10-K 1 arcnycr1231201810-k.htm 10-K ARC NYC 12.31.2018 Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
 
 
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
 
OR
 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
 
 
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from _________ to __________
Commission file number: 000-55393
New York City REIT, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland
 
46-4380248
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
405 Park Ave., 3rd Floor, New York, NY
 
10022
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(212) 415-6500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc.
(former name or former address, if changed since last report)
 
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act: None
Securities registered pursuant to section 12 (g) of the Act: Common stock, $0.01 par value per share (Title of class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. x Yes ¨ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). x Yes ¨ No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer  x
Smaller reporting company x  
 
Emerging growth company x

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ¨ Yes x No
There is no established public market for the registrant’s shares of common stock.
As of March 6, 2019, the registrant had 30,990,448 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the registrant’s 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. The registrant intends to file its proxy statement within 120 days after its fiscal year end.



NEW YORK CITY REIT, INC.

FORM 10-K
Year Ended December 31, 2018


 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




i


NEW YORK CITY REIT, INC.

FORM 10-K
Year Ended December 31, 2018


Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements. Those statements include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of New York City REIT, Inc. (including, as required by context, New York City Operating Partnership, L.P. (the “OP”) and its subsidiaries, “we,” “our” or “us”) and members of our management team, as well as the assumptions on which such statements are based, and generally are identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “seeks,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “plans,” “intends,” “should” or similar expressions. Actual results may differ materially from those contemplated by such forward-looking statements. Further, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events or changes to future operating results over time, unless required by law.
The following are some of the risks and uncertainties, although not all risks and uncertainties, that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those presented in our forward-looking statements:
All of our executive officers are also officers, managers or holders of a direct or indirect controlling interest in our advisor, New York City Advisors, LLC (our “Advisor”) and other entities affiliated with AR Global Investments, LLC (the successor business to AR Capital, LLC, “AR Global”); as a result, our executive officers, our Advisor and its affiliates face conflicts of interest, including significant conflicts created by our Advisor’s compensation arrangements with us and other investor entities advised by AR Global affiliates, and conflicts in allocating time among these entities and us, which could negatively impact our operating results;
We depend on tenants for our revenue and, accordingly, our revenue is dependent upon the success and economic viability of our tenants;
We may not be able to achieve our rental rate objectives on new and renewal leases and our expenses could be greater, which may impact operations;
Effective March 1, 2018, we ceased paying distributions. There can be no assurance we will be able to resume paying distributions at our previous level or at all;
Our properties may be adversely affected by economic cycles and risks inherent to the New York metropolitan statistical area (“MSA”), especially New York City;
We are obligated to pay fees, which may be substantial, to our Advisor and its affiliates;
We may fail to continue to qualify to be treated as a real estate investment trust for United States federal income tax purposes (“REIT”);
Because investment opportunities that are suitable for us may also be suitable for other AR Global-advised programs or investors, our Advisor and its affiliates may face conflicts of interest relating to the purchase of properties and other investments and such conflicts may not be resolved in our favor, meaning that we could invest in less attractive assets, which could reduce the investment return to our stockholders;
No public market currently exists, or may ever exist, for shares of our common stock and our shares are, and may continue to be, illiquid;
Our stockholders are limited in their ability to sell their shares pursuant to our share repurchase program (the “SRP”) which is currently suspended and may have to hold their shares for an indefinite period of time;
If we and our Advisor are unable to find suitable investments, then we may not be able to achieve our investment objectives, or pay distributions; and
As of December 31, 2018, we owned only seven properties and therefore have limited diversification.
All forward-looking statements should be read with the risks noted in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


ii


PART I
Item 1. Business
Organization
We were incorporated on December 19, 2013 as a Maryland corporation and elected to be taxed as a REIT beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014. Substantially all of our business is conducted through the OP.
We were formed to invest our assets in properties in the five boroughs of New York City, with a focus on Manhattan. We may also purchase certain real estate assets that accompany office properties, including retail spaces and amenities, as well as hospitality assets, residential assets and other property types exclusively in New York City. As of December 31, 2018, we owned seven properties consisting of 1,102,584 rentable square feet acquired for an aggregate purchase price of $702.0 million.
On April 24, 2014, we commenced our IPO on a “reasonable best efforts” basis of up to 30.0 million shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, at a price of $25.00 per share, subject to certain volume and other discounts, for total gross proceeds of up to $750.0 million. We closed our IPO on May 31, 2015. As of December 31, 2018, we had 31.0 million shares of common stock outstanding, including unvested restricted shares and shares issued pursuant to the distribution reinvestment plan (“DRIP”). In addition, from inception through December 31, 2018, we had raised net proceeds of $769.9 million, including $68.8 million of distributions to our shareholders which were reinvested in our common stock through DRIP.
We first established an estimated net asset value per share of our common stock (“Estimated Per-Share NAV”) in 2016. On October 24, 2016, our board of directors approved an Estimated Per-Share NAV of $21.25 as of June 30, 2016 (the “2016 Estimated Per-Share NAV”), which was published on October 26, 2016 (“NAV Pricing Date”). Prior to the NAV Pricing Date, we had offered shares pursuant to the DRIP and had repurchased shares pursuant to the Share Repurchase Program (the “SRP”) at a price based on $23.75 per share, the offering price in the IPO. Beginning with the NAV Pricing Date, we began to offer shares pursuant to the DRIP and repurchase shares pursuant to the SRP at a price based on Estimated Per-Share NAV. On October 23, 2018, our board of directors approved an Estimated Per-Share NAV equal to $20.26 as of June 30, 2018 (the “2018 Estimated Per-Share NAV”), which was published on October 25, 2018. Until we list shares of our common stock or another liquidity event occurs, we intend to publish subsequent valuations of Estimated Per-Share NAV at least once annually. We offer shares pursuant to the DRIP, which is not currently available as distributions are suspended and repurchase shares pursuant to the SRP which is, also, currently suspended, at a price based on Estimated Per-Share NAV. For additional information on the current status of the DRIP and the SRP, see Note 6 — Common Stock to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In March 2019, we changed our name from American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc. to New York City REIT, Inc.
We have no employees. Our Advisor manages our affairs on a day-to-day basis. We have retained New York City Properties, LLC (our “Property Manager”) to serve as our property manager. The Advisor and Property Manager are under common control with AR Global, and these related parties receive compensation, fees and expense reimbursements for services related to the investment and management of our assets. We are the sole general partner and hold substantially all of the units of limited partner interests in the OP (“OP Units”). The Advisor contributed $2,020 to the OP in exchange for 90 OP Units, which represents a nominal percentage of the aggregate OP ownership. A holder of OP Units has the right to convert OP Units for the cash value of a corresponding number of shares of our common stock or, at the option of the OP, a corresponding number of shares of our common stock, in accordance with the limited partnership agreement of the OP, provided, however, that the OP Units must have been outstanding for at least one year. The remaining rights of the limited partners in the OP are limited, however, and do not include the ability to replace the general partner or to approve the sale, purchase or refinancing of the OP’s assets.

1


Investment Objectives:
We are focused on helping our stockholders take advantage of the New York City real estate market. Our investment goals are as follows:
New York City Focus - Acquire high-quality commercial real estate located in the five boroughs of New York City, and in particular, Manhattan;
Cash Flow Generating Properties - Invest primarily in properties with 80% or greater occupancy at the time of purchase;
Potential for Appreciation - Purchase properties valued using current market rents with potential for appreciation and endeavor to acquire properties below replacement cost;
Low Leverage - Limit our borrowings to 40% - 50% of the aggregate fair market value of our assets;
Diversified Tenant Mix - Lease to a diversified group of tenants with a bias toward lease terms of five years or greater;
Pay Monthly Distributions - Pay monthly distributions. On February 27, 2018, we suspended distributions we pay to holders of our common stock and our board of directors will continue to evaluate our performance and assess our distribution policy; however, there can be no assurance as to when, or if, we will be able to resume paying distributions or the level at which we pay them; and
Maximize Total Returns - Maximize total returns to our stockholders through a combination of realized appreciation and current income.
Acquisition and Investment Policies
Primary Investment Focus
We have focused and intend to continue focusing our investment activities on acquiring quality, income-producing commercial real estate located in the five boroughs of New York City and, in particular, properties located in Manhattan. We may also originate or acquire real estate debt backed by quality, income-producing commercial real estate located predominantly in New York City. The real estate debt, which we may also originate or acquire is expected to be primarily first mortgage debt but also may include bridge loans, mezzanine loans, preferred equity or securitized loans.
Investing in Real Property
We have invested and expect to invest a majority of our assets in office properties located in New York City. We may also invest in real estate assets that accompany office space, including retail spaces and amenities, as well as hospitality assets, residential assets and other property types exclusively in New York City.
Our Advisor considers relevant real estate and financial factors, including the location of the property, the leases and other agreements affecting the property, its income-producing capacity, its physical condition, its prospects for appreciation, its prospects for liquidity, tax considerations and other factors when evaluating prospective investments. In this regard, our Advisor has substantial discretion with respect to the selection of specific investments, subject to board approval.
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017 there were no tenants whose annualized rental income on a straight-line basis, based on leases commenced, represented greater than 10% of total annualized rental income for all portfolio properties on a straight-line basis.
Real Estate-Related Loans and Debt Securities
Although not our primary focus, we may, from time to time, make investments in real estate-related loans and debt securities. These types of assets do not exceed 10.0% of our assets, or represent a substantial portion of our assets at any one time. The other real estate-related debt investments in which we may invest include: mortgages; mezzanine; bridge and other loans; debt and derivative securities related to real estate assets, including mortgage-backed securities; collateralized debt obligations; debt securities issued by real estate companies; and credit default swaps. Our criteria for investing in loans are substantially the same as those involved in our investment in properties; however, we will also evaluate such investments based on the current income opportunities presented.
Investing in Equity Securities
We may make equity investments in other REITs and other real estate companies that operate assets meeting our investment objectives. We may purchase the common or preferred stock of these entities or options to acquire their stock. We will target a public company that owns commercial real estate or real estate-related assets when we believe its stock is trading at a discount to that company’s net asset value. We may eventually seek to acquire or gain a controlling interest in the companies that we target. We do not expect our non-controlling equity investments in other public companies to represent a substantial portion of our assets at any one time. In addition, we do not expect our non-controlling equity investments in other public companies combined with

2


our investments in real estate properties outside of our target investments and other real estate-related investments to exceed 10.0% of our portfolio.
Acquisition Structure
We have acquired real estate and real-estate related assets directly, for example, by acquiring fee interests in real property (a “fee interest” is the absolute, legal possession and ownership of land, property, or rights), or by purchasing interests, including controlling interests, in REITs or other “real estate operating companies,” such as real estate management companies and real estate development companies, that own real property. We also may acquire real estate assets through investments in joint venture entities, including joint venture entities in which we may not own a controlling interest, or assets under ground leases. Our assets generally are held in wholly and majority-owned subsidiaries of ours, each formed to hold a particular asset.
Financing Strategies and Offerings
We use debt financing to fund property improvements, tenant improvements, leasing commissions and other working capital needs. The form of our indebtedness varies and could be long-term or short-term, secured or unsecured, or fixed-rate or floating rate. We do not enter into interest rate swaps or caps, or similar hedging transactions or derivative arrangements for speculative purposes but may do so in order to manage or mitigate our interest rate risks on variable rate debt.
It is currently our intention to limit our aggregate borrowings to 40% – 50% of the aggregate fair market value of our assets. At the date of acquisition of each asset, we anticipate that the cost of investment for the asset will be substantially similar to its fair market value. However, subsequent events, including changes in the fair market value of our assets, could result in our exceeding our target leverage levels.
We will not borrow from our Advisor, any of our directors or any of our Advisor’s affiliates unless a majority of our directors, including a majority of our independent directors, not otherwise interested in the transaction approves the transaction as being fair, competitive and commercially reasonable and no less favorable to us than comparable loans between unaffiliated parties.
We may reevaluate and change our financing policies without a stockholder vote. Factors that we would consider when reevaluating or changing our debt policy include then-current economic conditions, the relative cost and availability of debt and equity capital, our expected investment opportunities, the ability of our investments to generate sufficient cash flow to cover debt service requirements and other similar factors.
Tax Status
 We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), effective for our taxable year ended December 31, 2014. We believe that, commencing with such taxable year, we have been organized and operated in a manner so that we qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code. We intend to continue to operate in such a manner, but no assurance can be given that we will operate in a manner so as to remain qualified for taxation as a REIT. In order to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT we must, among other things, distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (which does not equal net income as calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”)) determined without regard for the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gains, and must comply with a number of other organizational and operational requirements. If we continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal corporate income tax on that portion of our REIT taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders. Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain state and local taxes on our income and properties as well as federal income and excise taxes on our undistributed income.
Competition
The New York City real estate market is highly competitive. We compete based on a number of factors that include location, rental rates, security, suitability of the property’s design to prospective tenants’ needs and the manner in which the property is operated and marketed. In addition, the number of competing properties in the New York MSA could have a material effect on our occupancy levels, rental rates and on the operating expenses of certain of our properties.
In addition, we compete with other entities engaged in real estate investment activities to locate suitable properties and to acquire and to locate tenants and purchasers for our properties. These competitors include other REITs, specialty finance companies, savings and loan associations, banks, mortgage bankers, insurance companies, mutual funds, private investment funds, institutional investors, lenders, governmental bodies and other entities. We also may compete with other entities advised or sponsored by affiliates of AR Global for properties or tenants. In addition, these same entities seek financing through similar channels. Therefore, we compete for financing in a market where funds for real estate financing may decrease.
Competition from these and other third party real estate investors may limit the number of suitable investment opportunities available. It also may result in higher prices, lower yields and a narrower spread of yields over our potential borrowing costs, making it more difficult for us to acquire new investments on attractive terms. In addition, the number of competing properties in the New York MSA could have a material effect on our occupancy levels, rental rates and on the operating expenses of certain of our properties.

3


 Regulations
 Our investments are subject to various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, including, among other things, zoning regulations, land use controls, environmental controls relating to air and water quality, noise pollution and indirect environmental impacts such as increased motor vehicle activity. We believe that we have all permits and approvals necessary under current law to operate our investments.
Environmental
 As an owner of real estate, we are subject to various environmental laws of federal, state and local governments. Compliance with existing laws has not had a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations, and management does not believe it will have such an impact in the future. However, we cannot predict the impact of unforeseen environmental contingencies or new or changed laws or regulations on properties in which we hold an interest, or on properties that may be acquired directly or indirectly in the future. We hire third parties to conduct Phase I environmental reviews of the real property that we intend to purchase.
We did not make any material capital expenditures in connection with environmental, health and safety laws, ordinances and regulations in 2018 and do not expect that we will be required to make any such material capital expenditures during 2019.
Employees
 We have no employees. The employees of our Advisor and its affiliates perform a full range of real estate services for us, including acquisitions, property management, accounting, legal, asset management and investor relations services.
 We are dependent on these entities for services that are essential to us, including capital markets activities, asset acquisition decisions, property management and other general administrative responsibilities. In the event that any of these companies were unable to provide these services to us, we would be required to provide such services ourselves or obtain such services from other sources.
Available Information
We electronically file Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and all amendments to those filings with the SEC. You may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Internet address located at http://www.sec.gov. The website contains reports, proxy statements and information statements, and other information, which you may obtain free of charge. In addition, copies of our filings with the SEC may be obtained from our website at www.newyorkcityreit.com. Access to these filings is free of charge. We are not incorporating our website or any information from the website into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Set forth below are the risk factors that we believe are material to our stockholders. The occurrence of any of the risks discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, our ability to pay distributions and the value of an investment in our common stock.

Risks Related to an Investment in New York City REIT, Inc.
All of our properties are located in the New York MSA, making us dependent upon the economic climate in New York City.
All of the real estate assets we own are located in the New York MSA. We are subject to risks generally inherent in concentrating investments in a certain geography. These risks resulting from a lack of diversification may become even greater in the event of a downturn in the commercial real estate industry and could significantly adversely affect the value of our properties. A downturn in New York City’s economy (such as employee layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocations of businesses, increases in real estate and other taxes, costs of complying with governmental regulations or increased regulation), in a submarket within New York City or in the overall national economy could, for example, result in reduced demand for office or retail space. Likewise, declines in the financial services or media sectors may have a disproportionate adverse effect on the New York City real estate market.
Our properties face competition for tenants.
The New York City real estate market is highly competitive and there are many competing properties in the New York MSA. With respect to the assets that we own, we compete for tenants based on a number of factors that include location, rental rates, security, suitability of the property’s design to prospective tenants’ needs and the manner in which the property is operated and marketed. Many competitors have substantially greater marketing budgets and financial resources than we do, which could limit our success when we compete with them directly. Competition could have a material effect on our occupancy levels, rental rates and on property operating expenses. To the extent we engage in additional acquisition activities, we compete with many other entities including other REITs, sovereigns, specialty finance companies, family offices, banks, mortgage bankers, insurance

4


companies, mutual funds, private investment funds, institutional investors and lenders. Many of these competitors, as compared to us, have a lower cost of capital enhanced operating efficiencies and substantially greater financial resources.
Competition from these and other third party real estate investors may limit the number of suitable investment opportunities available. It also may result in higher prices, lower yields and a narrower spread of yields over our borrowing costs, making it more difficult for us to acquire new investments on attractive terms. In addition, the number of competing properties in the New York MSA could have a material effect on our occupancy levels, rental rates and on the operating expenses of certain of our properties.
Our common stock is not traded on a national securities exchange, and we only repurchase shares under the SRP in the event of death or disability of a stockholder. The SRP may be suspended or amended at any time and stockholders may have to hold their shares for an indefinite period of time. Our stockholders who sell their shares to us under the SRP may receive less than the price they paid for the shares.
There is no active trading market for our shares. The SRP includes numerous restrictions that limit a stockholder’s ability to sell shares to us, including that we only repurchase shares in the event of death or disability of a stockholder. Moreover, the total value of repurchases pursuant to the SRP is limited to the amount of proceeds received from issuances of common stock pursuant to the DRIP and repurchases in any fiscal semester are further limited to 2.5% of the average number of shares outstanding during the previous fiscal year, subject to the authority of our board of directors to identify another source of funds for repurchases under the SRP. Further, we are no longer receiving proceeds from the DRIP due to our suspension of the distributions, effective as of March 1, 2018. Our board of directors may also reject any request for repurchase of shares at its discretion or amend, suspend or terminate the SRP upon notice. Therefore, requests for repurchase under the SRP may not be accepted. Any repurchases under the SRP are based on Estimated Per-Share NAV and may be at a substantial discount to the price the stockholder paid for the shares.
We are not currently paying distributions and there can be no assurance we will be able to resume paying distributions at our previous level or at all.
Effective as of March 1, 2018, we suspended payment of distributions to our stockholders. There can be no assurance we will be able to resume paying cash distributions at our previous level or at all. Our ability to pay future cash distributions will depend on our future cash flows and may be dependent on our ability to increase the operating cash flow we generate from investments or otherwise obtain additional liquidity, which may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. Moreover, our board of directors may change our distribution policy, in its sole discretion, at any time.
In the past, we have not generated operating cash flows sufficient to fund the distributions paid to our stockholders. Our ability to pay distributions in the future will depend on the amount of cash we are able to generate from our operations. The amount of cash available for distributions is affected by many factors, such as capital availability, rental income from acquired properties and our operating expense levels, as well as many other variables. There is no assurance that rents from the properties we own or rent from future acquisitions of properties will increase our cash available for distributions to the level necessary for us to resume paying distributions to our stockholders.
We have, since our inception, funded distributions from, among other sources, borrowings, asset sales or the sale of securities. Funding distributions from borrowings restricts the amount we can borrow for any property acquisitions and investments. Using proceeds from the sale of assets or the issuance of our common stock or other equity securities to fund distributions rather than invest in assets will likewise reduce the amount available to invest. Funding distributions from the sale of additional securities could also result in a dilution of our stockholders’ investment.
We also may not have sufficient cash from operations to pay a distribution required to qualify for or maintain our REIT status.
We may be unable to enter into and consummate property acquisitions on advantageous terms or our property acquisitions may not perform as we expect.
We compete with many other entities engaged in real estate investment activities particularly for properties located in New York City. The competition may significantly increase the price we pay and reduce the returns that we earn. Our potential acquisition targets may find our competitors to be more attractive because they may have greater resources, may be willing to pay more for the properties or may have a more compatible operating philosophy. In particular, larger REITs may enjoy significant competitive advantages that result from, among other things, a lower cost of capital and enhanced operating efficiencies. Because of an increased interest in single-property acquisitions among tax-motivated individual purchasers, we may pay higher prices if we purchase single properties in comparison with portfolio acquisitions. In addition:
we have invested all of the net proceeds from our IPO, so this source of capital is no longer available to us to pursue acquisitions;
our board of directors suspended our distributions to stockholders effective March 1, 2018 in part to help generate liquidity needed to pursue acquisitions, but the ongoing suspension of distributions, or, if we are able to commence paying distributions again, the perception that future suspensions may occur, could make raising capital by selling shares of our common stock more difficult, and there can be no assurance we will be able to generate sufficient cash from operations, or obtain the necessary debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all, in order to consummate an acquisition;

5


we may acquire properties that are not accretive and not successfully managed and leased to meet our expectations;
we may need to spend more than budgeted amounts to make necessary improvements or renovations to acquired properties;
agreements to acquire properties are typically subject to customary conditions to closing, and we may spend significant time and money on potential acquisitions that we do not consummate;
the process of acquiring or pursuing a new property may divert the attention of our management team from our existing business operations;
we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate new acquisitions, particularly acquisitions of portfolios of properties, into our existing operations;
market conditions may result in future vacancies and lower-than expected rental rates; and
we may acquire properties without recourse, or with only limited recourse, for liabilities, whether known or unknown.
We rely upon our Advisor and the real estate professionals affiliated with our Advisor to identify suitable investments. To the extent that our Advisor and the real estate professionals employed by our Advisor face competing demands upon their time at times when we have capital ready for investment, we may face delays in locating suitable further investments. Delays we encounter in the selection and acquisition or origination of income-producing assets would likely limit our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders in the future and lower their overall returns. Further, if we acquire properties prior to the start of construction or during the early stages of construction, it will typically take several months to complete construction and rent available space, which could negatively impact our cash flow from operations.
Moreover, to the extent that we determine to make additional investments, there can be no assurance that our Advisor will be successful in obtaining suitable further investments on financially attractive terms or that our objectives will be achieved. In the event we are unable to timely locate suitable investments, we may be unable to meet our investment objectives.
We may terminate our advisory agreement in only limited circumstances, which may require payment of a termination fee.
We have limited rights to terminate our Advisor. The initial term of the advisory agreement expires on July 1, 2030, but is
automatically renewed for consecutive five-year terms unless notice of termination is provided by either party 180 days in advance of the expiration of the term. If we terminate the agreement in connection with a change in control, we would be required to pay a termination fee that could be up to $15,000,000 plus four times the compensation paid to our Advisor in the previous year, plus expenses. The limited termination rights contained in the advisory agreement will make it difficult for us to renegotiate the terms of the advisory agreement or replace our Advisor even if the terms of the advisory agreement are no longer consistent with the terms generally available to externally-managed REITs for similar services.
Part of our strategy for building our portfolio may involve acquiring assets opportunistically. This strategy will involve a higher risk of loss than more conservative investment strategies.
In order to meet our investment objectives, we have acquired and may continue to acquire assets that have less than 80% occupancy, but which we believe we can reposition, redevelop or remarket to create value enhancement and capital appreciation opportunistically. For example, we acquired 9 Times Square in November 2014 at 50.3% occupancy and as of December 31, 2018, occupancy was at 84.3%. Subsequent to acquisition, we allowed leases to expire and terminate as part of the implementation of our repositioning, redeveloping and remarketing plan with respect to the property. While we have substantially completed our repositioning and redevelopment plan with respect to 9 Times Square and are currently working to lease the remaining vacant space at the property, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in leasing up this property or effectively repositioning or remarketing any other property we may acquire for these purposes, including increasing the occupancy rate.
As a result of our investment in these types of assets, we will face increased risks relating to changes in the New York City economy and increased competition for tenants at similar properties in this market, as well as increased risks that the economic trends and demand for office and retail space and other real estate in this market or sub-market will not persist and the value of our properties will not increase, or will decrease, over time. For these and other reasons, we cannot assure our stockholders that we will be profitable or that we will realize growth in the value of our real estate properties. In addition, leasing our vacant space will likely result in our incurring expenses for tenant improvements and leasing commissions, which would adversely impact the amount of cash we have available for other purposes, such as acquisitions.
Two of our individual real estate investments represent a material percentage of our assets.
As of December 31, 2018, our two largest assets, 123 William Street and 1140 Avenue of the Americas, aggregated approximately 71% of the total square footage in our portfolio and 73% of annualized straight-line rent. Due to our relatively small asset base and the high concentration of our total assets in relatively large individual real estate assets, the value of our assets could vary more widely with the performance of specific assets than if we invested in a more diverse portfolio of properties. Because of this asset concentration, even modest changes in the value of our real estate assets could have a significant impact on the value of our assets and the value of our shares.
We rely significantly on the following major tenants and therefore, are subject to tenant credit concentrations that make us more susceptible to adverse events with respect to these tenants.

6


As of December 31, 2018, the following tenants accounted for 5% or more of our total annualized rental income on a straight-line basis, based on leases commenced:
Tenant
 
% of Annualized Straight-Line Rent
City National Bank
 
7.4%
Knotel, Inc.
 
5.9%
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.
 
5.7%
The failure of any of these tenants to pay rent could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, our financial condition and the value of the applicable property. In addition, the values of these investments are driven in part by the credit quality of the underlying tenants, and an adverse change in the tenants’ financial conditions or a decline in the credit rating of such tenants may result in a decline in the value of the specific assets.
We depend on our Advisor and our Property Manager to provide us with executive officers, key personnel and all services required for us to conduct our operations and our operating performance may be impacted by any adverse changes in the financial health or reputation of our Advisor and our Property Manager.
We have no employees. Personnel and services that we require are provided to us under contracts with our Advisor and its affiliate, the Property Manager. We depend on our Advisor, and the Property Manager to manage our operations and to acquire and manage our portfolio of real estate assets. Our Advisor makes all decisions with respect to the day-to-day management of our company, subject to the supervision of, and any guidelines established by, our board of directors.
Thus, our success depends to a significant degree upon the contributions of our executive officers and other key personnel of our Advisor. Neither our Advisor nor its affiliates have an employment agreement with any of these key personnel and we cannot guarantee that all, or any particular one, will remain employed by our Advisor or its affiliates and available to continue to perform services for us. If any of our key personnel were to cease their affiliation with our Advisor, our operating results, business and prospects could suffer. Further, we do not maintain key person life insurance on any person. Competition for skilled personnel is intense, and there can be no assurance that our Advisor will be successful in attracting and retaining skilled personnel. We also depend on these key personnel to maintain relationships with firms that have special expertise in certain services or detailed knowledge regarding real properties in the five boroughs of New York City, particularly in Manhattan. If our Advisor loses or is unable to obtain the services of key personnel capable of establishing or maintaining appropriate strategic relationships, our Advisor's ability to manage our business and implement our investment strategies could be delayed or hindered, and the value of an investment in shares of our stock may decline. On March 8, 2017, the creditor trust established in connection with the bankruptcy of RCS Capital Corporation (“RCAP”), which prior to its bankruptcy filing was under common control with our Advisor, filed suit against AR Global, our Advisor, advisors of other entities sponsored by affiliates of AR Global, and AR Global’s principals. The suit alleges, among other things, certain breaches of duties to RCAP. We are neither a party to the suit, nor are there allegations related to the services our Advisor provides to us. On May 26, 2017, the defendants moved to dismiss. On November 30, 2017, the Court issued an opinion partially granting the defendants' motion. On December 7, 2017, the creditor trust moved for limited reargument of the court’s partial dismissal of its breach of fiduciary duty claim, and on January 10, 2018, the defendants filed a supplemental motion to dismiss certain claims. On April 5, 2018, the court issued an opinion denying the creditor trust's motion for reconsideration while partially granting the defendants' supplemental motion to dismiss. Our Advisor has informed us that it believes the suit is without merit and intends to defend against it vigorously.
Our Advisor and Property Manager depend upon the fees and other compensation that they receive from us in connection with the management of our business and sale of our properties to conduct its operations. Any adverse changes in the financial condition or financial health of, or our relationship with, our Advisor, including any change resulting from an adverse outcome in any litigation, could hinder their ability to successfully manage our operations and our portfolio of investments. Additionally, changes in ownership or management practices, the occurrence of adverse events affecting our Advisor or its affiliates or other companies advised by our Advisor and its affiliates could create adverse publicity and adversely affect us and our relationship with lenders, tenants or counterparties.
We may change our targeted investments without stockholder consent.
We have invested and intend to invest in a portfolio of office properties and other property types located in the five boroughs of New York City, specifically Manhattan. However, our board or directors may change our investment policies over time. We may make adjustments to our target portfolio based on real estate market conditions and investment opportunities, and we may change our targeted investments and investment guidelines at any time without the consent of our stockholders, which could result in our making investments that are different from, and possibly riskier than, initially anticipated. A change in our targeted investments or investment guidelines may increase our exposure to interest rate risk, default risk and real estate market fluctuations.

7


Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to recover claims against our officers, directors and our Advisor are limited, which could reduce our and our stockholders’ recovery against them if they cause us to incur losses.
Maryland law provides that a director has no liability in that capacity if he or she performs his or her duties in good faith, in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in the corporation’s best interests and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances. In addition, subject to certain limitations set forth therein or under Maryland law, our charter provides that no director or officer will be liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages and permits us to indemnify our directors and officers from liability and advance certain expenses to them in connection with claims or liability they may become subject to due to their service to us, and we are not restricted from indemnifying our Advisor or its affiliates on a similar basis. We have entered into indemnification agreements to this effect with our directors and officers, certain former directors and officers, our Advisor and AR Global. We and our stockholders may have more limited rights against our directors, officers, employees and agents, and our Advisor and its affiliates, than might otherwise exist under common law, which could reduce the recovery of our stockholders and our recovery against them. In addition, we may be obligated to fund the defense costs incurred by our directors, officers, employees and agents or our Advisor and its affiliates in some cases. Subject to conditions and exceptions, we also indemnify our Advisor and its affiliates from losses arising in the performance of their duties under the advisory agreement.
The purchase price per share for shares issued under the DRIP and the repurchase price of our shares under the SRP is based on our Estimated Per-Share NAV, which is based upon subjective judgments, assumptions and opinions about future events, and may not reflect the amount that our stockholders might receive for their shares in a market transaction.
On October 25, 2018, we published the 2018 Estimated Per-Share NAV equal to $20.26 as of June 30, 2018. In order to establish the 2018 Estimated Per-Share NAV, our Advisor engaged an independent valuer to perform appraisals of our real estate assets in accordance with the valuation guidelines established by our board of directors. As with any methodology used to estimate value, the valuation methodologies used by any independent valuer to value our properties involve subjective judgments concerning factors such as comparable sales, rental and operating expense data, capitalization or discount rate, and projections of future rent and expenses.
Under our valuation guidelines, our independent valuer estimated the market value of our principal real estate and real estate-related assets, and our Advisor determined the net value of our real estate and real estate-related assets and liabilities taking into consideration such estimate provided by the independent valuer. Our Advisor reviewed the valuations and range of value performed by the independent valuer for consistency with the valuation guidelines and the reasonableness of the independent valuer’s conclusions. Our board of directors oversaw and reviewed our Advisor’s Estimated Per-Share NAV calculation and, following consideration, in its discretion and as appropriate, of other factors, made the formal determination as to the 2018 Estimated Per-Share NAV. Our board of directors is ultimately and solely responsible for the Estimated Per-Share NAV. Although the valuations of our real estate assets by the independent valuer are reviewed by our Advisor and approved by our independent directors, neither our Advisor nor our board of directors independently verified or will independently verify for any future valuation or appraised value of our properties. Moreover, these valuations do not necessarily represent the price at which we would be able to sell an asset, and the price that shares would trade in secondary markets or the price a third party would pay to acquire us. As a result, the appraised value of a particular property may be greater or less than its potential realizable value, which would cause our Estimated Per-Share NAV to be greater or less than the potential realizable value of shares of our common stock.
Because they are based on Estimated Per-Share NAV, the price at which our shares may be sold under the DRIP and the price at which our shares may be repurchased by us pursuant to the SRP may not reflect the price that our stockholders would receive for their shares in a market transaction, the proceeds that would be received upon our liquidation of or the price that a third party would pay to acquire us.
Because Estimated Per-Share NAV is only determined annually, it may differ significantly from our actual per-share net asset value at any given time.
Valuations of Estimated Per-Share NAV are made at least once annually. In connection with any valuation, our board of Advisor's estimate of the value of our real estate and real estate-related assets will be partly based on appraisals of our properties, which we expect will only be appraised in connection with the annual valuation.
Because valuations only occur annually, Estimated Per-Share NAV cannot take into account any material events that occur after the Estimated Per-Share NAV has been calculated for that year. Material events could include the appraised value of our properties substantially changing actual property operating results differing from what we originally budgeted or distributions to shareholders exceeding cash flow generated by us. Any such material event could cause a change in the Estimated Per-Share NAV that would not be reflected until the next valuation. Also, to the extent we pay distributions in excess of our cash flows provided by operations, this could result in a decrease to our Estimated Per-Share NAV. As a result, the Estimated Per-Share NAV is not guaranteed to accurately reflect the value of the shares at any given time, and our Estimated Per-Share NAV may differ significantly from our actual per-share net asset value at any given time.

8


Our business and operations could suffer if our Advisor or any other party that provides us with services essential to our operations experiences system failures or cyber incidents or a deficiency in cybersecurity.
The internal information technology networks and related systems of our Advisor and other parties that provide us with services essential to our operations are vulnerable to damage from any number of sources, including computer viruses, unauthorized access, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication failures. Any system failure or accident that causes interruptions in our operations could result in a material disruption to our business. We may also incur additional costs to remedy damages caused by these disruptions.
As reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to those systems. Our Advisor and other parties that provide us with services essential to our operations must continuously monitor and develop their networks and information technology to prevent, detect, address and mitigate the risk of unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses, and social engineering, such as phishing. We are continuously working, including with the aid of third party service providers, to install new, and to upgrade our existing, network and information technology systems, to create processes for risk assessment, testing, prioritization, remediation, risk acceptance, and reporting, and to provide awareness training around phishing, malware and other cyber risks to ensure that our Advisor, other parties that provide us with services essential to our operations and we are protected against cyber risks and security breaches. However, these upgrades, processes, new technology and training may not be sufficient to protect us from all risks. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques and technologies used in attempted attacks and intrusions evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target. In some cases attempted attacks and intrusions are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected.
The remediation costs and lost revenues experienced by a subject of an intentional cyberattack or other event which results in unauthorized third party access to systems to disrupt operations, corrupt data or steal confidential information may be significant and significant resources may be required to repair system damage, protect against the threat of future security breaches or to alleviate problems, including reputational harm, loss of revenues and litigation, caused by any breaches. Additionally, any failure to adequately protect against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data, or to take appropriate action in cases of infringement may result in significant penalties under privacy law.
Furthermore, a security breach or other significant disruption involving the information technology networks and related systems of our Advisor or any other party that provides us with services essential to our operations could:
result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants, missed reporting deadlines and/or missed permitting deadlines;
affect our ability to properly monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT;
result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of, proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information (including information about tenants), which others could use to compete against us or for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;
result in our inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by our tenants for the efficient use of their leased space;
require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result;
subject us to claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties or termination of leases or other agreements; or
adversely impact our reputation among our tenants and investors generally.
Although our Advisor and other parties that provide us with services essential to our operations intend to continue to implement industry-standard security measures, there can be no assurance that those measures will be sufficient, and any material adverse effect experienced by our Advisor and other parties that provide us with services essential to our operations could, in turn, have an adverse impact on us.

Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest
Our Advisor faces conflicts of interest relating to the purchase and leasing of properties and these conflicts may not be resolved in our favor, which could adversely affect our investment opportunities.
We rely on our Advisor and the executive officers and other key real estate professionals at our Advisor to identify suitable investment opportunities for us. Several of the other key real estate professionals of our Advisor are also the key real estate professionals at AR Global and other entities advised by affiliates of AR Global. Many investment opportunities that are suitable for us may also be suitable for other entities advised by affiliates of AR Global. Thus, the executive officers and real estate professionals at our Advisor could direct attractive investment opportunities to other entities advised by affiliates of AR Global.

9


We and other entities advised by affiliates of AR Global also rely on these real estate professionals to supervise the property management and leasing of properties. These executive officers and key real estate professionals, as well as AR Global, are not prohibited from engaging, directly or indirectly, in any business or from possessing interests in other businesses and ventures, including businesses and ventures involved in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing or sale of real estate investments.
Our Property Manager is an affiliate of our Advisor and therefore we may face conflicts of interest in determining whether to assign certain operating assets to our Property Manager or an unaffiliated property manager.
Our Property Manager is an affiliate of our Advisor. As we acquire each asset, our Advisor will assign such asset to a property manager in the ordinary course of business; however, because our Property Manager is affiliated with our Advisor, our Advisor faces certain conflicts of interest in making this decision because of the compensation that will be paid to our Property Manager.
Our Advisor faces conflicts of interest relating to joint ventures, which could result in a disproportionate benefit to the other venture partners at our expense and adversely affect the return on our stockholders’ investments.
We may enter into joint ventures with other entities advised by affiliates of AR Global for the acquisition, development or improvement of properties. Our Advisor may have conflicts of interest in determining which entity advised by affiliates of AR Global enters into any particular joint venture agreement. The co-venturer may have economic or business interests or goals that are or may become inconsistent with our business interests or goals. In addition, our Advisor may face a conflict in structuring the terms of the relationship between our interests and the interest of the affiliated co-venturer and in managing the joint venture. Due to the role of our Advisor and its affiliates, agreements and transactions between the co-venturers with respect to any joint venture will not have the benefit of arm’s-length negotiation of the type normally conducted between unrelated co-venturers, which may result in the co-venturer receiving benefits greater than the benefits that we receive. In addition, we may assume liabilities related to the joint venture that exceeds the percentage of our investment in the joint venture.
Our Advisor, AR Global and their officers and employees and certain of our executive officers and other key personnel face competing demands relating to their time, and this may cause our operating results to suffer.
Our Advisor, AR Global and its officers and employees and certain of our executive officers and other key personnel and its respective affiliates are key personnel, general partners and sponsors of other entities, including entities advised by affiliates of AR Global, having investment objectives and legal and financial obligations similar to ours and may have other business interests as well. Because these individuals have competing demands on their time and resources, they may have conflicts of interest in allocating their time between our business and these other activities. If these conflicts occur, the returns on our investments may suffer.
Our officers and directors face conflicts of interest related to the positions they hold with related parties.
Our executive officers are also officers of our Advisor, our Property Manager and other affiliates of AR Global. Some of our directors also are directors of other REITs sponsored by affiliates of AR Global. As a result, these individuals owe fiduciary duties to these other entities which may conflict with the duties that they owe to us.
These conflicting duties could result in actions or inactions that are detrimental to our business. Conflicts with our business and interests are most likely to arise from involvement in activities related to (a) allocation of any new investments and management time and services between us and the other entities, (b) our purchase of properties from, or sale of properties, to entities advised by affiliates of AR Global, (c) the timing and terms of the investment in or sale of an asset, (d) investments with entities advised by affiliates of our Advisor, (e) compensation to our Advisor and its affiliates, including the Property Manager, and (f) any decision to sell ourselves or sell all, or substantially all, of our assets.
Moreover, involvement in the management of multiple REITs by certain of the officers and other key personnel of our Advisor may significantly reduce the amount of time they are able to spend on activities related to us, which may cause our operating results to suffer.
Our Advisor faces conflicts of interest relating to the structure of the compensation it may receive.
Under our advisory agreement, the Advisor is entitled to substantial minimum compensation regardless of performance as well as incentive compensation. See Note 10—Share-Based Compensation to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, the limited partnership agreement of the OP requires our OP to pay a performance-based distribution to New York City Special Limited Partnership, LLC (the “Special Limited Partner”), an affiliate of our Advisor, in connection with a listing or other liquidity event, such as the sale of our assets, or if we terminate the advisory agreement, even for cause as permitted by the advisory agreement. The Special Limited Partner is also entitled under the limited partnership agreement of the OP to participate in net sales proceeds. See Note 8 — Related Party Transactions and Arrangements - Fees and Participations Paid in Connection with Liquidation or Listing to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These arrangements, coupled with the fact that the Advisor does not maintain a significant equity interest in us, may result in the Advisor taking actions or recommending investments that are riskier or more speculative than an advisor with a more significant investment in us might take or recommend.

10



Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
The limit on the number of shares a person may own may discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that might result in a premium price to our stockholders.
Our charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes our directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. Unless exempted (prospectively or retroactively) by our board of directors, no person may own more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of our stock or more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any class or series of shares of our stock. This restriction may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all our assets) that might provide a premium price for holders of our common stock.
Our charter permits our board of directors to issue stock that may dilute our stockholders’ interests in us and containing terms that may subordinate the rights of our common stockholders or discourage a third party from acquiring us for a premium price.
Our common stockholders do not have preemptive rights to any shares we issue in the future. Our charter permits our board of directors to authorize the issuance of up to 350.0 million shares of capital stock, of which 300.0 million shares are classified as common stock and 50.0 million shares are classified as preferred stock. Our board of directors, without any action by our stockholders, may amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares or the number of shares of any class or series of stock that we have authority to issue. In addition, our board may elect to (1) sell additional shares of our common stock (or other equity securities) in future public or private offerings, (2) issue share-based awards to our independent directors or to our officers or employees or to the officers or employees of our Advisor or any of its affiliates, (3) issue shares of our common stock to our Advisor, or its successors or assigns, in payment of an outstanding fee obligation, or (4) issue shares of our common stock to sellers of properties or assets we acquire in connection with an exchange of limited partnership interests of the OP issued by us as consideration for acquisition of those properties or assets. To the extent we issue additional equity interests, our stockholders’ percentage ownership interest in us will be diluted. Our stockholders may also experience dilution in the book value and fair value of their shares depending on the terms and pricing of any additional offerings and the book or fair value of our shares.
In addition, our board of directors may classify or reclassify any unissued common stock or preferred stock into other classes or series of stock and establish the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, qualifications, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, and terms or conditions of redemption of any such stock. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have a priority as to distributions and amounts payable upon liquidation over the rights of the holders of our common stock, or delay, defer or prevent a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all our assets) that might provide a premium price for holders of our common stock.
Maryland law prohibits certain business combinations, which may make it more difficult for us to be acquired and may discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that might result in a premium price to our stockholders.
Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:
any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or
an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation.
A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if our board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a transaction, our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by our board of directors.
After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by our board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:
80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and
two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

11


These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. The business combination statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by our board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has exempted any business combination involving our Advisor or any affiliate of our Advisor or any REIT formed and organized by our sponsor (an entity under common ownership with AR Global). Consequently, the five-year prohibition and the super-majority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and our Advisor or any affiliate of our Advisor, or any REIT advised by any affiliate of our Advisor. As a result, our Advisor and any affiliate of our Advisor may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interest of our stockholders, without compliance with the super-majority vote requirements and the other provisions of the statute. The business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
We have a classified board, which may discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that might result in a premium price to our stockholders.
Our board of directors is divided into three classes of directors. At each annual meeting, directors of one class are elected to serve until the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of their election and until their successors are duly elected and qualify. The classification of our board of directors may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all our assets) that might result in a premium price for our stockholders.
Our bylaws designate the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland as the sole and exclusive forum for certain actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders.
Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, is the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors or officer or other employees to us or our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against the us or any of our directors or officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of Maryland law, our charter or our bylaws, or (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders with respect to us, our directors, our officers or our employees. This choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the stockholder believes is favorable.  Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our bylaws inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving these matters in other jurisdictions.
Maryland law limits the ability of a third party to buy a large stake in us and exercise voting power in electing directors, which may discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that might result in a premium price to our stockholders.
The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved by the stockholders by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all shares of stock owned by the acquirer, by officers or by employees who are directors of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer can exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within specified ranges of voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means, subject to certain exceptions, the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares. The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act any and all acquisitions of our stock by any person. There can be no assurance that this provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
We are an “emerging growth company” under the federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
We are an “emerging growth company” under the federal securities laws and are therefore eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from, or reduced disclosure obligations relating to, various reporting requirements that are normally applicable to public companies.

12


We could remain an “emerging growth company” until December 31, 2019, the last day of the fiscal year in which the fifth anniversary of the commencement of our IPO occurs, or if earlier, the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the preceding three-year period. “Emerging growth companies” are not required to (1) provide an auditor’s attestation report on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (2) comply with new audit rules adopted by the PCAOB, (3) provide certain disclosures relating to executive compensation generally required for larger public companies or (4) hold shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation. To the extent we have taken advantage of certain of these exemptions, we do not know if some investors will find our common stock less attractive as a result.
Additionally, an “emerging growth company” may take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies. This means an “emerging growth company” can delay adopting certain accounting standards until such standards are otherwise applicable to private companies. However, we are electing to “opt out” of such extended transition period, and will therefore comply with new or revised accounting standards on the applicable dates on which the adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Our decision to opt out of this extended transition period for compliance with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.
Payment of fees to our Advisor and its affiliates reduces cash available for investment and other uses.
Our Advisor, its affiliates and entities under common control with our Advisor perform services for us in connection with the selection and acquisition of our investments, the coordination of financing, the management and leasing of our properties, the administration of our other investments, as well as the performance of other administrative responsibilities for us including accounting services, transaction management services and investor relations. We pay them fees for these services, which could be substantial, and which may reduce the value of our stockholders’ investment and reduces the amount of cash available for investment in assets or distribution to stockholders.
We may be unable to secure funds for future tenant improvements or capital needs.
We will likely be responsible for any major structural repairs to our properties, such as repairs to the foundation, exterior walls and rooftops as well as for tenant improvement and leasing commission costs associated with our leasing activities. If we need additional capital in the future to improve or maintain our properties or for tenant improvements and leasing commissions, we may have to obtain financing from sources, beyond our cash flow from operations, such as borrowings or future equity offerings. These sources of funding may not be available on attractive terms or at all. If we cannot procure additional funding for capital improvements, tenant improvements or leasing commissions, our investments may generate lower cash flows or decline in value, or both and result in our inability to lease vacant space or retain tenants upon the expiration of their leases.
Future offerings of equity securities which are senior to our common stock for purposes of distributions or upon liquidation, may adversely affect the value of our common stock.
In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by making additional offerings of equity securities. Under our charter, we may issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock or other classes of common stock with rights that could dilute the value of our stockholders’ shares of common stock. Upon liquidation, holders of our shares of preferred stock will be entitled to receive our available assets prior to distribution to the holders of our common stock. Additionally, any convertible, exercisable or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock and may result in dilution to owners of our common stock. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Our preferred stock, if issued, could have a preference on liquidating distributions or a preference on dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends or other distributions to the holders of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings which may adversely affect the value of our common stock.

13


We depend on our OP and its subsidiaries for cash flow and are effectively structurally subordinated in right of payment to the obligations of our OP and its subsidiaries, which could adversely affect our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.
Our only significant asset is our interest in our OP. We conduct, and intend to continue conducting, all of our business operations through our OP. Accordingly, our only source of cash to pay our obligations is distributions from our OP and its subsidiaries of their net earnings and cash flows. We currently receive cash to use for corporate purposes only from our OP and its subsidiaries. Effective as of March 1, 2018, we suspended the payment of distributions to our stockholders. There can be no assurance we will be able to resume paying cash distributions at our previous level or at all. If we do resume paying distributions, we cannot assure our stockholders that our OP or its subsidiaries will be able to, or be permitted to, pay distributions to us that will enable us to pay distributions to our stockholders and satisfy our other obligations. Each of our OP’s subsidiaries is a distinct legal entity and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from these entities. Any claim our stockholders may have as stockholders will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations of our OP and its subsidiaries, including claims of our lenders and other creditors. Therefore, in the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization, our assets and those of our OP and its subsidiaries will be able to satisfy the claims of our stockholders only after all of our and our OP and its subsidiaries liabilities and obligations have been paid in full.

General Risks Related to Investments in Real Estate
Our operating results are affected by economic and regulatory changes that have an adverse impact on the real estate market in general, and we cannot assure our stockholders that we will be profitable or that we will realize growth in the value of our properties.
Our operating results are subject to risks generally incident to the ownership of real estate, including:
changes in general, economic or local conditions;
changes in supply of or demand for similar or competing properties in an area;
increases in operating expenses;
vacancies and inability to lease or sublease space;
changes in interest rates and availability of mortgage financing on favorable terms, or at all;
changes in tax, real estate, environmental and zoning laws; and
the possibility that one or more of our tenants will be unable to pay their rental obligations.
These and other risks may prevent us from being profitable or from realizing growth or maintaining the value of our real estate properties.
We may obtain only limited warranties when we purchase a property and would have only limited recourse if our due diligence did not identify any issues that lower the value of our property.
The seller of a property often sells such property in its “as is” condition on a “where is” basis and “with all faults,” without any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. In addition, purchase agreements may contain only limited warranties, representations and indemnifications that will only survive for a limited period after the closing. The purchase of properties with limited warranties increases the risk that we may lose some or all our invested capital in the property as well as the loss of rental income from that property.
We may be unable to sell a property at the time or on the terms we desire.
Many factors that are beyond our control affect the real estate market and could affect our ability to sell properties for the price, on the terms or within the time frame that we desire. These factors include general economic conditions, the availability of financing, interest rates and other factors, including supply and demand. Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, we have a limited ability to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic or other conditions. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any property for the price or on the terms set by us, or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to us. We cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of a property. Further, before we can sell a property on the terms we want, it may be necessary to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements, and we can give no assurance that we will have the funds available to correct such defects or to make such improvements. We may be unable to sell our properties at a profit. Our inability to sell properties at the time and on the terms we desire could reduce our cash flow and reduce the value of our stockholders’ investment. Moreover, in acquiring a property or incurring debt securing a property, we may agree to restrictions that prohibit the sale of that property for a period of time or impose other restrictions, such as a limitation on the amount of debt that can be placed or repaid on that property. Our inability to sell a property when we desire to do so may cause us to reduce our selling price for the property.

14


We have acquired or financed, and may continue to acquire or finance, properties with lock-out provisions which may prohibit us from selling a property, or may require us to maintain specified debt levels for a period of years on some properties.
Lock-out provisions, such as the provisions contained in certain mortgage loans we have entered into, could materially restrict us from selling or otherwise disposing of, or refinancing indebtedness secured by, properties, including by requiring the payment of a yield maintenance premium in connection with the required prepayment of principal upon sale, disposition or refinancing. Lock-out provisions may also prohibit us from pre-paying the outstanding indebtedness with respect to any properties, refinancing such indebtedness on a non-recourse basis at maturity, or increasing the amount of indebtedness with respect to the properties. Lock-out provisions could also impair our ability to take other actions during the lock-out period that may otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders, such as precluding us from participating in major transactions that would result in a disposition of our assets or a change in control. Payment of yield maintenance premiums in connection with dispositions or refinancings could adversely affect our results of operations and cash available for corporate purposes.
We may be unable to renew leases or re-lease space as leases expire.
We may be unable to renew expiring leases on terms and conditions that are as, or more, favorable as the terms and conditions of the expiring leases. In addition, vacancies may occur at one or more of our properties due to a default by a tenant on its lease or expiration of a lease. Vacancies may reduce the value of a property as a result of reduced cash flow generated by the property. In addition, changes in space utilization by our tenants may impact our ability to renew or re-let space without the need to incur substantial costs in renovating or redesigning the internal configuration of the relevant property. If we are unable to promptly renew expiring leases or re-lease the space at similar rates or if we incur substantial costs in renewing or re-leasing the space, our cash flow could be adversely affected.
Our properties may be subject to impairment charges.
We periodically evaluate our real estate investments for impairment indicators. The judgment regarding the existence of impairment indicators is based on factors such as market conditions, tenant performance and legal structure. For example, the early termination of, or default under, a lease by a major tenant may lead to an impairment charge. If we determine that an impairment has occurred, we would be required to make a downward adjustment to the net carrying value of the property. Impairment charges also indicate a potential permanent adverse change in the fundamental operating characteristics of the impaired property. There is no assurance that these adverse changes will be reversed in the future and the decline in the impaired property’s value could be permanent.
If a tenant or lease guarantor declares bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, we may be unable to collect balances due under relevant leases.
Any of our tenants, or any guarantor of a tenant’s lease obligations, could become insolvent or be subject to a bankruptcy proceeding pursuant to Title 11 of the United States Code. A bankruptcy filing of our tenants or any guarantor of a tenant’s lease obligations would result in a stay of all efforts by us to collect pre-bankruptcy debts from these entities or their assets, unless we receive an enabling order from the bankruptcy court. Post-bankruptcy debts would be required to be paid currently. If a lease is assumed by the tenant, all pre-bankruptcy balances owing under it must be paid in full. If a lease is rejected by a tenant in bankruptcy, we would have a general unsecured claim for damages. If a lease is rejected, it is unlikely we would receive any payments from the tenant because our claim is capped at the rent reserved under the lease, without acceleration, for the greater of one year or 15% of the remaining term of the lease, but not greater than three years, plus rent already due but unpaid as of the date of the bankruptcy filing (post-bankruptcy rent would be payable in full). This claim could be paid only if funds were available, and then only in the same percentage as that realized on other unsecured claims.
A tenant or lease guarantor bankruptcy could delay efforts to collect past due balances under the relevant leases, and could ultimately preclude full collection of these sums. A tenant or lease guarantor bankruptcy could cause a decrease or cessation of rental payments that would mean a reduction in our cash flow and the amount available for distributions to our stockholders. In the event of a bankruptcy, we cannot assure our stockholders that the tenant or its trustee will assume our lease and that our cash flow and the amounts available for distributions to our stockholders will not be adversely affected.
If a sale-leaseback transaction is recharacterized in a tenant’s bankruptcy proceeding, our financial condition and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders could be adversely affected.
We may enter into sale-leaseback transactions, whereby we purchase a property and then lease the same property back to the person from whom we purchased it. In the event of the bankruptcy of a tenant, a transaction structured as a sale- leaseback may be recharacterized as either a financing or a joint venture, and either type of recharacterization could adversely affect our business. If the sale-leaseback were recharacterized as a financing, we might not be considered the owner of the property, and as a result would have the status of a creditor. In that event, we would no longer have the right to sell or encumber our ownership interest in the property. Instead, we would have a claim against the tenant for the amounts owed under the lease. The tenant/debtor might have the ability to propose a plan restructuring the term, interest rate and amortization schedule of its outstanding balance. If this plan were confirmed by the bankruptcy court, we would be bound by the new terms. If the sale-leaseback were recharacterized as a joint venture, our lessee and we could be treated as co-venturers with regard to the property. As a result, we could be held

15


liable, under some circumstances, for debts incurred by the lessee relating to the property. Either of these outcomes could adversely affect our cash flow and the amount available for distributions to our stockholders.
Recent changes in U.S. accounting standards regarding operating leases may make the leasing of our properties less attractive to our potential tenants, which could reduce overall demand for our properties.
Under authoritative accounting guidance for leases through December 31, 2018, a lease was classified by a tenant as a capital lease if the significant risks and rewards of ownership are considered to reside with the tenant. Under capital lease accounting for a tenant, both the leased asset and liability are reflected on their balance sheet. If the lease did not meet any of the criteria for a capital lease, the lease was considered an operating lease by the tenant, and the obligation did not appear on the tenant’s balance sheet, rather, the contractual future minimum payment obligations are only disclosed in the footnotes thereto. Thus, entering into an operating lease could have appeared to enhance a tenant’s balance sheet in comparison to direct ownership. The new standards, which were effective as of January 1, 2019 for public business entities, affect both our accounting for leases as well as that of our current and potential tenants. These changes may affect how the real estate leasing business is conducted. For example, as a result of the revised accounting standards regarding the financial statement classification of operating leases, companies may be less willing to enter into leases in general or desire to enter into leases with shorter terms because the apparent benefits to their balance sheets could be reduced or eliminated. For additional information on the new standard issued in the U.S., which we adopted on January 1, 2019, see Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
If we sell a property by providing financing to the purchaser, we will bear the risk of default by the purchaser.
In some instances, we may sell our properties by providing financing to purchasers. If we provide financing to a purchaser, we will bear the risk that the purchaser may default. Even in the absence of a purchaser default, the distribution of the proceeds of the sale to our stockholders, or the reinvestment of the proceeds in other assets, will be delayed until the promissory notes or other property we may accept upon a sale are actually paid, sold, refinanced or otherwise disposed. In some cases, we may receive initial down payments in cash and other property in the year of sale in an amount less than the selling price, and subsequent payments will be spread over a number of years.
Joint venture investments could be adversely affected by our lack of sole decision-making authority, our reliance on the financial condition of co-venturers and disputes between us and our co-venturers.
We may enter into joint ventures, partnerships and other co-ownership arrangements (including preferred equity investments) for the purpose of making investments. In such event, we would not be in a position to exercise sole decision-making authority regarding the joint venture. Investments in joint ventures may, under certain circumstances, involve risks not present were a third party not involved, including the possibility that partners or co-venturers might become bankrupt or fail to fund their required capital contributions. Co-venturers may have economic or other business interests or goals which are inconsistent with our business interests or goals, and may be in a position to take actions contrary to our policies or objectives. Such investments may also have the potential risk of impasses on decisions, such as a sale, because neither we nor the co-venturer would have full control over the joint venture. In addition, to the extent our participation represents a minority interest, a majority of the participants may be able to take actions which are not in our best interests because of our lack of full control. Disputes between us and co-venturers may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers or directors from focusing their time and effort on our business. Consequently, actions by or disputes with co-venturers might result in subjecting properties owned by the joint venture to additional risk. In addition, we may in certain circumstances be liable for the actions of our co-venturers.
Covenants, conditions and restrictions may restrict our ability to operate a property, which may adversely affect our operating costs.
Some of our properties may be contiguous to other parcels of real property, comprising part of the same building. In connection with such properties, there may be covenants, conditions, restrictions, and easement governing the operation of , and improvements, to, such properties. Moreover, the operation and management of the contiguous properties may impact our properties. Compliance with these covenants, conditions, restrictions, and easements may adversely affect our operating costs and reduce the amount of funds that we have available for corporate purposes.
Our real properties are subject to property taxes that may increase in the future, which could adversely affect our cash flow.
Our real properties are subject to real property taxes that may increase as tax rates change and as the real properties are assessed or reassessed by taxing authorities. We anticipate that certain of our leases will generally provide that the property taxes, or increases therein, are charged to the lessees as an expense related to the real properties that they occupy, while other leases will generally provide that we are responsible for such taxes. In any case, as the owner of the properties, we are ultimately responsible for payment of the taxes to the applicable government authorities. If real property taxes increase, lessees may be unable to make the required tax payments, ultimately requiring us to pay the taxes even if otherwise stated under the terms of the lease. If we fail to pay any such taxes, the applicable taxing authority may place a lien on the real property and the real property may be subject to a tax sale. In addition, we are generally responsible for real property taxes related to any vacant space.

16


We may suffer uninsured losses relating to real property or have to pay expensive premiums for insurance coverage.
Our general liability coverage, property insurance coverage and umbrella liability coverage on all our properties may not be adequate to insure against liability claims and provide for the costs of defense. Similarly, we may not have adequate coverage against the risk of direct physical damage or to reimburse us on a replacement cost basis for costs incurred to repair or rebuild each property. Moreover, there are types of losses, generally catastrophic in nature, such as losses due to wars, acts of terrorism, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, pollution or environmental matters, that are uninsurable or not economically insurable, or may be insured subject to limitations, such as large deductibles or co-payments. Insurance risks associated with such catastrophic events could sharply increase the premiums we pay for coverage against property and casualty claims.
This risk is particularly relevant with respect to potential acts of terrorism. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (the “TRIA”), under which the U.S. federal government bears a significant portion of insured losses caused by terrorism, will expire on December 31, 2020, and there can be no assurance that Congress will act to renew or replace the TRIA following its expiration. In the event that the TRIA is not renewed or replaced, terrorism insurance may become difficult or impossible to obtain at reasonable costs or at all, which may result in adverse impacts and additional costs to us.
Changes in the cost or availability of insurance due to the non-renewal of the TRIA or for other reasons could expose us to uninsured casualty losses. If any of our properties incurs a casualty loss that is not fully insured, the value of our assets will be reduced by any such uninsured loss. In addition, other than any working capital reserve or other reserves we may establish, we have no source of funding to repair or reconstruct any uninsured property.
Additionally, mortgage lenders insist in some cases that commercial property owners purchase coverage against terrorism as a condition for providing mortgage loans. Accordingly, to the extent terrorism risk insurance policies are not available at reasonable costs, if at all, our ability to finance or refinance indebtedness secured by our properties could be impaired. In such instances, we may be required to provide other financial support, either through financial assurances or self-insurance, to cover potential losses. We may not have adequate, or any, coverage for such losses.
Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence, civilian unrest or war may affect the markets in which we operate our business and our profitability.
Our properties are located in the New York MSA which has experienced, and remains susceptible to, terrorist attacks. Because our properties are generally open to the public, they are exposed to a number of incidents that may take place within their premises and that are beyond our control or ability to prevent, which may harm our consumers and visitors. If an act of terror, a mass shooting or other violence were to occur, we may lose tenants or be forced to close one or more of our properties for some time. If any of these incidents were to occur, the relevant property could face material damage to its image and could experience a reduction of business traffic due to lack of confidence in the premises’ security. In addition, we may be exposed to civil liability and be required to indemnify the victims, and our insurance premiums could rise, any of which could adversely affect us.
Moreover, any terrorist attack, other act of violence or war, including armed conflicts, could result in increased volatility in, or damage to, the worldwide financial markets and economy, including demand for properties and availability of financing. Increased economic volatility could adversely affect our tenants’ abilities to conduct their operations profitably or our ability to borrow money or issue capital stock at acceptable prices.
We face possible risks associated with the natural disasters and the physical effects of climate change.
We are subject to risks associated with natural disasters and the physical effects of climate change, which can include storms, hurricanes and flooding, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our properties and business. To the extent climate change causes changes in weather patterns, the New York MSA could experience increases in storm intensity and rising sea-levels. Over time, these conditions could result in declining demand for space in our buildings or the inability of us to lease space in the buildings at all. Climate change may also have indirect effects on our business by increasing the cost of (or making unavailable) property insurance on terms we find acceptable, increasing the cost of energy at our properties and requiring us to expend funds as we seek to repair and protect our properties against such risks. There can be no assurance that climate change will not have a material adverse effect on our properties or business.
Failure to succeed in new markets or in new property classes may have adverse consequences on our performance.
We may acquire properties outside of our existing market areas or the property classes of our primary focus if appropriate opportunities arise. There can be no assurance that we will be able to operate successfully in new markets, should we choose to enter them, or that we will be successful in new property classes, should we choose to acquire them. We may be exposed to a variety of risks if we choose to enter new markets, including particularly to the extent our Advisor and its affiliates do not have experience in those markets, inability of our Advisor to evaluate accurately local market conditions, hire and retain key personnel, identify appropriate acquisition opportunities, and navigate local governmental and permitting procedures. In addition, we may abandon opportunities to enter new markets or acquire new classes of property that we have begun to explore for any reason and may, as a result, fail to recover expenses already incurred.

17


We may be adversely affected by certain trends that reduce demand for office real estate.
Some businesses are rapidly evolving to increasingly permit employee telecommuting, flexible work schedules, open workplaces and teleconferencing. These practices enable businesses to reduce their space requirements. A continuation of the movement towards these practices could over time erode the overall demand for office space and, in turn, place downward pressure on occupancy, rental rates and property valuations.
We are subject to risks that affect the general and New York City retail environments.
Certain of our properties are Manhattan street retail properties. As such, these properties are affected by the general and New York City retail environments, including the level of consumer spending and consumer confidence, change in relative strengths of world currencies, the threat of terrorism, increasing competition from retailers, outlet malls, retail websites and catalog companies and the impact of technological change upon the retail environment generally. These factors could adversely affect the financial condition of our retail tenants and the willingness of retailers to lease space in our retail locations.
Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations, including those relating to environmental matters and discovery of previously undetected environmentally hazardous conditions, may adversely affect our operating results.
Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations (including those of foreign jurisdictions), a current or previous owner or operator of real property may be liable for the cost of removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances on, under or in such property. The costs of removal or remediation could be substantial. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures. Environmental laws provide for sanctions for noncompliance and may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, by private parties. Certain environmental laws and common law principles could be used to impose liability for release of and exposure to hazardous substances, including asbestos-containing materials into the air, and third parties may seek recovery from owners or operators of real properties for personal injury or property damage associated with exposure to released hazardous substances.
In addition, when excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Concern about indoor exposure to mold has been increasing, as exposure to mold may cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold from the affected property, which would adversely affect our operating results.
The cost of defending against claims of liability, of compliance with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property, or of paying personal injury claims could materially adversely affect our business, the value of our properties or our results of operations and, consequently, amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.
Environmental laws also may impose liens on property or restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures or prevent us from operating such properties. Some of these laws and regulations have been amended so as to require compliance with new or more stringent standards as of future dates. Compliance with new or more stringent laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require us to incur material expenditures. Future laws, ordinances or regulations may impose material environmental liability.
Costs associated with complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act may affect cash available for distributions.
Our properties are subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (“Disabilities Act”). Under the Disabilities Act, all places of public accommodation are required to comply with federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The Disabilities Act has separate compliance requirements for “public accommodations” and “commercial facilities” that generally require that buildings and services be made accessible and available to people with disabilities. The Disabilities Act’s requirements could require removal of access barriers and could result in the imposition of injunctive relief, monetary penalties, or, in some cases, an award of damages. However, we cannot assure our stockholders that we will be able to acquire properties or allocate responsibilities in this manner. If we cannot, our funds used for Disabilities Act compliance will reduce our net income and the amount of cash available for distributions and other corporate purposes.

Risks Related to Real Estate-Related Investments
We may in the future acquire or originate real estate debt or invest in real estate-related securities issued by real estate
market participants, which would expose us to additional risks.
As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we have not invested in any first mortgage debt loans, mezzanine
loans, preferred equity or securitized loans, commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS"), preferred equity and other
higher-yielding structured debt and equity investments. In the future, however, we may choose to acquire or originate real
estate debt, invest in real estate-related loans and debt securities or invest in other real estate-related securities issued by real
estate market participants, which would expose us not only to the risks and uncertainties we are currently exposed to through

18


our direct investments in real estate but also to additional risks and uncertainties attendant to investing in and holding these
types of investments, such as:
risk of defaults by borrowers in paying debt service on outstanding indebtedness and to other impairments of our loans
and investments;
increased competition from entities engaged in mortgage lending and, or investing in our target assets;
deterioration in the performance of properties securing our investments may cause deterioration in the performance of
our investments and, potentially, principal losses to us;
fluctuations in interest rates and credit spreads could reduce our ability to generate income on our loans and other
investments;
difficulty in redeploying the proceeds from repayments of our existing loans and investments;
the illiquidity of certain of these investments;
lack of control over certain of our loans and investments;
the potential need to foreclose on certain of the loans we originate or acquire, which could result in losses and additional risks, including the risks of the securitization process, posed by investments in CMBS and other similar structured finance investments, as well as those we structure, sponsor or arrange; use of leverage may create a mismatch with the duration and interest rate of the investments that we financing; and
the need to structure and select our investments such that we continue to maintain our qualification as a REIT and our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

Risks Associated with Debt Financing
Our level of indebtedness may increase our business risks.
As of December 31, 2018, we had total outstanding indebtedness of approximately $291.7 million, net. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in the future for various purposes. The amount of this indebtedness could have material adverse consequences for us, including:
hindering our ability to adjust to changing market, industry or economic conditions;
limiting our ability to access the capital markets to raise additional equity or debt on favorable terms or at all, whether to refinance maturing debt, to fund acquisitions, to fund distributions or for other corporate purposes;
limiting the amount of free cash flow available for future operations, acquisitions, distributions, stock repurchases or other uses; and
making us more vulnerable to economic or industry downturns, including interest rate increases.
In most recent instances, we acquire real properties by using either existing financing or borrowing new funds. In addition, we may incur mortgage debt and pledge all or some of our real properties as security for that debt to obtain funds to acquire additional real properties or for other corporate purposes. We may also borrow if we need funds to satisfy the REIT tax qualification requirement that we generally distribute annually to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (which does not equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP), determined without regard to the deduction for distributions paid and excluding any net capital gain. We also may borrow if we otherwise deem it necessary or advisable to assure that we maintain our qualification as a REIT.
If there is a shortfall between the cash flow from a property and the cash flow needed to service mortgage debt on a property, then we must identify other sources to fund the payment or risk defaulting on the indebtedness. In addition, incurring mortgage debt increases the risk of loss because defaults on indebtedness secured by a property may result in lenders initiating foreclosure actions. In that case, we could lose the property securing the loan that is in default. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, a foreclosure of any of our properties would be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure, but would not receive any cash proceeds. In this event, we may be unable to pay the amount of distributions required in order to maintain our REIT status. We may give full or partial guarantees to lenders of mortgage debt to the entities that own our properties. If we provide a guaranty on behalf of an entity that owns one of our properties, we will be responsible to the lender for repaying the debt if it is not paid by the entity. If any mortgages contain cross-collateralization or cross-default provisions, a default on a single property could affect multiple properties.
Increasing interest rates could increase the amount of our debt payments and we may be adversely affected by uncertainty surrounding the LIBOR.
We have incurred indebtedness and expect that we will incur indebtedness in the future. Although none of our indebtedness is variable rate, to the extent that we incur variable rate debt in the future, increases in interest rates would increase our interest costs, which could reduce our cash flows and our ability to use cash for other corporate purposes. In addition, increases in interest rates could make it more difficult for us to refinance our existing debt or require us to sell properties.

19


We may incur variable-rate indebtedness in the future that may use the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or similar rates as a benchmark for establishing the applicable interest rate. LIBOR rates increased in 2018 and may continue to increase in future periods. Moreover, in July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee ("ARRC") has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") is the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR from USD-LIBOR and organizations are currently working on industry wide and company specific transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to USD-LIBOR. The consequence of these developments cannot be entirely predicted but could include an increase in the cost of our variable rate indebtedness.
Lenders may require us to enter into restrictive covenants relating to our operations, which could limit our operating and financial flexibility.
A lender may impose restrictions on us that affect our distribution and operating policies and our ability to incur additional debt. Loan agreements we enter into may contain covenants that limit our ability to further mortgage a property, incur secured or unsecured debt, engage in mergers and consolidations, discontinue insurance coverage or replace our Advisor. In addition, loan documents may limit our ability to replace a property’s property manager or terminate certain operating or lease agreements related to a property. These or other limitations would decrease our operating and financial flexibility and our ability to achieve our operating objectives.
Derivative financial instruments that we may use to hedge against interest rate fluctuations may not be successful in mitigating our risks associated with interest rates.
We may use derivative financial instruments to hedge exposures to changes in interest rates on loans secured by our assets, but no hedging strategy can protect us completely. There is no assurance that our hedging strategy and the derivatives that we use will adequately offset the risk of interest rate volatility or that our hedging transactions will not result in losses. In addition, the use of such instruments may reduce the overall return on our investments. These instruments may also generate income that may not be treated as qualifying REIT income for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test or 95% Gross Income Test.
Interest-only and adjustable rate indebtedness may increase our risk of default.
As of December 31, 2018, all of our outstanding mortgage indebtedness was interest-only. We may also finance future property acquisitions using interest-only mortgage indebtedness or make other borrowings that are interest-only. During the interest-only period, the amount of each scheduled payment will be less than that of a traditional amortizing mortgage loan. The principal balance of the mortgage loan will not be reduced (except in the case of prepayments) because there are no scheduled monthly payments of principal during this period. After the interest-only period, we will be required either to make scheduled payments of amortized principal and interest or to make a lump-sum or “balloon” payment at maturity. These required principal or balloon payments will increase the amount of our scheduled payments and may increase our risk of default under the related mortgage loan. Our ability to make a balloon payment at maturity is uncertain and may depend upon our ability to obtain additional financing or our ability to sell the property. At the time the balloon payment is due, we may or may not be able to refinance the balloon payment on terms as favorable as the original loan or sell the property at a price sufficient to make the balloon payment. The effect of a refinancing or sale could affect, among other things, the projected time of disposition of our assets. In addition, payments of principal and interest made to service our debts may leave us with insufficient cash to pay any distribution that we are required to pay to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
Finally, if the mortgage loan has an adjustable interest rate, the amount of our scheduled payments also may increase at a time of rising interest rates. Increased payments and substantial principal or balloon maturity payments will reduce our available cash that may otherwise be needed to make capital improvements, pay for tenant improvements and leasing commissions, or otherwise be available for other corporate purposes will be required to pay principal and interest associated with these mortgage loans.

20


U.S. Federal Income Tax Risks
Our failure to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT would subject us to U.S. federal income tax and potentially state and local tax, and would adversely affect our operations and the market price of our common stock.
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014 and intend to operate in a manner that would allow us to continue to qualify as a REIT. However, we may terminate our REIT qualification, if our board of directors determines that not qualifying as a REIT is in our best interests, or inadvertently. Our qualification as a REIT depends upon our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. The REIT qualification requirements are extremely complex and interpretation of the U.S. federal income tax laws governing qualification as a REIT is limited. Furthermore, any opinion of our counsel, including tax counsel, as to our eligibility to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT is not binding on the IRS and is not a guarantee that we will qualify, or continue to qualify, as a REIT. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that we will be successful in operating so we can qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. Our ability to satisfy the asset tests depends on our analysis of the characterization and fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we will not obtain independent appraisals. Our compliance with the REIT income or quarterly asset requirements also depends on our ability to successfully manage the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. Accordingly, if certain of our operations were to be recharacterized by the IRS, such recharacterization would jeopardize our ability to satisfy all requirements for qualification as a REIT. Furthermore, future legislative, judicial or administrative changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws could be applied retroactively, which could result in our disqualification as a REIT.
If we fail to continue to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year, and we do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at the corporate rate. In addition, we would generally be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year of losing our REIT qualification. Losing our REIT qualification would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to stockholders because of the additional tax liability. In addition, distributions to stockholders would no longer qualify for the dividends paid deduction, and we would no longer be required to make distributions. If this occurs, we might be required to borrow funds or liquidate some investments in order to pay the applicable tax.
Even if we qualify as a REIT, in certain circumstances, we may incur tax liabilities that would reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Even if we qualify and maintain our status as a REIT, we may be subject to U.S. federal, state and local income taxes. For example, net income from the sale of properties that are “dealer” properties sold by a REIT and that do not meet a safe harbor available under the Code (a “prohibited transaction” under the Code) will be subject to a 100% tax. We may not make sufficient distributions to avoid excise taxes applicable to REITs. We also may decide to retain net capital gain we earn from the sale or other disposition of our property and pay U.S. federal income tax directly on such income. In that event, our stockholders would be treated as if they earned that income and paid the tax on it directly. However, stockholders that are tax-exempt, such as charities or qualified pension plans, would have no benefit from their deemed payment of such tax liability unless they file U.S. federal income tax returns and thereon seek a refund of such tax. We also will be subject to corporate tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income. We also may be subject to state and local taxes on our income or property, including franchise, payroll and transfer taxes, either directly or at the level of our OP or at the level of the other companies through which we indirectly own our assets, such as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, which are subject to full U.S. federal, state, local and foreign corporate-level income taxes. Any taxes we pay directly or indirectly will reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
To continue to qualify as a REIT, we must meet annual distribution requirements, which may force us to forgo otherwise attractive opportunities or borrow funds during unfavorable market conditions. This could delay or hinder our ability to meet our investment objectives and reduce our stockholders’ overall return.
In order to continue to qualify as a REIT, we must distribute annually to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (which does not equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP), determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gain. We will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our undistributed REIT taxable income and net capital gain and to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on any amount by which distributions we pay with respect to any calendar year are less than the sum of (a) 85% of our ordinary income, (b) 95% of our capital gain net income and (c) 100% of our undistributed income from prior years. These requirements could cause us to distribute amounts that otherwise would be spent on investments in real estate assets and it is possible that we might be required to borrow funds, possibly at unfavorable rates, or sell assets to fund these distributions. It is possible that we might not always be able to make distributions sufficient to meet the annual distribution requirements and to avoid U.S. federal income and excise taxes on our earnings while we qualify as a REIT.

21


Certain of our business activities are potentially subject to the prohibited transaction tax, which could reduce the return on our stockholders’ investment.
For so long as we qualify as a REIT, our ability to dispose of property during the first few years following acquisition may be restricted to a substantial extent as a result of our REIT qualification. Under applicable provisions of the Code regarding prohibited transactions by REITs, while we qualify as a REIT and provided we do not meet a safe harbor available under the Code, we will be subject to a 100% penalty tax on the net income recognized on the sale or other disposition of any property (other than foreclosure property) that we own, directly or indirectly through any subsidiary entity, including our OP, but generally excluding taxable REIT subsidiaries, that is deemed to be inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Whether property is inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business depends on the particular facts and circumstances surrounding each property. During such time as we qualify as a REIT, we intend to avoid the 100% prohibited transaction tax by (a) conducting activities that may otherwise be considered prohibited transactions through a taxable REIT subsidiary (but such taxable REIT subsidiary will incur corporate rate income taxes with respect to any income or gain recognized by it), (b) conducting our operations in such a manner so that no sale or other disposition of an asset we own, directly or through any subsidiary, will be treated as a prohibited transaction, or (c) structuring certain dispositions of our properties to comply with the requirements of the prohibited transaction safe harbor available under the Code for properties that, among other requirements, have been held for at least two years. No assurance can be given that any particular property we own, directly or through any subsidiary entity, including our OP, but generally excluding taxable REIT subsidiaries, will not be treated as inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.
Our taxable REIT subsidiaries are subject to corporate-level taxes and our dealings with our taxable REIT subsidiaries may be subject to a 100% excise tax.
A REIT may own up to 100% of the stock of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. Both the subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A corporation of which a taxable REIT subsidiary directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Overall, no more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning prior to January 1, 2018) of the gross value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.
A taxable REIT subsidiary may hold assets and earn income that would not be qualifying assets or income if held or earned directly by a REIT. We may use our taxable REIT subsidiaries generally to hold properties for sale in the ordinary course of a trade or business or to hold assets or conduct activities that we cannot conduct directly as a REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to applicable U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income tax on its taxable income. In addition, the Code imposes a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a taxable REIT subsidiary and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.
If our OP failed to qualify as a partnership or is not otherwise disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.
If the IRS were to successfully challenge the status of our OP as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our OP would be taxable as a corporation. In such event, this would reduce the amount of distributions that the OP could make to us. This also would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT, and becoming subject to a corporate level tax on our income. This would substantially reduce our cash available to pay distributions and the yield on our stockholders’ investment. In addition, if any of the partnerships or limited liability companies through which our OP owns its properties, in whole or in part, loses its characterization as a partnership and is otherwise not disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such partnership or limited liability company would be subject to taxation as a corporation, thereby reducing distributions to the OP. Such a recharacterization of an underlying property owner could also threaten our ability to maintain our REIT qualification.
Our investments in certain debt instruments may cause us to recognize income for U.S. federal income tax purposes even though no cash payments have been received on the debt instruments, and certain modifications of such debt by us could cause the modified debt to not qualify as a good REIT asset, thereby jeopardizing our REIT qualification.
Our taxable income may substantially exceed our net income as determined based on GAAP, or differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash may occur. For example, we may acquire assets, including debt securities requiring us to accrue original issue discount, or recognize market discount income, that generate taxable income in excess of economic income or in advance of the corresponding cash flow from the assets. In addition, if a borrower with respect to a particular debt instrument encounters financial difficulty rendering it unable to pay stated interest as due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income with the effect that we will recognize income but will not have a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
As a result of the foregoing, we may generate less cash flow than taxable income in a particular year and find it difficult or impossible to meet the REIT distribution requirements in certain circumstances. In such circumstances, we may be required to (a) sell assets in adverse market conditions, (b) borrow on unfavorable terms, (c) distribute amounts that would otherwise be used for future acquisitions or used to repay debt, or (d) make a taxable distribution of our shares of common stock as part of a distribution

22


in which stockholders may elect to receive shares of common stock or (subject to a limit measured as a percentage of the total distribution) cash, in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements.
Moreover, we may acquire distressed debt investments that require subsequent modification by agreement with the borrower. If the amendments to the outstanding debt are “significant modifications” under the applicable Treasury Regulations, the modified debt may be considered to have been reissued to us in a debt-for-debt taxable exchange with the borrower. This deemed reissuance may prevent the modified debt from qualifying as a good REIT asset if the underlying security has declined in value and would cause us to recognize income to the extent the principal amount of the modified debt exceeds our adjusted tax basis in the unmodified debt.
The failure of a mezzanine loan to qualify as a real estate asset would adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.
In general, in order for a loan to be treated as a qualifying real estate asset producing qualifying income for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests, the loan must be secured by real property or an interest in real property. We may acquire mezzanine loans that are not directly secured by real property or an interest in real property but instead secured by equity interests in a partnership or limited liability company that directly or indirectly owns real property or an interest in real property. In Revenue Procedure 2003-65, the IRS provided a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan that is not secured by real estate would, if it meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, be treated by the IRS as a qualifying real estate asset. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law and in many cases it may not be possible for us to meet all the requirements of the safe harbor. We cannot provide assurance that any mezzanine loan in which we invest would be treated as a qualifying asset producing qualifying income for REIT qualification purposes. If any such loan fails either the REIT income or asset tests, we may be disqualified as a REIT.
We may choose to make distributions in our own stock, in which case our stockholders may be required to pay U.S. federal income taxes in excess of the cash distributions they receive.
In connection with our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute annually to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (which does not equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP), determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gain. In order to satisfy this requirement, we may make distributions that are payable in cash and/or shares of our common stock (which could account for up to 80% of the aggregate amount of such distributions) at the election of each stockholder. Taxable stockholders receiving such distributions will be required to include the full amount of such distributions as ordinary dividend income to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, U.S. stockholders may be required to pay U.S. federal income taxes with respect to such distributions in excess of the cash portion of the distribution received. Accordingly, U.S. stockholders receiving a distribution of our shares may be required to sell shares received in such distribution or may be required to sell other stock or assets owned by them, at a time that may be disadvantageous, in order to satisfy any tax imposed on such distribution. If a U.S. stockholder sells the stock that it receives as part of the distribution in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the distribution, depending on the market price of our stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to certain non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such distribution, including in respect of all or a portion of such distribution that is payable in stock, by withholding or disposing of part of the shares included in such distribution and using the proceeds of such disposition to satisfy the withholding tax imposed. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of our common stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividend income, such sale may put downward pressure on the market price of our common stock.
The taxation of distributions to our stockholders can be complex; however, distributions that we make to our stockholders generally will be taxable as ordinary income, which may reduce our stockholders’ anticipated return from an investment in us.
Distributions that we make to our taxable stockholders out of current and accumulated earnings and profits (and not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income) generally will be taxable as ordinary income. For tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, noncorporate stockholders are entitled to a 20% deduction with respect to these ordinary REIT dividends which would, if allowed in full, result in a maximum effective federal income tax rate on them of 29.6% (or 33.4% including the 3.8% surtax on net investment income); although the 20% deduction is scheduled to sunset after December 31, 2025. However, a portion of our distributions may (1) be designated by us as capital gain dividends generally taxable as long-term capital gain to the extent that they are attributable to net capital gain recognized by us, (2) be designated by us as qualified dividend income, taxable at capital gains rates, generally to the extent they are attributable to dividends we receive from our taxable REIT subsidiaries, or (3) constitute a return of capital generally to the extent that they exceed our accumulated earnings and profits as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A return of capital is not taxable, but has the effect of reducing the tax basis of a stockholder’s investment in our common stock. Distributions that exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits and a stockholder’s tax basis in our common stock generally will be taxable as capital gain.

23


Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.
Currently, the maximum tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income payable to U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for this reduced rate. Although this does not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends payable by REITs, the more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts and estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our common stock. Tax rates could be changed in future legislation.
Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge our liabilities effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.
The REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to hedge our liabilities. Any income from a hedging transaction we enter into to manage risk of interest rate changes, price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made to acquire or carry real estate assets or in certain cases to hedge previously acquired hedges entered into to manage risks associated with property that has been disposed of or liabilities that have been extinguished, if properly identified under applicable Treasury Regulations, does not constitute “gross income” for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions will likely be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we may need to limit our use of advantageous hedging techniques or implement those hedges through a taxable REIT subsidiary. This could increase the cost of our hedging activities because our taxable REIT subsidiaries would be subject to tax on gains or expose us to greater risks associated with changes in interest rates than we would otherwise want to bear. In addition, losses in a taxable REIT subsidiary generally will not provide any tax benefit, except for being carried forward against future taxable income of such taxable REIT subsidiary.
Complying with REIT requirements may force us to forgo or liquidate otherwise attractive investment opportunities.
To qualify as a REIT, we must ensure that we meet the REIT gross income tests annually and that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified REIT real estate assets, including certain mortgage loans and certain kinds of mortgage-related securities. The remainder of our investment in securities (other than securities that qualify for the 75% asset test and securities of qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries) generally cannot exceed 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer, 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer or 5% of the value of our assets as to any one issuer. In addition, no more than 20% of the value of our total assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries and no more than 25% of our assets may be represented by publicly offered REIT debt instruments that do not otherwise qualify under the 75% asset test. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to liquidate assets from our portfolio or not make otherwise attractive investments in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
The ability of our board of directors to revoke our REIT qualification without stockholder approval may subject us to U.S. federal income tax and reduce distributions to our stockholders.
Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT. While we intend to elect and qualify to be taxed as a REIT, we may not elect to be treated as a REIT or may terminate our REIT election if we determine that qualifying as a REIT is no longer in our best interests. If we cease to be a REIT, we would become subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income (as well as any applicable state and local corporate tax) and would no longer be required to distribute more of our taxable income to our stockholders.
We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could increase our tax liability, reduce our operating flexibility and reduce the market price of our common stock.
In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made in the provisions of U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments similar to an investment in shares of our common stock. Additional changes to the tax laws are likely to continue to occur, and we cannot assure our stockholders that any such changes will not adversely affect the taxation of a stockholder. Any such changes could have an adverse effect on an investment in our shares or on the market value or the resale potential of our assets. Our stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the impact of recent legislation on their investment in our shares and the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on an investment in our shares.

24


Although REITs generally receive better tax treatment than entities taxed as regular corporations, it is possible that future legislation would result in a REIT having fewer tax advantages, and it could become more advantageous for a company that invests in real estate to elect to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a corporation. As a result, our charter provides our board of directors with the power, under certain circumstances, to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election and cause us to be taxed as a regular corporation, without the vote of our stockholders. Our board of directors has fiduciary duties to us and our stockholders and could only cause such changes in our tax treatment if it determines in good faith that such changes are in the best interest of our stockholders.
The share ownership restrictions of the Code for REITs and the 9.8% share ownership limit in our charter may inhibit market activity in our shares of stock and restrict our business combination opportunities.
In order to qualify as a REIT, five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Code, may not own, actually or constructively, more than 50% in value of our issued and outstanding shares of stock at any time during the last half of each taxable year, other than the first year for which a REIT election is made. Attribution rules in the Code determine if any individual or entity actually or constructively owns our shares of stock under this requirement. Additionally, at least 100 persons must beneficially own our shares of stock during at least 335 days of a taxable year for each taxable year, other than the first year for which a REIT election is made. To help ensure that we meet these tests, among other purposes, our charter restricts the acquisition and ownership of our shares of stock.
Our charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes our directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT while we so qualify. Unless exempted (prospectively or retroactively) by our board of directors, for so long as we qualify as a REIT, our charter prohibits, among other limitations on ownership and transfer of shares of our stock, any person from beneficially or constructively owning (applying certain attribution rules under the Code) more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of our capital stock and more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any class or series of our shares of our capital stock. Our board of directors may not grant an exemption from these restrictions to any proposed transferee whose ownership in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit would result in the termination of our qualification as a REIT. These restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply, however, if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT or that compliance with the restrictions is no longer required in order for us to continue to so qualify as a REIT.
These ownership limits could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of the stockholders.
Non-U.S. stockholders will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax and may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on distributions received from us and upon the disposition of our shares.
Subject to certain exceptions, distributions received from us will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such dividends ordinarily will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate, or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as “effectively connected” with the conduct by the non-U.S. stockholder of a U.S. trade or business. Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”) capital gain distributions attributable to sales or exchanges of “U.S. real property interests” (“USRPIs”) generally will be taxed to a non-U.S. stockholder (other than a qualified pension plan, entities wholly owned by a qualified pension plan and certain foreign publicly traded entities) as if such gain were effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business.
Gain recognized by a non-U.S. stockholder upon the sale or exchange of our common stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation unless such stock constitutes a USRPI under FIRPTA. Our common stock will not constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.” A domestically-controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT if at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of such REIT’s stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. stockholders. We believe, but cannot assure our stockholders, that we will be a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.
Potential characterization of distributions or gain on sale may be treated as UBTI to tax-exempt investors.
If (a) we are a “pension-held REIT,” (b) a tax-exempt stockholder has incurred (or is deemed to have incurred) debt to purchase or hold our common stock, or (c) a holder of common stock is a certain type of tax-exempt stockholder, dividends on, and gains recognized on the sale of, common stock by such tax-exempt stockholder may be subject to U.S. federal income tax as UBTI under the Code.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Not applicable.

25


Item 2. Properties
The following table presents certain information about the properties we owned as of December 31, 2018:
Portfolio
 
Acquisition
Date
 
Number
of Properties
 
Rentable
Square Feet
 
Occupancy
 
Remaining
Lease Term (1)
421 W. 54th Street - Hit Factory
 
Jun. 2014
 
1
 
12,327

 
—%
 
400 E. 67th Street - Laurel Condominium
 
Sept. 2014
 
1
 
58,750

 
100.0%
 
7.4
200 Riverside Boulevard - ICON Garage
 
Sept. 2014
 
1
 
61,475

 
100.0%
 
18.8
9 Times Square (2)
 
Nov. 2014
 
1
 
167,390

 
84.3%
 
8.1
123 William Street
 
Mar. 2015
 
1
 
542,676

 
98.3%
 
7.1
1140 Avenue of the Americas
 
Jun. 2016
 
1
 
242,466

 
91.3%
 
3.7
8713 Fifth Avenue
 
Oct. 2018
 
1
 
17,500

 
100.0%
 
6.5
 
 
 
 
7
 
1,102,584

 
93.7%
 
6.3
_______________________________
(1) 
Remaining lease term in years as of December 31, 2018, calculated on a weighted-average basis, as applicable.
(2) 
This property was formerly known as 570 Seventh Avenue.
Future Minimum Lease Payments
The following table presents future minimum base cash rental payments due to us over the next ten years and thereafter at the properties we owned as of December 31, 2018. To the extent we have leases with contingent rent provisions, these amounts exclude contingent rent payments that would be collected based on provisions related to sales thresholds and increases in annual rent based on exceeding certain economic indexes, among other items.
(In thousands)
 
Future Minimum
Base Rent Payments
2019
 
$
53,347

2020
 
51,404

2021
 
47,237

2022
 
44,018

2023
 
35,920

2024
 
30,889

2025
 
24,128

2026
 
21,533

2027
 
18,763

2028
 
15,698

Thereafter
 
39,215

Total
 
$
382,152


26


Future Lease Expirations Table
The following is a summary of lease expirations for the next ten years at the properties we owned as of December 31, 2018:
Year of Expiration
 
Number of Leases Expiring
 
Expiring Annualized Cash Rent (1)
 
Expiring Annualized Cash Rent as a Percentage of the Total Portfolio
 
Leased Rentable Square Feet
 
Percentage of Portfolio Leased Rentable Square Feet Expiring
 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
 
11
 
$
4,389

 
6.8
%
 
89,727

 
8.7
%
2020
 
14
 
3,737

 
5.8
%
 
70,684

 
6.8
%
2021
 
6
 
5,684

 
8.8
%
 
83,000

 
8.0
%
2022
 
10
 
7,313

 
11.3
%
 
142,081

 
13.7
%
2023
 
6
 
7,624

 
11.8
%
 
73,856

 
7.1
%
2024
 
5
 
5,988

 
9.3
%
 
88,831

 
8.6
%
2025
 
10
 
7,458

 
11.6
%
 
121,261

 
11.7
%
2026
 
2
 
1,217

 
1.9
%
 
19,000

 
1.8
%
2027
 
2
 
2,655

 
4.1
%
 
46,124

 
4.5
%
2028
 
10
 
5,210

 
8.1
%
 
72,849

 
7.0
%
Total
 
76
 
$
51,275

 
79.5
%
 
807,413

 
77.9
%
_____________________________
(1) 
Expiring annualized cash rent represents contractual cash base rents at the time of lease expiration, excluding operating expense reimbursements and free rent.
Tenant Concentration
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, there were no tenants whose rented square feet exceeded 10% of the total rentable square feet of our portfolio.
Significant Portfolio Properties
The rentable square feet or annualized rental income on a straight-line basis of the properties located at 123 William Street, 9 Times Square and 1140 Avenue of the Americas represent greater than 10% of our total portfolio. The tenant concentrations of the properties located at 123 William Street, 9 Times Square and 1140 Avenue of the Americas are summarized below:
123 William Street
The following table lists the tenant at 123 William Street whose annualized rental income on a straight-line basis is greater than 10% of the annualized rental income for commenced leases at this property as of December 31, 2018:
Tenant
 
Rented Square Feet
 
Rented Square Feet as a % of Total 123 William Street
 
Lease Expiration
 
Remaining Lease Term (1)
 
Renewal Options
 
Annualized Rental Income (2 )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.
 
65,242

 
12.2%
 
Jul. 2031
 
12.6
 
1 - 5 year option
 
$
3,324

______________________________
(1) 
Remaining lease term in years as of December 31, 2018.
(2) 
Annualized rental income as of December 31, 2018 on a straight-line basis, which includes tenant concessions such as free rent, as applicable.

27


9 Times Square
The following table lists the tenants at 9 Times Square whose annualized rental income on a straight-line basis is greater than 10% of the total annualized rental income for commenced leases at this property as of December 31, 2018:
Tenant
 
Rented Square Feet
 
Rented Square Feet as a % of Total 9 Times Square
 
Lease Expiration
 
Remaining Lease Term (1)
 
Renewal Options
 
Annualized Rental Income (2 )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
Knotel 200 W 41st, LLC
 
26,340

 
18.7%
 
Oct. 2028
 
9.8
 
1 - 5 year option
 
$
1,455

9TS Gifts LLC
 
7,479

 
5.3%
 
May 2034
 
15.4
 
None
 
$
1,898

________________________________
(1) 
Remaining lease term in years as of December 31, 2018.
(2) 
Annualized rental income as of December 31, 2018 on a straight-line basis, which includes tenant concessions such as free rent, as applicable.
1140 Avenue of the Americas
The following table lists the tenants at 1140 Avenue of the Americas whose annualized rental income on a straight-line basis is greater than 10% of the total annualized rental income for commenced leases at this property as of December 31, 2018:
Tenant
 
Rented Square Feet
 
Rented Square Feet as a % of Total 1140 Avenue of the Americas
 
Lease Expiration
 
Remaining Lease Term (1)
 
Renewal Options
 
Annualized Rental Income (2 )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
City National Bank
 
35,643

 
16.1%
 
Jun. 2023
 
4.5
 
2 - 5 year options
 
$
4,299

Waterfall Asset Management, LLC
 
25,500

 
11.5%
 
Aug. 2022
 
3.7
 
1 - 5 year option
 
$
2,019

________________________________
(1) 
Remaining lease term in years as of December 31, 2018.
(2) 
Annualized rental income as of December 31, 2018 on a straight-line basis, which includes tenant concessions such as free rent, as applicable.
Property Financing
Our mortgage notes payable as of December 31, 2018 consist of the following:
 
 
 
 
Outstanding Loan Amount
 
 
 
 
 
 
Portfolio
 
Encumbered Properties
 
December 31, 2018
 
Effective Interest Rate
 
Interest Rate
 
Maturity
 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
123 William Street (1)
 
1
 
$
140,000

 
4.73
%
 
Fixed
 
Mar. 2027
1140 Avenue of the Americas
 
1
 
99,000

 
4.17
%
 
Fixed
 
Jul. 2026
400 E. 67th Street - Laurel Condominium/200 Riverside Boulevard - ICON Garage
 
2
 
50,000

 
4.58
%
 
Fixed
 
May 2028
8713 Fifth Avenue
 
1
 
10,000

 
5.04
%
 
Fixed
 
Nov. 2028
Mortgage notes payable, gross
 
5
 
$
299,000

 
4.54
%
 
 
 
 
_____________________
(1) 
We entered into a loan agreement with Barclays Bank PLC, in the amount of $140.0 million, on March 6, 2017. A portion of the proceeds from the loan was used to repay the outstanding principal balance of approximately $96.0 million on the existing mortgage loan secured by the property. At closing, the lender placed $24.8 million of the proceeds in escrow, to be released to us in accordance with the conditions under the loan, in connection with leasing activity, tenant improvements, leasing commissions and free rent obligations related to this property. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, $2.5 million and $4.9 million, respectively, of the proceeds remained in escrow and are included in restricted cash on the consolidated balance sheet.

28


Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
The information related to litigation and regulatory matters contained in Note 7 — Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated by reference into this Item 3. Except as set forth therein, as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not a party to, and none of our properties are subject to, any material pending legal proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure.
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information
No established public market currently exists for our shares of common stock, and we currently have no plans to list our shares on a national securities exchange. Until our shares are listed, if ever, our stockholders may not sell their shares unless the buyer meets the applicable suitability and minimum purchase requirements. In addition, our charter prohibits the ownership of more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of stock or more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any class or series of shares of our stock by a single investor, unless exempted by our board of directors. Consequently, there is the risk that our stockholders may not be able to sell their shares at a time or price acceptable to them. During our IPO, we sold shares of our common stock to the public at a price of $25.00 per share. Subsequent to the closing of our IPO and until the NAV Pricing Date, we sold shares of our common stock at $23.75 per share pursuant to our DRIP and have repurchased shares pursuant to the SRP. Beginning with the NAV Pricing Date, we began to offer shares pursuant to the DRIP and repurchase shares pursuant to the SRP at a price based on the Estimated Per-Share NAV as determined by our board of directors.
Consistent with our valuation guidelines, we engage Duff & Phelps, LLC (“Duff & Phelps”), an independent third-party real estate advisory firm, to provide valuation services with respect to our assets and liabilities, which primarily consist of the real estate assets and mortgage debt, including providing a report containing an estimated range of market values of our assets and liabilities.
Duff & Phelps has extensive experience estimating the fair value of commercial real estate. The method used by Duff & Phelps to appraise our real estate assets in the report furnished to the Advisor and the Board by Duff & Phelps (the “Duff & Phelps Report”) complies with the Investment Program Association Practice Guideline 2013-01 titled “Valuations of Publicly Registered Non-Listed REITs,” issued April 29, 2013.
Duff & Phelps performed a full valuation of our real estate assets utilizing approaches, outlined below, that are commonly used in the commercial real estate industry.
The Estimated Per-Share NAV is comprised of (i) the sum of (A) the estimated value of our real estate assets and (B) the estimated value of the other assets, minus (ii) the sum of (C) estimated value of debt and other liabilities and (D) the estimate of the aggregate incentive fees, participations and limited partnership interests held by or allocable to the Advisor, our management or any of their respective affiliates based on our aggregate net asset value based on Estimated Per-Share NAV and payable in a hypothetical liquidation of us divided by (iii) the number of shares of common stock outstanding on a fully-diluted basis.
Duff & Phelps estimates the “as is” market value of each real estate asset through an income capitalization approach using a discounted cash flow model where a range of “market supported” terminal capitalization rates and discount rates is applied to projected net operating income or cash flow, as applicable. The discounted cash flow valuation method simulates the reasoning of an investor who views the cash flows that would result from the anticipated revenue and expense on a property throughout its projection period. Cash flow developed in Duff & Phelps’s analysis is the balance of potential income remaining after vacancy and collection loss and operating expenses. This cash flow is then discounted by a yield rate deemed appropriate by Duff & Phelps over a typical projection period in a discounted cash flow analysis. Thus, two key steps are involved: (1) estimating the cash flow applicable to each real estate asset and (2) choosing appropriate terminal capitalization rates and discount rates.
A sales comparison approach is, then, used to assess the reasonableness of the conclusions reached through the income capitalization approach. A sales comparison approach considers what other purchasers and sellers in the applicable market had agreed to a price for comparable real estate assets. This approach is based on the principle of substitution, which states that the limits of prices, rents and rates tend to be set by the prevailing prices, rents and rates of equally desirable substitutes.
On October 25, 2017, our board of directors approved an Estimated Per-Share NAV equal to $20.26 based on an estimated fair value of our assets less the estimated fair value of our liabilities, divided by 31,029,865 shares of common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis as of June 30, 2017 (the “2017 Estimated Per-Share NAV”).

29


On October 23, 2018, the independent board of directors, who comprise a majority of our board of directors, unanimously approved the 2018 Estimated Per-Share NAV equal to $20.26 based on an estimated fair value of our assets less the estimated fair value of our liabilities, divided by 31,346,179 shares of common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis as of June 30, 2018. The Estimated Per-Share NAV does not reflect events subsequent to June 30, 2018 that may have had a material impact on the Estimated Per-Share NAV.
The value of our shares will likely change over time and will be influenced by changes to the value of our individual assets as well as changes and developments in our real estate and capital markets. We currently intend to publish subsequent valuations of Estimated Per-Share NAV at least once annually.
Holders
As of March 6, 2019, we had 30,990,448 shares of common stock outstanding held by a total of 13,332 stockholders of record.
Distributions
We are required to distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard for the deduction for distributions paid and excluding net capital gains. In May 2014, our board of directors authorized, and we began paying, a monthly distribution to $1.5125 per annum, per share of common stock, payable by the 5th day following each month end to stockholders of record at the close of business each day during the prior month. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Distributions. On February 27, 2018, our board of directors unanimously authorized a suspension of the distributions we pay for our common stock, effective March 1, 2018. Our board of directors will continue to evaluate our performance and assess our distribution policy; however, there can be no assurance as to when, or if, we will be able to resume paying distributions or the level at which we may pay them.
A tax loss for a particular year eliminates the need to distribute REIT taxable income to meet the 90% distribution requirement for that year and may minimize or eliminate the need to pay distributions in order to meet the distribution requirement in one or more subsequent years. From a U.S. federal income tax perspective, 100% of distributions, or $0.25 per share for the year ended December 31, 2018 and $1.51 for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, represented a return of capital. The amount of distributions payable to our stockholders is determined by our board of directors and is dependent on a number of factors, including funds available for distribution, financial condition, capital expenditure requirements, as applicable and annual distribution requirements needed to maintain our status as a REIT under the Code.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
Restricted Share Plan
We have an employee and director incentive restricted share plan (as amended to date, the “RSP”). The RSP provides us with the ability to grant awards of restricted shares to our board of directors, officers and employees (if we ever have employees), employees of the Advisor and its affiliates, employees of entities that provide services to us, directors of the Advisor or of entities that provide services to us, certain consultants to us and the Advisor and its affiliates or to entities that provide services to us. For additional information, see Note 10 — Share-Based Compensation to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table sets forth information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our RSP as of December 31, 2018:
Plan Category
 
Number of  Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of  Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding
Options, Warrants
and Rights
 
Number of Securities
Remaining Available
For Future Issuance
Under Equity
Compensation Plans
(Excluding
Securities Reflected
in Column (a)
 
 
 
(a)
 
(b)
 
(c)
 
Equity Compensation Plans approved by security holders
 

 
$

 
1,480,663

(1) 
Equity Compensation Plans not approved by security holders
 

 

 

 
Total
 

 
$

 
1,480,663

 
________________

30


(1) 
The total number of shares granted as awards under the RSP shall not exceed 5.0% of our outstanding shares of common stock on a fully diluted basis at any time The total number of shares that may be issued under or subject to awards under the RSP is 5.0% of our outstanding shares of common stock on a fully diluted basis at any time and in any event will not exceed 1.5 million shares (as such number may be adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, combinations and similar events). As of December 31, 2018, we had 31,149,697 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding on a fully diluted basis, and 19,337 shares of our common stock had been issued under or were subject to awards under the RSP.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Use of Proceeds from Sales of Registered Securities
None.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Our common stock is currently not listed on a national securities exchange and we will not seek to list our stock until such time as our independent directors believe that the listing of our stock would be in the best interest of our stockholders. In order to provide stockholders with interim liquidity, our board of directors has adopted the SRP, which is currently suspended, that enables our stockholders, subject to significant conditions and limitations, to sell their shares back to us after having held them for at least one year. Our Advisor, directors and affiliates are prohibited from receiving a fee on any share repurchases. Under the SRP, which first became effective as of December 31, 2015, shares were repurchased on a quarterly basis. The SRP has been suspended since September 25, 2018, and the suspension will remain in effect until the date that we announce that we will resume paying regular cash distributions to our stockholders. For additional information on distributions to our stockholders, see “Item 1A— Risk Factors — Risks Related to an Investment in New York City REIT, Inc. — We are not currently paying distributions and there can be no assurance we will be able to resume paying distributions at our previous level or at all.” and for additional information on the SRP, see Note 6 — Common Stock to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table reflects the number of shares repurchased cumulatively through December 31, 2018.
 
 
Number of Shares Repurchased
 
Weighted-Average Price per Share
 
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2014
 

 
$

Year ended December 31, 2015
 
183,780

 
23.63

Year ended December 31, 2016
 
461,555

 
23.62

Year ended December 31, 2017 (1)
 
359,458

 
20.41

Year ended December 31, 2018 (2)
 
254,941

 
20.26

Cumulative repurchases as of December 31, 2018
 
1,259,734

 
22.03

________________
(1) Includes (i) 276,624 shares repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2017 for approximately$5.6 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.15, (ii) 578 shares repurchased during the three months ended June 30, 2017 for approximately $13,700 at a weighted-average price per share of $23.68 and (iii) 82,256 shares repurchased during the three months ended September 30, 2017, for approximately $1.7 million at a weighted-average price per share of $21.25. During the three months ended September 30, 2017, following the effectiveness of the amendment and restatement of the SRP, our board of directors approved 100% of the repurchase requests made following the death or qualifying disability of stockholders during the period from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2017, which were fulfilled during the three months ended September 30, 2017. No repurchases have been or will be made with respect to requests received during 2017 that are not valid requests in accordance with the amended and restated SRP.
(2) Includes (i) 99,131 shares repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2018 for approximately $2.0 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.26 related to repurchase requests made pursuant to the SRP during the period from July 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017, (ii) 10,183 shares repurchased from an individual stockholder in a privately negotiated transaction during January 2018 for approximately $0.2 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.26, (iii) 145,627 shares repurchased during the three months ended December 31, 2018 for approximately $3.0 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.26 which were comprised of shares related to repurchase requests made during the periods in 2018 when the SRP was active commencing with the reactivation of the SRP on April 26, 2018 until the suspension of the SRP on June 15, 2018 and the reactivation period commencing August 25, 2018 and ending on September 24, 2018.
Tender Offers
On February 6, 2018, in response to an unsolicited offer to our stockholders, we commenced a tender offer, which was subsequently amended on February 22, 2018 and March 6, 2018 (as amended, the “February Offer”). We made the February Offer in order to deter an unsolicited bidder and other potential future bidders that may try to exploit the illiquidity of our common stock and acquire it from stockholders at prices substantially below the then-current Estimated Per-Share NAV. Under the February Offer, we offered to purchase up to 140,000 shares of its common stock for cash at a purchase price equal to $17.03 per share. The February Offer expired on March 20, 2018 and, in accordance with the terms of the February Offer, we accepted for purchase 139,993 shares of common stock for a total cost of approximately $2.4 million, which was paid in April 2018.

31


On June 15, 2018, in response to an unsolicited offer to our stockholders, we commenced a tender offer (the “June Offer”) to purchase up to 500,000 shares of its common stock for cash at a purchase price equal to $12.95 per share. We made the June Offer in order to deter an unsolicited bidder and other potential future bidders that may try to exploit the illiquidity of our common stock and acquire it from stockholders at prices substantially below the then-current Estimated Per-Share NAV. The June Offer expired on July 24, 2018 and, in accordance with the terms of the June Offer, we accepted for purchase 210,014 shares of common stock for a total cost of approximately $2.7 million, which was paid in July 2018.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The following selected financial data as of December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and for the years then ended, should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto and "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
 
December 31,
Balance sheet data (In thousands)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Total real estate investments, at cost
 
$
774,494

 
$
753,793

 
$
744,945

 
$
550,369

 
$
270,083

Total assets
 
773,742

 
760,450

 
773,604

 
726,415

 
458,565

Mortgage notes payable, net
 
291,653

 
233,517

 
191,328

 
93,176

 

Total liabilities
 
330,062

 
278,966

 
233,413

 
130,276

 
21,159

Total stockholders’ equity
 
443,680

 
481,484

 
540,191

 
596,139

 
437,406


Operating data (In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
Year Ended December 31
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Total revenues
 
$
62,399

 
$
58,384

 
$
47,607

 
$
26,436

 
$
2,851

Total operating expenses
 
73,661

 
70,496

 
60,312

 
38,849

 
9,386

Operating loss
 
(11,262
)
 
(12,112
)
 
(12,705
)
 
(12,413
)
 
(6,535
)
Total other (expenses) income
 
(12,850
)
 
(10,961
)
 
(7,060
)
 
(3,372
)
 
16

Net loss
 
$
(24,112
)
 
$
(23,073
)
 
$
(19,765
)
 
$
(15,785
)
 
$
(6,519
)
Other data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows (used in) provided by operations
 
$
(7,080
)
 
$
2,282

 
$
4,128

 
$
(5,194
)
 
$
(4,965
)
Cash flows used in investing activities
 
(14,935
)
 
(10,340
)
 
(95,880
)
 
(169,164
)
 
(256,567
)
Cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities
 
29,600

 
5,453

 
(41,127
)
 
172,717

 
445,873

Per share data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and diluted net loss per common share
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
(0.74
)
 
$
(0.64
)
 
$
(0.57
)
 
$
(0.95
)
Distributions declared per common share
 
$
0.25

 
$
1.51

 
$
1.51

 
$
1.51

 
$
0.84

Basic and diluted weighted-average number of common shares outstanding
 
31,228,941

 
31,042,307

 
30,668,238

 
27,599,363

 
6,849,166


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements. The following information contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Please see “Forward-Looking Statements” elsewhere in this report for a description of these risks and uncertainties.
Overview
We were incorporated on December 19, 2013 as a Maryland corporation and elected to be taxed as a REIT beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014. Substantially all of our business is conducted through the OP.

32


We were formed to invest our assets in properties in the five boroughs of New York City, with a focus on Manhattan. We may also purchase certain real estate assets that accompany office properties, including retail spaces and amenities, as well as hospitality assets, residential assets and other property types exclusively in New York City. As of December 31, 2018, we owned seven properties consisting of 1,102,584 rentable square feet acquired for an aggregate purchase price of $702.0 million.
On October 25, 2017, our board of directors approved the 2017 Estimated Per-Share NAV of $20.26 as of June 30, 2017, which was published on October 26, 2017. On October 23, 2018, our board of directors approved the 2018 Estimated Per-Share NAV of $20.26 as of June 30, 2018. Until we list shares of common stock or another liquidity event occurs, we intend to publish subsequent valuations of Estimated Per-Share NAV at least once annually. We offer shares pursuant to the DRIP, which is currently not available as distributions are suspended and repurchase shares pursuant to the SRP, which is currently suspended, at a price based on Estimated Per-Share NAV.
In March 2019, we changed our name from American Realty New York City REIT, Inc. to New York City REIT, Inc.
We have no employees. Our Advisor has been retained by us to manage our affairs on a day-to-day basis, and we have retained our Property Manager to serve as our property manager. Our Advisor and Property Manager are under common control with AR Global, and these entities receive compensation, fees and expense reimbursements for services related to the investment and management of our assets.
Significant Accounting Estimates and Critical Accounting Policies
Set forth below is a summary of the critical accounting policies that management believes is important to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. Certain of our accounting estimates are particularly important for an understanding of our financial position and results of operations and require the application of significant judgment by our management. As a result, these estimates are subject to a degree of uncertainty. These significant accounting estimates and critical accounting policies include:
Revenue Recognition
Our revenues, which are derived primarily from rental income, include rents that each tenant pays in accordance with the terms of each lease reported on a straight-line basis over the initial term of the lease. Because many of our leases provide for rental increases at specified intervals, GAAP requires that we record a receivable, and include in revenues on a straight-line basis, unbilled rent receivables that we will only receive if the tenant makes all rent payments required through the expiration of the initial term of the lease. We defer revenue related to lease payments received from tenants in advance of their due dates. When we acquire a property, the acquisition date is considered to be the commencement date for purposes of this calculation.
Rental revenue recognition commences when the tenant takes possession of or controls the physical use of the leased space. For the tenant to take possession, the leased space must be substantially ready for its intended use. To determine whether the leased space is substantially ready for its intended use, we evaluate whether we own or if the tenant owns the tenant improvements. When we are the owner of tenant improvements, rental revenue recognition begins when the tenant takes possession of the finished space, which is when such improvements are substantially complete. When the tenant is the owner of tenant improvements, rental revenue recognition begins when the tenant takes possession of or controls the space.
When we conclude that we are the owner of tenant improvements, we capitalize the cost to construct the tenant improvements, including costs paid for or reimbursed by the tenants. When we conclude that the tenant is the owner of tenant improvements for accounting purposes, we record its contribution towards those improvements as a lease incentive, which is included in deferred leasing costs, net on the consolidated balance sheets and amortized as a reduction to rental income on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
We continually review receivables related to rent and unbilled rent receivables and determine collectibility by taking into consideration the tenant’s payment history, the financial condition of the tenant, business conditions in the industry in which the tenant operates and economic conditions in the area in which the property is located. In the event that the collectibility of a receivable is in doubt, we will record an increase in its allowance for uncollectible accounts or record a direct write-off of the receivable in its consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Certain tenants have provided letters of credit in lieu of cash security deposit required per the respective lease agreements.
We may own certain properties with leases that include provisions for the tenant to pay contingent rental income based on a percent of the tenant’s sales upon the achievement of certain sales thresholds or other targets, which may be monthly, quarterly or annual targets. As the lessor to the aforementioned leases, we defer the recognition of contingent rental income until the specified target that triggered the contingent rental income is achieved, or until such sales upon which percentage rent is based are known. If we own certain properties with leases that include provisions for the tenant to pay contingent rental income, contingent rental income will be included in rental income on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. We recognized $0.2 million contingent rental income for the year ended December 31, 2018. We did not recognize any contingent rental income for the years ended December 31, 2017 or 2016.

33


Cost recoveries from tenants are included in operating expense reimbursements and other revenue in the period the related costs are incurred, as applicable.
Investments in Real Estate
Investments in real estate are recorded at cost. Improvements and replacements are capitalized when they extend the useful life of the asset. Costs of repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred.
We evaluate each asset acquired to determine if the transaction is a business combination or asset acquisition. If an acquisition qualifies as a business combination, the related transaction costs are recorded as an expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. If an acquisition qualifies as an asset acquisition, the related transaction costs are generally capitalized and subsequently amortized over the useful life of the acquired assets.
We allocate the purchase price of acquired properties to tangible and identifiable intangible assets or liabilities and non-controlling interests based on their respective estimated fair values. Tangible assets may include land, land improvements, buildings, fixtures and tenant improvements. Intangible assets or liabilities may include the value of in-place leases, above- and below-market leases and other identifiable intangible assets or liabilities based on lease or property specific characteristics.
The fair value of the tangible assets of an acquired property with an in-place operating lease is determined by valuing the property as if it were vacant, and the “as-if-vacant” value is then allocated to the tangible assets based on the fair value of the tangible assets. The fair value of in-place leases is determined by considering estimates of carrying costs during the expected lease-up periods, current market conditions, as well as costs to execute similar leases. The fair value of above- or below-market leases is recorded based on the present value of the difference between the contractual amount to be paid pursuant to the in-place lease and our estimate of the comparable fair market lease rate for the corresponding in-place lease, measured over the remaining term of the lease, including any below-market fixed rate renewal options for below-market leases. The fair value of other intangible assets, such as real estate tax abatements, are recorded based on the present value of the expected benefit and amortized over the expected useful life.
Fair values of assumed mortgages, if applicable, are recorded as debt premiums or discounts based on the present value of the estimated cash flows, which is calculated to account for either above- or below-market interest rates.
Non-controlling interests in property owning entities are recorded based on the fair value of units issued at the date of acquisition, as determined by the terms of the applicable agreement.
We utilize a number of sources in making its estimates of fair values for purposes of allocating purchase price, including real estate valuations prepared by independent valuation firms. We also consider information and other factors including: market conditions, the industry in which the tenant operates, characteristics of the real estate such as location, size, demographics, value and comparative rental rates, tenant credit profile and the importance of the location of the real estate to the operations of the tenant’s business.
Impairment of Long Lived Assets
When circumstances indicate the carrying value of a property may not be recoverable, we review the asset for impairment. This review is based on an estimate of the future undiscounted cash flows, excluding interest charges, expected to result from the property’s use and eventual disposition. These estimates consider factors such as expected future operating income, market and other applicable trends and residual value, as well as the effects of leasing demand, competition and other factors. If such estimated cash flows are less than the carrying value of a property, an impairment loss is recorded to the extent that the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the property for properties to be held and used. For properties held for sale, the impairment loss is based on the adjustment to estimated fair value less estimated cost to dispose of the asset. Generally, we determine estimated fair value for properties held for sale based on the agreed-upon selling price of an asset. These assessments may result in the immediate recognition of an impairment loss, resulting in a reduction of net income (loss).
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2  Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — “Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements” to our consolidated financial statements found in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.
Results of Operations
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, our overall portfolio occupancy was 93.7% and 88.3%, respectively, while occupancy at our property located at 9 Times Square increased to 84.3% from 63.9% leased as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The following table is a summary of our quarterly leasing activity for the year ended December 31, 2018:

34


 
 
Q1 2018
 
Q2 2018
 
Q3 2018
 
Q4 2018
Leasing activity:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
New Leases:(1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
New leases commenced
 
2

 
4

 
4

 
9

Total square feet leased
 
34,789

 
52,425

 
19,813

 
53,507

Annualized straight-line rent (2)
 
$
43.13

 
$
63.70

 
$
98.93

 
$
138.54

Weighted-average lease term (years)(3)
 
12.7

 
6.8

 
11.7

 
11.5

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Replacement leases:(4)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Replacement leases commenced
 
2

 
2

 
1

 
1

Square feet
 
30,349

 
20,216

 
4,312

 
12,658

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Terminated Leases:(5)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of leases terminated
 
1

 
1

 
2

 

Square feet
 
12,658

 
12,327

 
9,765

 

Annualized straight-line rent(2)
 
$
55.08

 
$
49.31

 
$
48.48

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tenant improvements on replacement leases per square foot(6)
 
$
23.39

 
$

 
$

 
$

Leasing commissions on replacement leases per square foot(6)
 
$
7.49

 
$
8.93

 
$

 
$
25.47

______________________________    
(1) Includes new and replacement leases commenced during the quarter.
(2) Represents the GAAP basis annualized straight-line rent that is recognized over the term on the respective leases, includes free rent, periodic rent increases, and excludes recoveries.
(3) The weighted-average remaining lease term (years) is based on annualized straight-line rent.
(4) Represents leases commenced for spaces that had been previously leased in the prior twelve months.
(5) Calculated as of the date of termination.
(6) Presented as if tenant improvements and leasing commissions were incurred in the period in which the lease has commenced, which may be different than the period in which these amounts were actually paid.
Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2018 to 2017
As of December 31, 2018, we owned seven properties, comprising six properties acquired prior to January 1, 2017, and one property we acquired in October 2018 (our “8713 Fifth Avenue Property”). Our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily reflect changes due to leasing activity, and to a lesser extent, the impact of our acquisition of 8713 Fifth Avenue Property since it was acquired in October 2018.
Rental Income
Rental income increased $3.2 million to $57.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $53.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to an increase in occupancy related to 9 Times Square property in the amount of $2.5 million and as well as $0.2 million of rental income from our 8713 Fifth Avenue Property which was acquired in October 2018.
Operating Expense Reimbursements
Operating expense reimbursements increased $0.8 million to $5.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $4.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to higher recoveries of reimbursable costs. The costs associated with these reimbursements are recorded in property expenses, which increased as a result of new lease commencements and the increased costs of maintaining our properties including costs of real estate taxes, utilities, and repairs and maintenance.
Pursuant to many of our lease agreements, tenants are required to pay their pro rata share of certain property operating expenses, in addition to base rent, whereas under certain other lease agreements, the tenants are directly responsible for most operating costs of the respective properties. Therefore, operating expense reimbursements are directly affected by changes in property operating expenses, although not all increases in property operating expenses may be reimbursed by our tenants. Operating expense reimbursements primarily relate to costs associated with maintaining our properties paid initially by us and then reimbursed by our tenants including utilities, repairs and maintenance and real estate taxes.

35


Asset and Property Management Fees to Related Parties
We incurred $6.2 million and $6.0 million in fees for asset and property management services from our Advisor and Property Manager for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively (see Note 8 — Related Party Transactions and Arrangements to our consolidated financial statements found in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information on fees incurred from our Advisor and Property Manager).
Property Operating Expenses
Property operating expenses increased $1.6 million to $28.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $26.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due the acquisition of new lease commencements and the increased costs of maintaining our six properties including costs of real estate taxes, utilities, and repairs and maintenance.
Acquisition and Transaction Related Expenses
We incurred approximately $0.4 million of acquisition and transaction related expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018, primarily related to the renegotiation of the advisory agreement with the Advisor. Effective January 1, 2018, based on historical acquisitions, we expect that future properties acquired to qualify as an asset acquisition rather than a business acquisition, which would result in related transaction costs to be capitalized rather than expensed (see Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — “Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information). For the year ended December 31, 2017, we incurred $6,000 of acquisition and transaction related expenses related to a dead deal cost.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses increased $0.9 million to $9.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $8.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily related to an increase in professional fees and other reimbursements incurred from our Advisor, as well as an increase in legal and proxy fees. The legal and proxy fees contributed approximately $0.7 million to the increase in general and administrative expenses during the year ended December 31, 2018, when compared to the year ended December 31, 2017, which included approximately $0.4 million paid for an agreement to settle the contested vote at our 2018 annual meeting of shareholders.
Professional fees and other reimbursements incurred from our Advisor increased $0.6 million to $4.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $4.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. These professional fees and other reimbursements include administrative services, personnel and overhead expenses for employees of the Advisor, and other reimbursements incurred from our Advisor. We entered into our amended and restated advisory agreement on November 16, 2018, pursuant to which our Advisor is entitled to receive reimbursements for administrative services, personnel and overhead expenses for employees of the Advisor, subject to certain limits. See Note 8 — Related Party Transactions and Arrangements to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $0.2 million to $29.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $29.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, due to a higher depreciable asset base as a result of capital improvements during the year ended December 31, 2018.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $2.1 million to $13.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $11.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to a new $50.0 million loan entered into on April 13, 2018 (the “April 2018 Loan”), secured by two of our previously unencumbered properties (see Note 4 — Mortgage Notes Payable, Net to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information). As of December 31, 2018, the gross balance of $299.0 million and a weighted-average effective interest rate of 4.54%. As of December 31, 2017, we had two loans outstanding with a combined balance of $239.0 million and a weighted-average effective interest rate of 4.61%.
Income from Investment Securities and Interest
Income from investment securities and interest increased $0.2 million to $0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The income primarily relates to interest earned on our cash balances during the periods.
Gain on Sale of Investment Securities
There was no gain on sale of investment in equity securities for the year ended December 31, 2018. Gain on sale of investment securities was approximately $24,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017, which resulted from the sale of investment in securities with a cost basis of approximately $467,000 for approximately $491,000.

36


Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2017 to Year Ended December 31, 2016
As of December 31, 2017, we owned six properties, comprising five properties acquired prior to January 1, 2016 (our “Initial Five Properties”), and one property we acquired in June 2016 (our “1140 Avenue of the Americas Property”). Due to our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property, our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2016 reflect significant increases in most categories.
Rental Income
Rental income increased $9.7 million to $53.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $44.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase in rental income was primarily due to our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property, which contributed $8.6 million to the increase and our Initial Five Properties contributed $1.1 million of the increase.
Operating Expense Reimbursements
Operating expense reimbursements increased $1.1 million to $4.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $3.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, primarily due to our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property which contributed $0.9 million to the increase. Our Initial Five Properties contributed $0.2 million to the increase.
Pursuant to many of our lease agreements, tenants are required to pay their pro rata share of certain property operating expenses, in addition to base rent, whereas under certain other lease agreements, the tenants are directly responsible for most operating costs of the respective properties. Therefore, operating expense reimbursements are directly affected by changes in property operating expenses, although not all increases in property operating expenses may be reimbursed by our tenants. Operating expense reimbursements primarily relate to costs associated with maintaining our properties including utilities, repairs and maintenance and real estate taxes incurred by us and subsequently reimbursed by the tenant.
Asset and Property Management Fees to Related Parties
We incurred $6.0 million and $5.2 million in fees for asset and property management services from our Advisor and Property Manager for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Cash asset management fees increased in direct correlation with the increase in cost of assets, as a result of the acquisition of our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property. Property management fees increased in direct correlation with gross revenue and amounted to $0.6 million and $0.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. See Note 8 — Related Party Transactions and Arrangements for more information on fees incurred from our Advisor.
Property Operating Expenses
Property operating expenses increased $5.9 million to $26.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $20.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, primarily due to our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property, which contributed $5.4 million to the increase. Our Initial Five Properties contributed $0.5 million of the increase. Property operating expenses primarily related to the costs of maintaining our six properties including real estate taxes, condominium fees, utilities, repairs and maintenance and property insurance. The ground lease rent expense for our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property, which is part of our property operating expenses, was $4.7 million in 2017 and will continue to be $4.7 million annually through December 2041 and subsequently increase to $5.1 million through the end of the lease term in 2066, which will result in future increases in our property operating expenses.
Acquisition and Transaction Related Expenses
We incurred approximately $6,000 of acquisition and transaction related expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 related to a dead deal cost. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we incurred $3.7 million of acquisition and transaction related expenses in connection with acquiring our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses increased $3.2 million to $8.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $4.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to general and administrative expense reimbursements incurred from our Advisor, which increased $2.0 million to $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. Legal and proxy fees contributed $1.2 million of the increase.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expenses increased $3.9 million to $29.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $25.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, primarily due to the addition of our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property.

37


Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $3.8 million to $11.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $7.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, due to the closing of the loan on our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property on June 15, 2016 and refinancing of 123 William Street on March 6, 2017. As of December 31, 2017, we had two loans outstanding with a combined balance of $239.0 million and a weighted-average effective interest rate of 4.61%. As of December 31, 2016, we had two loans outstanding with a combined balance of $195.0 million and a weighted-average effective interest rate of 3.61%.
Income from Investment Securities and Interest
Income from investment securities and interest decreased $0.1 million to $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, primarily due the decrease in cash in the interest earned on our cash during the period.
Gain on Sale of Investment Securities
Gain on sale of investment securities increased approximately $24,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017, which resulted from the sale of investment in securities with a cost basis of approximately $467,000 for approximately $491,000. There was no gain on sale of investment in equity securities for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Cash Flows From Operating Activities
The level of cash flows used in or provided by operating activities is affected by the volume of acquisition activity, the restricted cash we are required to maintain, the timing of interest payments, the receipt of scheduled rent payments and the level of property operating expenses.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, net cash used by operating activities was $7.1 million which consisted of a net loss of $24.1 million, and, after adjustments for depreciation and amortization of tangible and intangible assets and other non-cash expenses of $28.5 million, which resulted in cash inflows of $4.3 million. Net cash used by operating activities also included net cash inflow of $0.5 million for an increase in deferred rent related to payments received from tenants in advance of their due dates. These operating cash inflows were partially offset by other liabilities of $0.8 million for an decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses associated with operating activities and a increase in prepaid expenses and other assets of $11.2 million primarily related to unbilled rent receivables recorded in accordance with accounting for rental income on a straight-line basis, payment of real estate taxes and deferred leasing costs.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, net cash provided by operating activities was $2.3 million and was positively impacted by the acquisition of our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property, acquired in June 2016. Net cash provided by operations consisted of a net loss of $23.1 million, and, after adjustments for depreciation and amortization of tangible and intangible assets and other non-cash expenses of $28.5 million, resulted in cash inflows of $5.4 million. Net cash provided by operating activities also included net cash inflows of $2.2 million for an increase in deferred rent related to payments received from tenants in advance of their due dates and other liabilities as well as $3.3 million for an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses associated with operating activities. These operating cash inflows were partially offset by a decrease in prepaid expenses and other assets of $8.6 million primarily related to an increase in unbilled rent receivables recorded in accordance with accounting for rental income on a straight-line basis.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, net cash provided by operating activities was $4.1 million and was positively impacted by lease escalation provisions and income due to our Acquisitions. Net cash provided by operating activities consisted of a net loss of $19.8 million, and, after adjustments for depreciation and amortization of tangible and intangible assets and other non-cash expenses of $25.8 million, resulted in cash inflows of $6.0 million. Net cash provided by operating activities also included net cash inflows of $1.4 million for an increase in deferred rent related to payments received from tenants in advance of their due dates and other liabilities as well as $2.8 million for an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses. Net operating cash outflows primarily related to an increase in prepaid expenses and other assets of $6.0 million primarily related to an increase in unbilled rent receivables recorded in accordance with accounting for rental income on a straight-line basis.
Cash Flows From Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 of $14.9 million related to capital expenditures of $9.0 million primarily due to building and tenant improvements at 9 Times Square, 123 William Street and 1140 Avenue of the Americas and $5.9 million due the acquisition of our 8713 Fifth Avenue Property in October 2018.
Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 of $10.3 million related to capital expenditures of $10.8 million relating primarily to building and tenant improvements at 9 Times Square, 123 William Street and 1140 Avenue of the Americas, partially offset by proceeds received from the sale of investment securities of $0.5 million.

38


Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2016 of $95.9 million, primarily related to the acquisition of our 1140 Avenue of the Americas Property for $79.2 million, with an aggregate purchase price of $178.5 million, net of purchase price adjustments, partially funded with a mortgage note payable of $99.0 million. Net cash used in investing activities also related to payment of capital expenditures of $16.7 million relating to building and tenant improvements at 9 Times Square, 123 William Street and 1140 Avenue of the Americas.
Cash Flows From Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities of $29.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2018 related to the proceeds from mortgage note payable of $50.0 million, partially offset by distributions to stockholders of $7.5 million, payments of $2.7 million relating to financing costs and repurchases of common stock of $10.3 million.
Net cash used in financing activities of $5.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 related to the proceeds from mortgage note payable of $140.0 million, partially offset by the repayment of a mortgage note payable of $96.0 million. In addition, cash used in financing activities consisted of distributions to stockholders of $28.3 million, payments of $2.9 million relating to financing costs and repurchases of common stock of $7.3 million.
Net cash used in financing activities of $41.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 consisted of distributions to stockholders of $25.3 million, payments of $3.3 million relating to financing costs and repurchases of common stock of $12.5 million.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of $48.0 million as compared to cash of $39.6 million as of December 31, 2017. The increase in our cash and cash equivalents balance was primarily driven by the April 2018 Loan detailed further below. In addition, on February 27, 2018, our board of directors unanimously authorized a suspension of the distributions we pay to holders of our common stock, effective as of March 1, 2018. We believe this suspension better positions us for future growth by enhancing our ability to fund potential future acquisitions as well as execute on the repositioning and leasing efforts related to the seven properties we already own. Our board of directors will continue to evaluate our performance and assess our distribution policy, however there can be no assurance as to when, or if, we will be able to resume paying distributions or the level at which we may pay them. Our ability to pay distributions in the future will depend on the amount of cash we are able to generate from our operations. The amount of cash available for distributions is affected by many factors, such as capital availability, rental income from acquired properties and our operating expense levels, as well as many other variables. There is no assurance that rents from the properties we own or rent from future acquisitions of properties will increase our cash available for distributions to the level necessary for us to resume paying distributions to our stockholders.
Our principal demands for cash are to fund operating and administrative expenses, capital expenditures, tenant improvement and leasing commission costs related to our properties, our debt service obligations, acquisitions, potential future distributions to our stockholders and repurchases under the SRP.
We had historically used the net proceeds from our IPO to fund acquisitions and distributions, as well as for other corporate purposes. We used the last remaining proceeds from our IPO during 2017, so this source is no longer available to us. We expect to fund future acquisitions, if any, and operations through a combination of net cash provided by our current property operations, the operations of properties that may be acquired in the future and proceeds from financings, and we believe that we will have sufficient cash flow to meet our operating needs over the next year. Furthermore, we expect that cash retained by the suspension of distributions noted above will be available for use to fund our operations, capital expenditures related to tenant improvements, costs associated with new leases and lease renewals (including leasing commissions) and acquisitions. As mentioned above, additional sources of capital may also include proceeds from secured and unsecured financing from banks or other lenders. To the extent we are required to obtain additional financing we may not be able to do so on favorable terms or at all.
We have used mortgage financing to acquire three of our properties and expect to continue to use debt financing as a source of capital. On April 13, 2018, two wholly owned subsidiaries of the OP, entered into the April 2018 Loan with Societe Generale. The loan agreement provides for a $50.0 million loan with a fixed interest rate of 4.516% and a maturity date of May 1, 2028. The April 2018 Loan requires monthly interest-only payments, with the principal balance due on the maturity date and is secured by, among other things, mortgage liens on two of our previously unencumbered properties. At the closing of the April 2018 Loan, the net proceeds after accrued interest and closing costs were used to fund approximately $0.6 million in deposits into reserve accounts required to be made at closing under the loan agreement, and approximately $47.1 million in net proceeds remained available to us. Of these net proceeds, we used: (i) approximately $8.0 million to fund share repurchases pursuant to the June Offer and the SRP; (ii) approximately $8.0 million to fund capital expenditures at our 9 Times Square property; (iii) approximately $6.0 million

39


for acquisitions; and (iv) approximately $5.0 million for other general corporate purposes, with the remainder available for future use. For additional information, see Note 4 - Mortgage Notes Payable, Net to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.
We plan to increase our indebtedness over time such that aggregate borrowings are closer to 40% to 50% of the aggregate fair market value of our assets, or approximately $340.0 million and $425.1 million, respectively, based on the fair market value of our real estate assets established in connection with the approval by our independent board of directors of our Estimated Per-Share NAV as of June 30, 2018 (published on October 25, 2018). As of December 31, 2018, our aggregate borrowings were $299.0 million with a weighted-average effective interest rate of 4.54%. As of December 31, 2017, our aggregate borrowings were $239.0 million with a weighted-average interest rate of 4.61%. At the date of acquisition of any asset, we anticipate that the cost of investment for the asset will be substantially similar to its fair market value. However, subsequent events, including changes in the fair market value of our assets, could result in our exceeding our target leverage levels.
On February 6, 2018, in response to an unsolicited offer to our stockholders, we commenced a tender offer. Under the February Offer, we offered to purchase up to 140,000 shares of our common stock for cash at a purchase price equal to $17.03 per share. The February Offer expired on March 20, 2018, and, in accordance with the terms of the February Offer, we accepted for purchase 139,993 shares of common stock for a total cost of approximately $2.4 million. Payment of this amount and related costs was made in April 2018 and funded using cash on hand.
On June 15, 2018, in response to an unsolicited offer to our stockholders, we commenced a tender offer to purchase up to 500,000 shares of our common stock for cash at a purchase price equal to $12.95 per share. The June Offer expired on July 24, 2018 and, in accordance with the terms of the June Offer, we accepted for purchase 210,014 shares of common stock for a total cost of approximately $2.7 million. Payment of this amount and related costs was made in July 2018 and funded using cash on hand.
Repositioning and Leasing Initiatives
Our repositioning and leasing initiatives have resulted in the occupancy level of 93.7% across our portfolio as of December 31, 2018, as compared to 88.3% as of December 31, 2017. Specifically, occupancy levels at 9 Times Square and 123 William Street have increased to 84.3% and 98.3%, respectively, as compared to 63.9% and 92.7%, respectively, as of December 31, 2017.
We believe the repositioning strategy undertaken on the ground floor retail space at 9 Times Square has made the Seventh Avenue retail frontage more attractive to potential tenants, while the new lobby and the pre-built office suites have helped us achieve the lease-up of the office floors throughout the building and drive increased property value. We believe that certain market tenant incentives, including free rent periods and tenant improvements, have driven occupancy rates higher and extended the average duration of our leases. While we will not receive cash during initial free rent periods, we believe we are often able to negotiate longer, more attractive lease terms by having the flexibility to include such a feature. There can be no assurance, however, that these improvements will occur on a timely basis, or at all.
We will seek replacement tenants and continue to evaluate our strategic alternatives for our 421 W. 54th Street property, where the sole tenant terminated its lease early and vacated the space during the second quarter of 2018.
Capital Expenditures
For the year ended December 31, 2018 we funded $9.0 million of capital expenditures primarily related to improvements at our 123 William Street and 9 Times Square properties. The capital expenditures for the year ended December 31, 2017 of $10.8 million were primarily related to 9 Times Square, 123 William Square and 1140 Avenue of the Americas. We may invest in additional capital expenditures to further enhance the value of our investments. Additionally, many of our lease agreements with tenants include provisions for tenant improvement allowances.
While we have substantially completed our repositioning and redevelopment plan with respect to 9 Times Square and are currently working to lease the remaining vacant space at the property, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in lease-up of this property or effectively reposition or remarket any other property we may acquire for these purposes, including increasing the occupancy rate.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
This section includes non-GAAP financial measures, including Funds from Operations (“FFO”), Modified Funds from Operations (“MFFO”) and Cash Net Operating Income (“Cash NOI”). A description of these non-GAAP measures and reconciliations to the most directly comparable GAAP measure, which is net income (loss), is provided below.

40


Funds from Operations and Modified Funds from Operations
The historical accounting convention used for real estate assets requires straight-line depreciation of buildings, improvements, and straight-line amortization of intangibles, which implies that the value of a real estate asset diminishes predictably over time. We believe that, because real estate values historically rise and fall with market conditions, including, but not limited to, inflation, interest rates, the business cycle, unemployment and consumer spending, presentations of operating results for a REIT using the historical accounting convention for depreciation and certain other items may be less informative.
Because of these factors, the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”), an industry trade group, has published a standardized measure of performance known as FFO, which is used in the REIT industry as a supplemental performance measure. We believe FFO, which excludes certain items such as real estate-related depreciation and amortization, is an appropriate supplemental measure of a REIT’s operating performance. FFO is not equivalent to our net income or loss as determined under GAAP.
We define FFO, a non-GAAP measure, consistent with the standards established over time by the Board of Governors of NAREIT, as restated in a White Paper approved by the Board of Governors of NAREIT effective in December 2018 (the “White Paper”). The White Paper defines FFO as net income or loss computed in accordance with GAAP, excluding depreciation and amortization related to real estate, gains and losses from the sale of certain real estate assets, gains and losses from change in control and impairment write-downs of certain real estate assets and investments in entities when the impairment is directly attributable to decreases in the value of depreciable real estate held by the entity. Adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures are calculated to reflect FFO. Our FFO calculation complies with NAREIT’s definition.
We believe that the use of FFO provides a more complete understanding of our performance to investors and to management, and, when compared year over year, reflects the impact on our operations from trends in occupancy rates, rental rates, operating costs, general and administrative expenses, and interest costs, which may not be immediately apparent from net income.
Changes in the accounting and reporting promulgations under GAAP that were put into effect in 2009 subsequent to the establishment of NAREIT’s definition of FFO, such as the change to expense as incurred rather than capitalize and depreciate acquisition fees and expenses incurred for business combinations, have prompted an increase in cash-settled expenses, specifically acquisition fees and expenses, as items that are expensed under GAAP across all industries. These changes had a particularly significant impact on publicly registered, non-listed REITs, which typically have a significant amount of acquisition activity in the early part of their existence, particularly during the period when they are raising capital through ongoing initial public offerings.
Because of these factors, the Institute for Portfolio Alternatives (the “IPA”), an industry trade group, has published a standardized measure of performance known as MFFO, which the IPA has recommended as a supplemental measure for publicly registered, non-listed REITs. MFFO is designed to be reflective of the ongoing operating performance of publicly registered, non-listed REITs by adjusting for those costs that are more reflective of acquisitions and investment activity, along with other items the IPA believes are not indicative of the ongoing operating performance of a publicly registered, non-listed REIT, such as straight-lining of rents as required by GAAP. We believe it is appropriate to use MFFO as a supplemental measure of operating performance because we believe that, when compared year over year, both before and after we have deployed all of our offering proceeds and are no longer incurring a significant amount of acquisitions fees or other related costs, it reflects the impact on our operations from trends in occupancy rates, rental rates, operating costs, general and administrative expenses, and interest costs, which may not be immediately apparent from net income. MFFO is not equivalent to our net income or loss as determined under GAAP.
We define MFFO, a non-GAAP measure, consistent with the IPA’s Guideline 2010-01, Supplemental Performance Measure for Publicly Registered, Non-Listed REITs: Modified Funds from Operations (the “Practice Guideline”) issued by the IPA in November 2010. The Practice Guideline defines MFFO as FFO further adjusted for acquisition and transaction related fees and expenses and other items. In calculating MFFO, we follow the Practice Guideline and exclude acquisition and transaction-related fees and expenses, amounts relating to deferred rent receivables and amortization of above- and below-market leases and liabilities (which are adjusted in order to reflect the payments from a GAAP accrual basis to a cash basis of disclosing the rent and lease payments), accretion of discounts and amortization of premiums on debt investments, mark-to-market adjustments included in net income, gains or losses included in net income from the extinguishment or sale of debt, hedges, foreign exchange, derivatives or securities holdings where trading of the holdings is not a fundamental attribute of the business plan, unrealized gains or losses resulting from consolidation from, or deconsolidation to, equity accounting, and after adjustments for consolidated and unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures, with the adjustments calculated to reflect MFFO on the same basis.
We believe that, because MFFO excludes costs that we consider more reflective of acquisition activities and other non-operating items, MFFO can provide, on a going-forward basis, an indication of the sustainability (that is, the capacity to continue to be maintained) of our operating performance after the period in which we are acquiring properties and once our portfolio is stabilized. We also believe that MFFO is a recognized measure of sustainable operating performance by the non-listed REIT industry and allows for an evaluation of our performance against other publicly registered, non-listed REITs.
Not all REITs, including publicly registered, non-listed REITs, calculate FFO and MFFO the same way. Accordingly, comparisons with other REITs, including publicly registered, non-listed REITs, may not be meaningful. Furthermore, FFO and

41


MFFO are not indicative of cash flow available to fund cash needs and should not be considered as an alternative to net income (loss) or income (loss) from continuing operations as determined under GAAP as an indication of our performance, as an alternative to cash flows from operations, as an indication of our liquidity, or indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs including our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders. FFO and MFFO should be reviewed in conjunction with other GAAP measurements as an indication of our performance. FFO and MFFO should not be construed to be more relevant or accurate than the current GAAP methodology in calculating net income or in its applicability in evaluating our operating performance. The methods utilized to evaluate the performance of a publicly registered, non-listed REIT under GAAP should be construed as more relevant measures of operational performance and considered more prominently than the non-GAAP measures, FFO and MFFO, and the adjustments to GAAP in calculating FFO and MFFO.
None of the SEC, NAREIT, the IPA nor any other regulatory body or industry trade group has passed judgment on the acceptability of the adjustments that we use to calculate FFO or MFFO. In the future, NAREIT, the IPA or another industry trade group may publish updates to the White Paper or the Practice Guideline or the SEC or another regulatory body could standardize the allowable adjustments across the publicly registered, non-listed REIT industry and we would have to adjust our calculation and characterization of FFO or MFFO accordingly.
The table below reflects the items deducted or added to net loss in our calculation of FFO and MFFO for the periods presented.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net loss (in accordance with GAAP)
 
$
(24,112
)
 
$
(23,073
)
 
$
(19,765
)
Depreciation and amortization
 
29,690

 
29,539

 
25,586

FFO
 
5,578

 
6,466

 
5,821

Acquisition and transaction related
 
407

 
6

 
3,695

Accretion of below- and amortization of above-market lease liabilities and assets, net
 
(2,044
)
 
(2,247
)
 
(2,376
)
Straight-line rent adjustment
 
(4,544
)
 
(3,498
)
 
(4,515
)
Straight-line ground rent adjustment
 
109

 
109

 
2,454

Loss on extinguishment of debt
 

 
131

 

(Gain) loss on sale of investment securities
 

 
(24
)
 
5

MFFO
 
$
(494
)
 
$
943

 
$
5,084

Cash Net Operating Income
Cash NOI is a non-GAAP financial measure equal to net income (loss), the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, less income from investment securities and interest, plus general and administrative expenses, acquisition and transaction-related expenses, depreciation and amortization, other non-cash expenses and interest expense. In calculating Cash NOI, we also eliminate the effects of straight-lining of rent and the amortization of above- and below-market leases. Cash NOI should not be considered an alternative to net income (loss) as an indication of our performance or to cash flows as a measure of our liquidity.
We use Cash NOI internally as a performance measure and believe Cash NOI provides useful information to investors regarding our financial condition and results of operations because it reflects only those income and expense items that are incurred at the property level. Therefore, we believe Cash NOI is a useful measure for evaluating the operating performance of our real estate assets and to make decisions about resource allocations. Further, we believe Cash NOI is useful to investors as performance measures because, when compared across periods, Cash NOI reflects the impact on operations from trends in occupancy rates, rental rates, operating costs and acquisition activity on an unlevered basis. Cash NOI excludes certain components from net income in order to provide results that are more closely related to a property’s results of operations. For example, interest expense is not linked to the operating performance of a real estate asset and Cash NOI is not affected by whether the financing is at the property level or corporate level. In addition, depreciation and amortization, because of historical cost accounting and useful life estimates, may distort operating performance at the property level. Cash NOI presented by us may not be comparable to Cash NOI reported by other REITs that define Cash NOI differently. We believe that in order to facilitate a clear understanding of our operating results, Cash NOI should be examined in conjunction with net income (loss) as presented in our consolidated financial statements.

The table below reflects the items deducted or added to net loss in our calculation of Cash NOI for the periods presented.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net loss (in accordance with GAAP)
 
$
(24,112
)
 
$
(23,073
)
 
$
(19,765
)
Income from Investment Securities and Interest
 
(444
)
 
(245
)
 
(344
)
General and administrative
 
8,975

 
8,087

 
4,933

Asset and property management fees to related parties
 
6,211

 
6,039

 
5,179

Acquisition and transaction related
 
407

 
6

 
3,695

Depreciation and amortization
 
29,690

 
29,539

 
25,586

Interest Expense
 
13,294

 
11,230

 
7,404

Gain on sale of investment securities
 

 
(24
)
 

Accretion of below- and amortization of above-market lease liabilities and assets, net
 
(2,044
)
 
(2,247
)
 
(2,376
)
Straight-line rent adjustment
 
(4,544
)
 
(3,498
)
 
(4,515
)
Straight-line ground rent adjustment
 
109

 
109

 
2,454

Cash NOI
 
$
27,542

 
$
25,923

 
$
22,251

Acquisitions
On October 17, 2018, we closed on an acquisition of a medical office building with an aggregate base purchase price of $15.9 million, excluding acquisition related costs. The acquisition was funded by proceeds from a new $10.0 million mortgage loan encumbering the property with the remainder funded with cash on hand. For additional information, see Note 3 — Real Estate Investments to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Distributions
We are required to distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard for the deduction for distributions paid and excluding net capital gains. In May 2014, our board of directors authorized, and we began paying, a monthly distribution equivalent to $1.5125 per annum, per share of common stock payable by the 5th day following each month end to stockholders of record at the close of business each day during the prior month. On February 27, 2018, our board of directors unanimously authorized a suspension of the distributions we pay to holders of our common stock, effective as of March 1, 2018. A tax loss for a particular year eliminates the need to distribute REIT taxable income to meet the 90% distribution requirement for that year and may minimize or eliminate the need to pay distributions in order to meet the distribution requirement in one or more subsequent years.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we paid distributions to common stockholders of $11.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2018, prior to suspending distributions. Of that amount, $4.2 million was reinvested in shares of our common stock pursuant to the DRIP. During January and February 2018, when we were paying distributions, we funded distributions from cash on hand, representing proceeds from secured mortgages financing. Our board of directors will continue to evaluate our performance and assess our distribution policy; however, there can be no assurance as to when, or if, we will be able to resume paying distributions or the level at which we may pay them. Our ability to pay distributions in the future will depend on the amount of cash we are able to generate from our operations. The amount of cash available for distributions is affected by many factors, such as capital availability, rental income for acquired properties and our operating expense levels. Our net cash used in operating activities was approximately $7.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. There is no assurance that rents from the properties we own will increase, or that future acquisitions will increase our cash available for distributions to the level necessary for us to resume paying distributions to our stockholders.
Share Repurchase Program
In order to provide stockholders with interim liquidity, our board of directors has adopted the SRP that enables our stockholders, subject to significant conditions and limitations, to sell their shares back to us after having held them for at least one year. Our Advisor, directors and affiliates are prohibited from receiving a fee on any share repurchases. Under the SRP, which first became effective as of December 31, 2015, shares were repurchased on a quarterly basis. The SRP has been suspended since September 25, 2018, and the suspension will remain in effect until the date that we announce that we will resume paying regular cash distributions to our stockholders. For additional information on the SRP, see Note 6 — Common Stock to our consolidated financial statements found in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


42


The following table reflects the number of shares repurchased cumulatively through December 31, 2018:
 
 
Number of Shares Repurchased
 
Weighted-Average Price per Share
 
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2014
 

 
$

Year ended December 31, 2015
 
183,780

 
23.63

Year ended December 31, 2016
 
461,555

 
23.62

Year ended December 31, 2017 (1)
 
359,458

 
20.41

Year ended December 31, 2018 (2)
 
254,941

 
20.26

Cumulative repurchases as of December 31, 2018
 
1,259,734

 
22.03

________________
(1) Includes (i) 276,624 shares repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2017 for approximately $5.6 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.15, (ii) 578 shares repurchased during the three months ended June 30, 2017 for approximately $13,700 at a weighted-average price per share of $23.68, (iii) 82,256 shares repurchased during the three months ended September 30, 2017, for approximately $1.7 million at a weighted-average price per share of $21.25. During the three months ended September 30, 2017, following the effectiveness of the amendment and restatement of the SRP, our board of directors approved 100% of the repurchase requests made following the death or qualifying disability of stockholders during the period from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2017, which were fulfilled during the three months ended September 30, 2017. No repurchases have been or will be made with respect to requests received during 2017 that are not valid requests in accordance with the amended and restated SRP.
(2) Includes (i) 99,131 shares repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2018 for approximately $2.0 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.26 related to repurchase requests made pursuant to the SRP during the period from July 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017, (ii) 10,183 shares repurchased from an individual stockholder in a privately negotiated transaction during January 2018 for approximately $0.2 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.26, (iii) 145,627 shares repurchased during the three months ended December 31, 2018 for approximately $3.0 million at a weighted-average price per share of $20.26 which were comprised of shares related to repurchase requests made during the periods in 2018 when the SRP was active commencing with the reactivation of the SRP on April 26, 2018 until the suspension of the SRP on June 15, 2018 and the reactivation period commencing August 25, 2018 and ending on September 24, 2018.
Contractual Obligations
The following is a summary of our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2018:
 
 
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
(In thousands)
 
Total
 
2019
 
2020-2021
 
2022-2023
 
Thereafter
Mortgage notes payable:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal payments
 
$
299,000

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
299,000

Interest payments
 
124,557

 
13,541

 
27,119

 
27,082

 
56,815

Ground lease payments
 
235,722

 
4,746

 
9,492

 
$
9,492

 
211,992

Total
 
$
659,279

 
$
18,287

 
$
36,611

 
$
36,574

 
$
567,807

Election as a REIT 
We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code, effective for our taxable year ended December 31, 2014. We believe that, commencing with such taxable year, we have been organized and operated in a manner so that we qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code. We intend to continue to operate in such a manner, but no assurance can be given that we will operate in a manner so as to remain qualified for taxation as a REIT. In order to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT we must, among other things, distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (which does not equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP) determined without regard for the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gains, and must comply with a number of other organizational and operational requirements. If we continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal corporate income tax on that portion of our REIT taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders. Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain state and local taxes on our income and properties as well as federal income and excise taxes on our undistributed income.

43


Inflation
Many of our leases contain provisions designed to mitigate the adverse impact of inflation. These provisions generally increase rental rates during the terms of the leases either at fixed rates or indexed escalations (based on the Consumer Price Index or other measures). We may be adversely impacted by inflation on the leases that do not contain indexed escalation provisions. In addition, our net leases require the tenant to pay its allocable share of operating expenses, which may include common area maintenance costs, real estate taxes and insurance. This may reduce our exposure to increases in operating expenses resulting from inflation.
Related-Party Transactions and Agreements
Please see Note 8 — Related-Party Transactions and Arrangements to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements that have had or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
The market risk associated with financial instruments and derivative financial instruments is the risk of loss from adverse changes in market prices or interest rates. Our interest rate risk management objectives are to limit the impact of interest rate changes on earnings and cash flows and to lower our overall borrowing costs. From time to time, we may enter into interest rate hedge contracts such as swaps, caps, collars and treasury lock agreements in order to mitigate our interest rate risk with respect to various debt instruments. We will not hold or issue these derivative contracts for trading or speculative purposes. We do not have any foreign operations and thus we are not exposed to foreign currency fluctuations.
As of December 31, 2018, our debt consisted of fixed-rate secured mortgage notes payable with an aggregate carrying value of $299.0 million and a fair value of $301.2 million. Changes in market interest rates on our fixed-rate debt impact the fair value of the note, but have no impact on interest due on the note. For instance, if interest rates rise 100 basis points and our fixed rate debt balance remains constant, we expect the fair value of our obligation to decrease, the same way the price of a bond declines as interest rates rise. The sensitivity analysis related to our fixed–rate debt assumes an immediate 100 basis point move in interest rates from their December 31, 2017 levels, with all other variables held constant. A 100 basis point increase in market interest rates would result in a decrease in the fair value of our fixed-rate debt by $19.5 million. A 100 basis point decrease in market interest rates would result in an increase in the fair value of our fixed-rate debt by $21.1 million.
These amounts were determined by considering the impact of hypothetical interest rate changes on our borrowing costs, and assuming no other changes in our capital structure. As the information presented above includes only those exposures that existed as of December 31, 2018 and does not consider exposures or positions arising after that date. The information represented herein has limited predictive value. Future actual realized gains or losses with respect to interest rate fluctuations will depend on cumulative exposures, hedging strategies employed and the magnitude of the fluctuations.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The information required by this Item 8 is hereby incorporated by reference to our Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
None.

44


Item 9A.  Controls and Procedures.
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
In accordance with Rules 13a-15(b) and 15d-15(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), our management, under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) and Rule 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act) as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Based on such evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded, as of the end of such period, that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective in recording, processing, summarizing and reporting, on a timely basis, information required to be disclosed by us in our reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act.
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) or 15d-15(f) promulgated under the Exchange Act and as set forth below. Under Rule 13a-15(c), management must evaluate, with the participation of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, the effectiveness, as of the end of each calendar year, of our internal control over financial reporting. The term internal control over financial reporting is defined as a process designed by, or under the supervision of, the issuer’s principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, and effected by the issuer’s board of directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and includes those policies and procedures that:
1)
Pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the issuer;
2)
Provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the issuer are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the issuer; and
3)
Provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the issuer’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In the course of preparing this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the consolidated financial statements included herein, our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 using the criteria issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in the Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013). Based on that evaluation, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2018.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting.
No change occurred in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act) during the three months ended December 31, 2018 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Change of Corporate Name
On March 13, 2019, we filed an amendment to our charter changing our name from American Realty New York City REIT, Inc. to New York City REIT, Inc. with the Maryland State Department of Assessments and Taxation, which became effective upon filing.
The foregoing description of the material terms of this amendment to our charter in this Item 9B does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of amendment, which is filed as an exhibit to this Annual Report on Form 10-K and incorporated herein by reference.
PART III

45



Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that applies to all of our executive officers and directors, including but not limited to, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer. A copy of our code of ethics may be obtained, free of charge, by sending a written request to our executive office – 405 Park Avenue – 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10022, attention Chief Financial Officer. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is also available on our website, www.newyorkcityreit.com.
The other information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC with respect to our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC with respect to our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC with respect to our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC with respect to our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders.
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC with respect to our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders.
PART IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
(a)Financial Statement Schedules
See the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements at page F-1 of this report.
The following financial statement schedule is included herein at page F-30 of this report:
Schedule III – Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation
(b)Exhibits

46


EXHIBIT INDEX
The exhibits below are included, or incorporated by reference, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 (and are numbered in accordance with Item 601 of Regulation S-K). References in the exhibits below to American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc. reflect exhibits dated prior to our name change to New York City REIT, Inc. effective March 13, 2019.
Exhibit No.
  
Description
3.1 (1)
 
Articles of Amendment and Restatement for American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc.
3.2 *
 
Articles of Amendment for American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc., dated March 13, 2019
3.3 (1)
 
Amended and Restated Bylaws of American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc.
4.1 (2)
 
Agreement of Limited Partnership of New York City Operating Partnership, L.P., dated as of April 24, 2014
4.2 (3)
 
First Amendment to Agreement of Limited Partnership of New York City Operating Partnership, L.P., dated as of November 5, 2015
4.3 (4)
 
Amended and Restated Distribution Reinvestment Plan
10.1 (5)
 
Second Amended and Restated Advisory Agreement, dated as of November 16, 2018, by and among American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc., New York City Operating Partnership, L.P. and New York City Advisors, LLC
10.2  (2)
 
Property Management and Leasing Agreement, dated as of April 24, 2014, by and among American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc., New York City Operating Partnership, L.P. and New York City Properties, LLC
10.3 (6)
 
First Amendment, dated as of April 13, 2018, to Property Management and Leasing Agreement, dated as of April 24, 2014, by and among American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc., New York City Operating Partnership, L.P. and New York City Properties, LLC
10.4 (5)
 
Second Amendment, dated as of November 16, 2018, to Property Management and Leasing Agreement, dated as of April 24, 2014, by and among American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc., New York City Operating Partnership, L.P. and New York City Properties, LLC
10.5 (6)
 
Property Management and Leasing Agreement, dated as of April 13, 2018, by and among New York City Properties, LLC and the other parties thereto
10.6 (7)
 
Amended and Restated Employee and Director Incentive Restricted Share Plan of American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc., effective as of November 8, 2017
10.7 (8)
 
Indemnification Agreement, dated as of December 31, 2014, between the Company and William M. Kahane, Elizabeth K. Tuppeny, Robert T. Cassato, Nicholas S. Schorsch, Michael A. Happel, Gregory W. Sullivan, and RCS Capital Corporation
10.8 (9)
 
Indemnification Agreement, dated as of June 5, 2015, between the Company and Nicholas Radesca
10.9 (10)
 
Indemnification Agreement, dated as of June 22, 2015, between the Company and Patrick O’Malley
10.10 (1)
 
Form of Indemnification Agreement
10.11 (11)
 
Loan Agreement, dated as of June 15, 2016, between ARC NYC1140SIXTH, LLC and Ladder Capital Finance I LLC
10.12 (11)
 
Form of Restricted Stock Award Agreement
10.13 (12)
 
Loan Agreement, dated as of March 6, 2017, between Barclays Bank PLC, as lender, and ARC NYC123WILLIAM, LLC, as borrower
10.14 (12)
 
Limited Recourse Guaranty, dated as of March 6, 2017, made by New York City Operating Partnership, L.P., as guarantor, in favor of Barclays Bank PLC, as lender
10.15 (12)
 
Environmental Indemnity Agreement, dated as of March 6, 2017, made by ARC NYC123WILLIAM, LLC, as borrower, and New York City Operating Partnership, L.P., as principal, in favor of Barclays Bank PLC, as indemnitee
10.16 (13)
 
Settlement Agreement dated as of February 9, 2018, by and among American Realty Capital New York City REIT, Inc., Cove Partners III LLC and the other signatories thereto
10.17 (1)
 
Loan Agreement, dated as of April 13, 2018, by and among ARC NYC400E67, LLC and ARC NYC200RIVER01, LLC, as borrowers, and Societe Generale, as lender
10.18 (1)
 
Guaranty of Recourse Obligations made by New York City Operating Partnership, L.P., as guarantor, in favor of Societe Generale, dated as of April 13, 2018
21.1 *
 
List of Subsidiaries of New York City REIT, Inc.
23.1 *
 
Consent of KPMG LLP
31.1 *
 
Certification of the Principal Executive Officer of the Company pursuant to Securities Exchange Act Rule 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a), as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
31.2 *
 
Certification of the Principal Financial Officer of the Company pursuant to Securities Exchange Act Rule 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a), as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
32 *
 
Written statements of the Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer of the Company pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
99.1 (14)
 
Second Amended and Restated Share Repurchase Program effective as of July 14, 2017.
99.2 (15)
 
Amendment to Second Amended and Restated Share Repurchase Program effective as of August 25, 2018.
101 *
 
XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language). The following materials from New York City REIT, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, formatted in XBRL: (i) the Consolidated Balance Sheets, (ii) the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss, (iii) the Consolidated Statement of Changes in Equity, (iv) the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows and (v) the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
____________________
*     Filed herewith.
Table of Contents


47


(1)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 14, 2018.
(2)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 14, 2014.
(3)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 16, 2015.
(4)
Filed as Appendix A to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed with the SEC on May 22, 2015.
(5)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 19, 2018.
(6)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Tender Offer Statement on Schedule TO filed with the SEC on June 15, 2018.
(7)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 13, 2017.
(8)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to Post-Effective Amendment No. 4 to Form S-11 filed with the SEC on January 7, 2015.
(9)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 8, 2015.
(10)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 12, 2015.
(11)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 12, 2016.
(12)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 10, 2017.
(13)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 14, 2018.
(14)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 14, 2017.
(15)
Filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Form 8-K filed with the SEC on August 24, 2018.
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary.
Not applicable.

48


Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, on this 15th day of March, 2019.
 
NEW YORK CITY REIT, INC.
 
By:
/s/ EDWARD M. WEIL
 
 
EDWARD M. WEIL
 
 
EXECUTIVE CHAIRMAN, CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Name
 
Capacity
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Edward M. Weil, Jr.
 
Executive Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President and Secretary (Principal Executive Officer)
 
March 15, 2019
Edward M. Weil, Jr.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Katie P. Kurtz
 
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)
 
March 15, 2019
Katie P. Kurtz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Lee M. Elman
 
Independent Director, Audit Committee Chair, Conflicts Committee Chair
 
March 15, 2019
Lee M. Elman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Elizabeth K. Tuppeny
 
Independent Director
 
March 15, 2019
Elizabeth K. Tuppeny
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Abby M. Wenzel
 
Independent Director
 
March 15, 2019
Abby M. Wenzel
 
 
 
 

49

NEW YORK CITY REIT, INC.

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS





F-1

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM



To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
New York City REIT, Inc.:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of New York City REIT, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes and financial statement schedule III (collectively, the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ KPMG LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2015.
New York, New York
March 15, 2019

F-2

NEW YORK CITY REIT, INC

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
ASSETS
 
 
 
Real estate investments, at cost:
 
 
 
Land
$
138,110

 
$
133,380

Buildings and improvements
533,099

 
514,459

Acquired intangible assets
103,285

 
105,954

Total real estate investments, at cost
774,494

 
753,793

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization
(90,235
)
 
(64,926
)
Total real estate investments, net
684,259

 
688,867

Cash and cash equivalents
47,952

 
39,598

Restricted cash
6,849

 
7,618

Prepaid expenses and other assets (including amounts due from related parties of $158 and $39 at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively)
26,010

 
17,721

Deferred leasing costs, net
8,672

 
6,646

Total assets
$
773,742

 
$
760,450

 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
 
 
 
Mortgage notes payable, net
$
291,653

 
$
233,517

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities (including amounts due to related parties of $204 and $364 at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively)
11,127

 
11,406

Below-market lease liabilities, net
21,514

 
24,753

Deferred revenue
5,768

 
5,255

Distributions payable

 
4,035

Total liabilities
330,062

 
278,966

 
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized, none issued and outstanding at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value, 300,000,000 shares authorized, 30,990,448 and 31,382,120 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
310

 
314

Additional paid-in capital
685,758

 
691,775

Accumulated other comprehensive income