requirements. Upon the commencement of installation at a customer’s facility, it typically takes forty-five to ninety days to complete the installation and on-site testing of the system, including the completion of acceptance test procedures. MRIdian is designed to fit into a typical radiation therapy vault, similar to other replacement linear accelerators. MRIdian’s components all fit through standard hospital vault entrances for

 

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assembly. On-site training takes approximately one week and can be conducted concurrent with installation and acceptance testing.

Our customers are responsible for removing any outgoing linear accelerator and preparing the mounting pad, power and support system connections. Additional room modifications required are consistent with those generally required for MRI systems such as radio frequency shielding of the room and additional power.

Clinical Development

To date, we have primarily relied on clinical symposia and case studies presented at ASTRO and ESTRO to raise awareness of MRI-guided radiation therapy and to market MRIdian to leading cancer centers. In order to promote broader adoption rates at other cancer centers and hospitals, we plan to work with our customers to collect and publish data on clinical efficacy, treatment times and clinical results for patients who have been treated on a MRIdian. While we do not currently have statistically significant, objective evidence that MRIdian improves patient outcomes or decreases healthcare costs, we are currently sponsoring three prospective studies at Washington University in St. Louis to compare SBRT in the breast, lung and abdomen on MRIdian to other IGRT systems. We plan to continue to support further studies to demonstrate the benefits of MRI-guided radiation therapy and adaptive treatment planning. As data accumulate from the use of MRIdian, we plan to work with professional healthcare organizations to further support global marketing efforts, additional product clearances, approvals and/or registrations and potential improvements in reimbursement.

Selling and Marketing

We currently market MRIdian through a direct sales force in the United States and distributors in the rest of the world. We market MRIdian to a broad range of worldwide customers, including university research and teaching hospitals, community hospitals, private practices, government institutions and freestanding cancer centers. As with the traditional linac market, our sales and revenue cycle varies based on the customer and can be lengthy, sometimes lasting up to 18 to 24 months or more from initial customer contact to contract execution.

To sell MRIdian globally, we use a combination of sales executives, sales directors and a network of international third-party distributors with internal support from sales operations, product management and application specialists. A targeted group of three sales directors and one vice president are responsible for selling MRIdian within the United States. Our product management function helps market MRIdian and works with our engineering group to identify and develop upgrades and enhancements. We also have a team of application specialists who provide post-sales support.

Although we do not currently engage in advertising efforts, our selling and marketing practices include participating in trade shows and symposia.

Competition

We compete directly with companies marketing IGRT devices for the treatment of cancer using CT, ultrasound, optical tracking and X-ray imaging. We also compete with companies developing next-generation IGRT devices, specifically those developing MRI-guided devices, amongst others. We expect technological advances, including the ability to provide real-time imaging, clinical outcomes, size, price, operational complexity and operational efficiency to drive competitive market dynamics.

Our major competitors with devices approved for distribution in the United States or globally include Varian Medical Systems, Inc., or Varian, Elekta AB, or Elekta, and Accuray Incorporated, or Accuray. Many of our direct competitors have greater financial, sales and marketing, service infrastructure and research and development capabilities than we do, as well as more established reputations and current market share. The main limitations of currently approved devices are the lack of real-time, clear images before and during the treatment, as well as the ability to perform on-table adaptive planning.

 

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We are also aware of one commercial and two academic ongoing research efforts to develop radiation therapy systems incorporating MRI. Elekta and Royal Philips have formed a consortium to develop a commercial Elekta-Philips MRI-linac. The University of Sydney, Ingham Institute and the University of Queensland have formed a partnership to develop an MRI-linac and the University of Alberta’s Cross Cancer Institute is working on an MRI-linac as well. Although these academic research efforts may not compete directly with us commercially, if one of our competitors were to form a partnership with one of these institutions to commercialize their system, it could impact our sales negatively. Of these three, we believe the Elekta-Philips MRI-linac is the most advanced in development, although we believe this system may still be years away from approval. MRIdian is the first and only commercially available MRI-guided radiation therapy device to image and treat cancer patients simultaneously.

The limited capital expenditure budgets of our customers results in all suppliers to these entities competing for a limited pool of funds. Our customers may be required to select between two items of capital equipment. For example, some of our potential customers are considering expensive proton therapy systems which could consume a significant portion of their capital expenditure budgets.

Manufacturing

We have adopted a model in which we rely on subsystem manufacturing, assembly and testing by our key suppliers. The MRIdian system is integrated at the customer site. Through this approach, we avoid the majority of the fixed cost structure of manufacturing facilities. We purchase major components and subsystems for MRIdian from national and international third-party OEM suppliers and contract manufacturers. These major components include the magnet, MRI electronics, ring gantry, radiation therapy heads, Cobalt-60 sources, linear accelerator, multi-leaf collimators, patient-treatment table and computers. We also directly purchase minor components and parts. At the customer site, we assemble and integrate these components with our proprietary software and perform multiple levels of testing and qualification. The system undergoes a final acceptance test, which is performed in conjunction with the customer.

Many of the major subsystems and components of MRIdian are currently procured through single and sole source suppliers. Among these are the magnet, MRI electronics, MRI coils, ring gantry, Cobalt-60 sources, linear accelerator and the patient-treatment table. We have entered into multi-year supply agreements for most of our major components and subsystems. Except for the MRI power, control and image reconstruction subsystem, we own the design of all other major subsystems and components.

We manage our supplier relationships with scheduled business reviews and periodic program updates. We closely monitor supplier quality and delivery performance to ensure compliance with all MRIdian system specifications. We believe our supply chain has adequate capacity to meet our projected sales over the next several years.

Intellectual Property

The proprietary nature of, and protection for, MRIdian components, new technologies, processes and know-how are important to our business. Our policy is to seek patent protection in the United States and in certain foreign jurisdictions for our MRIdian systems and other technology where available and when appropriate. We also in-license technology, inventions and improvements we consider important to the development of our business.

We hold a license to three issued U.S. patents, 15 issued foreign patents (eight of which were issued in Great Britain, Germany, France and the Netherlands as a result of two applications filed and allowed through the European Patent Office), one pending U.S. application (which is allowed) and five pending foreign applications as of January 18, 2017. We own an additional 16 issued U.S. patents, 16 issued foreign patents, 21 pending U.S. applications (one of which is allowed) and 81 pending foreign applications (three of which are allowed) as of January 18, 2017. Assuming all required fees are paid, individual patents or patent applications owned or licensed by us will expire between 2021 and 2037. We also have a joint ownership interest with Case Western Reserve University in one issued patent and one U.S. application.

Our portfolio includes patents and patent applications directed to system-wide aspects of MRIdian and to key aspects of its subsystems and components. The initial licensed patents for our core technology broadly cover the

 

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simultaneous use of MR imaging and isotopic external-beam radiation therapy. Such patents have been granted in the United States, Europe, Hong Kong, Australia and Japan, and additional related patent applications remain pending in China, Canada, the United States, Australia and Japan. We have issued U.S. and foreign patents and pending continuation applications of the licensed patents that extend this core technology to alternate beam technologies. Additionally, we have patents and patent applications that cover critical design elements including, among others, our approach to Cobalt IMRT, our methods for integrating MRI and the radiation delivery system, and the design of our disassemblable, or “pop apart,” magnet which enables the MRI sub-system to fit into most standard radiation therapy vaults. The U.S. patent application on our approach to Cobalt IMRT has been issued, the patent application on our split gradient coil has been issued in the United States, Japan, Australia and China and numerous applications on other design elements are pending in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. In addition, we have U.S. and Australian patents and U.S. and foreign patent applications (including allowed applications in China and Europe) that cover the use of MRI imaging at a frequency sufficient to account for real-time organ motion to provide video rate tissue tracking in disciplines outside of radiation therapy. Many of the patents and applications in our portfolio covering aspects of the MRIdian with cobalt system also cover the MRIdian Linac. In addition, we have patents issued in the U.S., Australia, Japan and China, and additional applications pending in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions, specifically directed to technology enabling the MRIdian Linac combination of MRI and linear accelerator technology.  

We continue to review new technological developments in our system and in the field as a whole in order to make decisions about what filings would be most appropriate for us. An additional key component of our intellectual property is our proprietary software used in planning and delivering MRIdian’s therapeutic radiation dose.

In December 2004, we entered into a licensing agreement with the University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc., or UFRF, whereby UFRF granted us a worldwide exclusive license to certain of UFRF’s patents in exchange for 33,653 shares of common stock and a royalty from sales of products developed and sold by us utilizing the licensed patents. We were obligated to meet certain product development and commercialization milestones by various dates through December 31, 2014. The significant milestones met prior to December 31, 2013 included: (i) completion of a business plan and Small Business Technology Transfer grant application; (ii) securing a minimum of $20.0 million venture financing; (iii) successful relocation and build out of our headquarters; (iv) receipt of the first magnet from an OEM partner; (v) hiring of a chief executive officer with industry experience in developing and commercializing similar products; and (vi) filing for FDA approval. The final milestone, which required us to recognize the first commercial sale of the MRIdian system to retail customers by December 31, 2014, was met during the year ended December 31, 2013. If these milestones had not been accomplished, UFRF would have had the right to terminate the licensing agreement. Royalty payments are based on 1% of net sales, defined as the amount collected on sales of licensed products and/or licensed processes after deducting trade and/or quantity discounts, credits on returns and allowances, outbound transportation costs paid and sales tax. Minimum quarterly royalty payments of $50,000 commenced with the quarter ended March 31, 2014 and are payable in advance. Minimum royalties paid in any calendar year will be credited against earned royalties for such calendar year. The royalty payments continue until the earlier of (i) the date that no licensed patents remain enforceable or (ii) the payment of earned royalties, once begun in 2014, cease for more than four consecutive calendar quarters.

In addition to our patents, we also rely upon trade secrets, know-how, trademarks, copyright protection and continuing technological and licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our competitive position. We have periodically monitored and continue to monitor the activities of our competitors and other third parties with respect to their use of intellectual property. We require our employees, consultants and outside scientific collaborators to execute confidentiality and invention assignment agreements upon commencing employment or consulting relationships with us. Despite these safeguards, any of our know-how or trade secrets not protected by a patent could be disclosed to, or independently developed by, a competitor.

Coverage and Reimbursement

We believe that reimbursement rates in the United States have generally supported a favorable return on investment for the purchase of new radiotherapy equipment, including MRIdian. Payments for standard radiation therapy treatments using MRIdian, including 3D-CRT, IMRT and SBRT, are generally covered and reimbursed under existing Current Procedural Terminology, or CPT, codes and coverage policies currently in place. User experience

 

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to date indicates that our initial customers have treated a wide spectrum of different patients and treatment modalities using MRIdian. Physicians use the MRIdian system’s on-board MRI to perform a complex simulation weekly for IMRT or daily for SBRT, special physics consult and adaptive re-planning. Each of these are distinct procedures which can be billed by physicians using existing CPT codes, so long as such procedures meet medical necessity and other coverage criteria as established by government and other third-party payors.

Third-party payors, including governmental healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, establish coverage policies and reimbursement rates for diagnostic examinations and therapeutic procedures performed by physicians in hospitals and free-standing clinics. Private insurers often model their payment rates and coverage policies based on those established by the government. The U.S. Congress from time to time considers various Medicare and other healthcare reform proposals that could affect both private and public third-party payor coverage and reimbursement for healthcare services provided in hospitals and clinics. In addition, third-party payors regularly update reimbursement amounts, including annual updates to payments to physicians, hospitals and clinics for medical procedures, including radiation treatments using MRIdian.

By way of example, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, or MACRA, ended the use of the statutory formula, and provided for a 0.5% annual increase in payment rates under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule through 2019, but no annual update from 2020 through 2025. MACRA also introduced a quality payment program under which individual providers with Medicare billings of $30,000 or 100 patient visits per year will be subject to certain incentives or penalties based on new program quality standards.  The quality payment program has two tracks, one known as the merit based incentive payment system for providers in the fee-for service Medicare program, and the advanced alternative payment model for providers in specific care models, such as accountable care organizations.  Payment adjustments for the Medicare quality payment program will begin in 2019.

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, also publishes annual updates to the hospital outpatient prospective payment system, or HOPPS. These payments are bundled amounts received by our hospital customers for hospital outpatient services, including conventional radiation therapy and IMRT, which may result in lower reimbursement to our customers for procedures performed using MRIdian.

We plan to work with our customers to collect and publish data on clinical results for patients who have undergone procedures on MRIdian. We are currently sponsoring three prospective studies that are estimated to be completed between 2017 and 2018 at Washington University in St. Louis to compare MRIdian to other IGRT systems, and we plan to continue to support further studies to demonstrate the benefits of MRI-guided radiation therapy and adaptive treatment planning. As data accumulate from the use of our system, we plan to work with professional healthcare organizations to further support global marketing efforts, additional product clearances, approvals and/or registrations and potential improvements in reimbursement. Additionally, we currently provide reimbursement support to our customers through a third-party vendor.

Foreign Reimbursement Regulations

Internationally, reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary from country to country and include single-payor, government managed systems as well as systems in which private payors and government-managed systems exist side-by-side. In general, the process of obtaining coverage approvals is slower outside of the United States. Our ability to achieve adoption of MRIdian as well as significant sales volume in international markets we enter will depend in part on the availability of reimbursement for procedures performed using MRIdian.

Research and Development  

Continued innovation and development of advanced technologies is critical to our goal of making MRI-guided radiation therapy the standard of care for cancer treatment. Our current development activities include improvements in and expansion of product capabilities, continued clinical workflow refinements, design improvements to reduce system costs and improvements in reliability.

The modular design of MRIdian enables the development of new capabilities and performance enhancements by generally allowing each subsystem to evolve within the overall platform design. Access to regular MRIdian

 

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upgrades protects customer investment in MRIdian, and facilitates the adoption of new features and capabilities among existing installed base customers.

In March 2016, we announced the development of a linear accelerator version of our MRIdian technology. To date, we have achieved critical milestones in the development of this combined MRI and linac technology. Other significant technology incorporated into the MRIdian Linac includes radio frequency “cloaking” technology to preserve the integrity of the MR image quality in the presence of radio frequencies emitted by the linear accelerator, magnetic shielding technology to enable undistorted delivery of radiation, double- focused multi-leaf collimator technology for the delivery of sharp radiation beams and incorporation of the existing MRIdian proprietary “pop-apart” magnet design.  

We have designed the linac technology such that our MRIdian with cobalt systems should be able to be modified to incorporate the linac technology. In September 2016, we received CE mark approval in the European Union, and in February 2017, we received 510(k) clearance from the FDA to market the MRIdian Linac system in the United States. MRIdian Linac is now commercially available in the key markets of the EU and the United States.

We believe the MRIdian Linac will broaden our addressable market, accelerate our sales cycle, reduce our backlog conversion time and improve our gross margins.

In addition, we believe our existing and expanding IP portfolio will enable us to continuously develop innovative technologies to further strengthen the differentiation of MRIdian in the marketplace. Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful and versatile measurement technique and is widely used throughout radiology and medicine because of its ability to generate information about tissues and disease states.

At December 31, 2016, we had a total of 29 employees in our research and development departments. Research and development expenses were $11.4 million, $10.4 million and $9.4 million during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We plan to continue to increase our investment in research and development in future periods.

Government Regulation

U.S. Medical Device Regulation and Nuclear Materials Regulation

As a manufacturer and seller of medical devices and devices that deliver radiation, we and some of our suppliers and distributors are subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by the FDA, the NRC, other federal, state and local authorities in the United States and foreign regulatory authorities. Regulations promulgated by the FDA relating to medical devices and radiation-producing devices govern, among other things, the following activities that we perform or that are performed on our behalf, and that we will continue to perform or have performed on our behalf:

 

product design, development and testing;

 

manufacturing;

 

approval or clearance;

 

packaging, labeling and storage;

 

marketing, advertising and promotion;

 

distribution, including importing and exporting;

 

installation;

 

possession and disposal;

 

record keeping;

 

service and surveillance, including post-approval monitoring and reporting;

 

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complaint handling; and

 

repair or recall of products and issuance of field safety corrective actions.

FDA Clearance and Approval of Medical Devices

The FDA regulates the research, testing, manufacturing, safety, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, promotion, distribution, and production of medical devices in the United States to ensure that medical products distributed domestically are safe and effective for their intended uses. Unless an exemption applies, the FDA requires that all new medical devices and all marketed medical devices that have been significantly changed, or that will be marketed with a new indication for use, obtain either clearance via a 510(k) pre-market notification or approval via a Premarket Approval, or PMA, application before the manufacturer may commercially distribute the product in the United States. The type of marketing authorization necessary is generally linked to the classification of the device. The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes. Devices deemed to pose the lowest risk are placed in Class I, and most Class I devices are exempt from premarket notification requirements. Class I devices are those for which safety and effectiveness can be reasonably assured by adherence to a set of regulations referred to as General Controls, which require compliance with the applicable portions of the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, or QSR, and regulations regarding facility registration and product listing, reporting of adverse events and malfunctions, and appropriate, truthful and non-misleading labeling and promotional materials. However, some Class I devices, called Class I reserved devices, also require premarket clearance by the FDA through the 510(k) premarket notification process described below.

Moderate risk devices are placed in Class II and are subject to General Controls as well as Special Controls, which can include performance standards, guidelines and post-market surveillance. Most Class II devices are subject to premarket review and clearance by the FDA pursuant to Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA.

Devices deemed by the FDA to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices, or devices deemed not substantially equivalent to a previously cleared 510(k) device are placed in Class III. Class III devices require FDA approval of a PMA prior to marketing.

MRIdian with cobalt and the MRIdian Linac system have been classified as Class II medical devices subject to the 510(k) clearance process.

510(k) clearance process. Most Class II devices are subject to premarket review and clearance by the FDA. Premarket review and clearance by the FDA for Class II devices is accomplished through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Under the 510(k) process, the manufacturer must submit to the FDA a premarket notification, demonstrating that the device is “substantially equivalent” to either

 

a device that was legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976, the date upon which the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 were enacted; or

 

another commercially available, similar device that was cleared through the 510(k) process.

To be “substantially equivalent,” the proposed device must have the same intended use as the predicate device and either have the same technological characteristics as the predicate device or have different technological characteristics and not raise different questions of safety or effectiveness than the predicate device. Clinical data are sometimes required to support substantial equivalence.

The process of obtaining 510(k) clearance usually takes from three to 12 months from the date the application is filed and generally requires submitting supporting design and test data, which can be extensive and can prolong the process for a considerable period of time. If the FDA agrees that the device is substantially equivalent, it will grant clearance to commercially market the device. We received our 510(k) clearances for the treatment planning and delivery software system in January 2011 and for MRIdian in May 2012.

After a device receives 510(k) clearance, any modification that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a new or major change in the intended use of the device, may require a new 510(k)

 

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clearance or, depending on the modification, could require approval of a PMA. The FDA requires each manufacturer to make this determination in the first instance, but the FDA can review any such decision. If the FDA disagrees with the manufacturer’s decision, it may retroactively require the manufacturer to submit a request for 510(k) clearance or PMA approval and can require the manufacturer to cease marketing and/or recall the product until 510(k) clearance or PMA approval is obtained. Since obtaining 510(k) clearances in 2011 and 2012, we have made changes to MRIdian that we believe do not require new 510(k) clearance.

In the fall of 2016 we submitted an application for 510(k) clearance by the FDA for MRIdian Linac, and in February 2017, we received 510(k) clearance from the FDA to market the MRIdian Linac system.

Premarket application approval process. Submission and approval of a PMA is required before marketing of a Class III product may proceed. Under the PMA application process, the applicant must generally conduct at least one clinical investigation and submit extensive data and clinical information demonstrating reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device for its intended use to the FDA’s satisfaction. Accordingly, a PMA application typically includes, but is not limited to, extensive technical information regarding device design and development, pre-clinical and clinical trial data, manufacturing information, labeling and financial disclosure information for the clinical investigators in device studies. The PMA process is much more demanding than the 510(k) premarket notification process.

Following receipt of a PMA application, the FDA conducts an administrative review to determine whether the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. If it is not, the agency will refuse to file the PMA. If it is, the FDA will accept the application for filing and begin the review. The FDA, by statute and by regulation, has 180 days to review a filed PMA application, although the review of an application more often occurs over a significantly longer period of time. During this review period, the FDA may request additional information or clarification of information already provided, and the FDA may issue a major deficiency letter to the applicant, requesting the applicant’s response to deficiencies communicated by the FDA. Before approving or denying a PMA, an FDA advisory committee may review the PMA at a public meeting and provide the FDA with the committee’s recommendation on whether the FDA should approve the submission, approve it with specific conditions, or not approve it. Overall, the PMA application process typically takes between one to three years, but may take significantly longer. The FDA may approve a PMA application with post-approval conditions intended to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the device including, among other things, restrictions on labeling, user training requirements, restrictions on promotion, sale and distribution, and requirements for the collection of long-term follow-up data.

None of our products have been subject to the PMA approval process, and we have no plans for any indication, system improvements or extensions that we believe would require a PMA.

Clinical trials. Clinical trials are generally required to support a PMA application and are sometimes required for 510(k) clearance. Such trials require submission of an investigational device exemption, or IDE, application to the FDA for a specified number of patients and study sites, unless the product is deemed a non-significant risk device eligible for more abbreviated IDE requirements. If an IDE is required, the FDA and the appropriate institutional review boards, or IRBs, at the clinical sites must approve the study before clinical trials may begin. If the device is considered a non-significant risk device, IDE submission to FDA is not required. Instead, only approval from the IRB overseeing the clinical trial is required. Clinical trials are subject to extensive monitoring, record keeping and reporting requirements. Clinical trials must be conducted under the oversight of an IRB for the relevant clinical trial sites and must comply with FDA regulations, including but not limited to those relating to good clinical practices. To conduct a clinical trial, the patient’s informed consent must be obtained in form and substance that complies with both FDA requirements and state and federal privacy and human subject protection regulations.  

The clinical trial sponsor, the FDA or the IRB could suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time for various reasons, including a belief that the subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Even if a trial is completed, the results of clinical testing may not adequately demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the device or may otherwise not be sufficient to obtain FDA clearance or approval to market the product.

Continuing FDA regulation. Any devices we manufacture or distribute pursuant to 510(k) clearance or PMA approval by the FDA are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA and certain state agencies.

 

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These include product listing and establishment registration requirements, which help facilitate FDA inspections and other regulatory actions.

In addition, our manufacturing operations for medical devices and those of our suppliers must comply with the FDA’s QSR. The QSR requires that each manufacturer, including third party manufacturers, establish and implement a quality system by which the manufacturer monitors the manufacturing process and maintains records that show compliance with FDA regulations and the manufacturer’s written specifications and procedures. Among other things, the QSR requires that manufacturers establish performance requirements before production and follow stringent requirements applicable to the device design, testing, production, control, record keeping, documentation, labeling and installation, as well as supplier/contractor selection, complaint handling and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of the manufacturing process. Compliance with the QSR is necessary to be able to continue to market medical devices that have received FDA approval or clearance, and to receive FDA clearance or approval to market new or significantly modified medical devices. The FDA makes announced and unannounced inspections of medical device manufacturers, and these inspections may include the manufacturing facilities of subcontractors. Following an inspection, the FDA may issue reports, known as FDA Form 483 reports, listing the investigator’s observations of conditions or practices which indicate the possibility that an FDA-regulated product may be in violation of FDA’s requirements. FDA may also issue warning letters documenting regulatory violations observed during an inspection. The manufacturer’s failure to adequately respond to such reports or warning letters may result in FDA enforcement action against the manufacturer and related consequences, including, among other things, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, recalls or seizures of products, total or partial suspension of production, FDA refusal to grant 510(k) clearance or PMA approval to new devices, withdrawal of existing clearances or approvals, and criminal prosecution.

Manufacturers must also comply with post-market surveillance regulations, including medical device reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers review and report to the FDA any incident in which their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur. In addition, corrections and removal reporting regulations require that manufacturers report to the FDA field corrections and product recalls or removals if undertaken to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that may present a risk to health. The FDA may also order a mandatory recall if there is a reasonable probability that the device would cause serious adverse health consequences or death.

The FDA and the Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, also regulate the promotion and advertising of MRIdian. In general, we may not promote or advertise MRIdian for uses not within the scope of our clearances or approvals or make unsupported safety and effectiveness claims.

Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements, including delays in or failures to report incidents to the FDA or off-label promotion, can result in enforcement action by the FDA, which can include any of the following sanctions:

 

warning letters, untitled letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties;

 

customer notifications or repair, replacement, refunds, recall, administrative detention or seizure of our MRIdian systems;

 

operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production;

 

refusing or delaying requests for 510(k) clearance or PMA approval of new or modified products;

 

withdrawing 510(k) clearances or PMA approvals that have already been granted;

 

refusal to grant export approval for products; or

 

criminal prosecution.

Radiological health. We are also regulated by the FDA under the Electronic Product Radiation Control provisions of the FDCA because MRIdian contains gamma radiation producing components, and because we assemble these components during manufacturing and service activities. The Electronic Product Radiation Control provisions require gamma radiation producing products to comply with certain regulations and applicable

 

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performance standards. Manufacturers are required to certify in product labeling and reports to the FDA that their products comply with all necessary standards as well as maintain manufacturing, testing and sales records for their products. The Electronic Product Radiation Control provisions also require manufacturers to report product defects and affix appropriate labeling to covered products. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in enforcement action by the FDA, which can include any of the sanctions described above. We do not believe that the MRIdian Linac is subject to these requirements.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. State Agencies

In the United States, as a manufacturer of medical devices and devices utilizing radioactive byproduct material (i.e. depleted uranium shielding and Cobalt-60 sources) we are subject to extensive regulation by not only federal governmental authorities, such as the NRC, but also by state and local governmental authorities, such as the Ohio Department of Health, to ensure such devices are safe and effective. In Ohio, the Department of Health, by agreement with the NRC, regulates the possession, use, and disposal of radioactive byproduct material as well as the manufacture of devices containing radioactive sealed sources to ensure compliance with state and federal laws and regulations. We have received sealed source device approval from the Ohio Department of Health for MRIdian and have entered into a standby letter of credit with PNC for $103,000 to provide certification of financial assurance for decommissioning Cobalt-60 radioactive materials in accordance with Ohio Department of Health regulations. We and/or our supplier of radiation sources must also comply with NRC and U.S. Department of Transportation regulations on the labeling and packaging requirements for shipment of radiation sources to hospitals or other users of MRIdian. Compliance with NRC, state and local requirements is required for distribution, installation, use and service within each state that we intend to install MRIdian systems.

Existing radiation therapy facilities practicing nuclear medicine, brachytherapy or Gamma Knife therapy are already required to have necessary NRC and/or state licenses and a radiation safety program requiring compliance to various provisions under NRC regulations at Part 35 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (“Medical uses of byproduct material”). Use of MRIdian is regulated under Section 35.1000 of NRC’s regulations (“Other medical uses of byproduct material or radiation from byproduct material”). In 2013, the NRC released a licensing guidance under its regulations to guide our customers in the NRC requirements applicable to the use of MRIdian. We believe that this guidance is favorable in that it is consistent with clinical use of existing image-guided radiation therapy devices.

Moreover, our use, management, and disposal of certain radioactive substances and wastes are subject to regulation by several federal and state agencies depending on the nature of the substance or waste material. We believe that we are in compliance with all federal and state regulations for this purpose.

Outside the United States, various laws apply to the import, distribution, installation and use of MRIdian, in consideration of the nuclear materials within MRIdian. Upon 510(k) clearance and commercialization, we do not expect that the MRIdian Linac would fall under this regulation.

U.S. Privacy and Security Laws

We may also be subject to data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, including the final omnibus rule published on January 25, 2013, imposes specified requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Further, “business associates,” defined as independent contractors or agents of covered entities that create, receive, maintain or transmit protected health information in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity are also subject to certain HIPAA privacy and security standards. HITECH also increased the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against covered entities, business associates and possibly other persons, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, state laws govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

 

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U.S. Fraud and Abuse Laws and Regulations

The healthcare industry is also subject to a number of fraud and abuse laws and regulations, including physician anti-kickback, false claims and physician payment transparency laws. Violations of these laws can lead to civil and criminal penalties, including exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs and significant monetary penalties, among others. These laws, among other things, constrain the sales, marketing and other promotional activities of manufacturers of medical products, such as us, by limiting the kinds of financial arrangements we may have with hospitals, physicians and other potential purchasers of medical products who may seek reimbursement from a federal or state health care program such as Medicare or Medicaid.

Anti-kickback laws. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute makes it a criminal offense to knowingly and willfully solicit, offer, receive or pay any remuneration in exchange for, or to induce, the referral of business, including the purchase, order, lease of any good, facility, item or service, that are reimbursable by a state or federal health care program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to the purchase of medical devices from a particular manufacturer or the referral of patients to a particular supplier of diagnostic services utilizing such devices. Although, there are established statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors that define certain financial transactions and practices that are not subject to the Anti-Kickback Statute, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular applicable statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute. Instead, the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on a cumulative review of all its facts and circumstances.

Generally, courts have taken a broad interpretation of the scope of the Anti-Kickback Statute, holding that the statute may be violated if merely one purpose of a payment arrangement is to induce referrals or purchases. Further, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation.

Violations of this law are punishable by up to five years in prison, and can also result in criminal fines, administrative civil money penalties and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. In addition, a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act. Many states have also adopted statutes similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, some of which apply to payments in connection with the referral of patients for healthcare items or services reimbursed by any source, not only governmental payor programs.

False Claims Act. The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits anyone from knowingly and willfully presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment, that are false or fraudulent, for services not provided as claimed. In addition to actions initiated by the government itself, the statute authorizes actions to be brought on behalf of the federal government by a private party having knowledge of the alleged fraud. Because the complaint is initially filed under seal, the action may be pending for some time before the defendant is even aware of the action. If the government is ultimately successful in obtaining redress in the matter or if the plaintiff succeeds in obtaining redress without the government’s involvement, then the plaintiff will receive a percentage of the recovery. When an entity is determined to have violated the False Claims Act, it may be required to pay up to three times the actual damages sustained by the government, plus civil penalties ranging from $10,781 to $21,563 for each separate false claim, and may be excluded from participation in federal health care programs, and, although the federal False Claims Act is a civil statute, violations may also implicate various federal criminal statutes. Several states have also adopted comparable state false claims act, some of which apply to all payors.

Civil monetary penalties laws. The civil monetary penalties statute imposes penalties against any person or entity that, among other things, is determined to have presented or caused to be presented a claim to a federal health program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent.

Other fraud and abuse laws. HIPAA also created new federal criminal statutes that prohibit among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare

 

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benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Like the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the intent standard for certain healthcare fraud statutes under HIPAA was amended by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively, the Affordable Care Act, such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation.

Physician payment transparency laws. There has been a recent trend of increased federal and state regulation of payments made to physicians and other healthcare providers and entities. The Affordable Care Act, among other things, imposed new reporting requirements on certain manufacturers, including certain device manufacturers, for payments provided to physicians and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Failure to submit timely, accurately, and completely the required information may result in civil monetary penalties of up to an aggregate of $165,786 per year and up to an aggregate of $1,105,241 per year for “knowing failures.” Device manufacturers must submit reports by the 90th day of each calendar year.

Certain states also mandate implementation of compliance programs, impose restrictions on device manufacturer marketing practices and/or require the tracking and reporting of gifts, compensation and other remuneration to healthcare providers and entities.

The laws and regulations and their enforcement are constantly undergoing change, and we cannot predict what effect, if any, changes may have on our business. In addition, new laws and regulations may be adopted which adversely affect our business. There has been a trend in recent years, both in the United States and internationally, toward more stringent regulation and enforcement of requirements applicable to medical device manufacturers and requirements regarding protection and confidentiality of personal data.

State Certificate of Need Laws

In some states, a certificate of need, or CON, or similar regulatory approval is required by hospitals and other healthcare providers prior to the acquisition of high-cost capital items, including MRIdian, or the provision of new services. These laws generally require appropriate state agency determination of public need and approval prior to the acquisition of such capital items or addition of new services. CON requirements may preclude our customers from acquiring, or significantly delay acquisition of, MRIdian and/or from performing treatments using MRIdian. CON laws are the subject of ongoing legislative activity, and a significant increase in the number of states regulating the offering and use of MRIdian through CON or similar requirements could adversely affect us.

Healthcare Reform

In the United States and foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system seeking, among other things, to reduce healthcare costs that could affect our results of operations.

By way of example, in the United States, the Affordable Care Act was signed into law in March 2010, which is expected to substantially change the way healthcare is delivered and financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among other things, the Affordable Care Act:

 

imposed an annual excise tax of 2.3% on any entity that manufactures or imports medical devices offered for sale in the United States which, due to subsequent legislative amendments, has been suspended from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017, and, absent further legislative action, will be reinstated starting January 1, 2018;

 

established a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee and identify priorities in comparative clinical effectiveness research in an effort to coordinate and develop such research;

 

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implemented payment system reforms including a national pilot program on payment bundling to encourage hospitals, physicians and other providers to improve the coordination, quality and efficiency of certain healthcare services through bundled payment models; and

 

created an independent payment advisory board that will submit recommendations to reduce Medicare spending if projected Medicare spending exceeds a specified growth rate.

We expect that the new presidential administration and U.S. Congress will seek to modify, repeal, or otherwise invalidate all or certain provisions of, the Affordable Care Act. Since taking office, President Trump has continued to support the repeal of all or portions of the Affordable Care Act. In January 2017, the House and Senate passed a budget resolution that authorizes congressional committees to draft legislation to repeal all or portions of the Affordable Care Act and permits such legislation to pass with a majority vote in the Senate. President Trump also recently issued an executive order in which he stated that it is his administration’s policy to seek the prompt repeal of the Affordable Care Act and directed executive departments and federal agencies to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of the provisions of the Affordable Care Act to the maximum extent permitted by law. There is still uncertainty with respect to the impact President Trump’s administration and the U.S. Congress may have, if any, and any changes will likely take time to unfold, and could have an impact on coverage and reimbursement for healthcare items and services covered by plans that were authorized by the Affordable Care Act.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These changes include the Budget Control Act of 2011, which resulted in reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and will stay in effect through 2025 unless additional Congressional action is taken, as well as, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers, including hospitals and imaging centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for MRIdian or additional pricing pressure.

Foreign Regulation of Medical Devices

Our activities outside the United States are subject to regulatory requirements that vary from country to country and frequently differ significantly from those in the United States. Failure to obtain and maintain regulatory approval or clearance in any foreign country in which we market or plan to market MRIdian may have a negative effect on our ability to generate revenue and harm our business.

In general, MRIdian is regulated outside the United States as medical devices by foreign governmental agencies similar to the FDA and the FTC. In addition, in foreign countries where we have operations or sell MRIdian, we are subject to laws and regulations applicable to manufacturers of medical devices, radiation producing devices and to the healthcare industry, and laws and regulation of general applicability relating to environmental protection, safe working conditions, manufacturing practices and other matters. These laws and regulations are often comparable to, or more stringent than U.S. laws and regulations. Our sales of MRIdian in foreign countries are also subject to regulation of matters such as product standards, packaging requirements, labeling requirements, import restrictions, tariff regulations, duties and tax requirements. We rely in some countries on our foreign distributors to assist us in complying with applicable regulatory requirements.

Regulation in the EU

In the European Union, or EU, we are required under the European Medical Device Directive (Council Directive 93/42/EEC) to affix the CE mark to our MRIdian systems in order to sell the MRIdian systems in member countries of the EU. The CE mark is an international symbol that represents adherence to certain essential principles of safety and effectiveness mandated in the European Medical Device Directive (the so-called “essential

 

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requirements”). Once affixed, the CE mark enables a product to be sold within the EEA, which is composed of the 28 Member States of the EU plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.

To demonstrate compliance with the essential requirements, we must undergo a conformity assessment procedure which varies according to the type of medical device and its classification. Except for low risk medical devices (Class I with no measuring function and which are not sterile) where the manufacturer can issue an EC Declaration of Conformity based on a self-assessment of the conformity of its products with the essential requirements of the Medical Devices Directive, a conformity assessment procedure requires the intervention of an organization accredited by a Member State of the EEA to conduct conformity assessments, or a Notified Body. Depending on the relevant conformity assessment procedure, the Notified Body would typically audit and examine the technical file and the quality system for the manufacture, design and final inspection of our devices. The Notified Body issues a CE Certificate of Conformity following successful completion of a conformity assessment procedure conducted in relation to the medical device and its manufacturer and their conformity with the essential requirements. This Certificate entitles the manufacturer to affix the CE mark to its medical devices after having prepared and signed a related EC Declaration of Conformity.

We received the CE Certificate of Conformity from our Notified Body in November 2014, allowing us to affix the CE mark to MRIdian in order to sell it throughout the EEA. In September 2016, we received approval for CE marking in the European Union for our MRIdian Linac.

If we modify MRIdian we may need to undergo a new conformity assessment procedure to be able to affix the CE mark to the modified product. Additionally, we will need to undergo new conformity assessments for any new products that we may develop in the future before we are able to affix the CE mark to these new products. We cannot be certain that the outcome of these conformity assessments will be positive and that we will be able to affix the CE mark for modified or new products or that we will continue to meet the quality and safety standards required to maintain the CE marks that we already have or may have in the future. In addition, if we are unable to affix the CE mark to our future products, we would be unable to sell them in EU member countries.

In September 2012, the European Commission published proposals for the revision of the EU regulatory framework for medical devices. The proposals would replace the Medical Devices Directive and the Active Implantable Medical Devices Directive with two new regulations: the Medical Devices Regulation and the In-Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation. Unlike directives, which must be implemented into the national laws of the EU Member States, the regulations would be directly applicable, i.e., without the need for adoption of EU Member State laws implementing them, in all EEA Member States and are intended to eliminate current differences in the regulation of medical devices among EEA Member States.

The European Parliament adopted its position on the European Commission’s proposals in first reading in April 2014 and the European Council agreed on its general approach in October 2015. Interinstitutional negotiations between the European Council, Parliament and Commission concluded with an agreement on a revised version of the proposals in May 2016. Both proposals are now undergoing legal-linguistic revision. The formal first reading of the Council is expected early this year, followed by a plenary vote in Parliament at second reading, which would lead to the final adoption of the two regulations in the first quarter of 2017. The Medical Devices Regulation will however only become applicable three years after publication while the In-Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation will only become applicable five years after publication. Once applicable, the new regulations will among other things:

 

strengthen the rules on placing devices on the market and reinforce surveillance once they are available;

 

establish explicit provisions on manufacturers' responsibilities for the follow-up of the quality, performance and safety of devices placed on the market;

 

improve the traceability of medical devices throughout the supply chain to the end-user or patient through a unique identification number;

 

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set up a central database to provide patients, healthcare professionals and the public with comprehensive information on products available in the EU;

 

strengthened rules for the assessment of certain high-risk devices, such as implants, which may have to undergo an additional check by experts before they are placed on the market.

Regulation in Other Countries

We will be subject to additional regulations in foreign countries in which we intend to market, sell and import MRIdian. We or our distributors must receive all necessary approvals or clearance prior to marketing and importing MRIdian in those international markets. We received a license and permission to import MRIdian into the United Arab Emirates in December 2014. We received regulatory approval in Italy in January 2015, Korea in September 2015, as well as Japan and China in August 2016. We will seek approvals in other countries as may be required in the future.

The International Standards Organization promulgates internationally recognized standards, including those for the requirements of quality systems. We are certified to the ISO 13485:2003 standard, which specify the quality system requirements for medical device manufacturers. To support our ISO certifications, we are subject to surveillance audits by a Notified Body yearly and recertification audits every three years that assess our continued compliance with the relevant ISO standards. Our most recent recertification audit occurred in March 2015.

Employees

At December 31, 2016, we had 92 full-time employees. Within our workforce at December 31, 2016, 29 employees are engaged in research and development and 63 employees in business development, finance, human resources, facilities and general management and administration. We have no collective bargaining agreements with our employees, and we have not experienced any work stoppages. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.

 

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Item 1A. RISK FACTORS

You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. The risks described below are not the only risks facing the Company.

Risks Related to Our Business and Strategy

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. These factors may raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

We have historically incurred substantial net losses, including net losses of $50.6 million, $45.0 million and $33.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We expect our net losses to continue as a result of ongoing investments in product development and expansion of our commercial operations, including increased manufacturing, and sales and marketing. These net losses have had, and will continue to have, a negative impact on our working capital, total assets and stockholders’ equity. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with our development and commercialization efforts, we are unable to predict when we will become profitable, and we may never become profitable. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our inability to achieve and then maintain profitability could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Further, the net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year, such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year, due to factors including the timing of product approval, commercial ramp, clinical trials, any litigation that we may file or that may be filed against us, the execution of collaboration, licensing or other agreements and the timing of any payments we make or receive thereunder. These factors may raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

If clinicians do not widely adopt MRI-guided radiation therapy or MRIdian Linac fails to achieve and sustain sufficient market acceptance, we will not generate sufficient revenue and our growth prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

Our MRI-guided radiation therapy system, MRIdian, may never gain significant acceptance in the marketplace and, therefore, may never generate substantial revenue or allow us to achieve or maintain profitability. Widespread adoption of MRI-guided radiation therapy depends on many factors, including acceptance by clinicians that MRI-guided radiation therapy is clinically-effective and cost-effective in treating a wide range of cancers, demand by patients for such treatment, successful education of clinicians on the various aspects of this treatment approach and coverage and adequate reimbursement for procedures performed using MRI-guided radiation therapy. If we are not successful in conveying to clinicians and hospitals that MRI-guided radiation therapy provides equivalent or superior radiation therapy compared to existing technologies, we may experience reluctance or refusal on the part of clinicians and hospitals to order, and third-party payors to pay for performing, a treatment in which MRIdian is utilized. Our ability to achieve commercial market acceptance for MRIdian or any other future products also depends on the strength of our sales, marketing and distribution organizations. In addition, our expectations regarding clinical benefits and cost savings from using MRIdian may not be accurate. These hurdles may make it difficult to demonstrate to physicians, hospitals and other healthcare providers that MRIdian is an appropriate option for radiation therapy, may be superior to available radiation therapy systems and may be more cost-effective than alternative technologies.

Furthermore, we may encounter difficulty in gaining inclusion in cancer treatment guidelines and gaining broad market acceptance by healthcare providers, third-party payors and patients. Healthcare providers may have difficulty in obtaining adequate reimbursement from government and/or third-party payors for cancer treatment, which may negatively impact adoption of MRIdian.

 

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We may not be able to generate sufficient revenue from the commercialization of MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac to achieve and maintain profitability.

We rely solely on the commercialization of MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac to generate revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we recognized revenue of $22.2 million from two installed MRIdian with cobalt system at VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, Netherlands and Policlinico “A. Gemelli” Hospital in Rome, Italy, and shipment of two MRIdian with cobalt systems under the distribution agreement with Itochu Corporation for National Cancer Center and Edogawa Hospital in Japan, as well as service revenue at certain customer sites and distribution rights revenue. In order to successfully commercialize MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac, we will need to continue to expand our marketing efforts to develop new relationships and expand existing relationships with customers, to receive clearance or approval for MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac in additional countries, to achieve and maintain compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and to develop and commercialize new features for MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac. We cannot assure you that we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. If we fail to successfully commercialize MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac, we may never receive a return on the substantial investments in product development, sales and marketing, regulatory compliance, manufacturing and quality assurance that we have made, as well as further investments we intend to make, which may cause us to fail to generate revenue and gain economies of scale from such investments.

In addition, potential customers may decide not to purchase MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac, or our customers may decide to cancel orders due to changes in treatment offerings, research and product development plans, difficulties in obtaining coverage or reimbursement for MRI-guided radiation therapy treatment, complications with facility build-outs, utilization of MRI-guided radiation therapy or other cancer treatment methods developed by other parties, lack of financing or the inability to obtain or delay in obtaining a certificate of need from state regulatory agencies or zoning restrictions, all of which are circumstances outside of our control.

In addition, demand for MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac systems may not increase as quickly as we predict, and we may be unable to increase our revenue levels as we expect. Even if we succeed in increasing adoption of MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac systems by hospitals and other healthcare providers, maintaining and creating relationships with our existing and new customers and developing and commercializing new features for MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or maintain profitability.

We are an early, commercial-stage company and have a limited history commercializing MRIdian, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance.

We are an early, commercial-stage company and have a limited operating history. We commenced operations as a Florida corporation in 2004 and subsequently reincorporated in Delaware in 2007. However, we did not begin commercial operations until 2013. Our limited history commercializing MRIdian may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance. Any assessment of our profitability or prediction about our future success or viability is subject to significant uncertainty. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by early, commercial-stage companies in rapidly evolving industries. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business could be harmed.

If MRIdian does not perform as expected, or if we are unable to satisfy customers’ demands for additional product features, our reputation, business and results of operations will suffer.

Our success depends on the market’s confidence that MRIdian can provide reliable, high-quality MRI-guided radiation therapy. At December 31, 2016, there are only seven MRIdian systems installed, and two other MRIdian systems have been delivered and are expected to be installed in early 2017, and therefore we have limited statistics regarding the efficacy or reliability of MRIdian. We believe that our customers are likely to be particularly sensitive to product defects and errors, including functional downtime that limits the number of patients that can be treated using the system or a failure that is costly to repair. For example, in January 2014, we initiated a correction of the system at Washington University in St. Louis due to a defect we identified in an advanced software feature in the treatment planning system of MRIdian. We promptly updated our software to resolve this defect and notified the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, of this correction. We cannot assure that similar product defects or

 

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other errors will not occur in the future. This could also include the mistreatment of a patient with MRIdian caused by human error on the part of MRIdian’s operators or prescribing physicians or as a result of a machine malfunction. We may be subject to regulatory enforcement action or legal claims arising from any defects or errors that may occur. Any failure of MRIdian to perform as expected could harm our reputation, business and results of operations.

Furthermore, the Cobalt-60 radioactive materials used in MRIdian systems decay over time, which eventually leads to longer treatment times and may have a negative impact on the number of patients a hospital can treat during a day. U.S. regulations require inspection of Cobalt-60 every five years, at which time customers may consider replacing the Cobalt-60 source. This natural decay or a customer’s failure to replace the Cobalt-60 may have a negative impact on MRIdian performance.

In addition, our customers are technologically well informed and at times have specific demands or requests for additional functionality. If we are unable to meet those demands through the development of new features for MRIdian or future products, or those new features or products do not function at the level that our customers expect, or we are unable to increase throughput as expected or we are unable to obtain regulatory clearance or approval of those new features or products, where applicable, our reputation, business and results of operations could be harmed.

The safety and efficacy of MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac for certain uses is not currently supported by long-term clinical data, and MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac may therefore be less safe and effective than initially anticipated.

MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac have received premarket clearance by the FDA under Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. In the 510(k) clearance process, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is “substantially equivalent” to a device legally on the market, known as a “predicate” device, with respect to intended use, technology and safety and effectiveness, in order to clear the proposed device for marketing. This process is typically shorter and generally requires the submission of less supporting documentation than the FDA’s premarket approval process and does not always require long-term clinical studies. Additionally, to date, we have not been required to complete long-term clinical studies in connection with the sale of MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac outside the United States. As a result, we currently lack the breadth of published long-term clinical data supporting the efficacy of MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac and the benefits each offers that might have been generated in connection with other marketing authorization processes. In addition, because MRIdian with cobalt has only been on the market since 2013, and MRIdian Linac has yet to be installed at a customer site, we have limited complication or patient survival rate data with respect to treatment using the systems. If future patient studies or clinical testing do not support our belief that MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac offers a more advantageous treatment for a wide variety of cancer types, market acceptance of these systems could fail to increase or could decrease and our business could be harmed.

If we choose to, or are required to, conduct additional studies, such studies or experience could reduce the rate of coverage and reimbursement by both public and private third-party payors for procedures that are performed with MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac, slow the market adoption of our product by physicians, significantly reduce our ability to achieve expected revenues and prevent us from becoming profitable. In addition, if future studies and experience indicate that MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac causes unexpected or serious complications or other unforeseen negative effects, we could be subject to mandatory product recalls or suspension or withdrawal of FDA clearance, and our reputation with physicians, patients and healthcare providers may suffer.

There have been instances of patients’ severe injury or death due to either operator misuse or system malfunction with other radiation therapy systems. If our redundant safety systems do not operate as we expect, or were misused by operators, MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac could severely injure or kill a patient. This could result in lawsuits, fines or damage to our reputation.

We may be delayed or prevented from implementing our long-term sales strategy if we fail to educate clinicians and patients about the benefits of MRIdian.

In order to increase revenue, we must increase awareness of the range of benefits that we believe MRIdian offers to both existing and potential customers, primarily cancer clinicians. An important part of our sales strategy involves educating and training clinicians to utilize the entire functionality of MRIdian. In addition, we must further educate

 

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clinicians about the ability of MRIdian to treat a wide range of cancer types effectively and efficiently. If clinicians are not properly educated about the use of MRIdian for radiation therapy, they may be unwilling or unable to take advantage of the full range of functionality that we believe MRIdian offers, which could have a negative impact on MRIdian sales. Clinicians may decide that certain tumors can be adequately treated using traditional radiation therapy systems, notwithstanding the benefits of MRIdian. Cobalt-60 systems have historically had certain limitations which have resulted in an increased use of linacs and a decreased use of Cobalt-60 systems. These historical limitations included imprecise radiation dose applications and an unsharp, wide-beam edge. If we do not adequately educate physicians about the functionality of our Cobalt-60 system to address some of the limitations that have affected Cobalt-60 systems, we may be delayed or prevented from implementing our long-term sales strategy. We must also succeed in educating clinicians about the potential for reimbursement for procedures performed using MRIdian. In addition, we need to increase awareness of MRIdian among potential patients, who are increasingly educated about cancer treatment options and therefore impact adoption of new technologies by clinicians. If our efforts to expand sales of MRIdian in the long-term are not successful, our business and results of operations will be harmed.

We may not be able to gain the support of leading hospitals and key opinion leaders, or to publish the results of our clinical trials in peer-reviewed journals, which may make it difficult to establish MRIdian as a standard of care and achieve market acceptance.

Our strategy includes developing relationships with leading hospitals and key opinion leaders in our industry. If these hospitals and key industry thought leaders determine that MRIdian is not clinically effective or that alternative technologies are more effective, or if we encounter difficulty promoting adoption or establishing MRIdian as a standard of care, our ability to achieve market acceptance of MRIdian could be significantly limited.

We believe that publication of scientific and medical results in peer-reviewed journals and presentation of data at leading conferences are critical to the broad adoption of MRIdian. Publication in leading medical journals is subject to a peer-review process, and peer reviewers may not consider the results of studies involving MRIdian sufficiently novel or worthy of publication.

We have a limited history of manufacturing, assembling and installing MRIdian in commercial quantities and may encounter related problems or delays that could result in lost revenue.

The pre-installation manufacturing processes for MRIdian include sourcing components from various third-party suppliers, subassembly, assembly, system integration and testing. We must manufacture and assemble MRIdian in compliance with regulatory requirements and at an acceptable cost in order to achieve and maintain profitability. We have only a limited history of manufacturing, assembling and installing MRIdian and, as a result, we may have difficulty manufacturing, assembling and installing MRIdian in sufficient quantities in a timely manner. To manage our manufacturing and operations with our suppliers, we forecast anticipated product orders and material requirements to predict our inventory needs up to a year in advance and enter into purchase orders on the basis of these requirements. Our limited manufacturing history may not provide us with sufficient data to accurately predict future component demand and to anticipate our costs effectively.

Further, we have experienced and may in the future experience delays in obtaining components from suppliers and installing our systems at customer sites associated with contractor timing delays, which could impede our ability to manufacture, assemble and install MRIdian on our expected timeline. Alternatively, delays or postponements of scheduled customer installations could lead to excess inventory due to our limited flexibility to postpone or delay component shipments from suppliers. Accordingly, we may encounter difficulties in production of MRIdian, including problems with quality control and assurance, component supply shortages or surpluses, increased costs, shortages of qualified personnel and difficulties associated with compliance with local, state, federal and foreign regulatory requirements. In addition, if we are unable to maintain larger-scale manufacturing capabilities, our ability to generate revenue will also be limited and our reputation could be harmed. If we cannot achieve the required level and quality of production, we may need to make changes in our supply chain or enter into licensing and other arrangements with third parties who possess sufficient manufacturing facilities and capabilities in compliance with regulatory requirements. Even if we outsource necessary production or enter into licensing or other third-party arrangements, the associated cost could reduce our gross margin and harm our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We have limited experience in marketing and selling MRIdian, and if we are unable to adequately address our customers’ needs, it could negatively impact sales and market acceptance of MRIdian and we may never generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability.

We have limited experience in marketing and selling MRIdian. We have only been selling MRIdian since 2013, have only seven MRIdian systems installed at December 31, 2016, and two other MRIdian systems that have been delivered and are expected to be installed in early 2017, and have only treated patients since early 2014. In addition, MRIdian is a new technology in the radiation therapy systems sector and our future sales will largely depend on our ability to increase our marketing efforts and adequately address our customers’ needs. We believe it is necessary to maintain a sales force that includes sales representatives with specific technical backgrounds that can support our customers’ needs. We will also need to attract and develop sales and marketing personnel with industry expertise. Competition for such employees is intense and we may not be able to attract and retain sufficient personnel to maintain an effective sales and marketing force. If we are unable to adequately address our customers’ needs, it could negatively impact sales and market acceptance of MRIdian and we may never generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability.

The long sales cycle and low unit volume sales of MRIdian, as well as other factors, may contribute to substantial fluctuations in our operating results and stock price and make it difficult to compare our results of operations to prior periods and predict future financial results.

Because of the relatively small number of systems we expect to install in any period, each installation of a MRIdian will represent a significant percentage of our revenue for a particular period. Additionally, customer site construction, certificate of need and additional zoning and licensing permits are often required in connection with the sale of a MRIdian, any of which may further delay the installation process. When we are responsible for installing a system, we only recognize revenue from the sale of a MRIdian after the system has been installed and accepted by the customer. When a qualified third party is responsible for the installation, we only recognize revenue when title is transferred. Therefore, if we do not install a MRIdian or transfer title when anticipated, our operating results will vary significantly from our expectations. We have had experiences with customers postponing installation of MRIdian systems due to delays in facility build-outs, which are often lengthy and costly processes for our existing and potential customers. In addition, if our customers delay or cancel purchases, we may be required to modify or terminate contractual arrangements with our suppliers, which may result in the loss of deposits. Due to future fluctuations in revenue and costs, as well as other potential fluctuations, you should not rely upon our operating results in any particular period as an indication of future performance. In addition to the other risks described herein, the following factors may also contribute to these fluctuations:

 

timing of when we are able to recognize revenue associated with sales of MRIdian;

 

actions relating to regulatory matters, including regulatory requirements in some states for a certificate of need prior to the installation of a MRIdian;

 

delays in shipment due to, for example, unanticipated construction delays at customer locations where MRIdian is to be installed, labor disturbances or natural disasters;

 

delays in our manufacturing processes or unexpected manufacturing difficulties;

 

timing of the announcements of contract executions or other customer and commercial developments;

 

timing of the announcement, introduction and delivery of new products or product features by us and by our competitors;

 

timing and level of expenditures associated with expansion of sales and marketing activities and our overall operations;

 

fluctuations in our gross margins and the factors that contribute to such fluctuations, as described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” elsewhere in this Annual Report;

 

our ability to effectively execute on our strategic and operating plans;

 

the extent to which MRIdian gains market acceptance and the timing of customer demand for MRIdian;

 

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our ability to protect our proprietary rights and defend against third-party challenges;

 

disruptions in the supply or changes in the costs of raw materials, labor, product components or transportation services; and

 

changes in third-party coverage and reimbursement, government regulation or in a customer’s ability to obtain financing.

These factors are difficult to forecast and may contribute to fluctuations in our reported revenue and results of operations and variation from our expectations, particularly during the periods in which our sales volume is low. Any such fluctuations in our financial results may cause volatility in our stock price.

Each MRIdian is a major capital equipment item and is subject to a lengthy sales cycle. The time from initial customer contact to execution of a contract can take 18 to 24 months or more. Following execution of a contract, it generally takes nine to 12 months for a customer to customize an existing facility or construct a new vault, which is inclusive of the time from when a customer places the order to when the system is delivered. During this time, facilities support and transitioning, as well as permitting, are typically required, which can take several months. The time required to customize an existing facility prior to installation, including modifications of a standard vault to accommodate an MRI, is currently three months. If a customer does not have an existing vault available, it may take longer to construct a new vault. In some cases, customers may request installation for a date later in the future to meet their own clinical or business requirements. Upon the commencement of installation at a customer’s facility, it typically takes forty-five to ninety days to complete the installation and on-site testing of the system, including the completion of acceptance test procedures. If a small number of customers defer installation of a MRIdian for even a short period, recognition of a significant amount of revenue may be deferred to a subsequent period. Because our operating costs are relatively fixed, our inability to recognize revenue in a particular period may impact our profitability in that period. As a result, the inability to recognize revenue in a particular period may make it difficult to compare our operating results with prior periods. The price of a MRIdian requires a portion of our target customers to obtain outside financing before committing to purchase a MRIdian system. Such financing may be difficult for our customers to obtain in any given period, if at all. The requirement of site-specific modifications or construction may also delay adoption or overall demand. In addition, while we believe that our backlog of orders provides a better measure at any particular point in time of the long-term performance prospects of our business than our operating results for a particular period, investors may attribute significant weight to our operating results for a particular period, which may be volatile and as a result could cause fluctuations in our stock price.

The commercial introduction of the MRIdian Linac may not accelerate the current sales cycle.

A large portion of our revenue in any given reporting period will be derived from a small number of contracts.

Given a significant portion of the purchase price for MRIdian will generally be recognized as revenue in a single reporting period, we expect a small number of contracts in any given reporting period to account for a substantial part of our revenue in any such period, and we expect this trend to continue. Any decrease in revenue from these contracts could harm our operating results. Accordingly, our revenue and results of operations may vary from period to period. We are also subject to credit risk associated with the concentration of our accounts receivable from our customers. If one or more of our customers at any given time were either to terminate their contracts with us, cease doing business with us or to fail to pay us on a timely basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

The payment structure we use in our customer arrangements may lead to fluctuations in operating cash flows in a given period.

While our customers typically provide a deposit upon entering into a sales contract with us, the substantial majority of the payment owed for a MRIdian is not due until the time of shipment of a MRIdian or following final acceptance by the customer upon installation. If we miss targeted shipments or our customers do not actively work towards completing installation, our receipt of payments and our operating cash flows could be impacted. In addition, if customers do not adhere to our payments terms, our operating cash flows could be impacted in any given period.

 

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Due to these fluctuations in operating cash flows and other potential fluctuations, you should not rely upon our operating results in any particular period as an indication of future performance.

Amounts included in backlog may not result in actual revenue and are an uncertain indicator of our future earnings.

We define backlog as the accumulation of all orders for which revenue has not been recognized and we consider valid. The determination of backlog includes, among other factors, our subjective judgment about the likelihood of an order becoming revenue and the regulatory approval required in the customer’s jurisdiction, if any. Our judgments in this area have been, and in the future may be, incorrect and we cannot assure you that, for any order included in backlog, we will recognize revenue with respect to such order. In addition, orders can be delayed for a number of reasons, many of which are beyond our control, including supplier delays which may cause delays in our manufacturing process, customer delays in commencing or completing construction of its facility, delays in obtaining zoning or other approvals and delays in obtaining financing. We may not be aware of these delays affecting our suppliers and customers and as a result may not consider them when evaluating the contemporaneous effect on backlog. Moreover, orders generally do not have firm dates by when a customer must take delivery, which could allow a customer to delay the order without cancelling the contract. We believe the introduction of our MRIdian Linac will increase the number of orders we receive and accelerate the conversion of orders in backlog; however, customers with orders in the backlog currently may delay their installations until the MRIdian Linac becomes available or is proven to perform well after installation. Further, our backlog could be reduced due to cancellation of orders by customers. Should a cancellation occur, our backlog and anticipated revenue would be reduced unless we were able to replace such order. Reported reductions in our backlog could negatively impact our future results of operations or the price of our common stock.

We evaluate our backlog at least quarterly to determine if the orders continue to meet our criteria for inclusion in backlog. Our criteria include an outstanding and effective written agreement for the delivery of a MRIdian signed by customers, receipt of a minimum customer deposit or a letter of credit, any changes in customer or distributor plans or financial conditions, the customer’s or distributor’s continued intent and ability to fulfill the order contract, changes to regulatory requirements, the status of regulatory approval required in the customer’s jurisdiction, if any, or reasons for cancellation of order contracts. We may adjust our reported backlog as a result of these factors and due to changes in our judgment about the timing of shipment of a system for particular projects or the status of our regulatory approval in a particular jurisdiction, where applicable. Projects we once categorized as included within our backlog may be removed if we determine, based on the aforementioned criteria, that a particular order or orders no longer constitute valid backlog. In addition, one or more of our contracts have in the past and may in the future contribute to a material portion of our backlog in any one year. Because revenue will not be recognized until we have fulfilled our obligations to a customer, there may be a significant amount of time from signing a contract with a customer or shipping a system and revenue recognition. We cannot assure you that our backlog will result in revenue on a timely basis or at all, or that any cancelled contracts will be replaced.

Our ability to achieve profitability depends substantially on increasing our gross margins by reducing costs of MRIdian and improving our economies of scale, which we may not be able to achieve.

We are not, and never have been, profitable. The MRIdian purchase contracts we have entered into to date have been at a range of selling prices. Generally, earlier contracts have been at lower prices and more recent contracts have been at higher prices. Our earlier contracts resulted in negative gross margins. In order to become profitable we will need to be able to enter into contracts at increased prices. Our intention is to enter into purchase contracts for MRIdian systems with selling prices that are increasingly closer to our list price of a MRIdian. Our ability to enter into contracts at higher selling prices depends on a number of factors including:

 

our ability to achieve commercial market acceptance for our system;

 

the pricing of competitors’ cancer therapy systems;

 

availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement by commercial and government payors; and

 

our ability to manufacture and install our systems in a timely and cost-effective manner.

 

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We bear the risk of warranty claims on all products we supply, including equipment and component parts manufactured by third parties. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in claiming recovery under any warranty or indemnity provided to us by our suppliers or vendors in the event of a successful warranty claim against us by a customer or that any recovery from such vendor or supplier would be adequate. In addition, warranty claims brought by our customers related to third-party components may arise after our ability to bring corresponding warranty claims against such suppliers expires, which could result in additional costs to us. There is a risk that warranty claims made against us will exceed our warranty reserve and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

Our customer contracts provide that our customers commit to purchase a MRIdian for a fixed price, and a MRIdian will generally not be delivered for 11 to 15 months. In some circumstances, delivery can be postponed several months due to customer delays related to construction, vault preparation or concurrent facility expansion, and the cost of product supplies may increase significantly in the intervening time period. In addition, inflation may generally reduce the real value of the purchase price payable upon the achievement of future progress payment milestones. Either of these occurrences could cause our gross margins to decline or cause us to lose money on the sale of a MRIdian.

Moreover, our gross margins may decline in a given period due in part to significant replacement rates for components, resulting in increased warranty expense, negative profit margins on service contracts and customer dissatisfaction. If we are unable to reduce our expenses and improve or maintain quality and reliability, our profitability may be negatively impacted. Additionally, we may face increased demands for compensation from customers who are not satisfied with the quality and reliability of MRIdian, which could increase our service costs or require us to issue credits against future service payments and negatively impact future product sales. For example, we may have to extend a warranty period due to our failure to meet up-time requirements. We are currently implementing programs to reduce the cost of our MRIdian product; however, we may be unable to reduce our product cost as quickly as we anticipate and in some instances may experience increases in costs from our suppliers.  

We believe that our MRIdian Linac could significantly reduce product costs and increase gross margins; however, if we cannot fully implement MRI linac technology into our products, or if we are delayed or prevented from selling products incorporating MRI linac technology due to FDA or other regulatory constraints, such lower product costs and higher gross margins may be delayed or may not materialize. Even if we are able to implement cost reduction and quality improvement efforts successfully, our service operations may remain unprofitable given the relatively small size and geographic dispersion of our installed base, which prevents us from achieving significant economies of scale for the provision of services. If we are unable to continue to sell MRIdian at increasingly higher prices that result in higher gross margins, we may never become profitable.

We may not be able to develop new products or enhance the capabilities of MRIdian to keep pace with our industry’s rapidly changing technology and customer requirements.

Our industry is characterized by rapid technological changes, new product introductions and enhancements and evolving industry standards. Our business prospects depend on our ability to develop new products and applications for our technology in new markets that develop as a result of technological and scientific advances, while improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of MRIdian. New technologies, techniques or products could emerge that might offer better combinations of price and performance than MRIdian systems. The market for radiation therapy treatment products is characterized by rapid innovation and advancement in technology. It is important that we anticipate changes in technology and market demand, as well as physician, hospital and healthcare provider practices to successfully develop, obtain clearance or approval, if required, and successfully introduce new, enhanced and competitive technologies to meet our prospective customers’ needs on a timely and cost-effective basis. Nevertheless, we must carefully manage our introduction of new products. If potential customers believe that such products will offer enhanced features or be sold for a more attractive price, they may delay purchases until such products are available, such as the MRI linac technology. We believe the introduction of MRI linac technology will increase our sales; however, customers with orders in the backlog may delay their installations until the MRIdian Linac becomes available or is proven to perform well after installation. Furthermore, we may experience delays in upgrading the current MRIdian with cobalt systems with the MRIdian Linac. We may also have excess or obsolete inventory as we transition to new products, and we have no experience in managing product transitions. If we do not

 

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successfully innovate and introduce new technology into our anticipated product lines, such as the MRIdian Linac, or effectively manage the transitions of our technology to new product offerings, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

We face competition from numerous companies, many of whom have greater resources than we do or offer alternative technologies at lower prices than our MRIdian systems, which may make it more difficult for us to achieve significant market penetration and profitability.

The market for radiation therapy equipment is characterized by intense competition and pricing pressure. In particular, we compete with a number of existing therapy equipment companies, including Elekta AB, Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and Accuray Incorporated. Many of these competitors are large, well-capitalized companies with significantly greater market share and resources than we have. As a result, these companies may be better positioned than we are to spend more aggressively on marketing, sales, intellectual property and other product initiatives and research and development activities. In addition, we may compete with certain MRI-linear accelerator research projects that are currently in development and may be commercialized, including projects by the University of Alberta’s Cross Cancer Institute and a partnership of the University of Sydney, Ingham Institute and the University of Queensland.

Existing technologies may offer certain advantages compared to the MRI technology used by our MRIdian system. For example, computed tomography, or CT, is known to hold certain potential advantages over MRI technology for use in radiation therapy.

Diagnostic CT is currently the most widely adopted imaging modality for treatment planning, and can be used to directly measure the electron density of patient tissues, which enables more accurate dose computation. In addition, CT imaging provides superior imaging of bones and boney anatomy than MRI, which is advantageous when imaging those structures for planning and alignment for treatment. Finally, CT is a less expensive technology than MRI and might be preferred by customers seeking a lower cost solution.

Our current competitors or other potential competitors may develop new products for the treatment of cancer at any time. In addition, competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. If we are unable to develop products that compete effectively against the products of existing or future competitors, our future revenue could be negatively impacted. Some of our competitors may compete by changing their pricing model or by lowering the price of their therapy systems. If these competitors’ pricing techniques are effective, it could result in downward pressure on the price of all therapy systems. If we are unable to maintain or increase our selling prices in the face of competition, we may not improve our gross margins.

In addition to the competition that we face from technologies performing similar functions to MRIdian, competition also exists for the limited capital expenditure budgets of our customers. A potential purchaser may be forced to choose between two items of capital equipment. Our ability to compete may also be negatively impacted when purchase decisions are based largely upon price, because MRIdian is a premium-priced system relative to other capital expenditures and alternative radiation therapy technologies. In certain circumstances, a purchaser may decide that an alternative radiation therapy system priced below MRIdian may be sufficient for its patient population given the relative upfront cost savings. In addition to the cost of the MRIdian system, U.S. customers are required to inspect the Cobalt-60 every five years, and our MRIdian customers may incur significant costs associated with the inspection, replacement and disposal of Cobalt-60.

Negative press regarding MRI-guided radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer could harm our business.

The comparative efficacy and overall benefits of MRI-guided radiation therapy are not yet well understood, particularly with respect to certain types of cancer. These types of reports could negatively impact the market’s acceptance of MRI-guided radiation therapy, and therefore our ability to generate revenue could be negatively impacted.

 

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We may acquire other businesses, form joint ventures or make investments in other companies or technologies that could negatively affect our operating results, dilute our stockholders’ ownership, increase our debt or cause us to incur significant expense.

We may pursue acquisitions of businesses and assets. We also may pursue strategic alliances and joint ventures that leverage our proprietary technology and industry experience to expand our offerings or distribution. We have no experience with acquiring other companies and limited experience with forming strategic partnerships. We may not be able to find suitable partners or acquisition candidates, and we may not be able to complete such transactions on favorable terms, if at all. If we make any acquisitions, we may not be able to integrate these acquisitions successfully into our existing business, and we could assume unknown or contingent liabilities. Any future acquisitions also could result in the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or future write-offs of intangible assets or goodwill, any of which could have a negative impact on our cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. Integration of an acquired company also may disrupt ongoing operations and require management resources that we would otherwise focus on developing our existing business. We may experience losses related to investments in other companies, which could harm our financial condition and results of operations. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, strategic alliance or joint venture.

Foreign acquisitions involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned above, including those related to integration of operations across different cultures and languages, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.

To finance any acquisitions or joint ventures, we may choose to issue shares of common stock as consideration, which could dilute the ownership of our stockholders. Additional funds may not be available on terms that are favorable to us, or at all. If the price of our common stock is low or volatile, we may not be able to acquire other companies or fund a joint venture project using our stock as consideration.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We rely on a limited number of third-party suppliers and, in some cases, sole suppliers, for the majority of our components, subassemblies and materials and may not be able to find replacements or immediately transition to alternative suppliers.

We rely on several sole suppliers, including Japan Superconductor Technology, Inc., Siemens AG, Best Theratronics Ltd., Tesla Engineering Limited and Quality Electrodynamics, LLC, for certain components of MRIdian. These and other sole suppliers, and any of our other suppliers, may be unwilling or unable to supply components of MRIdian to us reliably and at the levels we anticipate or are required by the market. For us to be successful, our suppliers must be able to provide us with products and components in substantial quantities, in compliance with regulatory requirements, in accordance with agreed upon specifications, at acceptable costs and on a timely basis. An interruption in our commercial operations could occur if we encounter delays or difficulties in securing these components, and if we cannot then obtain an acceptable substitute. Any such interruption could harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are required to transition to new third-party suppliers for certain components of MRIdian, we believe that there are only a few other manufacturers that are currently capable of supplying the necessary components. In addition, the use of components or materials furnished by these alternative suppliers could require us to alter our operations. Furthermore, if we are required to change the manufacturer of a critical component of MRIdian, we will be required to verify that the new manufacturer maintains facilities, procedures and operations that comply with our quality and applicable regulatory requirements, which could further impede our ability to manufacture MRIdian in a timely manner. We currently do not carry inventory for components for more than two or three systems or have open purchase orders for components for more than four or six systems at any given time. Transitioning to a new supplier could be time-consuming and expensive, may result in interruptions in our operations and product delivery, could affect the performance specifications of MRIdian or could require that we modify the design of MRIdian. If the change in manufacturer results in a significant change to MRIdian, a new 510(k) clearance from the FDA or similar international regulatory authorization may be necessary, which could cause substantial delays. The occurrence of any of these events could harm our ability to meet the demand for MRIdian in a timely manner or cost-effectively.

 

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We cannot assure you that we will be able to secure alternative equipment and materials and utilize such equipment and materials without experiencing interruptions in our workflow. If we should encounter delays or difficulties in securing, reconfiguring or revalidating the equipment and components we require for MRIdian, our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.

Further, MRIdian Linac is newly developed and we may encounter difficulties in finding suppliers able to meet delivery quantities or timelines for systems with MRIdian Linac. If we should encounter such delays or difficulties, it could significantly impact our ability to install systems with MRIdian Linac in a timely or cost-effective manner.

We depend on third-party distributors to market and distribute MRIdian in international markets.

A significant portion of our backlog is composed of international sales, and we expect a significant amount of our revenue to come from international sales. We depend on a number of distributors for sales in these international markets. We cannot control the efforts and resources our third-party distributors will devote to marketing MRIdian. Our distributors may not be able to successfully market and sell MRIdian and may not devote sufficient time and resources to support the marketing and selling efforts that enable the product to develop, achieve or sustain market acceptance. In some jurisdictions, we rely on our distributors to manage the regulatory process, and we are dependent on their ability to do so effectively. In addition, if a dispute arises with a distributor or if a distributor is terminated by us or goes out of business, it may take time to locate an alternative distributor, to seek appropriate regulatory approvals and to train such distributor’s personnel to market MRIdian, and our ability to sell and service MRIdian in the region formerly serviced by such terminated distributor could be harmed. Any of our distributors could become insolvent or otherwise become unable to pay amounts owed to us when due. Any of these factors could reduce our revenue from affected international markets, increase our costs in those markets or damage our reputation. In addition, if we are unable to attract additional international distributors, our international revenue may not grow.

Failures by our third-party distributors to timely deliver or properly install MRIdian could harm our reputation.

We rely on arrangements with third-party distributors for sales and installation of MRIdian in international markets. To date, our third-party distributors have not solely completed the installation of any MRIdian systems internationally. As a result of our reliance on third-party distributors, we may be subject to disruptions and increased costs due to factors beyond our control, including labor strikes, third-party error and other issues. If the services of any of these distributors become unsatisfactory, including the failure of such distributors to properly install MRIdian, we may experience delays in meeting our customers’ product demands and we may not be able to find a suitable replacement on a timely basis or on commercially reasonable terms. Any failure to deliver, install or service products in a timely manner may damage our reputation and could cause us to lose current or potential customers.

We rely on third parties to store our inventory and to perform spare parts shipping and other logistics functions on our behalf. A failure or disruption with our logistics providers could harm our business.

Customer service is a critical element of our sales strategy. Third-party logistics providers store most of our spare parts inventory in depots around the world and perform a significant portion of our spare parts logistics and shipping activities. If any of our logistics providers suffers an interruption in its business or experiences delays, disruptions or quality control problems in its operations or we have to change and qualify alternative logistics providers for our spare parts, shipments of spare parts to our customers may be delayed and our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively harmed.

If third-party payors do not provide coverage and adequate reimbursement to our customers, it could negatively impact sales of MRIdian.

In the United States, hospitals and other healthcare providers who purchase MRIdian generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs and fees associated with the treatments performed with our system. Accordingly, sales of MRIdian depend, in part, on whether coverage and adequate reimbursement for standard planning methodologies are available to our customers from third-party payors, such as government healthcare insurance programs, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, private insurance plans, health maintenance

 

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organizations and preferred provider organizations. In general, third-party payors in the United States have become increasingly cost-conscious, which has limited coverage for, and reimbursement of, certain procedures such as MRI-guided radiation therapy. Third-party payors have also increased utilization controls related to the use of products such as ours by healthcare providers.

Furthermore, there is no uniform policy on coverage and reimbursement for MRI-guided radiation therapy among third-party payors. Payors continue to review their coverage policies carefully for existing and new therapies and can, without notice, deny coverage for treatments that include the use of MRIdian.

The Medicare program is increasingly used as a model for how private payors and other governmental payors develop their coverage and reimbursement policies for medical services and procedures. Medicare coverage of advanced and conventional radiation therapies using MRIdian currently varies depending upon the geographic location in which the services are provided. CMS has not adopted national coverage determination for such therapies that would determine coverage nationally. In the absence of such a national coverage determination, Medicare Administrative Contractors, or MACs, with jurisdiction over specific geographic regions have the discretion to determine whether and when the use of MRI-guided radiation therapy will be considered medically necessary and covered in their respective regions. A number of MACs have adopted or proposed local coverage determinations covering MRI-guided radiation therapy. However, these local coverage determinations do not ensure that coverage will be available for MRI-guided radiation therapy for all types of cancer as the coverage policies may limit coverage to only certain types of cancer.

Even if MRI-guided radiation therapy is covered and reimbursed by third-party payors, adverse changes in payors’ coverage and reimbursement policies that affect MRIdian could harm our ability to market and sell MRIdian. We cannot be sure that third-party payors will reimburse our customers for procedures using MRIdian at a level that will enable us to achieve or maintain adequate sales and price levels for MRIdian. Without coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, the market for MRIdian may be limited.

Third-party payors regularly update reimbursement amounts and also, from time to time, revise the methodologies used to determine reimbursement amounts. This includes annual updates to payments to physicians, hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers for the radiation treatments performed with MRIdian. Because the cost of MRIdian generally is recovered by the healthcare provider as part of the payment for performing the treatment and not separately reimbursed, these updates could directly impact the demand for MRIdian. An example of payment updates is the Medicare program’s updates to hospital and physician payments, which are done on an annual basis using a prescribed statutory formula.

Historically, under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule, or MPFS, when the application of the formula resulted in lower payment, Congress passed interim legislation to prevent the reductions. In April 2015, however, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, or MACRA, was signed into law, which repealed and replaced the statutory formula for Medicare payment adjustments to physicians. MACRA provided a permanent end to the annual interim legislative updates that had previously been necessary to delay or prevent significant reductions to payments under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule. MACRA provided for a 0.5% update from July 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015, and for each calendar year through 2019, after which there will be a 0% annual update each year through 2025. In addition, MACRA required the establishment of the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System, beginning in 2019, under which physicians may receive performance-based payment incentives or payment reductions based on their performance with respect to clinical quality, resource use, clinical improvement activities and meaningful use of electronic health records. MACRA also required the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, beginning in 2019, to provide incentive payments for physicians and other eligible professionals that participate in alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations, that emphasize quality and value over the traditional volume-based fee-for-service model. It is unclear what impact, if any, MACRA will have on our business and operating results, but any resulting decrease in payment may result in reduced demand for our services.

CMS also publishes annual updates to HOPPS. These payments are bundled amounts received by our hospital customers for hospital outpatient services, including conventional radiation therapy and IMRT, which may result in lower reimbursement to our customers for procedures performed using MRIdian.

 

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In addition, in 2016, CMS implemented changes to the reimbursement of certain services performed in the freestanding center setting which, to date, have not had any material impact on the services delivered with our products.

Any significant cuts in reimbursement rates or changes in reimbursement methodology or administration for MRI-guided radiation therapy, or concerns or proposals regarding further cuts or changes in methodology or administration, could further increase uncertainty, influence our customers’ decisions, reduce demand for MRIdian, cause customers to cancel orders and impact our revenue and harm our business.

Foreign governments also have their own healthcare reimbursement systems, which vary significantly by country and region, and we cannot be sure that adequate reimbursement will be made available with respect to MRIdian under any foreign reimbursement system.

Our employees, consultants and commercial partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including insider trading and non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, consultants and commercial partners may engage in fraudulent or illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or disclosure of unauthorized activities to us that violates the regulations of the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, including those laws requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to such regulators, manufacturing standards, healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and abroad or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry, including the sale of medical devices, are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by our employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could result in the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment of operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. Whether or not we are successful in defending against such actions or investigations, we could incur substantial costs, including legal fees, and divert the attention of management in defending ourselves against any of these claims or investigations.

Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Capital Requirements

We may need to raise additional capital to fund our existing commercial operations, develop and commercialize new features for MRIdian and new products and expand our operations.  

Based on our current business plan, we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, together with cash receipts from sales of MRIdian systems and the plan to raise additional capital from various sources from time to time, will enable us to conduct our planned operations for at least the next 12 months. If our available cash balances and anticipated cash flow from operations are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements including because of lower demand for MRIdian as a result of lower than currently expected rates of reimbursement from commercial third-party payors and government payors or due to other risks described herein, we may seek to sell common or preferred equity or convertible debt securities, enter into an additional credit facility or another form of third-party funding or seek other debt financing.

 

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We may consider raising additional capital in the future to expand our business, to pursue strategic investments, to take advantage of financing opportunities or for other reasons, including to:

 

increase our sales and marketing efforts to increase market adoption of MRIdian and address competitive developments;

 

provide for supply and inventory costs associated with plans to accommodate potential increases in demand for MRIdian systems;

 

fund development and marketing efforts of any future products and technologies, or additional features to then-current products, including MRIdian linac technology;

 

acquire, license or invest in new technologies;

 

acquire or invest in complementary businesses or assets; and

 

finance capital expenditures and general and administrative expenses.

Our present and future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

our ability to achieve revenue growth and improve gross margins;

 

our rate of progress in establishing coverage and reimbursement arrangements with domestic and international commercial third-party payors and government payors;

 

the cost of expanding our operations and offerings, including our sales and marketing efforts;

 

our rate of progress in, and cost of the sales and marketing activities associated with, establishing adoption of MRIdian;

 

the cost of research and development activities;

 

the effect of competing technological and market developments;

 

costs related to international expansion; and

 

the potential cost of and delays in product development as a result of any regulatory oversight applicable to MRIdian.

The various ways we could raise additional capital carry potential risks. If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, dilution to our stockholders could result. Any equity securities issued also could provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we raise funds by issuing debt securities, those debt securities would have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. The terms of debt securities issued or borrowings pursuant to a credit agreement could impose significant restrictions on our operations. If we raise funds through collaborations and licensing arrangements, we might be required to relinquish significant rights to certain components contained within MRIdian, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

We have incurred, and will continue to incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company and our management expects to continue to devote substantial time to public company compliance programs.

As a public company, we have incurred, and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses due to our compliance with regulations and disclosure obligations applicable to us, including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and the NASDAQ Stock Market. Stockholder activism, the current political environment and the current high level of government intervention and regulatory reform may lead to substantial new regulations and disclosure obligations, which may lead to additional compliance costs and impact, in ways we cannot currently anticipate, the manner in which we operate our business. Our management and other personnel have devoted, and will continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance programs and monitoring of public company reporting obligations and as a result of the new corporate governance and executive compensation related rules, regulations and guidelines prompted by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and

 

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Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, and further regulations and disclosure obligations expected in the future, we will likely need to devote additional time and costs to comply with such compliance programs and rules. These rules and regulations will continue to cause us to incur significant legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly.

To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may need to undertake various actions, including implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms, and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate and weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls could negatively impact the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we may be required to include in our periodic reports we will file with the SEC under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, harm our operating results, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or result in a restatement of our prior period financial statements. In the event that we are not able to demonstrate compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, that our internal control over financial reporting is perceived as inadequate or that we are unable to produce timely or accurate financial statements, investors may lose confidence in our operating results and the price of our common stock could decline. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, our common stock may not be able to remain eligible for quotation on The NASDAQ Global Market.

Our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until the first annual report required to be filed with the SEC following the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could harm our business.

Compliance with recently adopted rules of the SEC relating to “conflict minerals” may require us and our suppliers to incur substantial expense and may result in disclosure by us that certain minerals used in products we manufacture or contract to manufacture are not “DRC conflict free.”

Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Act required the SEC to promulgate rules requiring disclosure by a public company of any “conflict minerals” (tin, tungsten, tantalum and gold) necessary to the functionality or production of a product manufactured or contracted to be manufactured by the public company. The SEC adopted final rules in 2012 that took effect at the end of January 2013. Because we manufacture or contract to manufacture a product that contains tin, tungsten, tantalum or gold, we will be required under these rules to determine whether those minerals are necessary to the functionality or production of MRIdian and, if so, conduct a country of origin inquiry with respect to all such minerals. If any such minerals may have originated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, or DRC, or any of its adjoining countries, or covered countries, then we must conduct diligence on the source and chain of custody of those conflict minerals to determine if they originated in one of the covered countries and, if so, whether they financed or benefited armed groups in the covered countries. Disclosures relating to the products that may contain conflict minerals, the country of origin of those minerals and whether they are “DRC conflict free” must be provided in a Form SD (and accompanying conflict minerals report, if required, to disclose the diligence undertaken by us in sourcing the minerals and our conclusions relating to such diligence). If we are required to submit a conflict minerals report, after 2015 that report must be audited by an independent auditor pursuant to existing government auditing standards. Compliance with this new disclosure rule may be very time-consuming for management and our supply chain personnel (as well as time-consuming for our suppliers) and could involve the expenditure of significant amounts of money by us and them. Disclosures, mandated by this new rule, which can be perceived by the market to be “negative,” may cause customers to refuse to purchase MRIdian. We cannot assure you that the cost of compliance with the rule will not harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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Our loan and security agreement with Capital Royalty Partners II L.P., Capital Royalty Partners II - Parallel Fund “A” L.P., Capital Royalty Partners II (Cayman) L.P. and Parallel Investment Opportunities Partners II L.P., or together with their successors by assignment, CRG, contains operating and financial covenants that may restrict our business and financing activities.  

At December 31, 2016, we had $45.0 million in outstanding debt to CRG. Borrowings under our loan and security agreement with CRG are secured by substantially all of our personal property, including our intellectual property. Our loan and security agreement restricts our ability to, among other things:

 

dispose of or sell our assets;

 

make material changes in our business;

 

merge with or acquire other entities or assets;

 

incur additional indebtedness;

 

create liens on our assets;

 

pay dividends;

 

make investments; and

 

pay off subordinated indebtedness.

The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our loan and security agreement, as well as any future financing agreements into which we may enter, may restrict our ability to finance our operations and engage in, expand or otherwise pursue our business activities and strategies. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and future breaches of any of these covenants could result in a default under our loan and security agreement. If not waived, future defaults could cause all of the outstanding indebtedness under our loan and security agreement to become immediately due and payable and terminate all commitments to extend further credit.

If we do not have or are unable to generate sufficient cash available to repay our debt obligations when they become due and payable, either upon maturity or in the event of a default, we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all, which may negatively impact our ability to operate and continue our business as a going concern.

Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

At December 31, 2016, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $210.4 million, which begin to expire in the year ending December 31, 2024, and $131.1 million related to state net operating loss carryforwards, which begin to expire in the year ending December 31, 2019. We also had federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of $2.9 million, and state carryforwards of $255 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2016. These credits expire at various dates through the year ending December 31, 2024. Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs to offset future taxable income. We believe we have experienced at least one ownership change in the past. We are currently analyzing the tax impacts of such ownership change on our federal NOLs and credit carryforwards. Future changes in our stock ownership, including this or future offerings, as well as other changes that may be outside of our control, could result in additional ownership changes under Section 382 of the Code. Our NOLs may also be limited under similar provisions of state law. We have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our NOLs and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future tax benefits of such assets.

 

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We face risks related to the current global economic environment, which could delay or prevent our customers from obtaining financing to purchase MRIdian and implement the required facilities, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The state of the global economy continues to be uncertain. The current global economic conditions and uncertain credit markets and concerns regarding the availability of credit pose a risk that could impact customer demand for MRIdian, as well as our ability to manage normal commercial relationships with our customers, suppliers and creditors, including financial institutions. If the current global economic environment deteriorates, our business could be negatively affected.

Risks Related to Administrative, Organizational and Commercial Operations and Growth

We may be unable to manage our future growth effectively, which could make it difficult to execute our business strategy.

We anticipate growth in our business operations. This future growth could create a strain on our organizational, administrative and operational infrastructure, including manufacturing operations, quality control, technical support and customer service, sales force management and general and financial administration. We may not be able to maintain the quality of or installation timelines of MRIdian or satisfy customer demand as it grows. Our ability to manage our growth properly will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, as well as our reporting systems and procedures. We may implement new enterprise software systems in a number of areas affecting a broad range of business processes and functional areas. The time and resources required to implement these new systems is uncertain and failure to complete this in a timely and efficient manner could harm our business.

If we are unable to support demand for MRIdian and our future products, including ensuring that we have adequate resources to meet increased demand, or we are unable to successfully manage the evolution of our MRI-guided radiation technology, our business could be harmed.

As our commercial operations and sales volume grow, we will need to continue to increase our workflow capacity for manufacturing, customer service, billing and general process improvements and expand our internal quality assurance program, among other things. We will also need to purchase additional equipment, some of which can take several months or more to procure, set up and validate, and increase our manufacturing, maintenance, software and computing capacity to meet increased demand. We cannot assure you that any of these increases in scale, expansion of personnel, purchase of equipment or process enhancements will be successfully implemented.

The loss of our President and Chief Executive Officer or Chief Scientific Officer or our inability to attract and retain highly skilled scientists and salespeople could negatively impact our business.

Our success depends on the skills, experience and performance of our President and Chief Executive Officer, Chris A. Raanes, and our Chief Scientific Officer and founder, James F. Dempsey, Ph.D. The individual and collective efforts of these employees will be important as we continue to develop MRIdian and as we expand our commercial activities. The loss or incapacity of existing members of our executive management team could negatively impact our operations if we experience difficulties in hiring qualified successors. Our executive officers have employment agreements; however, the existence of an employment agreement does not guarantee the retention of the executive officer for any period of time.

Our commercial, manufacturing and research and development programs and operations depend on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled engineers, scientists and technicians. We may not be able to attract or retain qualified managers, engineers, scientists and technicians in the future due to the competition for qualified personnel among medical device businesses, particularly in California and Ohio. We also face competition from universities and public and private research institutions in recruiting and retaining highly qualified scientific personnel. Recruiting and retention difficulties can limit our ability to support our commercial, manufacturing and research and development programs. All of our employees are at-will, which means that either we or the employee may terminate his or her employment at any time.

 

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If we were sued for product liability or professional liability, we could face substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

The marketing, sale and use of MRIdian could lead to the filing of product liability claims were someone to allege that MRIdian did not effectively treat the conditions its users were intending to target, caused other serious medical conditions or otherwise failed to perform as designed. We may also be subject to liability for errors in, a misunderstanding of or inappropriate reliance upon the information we provide in the ordinary course of our business activities, such as customer support or operating instructions. A product liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time-consuming for us to defend.

We maintain product liability insurance, but the amounts of insurance coverage may not fully protect us from the financial impact of defending against product liability claims. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could increase our insurance rates or prevent us from securing insurance coverage in the future. Additionally, any product liability lawsuit could lead to regulatory investigations, product recalls or withdrawals, damage our reputation or cause current vendors, suppliers and customers to terminate existing agreements and potential customers and partners to seek other suppliers of radiation therapy systems, any of which could negatively impact our results of operations.

Sanctions against Russia, and Russia’s response to those sanctions, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Due to Russia’s recent military intervention in Ukraine and annexation of Crimea, the United States and the European Union, or EU, have imposed sanctions on certain individuals and one financial institution in Russia and have proposed the use of broader economic sanctions. In response, Russia has imposed entry bans on certain U.S. lawmakers and officials. We have engaged a third-party distributor and are currently in discussions with potential customers in Russia. If the United States or the EU were to impose sanctions on Russian businesses, or if Russia were to take retaliatory action against U.S. companies operating in Russia, our sales and marketing efforts in Russia could be harmed.

The results of the United Kingdom’s referendum on withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.

In June 2016, a majority of voters in the United Kingdom elected to withdraw from the European Union in a national referendum. The referendum was advisory, and the terms of any withdrawal are subject to a negotiation period that could last at least two years after the government of the United Kingdom formally initiates a withdrawal process. Nevertheless, the referendum has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union, including with respect to the laws and regulations that will apply as the United Kingdom determines which European Union laws to replace or replicate in the event of a withdrawal. The referendum has also given rise to calls for the governments of other European Union member states to consider withdrawal. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and may significantly reduce global market liquidity and restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. Any of these factors could depress economic activity and restrict our access to capital, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce the price of our securities.

We face risks associated with our international business.

In addition to our marketing and sales of MRIdian in the United States, we also market MRIdian in North America, Europe and the Pacific Rim, with contracts signed with customers and distributors in Taiwan, Turkey, Korea, China, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Japan, France, Germany, Italy and Russia. Our international business operations are subject to a variety of risks, including:

 

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign and geographically dispersed operations;

 

having to comply with various U.S. and international laws, including export control laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, or the FCPA, and anti-money laundering laws;

 

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differing regulatory requirements for obtaining clearances or approvals to market MRIdian and future product enhancements for MRIdian including but not limited to, our MRIdian Linac;

 

changes in uncertainties relating to foreign rules and regulations that may impact our ability to sell MRIdian, perform services or repatriate profits to the United States;

 

tariffs, export or import restrictions, restrictions on remittances abroad, imposition of duties or taxes that limit our ability to move MRIdian out of these countries or interfere with the import of essential materials into these countries;

 

limitations on our ability to enter into cost-effective arrangements with distributors of MRIdian, or at all;

 

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

 

imposition of limitations on production, sale or export of MRI-guided radiation therapy systems in foreign countries;

 

imposition of limitations on or increase of withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by foreign subsidiaries or joint ventures;

 

differing multiple payor reimbursement regimes, government payors or patient self-pay systems;

 

imposition of differing labor laws and standards;

 

economic, political or social instability in foreign countries and regions;

 

an inability, or reduced ability, to protect our intellectual property, including any effect of compulsory licensing imposed by government action; and

 

availability of government subsidies or other incentives that benefit competitors in their local markets that are not available to us.

We expect that we will begin expanding into other target markets; however, we cannot assure you that our expansion plans will be realized, or if realized, be successful. We expect each market to have particular regulatory and funding hurdles to overcome and future developments in these markets, including the uncertainty relating to governmental policies and regulations, could harm our business. If we expend significant time and resources on expansion plans that fail or are delayed, our reputation, business and financial condition may be harmed.

Our results may be impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates.

Currently, the majority of our international sales contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars. We pay certain of our suppliers in a foreign currency under the terms of their supply agreements, and we may pay other suppliers in the future in foreign currency. As a result, an increase in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies could require us to reduce our selling price or risk making MRIdian less competitive in international markets or our costs could increase. Also, if our international sales increase, we may enter into a greater number of transactions denominated in non-U.S. dollars, which could expose us to foreign currency risks, including changes in currency exchange rates. We do not currently engage in any hedging transactions. If we are unable to address these risks and challenges effectively, our international operations may not be successful and our business could be harmed.

We could be negatively impacted by violations of applicable anti-corruption laws or violations of our internal policies designed to ensure ethical business practices.

We operate in a number of countries throughout the world, including in countries that do not have as strong a commitment to anti-corruption and ethical behavior that is required by U.S. laws or by corporate policies. We are subject to the risk that we, our U.S. employees or our employees located in other jurisdictions or any third parties such as our sales agents and distributors that we engage to do work on our behalf in foreign countries may take action determined to be in violation of anti-corruption laws in any jurisdiction in which we conduct business, including the FCPA and the Bribery Act of 2010, or the U.K. Anti-Bribery Act. In addition, we operate in certain countries in which the government may take an ownership stake in an enterprise and such government ownership

 

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may not be readily apparent, thereby increasing potential anti-corruption law violations. Any violation of the FCPA and U.K. Anti-Bribery Act or any similar anti-corruption law or regulation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties and curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions and might harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we have internal ethics policies with which we require our employees to comply in order to ensure that our business is conducted in a manner that our management deems appropriate. If these anti-corruption laws or internal policies were to be violated, our reputation and operations could also be substantially harmed. Further, detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.

We are subject to export restrictions and laws affecting trade and investments, and the future sale of our MRIdian system may be further limited or prohibited in the future by a government agency or authority.

As a global company headquartered in the United States, our MRIdian system is subject to U.S. laws and regulations that may limit, restrict or require a license to export (and re-export from other countries) our MRIdian system and related product and technical information due to its use of hazardous materials, including Cobalt-60, lead and depleted uranium. We are also subject to the export and import laws of those foreign jurisdictions to which we sell or from which we re-export our MRIdian system. Compliance with these laws and regulations could significantly limit our operations and our sales in the future and failure to comply, even indirectly, could result in a range of penalties, including restrictions on exports of our MRIdian system for a specified time period, or forever, and severe monetary penalties. In certain circumstances, these restrictions may affect our ability to interact with any of our future foreign subsidiaries and otherwise limit our trade with third parties, including suppliers and customers, operating inside and outside the United States. In addition, if we introduce new products, we may need to obtain licenses or approvals from the United States and other governments to ship them into foreign countries. Failure to receive the appropriate approvals may mean that our commercial efforts and expenses related to such efforts may not result in any revenue, which could harm our business.

We depend on our information technology systems, and any failure of these systems could harm our business.

We depend on information technology and telecommunications systems for significant elements of our operations. We have developed propriety software for the management and operation of MRIdian by our customers. We have installed, and expect to expand, a number of enterprise software systems that affect a broad range of business processes and functional areas, including for example, systems handling human resources, financial controls and reporting, contract management, regulatory compliance and other infrastructure operations. In addition to the aforementioned business systems, we intend to extend the capabilities of both our preventative and detective security controls by augmenting the monitoring and alerting functions, the network design and the automatic countermeasure operations of our technical systems. These information technology and telecommunications systems support a variety of functions, including sales and marketing, manufacturing operations, customer service support, billing and reimbursement, research and development activities and general administrative activities.

Information technology and telecommunications systems are vulnerable to damage from a variety of sources, including telecommunications or network failures, malicious human acts and natural disasters. Moreover, despite network security and back-up measures, some of our servers are potentially vulnerable to physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses and similar disruptive problems. Despite the precautionary measures we have taken to prevent unanticipated problems that could affect our information technology and telecommunications systems, failures or significant downtime of our information technology or telecommunications systems or those used by our third-party service providers could prevent us from providing maintenance and support services to our customers, conducting research and development activities and managing the administrative aspects of our business. Any disruption or loss of information technology or telecommunications systems on which critical aspects of our operations depend could harm our business.

Our operations are vulnerable to interruption or loss due to natural or other disasters, power loss, strikes and other events beyond our control.

We conduct a significant portion of our activities, including administration and data processing, at facilities located in California, Ohio and other areas that have experienced major earthquakes, tornadoes and other natural disasters. A major earthquake, tornado or other disaster (such as a major fire, hurricane, flood, tsunami, volcanic eruption or

 

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terrorist attack) affecting our facilities, or those of our suppliers, could significantly disrupt our operations, and delay or prevent product shipment or installation during the time required to repair, rebuild or replace our suppliers’ damaged manufacturing facilities; these delays could be lengthy and costly. If any of our customers’ facilities are negatively impacted by a disaster, shipments of MRIdian could be delayed. Additionally, customers may delay purchases of MRIdian until operations return to normal. Even if we are able to quickly respond to a disaster, the ongoing effects of the disaster could create some uncertainty in the operations of our business. In addition, our facilities may be subject to a shortage of available electrical power and other energy supplies. Any shortages may increase our costs for power and energy supplies or could result in blackouts, which could disrupt the operations of our affected facilities and harm our business. Further, MRIdian is typically shipped from a limited number of ports, and any disaster, strike or other event blocking shipment from these ports could delay or prevent shipments and harm our business. In addition, concerns about terrorism, the effects of a terrorist attack, political turmoil or an outbreak of epidemic diseases, such as ebola or influenza, could have a negative effect on our operations, those of our suppliers and customers and the ability to travel, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Litigation or other proceedings or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement could require us to spend significant time and money and could prevent us from selling MRIdian or impact our stock price.

There is considerable intellectual property litigation and contested patent disputes in the medical device area. Third parties may, in the future, assert claims that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization, including claims from competitors or from non-practicing entities that have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patent portfolio may have no deterrent effect. As we continue to commercialize MRIdian in its current or an updated form, launch new products and enter new markets, we expect that competitors may claim that MRIdian infringes their intellectual property rights as part of business strategies designed to impede our successful commercialization and entry into new markets. Although we are presently unaware of any basis by which a third-party would be justified in making such claims, in the future, we may receive letters or other threats or claims from third parties inviting us to take licenses under, or alleging that we infringe, their patents. Third parties may have obtained, and may in the future obtain, patents under which such third parties may claim that the use of our technologies constitutes patent infringement.

Moreover, we may become party to future adversarial proceedings regarding our patent portfolio or the patents of third parties. Such proceedings could include contested post-grant proceedings such as oppositions, inter partes review, reexamination, interference or derivation proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or foreign patent offices. The legal threshold for initiating litigation or contested proceedings is low, so that even lawsuits or proceedings with a low probability of success might be initiated. Litigation and contested proceedings can also be expensive and time-consuming, and our adversaries in these proceedings may have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to prosecuting these legal actions than we can.

We could incur substantial costs and divert the attention of our management and technical personnel in defending ourselves against any of these claims or in any of such proceedings. Any adverse ruling or perception of an adverse ruling in defending ourselves against these claims could have a negative impact on our cash position and stock price. Furthermore, parties making claims against us may be able to obtain injunctive or other relief, which could block our ability to develop, commercialize and sell products, and could result in the award of substantial damages against us. In the event of a successful claim of infringement or misappropriation against us, we may be required to pay damages, obtain one or more licenses from third parties or be prohibited from selling certain products, all of which could have a negative impact on our cash position, business and financial condition.

In addition, we may be unable to obtain these licenses at a reasonable cost, if at all. We could therefore incur substantial costs related to royalty payments for licenses obtained from third parties, which could negatively affect our gross margins. Moreover, we could encounter delays in product introductions while we attempt to develop alternative methods or products. Defense of any lawsuit or adversarial proceeding or failure to obtain any of these licenses on favorable terms could prevent us from commercializing products, and the prohibition of sale of MRIdian or future products could impact our ability to grow and maintain profitability and harm our business.

 

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If we are unable to adequately protect our proprietary technology or maintain issued patents that are sufficient to protect MRIdian, others could compete against us more directly, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our commercial success will depend in part on our success in obtaining and maintaining issued patents and other intellectual property rights in the United States and elsewhere and protecting our proprietary technology. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology, competitors may be able to use our technologies and erode or negate any competitive advantage we may have, which could harm our business and ability to achieve profitability.

We hold a license to three issued U.S. patents, 15 issued foreign patents (eight of which were issued in Great Britain, Germany, France and the Netherlands as a result of two applications filed and allowed through the European Patent Office), one pending U.S. application (which is allowed) and five pending foreign applications as of January 18, 2017. We own an additional 16 issued U.S. patents, 16 issued foreign patents, 21 pending U.S. applications (one of which is allowed) and 81 pending foreign applications (three of which are allowed) as of January 18, 2017. Assuming all required fees are paid, individual patents or patent applications owned or licensed by us will expire between 2021 and 2037. We also have a joint ownership interest with Case Western Reserve University in one issued patent and one U.S. application. We cannot provide any assurances that any of our patents have, or that any of our pending patent applications that mature into issued patents will include, claims with a scope sufficient to protect MRIdian, any additional features we develop for MRIdian or any new products. Other parties may have developed technologies that may be related or competitive to our platform, may have filed or may file patent applications and may have received or may receive patents that overlap or conflict with our patent applications, either by claiming the same methods or devices or by claiming subject matter that could dominate our patent position. The patent positions of medical device companies, including our patent position, involve complex legal and factual questions, and, therefore, the issuance, scope, validity and enforceability of any patent claims that we may obtain cannot be predicted with certainty. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, deemed unenforceable, invalidated or circumvented. U.S. patents and patent applications may also be subject to supplemental examination or contested post-grant proceedings such as inter partes review, reexamination, interference or derivation proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and challenges in district court. Patents may be subjected to opposition, post-grant review or comparable proceedings lodged in various foreign, both national and regional, patent offices. These proceedings could result in either loss of the patent or denial of the patent application or loss or reduction in the scope of one or more of the claims of the patent or patent application. In addition, such proceedings may be costly. Thus, any patents that we may own or exclusively license may not provide any protection against competitors. Furthermore, an adverse decision in an interference proceeding can result in a third-party receiving the patent right sought by us, which in turn could affect our ability to commercialize MRIdian.

Furthermore, though an issued patent is presumed valid and enforceable, its issuance is not conclusive as to its validity or its enforceability and it may not provide us with adequate proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar products. Competitors may also be able to design around our patents. Other parties may develop and obtain patent protection for more effective technologies, designs or methods. We may not be able to prevent the unauthorized disclosure or use of our technical knowledge or trade secrets by consultants, suppliers, vendors, former employees and current employees. The laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and we may encounter significant problems in protecting our proprietary rights in these countries. If any of these developments were to occur, they each could have a negative impact on our sales.

Our ability to enforce our patent rights depends on our ability to detect infringement. It is difficult to detect infringers who do not advertise the components that are used in their products. Moreover, it may be difficult or impossible to obtain evidence of infringement in a competitor’s or potential competitor’s product. Any litigation to enforce or defend our patent rights, even if we were to prevail, could be costly and time-consuming and would divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded if we were to prevail may not be commercially meaningful.

In addition, proceedings to enforce or defend our patents could put our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly. Such proceedings could also provoke third parties to assert claims against us,

 

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including that some or all of the claims in one or more of our patents are invalid or otherwise unenforceable. If any of our patents covering MRIdian are invalidated or found unenforceable, our financial position and results of operations could be negatively impacted. In addition, if a court found that valid, enforceable patents held by third parties covered MRIdian, our financial position and results of operations could be harmed.

The degree of future protection for our proprietary rights is uncertain, and we cannot ensure that:

 

any of our patents, or any of our pending patent applications, if issued, will include claims having a scope sufficient to protect MRIdian or any other products;

 

any of our pending patent applications will issue as patents;

 

we will be able to successfully commercialize MRIdian on a substantial scale before our relevant patents expire;

 

we were the first to make the inventions covered by each of our patents and pending patent applications;

 

we were the first to file patent applications for these inventions;

 

others will not develop similar or alternative technologies that do not infringe our patents;

 

any of our patents will be found to ultimately be valid and enforceable;

 

any patents issued to us will provide a basis for an exclusive market for our commercially viable products, will provide us with any competitive advantages or will not be challenged by third parties;

 

we will develop additional proprietary technologies or products that are separately patentable; or

 

our commercial activities or products will not infringe upon the patents of others.

We rely upon unpatented trade secrets, unpatented know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position, which we seek to protect, in part, by confidentiality agreements with our employees and our collaborators and consultants. We also have agreements with our employees and selected consultants that obligate them to assign their inventions to us and have non-compete agreements with some, but not all, of our consultants. It is possible that technology relevant to our business will be independently developed by a person that is not a party to such an agreement. Furthermore, if the employees and consultants who are parties to these agreements breach or violate the terms of these agreements, we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach or violation, and we could lose our trade secrets through such breaches or violations. Further, our trade secrets could otherwise become known or be independently discovered by our competitors.

If we are not able to meet the requirements of our license agreement with the University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc., we could lose access to the technologies licensed thereunder and be unable to manufacture, market or sell MRIdian.

We license patents and patent applications from the University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc., or UFRF, covering our combination of MRI and radiation therapy, and other key technologies, incorporated into MRIdian under a license agreement that requires us to pay royalties to UFRF. In addition, the license agreement obligates us to pursue an agreed development plan and to submit periodic reports and restricts our ability to take actions to defend the licensed patents. The license agreement terminates when the underlying patents expire in 2025, although UFRF has the right to unilaterally terminate the agreement if we do not meet our royalty payment obligations, including minimum royalty payments of $50,000 per quarter, or if we fail to satisfy other development and commercialization obligations related to our utilization of the technology. If UFRF were to terminate the agreement or if we were to otherwise lose the ability to exploit the licensed patents, our competitive advantage could be reduced, we may not be able to find a source to replace the licensed technology and we may be prevented from selling MRIdian. The license agreement reserves to UFRF the initial right to defend or prosecute any claim arising with respect to the licensed technology. If UFRF does not vigorously defend the patents, we may be required to engage in expensive patent litigation to enforce our rights and any competitive advantage we have based on the licensed technology may be hampered. Any of these events could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Recent changes in U.S. patent laws may limit our ability to obtain, defend or enforce our patents.

Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents. The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted and also affect patent litigation. The United States Patent Office recently developed new regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, and in particular, the first to file provisions, only became effective on March 16, 2013. The first to file provisions limit the rights of an inventor to patent an invention if not the first to file an application for patenting that invention, even if such invention was the first invention. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business.

However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the enforcement and defense of our issued patents. For example, the Leahy-Smith Act provides that an administrative tribunal known as the Patent Trial and Appeals Board, or PTAB, provides a venue for companies to challenge the validity of competitor patents at a cost that is much lower than district court litigation and on timelines that are much faster. Although it is not clear what, if any, long-term impact the PTAB proceedings will have on the operation of our business, the initial results of patent challenge proceedings before the PTAB since its inception in 2013 have resulted in the invalidation of many U.S. patent claims. The availability of the PTAB as a lower-cost, faster and potentially more potent tribunal for challenging patents could therefore increase the likelihood that our own patents will be challenged, thereby increasing the uncertainties and costs of maintaining and enforcing them. Moreover, if such challenges occur with regard to our UFRF-licensed patents, as indicated above, we have only limited rights to control the defense.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position could be harmed.

In addition to patent protection, we also rely upon copyright and trade secret protection, as well as non-disclosure agreements and invention assignment agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties, to protect our confidential and proprietary information. For example, significant elements of MRIdian are based on unpatented trade secrets and know-how that are not publicly disclosed. In addition to contractual measures, we try to protect the confidential nature of our proprietary information using physical and technological security measures. Such measures may not, for example, in the case of misappropriation of a trade secret by an employee or third party with authorized access, provide adequate protection for our proprietary information. Our security measures may not prevent an employee or consultant from misappropriating our trade secrets and providing them to a competitor, and recourse we take against such misconduct may not provide an adequate remedy to protect our interests fully. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret can be difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, trade secrets may be independently developed by others in a manner that could prevent legal recourse by us. If any of our confidential or proprietary information, such as our trade secrets, were to be disclosed or misappropriated, or if any such information was independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position could be harmed.

We may not be able to enforce our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. This could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents, if obtained, or the misappropriation of our other intellectual property rights. For example, many foreign countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner must grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against third parties, including government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, patents may provide limited or no benefit. Patent protection must ultimately be sought on a country-by-country basis, which is an expensive and time-consuming process with uncertain outcomes. Accordingly, we may choose not to seek patent protection in certain countries, and we will not have the benefit of patent protection in such countries.

 

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Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Accordingly, our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights in such countries may be inadequate. In addition, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in the United States and foreign countries may affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our technology and the enforcement of intellectual property.

Third parties may assert ownership or commercial rights to inventions we develop.

Third parties may in the future make claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our intellectual property. We have written agreements with collaborators that provide for the ownership of intellectual property arising from our collaborations. These agreements provide that we must negotiate certain commercial rights with collaborators with respect to joint inventions or inventions made by our collaborators that arise from the results of the collaboration. In some instances, there may not be adequate written provisions to address clearly the resolution of intellectual property rights that may arise from a collaboration. If we cannot successfully negotiate sufficient ownership and commercial rights to the inventions that result from our use of a third-party collaborator’s materials where required, or if disputes otherwise arise with respect to the intellectual property developed with the use of a collaborator’s technology, we may be limited in our ability to capitalize on the market potential of these intellectual property rights. In addition, we may face claims by third parties that our agreements with employees, contractors or consultants obligating them to assign intellectual property to us are ineffective or in conflict with prior or competing contractual obligations of assignment, which could result in ownership disputes regarding intellectual property we have developed or will develop and interfere with our ability to capture the commercial value of such intellectual property. Litigation may be necessary to resolve an ownership dispute, and if we are not successful, we may be precluded from using certain intellectual property or may lose our exclusive rights in that intellectual property. Either outcome could harm our business.

Third parties may assert that our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information or misappropriated trade secrets.

We employ individuals who were previously employed at universities or other medical device companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of a former employer or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

Risks Related to Regulatory Matters

MRIdian and our operations are subject to extensive government regulation and oversight both in the United States and abroad, and our failure to comply with applicable requirements could harm our business.

Each MRIdian is a medical device subject to extensive regulation in the United States and elsewhere, including by the FDA and its foreign counterparts. The FDA and foreign regulatory agencies regulate, among other things, with respect to medical devices:

 

design, development and manufacturing;

 

testing, labeling, content and language of instructions for use and storage;

 

clinical trials;

 

product safety;

 

marketing, sales and distribution;

 

premarket clearance and approval;

 

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record keeping procedures;

 

advertising and promotion;

 

recalls and field safety corrective actions;

 

post-market surveillance, including reporting of deaths or serious injuries and malfunctions that, if they were to recur, could lead to death or serious injury;

 

post-market approval studies; and

 

product import and export.

The regulations to which we are subject are complex and have tended to become more stringent over time. Regulatory changes could result in restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations, higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales.

In the United States, before we can market a new medical device, or a new use of, new claim for or significant modification to an existing product, we must first receive either clearance under Section 510(k) of the FDCA or approval of a premarket approval, or PMA, application from the FDA, unless an exemption applies. In the 510(k) clearance process, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is “substantially equivalent” to a device legally on the market, known as a “predicate” device, in order to clear the proposed device for marketing. To be “substantially equivalent,” the proposed device must have the same intended use as the predicate device, and either have the same technological characteristics as the predicate device or have different technological characteristics and not raise different questions of safety or effectiveness than the predicate device. Clinical data are sometimes required to support substantial equivalence. In the PMA process, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is safe and effective for its intended use based, in part, on extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, pre-clinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data. The PMA process is typically required for devices that are deemed to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices.

Modifications to products that are approved through a PMA application generally require FDA approval. Similarly, certain modifications made to products cleared through a 510(k) may require a new 510(k) clearance, or possible PMA approval. Both the PMA approval and the 510(k) clearance process can be expensive, lengthy and uncertain. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to 12 months, but can last longer. The process of obtaining a PMA is much more costly and uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process and generally takes from one to three years, or even longer, from the time the application is filed with the FDA. In addition, PMA generally requires the performance of one or more clinical trials. Despite the time, effort and cost, we cannot assure you that any particular device will be approved or cleared by the FDA. Any delay or failure to obtain necessary regulatory approvals could harm our business.

In the United States, we have obtained 510(k) premarket clearance from the FDA to market MRIdian with Cobalt-60 for the provision of stereotactic radiosurgery and precision radiotherapy for lesions, tumors and conditions anywhere in the body where radiation treatment is indicated. An element of our strategy is to continue to upgrade MRIdian to incorporate new software and hardware enhancements. We expect that such upgrades, as well as other future modifications, may require new 510(k) clearance; however, future upgrades may be subject to the substantially more costly, time-consuming and uncertain PMA process. If the FDA requires us to go through a lengthier, more rigorous examination for future products or modifications to existing products than we had expected, product introductions or modifications could be delayed or canceled, which could cause our sales to decline. In August 2016, we filed for FDA 510(k) clearance for the MRIdian Linac and received FDA clearance in February 2017.

The FDA can delay, limit or deny clearance or approval of a device for many reasons, including:

 

we may not be able to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction that MRIdian is substantially equivalent to the proposed predicate device or safe and effective for its intended use;

 

the data from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may be insufficient to support clearance or approval, where required; and

 

the manufacturing process or facilities we use may not meet applicable requirements.

 

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In addition, the FDA may change its clearance and approval policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, or take other actions, which may prevent or delay approval or clearance of our future products under development or impact our ability to modify our currently cleared product on a timely basis. For example, in response to industry and healthcare provider concerns regarding the predictability, consistency and rigor of the 510(k) clearance process, the FDA initiated an evaluation, and in January 2011, announced several proposed actions intended to reform the clearance process. The FDA intended these reform actions to improve the efficiency and transparency of the clearance process, as well as bolster patient safety. In addition, as part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or FDASIA, enacted in 2012, Congress reauthorized the Medical Device User Fee Amendments with various FDA performance goal commitments and enacted several “Medical Device Regulatory Improvements” and miscellaneous reforms, which are further intended to clarify and improve medical device regulation both pre- and post-clearance and approval. More recently, the FDA issued draft guidance in August 2016 intended to assist industry in determining when a change to a previously 510(k)-cleared product requires a new premarket notification to be submitted to the FDA.  Once finalized, this guidance will replace the 1997 guidance on the same topic. Some of these proposals and reforms could impose additional regulatory requirements upon us that could delay our ability to obtain new 510(k) clearances, increase the costs of compliance or restrict our ability to maintain our current clearances.

Even after we have obtained the proper regulatory clearance or approval to market a product, we have ongoing responsibilities under FDA regulations. The failure to comply with applicable regulations could jeopardize our ability to sell MRIdian and result in enforcement actions such as:

 

warning letters;

 

fines;

 

injunctions;

 

civil penalties;

 

termination of distribution;

 

recalls or seizures of products;

 

delays in the introduction of products into the market;

 

total or partial suspension of production;

 

refusal to grant future clearances or approvals;

 

withdrawals or suspensions of current clearances or approvals, resulting in prohibitions on sales of MRIdian; and

 

in the most serious cases, criminal penalties.

Any of these sanctions could result in higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales and harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

We also cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad.  For example, certain policies of the Trump administration may impact our business and industry.  Namely, the Trump administration has taken several executive actions, including the issuance of a number of Executive Orders, that could impose significant burdens on, or otherwise materially delay, the FDA’s ability to engage in routine regulatory and oversight activities such as implementing statutes through rulemaking, issuance of guidance, and review and approval of marketing applications.  Notably, on January 23, 2017, President Trump ordered a hiring freeze for all executive departments and agencies, including the FDA, which prohibits the FDA from filling employee vacancies or creating new positions.  Under the terms of the order, the freeze will remain in effect until implementation of a plan to be recommended by the Director for the Office of Management and Budget, or OMB, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, to reduce the size of the federal workforce through attrition. An under-staffed FDA could result in delays in FDA’s responsiveness or in its ability to review submissions or applications, issue regulations or guidance, or implement or enforce regulatory requirements in a timely fashion or at all.  

 

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Moreover, on January 30, 2017, President Trump issued an Executive Order, applicable to all executive agencies, including the FDA, that requires that for each notice of proposed rulemaking or final regulation to be issued in fiscal year 2017, the agency shall identify at least two existing regulations to be repealed, unless prohibited by law.  These requirements are referred to as the “two-for-one” provisions. This Executive Order includes a budget neutrality provision that requires the total incremental cost of all new regulations in the 2017 fiscal year, including repealed regulations, to be no greater than zero, except in limited circumstances.  For fiscal years 2018 and beyond, the Executive Order requires agencies to identify regulations to offset any incremental cost of a new regulation and approximate the total costs or savings associated with each new regulation or repealed regulation.  In interim guidance issued by the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs within OMB on February 2, 2017, the administration indicates that the “two-for-one” provisions may apply not only to agency regulations, but also to significant agency guidance documents.  In addition, on February 24, 2017, President Trump issued an executive order directing each affected agency to designate an agency official as  a “Regulatory Reform Officer” and establish  a “Regulatory Reform Task Force” to implement the two-for-one provisions and other previously issued executive orders relating to the review of federal regulations, however it is difficult to predict how these requirements will be implemented, and the extent to which they will impact the FDA’s ability to exercise its regulatory authority.  If these executive actions impose constraints on FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, our business may be negatively impacted.

In order to sell MRIdian in member countries of the EEA, MRIdian must comply with the essential requirements of the EU Medical Devices Directive (Council Directive 93/42/EEC). Compliance with these requirements is a prerequisite to be able to affix the CE mark to MRIdian, without which they cannot be sold or marketed in the EEA. To demonstrate compliance with the essential requirements we must undergo a conformity assessment procedure, which varies according to the type of medical device and its classification. Except for low-risk medical devices (Class I with no measuring function and which are not sterile), where the manufacturer can issue an EC Declaration of Conformity based on a self-assessment of the conformity of its products with the essential requirements of the EU Medical Devices Directive, a conformity assessment procedure requires the intervention of an organization accredited by a Member State of the EEA to conduct conformity assessments, or a Notified Body. Depending on the relevant conformity assessment procedure, the Notified Body would typically audit and examine the technical file and the quality system for the manufacture, design and final inspection of our devices. The Notified Body issues a CE Certificate of Conformity following successful completion of a conformity assessment procedure conducted in relation to the medical device and its manufacturer and their conformity with the essential requirements. This certificate entitles the manufacturer to affix the CE mark to its medical devices after having prepared and signed a related EC Declaration of Conformity.

As a general rule, demonstration of conformity of medical devices and their manufacturers with the essential requirements must be based, among other things, on the evaluation of clinical data supporting the safety and performance of the products during normal conditions of use. Specifically, a manufacturer must demonstrate that the device achieves its intended performance during normal conditions of use, that the known and foreseeable risks, and any adverse events, are minimized and acceptable when weighed against the benefits of its intended performance, and that any claims made about the performance and safety of the device (e.g., product labeling and instructions for use) are supported by suitable evidence. We have the right to affix the CE mark to MRIdian with cobalt since November 2014 and MRIdian Linac since September 2016. If we fail to remain in compliance with applicable European laws and directives, we would not be able to continue to affix the CE mark to MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac, which would prevent us from selling MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac within the EEA. We will also need to obtain regulatory approval in other foreign jurisdictions in which we plan to market and sell MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac.

Modifications to MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac and our future products may require new 510(k) clearances or PMA approvals, or may require us to cease marketing or recall the modified products until clearances are obtained.

In the United States, we have obtained 510(k) premarket clearance from the FDA to market MRIdian for the provision of stereotactic radiosurgery and precision radiotherapy for lesions, tumors and conditions anywhere in the body where radiation treatment is indicated. Any modification to a 510(k)-cleared device that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, design or manufacture, requires a new 510(k) clearance or, possibly, approval of a PMA.

 

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In February 2017, we received a 510(k) premarket clearance from the FDA to market the MRIdian system that contains MRIdian Linac. As we make other changes or enhancements to our MRIdian system, we will need to determine whether the FDA clearance is required or not. However, the FDA may not agree with our decisions regarding whether new clearances or approvals are necessary. We have made modifications to MRIdian in the past and have determined based on our review of the applicable FDA regulations and guidance that in certain instances new 510(k) clearances or PMA approvals were not required. We may make similar modifications or add additional features in the future that we believe do not require a new 510(k) clearance or approval of a PMA. If the FDA disagrees with our determination and requires us to submit new 510(k) notifications or PMA applications for modifications to our previously cleared products for which we have concluded that new clearances or approvals are unnecessary, we may be required to cease marketing or to recall the modified product until we obtain clearance or approval, and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.

Furthermore, the FDA’s ongoing review of the 510(k) clearance process may make it more difficult for us to make modifications to our previously cleared products, either by imposing more strict requirements on when a new 510(k) notification for a modification to a previously cleared product must be submitted, or applying more onerous review criteria to such submissions. For example, the FDA is currently reviewing its guidance describing when it believes a manufacturer is obligated to submit a new 510(k) for modifications or changes to a previously cleared device and issued a draft guidance in August 2016 to assist device manufacturers in making this determination. When finalized, this guidance will replace the FDA’s long-standing guidance issued in 1997 on the same topic. We cannot guarantee whether the FDA’s approach in future guidance will result in substantive changes to existing policy and practice regarding the assessment of whether a new 510(k) is required for changes or modifications to existing devices. The FDA continues to review its 510(k) clearance process, which could result in additional changes to regulatory requirements or guidance documents, which could increase the costs of compliance or restrict our ability to maintain current clearances.

If treatment guidelines for cancer radiation therapies change or the standard of care evolves, we may need to redesign and seek new marketing authorization from the FDA for MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac.

If treatment guidelines for cancer radiation therapies or the standard of care evolves, we may need to redesign MRIdian and seek new clearances or approvals from the FDA for MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac. Our 510(k) clearance from the FDA is based on current treatment guidelines. If treatment guidelines change so that different treatments become desirable, the clinical utility of MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac could be diminished and our business could suffer. For example, competition by other forms of cancer treatment, in particular personalized medicine approaches in targeting drugs and biologics, could reduce the use of radiation therapy as a standard of care in certain indications.

The misuse or off-label use of MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac may harm our reputation in the marketplace, result in injuries that lead to product liability suits or result in costly investigations, fines or sanctions by regulatory bodies if we are deemed to have engaged in the promotion of these uses, any of which could be costly to our business.

Clinicians or physicians may misuse MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac or use improper techniques if they are not adequately trained, potentially leading to injury and an increased risk of product liability. If MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac is misused or used with improper technique, we may become subject to costly litigation by our customers or their patients. Product liability claims could divert management’s attention from our core business, be expensive to defend and result in sizeable damage awards against us that may not be covered by insurance. In addition, any of the events described above could harm our business.

In addition, MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac have been cleared by the FDA for specific treatments. We train our marketing and direct sales force to not promote MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac for uses outside of the FDA-cleared indications for use, known as “off-label uses.” For example, MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac have not been indicated for diagnostic use. We cannot, however, prevent a physician from using MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac off-label, when in the physician’s independent professional medical judgment he or she deems it appropriate. There may be increased risk of injury to patients if physicians attempt to use MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac off-label. Furthermore, the use of MRIdian with cobalt or MRIdian Linac for indications

 

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other than those cleared by the FDA or authorized by any foreign regulatory body may not effectively treat such conditions, which could harm our reputation in the marketplace among physicians and patients.

If the FDA or any foreign regulatory body determines that our promotional materials or training constitute promotion of an off-label use, it could request that we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance or imposition of an untitled letter, which is used for violators that do not necessitate a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine or criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action under other regulatory authority, such as false claims laws, if they consider our business activities to constitute promotion of an off-label use, which could result in significant penalties, including, but not limited to, criminal, civil and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs and the curtailment of our operations.

Our MRIdian systems may cause or contribute to adverse medical events that we are required to report to the FDA, and if we fail to do so, we would be subject to sanctions that could harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. The discovery of serious safety issues with our MRIdian systems, or a recall of our MRIdian systems either voluntarily or at the direction of the FDA or another governmental authority, could have a negative impact on us.

We are subject to the FDA’s medical device reporting regulations and similar foreign regulations, which require us to report to the FDA when we receive or become aware of information that reasonably suggests that MRIdian may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that, if the malfunction were to recur, it could cause or contribute to a death or serious injury. The timing of our obligation to report is triggered by the date we become aware of the adverse event as well as the nature of the event. We may fail to report adverse events of which we become aware within the prescribed timeframe. We may also fail to recognize that we have become aware of a reportable adverse event, especially if it is not reported to us as an adverse event or if it is an adverse event that is unexpected or removed in time from the use of MRIdian. If we fail to comply with our reporting obligations, the FDA could take action, including warning letters, untitled letters, administrative actions, criminal prosecution, imposition of civil monetary penalties, revocation of our device clearance, seizure of MRIdian or delay in clearance of future products.

The FDA and foreign regulatory bodies have the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture of a product or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. The FDA’s authority to require a recall must be based on a finding that there is reasonable probability that the device could cause serious injury or death. We may also choose to voluntarily recall a product if any material deficiency is found. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, malfunctions, manufacturing defects, labeling or design deficiencies, packaging defects or other deficiencies or failures to comply with applicable regulations. For example, in January 2014, we initiated a correction of the system at Washington University in St. Louis due to a defect we identified in an advanced software feature in the treatment planning system of MRIdian. We promptly updated our software to resolve this defect and notified the FDA of this correction, but the FDA has not formally classified this correction as a recall. We cannot assure you that similar product defects or other errors will not occur in the future. Recalls involving MRIdian could be particularly harmful to our business, financial condition and results of operations because it is currently our only product.

Companies are required to maintain certain records of recalls and corrections, even if they are not reportable to the FDA. We may initiate voluntary withdrawals or corrections for MRIdian in the future that we determine do not require notification of the FDA. If the FDA disagrees with our determinations, it could require us to report those actions as recalls and we may be subject to enforcement action. A future recall announcement could harm our reputation with customers, potentially lead to product liability claims against us and negatively affect our sales.

If we or our distributors do not obtain and maintain international regulatory registrations or approvals for MRIdian, we will not be able to market and sell MRIdian outside of the United States.

Sales of our devices outside the United States are subject to foreign regulatory requirements that vary widely from country to country. In addition, the FDA regulates exports of medical devices from the United States. While the

 

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regulations of some countries may not impose barriers to marketing and selling MRIdian or only require notification, others require that we or our distributors obtain the approval of a specified regulatory body. We have applied for and received regulatory approval in Europe, the United Arab Emirates, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, China and Italy, where regulatory approval is required in addition to the CE mark. We currently have orders to deliver MRIdian to customers in the United States, Taiwan, China, Korea, Italy, Germany, France and the United Arab Emirates, which we include in our backlog due to the status of each sales order and our regulatory approval processes in these countries. Complying with foreign regulatory requirements, including obtaining registrations or approvals, can be expensive and time-consuming, and we cannot be certain that we or our distributors will receive regulatory approvals in each country in which we plan to market MRIdian or that we will be able to do so on a timely basis. The time required to obtain registrations or approvals, if required by other countries, may be longer than that required for FDA clearance, and requirements for such registrations or approvals may significantly differ from FDA requirements. If we modify MRIdian, we or our distributors may need to apply for additional regulatory approvals before we are permitted to sell the modified product. In addition, we may not continue to meet the quality and safety standards required to maintain the authorizations that we or our distributors have received. If we or our distributors are unable to maintain our authorizations in a particular country, we will no longer be able to sell MRIdian in that country, which could harm our business.

Regulatory clearance or approval by the FDA does not ensure marketing authorization by regulatory authorities in other countries, and authorization for marketing by one or more foreign regulatory authorities does not ensure marketing authorization will be granted by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. However, a failure or delay in obtaining marketing authorization in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others.

We must manufacture MRIdian in accordance with federal and state regulations, and we could be forced to recall our installed systems or terminate production if we fail to comply with these regulations.

The methods used in, and the facilities used for, the manufacture of MRIdian must comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which is a complex regulatory scheme that covers the procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, process controls, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, handling, storage, distribution, installation, servicing and shipping of MRIdian. Furthermore, we are required to verify that our suppliers maintain facilities, procedures and operations that comply with our quality and applicable regulatory requirements. The FDA enforces the QSR through periodic announced or unannounced inspections of medical device manufacturing facilities, which may include the facilities of subcontractors. MRIdian is also subject to similar state regulations and various laws and regulations of foreign countries governing manufacturing.

We cannot guarantee that we or any subcontractors will take the necessary steps to comply with applicable regulations, which could cause delays in the delivery of MRIdian. In addition, failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements or later discovery of previously unknown problems with MRIdian or manufacturing processes could result in, among other things:

 

warning letters or untitled letters;

 

fines, injunctions or civil penalties;

 

suspension or withdrawal of approvals or clearances;

 

seizures or recalls of MRIdian;

 

total or partial suspension of production or distribution;

 

administrative or judicially imposed sanctions;

 

FDA’s refusal to grant pending or future clearances or approvals for MRIdian;

 

clinical holds;

 

refusal to permit the import or export of MRIdian; and

 

criminal prosecution of us or our employees.

 

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Any of these actions could significantly and negatively impact supply of MRIdian. If any of these events occurs, our reputation could be harmed, we could be exposed to product liability claims and we could lose customers and suffer reduced revenue and increased costs.

Legislative or regulatory reforms in the United States or the EU may make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain regulatory clearances or approvals for MRIdian or to produce, market or distribute MRIdian after clearance or approval is obtained.

From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced in Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulation of medical devices or the reimbursement thereof. In addition, the FDA or Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or NRC, regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA or NRC in ways that may significantly affect our business and our MRIdian systems. For example, in response to industry and healthcare provider concerns regarding the predictability, consistency and rigor of the 510(k) clearance process, the FDA initiated an evaluation, and in January 2011, announced several proposed actions intended to reform the clearance process. In addition, as part of FDASIA, Congress reauthorized the Medical Device User Fee Amendments with various FDA performance goal commitments and enacted several “Medical Device Regulatory Improvements” and miscellaneous reforms, which are further intended to clarify and improve medical device regulation both pre- and post-clearance or approval. Any new statutes, regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times of any future products or make it more difficult to manufacture, market or distribute MRIdian or future products. For example, the FDA issued draft guidance in August 2016 intended to assist the industry in determining when a change to a previously 510(k)-cleared product requires a new premarket notification to the FDA.  Once finalized, this guidance will replace the 1997 guidance on the same topic. We cannot determine what effect changes in regulations, statutes, legal interpretation or policies, when and if promulgated, enacted or adopted may have on our business in the future. Such changes could, among other things, require:

 

additional testing prior to obtaining clearance or approval;

 

changes to manufacturing methods;

 

recall, replacement or discontinuance of MRIdian or future products; or

 

additional record keeping.

Any of these changes could require substantial time and cost and could harm our business and our financial results.

In September 2012, the European Commission published proposals for the revision of the EU regulatory framework for medical devices. The proposals would replace the Medical Devices Directive and the Active Implantable Medical Devices Directive with two new regulations: the Medical Devices Regulation and the In-Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation. Unlike directives, which must be implemented into the national laws of the EU Member States, the regulations would be directly applicable, i.e., without the need for adoption of EU Member State laws implementing them, in all EEA Member States and are intended to eliminate current differences in the regulation of medical devices among EEA Member States.

The European Parliament adopted its position on the European Commission’s proposals in first reading in April 2014 and the European Council agreed on its general approach in October 2015. Interinstitutional negotiations between the European Council, Parliament and Commission concluded with an agreement on a revised version of the proposals in May 2016. Both proposals are now undergoing legal-linguistic revision. The formal first reading of the Council is expected early this year, followed by a plenary vote in Parliament at second reading, which would lead to the final adoption of the two regulations in the first quarter of 2017. The Medical Devices Regulation will however only become applicable three years after publication while the In-Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation will only become applicable five years after publication. Once applicable, the new regulations will among other things:

 

strengthen the rules on placing devices on the market and reinforce surveillance once they are available;

 

establish explicit provisions on manufacturers' responsibilities for the follow-up of the quality, performance and safety of devices placed on the market;

 

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improve the traceability of medical devices throughout the supply chain to the end-user or patient through a unique identification number;

 

set up a central database to provide patients, healthcare professionals and the public with comprehensive information on products available in the EU;

 

strengthened rules for the assessment of certain high-risk devices, such as implants, which may have to undergo an additional check by experts before they are placed on the market.

These modifications may have an impact on the way we conduct our business in the EEA.

Our business involves the use of hazardous materials and we and our third-party manufacturers must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which may be expensive and restrict how we do business.

Our third-party manufacturers’ activities and our own activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials, including Cobalt-60, lead and depleted uranium. We and our manufacturers are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing the use, generation, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials. We currently carry no insurance specifically covering environmental claims relating to the use of hazardous materials, but we do reserve funds to address these claims at both the federal and state levels. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials and waste products comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from the use, storage, handling or disposal of hazardous materials. In the event of an accident, state or federal or other applicable authorities may curtail our use of these materials and interrupt our business operations. In addition, if an accident or environmental discharge occurs, or if we discover contamination caused by prior operations, including by prior owners and operators of properties we acquire, we could be liable for cleanup obligations, damages and fines. If such unexpected costs are substantial, this could significantly harm our financial condition and results of operations.

If we are found to have violated laws protecting the confidentiality of patient health information, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, which could increase our liabilities and harm our reputation or our business.

There are a number of federal and state laws protecting the confidentiality of certain patient health information, including patient records, and restricting the use and disclosure of that protected information.

In particular, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has promulgated rules governing the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HIPAA. These privacy and security rules protect medical records and other personal health information by limiting their use and disclosure, giving individuals the right to access, amend and seek accounting of their own health information, limiting most uses and disclosures of health information to the minimum amount reasonably necessary to accomplish the intended purpose, and requiring administrative, technical and physical safeguards. Although we are not a covered entity under HIPAA, we have entered into agreements with certain covered entity customers, such as health care providers, under which we are considered to be a “business associate” under HIPAA. As a business associate, we are contractually bound and may also be directly responsible under HIPAA, as amended by HITECH, to implement policies, procedures and reasonable and appropriate security measures to protect any individually identifiable health information we may create, receive, maintain or transmit on behalf of covered entities. We may also be subject to state laws protecting the confidentiality of medical records where those state laws have stricter provisions than HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts. Our failure to protect or secure any individually identifiable health information received on behalf of customers could subject us to civil and criminal liability, including the imposition of monetary fines, and adverse publicity, and could harm our business and impair our ability to attract new customers.

 

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We are subject to federal and state fraud and abuse laws and health information privacy and security laws, which, if violated, could subject us to substantial penalties. Additionally, any challenge to or investigation into our practices under these laws could cause adverse publicity and be costly to respond to, and thus could harm our business.

There are numerous U.S. federal and state laws pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback, false claims and physician transparency laws. Our relationships with providers and hospitals are subject to scrutiny under these laws. We may also be subject to patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce either the referral of an individual or furnishing or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation. Moreover, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act;

 

federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent;

 

HIPAA, which created federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and making false statements relating to healthcare matters. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;

 

the federal physician sunshine requirements under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies to report annually to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians, which is defined broadly to include other healthcare providers and teaching hospitals and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;

 

state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws that may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers;

 

state laws that require device companies to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; and

 

state laws that require device manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures.

These laws, among other things, constrain our business, marketing and other promotional activities by limiting the kinds of financial arrangements, including sales programs, we may have with hospitals, physicians or other potential purchasers of medical devices. We have a variety of arrangements with our customers that could implicate these laws. Due to the breadth of these laws, the narrowness of statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, and the range of interpretations to which they are subject to, it is possible that some of our current or future practices might be challenged under one or more of these laws. Even an unsuccessful challenge or investigation into our practices could cause adverse publicity, and be costly to respond to, and thus could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, imprisonment and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could negatively impact our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

Healthcare policy changes, including recently enacted legislation reforming the U.S. healthcare system, could harm our cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

In March 2010, the Affordable Care Act was enacted in the United States, which made a number of substantial changes in the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among other things, the Affordable Care Act:

 

requires each medical device manufacturer to pay a sales tax equal to 2.3% of the price for which such manufacturer sells its medical devices, which, due to subsequent legislative amendments, has been suspended from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017, and, absent further legislative action, will be reinstated starting January 1, 2018;

 

establishes a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee and identify priorities in comparative clinical effectiveness research in an effort to coordinate and develop such research;

 

implements payment system reforms including a national pilot program on payment bundling to encourage hospitals, physicians and other providers to improve the coordination, quality and efficiency of certain healthcare services through bundled payment models; and

 

establishes an Independent Payment Advisory Board that will submit recommendations to reduce Medicare spending if projected Medicare spending exceeds a specified growth rate.

We expect that the new presidential administration and U.S. Congress will seek to modify, repeal, or otherwise invalidate all or certain provisions of, the Affordable Care Act. Since taking office, President Trump has continued to support the repeal of all or portions of the Affordable Care Act. In January 2017, the House and Senate passed a budget resolution that authorizes congressional committees to draft legislation to repeal all or portions of the Affordable Care Act and permits such legislation to pass with a majority vote in the Senate. President Trump also recently issued an executive order in which he stated that it is his administration’s policy to seek the prompt repeal of the Affordable Care Act and directed executive departments and federal agencies to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of the provisions of the Affordable Care Act to the maximum extent permitted by law. There is still uncertainty with respect to the impact President Trump’s administration and the U.S. Congress may have, if any, and any changes will likely take time to unfold, and could have an impact on coverage and reimbursement for healthcare items and services covered by plans that were authorized by the Affordable Care Act.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These changes include the Budget Control Act of 2011, which resulted in reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2025 unless additional Congressional action is taken, as well as the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for MRIdian or additional pricing pressure.

 

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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

The price of our common stock may be volatile and may be influenced by numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control.

Factors that could cause volatility in the market price of our common stock include, but are not limited to:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

 

actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;

 

commercial success and market acceptance of MRIdian;

 

success of our competitors in discovering, developing or commercializing products;

 

ability to commercialize or obtain regulatory approval for MRIdian, or delays in commercializing or obtaining regulatory approval;

 

strategic transactions undertaken by us;

 

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

product liability claims;

 

prevailing economic conditions;

 

disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;

 

FDA or other U.S. or foreign regulatory actions affecting us or the healthcare industry;

 

healthcare reform measures in the United States;

 

sales of our common stock by our officers, directors or significant stockholders;

 

future sales or issuances of equity or debt securities by us;

 

business disruptions caused by earthquakes, tornadoes or other natural disasters; and

 

issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations regarding us.

In addition, the stock markets in general, and the markets for medical device companies in particular, have experienced extreme volatility that have been often unrelated to the operating performance of the issuer. These broad market fluctuations may negatively impact the price or liquidity of our common stock. In the past, when the price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against the issuer. If any of our stockholders were to bring such a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit and the attention of our management would be diverted from the operation of our business.

We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

In addition, Section 102 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. An “emerging growth company” can

 

66


 

therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. However, we are choosing to “opt out” of such extended transition period, and as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.

Future sales of our common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock may cause our stock price to decline.

If our existing stockholders or optionholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market after any applicable legal restrictions on resale lapse, the price of our common stock could decline. The perception in the market that these sales may occur could also cause the price of our common stock to decline. At December 31, 2016, we have outstanding a total of 43,581,184 shares of common stock.

In addition, based on the number of shares subject to outstanding awards under our 2008 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, or 2008 Plan, the number of shares subject to outstanding awards or available for issuance under our 2015 Equity Incentive Award Plan, or 2015 Plan, and our 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, at December 31, 2016, 3,450,772 shares, 4,996,150 shares and 667,670 shares, respectively, of common stock that are either subject to outstanding options, outstanding but subject to vesting or reserved for future issuance under the 2008 Plan, 2015 Plan and ESPP will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules and Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act, which includes, for shares held by directors, executive officers and other affiliates, volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities Act The 2015 Plan contains provisions for the annual increase of the number of shares reserved for issuance under such plan. If the shares we may issue from time to time under the 2008 Plan, 2015 Plan or ESPP are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, by the award recipients in the public market, the price of our common stock could decline.

You may experience dilution of your ownership interests because of the future issuance of additional shares of our common or preferred stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for our common or preferred stock.

In the future, we may issue our authorized but previously unissued equity securities, resulting in the dilution of the ownership interests of our present stockholders and the purchasers of our common stock offered hereby. We are authorized to issue an aggregate of 300,000,000 shares of common stock and 10,000,000 shares of “blank check” preferred stock. We may issue additional shares of our common stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for our common stock in connection with hiring or retaining employees, future acquisitions, future sales of our securities for capital raising purposes, or for other business purposes. The future issuance of any such additional shares of our common stock may create downward pressure on the trading price of the common stock. We may need to raise additional capital in the near future to meet our working capital needs, and there can be no assurance that we will not be required to issue additional shares, warrants or other convertible securities in the future in conjunction with these capital raising efforts, including at a price (or exercise prices) below the price you paid for your stock.

Our operating results for a particular period may fluctuate significantly or may fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, each of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.

We expect our operating results to be subject to fluctuations. Our operating results will be affected by numerous factors, including:

 

variations in the level of expenses related to MRIdian with cobalt, MRIdian Linac or future development programs;

 

level of underlying demand for MRIdian with cobalt and MRIdian Linac and any other products we develop;

 

addition or termination of clinical trials or funding support;

 

67


 

 

receipt, modification or termination of government contracts or grants, and the timing of payments we receive under these arrangements;

 

our execution of any collaborative, licensing or similar arrangements, and the timing of payments we may make or receive under these arrangements;

 

any intellectual property infringement lawsuit or opposition, interference or cancellation proceeding in which we may become involved; and

 

regulatory developments affecting MRIdian with cobalt, MRIdian Linac or our competitors.

If our operating results for a particular period fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Furthermore, any fluctuations in our operating results may, in turn, cause the price of our common stock to fluctuate substantially. We believe that comparisons of our financial results from various reporting periods are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.

Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.

Based on the beneficial ownership of our common stock at December 31, 2016, our officers and directors, together with holders of 5% or more of our outstanding common stock and their respective affiliates, beneficially own approximately 80% of our common stock. Accordingly, these stockholders will continue to have significant influence over the outcome of corporate actions requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets or any other significant corporate transaction. The interests of these stockholders may not be the same as or may even conflict with your interests. For example, these stockholders could delay or prevent a change in control of the company, even if such a change in control would benefit our other stockholders, which could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of the company or our assets and might affect the prevailing price of our common stock. The significant concentration of stock ownership may negatively impact the price of our common stock due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise.

Provisions of our charter documents or Delaware law could delay or prevent an acquisition of the company, even if such an acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, which could make it more difficult for you to change management.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempt by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult to replace or remove our board of directors. These provisions include:

 

a classified board of directors so that not all directors are elected at one time;

 

a prohibition on stockholder action through written consent;

 

no cumulative voting in the election of directors;

 

the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director;

 

a requirement that special meetings of stockholders be called only by the board of directors, the chairman of the board of directors, the chief executive officer or, in the absence of a chief executive officer, the president;

 

an advance notice requirement for stockholder proposals and nominations;

 

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the authority of our board of directors to issue preferred stock with such terms as our board of directors may determine; and

 

a requirement of approval of not less than 66 2/3% of all outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote to amend any bylaws by stockholder action, or to amend specific provisions of our certificate of incorporation.

In addition, Delaware law prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person who, together with its affiliates, owns, or within the last three years has owned, 15% or more of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Accordingly, Delaware law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of the company. Furthermore, our certificate of incorporation specifies that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for most legal actions involving actions brought against us by stockholders. We believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law by chancellors particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. However, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with any applicable action brought against us, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in such action.

Provisions in our charter documents and other provisions of Delaware law could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future; therefore, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. In addition, our current loan and security agreement with CRG contains, and our future loan arrangements may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on the company. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of the company, the price for our common stock could be negatively impacted. In the event securities or industry analysts initiate coverage, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price could decline. In addition, if our operating results fail to meet the forecast of analysts, our stock price could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of the company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our common stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

*    *    *

The risks above do not necessarily comprise all of those associated with an investment in us. This Annual Report contains forward looking statements that involve unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, financial condition, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those set out above.

 

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Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 2. PROPERTIES

Facilities

Our corporate headquarters are located in Oakwood Village, Ohio, where we lease and occupy approximately 41,000 square feet of office space. The current term of our Oakwood Village lease expires on October 31, 2017, with an option to extend the term through October 31, 2027. We also maintain an office in Mountain View, California, where we lease and occupy approximately 25,500 square feet of office space. The current term of our Mountain View lease expires on November 30, 2019. In connection with our Mountain View, California lease, we entered into a standby letter of credit with PNC Bank, National Association for $0.8 million, which is still outstanding at December 31, 2016.

We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current needs. When our leases expire, we may exercise our renewal option or look for additional or alternate space for our operations and we believe that suitable additional or alternative space will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms.

Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

From time to time, we may become involved in various lawsuits and legal proceedings which arise in the ordinary course of business. However, litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties, and an adverse result in these or other matters may arise from time to time that may harm business.

We are currently not aware of any pending legal proceedings to which we are a party or of which any of our property is the subject, nor are we aware of any such proceedings that are contemplated by any governmental authority.

Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES 

Not applicable.

 

 

 

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PART II

Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES 

As of the date of this report, our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “VRAY,” which listing was completed on March 30, 2016. Prior to that, our common stock was quoted on the OTCQB, and there was a limited trading market for our common stock and there were few trades in our common stock. Because our common stock was thinly traded for that period, any reported sale prices may not be a true market-based valuation of our common stock. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low bid quotations for our common stock, as reported by OTCQB, since the common stock commenced public trading:

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

 

 

 

2015:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

 

*

 

 

 

*

 

Second Quarter

 

 

*

 

 

 

*

 

Third Quarter

 

$

7.50

 

 

$

0.15

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

5.75

 

 

$

3.25

 

2016:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter**

 

$

5.50

 

 

$

3.83

 

Second Quarter**

 

$

4.86

 

 

$

3.71

 

Third Quarter**

 

$

5.31

 

 

$

2.75

 

Fourth Quarter**

 

$

4.47

 

 

$

2.68

 

 

*

There was no market for our common stock during this period.

**

Prior to our stock being listed on the NASDAQ Global Market, prices reported are the high and low bid quotations on the OTCQB up through market closing on March 30, 2016.  Beginning on March 31, 2016, prices above are the high and low closing prices on The NASDAQ Global Market.  

Stockholders

At December 31, 2016, we have 1,082 stockholders of record.

Dividend Policy

We have never paid any cash dividends on our capital stock and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain future earnings to fund ongoing operations and future capital requirements. Any future determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will be dependent upon financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and such other factors as the board of directors deems relevant.

Sales of Unregistered Securities

In 2016, we granted stock options to employees, directors and consultants under the 2008 Plan and 2015 Plan covering an aggregate of 1,173,043 shares of common stock, at a weighted-average exercise price of $4.20 per share. Options covering an aggregate of 325,706 shares were canceled without being exercised.

In addition, we granted fully vested restricted stock units of 151,240 shares to certain directors, officers and consultants under the 2015 Plan, and such stock awards were issued but not released at December 31, 2016.

We sold an aggregate of 773,718 shares of common stock to employees, directors and consultants for cash consideration in the aggregate amount of $539,000 upon the exercise of stock options and stock awards in 2016.

 

 

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Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected financial data are qualified in their entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information contained in the consolidated financial statements, the notes thereto and the information set forth in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

Year Ended

December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

 

(in thousands, except

share and per share

amounts)

 

Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

$

20,555

 

 

$

9,620

 

 

$

5,988

 

 

$

2,253

 

Service

 

 

1,504

 

 

 

530

 

 

 

411

 

 

 

12

 

Distribution rights

 

 

178

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grant

 

 

 

 

 

240

 

 

 

 

 

 

894

 

Total revenue

 

 

22,237

 

 

 

10,390

 

 

 

6,399

 

 

 

3,159

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

 

23,897

 

 

 

12,673

 

 

 

8,176

 

 

 

8,173

 

Service

 

 

1,969

 

 

 

1,871

 

 

 

975

 

 

 

14

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

25,866

 

 

 

14,544

 

 

 

9,151

 

 

 

8,187

 

Gross margin

 

 

(3,629

)

 

 

(4,154

)

 

 

(2,752

)

 

 

(5,028

)

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development(1)

 

 

11,442

 

 

 

10,449

 

 

 

9,404

 

 

 

8,780

 

Selling and marketing(1)

 

 

5,601

 

 

 

5,139

 

 

 

4,681

 

 

 

3,781

 

General and administrative(1)

 

 

23,503

 

 

 

21,685

 

 

 

14,742

 

 

 

9,508

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

40,546

 

 

 

37,273

 

 

 

28,827

 

 

 

22,069

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(44,175

)

 

 

(41,427

)

 

 

(31,579

)

 

 

(27,097

)

Interest income

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

4

 

Interest expense

 

 

(5,951

)

 

 

(3,452

)

 

 

(2,243

)

 

 

(97

)

Other (expense) income, net

 

 

(512

)

 

 

(117

)

 

 

21

 

 

 

(32

)

Loss before provision for income taxes

 

$

(50,636

)

 

$

(44,994

)

 

$

(33,800

)

 

$

(27,222

)

Provision for income taxes

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(50,636

)

 

$

(44,995

)

 

$

(33,800

)

 

$

(27,222

)

Cumulative dividends on convertible

   preferred stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2,898

)

Deemed capital conversion of Series C

   convertible preferred stock into

   common stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,783

 

Deemed dividend on convertible preferred

   stock extinguishment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(6,863

)

Deemed capital contribution on repurchase of

   Series A preferred stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(50,636

)

 

$

(44,995

)

 

$

(33,791

)

 

$

(28,200

)

Net loss per share attributable to common

   stockholders, basic and diluted(2)

 

$

(1.26

)

 

$

(2.58

)

 

$

(37.87

)

 

$

(34.59

)

Weighted-average common shares used in