424B5 1 d267267d424b5.htm PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT Prospectus Supplement
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-203882

 

Prospectus Supplement

(To Prospectus dated May 18, 2015)

4,000,000 Shares

 

 

LOGO

City Office REIT, Inc.

6.625% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock

 

 

We are offering 4,000,000 shares of our 6.625% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or the Series A Preferred Stock.

Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock will be payable quarterly in arrears on or about the 25th day of January, April, July and October of each year. The dividend rate is 6.625% per annum of the $25.00 liquidation preference, which is equivalent to $1.65625 per share of Series A Preferred Stock. The first dividend on the Series A Preferred Stock sold in this offering will be paid on January 25, 2017, will cover the period from, but excluding, October 4, 2016 to, but excluding, January 25, 2017 and will be in the amount of $0.50608 per share.

Generally, we may not redeem the Series A Preferred Stock until October 4, 2021. On and after October 4, 2021, we may, at our option, redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part from time to time, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of redemption. In addition, upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined herein), as a result of which our common stock and the common securities of the acquiring or surviving entity (or American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs, representing such common securities) are not listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, the NYSE MKT LLC, or the NYSE MKT, or the NASDAQ Stock Market, or NASDAQ, or listed or quoted on a successor exchange or quotation system, we may, at our option, redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part within 120 days after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of redemption. To the extent we exercise our redemption right relating to the Series A Preferred Stock, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not be permitted to exercise the conversion right described below in respect of their shares called for redemption. The Series A Preferred Stock has no maturity date and will remain outstanding indefinitely unless redeemed by us or converted in connection with a Change of Control by the holders of Series A Preferred Stock.

Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, as a result of which our common stock and the common securities of the acquiring or surviving entity (or ADRs representing such common securities) are not listed on the NYSE, the NYSE MKT or NASDAQ, or listed or quoted on a successor exchange or quotation system, each holder of Series A Preferred Stock will have the right (subject to our right to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock in whole or in part, as described above, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date (as defined herein)) to convert some or all of the Series A Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control Conversion Date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series A Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of:

 

   

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the Change of Control Conversion Date (unless the Change of Control Conversion Date is after a record date for a Series A Preferred Stock dividend payment and prior to the corresponding Series A Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined herein); and

 

   

3.7965, or the Share Cap, subject to certain adjustments;

subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration as described in this prospectus supplement.

The Series A Preferred Stock is subject to certain restrictions on ownership designed to, among other things, preserve our qualification as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for federal income tax purposes. See “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus and “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in this prospectus supplement.

We intend to file an application to list the Series A Preferred Stock on the NYSE under the symbol “CIO PRA.” Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “CIO.”

Investing in our Series A Preferred Stock involves risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement, on page 2 of the accompanying prospectus and on page 9 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015, or the 2015 10-K, for a discussion of risks you should consider before deciding to invest in our Series A Preferred Stock.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

     Per
Share
     Total  

Public offering price

   $ 25.00       $ 100,000,000   

Underwriting discounts and commissions

   $ 0.7875       $ 3,150,000   

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $ 24.2125       $ 96,850,000   

 

 

We have granted the underwriters the option to purchase up to 600,000 additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions within 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement. If the underwriters exercise the option in full, the underwriting discounts and commissions will be $3,622,500 and the proceeds, before expenses, to us will be $111,377,500.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Series A Preferred Stock to purchasers on or about October 4, 2016 through the book entry facilities of The Depository Trust Company.

 

 

Book-running Managers

 

RAYMOND JAMES    WUNDERLICH

 

 

D.A. DAVIDSON & CO.    JANNEY MONTGOMERY SCOTT    COMPASS POINT

The date of this prospectus supplement is September 26, 2016


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus supplement.

 

Prospectus Supplement   

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS

     S-1   

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-2   

SUMMARY

     S-4   

THE OFFERING

     S-7   

RISK FACTORS

     S-13   

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

     S-17   

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-18   

CAPITALIZATION

     S-19   

DESCRIPTION OF THE SERIES A PREFERRED STOCK

     S-21   

BUSINESS

     S-35   

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     S-40   

UNDERWRITING

     S-46   

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-51   

EXPERTS

     S-51   

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-51   

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-51   
Prospectus   

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii   

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF INFORMATION FILED WITH THE SEC

     iii   

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     iv   

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     v   

CITY OFFICE REIT, INC.

     1   

RISK FACTORS

     2   

COMPUTATION OF RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     3   

USE OF PROCEEDS

     4   

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK

     5   

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     12   

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23   

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     25   

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     26   

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     29   

DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF CITY OFFICE REIT OPERATING PARTNERSHIP, L.P.

     36   

MATERIAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     52   

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     77   

LEGAL MATTERS

     80   

EXPERTS

     81   

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering.

To the extent the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or documents incorporated by reference, the information in this prospectus supplement will supersede such information. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) that adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the SEC shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing.

This prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the accompanying prospectus as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation By Reference” in this prospectus supplement and “Incorporation By Reference of Information Filed with the SEC” and “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus. Unless the context suggests otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to “City Office,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” are to City Office REIT, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including City Office REIT Operating Partnership, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership of which we are the sole general partner and through which we conduct substantially all of our business (“our operating partnership”), except where it is clear from the context that the term only means the issuer of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock in this offering. “Second City” refers to Second City Capital Partners II, Limited Partnership. “Second City GP” refers to Second City General Partner II, Limited Partnership. “Gibralt” refers to Gibralt US, Inc. “GCC Amberglen” refers to GCC Amberglen Investments Limited Partnership. “CIO OP” refers to CIO OP Limited Partnership. “CIO REIT” refers to CIO REIT Stock Limited Partnership and CIO REIT Stock GP Limited Partnership. The “Second City Group” refers to Second City, any future real estate funds created by the principals of Second City, Second City GP, Gibralt, GCC Amberglen, CIO OP, CIO REIT and Daniel Rapaport.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any applicable free writing prospectus. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any applicable free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of their respective dates or on the date or dates which are specified in these documents. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date, e.g., a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in each contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act). Also, documents we subsequently file with the SEC and incorporate by reference will contain forward-looking statements. In particular, statements relating to our liquidity and capital resources, portfolio performance, acquisition and disposition activity and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Furthermore, all of the statements regarding future financial or operating performance or expectations, or anticipated market conditions and demographics are forward-looking statements. We are including this cautionary statement to make applicable, and take advantage of, the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for any such forward-looking statements. We caution investors that any forward-looking statements presented in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in each are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management. When used, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “result” and similar expressions that do not relate solely to historical matters are intended to identify forward-looking statements. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions and may be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all).

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance, liquidity or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:

 

   

adverse economic or real estate developments in the office sector or the markets in which we operate;

 

   

changes in local, regional and national economic conditions;

 

   

our inability to compete effectively;

 

   

our inability to collect rent from tenants or renew tenants’ leases on attractive terms, if at all;

 

   

demand for and market acceptance of our properties for rental purposes;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to achieve higher profitability and lower expenses as a result of the internalization of our management;

 

   

defaults on or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

   

increased interest rates and operating costs;

 

   

decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;

 

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our failure to obtain necessary financing or access the capital markets on favorable terms or at all;

 

   

changes in the availability of additional acquisition opportunities;

 

   

availability of qualified personnel;

 

   

our inability to successfully complete real estate acquisitions or dispositions;

 

   

our failure to successfully operate acquired properties and operations;

 

   

changes in our business strategy;

 

   

our failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;

 

   

environmental uncertainties and risks related to natural disasters;

 

   

our failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT;

 

   

government approvals, actions and initiatives, including the need for compliance with environmental requirements;

 

   

outcome of claims and litigation involving or affecting us;

 

   

financial market fluctuations; and

 

   

changes in real estate, taxation and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates.

While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We disclaim any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance, liquidity or transactions, see the section entitled “Risk Factors” herein, in the accompanying prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as updated by our subsequent filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference herein.

 

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SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our Series A Preferred Stock. We urge you to read this entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein carefully, including the financial statements and notes to those financial statements incorporated by reference herein and therein. Please read “Risk Factors” for more information about important risks that you should consider before investing in our Series A Preferred Stock.

Unless otherwise indicated, the information contained in this prospectus supplement is as of June 30, 2016 and assumes that the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is not exercised. All ownership interests in our properties represent economic interest unless otherwise indicated.

City Office REIT, Inc.

We are a Maryland corporation focused on acquiring, owning and operating high-quality office properties located primarily in metropolitan areas in the Southern and Western United States. Our target markets possess a number of attractive demographic and employment characteristics that we believe will lead to capital appreciation and growth in rental income at our properties. Our senior management team has extensive industry relationships and a proven track record in executing this strategy, which we believe provides a competitive advantage to our shareholders.

We believe that our target markets offer the opportunity for attractive risk-adjusted returns due to the following characteristics: favorable economic growth trends; growing populations with above average employment growth forecasts; a large number of government offices; large international, national and regional employers across diversified industries; low-cost centers for business operations; proximity to large universities and increasing office occupancy rates. We also believe that new construction of office properties has been limited in most of our target markets since 2008 because rental rates in these markets generally have not supported new development. Within our target markets, we primarily focus on Class A and B properties with a purchase price between $25 million and $100 million and expected capitalization rates generally between seven and eight percent. We believe that there is a lower level of competition for these properties in our target markets because large institutional investors generally have focused on larger properties in gateway markets, such as New York, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Boston, Chicago and San Francisco, while local real estate operators in these markets typically do not benefit from the same access to capital as public REITs.

Our senior management team has extensive experience in real estate markets and is made up of James Farrar, our chief executive officer, Gregory Tylee, our president and chief operating officer, and Anthony Maretic, our chief financial officer, each with over 20 years of experience. We use local firms in our markets to manage and lease our geographically diversified portfolio to benefit from their local market knowledge, efficient operations and existing infrastructure without incurring the overhead costs associated with creating our own property management function in each of our markets.

We currently own 15 office complexes comprised of 33 office buildings with a total of approximately 3.5 million square feet of net rentable area (“NRA”) in the metropolitan areas of Boise, Dallas, Denver, Orlando, Portland and Tampa. We believe that our properties are high

 



 

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quality assets that provide excellent access to transportation options, are located near affluent neighborhoods, contain extensive amenities and are well maintained. We also believe that our properties have a stable and diverse tenant base, including federal and state governmental agencies and national and regional businesses. As of June 30, 2016, adjusted for our acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016, our portfolio was 92.8% leased and approximately 49.0% of the base rental revenue from our properties was derived from tenants in these markets that are federal or state government agencies or investment grade tenants. Our largest tenant is the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, whose lease at the Cherry Creek property expires in 2026 and represents approximately 9.0% of the base rental revenue of our portfolio at June 30, 2016, adjusted for our acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016. Our properties also have a stable, long-term tenancy profile and our occupied and committed leases have staggered expirations and a weighted average remaining lease term to maturity of 4.9 years at June 30, 2016, adjusted for our acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016. The majority of our leases are modified gross leases pursuant to which our tenants reimburse us for operating expenses, property taxes and insurance in excess of a base amount. Our leases typically include rent escalation provisions designed to provide annual growth in our rental income.

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014. We are structured as an umbrella partnership REIT (“UPREIT”), which means that we own all of our properties through our operating partnership and its subsidiaries.

Recent Developments

FRP Collection

On July 12, 2016, we, through two joint ventures, closed on the acquisition of the FRP Collection located in Orlando, Florida (“FRP Collection”) for $49.8 million, exclusive of closing costs and working capital adjustments. We acquired a 95% interest in the FRP Collection, with the remaining 5% interest held by the joint venture partners. One of our subsidiaries is acting as the general partner of each joint venture. The FRP Collection includes five Class A office buildings and a ten acre land parcel within the Central Florida Research Park. The FRP Collection’s five buildings total 272,192 square feet of net rentable area and are 93.0% leased.

Unit Redemption

On July 14, 2016, we issued a total of 3,126,084 shares of our common stock to certain members of the Second City Group in connection with the Second City Group’s redemption of a total of 3,126,084 common units of limited partnership interest in our operating partnership.

FRP Collection Acquisition Financing

In connection with our acquisition of the FRP Collection, we entered into a loan agreement with BankUnited, N.A. providing for a $30.9 million mortgage loan, which is evidenced by a promissory note. The net proceeds from the mortgage loan were used to provide term financing for the FRP Collection and to repay all outstanding draws under our secured credit facility (our Secured Credit Facility).

The mortgage loan matures on September 2, 2023 and bears interest at a fixed per annum rate equal to 3.85%. Monthly payments include principal and interest with principal payments calculated using an amortization schedule of 30 years for the balance of the term of the mortgage loan with the remaining principal balance and all accrued and unpaid interest due at maturity. We are subject to certain penalty fees if the mortgage loan is prepaid on or before the second anniversary of its execution.

 



 

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Properties Under Contract

We have entered into an agreement to acquire Park Tower, an approximately 475,000 square foot office tower in downtown Tampa, for $80.5 million. This property is currently 86.0% leased and is prominently located at the downtown intersection of two arterial roads. The property has an impressive roster of credit tenants with long-term leases that we anticipate will generate steady cash flow growth over time. In addition, we believe that additional value and improved leasing performance can be created through a cosmetic capital improvement program. Several conditions to closing on the acquisition remain to be satisfied, including the successful completion of our diligence process, and there can be no assurance that we will complete the transaction on the general terms described above or at all.

We have entered into an agreement to acquire 5090 N 40th St, an approximately 176,000 square foot office building in Phoenix, for $43.0 million. This property is currently 90.4% leased and is located in the heart of the Camelback Corridor, considered a premier business corridor in metropolitan Phoenix. The property has been institutionally maintained, undergone a recent renovation and is located in close proximity to both first-class amenities and executive housing. Several conditions to closing on the acquisition remain to be satisfied, including the successful completion of our diligence process, and there can be no assurance that we will complete the transaction on the general terms described above or at all.

Acquisition Pipeline

Including Park Tower and 5090 N 40th St, we are currently reviewing over $350 million of potential property acquisitions that meet our preliminary investment criteria. These well-situated properties are located in strong submarkets of our target markets, including Dallas, Denver, Phoenix and Tampa. In addition, these properties are generally characterized as possessing high credit tenancy, below market in-place rents, acquisition prices below replacement cost and the potential to enhance value through active management.

We believe that our proven track record of closing acquisitions and strong ties to the brokerage community help us acquire target properties at reasonable valuations. Furthermore, we believe we can create additional value through prudent management strategies such as implementing cosmetic improvements that “reposition” the property at a higher quality level, by completing capital investments that lower operating costs and by actively reviewing the tenant mix to strengthen the rent roll and enhance cash flow. Finally, we believe that our lower leverage targets and diversified debt capital relationships, including with banks and insurance companies, favorably position us to move quickly and efficiently in marketed sale transactions. Many of our competitors have historically relied on commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) loan executions to finance purchases, and we believe the recent dislocation in the CMBS market may result in reduced competition for acquisitions in our $25-$100 million acquisition target range and target markets.

 



 

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The Offering

 

Issuer

City Office REIT, Inc.

 

Securities offered by us

4,000,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock (4,600,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock if the underwriters’ option is exercised in full). We reserve the right to reopen this series and issue additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock either through public or private sales at any time.

 

Ranking

The Series A Preferred Stock will, with respect to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking junior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up (“Junior Stock”);

 

   

on a parity with any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking on a parity with the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up (“Parity Stock”); and

 

   

junior to any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

 

  For purposes of this prospectus supplement, the term “capital stock” does not include convertible or exchangeable debt securities, including convertible or exchangeable debt securities that rank senior to the Series A Preferred Stock prior to conversion or exchange.

 

Dividends

Holders of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive cumulative cash dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock at the rate of 6.625% per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, which is equivalent to $1.65625 per annum per share. Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock will be payable quarterly in arrears on or about the 25th day of January, April, July and October of each year. The first dividend on the Series A Preferred Stock sold in this offering will be paid on January 25, 2017, will cover the period from, but excluding, October 4, 2016 to, but excluding, January 25, 2017 and will be in the amount of $0.50608 per share.

 



 

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Liquidation preference

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders a liquidation preference in cash or property, at fair market value as determined by our Board of Directors, of $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of the payment. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive this liquidating distribution before we distribute any assets to holders of our common stock and any other class or series of Junior Stock.

 

No maturity

The Series A Preferred Stock has no maturity date, and we are not required to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock. In addition, we are not required to set aside assets to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock. Accordingly, the shares of Series A Preferred Stock will remain outstanding indefinitely unless we decide to redeem them or, under circumstances where the holders of Series A Preferred Stock have a conversion right, such holders decide to convert their shares.

 

Optional redemption

We may not redeem the Series A Preferred Stock prior to October 4, 2021, except as described below under “Special Optional Redemption” and in limited circumstances relating to maintaining our qualification as a REIT. On and after October 4, 2021, we may, at our option, redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole, at any time, or in part, from time to time, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of redemption.

 

Special optional redemption

In the event of a Change of Control (as defined below), we may, at our option, exercise our special optional redemption right to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part within, 120 days after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of redemption. To the extent that we exercise our redemption right relating to the Series A Preferred Stock, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not be permitted to exercise the conversion right described below in respect of their shares called for redemption.

 

  A “Change of Control” is when, after the original issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock, the following have occurred and are continuing:

 

   

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, of beneficial ownership, directly or

 



 

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indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition transactions of shares of our capital stock entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally in elections of directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

 

   

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity has a class of common securities (or ADRs representing such common securities) listed on the NYSE, the NYSE MKT or NASDAQ, or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE MKT or NASDAQ.

 

Change in control conversion rights

Except to the extent that we have elected to exercise our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right by providing a notice of redemption prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series A Preferred Stock will have the right to convert some or all of the Series A Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control Conversion Date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series A Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of:

 

   

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the Change of Control Conversion Date (unless the Change of Control Conversion Date is after a record date for a Series A Preferred Stock dividend payment and prior to the corresponding Series A Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price; and

 

   

3.7965 (i.e., the Share Cap), subject to certain adjustments;

 

  subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration upon conversion as described in this prospectus supplement.

 



 

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  If we have provided a redemption notice with respect to some or all of the Series A Preferred Stock, holders of any Series A Preferred Stock that we have called for redemption will not be permitted to exercise their Change of Control Conversion Right in respect of any of their shares of Series A Preferred Stock that have been called for redemption, and any Series A Preferred Stock subsequently called for redemption that has been tendered for conversion will be redeemed on the applicable date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control Conversion Date.

 

  For definitions of “Change of Control Conversion Right,” “Change of Control Conversion Date” and “Common Stock Price” and for a description of the adjustments and provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration that may be applicable to the Change of Control Conversion Right, see “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Conversion Rights.”

 

  Except as provided above in connection with a Change of Control, the Series A Preferred Stock is not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.

 

Voting rights

Holders of Series A Preferred Stock generally will have no voting rights. However, if we do not pay dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock for six quarterly periods, whether or not consecutive, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of our Parity Stock having similar voting rights will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our Board of Directors until we pay all dividends which we owe on the Series A Preferred Stock. The affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of any other class or series of our preferred stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, is required for us to authorize, create or increase the number of shares of any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up. In addition, the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock (voting as a separate class) is required to amend our charter (including the articles supplementary designating the Series A Preferred Stock) in a manner that materially and adversely affects the rights of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock.

 



 

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  Among other things, we may, without any vote of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock, issue additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock and we may authorize and issue additional shares of any class or series of our Junior Stock or our Parity Stock.

 

Restrictions on ownership and transfer

Our charter, including the articles supplementary setting forth the terms of the Series A Preferred Stock, generally prohibits any person from actually, beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock, including the Series A Preferred Stock. These provisions may limit the ability of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock to convert their Series A Preferred Stock into our common stock. Our Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, exempt a person from the 9.8% ownership limits under certain circumstances. See “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus and “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $96.6 million ($111.1 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and the estimated expenses of this offering payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of Series A Preferred Stock offered hereby to finance in part our acquisitions of Park Tower and 5090 N 40th St, with the remainder for general working capital purposes, including possible future acquisitions, creating reserves for capital expenditures, tenant improvements and leasing commissions.

 

Settlement date

Delivery of the shares will be made against payment therefor on or about October 4, 2016.

 

Transfer agent

The transfer agent for the Series A Preferred Stock will be American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

Proposed NYSE symbol

We intend to file an application to list the Series A Preferred Stock on the NYSE under the symbol “CIO PRA.” If the application is approved, we expect trading to commence within 30 days after the initial delivery of the Series A Preferred Stock.

 



 

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Risk factors

Investing in the Series A Preferred Stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement, on page 2 of the accompanying prospectus and in Item 1A of Part I of the 2015 Form 10-K.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described below, beginning on page 2 of the accompanying prospectus and under the heading “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I of the 2015 Form 10-K before making an investment decision. The risks and uncertainties described below and in other documents we have filed with the SEC are not the only risks and uncertainties we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations. If certain of the risks described in the risk factors incorporated by reference herein actually occur, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer. In that event the trading price of the Series A Preferred Stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Relating to the Series A Preferred Stock and this Offering

The Series A Preferred Stock is subordinate to our existing and future debt, and your interests could be diluted by the issuance of additional shares of preferred stock and by other transactions.

The Series A Preferred Stock will rank junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness, any classes and series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and other non-equity claims on us and our assets available to satisfy claims against us, including claims in bankruptcy, liquidation or similar proceedings. Our existing debt includes restrictions on our ability to pay dividends to preferred stockholders, and our future debt may include similar restrictions. Our charter currently authorizes the issuance of up to 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more classes or series. Subject to limitations prescribed by Maryland law and our charter, our Board of Directors is authorized to issue, from our authorized but unissued shares of capital stock, preferred stock in such classes or series as our Board of Directors may determine and to establish from time to time the number of shares of preferred stock to be included in any such class or series. The issuance of additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock or additional shares of Parity Stock would dilute the interests of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock, and the issuance of shares of any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or the incurrence of additional indebtedness could affect our ability to pay dividends on, redeem or pay the liquidation preference on the Series A Preferred Stock. Other than the conversion right afforded to holders of Series A Preferred Stock that may become exercisable in connection with certain changes of control as described in this prospectus supplement under the heading “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Conversion Rights,” none of the provisions relating to the Series A Preferred Stock contain any terms relating to or limiting our indebtedness or affording the holders of Series A Preferred Stock protection in the event of a highly leveraged or other transaction, including a merger or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all our assets, that might adversely affect the holders of Series A Preferred Stock, so long as the rights of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock are not materially and adversely affected.

The Series A Preferred Stock has not been rated.

We have not sought to obtain a rating for the Series A Preferred Stock. No assurance can be given, however, that one or more rating agencies might not independently determine to issue such a rating or that such a rating, if issued, would not adversely affect the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock. In addition, we may elect in the future to obtain a rating of the Series A Preferred Stock, which could adversely impact the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock. Ratings only

 

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reflect the views of the rating agency or agencies issuing the ratings and such ratings could be revised downward or withdrawn entirely at the discretion of the issuing rating agency if in its judgment circumstances so warrant. Any such downward revision or withdrawal of a rating could have an adverse effect on the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock.

As a holder of Series A Preferred Stock, you will have extremely limited voting rights.

Your voting rights as a holder of Series A Preferred Stock will be limited. Our shares of common stock are the only class of our securities that carry full voting rights. Voting rights for holders of Series A Preferred Stock exist primarily with respect to the ability to elect, together with holders of our Parity Stock having similar voting rights two additional directors to our Board of Directors in the event that six quarterly dividends (whether or not consecutive) payable on the Series A Preferred Stock are in arrears, and with respect to voting on amendments to our charter or articles supplementary relating to the Series A Preferred Stock that materially and adversely affect the rights of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock or create additional classes or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up. Other than the limited circumstances described in this prospectus supplement, holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not have any voting rights. See “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Voting Rights.”

Our cash available for dividends may not be sufficient to pay dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock at expected levels, and we cannot assure you of our ability to pay dividends in the future. We may use borrowed funds or funds from other sources to pay dividends, which may adversely impact our operations.

We intend to pay regular quarterly dividends to our preferred stockholders. Distributions declared by us will be authorized by our Board of Directors in its sole discretion out of assets legally available for distribution and will depend upon a number of factors, including our earnings, our financial condition, the requirements for qualification as a REIT, restrictions under applicable law, our need to comply with the terms of our existing financing arrangements, the capital requirements of our company and other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant from time to time. We may be required to fund distributions from working capital, borrowings under our Secured Credit Facility, proceeds of this offering or other similar offerings or a sale of assets to the extent distributions exceed earnings or cash flows from operations. Funding distributions from working capital would restrict our operations. If we borrow from our Secured Credit Facility in order to pay distributions, we would be more limited in our ability to execute our strategy of using our Secured Credit Facility to fund acquisitions or capital improvements. If we are required to sell assets to fund dividends, such asset sales may occur at a time or in a manner that is not consistent with our disposition strategy. If we borrow to fund dividends, our leverage ratios and future interest costs would increase, thereby reducing our earnings and cash available for distribution from what they otherwise would have been. We may not be able to pay dividends in the future. In addition, some of our distributions may be considered a return of capital for income tax purposes. If we decide to make distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, such distributions would generally be considered a return of capital for federal income tax purposes to the extent of the holder’s adjusted tax basis in their shares. A return of capital is not taxable, but it has the effect of reducing the holder’s adjusted tax basis in its investment. If distributions exceed the adjusted tax basis of a holder’s shares, they will be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of such stock.

 

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You may not be permitted to exercise conversion rights upon a change of control. If exercisable, the change of control conversion feature of the Series A Preferred Stock may not adequately compensate you, and the change of control conversion and redemption features of the Series A Preferred Stock may make it more difficult for a party to take over our company or discourage a party from taking over our company

Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, holders of Series A Preferred Stock will have the right to convert some or all of their Series A Preferred Stock into our common stock (or equivalent value of alternative consideration). Notwithstanding that we generally may not redeem the Series A Preferred Stock prior to October 4, 2021, we have a special optional redemption right to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock in the event of a Change of Control, and holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not have the right to convert any shares that we have elected to redeem prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date. See “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Conversion Rights” and “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Redemption.” Upon such a conversion, the holders will be limited to a maximum number of shares of our common stock equal to the Share Cap multiplied by the number of Series A Preferred Stock converted. If the Common Stock Price (as defined in “Description of the Series A Preferred Stock—Conversion Rights”) is less than $6.58 (which is approximately 50% of the per-share closing sale price of our common stock on September 26, 2016), subject to adjustment, each holder will receive a maximum of 3.7965 shares of our common stock per share of Series A Preferred Stock, which may result in a holder receiving value that is less than the liquidation preference of the Series A Preferred Stock. In addition, those features of the Series A Preferred Stock may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making an acquisition proposal for our company or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control of our company under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-current market price or that stockholders may otherwise believe is in their best interests.

There is no established trading market for the Series A Preferred Stock and listing on the NYSE does not guarantee a market for the Series A Preferred Stock.

The Series A Preferred Stock is a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We intend to file an application to list the Series A Preferred Stock on the NYSE, but there can be no assurance that the NYSE will approve the Series A Preferred Stock for listing.

Even if the NYSE approves the Series A Preferred Stock for listing, there is no guarantee the Series A Preferred Stock will remain listed on the NYSE or any other nationally recognized exchange. If the Series A Preferred Stock is delisted from the NYSE or another nationally recognized exchange, we could face significant material adverse consequences, including:

 

   

a limited availability of market quotations for the Series A Preferred Stock;

 

   

reduced liquidity with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock;

 

   

a determination that the Series A Preferred Stock is “penny stock,” which will require brokers trading in the Series A Preferred Stock to adhere to more stringent rules, possibly resulting in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for the Series A Preferred Stock; and

 

   

a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

Moreover, even if the NYSE approves the Series A Preferred Stock for listing, an active trading market on the NYSE for the Series A Preferred Stock may not develop or, if it does develop, may not last, in which case the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock could be materially and adversely affected.

 

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We have been advised by the underwriters that they intend to make a market in the Series A Preferred Stock, but they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue market-making at any time without notice.

The market price and trading volume of the Series A Preferred Stock may fluctuate significantly and be volatile due to numerous circumstances beyond our control

The Series A Preferred Stock is a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We intend to file an application to list the Series A Preferred Stock on the NYSE, but there can be no assurance that the NYSE will approve the Series A Preferred Stock for listing. If the NYSE approves the Series A Preferred Stock for listing and if an active trading market does develop on the NYSE, the Series A Preferred Stock may trade at prices lower than the public offering price, and the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock would depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

 

   

prevailing interest rates;

 

   

the market for similar securities;

 

   

general economic and financial market conditions;

 

   

our issuance, as well as the issuance by our subsidiaries, of additional preferred equity or debt securities; and

 

   

our financial condition, cash flows, liquidity, results of operations, funds from operations and prospects.

The trading prices of common and preferred equity securities issued by REITs and other real estate companies historically have been affected by changes in market interest rates. One of the factors that may influence the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock is the annual yield from distributions on the Series A Preferred Stock as compared to yields on other financial instruments. An increase in market interest rates may lead prospective purchasers of the Series A Preferred Stock to demand a higher annual yield, which could reduce the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock.

Future offerings of debt securities or shares of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up may adversely affect the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock.

If we decide to issue debt securities or shares of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up in the future, it is possible that these securities will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable debt securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of the Series A Preferred Stock and may result in dilution to owners of the Series A Preferred Stock. We and, indirectly, our stockholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Because our decision to issue debt securities or shares of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus holders of the Series A Preferred Stock will bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of the Series A Preferred Stock and diluting the value of their share holdings in us.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

The following table sets forth our consolidated ratios of earnings to fixed charges and of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the periods indicated. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have not issued any shares of preferred stock. Because we did not have any preferred stock outstanding and therefore paid no preferred stock dividends during any of the periods presented, the ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends is identical to the ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods presented.

 

    City Office REIT, Inc.     City Office REIT, Inc. Predecessor  
    Six months
ended
June 30,
2016
    Year ended
December  31,
2015
    Period from
April 21,
2014 to
December 31,
2014
    Period from
January 1,
2014 to
April 20,
2014
    Year ended
December 31,
2013
    Year ended
December 31,
2012
 

Consolidated Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

    1.74        (0.32     (0.05     (0.33     (0.22     (0.49

The computation of earnings to fixed charges indicates that earnings were inadequate to cover fixed charges on the basis of our historical financial statements by approximately $7,666,047 for the year ended December 31, 2015 and $6,854,774 for the period from April 21, 2014 to December 31, 2014, and City Office REIT, Inc. Predecessor’s historical financial statements by approximately $2,530,157 for the period from January 1, 2014 to April 20, 2014, and $4,177,293 and $1,881,575 for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

For each period, we computed the ratios by dividing earnings by fixed charges. For purposes of calculating the ratios, “earnings” consist of income (loss) from continuing operations before equity in income from unconsolidated ventures plus fixed charges, less capitalized interest, and “fixed charges” consist of interest expense, capitalized interest and rental expense at computed interest factor (the amounts of which represent those portions of rent expense that are reasonable approximations of interest costs).

We refer to the entities that owned the historical interests in the AmberGlen, Central Fairwinds, City Center, Cherry Creek, Corporate Parkway and Washington Group Plaza properties, which were the initial properties contributed to us in our formation transactions, as the “City Office REIT, Inc. Predecessor.”

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds of this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses, will be approximately $96.6 million ($111.1 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full). We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to finance in part our acquisitions of Park Tower and 5090 N 40th St, with the remainder for general working capital purposes, including possible future acquisitions, creating reserves for capital expenditures, tenant improvements and leasing commissions. Pending application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds from this offering in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our qualification as a REIT. These investments are expected to provide a lower net return than we will seek to achieve from our investment in office properties.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table presents our cash and cash equivalents and our capitalization as of June 30, 2016: (i) on an actual basis; (ii) on a pro forma basis to give the effect to our acquisition of the FRP Collection as described in “Recent Developments” above, the borrowings that financed the acquisition of the FRP Collection and the repayment of all outstanding draws under our Secured Credit Facility, each subsequent to June 30, 2016; and (iii) on a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect both to the transactions described in the preceding clause (ii) and to the sale by us of 4,000,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock in this offering, after deducting the underwriting discount and the estimated expenses of this offering payable by us, but without giving effect to the expected use of the net proceeds from this offering as described under “Use of Proceeds.” The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with the section captioned “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and June 30, 2016, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

     As of June 30, 2016  
     (Unaudited)  
     Actual     Pro
Forma(1)
    Pro Forma
as  adjusted(2)
 
     (dollars in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 7,656      $ 11,923      $ 108,473   
      

Total Debt

     289,841        303,418        303,418   

Equity:

      

6.625% Series A Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share; no shares authorized and no shares issued and outstanding on an actual and pro forma basis; 4,600,000 shares authorized and 4,000,000 shares issued and outstanding (aggregate liquidation preference of $100,000) on a pro forma as adjusted basis

     —          —          40   

Common stock, $0.01 par value, 100,000,000 shares authorized, 21,209,472 shares issued and outstanding, actual, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted(3)

     212        212        212   

Additional paid-in capital

     187,538        187,538        284,048   

Accumulated deficit

     (35,124     (35,124     (35,124
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Stockholders’ Equity

     152,626        152,626        249,176   

Noncontrolling interests in our Operating Partnership

     10,789        10,789        10,789   

Noncontrolling interests in properties

     (740     277        277   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Equity

     162,675        163,692        260,242   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Capitalization

   $ 452,516      $ 467,110      $ 563,660   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) The acquisition of the FRP Collection was accounted for using preliminary estimates of the fair value of tangible and intangible assets to be acquired and liabilities to be assumed in connection with the acquisition and are therefore subject to change.

 

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(2) Does not include up to 600,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock that may be issued upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.
(3) Excludes shares of common stock issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted stock units and shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plan.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE SERIES A PREFERRED STOCK

The following summary of the material terms and provisions of the Series A Preferred Stock is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by the terms of our charter, including the articles supplementary designating the Series A Preferred Stock, copies of which have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

We currently are authorized to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, in one or more classes or series. Each class or series of our preferred stock will have the designations, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations or restrictions as Maryland law may permit and our Board of Directors may determine by adoption of applicable articles supplementary to our charter. Our Board of Directors may, without notice to or the consent of holders of Series A Preferred Stock, authorize the issuance and sale of additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock and authorize and issue additional shares of Junior Stock or Parity Stock from time to time.

We intend to file an application to list the Series A Preferred Stock on the NYSE under the symbol “CIO PRA.” If the application is approved, we expect trading to commence within 30 days after the initial delivery of the Series A Preferred Stock.

The transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursement agent for the Series A Preferred Stock will be American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Ranking

The Series A Preferred Stock will, with respect to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, rank senior to our common stock and any other class or series of our Junior Stock, pari passu with any other class or series of our Parity Stock and junior to any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up. Any authorization or issuance of shares of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up would require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock voting together as a single class with all other classes or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable. Any convertible or exchangeable debt securities that we may issue are not considered to be equity securities for these purposes. The Series A Preferred Stock ranks junior in right of payment to all of our existing and future indebtedness.

Dividends

Subject to the preferential rights of holders of any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights, holders of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive, when, as and if authorized by our Board of Directors, out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at the rate of 6.625% per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, equivalent to $1.65625 per annum per share of Series A Preferred Stock. Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock will accrue and be cumulative from (but not including) the original date of issuance of any shares of Series A Preferred Stock and will be payable quarterly in arrears on or about the 25th day of

 

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January, April, July and October of each year. The first dividend on the Series A Preferred Stock sold in this offering will be paid on January 25, 2017. Dividends payable on the Series A Preferred Stock for any partial period will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months. We will pay dividends to holders of record as they appear in our stock records at the close of business on the applicable record date, which will be such date as designated by our Board of Directors for the payment of dividends that is not more than 90 days nor fewer than 10 days prior to the dividend payment date. No holder of any shares of Series A Preferred Stock is entitled to receive any dividends paid or payable on the Series A Preferred Stock with a dividend payment date before the date such shares of Series A Preferred Stock are issued.

Our Board of Directors will not authorize, and we will not pay, any dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock or set aside assets for the payment of dividends if the terms of any of our agreements, including agreements relating to our indebtedness, prohibit that authorization, payment or setting aside of assets or provide that the authorization, payment or setting aside of assets is a breach of or a default under that agreement, or if the authorization, payment or setting aside of assets is restricted or prohibited by law. We are and may in the future become a party to agreements that restrict or prevent the payment of dividends on, or the purchase or redemption of, our capital stock. Under certain circumstances, these agreements could restrict or prevent the payment of dividends on or the purchase or redemption of Series A Preferred Stock. These restrictions may be indirect (for example, covenants requiring us to maintain specified levels of net worth or assets) or direct. We do not believe that these restrictions currently have any adverse impact on our ability to pay dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock will accrue whether or not we have earnings, whether or not there are assets legally available for the payment of dividends, whether or not dividends are authorized or declared and whether or not the restrictions referred to above exist. Accrued but unpaid dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock will not bear interest, and the holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not be entitled to any dividends in excess of full cumulative dividends as described above. All of our dividends on Series A Preferred Stock, including any capital gain dividends, will be credited to the previously accrued and unpaid dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock. We will credit any dividend made on the Series A Preferred Stock first to the earliest accrued and unpaid dividend due.

Except as provided in the paragraph immediately below, we will not declare or pay any dividends, or set aside any assets for the payment of dividends, on our Junior Stock or our Parity Stock, or redeem or otherwise acquire our Junior Stock (other than a distribution paid in shares of, or options, warrants or rights to subscribe for or purchase shares of our Junior Stock) or our Parity Stock unless we also have declared and either paid or set aside for payment the full cumulative dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock for all past dividend periods, except by conversion into or exchange for shares of, or options, warrants or rights to purchase or subscribe for, our Junior Stock or pursuant to an exchange offer made on the same terms to all holders of Series A Preferred Stock and all holders of our Parity Stock. This restriction will not limit our redemption or other acquisition of shares of our common stock made for purposes of and in compliance with any incentive, benefit or stock purchase plan of ours or for the purposes of enforcing restrictions upon ownership and transfer of our equity securities contained in our charter in order to preserve our status as a REIT.

If we do not declare and either pay or set aside for payment the full cumulative dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock and our Parity Stock, the amount which we have declared will be allocated pro rata to the Series A Preferred Stock and our Parity Stock so that the amount declared per share is proportionate to the accrued and unpaid dividends on those shares.

 

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In determining whether a distribution (other than upon voluntary or involuntary liquidation), by distribution, redemption or other acquisition of our equity securities is permitted under Maryland law, no effect shall be given to amounts that would be needed, if we were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of stockholders whose preferential rights on dissolution are superior to those receiving the distribution.

Liquidation Rights

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders a liquidation preference in cash or property, at fair market value as determined by our Board of Directors, of $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of the payment. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive this liquidating distribution before we distribute any assets to holders of our Junior Stock. The rights of holders of Series A Preferred Stock to receive their liquidation preference would be subject to the preferential rights of the holders of shares of any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up we may issue in the future. Written notice will be given to each holder of Series A Preferred Stock of any such liquidation no fewer than 30 days and no more than 60 days prior to the payment date. After payment of the full amount of the liquidating distribution to which they are entitled, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. If we consolidate, convert or merge with any other entity, sell, lease, transfer or convey all or substantially all of our assets, or engage in a statutory share exchange, we will not be deemed to have liquidated. In the event our assets are insufficient to pay the full liquidating distributions to the holders of Series A Preferred Stock and our Parity Stock, then we will distribute our assets to the holders of Series A Preferred Stock and the holders of our Parity Stock ratably in proportion to the full liquidating distributions they would have otherwise received.

Redemption

Generally

We may not redeem the Series A Preferred Stock prior to October 4, 2021, except as described below under “—Special Optional Redemption” and “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” On and after October 4, 2021, upon no fewer than 30 days’ nor more than 60 days’ written notice, we may, at our option, redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or from time to time in part, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of redemption.

We will give notice of redemption by mail to each holder of record of Series A Preferred Stock at the address shown on our stock transfer books. A failure to give notice of redemption or any defect in the notice or in its mailing will not affect the validity of the redemption of any shares of Series A Preferred Stock except as to the holder to whom notice was defective. Each notice will state the following:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the redemption price;

 

   

the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed;

 

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the place or places where the certificates, if any, representing the shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed are to be surrendered for payment;

 

   

the procedures for surrendering non-certificated shares for payment; and

 

   

that dividends on the shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed will cease to accrue on the redemption date.

If we redeem fewer than all of the Series A Preferred Stock, the notice of redemption mailed to each stockholder will also specify the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock that we will redeem from each stockholder. In this case, we will determine the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed on a pro rata basis or by lot.

If we elect to redeem any of the Series A Preferred Stock in connection with a Change of Control (as defined below under “—Special Optional Redemption”) and we intend for such redemption to occur prior to the applicable Change of Control Conversion Date (as defined below under “—Conversion Rights”), our redemption notice will also state that the holders of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to which the notice relates will not be able to tender such shares of Series A Preferred Stock for conversion in connection with the Change of Control and each share of Series A Preferred Stock tendered for conversion that is selected for redemption prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date will be redeemed on the related date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control Conversion Date.

If we have given a notice of redemption and have paid or set apart sufficient assets for the redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of shares of Series A Preferred Stock called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, those shares of Series A Preferred Stock will be treated as no longer being outstanding, no further dividends will accrue and all other rights of the holders of those shares of Series A Preferred Stock will terminate. The holders of those shares of Series A Preferred Stock will retain their right to receive the redemption price for their shares and any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to (but not including) the redemption date.

The holders of shares of Series A Preferred Stock at the close of business on a dividend record date will be entitled to receive the dividend payable with respect to the shares of Series A Preferred Stock on the corresponding payment date notwithstanding the redemption of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock between such record date and the corresponding payment date or our default in the payment of the dividend due. Except as provided above and in connection with a redemption pursuant to our special optional redemption, we will make no payment or allowance for unpaid dividends, whether or not in arrears, on shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed.

The Series A Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and will not be subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions, except as provided under “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” below and in “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus. In order to ensure that we continue to meet the requirements for qualification as a REIT, the Series A Preferred Stock will be subject to the restrictions on ownership and transfer in Article VII of our charter.

Subject to applicable law, we may purchase shares of Series A Preferred Stock in the open market, by tender or by private agreement. Any shares of Series A Preferred Stock that we reacquire will return to the status of authorized but unissued shares of our preferred stock.

 

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Special Optional Redemption

In the event of a Change of Control, we may, at our option, redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part and within 120 days after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of redemption. If, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, we exercise our special optional redemption right by providing a notice of redemption with respect to some or all of the Series A Preferred Stock (whether pursuant to our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right), the holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not be permitted to exercise the conversion right described below under “—Conversion Rights” in respect of their shares called for redemption.

We will mail to you, if you are a record holder of shares of the Series A Preferred Stock, a notice of redemption no fewer than 30 days nor more than 60 days before the redemption date. We will send the notice to your address shown on our stock transfer books. A failure to give notice of redemption or any defect in the notice or in its mailing will not affect the validity of the redemption of any shares of Series A Preferred Stock except as to the holder to whom notice was defective. Each notice will state the following:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the redemption price;

 

   

the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed;

 

   

the place or places where the certificates, if any, representing the shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed are to be surrendered for payment;

 

   

the procedures for surrendering non-certificated shares for payment;

 

   

that the shares of Series A Preferred Stock are being redeemed pursuant to our special optional redemption right in connection with the occurrence of a Change of Control and a brief description of the transaction or transactions constituting such Change of Control;

 

   

that the holders of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to which the notice relates will not be able to tender such shares of Series A Preferred Stock for conversion in connection with the Change of Control and each share of Series A Preferred Stock tendered for conversion that is selected, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, for redemption will be redeemed on the related date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control Conversion Date; and

 

   

that dividends on the shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed will cease to accrue on the redemption date.

If we redeem fewer than all of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock, the notice of redemption mailed to each stockholder will also specify the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock that we will redeem from each stockholder. In this case, we will determine the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed on a pro rata basis or by lot.

If we have given a notice of redemption and have paid or set apart sufficient assets for the redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of shares of Series A Preferred Stock called for

 

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redemption, then from and after the redemption date, those shares of Series A Preferred Stock will be treated as no longer being outstanding, no further dividends will accrue and all other rights of the holders of those shares of Series A Preferred Stock will terminate. The holders of those shares of Series A Preferred Stock will retain their right to receive the redemption price for their shares and any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to (but not including) the redemption date.

The holders of Series A Preferred Stock at the close of business on a dividend record date will be entitled to receive the dividend payable with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock on the corresponding payment date notwithstanding the redemption of the Series A Preferred Stock between such record date and the corresponding payment date or our default in the payment of the dividend due. Except as provided above, we will make no payment or allowance for unpaid dividends, whether or not in arrears, on Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed.

A “Change of Control” is when, after the original issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock, the following have occurred and are continuing:

 

   

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, of beneficial ownership, directly or indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition transactions of shares of our company entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all shares of our company entitled to vote generally in elections of directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

 

   

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity has a class of common securities (or ADRs representing such securities) listed on the NYSE, the NYSE MKT or NASDAQ or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE MKT or NASDAQ.

Conversion Rights

Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series A Preferred Stock will have the right (subject to our right to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock in whole or in part, as described under “—Redemption,” prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date) to convert some or all of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock held by such holder (the “Change of Control Conversion Right”) on the Change of Control Conversion Date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series A Preferred Stock (the “Common Stock Conversion Consideration”) equal to the lesser of:

 

   

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the Change of Control Conversion Date (unless the Change of Control Conversion Date is after a record date for a share of Series A Preferred Stock dividend payment and prior to the corresponding Series A Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price; and

 

   

3.7965 (i.e., the Share Cap).

The Share Cap is subject to pro rata adjustments for any stock splits (including those effected pursuant to a dividend of our common stock), subdivisions or combinations (in each case, a “Stock

 

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Split”) with respect to our common stock. The adjusted Share Cap as the result of a Stock Split will be the number of shares of our common stock that is equivalent to the product obtained by multiplying (i) the Share Cap in effect immediately prior to such Stock Split by (ii) a fraction, (a) the numerator of which is the number of shares of our common stock outstanding after giving effect to such Stock Split and (b) the denominator of which is the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately prior to such Stock Split.

For the avoidance of doubt, subject to the immediately succeeding sentence, the aggregate number of shares of our common stock (or equivalent Alternative Conversion Consideration (as defined below), as applicable) issuable in connection with the exercise of the Change of Control Conversion Right shall not exceed 15,186,000 shares of Common Stock (or equivalent Alternative Conversion Consideration, as applicable) or 17,463,900 shares of Common Stock (or equivalent Alternative Conversion Consideration, as applicable) if the underwriters’ over-allotment is exercised in full, subject to increase on a pro rata basis if the Corporation issues additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock (the “Exchange Cap”). The Exchange Cap is subject to pro rata adjustments for any Stock Splits on the same basis as the corresponding adjustment to the Share Cap and for additional issuances of shares of Series A Preferred Stock in subsequent offerings, if any.

In the case of a Change of Control pursuant to which our common stock will be converted into cash, securities or other property or assets (including any combination thereof) (the “Alternative Form Consideration”), a holder of shares of Series A Preferred Stock will receive upon conversion of such shares of Series A Preferred Stock the kind and amount of Alternative Form Consideration which such holder would have owned or been entitled to receive upon the Change of Control had such holder held a number of shares of our common stock equal to the Common Stock Conversion Consideration immediately prior to the effective time of the Change of Control (the “Alternative Conversion Consideration,” and the Common Stock Conversion Consideration or the Alternative Conversion Consideration, as may be applicable to a Change of Control, is referred to as the “Conversion Consideration”).

If the holders of our common stock have the opportunity to elect the form of consideration to be received in the Change of Control, the consideration that the holders of Series A Preferred Stock will receive will be the form and proportion of the aggregate consideration elected by the holders of our common stock who participate in the determination (based on the weighted average of elections) and will be subject to any limitations to which all holders of our common stock are subject, including, without limitation, pro rata reductions applicable to any portion of the consideration payable in the Change of Control.

We will not issue fractional shares of common stock upon the conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock. Instead, we will pay the cash value of such fractional shares.

Within 15 days following the occurrence of a Change of Control, we will provide to holders of Series A Preferred Stock a notice of occurrence of the Change of Control that describes the resulting Change of Control Conversion Right. No failure to give such notice or any defect therein or in the mailing thereof shall affect the validity of the proceedings for the conversion of any shares of Series A Preferred Stock except as to the holder to whom notice was defective or not given. This notice will state the following:

 

   

the events constituting the Change of Control;

 

   

the date of the Change of Control;

 

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the last date on which the holders of Series A Preferred Stock may exercise their Change of Control Conversion Right;

 

   

the method and period for calculating the Common Stock Price;

 

   

the Change of Control Conversion Date;

 

   

that if, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, we have provided or provide notice of our election to redeem all or any portion of the Series A Preferred Stock, holders will not be able to convert shares of Series A Preferred Stock and such shares will be redeemed on the related redemption date, even if such shares have already been tendered for conversion pursuant to the Change of Control Conversion Right;

 

   

if applicable, the type and amount of Alternative Conversion Consideration entitled to be received per share of Series A Preferred Stock;

 

   

the name and address of the paying agent and the conversion agent; and

 

   

the procedures that the holders of Series A Preferred Stock must follow to exercise the Change of Control Conversion Right.

We will issue a press release for publication on or in the Wall Street Journal, Business Wire, PR Newswire or Bloomberg Business News (or, if these organizations are not in existence at the time of issuance of the press release, such other news or press organization as is reasonably calculated to broadly disseminate the relevant information to the public), or post notice on our website, in any event prior to the opening of business on the first business day following any date on which we provide the notice described above to the holders of Series A Preferred Stock.

To exercise the Change of Control Conversion Right, a holder of Series A Preferred Stock will be required to deliver, on or before the close of business on the Change of Control Conversion Date, the certificates (if any) representing shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be converted, duly endorsed for transfer, together with a written conversion notice completed, to our transfer agent. The conversion notice must state:

 

   

the relevant Change of Control Conversion Date;

 

   

the number or percentage of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be converted; and

 

   

that the shares of Series A Preferred Stock are to be converted pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Series A Preferred Stock.

The “Change of Control Conversion Date” is the date the shares of Series A Preferred Stock are to be converted, which will be a business day that is no fewer than 20 days nor more than 35 days after the date on which we provide the notice described above to the holders of Series A Preferred Stock.

The “Common Stock Price” will be: (i) the amount of cash consideration per share of common stock, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of shares of our common stock is solely cash; and (ii) the average of the closing prices for shares of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of shares of our common stock is other than solely cash.

 

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Holders of Series A Preferred Stock may withdraw any notice of exercise of a Change of Control Conversion Right (in whole or in part) by a written notice of withdrawal delivered to our transfer agent prior to the close of business on the business day prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date. The notice of withdrawal must state:

 

   

the number of withdrawn shares of Series A Preferred Stock;

 

   

if certificated shares of Series A Preferred Stock have been issued, the certificate numbers of the withdrawn shares of Series A Preferred Stock; and

 

   

the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock, if any, which remain subject to the conversion notice.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the shares of Series A Preferred Stock are held in global form, the conversion notice and/or the notice of withdrawal, as applicable, must comply with applicable procedures of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”).

Shares of Series A Preferred Stock as to which the Change of Control Conversion Right has been properly exercised and for which the conversion notice has not been properly withdrawn will be converted into the applicable Conversion Consideration in accordance with the Change of Control Conversion Right on the Change of Control Conversion Date, unless prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date we have provided or provide notice of our election to redeem such shares of Series A Preferred Stock, whether pursuant to our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not have the right to convert any shares that we have elected to redeem prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date. Accordingly, if we have provided a redemption notice with respect to some or all of the Series A Preferred Stock, holders of any Series A Preferred Stock that we have called for redemption will not be permitted to exercise their Change of Control Conversion right in respect of any of their shares that have been called for redemption, and such shares of Series A Preferred Stock will not be so converted and the holders of such shares will be entitled to receive on the applicable redemption date $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) thereon to, but not including, the redemption date.

We will deliver amounts owing upon conversion no later than the third business day following the Change of Control Conversion Date. In connection with the exercise of any Change of Control Conversion Right, we will comply with all federal and state securities laws and stock exchange rules in connection with any conversion of shares of Series A Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock.

Notwithstanding any other provision of the Series A Preferred Stock, no holder of shares of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to convert such shares of Series A Preferred Stock for shares of our common stock to the extent that receipt of such common stock would cause such holder (or any other person) to exceed the share ownership limits contained in our charter and the articles supplementary setting forth the terms of the Series A Preferred Stock, unless we provide an exemption from this limitation for such holder. See “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” below.

These Change of Control conversion and redemption features may make it more difficult for a party to take over our company or discourage a party from taking over our company. See “Risk Factors—You may not be permitted to exercise conversion rights upon a change of control. If exercisable, the Change of Control conversion feature may not adequately compensate you, and the Change of Control conversion and redemption features of the Series A Preferred Stock may make it more difficult for a party to take over our company or discourage a party from taking over our company.”

 

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Except as provided in the articles supplementary designating the Series A Preferred Stock in connection with a Change of Control, the shares of Series A Preferred Stock are not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.

Voting Rights

Holders of Series A Preferred Stock generally will have no voting rights, except as set forth in the articles supplementary designating the Series A Preferred Stock.

Whenever dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock are in arrears for six quarterly periods, whether or not consecutive (a “Preferred Dividend Default”), the number of directors then constituting our Board of Directors will be increased by two (if not already increased by reason of similar arrearage with respect to any Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) and holders of Series A Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of any other class or series of our Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our Board of Directors (the “Preferred Stock Directors”) at a special meeting called by the holders of at least 33% of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock or the holders of at least 33% of outstanding shares of any such other class or series of our Parity Stock if the request is received 90 or more days before the next annual meeting of stockholders, or, if the request is received less than 90 days prior to the next annual meeting of stockholders, at the next annual meeting of stockholders or, at our sole discretion, a separate special meeting of stockholders to be held no later than 90 days after our receipt of such request, and thereafter at each subsequent annual meeting of stockholders until all dividends accumulated on the Series A Preferred Stock for the past dividend periods and the then-current dividend period have been paid in full. The Preferred Stock Directors will be elected by a plurality of the votes cast by the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock and all other classes or series of our Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable (voting together as a single class) in the election to serve until our next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are duly elected and qualified or until such directors’ right to hold the office terminates as described below, whichever occurs earlier.

If and when all accumulated dividends in arrears for all past dividend periods and dividends for the then-current dividend period on the Series A Preferred Stock shall have been paid in full, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock will immediately be divested of the voting rights described above (subject to revesting in the event of each and every Preferred Dividend Default) and, if all accumulated dividends in arrears and the dividends for the then-current dividend period have been paid in full on all other classes or series of our Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, the term of office of each Preferred Stock Director so elected will immediately terminate and the number of directors will be reduced accordingly. Any Preferred Stock Director may be removed at any time, but only for cause (as defined in our charter), by the vote of, and shall not be removed otherwise than by the vote of, the holders of record of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock when they have the voting rights described above (voting together as a single class with the holders of all other classes or series of our Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable). So long as a Preferred Dividend Default continues, any vacancy in the office of a Preferred Stock Director may be filled by written consent of the Preferred Stock Director remaining in office or, if none remains in office, by a vote of the holders of record of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock when they have the voting rights described above and the holders of all other classes or series of our Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable (voting together as a single class). The Preferred Stock Directors will each be entitled to one vote per director on any matter.

 

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So long as any Series A Preferred Stock remains outstanding, we will not:

 

   

authorize or create, or increase the authorized or issued amount of, any class or series of our capital stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or reclassify any authorized shares of our capital stock into any such shares, or create, authorize or issue any obligations or security convertible into or evidencing the right to purchase any such shares, without the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the then-outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock and all other classes or series of our Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, voting together as a single class; or

 

   

amend, alter or repeal the provisions of our charter (including the articles supplementary establishing the Series A Preferred Stock), whether by merger, consolidation, conversion or otherwise, in each case in such a way that would materially and adversely affect any right, preference, privilege or voting power of the Series A Preferred Stock or the holders thereof without the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock at the time (voting as a separate class).

Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, with respect to the occurrence of a merger, consolidation, conversion or a sale or lease of all of our assets as an entirety, so long as shares of Series A Preferred Stock remain outstanding with the terms thereof materially unchanged or the holders of Series A Preferred Stock receive shares of, or options, warrants or rights to purchase or subscribe for shares of, capital stock with rights, preferences, privileges and voting powers substantially the same as those of the Series A Preferred Stock, then the occurrence of any such event will not be deemed to materially and adversely affect the rights, privileges or voting powers of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock or the holders thereof. In addition, any increase in the amount of authorized Series A Preferred Stock or the creation or issuance, or increase in the amounts authorized, of any other class or series of our Parity Stock, will not be deemed to materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of the Series A Preferred Stock or the holders thereof.

In addition, the voting provisions above will not apply if, at or prior to the time when the act with respect to which the vote would otherwise be required would occur, we have redeemed or called for redemption upon proper procedures all outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock.

In any matter in which the holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to vote separately as a single class, each share of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to one vote. If the holders of Series A Preferred Stock and any other class or series of our Parity Stock are entitled to vote together as a single class on any matter, the Series A Preferred Stock and the shares of the other class or series of our Parity Stock will have one vote for each $25.00 of liquidation preference.

Information Rights

During any period in which we are not subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and any shares of Series A Preferred Stock are outstanding, we will (i) transmit by mail or other permissible means under the Exchange Act to all holders of Series A Preferred Stock as their names and addresses appear in our record books and without cost to such holders, copies of the Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q that we would have been required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the

 

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Exchange Act if we were subject thereto (other than any exhibits that would have been required) and (ii) within 15 days following written request, supply copies of such reports to any prospective holder of the Series A Preferred Stock. We will mail (or otherwise provide) the reports to the holders of Series A Preferred Stock within 15 days after the respective dates by which we would have been required to file such reports with the SEC if we were subject to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

For information regarding restrictions on ownership and transfer of the Series A Preferred Stock, see “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.

The articles supplementary for the Series A Preferred Stock will provide that the ownership limitations described in “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus apply to ownership of shares of Series A Preferred Stock pursuant to Article VII of our charter, under which shares of Series A Preferred Stock owned by a stockholder in excess of an ownership limit will be transferred to a charitable trust and may be purchased by us under certain circumstances. Our Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, except a person from an ownership limit, as described in “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.

Ownership limits also apply to shares of our common stock. See “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus. Notwithstanding any other provision of the Series A Preferred Stock, no holder of shares of the Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to convert any shares of Series A Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock to the extent that receipt of our common stock would cause such holder or any other person to exceed the ownership limits contained in our charter or in the articles supplementary for the Series A Preferred Stock.

Preemptive Rights

No holders of Series A Preferred Stock shall, as the holders, have any preemptive rights to purchase or subscribe for our common stock or any other security of our company.

Book-Entry Procedures

DTC will act as securities depositary for the Series A Preferred Stock, which will only be issued in the form of global securities held in book-entry form.

Title to book-entry interests in the Series A Preferred Stock will pass by book-entry registration of the transfer within the records of DTC in accordance with its procedures. Book-entry interests in the securities may be transferred within DTC in accordance with procedures established for these purposes by DTC. Each person owning a beneficial interest in the Series A Preferred Stock must rely on the procedures of DTC and the participant through which such person owns its interest to exercise its rights as a holder of the Series A Preferred Stock.

DTC has advised us as follows: DTC is a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law, a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code, and a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the

 

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provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC facilitates the settlement of transactions amongst participants through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, including the underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations, some of whom and/or their representatives own DTC. Access to DTC’s book-entry system is also available to others, such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a participant, either directly or indirectly.

Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as securities brokers and dealers, including the underwriters, banks and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Direct Participant, either directly or indirectly (“Indirect Participants”). The rules applicable to DTC and its Direct and Indirect Participants are on file with the SEC.

When you purchase shares of the Series A Preferred Stock within the DTC system, the purchase must be by or through a Direct Participant. The Direct Participant will receive a credit for the shares of Series A Preferred Stock on DTC’s records. You, as the actual owner of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock, are the “beneficial owner.” Your beneficial ownership interest will be recorded on the Direct and Indirect Participants’ records, but DTC will have no knowledge of your individual ownership. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the Direct Participants to whose accounts shares of Series A Preferred Stock are credited.

You will not receive written confirmation from DTC of your purchase. The Direct or Indirect Participants through whom you purchased the shares of Series A Preferred Stock should send you written confirmations providing details of your transactions, as well as periodic statements of your holdings. The Direct and Indirect Participants are responsible for keeping an accurate account of the holdings of their customers like you.

Transfers of ownership interests held through Direct and Indirect Participants will be accomplished by entries on the books of Direct and Indirect Participants acting on behalf of the beneficial owners.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to Direct Participants, by Direct Participants to Indirect Participants, and by Direct Participants and Indirect Participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time.

We understand that, under DTC’s existing practices, in the event that we request any action of the holders, or an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security such as you desires to take any action which a holder is entitled to take under our charter, DTC would authorize the Direct Participants holding the relevant shares to take such action, and those Direct Participants and any Indirect Participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through those Direct and Indirect Participants to take such action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them.

Any redemption notices with respect to the shares of Series A Preferred Stock will be sent to Cede & Co. If less than all of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock are being redeemed, DTC will reduce each Direct Participant’s holdings of shares of Series A Preferred Stock in accordance with its procedures.

In those instances where a vote is required, neither DTC nor Cede & Co. itself will consent or vote with respect to the shares of Series A Preferred Stock. Under its usual procedures, DTC would

 

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mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns Cede & Co.’s consenting or voting rights to those Direct Participants whose accounts the Series A Preferred Stock are credited to on the record date, which are identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

Dividends and distributions on the shares of Series A Preferred Stock will be made directly to DTC’s nominee (or its successor, if applicable). DTC’s practice is to credit participants’ accounts on the relevant payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC’s records unless DTC has reason to believe that it will not receive payment on that payment date.

Payments by Direct and Indirect Participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” These payments will be the responsibility of the participant and not of DTC, us or any agent of ours.

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Additionally, we may decide to discontinue the book-entry only system of transfers with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock. In that event, we will print and deliver certificates in fully registered form for the Series A Preferred Stock. If DTC notifies us that it is unwilling to continue as securities depositary, or it is unable to continue or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and a successor depositary is not appointed by us within 90 days after receiving such notice or becoming aware that DTC is no longer so registered, we will issue the Series A Preferred Stock in definitive form, at our expense, upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, such global security.

According to DTC, the foregoing information with respect to DTC has been provided to the financial community for informational purposes only and is not intended to serve as a representation, warranty or contract modification of any kind.

Global Clearance and Settlement Procedures

Initial settlement for the Series A Preferred Stock will be made in immediately available funds. Secondary market trading among DTC’s Participants will occur in the ordinary way in accordance with DTC’s rules and will be settled in immediately available funds using DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System.

 

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BUSINESS

Overview

We are a Maryland corporation focused on acquiring, owning and operating high-quality office properties located primarily in metropolitan areas in the Southern and Western United States. Our target markets possess a number of attractive demographic and employment characteristics that we believe will lead to capital appreciation and growth in rental income at our properties. Our senior management team has extensive industry relationships and a proven track record in executing this strategy, which we believe provides a competitive advantage to our shareholders.

Our Properties

At June 30, 2016 and following our acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016, we owned fifteen office complexes comprised of 33 office buildings with a total of approximately 3.5 million square feet of NRA in the metropolitan areas of Boise, Denver, Portland, Tampa, Dallas and Orlando. The following table presents an overview of our portfolio as of June 30, 2016 (properties listed by descending NRA by market) and our portfolio as adjusted by our acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.

 

Metropolitan
Area

 

Property

  Year Built/
Last Major
Renovation(1)
    Economic
Interest
    NRA
(000s
SF)
    In Place
Occupancy
    In Place &
Committed
Occupancy(2)
    Annualized
Base Rent
per Square
Foot
    Annualized
Gross Rent
per Square
Foot(3)
    Annualized
Base Rent
(000s)(4)
 

Denver, CO

  Cherry Creek    
 
1962-1980 /
2012
  
  
    100.0%        356        100.0%        100.0%        $17.24        $17.24        $6,134   
  Plaza 25     1981 / 2006        100.0%        196        86.3%        86.3%        $20.51        $20.51        $3,461   
  DTC Crossroads     1999 / 2015        100.0%        191        92.4%        92.4%        $24.68        $24.68        $4,353   
  Superior Pointe     2000        100.0%        149        89.8%        89.8%        $15.03        $26.03        $2,011   
  Logan Tower     1983 / 2014        100.0%        70        97.1%        97.1%        $18.94        $18.94        $1,287   

Boise, ID

  Washington Group Plaza    
 
1970-1982 /
2012
  
  
    100.0%        581        58.2%        83.9%        $17.94        $17.94        $6,064   

Tampa, FL

  City Center     1984 / 2012        95.0%        241        100.0%        100.0%        $23.77        $23.77        $5,729   
  Intellicenter     2008        100.0%        204        100.0%        100.0%        $22.29        $22.29        $4,536   
  Carillon Point     2007        100.0%        124        100.0%        100.0%        $25.87        $25.87        $3,212   

Dallas, TX

  190 Office Center     2008        100.0%        303        96.9%        96.9%        $23.09        $23.09        $6,789   
  Lake Vista Pointe     2007        100.0%        163        100.0%        100.0%        $14.50        $21.00        $2,368   

Portland, OR

  AmberGlen     1984 / 2002        76.0%        353        85.9%        85.9%        $16.88        $18.21        $5,125   

Orlando, FL

  Central Fairwinds     1982 / 2012        90.0%        170        88.2%        88.2%        $25.74        $25.74        $3,849   
  FRP Ingenuity Drive(5)     1999        100.0%        125        100.0%        100.0%        $20.00        $28.00        $2,490   
       

 

 

           

 

 

 

Total / Weighted Average:

  

    3,226        88.2%        92.8%        $20.18        $21.57        $57,408   
     

 

 

           

 

 

 

Orlando, FL

 

FRP Collection(6)

    1986-1999        95.0%        272        92.9%        93.0%        $24.71        $26.24        $6,247   
       

 

 

           

 

 

 

Total /Weighted Average—including FRP Collection Acquisition

   

    3,498        88.5%        92.8%        $20.55        $21.95        $63,655   
 

 

 

           

 

 

 

 

(1) We define major renovation as significant upgrades, alterations or additions to building common areas, interiors, exteriors and/or systems.

 

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(2) Includes both in place and committed tenants, which we define as tenants in occupancy as well as tenants that have executed binding leases for space undergoing improvement but were not yet in occupancy, as of June 30, 2016 and as adjusted by the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.
(3) For Lake Vista Pointe, FRP Ingenuity Drive and Superior Pointe, the annualized base rent per square foot on a triple net basis was increased by $6.50, $8.00 and $11.00 respectively, to estimate a gross equivalent base rent. AmberGlen has a net lease for one tenant which has been grossed-up by $6.50 on a pro rata basis. FRP Collection has a net lease for three tenants which have been grossed-up by $6.00 on a pro-rata basis.
(4) Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as cash rents before abatements) for the month ended June 30, 2016 by (ii) 12, as adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.
(5) We previously referred to this property as “Florida Research Park.”
(6) On July 12, 2016, we acquired the FRP Collection, also located at Central Florida Research Park.

Lease Maturity Profile

The chart below sets out the percentage of NRA of our properties at June 30, 2016 subject to lease expiration during the periods shown without regard to committed leases and renewal options, adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.

Portfolio Lease Expirations (% of NRA as of June 30, 2016)(1)

 

 

LOGO

 

(1) Percentage represents the square footage of the leases divided by the total square footage of the portfolio, as of June 30, 2016, adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.
(2) St. Luke’s took occupancy on July 1, 2016.

 

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The following table sets forth the lease expirations for leases in place in our properties as of June 30, 2016, plus available space, for each of the calendar years ending December 31, 2016 to December 31, 2025, and thereafter, adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016. The information set forth in the table assumes that tenants exercise no renewal options and do not exercise early termination rights. Leases in place and committed have a weighted average term to maturity of 4.9 years as of June 30, 2016, adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.

 

Year of Lease Expiration

  Number
of
Tenants
    NRA of
Expiring
Leases(1)
    Percentage
of NRA
    Annualized
Rent(1)(3)
    Percentage
of Total
Properties
Rent(3)
    Annualized
Rent per
Leased
Square
Foot
Expiring(4)
    Annualized
Base Rent
(Including
Rent
Abatement)(1)
    Annualized
Rent per
Leased
Square Foot
Expiring
(Including
Rate
Abatement)(4)
 

Vacant & Contracted(2)

           400        11.4            0.0                     

2016

    21        152        4.4     3,067        4.8     20.13        3,067        20.13   

2017

    39        503        14.4     10,983        17.3     21.83        10,983        21.83   

2018

    36        426        12.2     7,970        12.5     18.70        7,865        18.46   

2019

    34        327        9.4     7,068        11.1     21.59        7,007        21.40   

2020

    15        90        2.6     1,894        3.0     21.07        1,894        21.07   

2021

    23        585        16.7     11,767        18.5     20.11        10,686        18.26   

2022

    10        165        4.7     3,025        4.8     18.35        2,392        14.51   

2023

    2        200        5.7     4,768        7.5     23.84        3,342        16.71   

2024

    5        81        2.3     1,857        2.9     22.99        1,819        22.51   

2025

    3        28        0.8     574        0.9     20.64        574        20.64   

Thereafter

    5        539        15.4     10,683        16.8     19.82        9,143        16.96   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total/Weighted Average(5)

    193        3,498        100.0   $ 63,656        100.0   $ 20.55      $ 58,772      $ 18.97   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) In 000s.
(2) 148,975 square feet of contracted NRA related to two tenants collectively at Washington Group Plaza. St. Luke’s took occupancy on July 1, 2016.
(3) Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as cash rents before giving effect to rent abatements) for the month ended June 30, 2016 by (ii) 12, adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.
(4) Annualized rent per leased square foot expiring reflects actual rent for the month ended June 30, 2016, divided by square feet under lease as of June 30, 2016, adjusted for the acquisition of FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.
(5) The figures presented as totals may not sum to the data included in their respective columns due to rounding.

Debt Maturity Profile

As of June 30, 2016, on a pro forma basis to give effect to our acquisition of the FRP Collection as described in “Recent Developments” above, the borrowings that financed the acquisition of the FRP Collection and the repayment of all outstanding draws under our Secured Credit Facility, each subsequent to June 30, 2016, 100% of the principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness was fixed rate, with a 6.3 year average maturity and a weighted average interest rate of 4.3%.

 

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The following table sets forth the maturities of the principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness and weighted average interest rate of such indebtedness as of June 30, 2016 on a pro forma basis to give effect to our acquisition of the FRP Collection as described in “Recent Developments” above, the borrowings that financed the acquisition of the FRP Collection and the repayment of all outstanding draws under our Secured Credit Facility, each subsequent to June 30, 2016:

Principal Indebtedness Maturity Ladder(1)(2)

 

 

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(1) Dollars in 000s.
(2) $7.1 million of indebtedness attributable to non-controlling interests.

 

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Top Ten Tenants

Our ten largest tenants account for 41.6% of the annualized base rental revenue of our properties at June 30, 2016, adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016, as shown in the table below.

 

Tenant

  Credit
Rating
(S&P /
Moody’s)
  Property   Tenant
Since
    NRA
(in 000s)
    Percentage
of NRA
    Percentage
of June 30,
2016
Annualized
Base
Rental
Revenue(1)
    Average
Remaining
Lease
Term
without
Renewals
(years)
    Average
Remaining
Lease
Term with
Renewals
(years)
 

State of Colorado

  AA   Cherry Creek     1993        319        9.1     9.0     9.8        14.8   

United Healthcare Services, Inc.

  A+   190 Office Center     2008        198        5.7     7.5     6.9        10.5   

Ally Financial Inc.

  Ba3   Lake Vista
Pointe
    2008        163        4.7     3.7     4.8        9.8   

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center

  A3   Intellicenter     2008        155        4.4     5.3     10.8        30.8   

St. Luke’s Regional Medical Center(2)

  A3   Washington
Group Plaza
    2016        148        4.2     0.0     10.3        10.3   

Kaplan, Inc.(3)

  BB+   FRP Ingenuity
Drive
    2008        125        3.6     3.9     5.5        9.5   

Idaho State Tax
Commission

  AA+   Washington
Group Plaza
    1992        111        3.2     3.0     1.0        1.0   

Planar Systems, Inc.

    Amberglen     2002        110        3.1     2.5     4.2        9.2   

ProBuild Holdings, Inc.

  B+   DTC Crossroads     2007        93        2.7     3.6     1.3        6.3   

Paychex, Inc.

    Carillon Point     2016        74        2.1     3.1     5.2        5.2   
       

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total / Average

  

    1,496        42.8     41.6     6.9        12.0   
       

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying rental payments (defined as cash rents before abatements) for the month ended June 30, 2016 by 12, adjusted for the acquisition of the FRP Collection on July 12, 2016.
(2) The St. Luke’s Regional Medical Center lease commenced on July 1, 2016 for 147,657 square feet.
(3) For Kaplan, Inc., the credit rating indicated is for the parent company of the tenant, Graham Holding Company.

 

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ADDITIONAL MATERIAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

This summary supplements the discussion contained under the caption “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus, which is incorporated by reference herein, and should be read in conjunction therewith.

The following is a summary of additional material federal income tax considerations with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our Series A Preferred Stock, and our qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. This summary supplements and, where applicable, supersedes the discussion under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus, and should be read together with such discussion.

Taxation of Our Company

As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Our Company,” even if we qualify as a REIT, we will be subject to federal tax in certain circumstances. Among those circumstances, we will be subject to a 100% excise tax on income from certain transactions with a taxable REIT subsidiary (a “TRS”) that are not on an arm’s-length basis. Pursuant to the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, which was signed into law on December 18, 2015 (the “Act”), and effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, such transactions will include those pursuant to which a TRS of ours provides services to us, if such transaction is determined to have not been conducted on an arm’s-length basis.

Gross Income Tests

As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Gross Income Tests,” we must satisfy two gross income tests annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test generally includes the items described under “Gross Income Tests” in the accompanying prospectus; however, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, gain from the sale of “real estate assets” also includes gain from the sale of a debt instrument issued by a “publicly offered REIT” (i.e., a REIT that is required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act) even if not secured by real property or an interest in real property. However, for purposes of the 75% income test, gain from the sale of a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT would not be treated as qualifying income to the extent such debt instrument would not be a real estate asset but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, as described below under “Asset Tests.”

Interest. As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Gross Income Tests—Interest,” interest income generally constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation upon which such interest is paid is secured by a mortgage on real property. Except as provided in the following sentence, if we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real and other property, and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date that we agreed to originate or acquire the mortgage loan or on the date we modified the loan (if the modification is treated as “significant modification” for tax purposes), the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other collateral, and our income from the arrangement will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, in the case of mortgage

 

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loans secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all property securing the loan, then the personal property securing the loan will be treated as real property for purposes of determining whether the mortgage loan is a qualifying asset for the 75% asset test and whether the related interest income qualifies for purposes of the 75% gross income test.

Prohibited Transactions. The Act provides increased flexibility in satisfying the dealer sales safe harbor described in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Gross Income Tests—Prohibited Transactions.” That subsection describes three alternative requirements with respect to the number of sales or the basis or value of such sales, one of which must be met to satisfy the safe harbor. In addition to those three requirements, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a REIT may also satisfy this portion of the safe harbor if:

(1) the aggregate adjusted bases of all property sold by the REIT (other than foreclosure property or sales to which section 1031 or 1033 of the Code applies) during the year did not exceed 20% of the aggregate adjusted bases of all property of the REIT at the beginning of the year and the three-year average percentage of properties sold by the REIT compared to all the REIT’s properties (measured by adjusted bases) taking into account the current and two prior years did not exceed 10%; or

(2) the aggregate fair market value of all property sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 20% of the aggregate fair market value of all property of the REIT at the beginning of the year and the three-year average percentage of properties sold by the REIT compared to all the REIT’s properties (measured by fair market value) taking into account the current and two prior years did not exceed 10%.

Foreclosure Property. As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Gross Income Tests—Foreclosure Property,” property generally ceases to be foreclosure property as of the close of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which we acquired the property. However, property shall cease to be foreclosure property on a date prior to such date under certain circumstances, including if the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT more than 90 days after the REIT acquires the property. An exception to this rule provides that such property may be used in such a trade or business if such activity is conducted through an “independent contractor” or, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a TRS.

Hedging Transactions. The discussion in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Gross Income Tests—Hedging Transactions” is supplemented by inserting the paragraph below at the end of such subsection:

Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, if we have entered into a qualifying hedging transaction as described above (an “Original Hedge”), and a portion of the hedged indebtedness is extinguished or the related property is disposed of and in connection with such extinguishment or disposition we enter into a new clearly identified hedging transaction that would counteract the Original Hedge (a “Counteracting Hedge”), income from the Original Hedge and income from the Counteracting Hedge (including gain from the disposition of the Original Hedge and the Counteracting Hedge) will not be treated as gross income for purposes of the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

 

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Asset Tests

As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Asset Tests,” to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we also must satisfy several asset tests at the end of each quarter of each taxable year. Under the first test described in the accompanying prospectus, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must consist of the items listed in the accompanying prospectus. In addition to those items, qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test include, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, (i) personal property leased in connection with real property to the extent that rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property,” and (ii) debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs.

In addition, the fourth test described in the accompanying prospectus in such subsection is to be replaced in its entirety by the following:

Fourth, not more than 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs.

Finally, an additional test, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, provides that not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs to the extent not secured by real property or interests in real property.

Distribution Requirements

The accompanying prospectus discusses our distribution requirements under the caption “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Distribution Requirements.” For taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 2014, in order for distributions to be counted towards our distribution requirement, and to provide us with a tax deduction, such distributions must not have been “preferential dividends.” A distribution is not a preferential dividend if it is pro rata among all outstanding shares within a particular class, and is in accordance with the preferences among the different classes of shares as set forth in our organizational documents. However, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014, so long as we continue to be a publicly offered REIT, the preferential dividend rule will not apply to us.

In addition, as discussed in the accompanying prospectus, we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of our required distribution amount over the amount we “actually distributed.” Under the Act, the amount that a REIT is treated as having “actually distributed” during the current taxable year is both the amount distributed during the current year and the amount by which the distributions during the prior year exceed its taxable income and capital gain for that prior year (the prior year calculation uses the same methodology, and therefore, in determining the amount of the distribution in the prior year, one looks back to the year before, and so forth).

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

The accompanying prospectus discusses the taxation of U.S. stockholders on distributions with respect to “qualified dividend income” and “capital gain dividends” under the caption “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.” In addition to the discussion contained therein, effective for distributions in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, the aggregate amount of dividends that we may designate as “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income” with respect to any taxable year may not exceed the

 

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dividends paid by us with respect to such year, including dividends that are paid in the following year (if they are declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if made with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration) but that are treated as paid with respect to such year.

New Legislation Relating to Foreign Accounts

The paragraph and heading in the discussion in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—New Legislation Relating to Foreign Accounts” is replaced in its entirety with the following:

FATCA Withholding

Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on dividends paid on our stock received by certain U.S. stockholders who own our stock through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries if certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership are not satisfied. In addition, if those disclosure requirements are not satisfied, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed, for payments made after December 31, 2018, on proceeds from the sale of our stock received by U.S. stockholders who own our stock through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries. We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of any amounts withheld.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

The accompanying prospectus discusses the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”) exemption on distributions attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests (“USRPIs”) with respect to non-U.S. stockholders that own no more than 5% of our common stock during the applicable period under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders.” The FIRPTA exemption limit on distributions on publicly traded REIT stock has been increased from ownership of more than 5% of such stock to ownership of more than 10% of such stock for distributions on or after December 18, 2015. In addition, the accompanying prospectus notes that we must withhold 10% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. This 10% withholding requirement was increased to 15% under the Act for distributions after February 16, 2016. Consequently, although we intend to withhold at a rate of 30% on the entire amount of any distribution, to the extent we do not do so, we will withhold at a rate of 15% on any portion of a distribution not subject to withholding at a rate of 30%.

In addition, the Act provides for additional exemptions from FIRPTA applicable to “qualified shareholders” and “qualified foreign pension plans.” Accordingly, the discussion in the accompanying prospectus is supplemented by inserting the following paragraphs before the final paragraph in the subsection entitled “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders”:

Qualified Shareholders

Subject to the exception discussed below, any distribution on or after December 18, 2015 to a “qualified shareholder” who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. tax as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. While a “qualified shareholder” will not be subject to FIRPTA withholding on REIT distributions, certain investors of a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified

 

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shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor), and hold more than 10% of the stock of such REIT (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to FIRPTA withholding.

In addition, on or after December 18, 2015, a sale of our stock by a “qualified shareholder” who holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA. As with distributions, certain investors of a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor), and hold more than 10% of the stock of such REIT (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to FIRPTA withholding on a sale of our stock.

A “qualified shareholder” is a foreign person that (i) either is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty which includes an exchange of information program and whose principal class of interests is listed and regularly traded on one or more recognized stock exchanges (as defined in such comprehensive income tax treaty), or is a foreign partnership that is created or organized under foreign law as a limited partnership in a jurisdiction that has an agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes with the United States and has a class of limited partnership units representing greater than 50% of the value of all the partnership units that is regularly traded on the NYSE or NASDAQ markets, (ii) is a qualified collective investment vehicle (defined below), and (iii) maintains records on the identity of each person who, at any time during the foreign person’s taxable year, is the direct owner of 5% or more of the class of interests or units (as applicable) described in (i), above.

A qualified collective investment vehicle is a foreign person that (i) would be eligible for a reduced rate of withholding under the comprehensive income tax treaty described above, even if such entity holds more than 10% of the stock of such REIT, (ii) is publicly traded, is treated as a partnership under the Code, is a withholding foreign partnership, and would be treated as a “United States real property holding corporation” if it were a domestic corporation, or (iii) is designated as such by the Secretary of the Treasury and is either (a) fiscally transparent within the meaning of section 894, or (b) required to include dividends in its gross income, but is entitled to a deduction for distributions to its investors.

Qualified Foreign Pension Funds

Any distribution on or after December 18, 2015 to a “qualified foreign pension fund” (or an entity all of the interests of which are held by a “qualified foreign pension fund”) who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. tax as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. In addition, on or after December 18, 2015, a sale of our stock by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA.

A qualified foreign pension fund is any trust, corporation, or other organization or arrangement (i) which is created or organized under the law of a country other than the United States, (ii) which is established to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (or persons designated by such employees) of one or more employers in consideration for services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary with a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and provides annual information reporting about its beneficiaries to the relevant tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates, and (v) with respect to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates, (a) contributions to

 

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such organization or arrangement that would otherwise be subject to tax under such laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of such entity or taxed at a reduced rate, or (b) taxation of any investment income of such organization or arrangement is deferred or such income is taxed at a reduced rate.

The provisions of the Act relating to qualified shareholders and qualified foreign pension funds are complex. Stockholders should consult their tax advisors with respect to the impact of the Act on them.

Finally, the final paragraph and subheading in the discussion in the accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders—New Legislation Related to Foreign Accounts” is replaced in its entirety with the following:

FATCA Withholding

Under FATCA, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on dividends paid on our stock received by certain non-U.S. stockholders if certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership are not satisfied. In addition, if those disclosure requirements are not satisfied, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed, for payments made after December 31, 2018, on proceeds from the sale of our stock received by certain non-U.S. stockholders. If payment of withholding taxes is required, non-U.S. stockholders that are otherwise eligible for an exemption from, or reduction of, U.S. withholding taxes with respect of such dividends and proceeds will be required to seek a refund from the IRS to obtain the benefit or such exemption or reduction. We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of any amounts withheld.

Other Tax Consequences

The accompanying prospectus under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations—Other Tax Consequences” summarizes certain federal income tax considerations applicable to our direct or indirect investments in our operating partnership and any subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies that we form or acquire. The recently enacted Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changes the rules applicable to federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it is unclear how these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest (such as our operating partnership) being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes had we owned the assets of the partnership directly. The changes created by these new rules are sweeping and in many respects dependent on the promulgation of future regulations or other guidance by the U.S. Treasury. Prospective shareholders should consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our Series A Preferred Stock.

 

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UNDERWRITING

We have entered into an underwriting agreement with Raymond James & Associates, Inc. and Wunderlich Securities, Inc. as representatives of the underwriters named below, with respect to the shares subject to this offering. Subject to the terms and conditions in the underwriting agreement, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each underwriter has, severally and not jointly, agreed to purchase from us on a firm commitment basis, the respective number of shares of our Series A Preferred Stock set forth opposite its name in the table below:

 

Underwriters

   Number of Shares  

Raymond James & Associates, Inc.

     1,800,000   

Wunderlich Securities, Inc.

     840,000   

D.A. Davidson & Co.

     620,000   

Janney Montgomery Scott LLC

     540,000   

Compass Point Research & Trading, LLC

     200,000   
  

 

 

 

Total

     4,000,000   

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligation of the underwriters to purchase all of the shares being offered to the public is subject to approval of legal matters by counsel and the satisfaction of other conditions. These conditions include, among others, the continued accuracy of representations and warranties made by us in the underwriting agreement, delivery of legal opinions and the absence of any material changes in our assets, business or prospects after the date of this prospectus supplement. The underwriters are obligated to purchase all of our shares in this offering if they purchase any of our shares other than those shares covered by the over-allotment option described below.

The representatives of the underwriters have advised us that the underwriters propose to offer the Series A Preferred Stock directly to the public at the public offering prices listed on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and to selected dealers, who may include the underwriters, at the public offering price less a selling concession not in excess of $0.50 per share for the Series A Preferred Stock. The underwriters may allow, and the selected dealers may reallow, a concession not in excess of $0.10 per share for the Series A Preferred Stock to brokers and dealers. After the completion of the offering, the underwriters may change the offering price and other selling terms. Sales of Series A Preferred Stock made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.

Pursuant to the underwriting agreement, we have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments which the underwriters or other indemnified parties may be required to make in respect of any such liabilities.

 

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Commissions and Expenses

The following table provides information regarding the amount of the underwriting discounts and commissions to be paid to the underwriters by us. This information assumes no exercise and full exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option described below.

 

     Per Share      Without Option      With Option  

Underwriting discount paid by us

   $ 0.7875       $ 3,150,000       $ 3,622,500   

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $ 24.2125       $ 96,850,000       $ 111,377,500   

Over-Allotment Option

We have granted the underwriters an over-allotment option. This option, which is exercisable for up to 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, permits the underwriters to purchase a maximum of 600,000 additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock from us, solely to cover over-allotments, if any. If the underwriters exercise all or part of this option, each underwriter will be obligated to purchase its proportionate number of shares covered by the option at the public offering price that appears on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, less the underwriting discount.

We plan to file an application to list the Series A Preferred Stock on the NYSE under the symbol “CIO PRA.” We estimate that the total expenses of this offering, including registration, filing and listing fees, printing fees and legal and accounting expenses, but excluding underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $300,000.

No Sales of Series A Preferred Stock

We have agreed that, for a period of 60 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, we will not, without the prior written consent of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters, issue, offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, or otherwise dispose of any shares of the Series A Preferred Stock or any shares of preferred stock ranking on par with or senior to the Series A Preferred Stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for Series A Preferred Stock or shares of preferred stock ranking on par with or senior to the Series A Preferred Stock; enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers any of the economic consequences of ownership of the Series A Preferred Stock or such parity or senior preferred stock; file any registration statement relating to the offering of any shares of Series A Preferred Stock or any shares of preferred stock ranking on par with or senior to the Series A Preferred Stock; or publicly announce an intention to effect any such transaction.

Stabilization

Until the distribution of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement is completed, rules of the SEC may limit the ability of the underwriters to bid for and to purchase our Series A Preferred Stock. As an exception to these rules, the underwriters may engage in transactions effected in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act that are intended to stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of our Series A Preferred Stock. The underwriters may engage in over-allotment sales, syndicate covering transactions, stabilizing transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M.

 

   

Stabilizing transactions permit bids or purchases for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the Series A Preferred Stock, so long as stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.

 

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Over-allotment sales are sales by the underwriters of securities in excess of the number of securities the underwriters are obligated to purchase, which creates a short position. The short position may be either a covered short position or a naked short position. In a covered short position, the number of Series A Preferred Stock over-allotted by the underwriters is not greater than the number of Series A Preferred Stock that they may purchase in the over-allotment option. In a naked short position, the number of Series A Preferred Stock involved is greater than the number of shares in the over-allotment option. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their over-allotment option or purchasing our Series A Preferred Stock in the open market.

 

   

Covering transactions involve the purchase of securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions. In determining the source of securities to close out the short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of securities available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase securities through the over-allotment option. If the underwriters sell more Series A Preferred Stock than could be covered by the over-allotment option, creating a naked short position, the position can only be closed out by buying securities in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there could be downward pressure on the price of the securities in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering.

 

   

Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a selected dealer when the securities originally sold by the selected dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or syndicate covering transaction.

These stabilizing transactions, covering transactions and penalty bids may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our securities or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our Series A Preferred Stock. As a result, the price of our securities may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market.

Neither we nor the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the effect that the transactions described above may have on the prices of our securities. These transactions may occur on any trading market. If any of these transactions are commenced, they may be discontinued without notice at any time.

Electronic Prospectus

This prospectus supplement may be made available in electronic format on Internet sites or through other online services maintained by the underwriters or their affiliates. In those cases, prospective investors may view offering terms online and may be allowed to place orders online. Other than this prospectus supplement in electronic format, any information on the underwriters’ or their affiliates’ websites and any information contained in any other website maintained by the underwriters or any affiliate of the underwriters is not part of this prospectus supplement or the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, has not been approved and/or endorsed by us or the underwriters and should not be relied upon by investors.

 

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Market for Shares

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our Series A Preferred Stock. The initial public offering price will be determined by negotiations between us and the representatives of the underwriters. In determining the initial public offering price, we and the representatives of the underwriters expect to consider a number of factors including:

 

   

the information set forth in this prospectus supplement and otherwise available to the representatives;

 

   

our prospects and the history and prospects for the industry in which we compete;

 

   

an assessment of our management;

 

   

our prospects for future earnings;

 

   

the general condition of the securities markets at the time of this offering;

 

   

the recent market prices of, and demand for, publicly traded preferred stock of generally comparable companies; and

 

   

other factors deemed relevant by the underwriters and us.

Neither we nor the underwriters can assure investors that an active trading market will develop for the Series A Preferred Stock, or that the shares will trade in the public market at or above the initial public offering price.

Delivery of Series A Preferred Stock

We expect that delivery of the Series A Preferred Stock will be made against payment thereof on or about October 4, 2016, which will be the fifth business day following the pricing of the Series A Preferred Stock (such settlement cycle being herein referred to as “T + 5”). Under Rule 15c6-1 under the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in three business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade Series A Preferred Stock on any date prior to the third business day before delivery will be required, by virtue of the fact that the Series A Preferred Stock initially will settle T + 5, to specify an alternate settlement cycle at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the Series A Preferred Stock who wish to trade the Series A Preferred Stock on any date prior to the third business day before delivery should consult their own advisor.

Relationships

Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have provided in the past to us and our affiliates and may provide from time to time in the future certain commercial banking, financial advisory, investment banking and other services for us and such affiliates in the ordinary course of their business, for which they have received and may continue to receive customary fees and commissions. In addition, from time to time, certain of the underwriters and their affiliates may effect transactions for their own account or the account of customers, and hold on behalf of themselves or their customers, long or short positions in our debt or equity securities or loans, and may do so in the future.

 

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Non-U.S. Legends

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus supplement may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus supplement in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for us by Hunton & Williams LLP. Ballard Spahr LLP will issue an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock offered hereby. Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for the underwriters by Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated and combined financial statements and financial statement Schedule III of City Office REIT, Inc. as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2015, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The statements of revenues and certain expenses of Superior Pointe, DTC Crossroads, 190 Office Center and Intellicenter for the year ended December 31, 2014 and FRP Collection for the year ended December 31, 2015 have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have an effective registration statement on Form S-3 on file with the SEC. In addition, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any documents filed by us at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room. Our filings with the SEC are also available to the public through the SEC’s internet website at www.sec.gov.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The incorporated documents contain significant information about us, our business and our finances. Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, or information that we later file with the SEC, modifies or replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the SEC:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015, filed with the SEC on March 4, 2016;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on May 5, 2016 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2016, filed with the SEC on August 4, 2016;

 

   

our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on March 22, 2016;

 

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our Current Reports on Form 8-K or 8-K/A filed with the SEC on February 5, 2016, March 9, 2016, April 5, 2016, May 19, 2016, July 14, 2016, July 20, 2016, September 9, 2016 and September 20, 2016; and

 

   

all documents filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering of the underlying securities.

To the extent that any information contained in any current report on Form 8-K, or any exhibit thereto, was furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, such information or exhibit is specifically not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, on written or oral request of that person, a copy of any or all of the documents we are incorporating by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, other than exhibits to those documents unless those exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. A written request should be addressed to City Office REIT, Inc., Suite 2010, 1075 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6E 3C9.

 

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PROSPECTUS

$500,000,000

LOGO

City Office REIT, Inc.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

We may offer, issue and sell from time to time, together or separately, the securities described in this prospectus, at an aggregate public offering price that will not exceed $500,000,000.

We will provide the specific terms of any securities we may offer in supplements to this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest. This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement describing the amount of securities being offered and terms of the offering of those securities. We may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, or directly to purchasers on a continuous or delayed basis. We reserve the sole right to accept, and together with any underwriters, dealers and agents, reserve the right to reject, in whole or in part, any proposed purchase of securities. The names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the sale of any securities, the specific manner in which they may be offered and any applicable commissions or discounts will be set forth in the prospectus supplement covering the sales of those securities.

We intend to elect to be taxed as a real estate investment trust for federal income tax purposes (“REIT”) commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014, upon filing our federal income tax return for that year. Shares of our common stock are subject to limitations on ownership and transfer that are primarily intended to assist us in qualifying as a REIT. Our charter generally prohibits any person from actually, beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock. See the section entitled “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” included in this prospectus.

Our common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “CIO.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE on May 4, 2015 was $12.85 per share. We have not yet determined whether any of the other securities that may be offered by this prospectus will be listed on any exchange, inter-dealer quotation system or over-the-counter system. If we decide to seek a listing for any of those securities, that decision will be disclosed in a prospectus supplement.

Investing in our securities involves risks. Before making a decision to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks described under the section entitled “Risk Factors” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other documents filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including any risks described in any accompanying prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     PAGE  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii   

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF INFORMATION FILED WITH THE SEC

     iii   

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     iv   

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     v   

CITY OFFICE REIT, INC.

     1   

RISK FACTORS

     2   

COMPUTATION OF RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     3   

USE OF PROCEEDS

     4   

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK

     5   

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     12   

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23   

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     25   

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     26   

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     29   

DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF CITY OFFICE REIT OPERATING PARTNERSHIP, L.P.

     36   

MATERIAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     52   

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     77   

LEGAL MATTERS

     80   

EXPERTS

     81   

Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “City Office,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” are to City Office REIT, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including City Office REIT Operating Partnership, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership of which we are the sole general partner and through which we conduct substantially all of our business (“our operating partnership”). “Our Advisor” refers to our external advisor, City Office Real Estate Management Inc. “Second City” refers to Second City Capital Partners II, Limited Partnership. “Second City GP” refers to Second City General Partner II, Limited Partnership. “Gibralt” refers to Gibralt US, Inc. “GCC Amberglen” refers to GCC Amberglen Investments Limited Partnership. “CIO OP” refers to CIO OP Limited Partnership. “CIO REIT” refers to CIO REIT Stock Limited Partnership and CIO REIT Stock GP Limited Partnership. The “Second City Group” refers to Second City, any future real estate funds created by the principals of Second City, Second City GP, Gibralt, GCC Amberglen, CIO OP, CIO REIT and Daniel Rapaport.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, as well as information that we have previously filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, and incorporated by reference, is accurate only as of the date of the applicable document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

The distribution of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the offering of our securities in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. If you possess this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, you should find out about and observe these restrictions. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are not an offer to sell our securities and are not soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or where the person making the offer or sale is not qualified to do so or to any person to whom it is not permitted to make such offer or sale. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell, at any time and from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. The exhibits to our registration statement and documents incorporated by reference herein and therein contain the full text of certain contracts and other important documents that we have summarized in this prospectus or that we may summarize in a prospectus supplement. Since these summaries may not contain all the information that you may find important in deciding whether to purchase the securities we offer, you should review the full text of these documents. The registration statement, the exhibits and other documents can be obtained from the SEC as indicated under the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC.”

This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer, which is not meant to be a complete description of each security. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that contains specific information about the terms of those securities. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in such prospectus supplement. You should read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC.”

 

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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF INFORMATION FILED WITH THE SEC

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Any statement contained in a document which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, or information that we later file with the SEC, modifies or replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the SEC:

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014, filed with the SEC on March 24, 2015;

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 10, 2015, March 25, 2015 and May 5, 2015; and

 

    the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on April 8, 2014.

We are also incorporating by reference additional documents that we file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act: (i) after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement and (ii) after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed above or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or certain exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

To receive a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including exhibits, if they are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents, call us at 1-604-806-3366 or submit a written request to City Office REIT, Inc., 1075 West Georgia Street, Suite 2600, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6E 3C9, Attention: Investor Relations.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E. Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information about the public reference room. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, we maintain a website that contains information about us at http://www.cityofficereit.com. The information found on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, and does not form a part of, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the SEC.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3, of which this prospectus is a part, including exhibits, schedules and amendments filed with, or incorporated by reference into, the registration statement, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, with respect to the securities registered hereby. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information with respect to our company and the securities registered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are not necessarily complete and, where such contract or other document is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by the exhibit to which the reference relates. Copies of the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement, may be examined at the SEC’s public reference room. Copies of all or a portion of the registration statement can be obtained from the public reference room of the SEC upon payment of prescribed fees. The registration statement of which this prospectus is a part is also available to you on the SEC’s website.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

When used in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the documents that we have incorporated by reference, in future filings with the SEC or in press releases or other written or oral communications, statements which are not historical in nature, including those containing words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “may” or similar expressions, are intended to identify “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act and, as such, may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. Statements regarding the following subjects are forward-looking by their nature:

 

    adverse economic or real estate developments in the office sector or the markets in which we operate;

 

    changes in local, regional and national economic conditions;

 

    our inability to compete effectively;

 

    our inability to collect rent from tenants or renew tenants’ leases;

 

    demand for and market acceptance of our properties for rental purposes;

 

    our reliance on, and actual or potential conflicts of interest with, our Advisor;

 

    defaults on or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

    increased interest rates and operating costs;

 

    decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;

 

    our failure to obtain necessary outside financing on favorable terms or at all;

 

    changes in the availability of additional acquisition opportunities;

 

    availability of qualified personnel;

 

    our inability to successfully complete real estate acquisitions;

 

    our failure to successfully operate acquired properties and operations;

 

    changes in our business strategy;

 

    our failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;

 

    environmental uncertainties and risks related to adverse weather conditions and natural disasters;

 

    our failure to qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT;

 

    government approvals, actions and initiatives, including the need for compliance with environmental requirements;

 

    outcome of claims and litigation involving or affecting us;

 

    financial market fluctuations; and

 

    changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates.

 

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The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information available to us at the time the forward-looking statements are made. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, prospects, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. You should carefully consider this risk when you make an investment decision concerning our securities. Additionally, the following factors could cause actual results to vary from our forward-looking statements:

 

    the factors discussed in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, including those set forth under the section titled “Risk Factors,” and the sections captioned “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other documents that we file with the SEC;

 

    general volatility of the capital markets and the market prices of our listed securities;

 

    performance of our industry in general;

 

    changes in our business or investment strategy;

 

    availability, terms and deployment of capital;

 

    availability of and our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;

 

    our leverage levels;

 

    our capital expenditures;

 

    changes in our industry and the markets in which we operate, interest rates or the general U.S. or international economy;

 

    our ability to qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT; and

 

    the degree and nature of our competition.

All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time and it is not possible to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

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CITY OFFICE REIT, INC.

We are an externally managed Maryland corporation, organized in the state of Maryland on November 26, 2013, focused on acquiring, owning and operating high-quality (Class A and B) office properties located primarily within our specified target markets in the United States. As of the date of this prospectus, we have 12 primary target markets, which are located in metropolitan areas in the Southern and Western United States. We are externally managed by our Advisor.

As of May 1, 2015, we own ten office complexes comprised of 22 office buildings with a total of approximately 2.4 million square feet of net rentable area in the metropolitan areas of Boise (ID), Dallas (TX), Denver (CO), Portland (OR), Tampa (FL), Allentown (PA) and Orlando (FL).

We intend to elect to be taxed as a REIT, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014, upon filing our tax return for that year. We intend to continue to operate in a manner that will allow us to qualify as a REIT. We are structured as an umbrella partnership REIT (“UPREIT”), which means that we conduct substantially all of our business through our operating partnership, for which we serve as the sole general partner.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Before purchasing any securities offered by this prospectus, you should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference into this prospectus from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, the risks, uncertainties and additional information set forth in our SEC reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K and in the other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any risks described in any accompanying prospectus supplement. For a description of these reports and documents, and information about where you can find them, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC.” Additional risks not presently known or that are currently deemed immaterial could also materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects.

 

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COMPUTATION OF RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth our consolidated ratios of earnings to fixed charges and of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the periods indicated. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not issued any shares of our preferred stock. Because we did not have any preferred stock outstanding and therefore paid no preferred stock dividends during any of the periods presented, the ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends is identical to the ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods presented.

 

     City Office REIT, Inc.      City Office REIT, Inc. Predecessor  
     Period from
April 21, 2014 to
December 31, 2014
     Period from
January 1,
2014 to April 20,
2014
     Year ended
December 31,
2013
     Year ended
December 31,
2012
 

Consolidated Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     0.05         0.33         0.22         0.49   

The computation of earnings to fixed charges indicates that earnings were inadequate to cover fixed charges on the basis of our historical financial statements by approximately $6,854,774 for the period from April 21, 2014 to December 31, 2014, and City Office REIT, Inc. Predecessor’s historical financial statements by approximately $2,530,157 for the period from January 1, 2014 to April 20, 2014, and $4,177,293 and $1,881,575 for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

For each period, we computed the ratios by dividing earnings by fixed charges. For purposes of calculating the ratios, “earnings” consist of loss from continuing operations before equity in income from unconsolidated ventures plus fixed charges, less capitalized interest, and “fixed charges” consist of interest expense, capitalized interest and rental expense at computed interest factor (the amounts of which represent those portions of rent expense that are reasonable approximations of interest costs).

We refer to the entities that owned the historical interests in the AmberGlen, Central Fairwinds, City Center, Cherry Creek, Corporate Parkway and Washington Group Plaza properties, which were the initial properties contributed to us in our formation transactions, as the “City Office REIT, Inc. Predecessor.”

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of the securities pursuant to this prospectus to our operating partnership. Our operating partnership will subsequently use the net proceeds received from us to potentially acquire or develop additional properties and for general corporate purposes, which may include payment of dividends, capital expenditures for improvements to the properties in our portfolio, and the repayment of existing indebtedness, including amounts outstanding under our $30 million secured revolving credit facility with KeyBank National Association (the “Secured Credit Facility”), which matures on April 21, 2016. We have the right and option to extend the Secured Credit Facility to April 21, 2017, subject to satisfaction of certain conditions. Borrowings under the Secured Credit Facility bear interest at the three-month LIBOR rate plus 2.75%. As of December 31, 2014, the three-month month LIBOR rate was 0.26%. As at December 31, 2014, the Secured Credit Facility was undrawn. The Secured Credit Facility may be used for general corporate purposes and to fund a portion of the purchase price of future acquisitions. Pending application of cash proceeds, we will invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts, money market accounts and interest-bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to qualify and maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT. Such investments may include, for example, government and government agency certificates, government bonds, certificates of deposit, interest-bearing bank deposits, money market accounts and mortgage loan participations. Further details regarding the use of the net proceeds from the sale of a specific series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF STOCK

The following summary describes certain provisions of Maryland law and the material terms of our charter and our bylaws. Because the following is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. This description is not complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our charter and our bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to this registration statement, and applicable law.

Please note that, with respect to any of our shares held in book-entry form through The Depository Trust Company or any other share depository, the depository or its nominee will be the sole registered and legal owner of those shares, and references in this prospectus to any “stockholder” or “holder” of those shares means only the depository or its nominee. Persons who hold beneficial interests in our shares through a depository will not be registered or legal owners of those shares and will not be recognized as such for any purpose. For example, only the depository or its nominee will be entitled to vote the shares held through it, and any dividends or other distributions to be paid, and any notices to be given, in respect of those shares will be paid or given only to the depository or its nominee. Owners of beneficial interests in those shares will have to look solely to the depository with respect to any benefits of share ownership, and any rights that they may have with respect to those shares will be governed by the rules of the depository, which are subject to change from time to time. We have no responsibility for those rules or their application to any interests held through the depository. See “Legal Ownership of Securities” for more information.

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and up to 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board of directors and without any action by our stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock. As of December 31, 2014, 12,279,110 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding, not including the restricted stock units granted to our directors, executive officers and employees of our Advisor under the Equity Incentive Plan, and no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding. Our Equity Incentive Plan provides for grants of equity-based awards up to an aggregate of 1,263,580 shares of common stock. As of December 31, 2014, we had issued 382,372 restricted stock units under our Equity Incentive Plan.

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”), stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

Common Stock

Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends and other distributions on such shares if, as, and when authorized by our board of directors, out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment or establishment of reserves for all known debts and liabilities of our company.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our common stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of shares of common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors. Directors are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast in the election of directors.

 

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Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights, and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. The common stock we may offer from time to time under this prospectus, when issued in exchange for the consideration therefor, will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Our charter provides that holders of our common stock generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines prospectively that appraisal rights will apply to one or more transactions in which holders of our common stock would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless declared advisable by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval of any of these matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such matters, except that the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors is required to remove a director (and such removal must be for cause) and the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter is required to amend the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and the vote required to amend such provisions. Maryland law also permits a Maryland corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of the stockholders of the corporation to an entity if all of the equity interests of the entity are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Because our operating assets may be held by our operating partnership or its subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets to the operating partnership or other subsidiary without the approval of our stockholders.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, to establish the designation and number of shares of each class or series and to set, subject to the provisions of our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each such class or series.

Preferred Stock

As of the date hereof, no shares of preferred stock are outstanding and we have no present plans to issue any preferred stock. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock in one or more classes or series and may classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of preferred stock into one or more classes or series and determine, with respect to any such class or series, the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock of that class or series, including:

 

    distribution rights;

 

    conversion rights;

 

    voting rights;

 

    redemption rights and terms of redemptions; and

 

    liquidation preferences.

The preferred stock we may offer from time to time under this prospectus, when issued in exchange for the consideration therefor, will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable, and holders of preferred stock will not have any preemptive rights.

 

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The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders. In addition, any preferred stock that we issue could rank senior to our common stock with respect to the rights upon liquidation and the payment of distributions, in which case we could not pay any distributions on our common stock until full distributions have been paid with respect to such preferred stock.

The preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each class or series of preferred stock will be set forth in articles supplementary to our charter relating to the class or series. We will describe the specific terms of the particular series of preferred stock in the prospectus supplement relating to that series, which terms may include:

 

    the designation and par value of the preferred stock;

 

    the voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

    the number of shares of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share of preferred stock and the offering price of the preferred stock;

 

    the distribution rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation applicable to the preferred stock;

 

    whether distributions will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date(s) from which distributions on the preferred stock will cumulate;

 

    the procedures for any auction and remarketing for the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

    the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

    the provision for, and any restriction on, redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

    the provision for, and any restriction on, repurchase, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

    the terms and provisions, if any, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into common stock, including the conversion price (or manner or calculation) and conversion period;

 

    the terms under which the rights of the preferred stock may be modified, if applicable;

 

    the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

    any limitation on issuance of any other series of preferred stock, including any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

    any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

    if appropriate, a discussion of any additional material federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

    information with respect to book-entry procedures, if applicable;

 

    in addition to those restrictions described below, any other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of the preferred stock; and

 

    any additional rights, preferences, privileges or restrictions of the preferred stock.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common and Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares

 

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of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional authorized shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of preferred stock we may issue in the future or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws.”

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock (after taking into account options to acquire shares of stock) may be owned, directly, indirectly or through attribution, by five or fewer individuals (for this purpose, the term “individual” includes certain entities such as a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit trust and a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, among others) at any time during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made). Finally, in certain circumstances we could be treated as being related to one or more of our tenants if we own, directly or indirectly, an interest in a tenant that exceeds the limits provided in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code. If such a relationship were deemed to exist, any rents we receive from the related tenant would not be treated as rents from real property and could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and qualifying as a REIT, among other purposes. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or 9.8% (in value) of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock. We refer to each of these restrictions as an “ownership limit” and collectively as the “ownership limits.” A person or entity that would have acquired actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock but for the application of the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below is referred to as a “prohibited owner.”

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually, beneficially or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned beneficially or constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% in value or in number of shares (whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or less than 9.8% in value of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock (or the acquisition by an individual or entity of an interest in an entity that owns, actually, beneficially or constructively, shares of our stock) could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own beneficially or constructively in excess of 9.8% in value or in number of shares (whichever is more restrictive) of our stock and in violation of the applicable ownership limit.

 

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Our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion, prospectively or retroactively, waive either or both of the ownership limits with respect to a particular stockholder or establish a different limit on ownership (the “excepted holder limit”) if it determines that:

 

    no person’s beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

    such stockholder does not and will not own, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any entity controlled or owned in whole or in part by us) that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.8% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant (or our board of directors determines that revenue derived from such tenant will not affect our ability to qualify as a REIT).

As a condition of our waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or an Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, ruling satisfactory to our board of directors in its sole and absolute discretion in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT or such representations and/or undertakings from the person requesting the waiver as our board of directors may require in its sole and absolute discretion to make the determinations above. Notwithstanding the receipt of any ruling or opinion, our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with granting such an exception. Our board of directors granted one or more waivers of the ownership limits to Second City and certain other parties to our initial public offering and the related formation transactions, or their affiliates.

In connection with a waiver of an ownership limit or at any other time, our board of directors may increase or decrease one or both of the ownership limits, except that a decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person whose actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock exceeds the decreased ownership limit at the time of the decrease until the person’s actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, although any further acquisition of our stock will violate the decreased ownership limit. Our board of directors may not increase or decrease any ownership limit if the new ownership limit would allow five or fewer persons to beneficially own more than 49% in value of our outstanding stock or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter provisions further prohibit any transfer (as defined therein) that would result in:

 

    any person beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock if such ownership would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including, but not limited to, beneficial or constructive ownership that would result in us, actually or constructively, owning an interest in a tenant that exceeds the limits provided in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code); and

 

    shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution), subject to the exception described below.

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above must give written notice immediately to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, provide us at least 15 days prior notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT.

The ownership limits and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interest to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors, or would result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then the number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us. Our charter provides that the prohibited owner will not benefit economically from ownership of any shares of our stock held in trust and will have no rights to distributions and no rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares of our stock held by the trustee. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand. Our charter provides that if the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limit or our being “closely held” (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then the transfer of the number of shares that otherwise would cause any person to violate the above restrictions will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares. In addition, our charter provides that if any transfer of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution), then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares, provided that our board of directors may waive this provision if, in its opinion, such a transfer would not adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter provides that shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the last sales price reported on the NYSE on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (2) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepts such offer. We will reduce the amount payable to the trust by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. We will pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner. Any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or persons, designated by the trustee, who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. Upon such sale, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the last sales price reported on the NYSE on the day of the event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee will reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if, prior to discovery by us that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trustee, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then our charter provides that such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount shall be paid to the trustee upon demand.

 

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The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such shares, and may exercise all voting rights with respect to such shares for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, our charter provides that the trustee shall have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

    to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

    to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

If our board of directors or a committee thereof determines in good faith that a proposed transfer or other event has taken place that violates the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors or such committee may take such action as it deems advisable in its sole discretion to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing the company to redeem shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give written notice to us stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the owner beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner also must provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, any person that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, disclose to us in writing such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our status as a REIT and comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits.

Our charter provides that each purchaser of our capital stock that purchases such stock from us or any underwriter, placement agent or initial purchaser that participates in a public offering, a private placement or other private offering of such stock will be deemed to have represented, warranted and agreed that its purchase and holding of such stock will not constitute or result in (i) a non-exempt prohibited transaction under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code or (ii) a violation of any applicable other federal, state, local, non-U.S. or other laws or regulations that contain one or more provisions that are substantially similar to the provisions of Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code.

Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer and Trust Company, LLC.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

General

The debt securities offered by this prospectus will be our direct unsecured general obligations. This prospectus describes certain general terms of the debt securities which may be offered through this prospectus. In the following discussion, we refer to any of our direct unsecured general obligations as the “Debt Securities.” When we offer to sell a particular series of Debt Securities, we will describe the specific terms of that series in a prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus. The Debt Securities will be issued under an open-ended Indenture (for Debt Securities) between us and a trustee to be elected by us at or about the time we offer our Debt Securities. The open-ended Indenture (for Debt Securities) will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and will be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. In this prospectus we refer to the Indenture (for Debt Securities) as the “Debt Securities Indenture.” We refer to the trustee under any Debt Securities Indenture as the “Debt Securities Trustee.”

The prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of Debt Securities may state that a particular series of Debt Securities will be our subordinated obligations. The form of Debt Securities Indenture referred to above includes optional provisions (designated by brackets (“[ ]”)) that we would expect to appear in a separate indenture for subordinated debt securities in the event we issue subordinated debt securities. In the following discussion, we refer to any of our subordinated obligations as the “Subordinated Debt Securities.” Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus provides otherwise, we will use a separate Debt Securities Indenture for any Subordinated Debt Securities that we may issue. Our Debt Securities Indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and you should refer to the Trust Indenture Act for the provisions that apply to the Debt Securities.

We have summarized selected provisions of the Debt Securities Indenture below. Each Debt Securities Indenture will be independent of any other Debt Securities Indenture unless otherwise stated in a prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus. The summary that follows is not complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. You should consult the applicable Debt Securities, Debt Securities Indenture, any supplemental indentures, officers’ certificates and other related documents for more complete information on the Debt Securities. These documents appear as exhibits to, or are incorporated by reference into, the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will appear as exhibits to other documents that we will file with the SEC, which will be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. In the summary below, we have included references to applicable section numbers of the Debt Securities Indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions.

Ranking

Our Debt Securities that are not designated Subordinated Debt Securities will be effectively subordinated to all secured indebtedness that we have outstanding from time to time to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such secured indebtedness. Our Debt Securities that are designated Subordinated Debt Securities will be subordinate to all outstanding secured indebtedness as well as Debt Securities that are not designated Subordinated Debt Securities. The Debt Securities Indenture does not limit the amount of secured indebtedness that we may issue or incur.

We conduct substantially all of our operations, and make substantially all of our investments, through our operating partnership and its subsidiaries. Our ability to meet our financial obligations with respect to any future Debt Securities, and cash needs generally, is dependent on our operating cash flow, our ability to access various sources of short- and long-term liquidity, including our bank facilities, the capital markets and distributions from our subsidiaries. Holders of our Debt Securities will effectively have a junior position to claims of creditors of our subsidiaries, including trade creditors, debt holders, secured creditors, taxing authorities and guarantee holders.

 

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Provisions of a Particular Series

The Debt Securities may from time to time be issued in one or more series. You should consult the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus relating to any particular series of Debt Securities for the following information:

 

    the title of the Debt Securities;

 

    any limit on aggregate principal amount of the Debt Securities or the series of which they are a part;

 

    the date(s), or method for determining the date(s), on which the principal of the Debt Securities will be payable;

 

    the rate, including the method of determination if applicable, at which the Debt Securities will bear interest, if any, and

 

    the date from which any interest will accrue;

 

    the dates on which we will pay interest;

 

    our ability to defer interest payments and any related restrictions during any interest deferral period; and

 

    the record date for any interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

    the place where:

 

    the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Debt Securities will be payable;

 

    you may register transfer of the Debt Securities;

 

    you may exchange the Debt Securities; and

 

    you may serve notices and demands upon us regarding the Debt Securities;

 

    the security registrar for the Debt Securities and whether the principal of the Debt Securities is payable without presentment or surrender of them;

 

    the terms and conditions upon which we may elect to redeem any Debt Securities, including any replacement capital or similar covenants limiting our ability to redeem any Subordinated Debt Securities;

 

    the denominations in which we may issue Debt Securities, if other than $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000;

 

    the terms and conditions upon which the Debt Securities must be redeemed or purchased due to our obligations pursuant to any sinking fund or other mandatory redemption or tender provisions, or at the holder’s option, including any applicable exceptions to notice requirements;

 

    the currency, if other than United States currency, in which payments on the Debt Securities will be payable;

 

    the terms according to which elections can be made by us or the holder regarding payments on the Debt Securities in currency other than the currency in which the Debt Securities are stated to be payable;

 

    if payments are to be made on the Debt Securities in securities or other property, the type and amount of the securities and other property or the method by which the amount shall be determined;

 

    the manner in which we will determine any amounts payable on the Debt Securities that are to be determined with reference to an index or other fact or event ascertainable outside the applicable indenture;

 

    if other than the entire principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of the Debt Securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity;

 

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    any addition to the events of default applicable to any Debt Securities and any additions to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of the Debt Securities;

 

    the terms applicable to any rights to convert Debt Securities into or exchange them for other of our securities or those of any other entity;

 

    whether we are issuing Debt Securities as global securities, and if so,

 

    any limitations on transfer or exchange rights or the right to obtain the registration of transfer;

 

    any limitations on the right to obtain definitive certificates for the Debt Securities; and

 

    any other matters incidental to the Debt Securities;

 

    whether we are issuing the Debt Securities as bearer securities;

 

    any limitations on transfer or exchange of Debt Securities or the right to obtain registration of their transfer, and the terms and amount of any service charge required for registration of transfer or exchange;

 

    any exceptions to the provisions governing payments due on legal holidays, or any variations in the definition of business day with respect to the Debt Securities;

 

    any collateral security, assurance, guarantee or other credit enhancement applicable to the Debt Securities;

 

    any other terms of the Debt Securities not in conflict with the provisions of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture; and

 

    the material federal income tax consequences applicable to the Debt Securities.

For more information, see Section 3.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Debt Securities may be sold at a substantial discount below their principal amount. You should consult the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus for a description of certain material federal income tax considerations that may apply to Debt Securities sold at an original issue discount or denominated in a currency other than dollars.

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, the covenants contained in the applicable indenture will not afford holders of Debt Securities protection in the event we have a change in control or are involved in a highly-leveraged transaction.

Subordination

The applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may provide that a series of Debt Securities will be Subordinated Debt Securities, subordinate and junior in right of payment to all of our Senior Indebtedness, as defined below. If so, we will issue these securities under a separate Debt Securities Indenture for Subordinated Debt Securities. In this prospectus we refer to each such Debt Securities Indenture for Subordinated Debt Securities as the “Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture.” For more information, see Article XV of the form of Debt Securities Indenture.

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, no payment of principal of, including redemption and sinking fund payments, or any premium or interest on, the Subordinated Debt Securities may be made if:

 

    there occur certain acts of bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation, dissolution or other winding up of our company;

 

    any Senior Indebtedness is not paid when due;

 

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    any applicable grace period with respect to other defaults with respect to any Senior Indebtedness has ended, the default has not been cured or waived and the maturity of such Senior Indebtedness has been accelerated because of the default; or

 

    the maturity of the Subordinated Debt Securities of any series has been accelerated because of a default and Senior Indebtedness is then outstanding.

Upon any distribution of our assets to creditors upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, whether voluntary or involuntary or in bankruptcy, insolvency, receivership or other proceedings, all principal of, and any premium and interest due or to become due on, all outstanding Senior Indebtedness must be paid in full before the holders of the Subordinated Debt Securities are entitled to payment. For more information, see Section 15.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. The rights of the holders of the Subordinated Debt Securities will be subrogated to the rights of the holders of Senior Indebtedness to receive payments or distributions applicable to Senior Indebtedness until all amounts owing on the Subordinated Debt Securities are paid in full. For more information, see Section 15.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, the term “Senior Indebtedness” means all obligations (other than non-recourse obligations and the indebtedness issued under the Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture) of, or guaranteed or assumed by, us:

 

    for borrowed money (including both senior and subordinated indebtedness for borrowed money, but excluding the Subordinated Debt Securities);

 

    for the payment of money relating to any lease that is capitalized on our consolidated balance sheet in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; or

 

    indebtedness evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or other similar instruments.

In the case of any such indebtedness or obligations, Senior Indebtedness includes amendments, renewals, extensions, modifications and refundings, whether existing as of the date of the Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture or subsequently incurred by us.

The Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture does not limit the aggregate amount of Senior Indebtedness that we may issue.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, we will issue Debt Securities only in fully registered form without coupons and in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of that amount. For more information, see Sections 2.01 and 3.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Holders may present Debt Securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or accompanied by a duly executed instrument of transfer, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent we may designate. Exchanges and transfers are subject to the terms of the applicable indenture and applicable limitations for global securities. We may designate ourselves the security registrar.

No charge will be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of Debt Securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that the holder must pay in connection with the transaction. Any transfer or exchange will become effective upon the security registrar or transfer agent, as the case may be, being satisfied with the documents of title and identity of the person making the request. For more information, see Section 3.05 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

The applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will state the name of any transfer agent, in addition to the security registrar initially designated by us, for any Debt Securities. We may at any time designate

 

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additional transfer agents or withdraw the designation of any transfer agent or make a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts. We must, however, maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the Debt Securities of each series. For more information, see Section 6.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

We will not be required to:

 

    issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any Debt Securities or any tranche of any Debt Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any Debt Securities called for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of mailing; or

 

    register the transfer of, or exchange any Debt Securities selected for redemption except the unredeemed portion of any Debt Securities being partially redeemed.

For more information, see Section 3.05 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, we will pay interest on a Debt Security on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the Debt Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest payment. For more information, see Section 307 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus provides otherwise, we will pay principal and any premium and interest on Debt Securities at the office of the paying agent whom we will designate for this purpose. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, the corporate trust office of the Debt Securities Trustee in New York City will be designated as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to Debt Securities of each series. Any other paying agents initially designated by us for the Debt Securities of a particular series will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. We may at any time add or delete paying agents or change the office through which any paying agent acts. We must, however, maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the Debt Securities of a particular series. For more information, see Section 6.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

All money we pay to a paying agent for the payment of the principal and any premium or interest on any Debt Security that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after payment is due will be repaid to us. After that date, the holder of that Debt Security shall be deemed an unsecured general creditor and may look only to us for these payments. For more information, see Section 6.03 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Redemption

You should consult the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus for any terms regarding optional or mandatory redemption of Debt Securities. Except for any provisions in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus regarding Debt Securities redeemable at the holder’s option, Debt Securities may be redeemed only upon notice by mail not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the redemption date. Further, if less than all of the Debt Securities of a series, or any tranche of a series, are to be redeemed, the Debt Securities to be redeemed will be selected by the method provided for the particular series. In the absence of a selection provision, the Debt Securities Trustee will select a fair and appropriate method of selection. For more information, see Sections 4.03 and 4.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

 

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A notice of redemption we provide may state:

 

    that redemption is conditioned upon receipt by the paying agent on or before the redemption date of money sufficient to pay the principal of and any premium and interest on the Debt Securities; and

 

    that if the money has not been received, the notice will be ineffective and we will not be required to redeem the Debt Securities.

For more information, see Section 4.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, nor may we transfer or lease substantially all of our assets and property to any other person, unless:

 

    the corporation formed by the consolidation or into which we are merged, or the person that acquires by conveyance or transfer, or that leases, substantially all of our property and assets:

 

    is organized and validly existing under the laws of any domestic jurisdiction; and

 

    expressly assumes by supplemental indenture our obligations on the Debt Securities and under the applicable indentures;

 

    immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no event of default, and no event that would become an event of default, has occurred and is continuing; and

 

    we have delivered to the Debt Securities Trustee an officer’s certificate and opinion of counsel as provided in the applicable indentures.

For more information, see Section 11.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Events of Default

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, “event of default” under the applicable indenture with respect to Debt Securities of any series means any of the following:

 

    failure to pay any interest due on any Debt Security of that series within 30 days after it becomes due;

 

    failure to pay principal or premium, if any, when due on any Debt Security of that series;

 

    failure to make any required sinking fund payment on any Debt Securities of that series;

 

    breach of or failure to perform any other covenant or warranty in the applicable indenture with respect to Debt Securities of that series for 60 days (subject to extension under certain circumstances for another 120 days) after we receive notice from the Debt Securities Trustee, or we and the Debt Securities Trustee receive notice from the holders of at least 33% in principal amount of the Debt Securities of that series outstanding under the applicable indenture according to the provisions of the applicable indenture;

 

    certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization; or

 

    any other event of default set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.

For more information, see Section 8.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

An event of default with respect to a particular series of Debt Securities does not necessarily constitute an event of default with respect to the Debt Securities of any other series issued under the applicable indenture.

If an event of default with respect to a particular series of Debt Securities occurs and is continuing, either the Debt Securities Trustee or the holders of at least 33% in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities

 

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of that series may declare the principal amount of all of the Debt Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately. If the Debt Securities of that series are discount securities or similar Debt Securities, only the portion of the principal amount as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may be immediately due and payable. If an event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to all series of Debt Securities issued under a Debt Securities Indenture, including all events of default relating to bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the Debt Securities Trustee or the holders of at least 33% in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all series issued under that Debt Securities Indenture, considered together, may declare an acceleration of the principal amount of all series of Debt Securities issued under that Debt Securities Indenture. There is no automatic acceleration, even in the event of our bankruptcy or insolvency.

The applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may provide, with respect to a series of Debt Securities to which a credit enhancement is applicable, that the provider of the credit enhancement may, if a default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the series, have all or any part of the rights with respect to remedies that would otherwise have been exercisable by the holder of that series.

At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to the Debt Securities of a particular series, and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained, the event of default giving rise to the declaration of acceleration will, without further action, be deemed to have been waived, and the declaration and its consequences will be deemed to have been rescinded and annulled, if:

 

    we have paid or deposited with the Debt Securities Trustee a sum sufficient to pay:

 

    all overdue interest on all Debt Securities of the particular series;

 

    the principal of and any premium on any Debt Securities of that series that have become due otherwise than by the declaration of acceleration and any interest at the rate prescribed in the Debt Securities;

 

    interest upon overdue interest at the rate prescribed in the Debt Securities, to the extent payment is lawful; and

 

    all amounts due to the Debt Securities Trustee under the applicable indenture; and

 

    any other event of default with respect to the Debt Securities of the particular series, other than the failure to pay the principal of the Debt Securities of that series that has become due solely by the declaration of acceleration, has been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture.

For more information, see Section 8.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

The applicable Debt Securities Indenture includes provisions as to the duties of the Debt Securities Trustee in case an event of default occurs and is continuing. Consistent with these provisions, the Debt Securities Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any of the holders unless those holders have offered to the Debt Securities Trustee reasonable indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction. For more information, see Section 9.03 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. Subject to these provisions for indemnification, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Debt Securities Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Debt Securities Trustee, with respect to the Debt Securities of that series. For more information, see Section 8.12 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

No holder of Debt Securities may institute any proceeding regarding the applicable indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or a trustee, or for any other remedy under the applicable indenture unless:

 

    the holder has previously given to the Debt Securities Trustee written notice of a continuing event of default of that particular series;

 

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    the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all series with respect to which an event of default is continuing have made a written request to the Debt Securities Trustee, and have offered reasonable indemnity to the Debt Securities Trustee, to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

    the Debt Securities Trustee has failed to institute the proceeding, and has not received from the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of that series a direction inconsistent with the request, within 60 days after notice, request and offer of reasonable indemnity.

For more information, see Section 8.07 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

The preceding limitations do not apply, however, to a suit instituted by a holder of a Debt Security for the enforcement of payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on the Debt Securities on or after the applicable due date stated in the Debt Securities. For more information, see Section 8.08 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

We must furnish annually to the Debt Securities Trustee a statement by an appropriate officer as to that officer’s knowledge of our compliance with all conditions and covenants under each of the indentures for Debt Securities. Our compliance is to be determined without regard to any grace period or notice requirement under the respective indenture. For more information, see Section 6.06 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Modification and Waiver

We and the Debt Securities Trustee, without the consent of the holders of the Debt Securities, may enter into one or more supplemental indentures for any of the following purposes:

 

    to evidence the assumption by any permitted successor of our covenants in the applicable indenture and the Debt Securities;

 

    to add one or more covenants or other provisions for the benefit of the holders of outstanding Debt Securities or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us by the applicable indenture;

 

    to add any additional events of default;

 

    to change or eliminate any provision of the applicable indenture or add any new provision to it, but if this action would adversely affect the interests of the holders of any particular series of Debt Securities in any material respect, the action will not become effective with respect to that series while any Debt Securities of that series remain outstanding under the applicable indenture;

 

    to provide collateral security for the Debt Securities;

 

    to establish the form or terms of Debt Securities according to the provisions of the applicable indenture;

 

    to evidence the acceptance of appointment of a successor Debt Securities Trustee under the applicable indenture with respect to one or more series of the Debt Securities and to add to or change any of the provisions of the applicable indenture as necessary to provide for trust administration under the applicable indenture by more than one trustee;

 

    to provide for the procedures required to permit the use of a non-certificated system of registration for any series of Debt Securities;

 

    to change any place where:

 

    the principal of and any premium and interest on any Debt Securities are payable;

 

    any Debt Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange; or

 

    notices and demands to or upon us regarding Debt Securities and the applicable indentures may be served; or

 

    to cure any ambiguity or inconsistency, but only by means of changes or additions that will not adversely affect the interests of the holders of Debt Securities of any series in any material respect.

 

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For more information, see Section 12.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

The holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of any series may waive:

 

    compliance by us with certain provisions of the applicable indenture (see Section 6.07 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture); and

 

    any past default under the applicable indenture, except a default in the payment of principal, premium, or interest and certain covenants and provisions of the applicable indenture that cannot be modified or amended without consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security of the series affected (see Section 8.13 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture).

The Trust Indenture Act of 1939 may be amended after the date of the applicable indenture to require changes to the indenture. In this event, the indenture will be deemed to have been amended so as to effect the changes, and we and the Debt Securities Trustee may, without the consent of any holders, enter into one or more supplemental indentures to evidence or effect the amendment. For more information, see Section 1201 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Except as provided in this section, the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities issued pursuant to a Debt Securities Indenture, considered as one class, is required to change in any manner the applicable indenture pursuant to one or more supplemental indentures. If less than all of the series of Debt Securities outstanding under a Debt Securities Indenture are directly affected by a proposed supplemental indenture, however, only the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all series directly affected, considered as one class, will be required. Furthermore, if the Debt Securities of any series have been issued in more than one tranche and if the proposed supplemental indenture directly affects the rights of the holders of one or more, but not all, tranches, only the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all tranches directly affected, considered as one class, will be required. In addition, an amendment or modification:

 

    may not, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security affected:

 

    change the maturity of the principal of, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any Debt Securities;

 

    reduce the principal amount or the rate of interest, or the amount of any installment of interest, or change the method of calculating the rate of interest;

 

    reduce any premium payable upon the redemption of the Debt Securities;

 

    reduce the amount of the principal of any Debt Security originally issued at a discount from the stated principal amount that would be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of maturity;

 

    change the currency or other property in which a Debt Security or premium or interest on a Debt Security is payable; or

 

    impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or after the stated maturity, or in the case of redemption, on or after the redemption date, of any Debt Securities;

 

    may not reduce the percentage of principal amount requirement for consent of the holders for any supplemental indenture, or for any waiver of compliance with any provision of or any default under the applicable indenture, or reduce the requirements for quorum or voting, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security of each series or tranche affected; and

 

    may not modify provisions of the applicable indenture relating to supplemental indentures, waivers of certain covenants and waivers of past defaults with respect to the Debt Securities of any series, or any tranche of a series, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security affected.

 

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A supplemental indenture will be deemed not to affect the rights under the applicable indenture of the holders of any series or tranche of the Debt Securities if the supplemental indenture:

 

    changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of the applicable indenture expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more other particular series of Debt Securities or tranches thereof; or

 

    modifies the rights of the holders of Debt Securities of any other series or tranches with respect to any covenant or other provision.

For more information, see Section 12.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

If we solicit from holders of the Debt Securities any type of action, we may, at our option by board resolution, fix in advance a record date for the determination of the holders entitled to vote on the action. We shall have no obligation, however, to do so. If we fix a record date, the action may be taken before or after the record date, but only the holders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be holders for the purposes of determining whether holders of the requisite proportion of the outstanding Debt Securities have authorized the action. For that purpose, the outstanding Debt Securities shall be computed as of the record date. Any holder action shall bind every future holder of the same security and the holder of every security issued upon the registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of the security in respect of anything done or permitted by the Debt Securities Trustee or us in reliance on that action, whether or not notation of the action is made upon the security. For more information, see Section 1.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Defeasance

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus provides otherwise, any Debt Security, or portion of the principal amount of a Debt Security, will be deemed to have been paid for purposes of the applicable indenture, and, at our election, our entire indebtedness in respect of the Debt Security, or portion thereof, will be deemed to have been satisfied and discharged, if we have irrevocably deposited with the Debt Securities Trustee or any paying agent other than us, in trust money, certain eligible obligations, as defined in the applicable indenture, or a combination of the two, sufficient to pay principal of and any premium and interest due and to become due on the Debt Security or portion thereof and we deliver to the Debt Securities Trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the notes of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of our defeasance. That opinion must further state that these holders will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if our defeasance had not occurred. For more information, see Section 7.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. For this purpose, unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus provides otherwise, eligible obligations include direct obligations of, or obligations unconditionally guaranteed by, the United States, entitled to the benefit of full faith and credit of the United States, and certificates, depositary receipts or other instruments that evidence a direct ownership interest in those obligations or in any specific interest or principal payments due in respect of those obligations.

Resignation, Removal of Debt Securities Trustee; Appointment of Successor

The Debt Securities Trustee may resign at any time by giving written notice to us or may be removed at any time by an action of the holders of a majority in principal amount of outstanding Debt Securities delivered to the Debt Securities Trustee and us. No resignation or removal of the Debt Securities Trustee and no appointment of a successor trustee will become effective until a successor trustee accepts appointment in accordance with the requirements of the applicable indenture. So long as no event of default or event that would become an event of default has occurred and is continuing, and except with respect to a Debt Securities Trustee appointed by an action of the holders, if we have delivered to the Debt Securities Trustee a resolution of our board of trustees appointing a successor trustee and the successor trustee has accepted the appointment in accordance with the terms of the applicable indenture, the Debt Securities Trustee will be deemed to have resigned and the successor trustee will be deemed to have been appointed as trustee in accordance with the applicable indenture. For more information, see Section 9.10 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

 

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Notices

We will give notices to holders of Debt Securities by mail to their addresses as they appear in the Debt Security Register. For more information, see Section 1.06 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Title

The Debt Securities Trustee and its agents, and we and our agents, may treat the person in whose name a Debt Security is registered as the absolute owner of that Debt Security, whether or not that Debt Security may be overdue, for the purpose of making payment and for all other purposes. For more information, see Section 308 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

Governing Law

The Debt Securities Indentures and the Debt Securities, including any Subordinated Debt Securities Indentures and Subordinated Debt Securities, will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the law of the State of New York. For more information, see Section 1.12 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock and may issue warrants independently or together with common stock or preferred stock or attached to or separate from such securities. We will issue each series of warrants under a separate warrant agreement between us and a bank or trust company as warrant agent, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of the terms of the warrants is only a summary. This description is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the applicable warrant agreement.

The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not act for or on behalf of warrant holders. The following sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that may be offered under this registration statement. Further terms of the warrants and the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Equity Warrants

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, or equity warrants, in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, where applicable, the following:

 

    the title of the equity warrants;

 

    the aggregate number of the equity warrants outstanding;

 

    the price or prices at which the equity warrants will be issued;

 

    the type and number of securities purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants;

 

    the date, if any, on and after which the equity warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

    the price at which each security purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants may be purchased;

 

    the provisions, if any, for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise the equity warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

    the minimum or maximum amount of equity warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

    information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

    any anti-dilution protection;

 

    a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations applicable to the equity warrants; and

 

    any other terms of the equity warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exercise and exchange of such warrants.

Equity warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new equity warrant certificates of different denominations and warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their equity warrants, holders of equity warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise or to any dividend payments or voting rights as to which holders of the depositary shares, common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon such exercise may be entitled.

Except as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the exercise price and the number of shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of each equity warrant will be subject

 

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to adjustment in certain events, including the issuance of a stock dividend to the holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock or a stock split, reverse stock split, combination, subdivision or reclassification of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be. In lieu of adjusting the number of shares purchasable upon exercise of each equity warrant, we may elect to adjust the number of equity warrants. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, no adjustments in the number of shares purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants will be required until all cumulative adjustments require an adjustment of at least 1% thereof. We may, at our option, reduce the exercise price at any time. No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of equity warrants, but we will pay the cash value of any fractional shares otherwise issuable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, in case of any consolidation, merger or sale or conveyance of our property as an entirety or substantially as an entirety, the holder of each outstanding equity warrant will have the right to the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property, including cash, receivable by a holder of the number of depositary shares, shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock into which each equity warrant was exercisable immediately prior to the particular triggering event.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase for cash such number of shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock, at such exercise price as shall, in each case, be set forth in, or be determinable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to 5:00 p.m. New York City time on the expiration date set forth in applicable prospectus supplement. After 5:00 p.m. New York City time on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will be void.

Warrants may be exercised as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants. Upon receipt of payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants that are represented by such warrant certificate are exercised, a new warrant certificate will be issued for the remaining amount of warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of two or more other constituent securities. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable as, a single security only, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. Each series of units will be issued under a separate unit agreement to be entered into by our company and a unit agent specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The statements made in this section relating to the units are summaries only. These summaries are not complete and are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, the provisions of the applicable unit agreement. When we issue units, we will provide the specific terms of the units in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

When we issue units, we will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the units being issued:

 

    the title of any series of units;

 

    identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

    the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

    the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

    information with respect to any book-entry procedures;

 

    a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

    any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the prospectus supplement pursuant to which securities are issued. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the

 

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securities only in global form. For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect holders is up to the holders.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

    how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

    whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

    how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

    whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

    how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

    if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security held by a depositary that represents one or any other number of individual securities. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in a particular accompanying prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, or DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations for Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers.

 

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We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

    an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

    an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe under “Legal Ownership of Securities” above;

 

    an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

    an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

    the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security. We and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security. We and the trustee also do not supervise the depositary in any way;

 

    the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

    financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations when a Global Security will be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

The global security will terminate when any of the following special situations occur:

 

    if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

    if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

    if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary describes certain provisions of Maryland law and the material terms of our charter and our bylaws. Because the following is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. This description is not complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our charter and our bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to this registration statement, and applicable law.

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased by our board of directors, but may not be less than the minimum number required under the MGCL (which is one), nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15. Our charter provides that, at such time as we have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors, which we currently have, we are subject to a provision of Maryland law requiring that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock, any vacancy may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the full term of the directorship in which such vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Our bylaws require that nominees for election as a director (including directors appointed by our board to fill vacancies), whether by the stockholders or by our board of directors, shall include among them, as applicable, those persons designated for nomination for election to, or those persons approved to fill a vacancy on, our board of directors in accordance with or as provided pursuant to the partnership agreement of our operating partnership (the “partnership agreement”). Our bylaws provide that it will be a qualification of each of the directors serving from time to time on our board of directors that he or she will be, or will have been at any time since most recently joining (or rejoining) the board of directors, elected to or appointed to fill a vacancy on our board of directors in compliance in all material respects with the provisions of the partnership agreement affording director designation or approval rights, so long as applicable, provided that our failure to so comply, or the failure of the directors to be so qualified, will not affect the validity of any actions of our board of directors. Our bylaws further provide that each committee of our board of directors will be composed as required by the partnership agreement. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of City Office REIT Operating Partnership, L.P.—Purpose, Business and Management.”

Each member of our board of directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Holders of shares of our common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors, and directors will be elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock will be able to elect all of our directors.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of holders of shares entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, may preclude stockholders from removing incumbent directors, except for cause and by a substantial affirmative vote and from filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities)

 

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between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (i.e., any person (other than the corporation or any subsidiary) who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock after the date on which the corporation had 100 or more beneficial owners of its stock, or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation after the date on which the corporation had 100 or more beneficial owners of its stock) or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by our board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (1) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and (2) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected, or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. Our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.

The MGCL permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder. As permitted by the MGCL, our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting any business combination between us and any other person from the provisions of this statute, provided that the business combination is first approved by our board of directors (including a majority of directors who are not affiliates or associates of such persons). However, our board of directors may repeal or modify this resolution at any time in the future, in which case the relevant provisions of this statute will become applicable to business combinations between us and interested stockholders.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” (as defined below) of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” (as defined below) have no voting rights with respect to those shares, except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, excluding votes cast by (1) the person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) any officer of the corporation or (3) any employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (1) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (2) one-third or more but less than a majority or (3) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel the board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

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may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders’ meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to, among other things, (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any acquisition by any person of shares of our stock. We may opt in to the control share acquisition statute in the future by amending our bylaws, but only if such amendment is first approved by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL, which is commonly referred to as the Maryland Unsolicited Takeover Act, permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors, without stockholder approval, and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions of the MGCL which provide, respectively, that:

 

    the corporation’s board of directors will be divided into three classes;

 

    the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors generally is required to remove a director;

 

    the number of directors may be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

    a vacancy on its board of directors must be filled only by the remaining directors and that directors elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

 

    the request of stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting is required for stockholders to require the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.

We have elected by a provision in our charter to be subject to the provisions of the Maryland Unsolicited Takeover Act relating to the filling of vacancies on our board of directors. In addition, without our having elected to be subject to the Maryland Unsolicited Takeover Act, our charter and bylaws already (1) require the affirmative vote of holders of shares entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors to remove a director from our board of directors, (2) vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directors and (3) require, unless called by our chairman, our president, chief executive officer or our board of directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting to call a special meeting. We do not have a classified board and our board of directors has adopted a resolution prohibiting us from electing to be subject to the classified board provisions of the Maryland Unsolicited Takeover Act unless such election is first approved by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.

Meetings of Stockholders

Pursuant to our bylaws, an annual meeting of our stockholders for the purpose of the election of directors and the transaction of any business will be held on a date and at the time and place set by our board of directors.

 

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Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies under Maryland law. In addition, our chairman, our president, chief executive officer or our board of directors may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of our stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered by our stockholders will also be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting on such matter, accompanied by the information required by our bylaws. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and mailing the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder must pay such estimated cost before our secretary may prepare and mail the notice of the special meeting.

Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot amend its charter unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Except for certain amendments related to the removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and the vote required to amend those provisions (which must be declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter), our charter generally may be amended only if the amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board, and without any action by our stockholders, may also amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series we are authorized to issue.

Our board of directors, except as described in the next sentence, has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws, provided that, for so long as the Second City Group has the right or prospective right to exercise the designation rights set forth in the partnership agreement, any amendment to, or alteration or repeal of, the provisions of our bylaws relating to (a) the Second City Group’s director designation and approval rights pursuant to the partnership agreement, (b) the composition of committees of our board of directors as required by the partnership agreement or (c) the amendment of our bylaws (other than in a manner that further limits the power of our board of directors to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws), must be approved by the Second City Group. The provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition statute can only be amended if such amendment is first approved by the requisite vote of our stockholders.

Extraordinary Transactions

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, merge, consolidate, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a statutory share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. As permitted by the MGCL, our charter provides that any of these actions may be approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Many of our operating assets will be held by our subsidiaries, and these subsidiaries may be able to merge or sell all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

Appraisal Rights

Our charter provides that our stockholders generally will not be entitled to exercise statutory appraisal rights.

 

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Dissolution

Our dissolution must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by our stockholders at an annual meeting of stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting on the election of the individual so nominated or such other business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws, including a requirement to provide certain information about the stockholder and its affiliates and the nominee or business proposal, as applicable.

With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected only (1) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (2) provided that the special meeting has been properly called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting on the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws, including a requirement to provide certain information about the stockholder and its affiliates and the nominee.

Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders, including:

 

    supermajority vote and cause requirements for removal of directors;

 

    requirement that stockholders holding at least a majority of our outstanding common stock must act together to make a written request before our stockholders can require us to call a special meeting of stockholders;

 

    provisions that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors for the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred;

 

    the power of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of shares of any class or series of stock or to reclassify our stock;

 

    the power of our board of directors to cause us to issue additional shares of stock of any class or series and to fix the terms of one or more classes or series of stock without stockholder approval;

 

    the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock; and

 

    advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals.

Likewise, if the resolution opting out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL was repealed, or if the business combination is not approved by our board of directors, or if we opted in to any of the other provisions of the Maryland Unsolicited Takeover Act, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

 

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Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from (1) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (2) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter and bylaws provide for indemnification of our officers and directors against liabilities to the maximum extent permitted by the MGCL, as amended from time to time.

The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding, or any claim, issue or matter in any proceeding, to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

    the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

    the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

    in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer who has been adjudged to be liable to the corporation in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon its receipt of:

 

    a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

    a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us, and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

    any present or former director or officer of our company who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

    any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

 

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Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served our predecessor in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or our predecessor.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers that provide for indemnification and advance of expenses to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock. For a fuller description of this and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF CITY OFFICE REIT OPERATING PARTNERSHIP, L.P.

A summary of the material terms and provisions of the Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of City Office REIT Operating Partnership, L.P. is set forth below. This summary is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of Maryland law and the partnership agreement. For more detail, please refer to the partnership agreement itself, a copy of which is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

Substantially all of our assets are held by, and substantially all of our operations are conducted through, our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiaries. We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership. As of December 31, 2014 we owned 80.8% of the outstanding common units. In connection with our initial public offering, we entered into the partnership agreement and the Second City Group and other transferors that contributed directly or indirectly their interest in properties to our operating partnership were issued common units as partial consideration for their contribution and admitted as limited partners of our operating partnership. Our operating partnership is also authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest under our Equity Incentive Plan designated as LTIP Units having the terms described below and is authorized to issue additional partnership interests in one or more additional classes, or one or more series of any of such classes, with such designations, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption (including, without limitation, terms that may be senior or otherwise entitled to preference over existing units) as we may determine, in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval of any limited partner or any other person. The common units are not listed on any exchange and are not quoted on any national market system.

Provisions in the partnership agreement may delay or make more difficult unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes in our control. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions also make it more difficult for third parties to alter the management structure of our operating partnership without the concurrence of our board of directors. These provisions include, among others:

 

    redemption rights of limited partners and assignees of common units;

 

    transfer restrictions on common units and other partnership interests;

 

    a requirement that we may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership without our consent;

 

    our ability in some cases to amend the partnership agreement and to cause our operating partnership to issue preferred partnership interests in our operating partnership with terms that we may determine, in either case, without the approval or consent of any limited partner; and

 

    the right of the limited partners to consent to certain transfers of our general partnership interest (whether by sale, disposition, statutory merger or consolidation, liquidation or otherwise).

Purpose, Business and Management

Our operating partnership was formed for the purpose of conducting any business, enterprise or activity permitted by or under the Maryland Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “Act”). Our operating partnership may (i) conduct the business of ownership, construction, reconstruction, development, redevelopment, alteration, improvement, maintenance, operation, sale, leasing, transfer, encumbrance, conveyance and exchange of any assets or properties of our operating partnership, (ii) acquire and invest in any

 

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securities or loans relating to any assets or properties of the operating partnership, (iii) enter into any partnership, joint venture, business trust arrangement, limited liability company or other similar arrangement to engage in any business permitted by or under the Act, and may own interests in any other entity engaged in any business permitted by or under the Act, subject to any consent rights set forth in our partnership agreement, (iv) conduct the business of providing property and asset management and brokerage services, whether directly or through one or more partnerships, joint ventures, subsidiaries, business trusts, limited liability companies or similar arrangements, and (v) do anything necessary or incidental to the foregoing.

In general, our board of directors manages the business and affairs of our operating partnership by directing its business and affairs, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the partnership agreement and subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest, all management powers over the business and affairs of our operating partnership are exclusively vested in us, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. No limited partner, in its capacity as a limited partner, has any right to participate in or exercise management power over our operating partnership’s business, transact any business in our operating partnership’s name or sign documents for or otherwise bind our operating partnership. We may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership, with or without cause, without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion. In addition to the powers granted to us under applicable law or any provision of the partnership agreement, but subject to certain rights of holders of common units or any other class or series of partnership interest, we, in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership, have the full and exclusive power and authority to do or authorize all things to conduct the business and affairs of our operating partnership, to exercise or direct the exercise of all of the powers of our operating partnership and the general partner of our operating partnership under Maryland law and the partnership agreement and to effectuate the purposes of our operating partnership, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. We may authorize our operating partnership to incur debt and enter into credit, guarantee, financing or refinancing arrangements for any purpose, including, without limitation, in connection with any acquisition of properties, on such terms as we determine to be appropriate, and to acquire or dispose of any, all or substantially all of its assets (including goodwill), dissolve, merge, consolidate, convert, reorganize or otherwise combine with another entity, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. With limited exceptions, we may execute, deliver and perform agreements and transactions on behalf of our operating partnership without the approval or consent of any limited partner.

Our bylaws require that nominees for election as a director (including directors appointed by our board to fill vacancies), whether by the stockholders or by our board of directors, shall include among them, as applicable, those persons designated for nomination for election to, or those persons approved to fill vacancies on, our board of directors in accordance with or pursuant to the partnership agreement. The partnership agreement provides that so long as the Second City Group and entities controlled by the Second City Group own 30% or more of the outstanding shares of our common stock (assuming all outstanding common units of our operating partnership not held by us or any of our wholly-owned subsidiaries that own common units of our operating partnership are tendered for redemption and exchanged for shares of our common stock, regardless of whether such common units are then eligible for redemption), the Second City Group will have the right from time to time to designate individuals for nomination for election by the stockholders to our board of directors, such that the number of directors serving (or who would serve upon election), and who are or had been designated for nomination or nominated to serve by the Second City Group, shall equal (i) if the number of directors comprising the entire board of directors is six or more, two; or (ii) if the number of directors comprising the entire board of directors is five or fewer, one. With our board of directors having six members, this would enable the Second City Group to designate two nominees for election as directors, although the election of each such nominee will be subject to the vote of our stockholders. Such rights to designate nominees for election as directors would also decrease as follows:

 

   

if the Second City Group and entities controlled by the Second City Group own less than 30% but at least 10% of our fully diluted outstanding common stock (assuming all outstanding common units of our operating partnership not owned by us or any of our wholly-owned subsidiaries that own common

 

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units of our operating partnership are tendered for redemption and exchanged for shares of our common stock, regardless of whether such common units are then eligible for redemption), then the Second City Group will have the right from time to time to designate individuals for nomination for election by the stockholders to our board of directors, such that the number of directors serving (or who would serve upon election), and who are or had been designated for nomination or nominated to serve by the Second City Group, shall equal one; and

 

    if the Second City Group and entities controlled by the Second City Group own less than 10% of our fully diluted outstanding common stock (assuming all outstanding common units of our operating partnership not held by us or any of our wholly-owned subsidiaries that own common units of our operating partnership are tendered for redemption and exchanged for shares of our common stock, regardless of whether such common units are then eligible for redemption), then the Second City Group shall have no right under the partnership agreement to designate for nomination any individual to serve on our board of directors. If, subsequent to such period, the Second City Group and entities controlled by the Second City Group own 10% or more of our fully diluted outstanding common stock as determined in the same manner as described above, then the Second City Group shall again be entitled to exercise any designation or other applicable rights of the Second City Group set forth in the partnership agreement. The partnership agreement also provides that during any period in which the Second City Group and entities controlled by the Second City Group own at least 5% of our fully diluted outstanding common stock as determined in the same manner as described above, the Second City Group shall be entitled to identify an individual to attend and observe meetings of our board of directors. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Second City Group and entities controlled by the Second City Group own none of our common stock for a period of one year or more, the Second City Group’s designation or other applicable rights under the partnership agreement shall terminate.

The partnership agreement provides that we, acting through our board of directors, will recommend and use all commercially reasonable good faith efforts to cause the election of each nominee of the Second City Group designated as described above. Our bylaws require that each committee of the board of directors shall be composed as required by the partnership agreement. The partnership agreement provides that, for so long as the Second City Group shall retain designation rights under the partnership agreement to provide for at least one Second City Group nominee serving as a director, then at least one of the Second City Group nominees shall be appointed to each committee of our board of directors (provided that such nominee is qualified as independent under the rules, regulations and listing qualifications of the NYSE for service on any applicable committee) other than any committee whose purpose is to evaluate or negotiate any transaction with the Second City Group.

In addition, the partnership agreement provides that if a vacancy on the board of directors arises as a result of the death, disability, retirement, resignation or removal (with or without cause) of a Second City Group nominee, or as a result of an increase in the size of the entire board of directors, and such vacancy results in the number of the Second City Group nominees then on the board being less than the number that the Second City Group would then be entitled to designate for nomination under the partnership agreement if there were an election of directors at a time which no Second City Group nominees are incumbent members of our board of directors, then any individual(s) appointed by our board of directors to fill such vacancy or vacancies must be approved to do so by a majority of the Second City Group nominees then serving on our board of directors, and any director so elected or appointed shall be deemed a Second City Group nominee.

Our board of directors currently consists of six directors. Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors constituting our board of directors may be increased or decreased by a majority vote of our board of directors, provided that the number of directors may not be decreased to fewer than the minimum number required under the MGCL, which is currently one.

Restrictions on General Partner’s Authority

The partnership agreement prohibits us, in our capacity as general partner, from taking any action that would make it impossible to carry out the ordinary business of our operating partnership or performing any act

 

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that would subject a limited partner to liability as a general partner in any jurisdiction or any other liability, except as provided under the partnership agreement or under the Act. We may not, without the prior consent of the partners of our operating partnership (including us), amend, modify or terminate the partnership agreement, except for certain amendments that we may approve without the approval or consent of any limited partner, described in “—Amendment of the Partnership Agreement,” and certain amendments described below that require the approval of each affected partner. Certain amendments to the partnership agreement also require the consent of limited partners holding LTIP Units, as described in “—LTIP Units—Voting Rights.” We may not, in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership, without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us):

 

    take any action in contravention of an express provision or limitation of the partnership agreement;

 

    transfer all or any portion of our general partner interest in our operating partnership or admit any person as a successor general partner, subject to the exceptions described in “—Transfers and Withdrawals—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner;” or

 

    voluntarily withdraw as the general partner.

Without the consent of each affected limited partner or in connection with a transfer of all of our interests in our partnership in connection with a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a reclassification, recapitalization or change in our outstanding stock permitted without the consent of the limited partners as described in “—Transfers and Withdrawals—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner,” or a Permitted Termination Transaction (as defined below in “Transfers and Withdrawals—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner”), we may not enter into any contract, mortgage, loan or other agreement that expressly prohibits or restricts us or our operating partnership from performing our or its specific obligations in connection with a redemption of units or expressly prohibits or restricts a limited partner from exercising its redemption rights in full. In addition to any approval or consent required by any other provision of the partnership agreement, we may not, without the consent of each affected partner, amend the partnership agreement or take any other action that would:

 

    convert a limited partner interest into a general partner interest (other than as a result of our acquisition of that interest);

 

    adversely modify in any material respect the limited liability of a limited partner;

 

    alter the rights of any partner to receive the distributions to which such partner is entitled, or alter the allocations specified in the partnership agreement, except to the extent permitted by the partnership agreement, including in connection with the creation or issuance of any new class or series of partnership interest or to effect or facilitate a Permitted Termination Transaction;

 

    alter or modify the redemption rights of holders of common units or the related definitions specified in the partnership agreement (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a Permitted Termination Transaction);

 

    alter or modify the provisions governing the transfer of our general partner interest in our operating partnership (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a Permitted Termination Transaction);

 

    remove certain provisions of the partnership agreement relating to the requirements for us to qualify as a REIT or permitting us to avoid paying tax under Sections 857 or 4981 of the Code; or

 

    amend the provisions of the partnership agreement requiring the consent of each affected partner before taking any of the actions described above (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a Permitted Termination Transaction).

 

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Additional Limited Partners

We may cause our operating partnership to issue additional units in one or more classes or series or other partnership interests and to admit additional limited partners to our operating partnership from time to time, on such terms and conditions and for such capital contributions as we may establish in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval or consent of any limited partner, including:

 

    upon the conversion, redemption or exchange of any debt, units or other partnership interests or securities issued by our operating partnership;

 

    for less than fair market value;

 

    for no consideration;

 

    in connection with any merger of any other entity into our operating partnership; or

 

    upon the contribution of property or assets to our operating partnership.

The net capital contribution need not be equal for all limited partners. Each person admitted as an additional limited partner must make certain representations to each other partner relating to, among other matters, such person’s ownership of any tenant of us or our operating partnership. No person may be admitted as an additional limited partner without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, and no approval or consent of any limited partner is required in connection with the admission of any additional limited partner.

The partnership agreement authorizes our operating partnership to issue common units and LTIP Units and such other units as we may determine in our sole and absolute discretion. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, we may specify, as to any such class or series of partnership interest, the allocations of items of partnership income, gain, loss, deduction and credit to each such class or series of partnership interest.

Ability to Engage in Other Businesses; Conflicts of Interest

The partnership agreement provides that we may not conduct any business other than in connection with the ownership, acquisition and disposition of partnership interests, the management of the business and affairs of our operating partnership, our operation as a reporting company with a class (or classes) of securities registered under the Exchange Act, our operations as a REIT, the offering, sale, syndication, private placement or public offering of stock, bonds, securities or other interests, financing or refinancing of any type related to our operating partnership or its assets or activities and such activities as are incidental to those activities discussed above. In general, we must contribute any assets or funds that we acquire to our operating partnership in exchange for additional partnership interests. We may, however, in our sole and absolute discretion, from time to time hold or acquire assets in our own name or otherwise other than through our operating partnership so long as we take commercially reasonable measures to ensure that the economic benefits and burdens of such property are otherwise vested in our operating partnership.

The limited partners of our operating partnership expressly agree that we are acting for the benefit of the operating partnership, the limited partners of our operating partnership and our stockholders collectively. We are under no obligation to give priority to the separate interests of the limited partners in deciding whether to cause our operating partnership to take or decline to take any actions. If there is a conflict between the interests of us or our stockholders, on the one hand, and the limited partners of our operating partnership, on the other, the partnership agreement provides that any action or failure to act by us that gives priority to the separate interests of our stockholders or us that does not result in a violation of the contractual rights of the limited partners of our operating partnership under the partnership agreement will not violate the duty of loyalty that we owe to our operating partnership and its partners.

 

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Distributions

Our operating partnership will distribute such amounts, at such times, as we may in our sole and absolute discretion determine:

 

    first, with respect to any partnership interests that are entitled to any preference in distribution, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of such class pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class; and

 

    second, with respect to any partnership interests that are not entitled to any preference in distribution, including the common units and, except as described below under “—Special Allocations and Liquidating Distributions on LTIP Units” with respect to liquidating distributions and as may be provided in any incentive award plan or any applicable award agreement, the LTIP Units, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of each such class, pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class.

Distributions payable with respect to any units that were not outstanding during the entire quarterly period in respect of which a distribution is made, other than units issued to us in connection with the issuance of shares of our common stock, will be prorated based on the portion of the period that such units were outstanding.

Allocations

Except for the special allocations to holders of LTIP Units described below under “—Special Allocations and Liquidating Distributions on LTIP Units,” and subject to the rights of the holders of any other class or series of partnership interest, net income or net loss of our operating partnership will generally be allocated to us, as the general partner, and to the limited partners in accordance with the partners’ respective percentage ownership of the aggregate outstanding common units and LTIP Units. Allocations to holders of a class or series of partnership interest will generally be made proportionately to all such holders in respect of such class or series. However, in some cases gain or loss may be disproportionately allocated to partners who have contributed appreciated property or guaranteed debt of our operating partnership. The allocations described above are subject to special rules relating to depreciation deductions and to compliance with the provisions of Sections 704(b) and 704(c) of the Code and the associated Treasury Regulations.

Special Allocations and Liquidating Distributions on LTIP Units

A partner’s initial capital account balance is equal to the amount the partner paid (or contributed to our operating partnership) for its units and is subject to subsequent adjustments, including as the result of allocations of the partner’s share of income or loss of our operating partnership. Because a holder of LTIP Units generally will not pay for the LTIP Units, the initial capital account balance attributable to such LTIP Units will be zero. However, the partnership agreement provides that holders of LTIP Units will receive special allocations of income in the event of a sale or “hypothetical sale” of the assets of our operating partnership, prior to the allocation of income to us or other holders of common units with respect to our or their common units. Such income will be allocated to holders of LTIP Units to the extent necessary to cause the capital account of a holder of LTIP Units to be economically equivalent to our company’s capital account with respect to an equal number of common units. The term “hypothetical sale” does not refer to an actual sale of our operating partnership’s assets, but refers to certain adjustments to the value of our operating partnership’s assets and the partners’ capital account balances, determined as if there had been a sale of such assets at their fair market value, as required by applicable Treasury Regulations. A hypothetical sale generally will occur upon (i) the acquisition of an interest or an additional interest in the operating partnership by any new or existing partner in exchange for more than a de minimis capital contribution; (ii) the distribution by the operating partnership to a partner of more than a de minimis amount of property or money as consideration for an interest in the operating partnership; and (iii) the grant of an interest in the operating partnership (including an LTIP Unit) as consideration for the provision of services to or for the benefit of the operating partnership. Further, we may delay or accelerate allocations to

 

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holders of LTIP Units, or adjust the allocation of income or loss among the holders of LTIP Units, so that, for the year during which each LTIP Unit’s distribution participation date falls, the ratio of the income and loss allocated to the LTIP Unit to the total amounts distributed with respect to each such LTIP Unit is more nearly equal to the ratio of the income and loss allocated to our company’s common units to the amounts distributed to our company with respect to its common units. Because distributions upon liquidation of our operating partnership will be made in accordance with the partners’ respective capital account balances, not numbers of units, LTIP Units will not have full parity with common units with respect to liquidating distributions until the special allocations of income to the holders of LTIP Units in the event of a sale or “hypothetical sale” of our operating partnership’s assets causes the capital account of a holder of LTIP Units to be economically equivalent to our capital account with respect to an equal number of common units. To the extent that there is not sufficient income to allocate to an LTIP unitholder’s capital account to cause such capital account to become economically equivalent to our capital account with respect to an equal number of common units, or if such a sale or “hypothetical sale” does not occur, the holder’s LTIP Units will not achieve parity with common units with respect to liquidating distributions.

Borrowing by Our Operating Partnership

We may cause our operating partnership to borrow money and to issue and guarantee debt as we deem necessary for the conduct of the activities of our operating partnership. Such debt may be secured, among other things, by mortgages, deeds of trust, liens or encumbrances on the properties of our operating partnership.

Reimbursements of Expenses; Transactions with General Partner and its Affiliates

We will not receive any compensation for our services as the general partner of our operating partnership. We have the same right to distributions as other holders of common units. In addition, our operating partnership must reimburse us for all amounts expended by us in connection with our operating partnership’s business, including expenses relating to the management and operation of, or for the benefit of, our operating partnership, compensation of officers and employees, including payments under future compensation plans that may provide for stock units, or phantom stock, pursuant to which our employees or employees of our operating partnership will receive payments based upon dividends on or the value of our common stock, director fees and expenses, any expenses (other than the purchase price) incurred by us in connection with the redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock, all of our costs and expenses of or in connection with our operation as a reporting company (including, without limitation, costs of filings with the SEC) and reports and other distributions to our stockholders and any government agencies, all of our costs and expenses in connection with our operation as a REIT, and all of our costs and expenses in connection with the offering, sale, syndication, private placement or public offering of stock, bonds, securities or other interests and financing or refinancing of any type related to our operating partnership or its assets or activities. Any reimbursement will be reduced by the amount of any interest we earn on funds we hold on behalf of our operating partnership.

We and our affiliates may sell, transfer or convey any properties to, or purchase any property from, our operating partnership on such terms as we may determine in our sole and absolute discretion.

Exculpation and Indemnification of General Partner

The partnership agreement provides that we will not be liable to our operating partnership or any partner for any action or omission taken in our capacity as general partner, for the debts or liabilities of our operating partnership or for the obligations of our operating partnership under the partnership agreement, except for liability for our fraud, willful misconduct or gross negligence, pursuant to any express indemnity we may give to our operating partnership or in connection with a redemption as described in “—Redemption Rights of Limited Partners.” The partnership agreement also provides that any obligation or liability in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership that may arise at any time under the partnership agreement or any other instrument, transaction or undertaking contemplated by the partnership agreement will be satisfied, if at all, out of our assets or the assets of our operating partnership only, and no such obligation or liability will be personally

 

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binding upon any of our directors, stockholders, officers, employees or agents, regardless of whether such obligation or liability is in the nature of contract, tort or otherwise, and none of our directors or officers will be directly liable or accountable in damages or otherwise to the partnership, any partner or any assignee of a partner for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived as a result of errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission or by reason of their service as such. We, as the general partner of our operating partnership, are not responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of our employees or agents, provided that we appoint such employees or agents in good faith. We, as the general partner of our operating partnership, may consult with legal counsel, accountants and other consultants and advisors, and any action that we take or omit to take in reliance upon the opinion of such persons, as to matters which we reasonably believe to be within their professional or expert competence, will be conclusively presumed to have been done or omitted in good faith and in accordance with such opinion.

In addition, the partnership agreement requires our operating partnership to indemnify us, our directors and officers, officers of our operating partnership and any other person designated by us against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities (whether joint or several), expenses (including, without limitation, attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and expenses), judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts arising from any and all claims, demands, actions, suits or proceedings, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, that relate to the operations of our operating partnership, unless (i) an act or omission of the person was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (ii) in the case of a criminal proceeding, the person had reasonable cause to believe the act or omission was unlawful or (iii) such person actually received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement. Our operating partnership must also pay or reimburse the reasonable expenses of any such person in advance of a final disposition of the proceeding upon its receipt of a written affirmation of the person’s good faith belief that the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification has been met and a written undertaking by or on behalf of the person to repay any amounts paid or advanced if it is ultimately determined that the person did not meet the standard of conduct for indemnification. Our operating partnership is not required to indemnify or advance funds to any person with respect to any action initiated by the person seeking indemnification without our approval (except for any proceeding brought to enforce such person’s right to indemnification under the partnership agreement) or if the person is found to be liable to our operating partnership on any portion of any claim in the action.

Business Combinations of Our Operating Partnership

Subject to the limitations on the transfer of our interest in our operating partnership described in “—Transfers and Withdrawals—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner,” we generally have the exclusive power to cause our operating partnership to merge, reorganize, consolidate, sell all or substantially all of its assets or otherwise combine its assets with another entity. However, in connection with the acquisition of properties from persons to whom our operating partnership issues units or other partnership interests as part of the purchase price, in order to preserve such persons’ tax deferral, our operating partnership may contractually agree, in general, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties for a specified period of time, or in some instances, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties without compensating the sellers of the properties for their loss of the tax deferral.

Redemption Rights of Limited Partners

Each limited partner and assignee of a limited partner has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common units held by such limited partner or assignee in exchange for a cash amount per common unit equal to the value of one share of our common stock, determined in accordance with and subject to adjustment under the partnership agreement. Our operating partnership’s obligation to redeem common units does not arise and is not binding against our operating partnership until the sixth business day after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption or, if earlier, the day we notify the holder seeking redemption that we have declined to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption. If we do not elect to acquire the common units tendered for

 

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redemption in exchange for shares of our common stock (as described below), our operating partnership must deliver the cash redemption amount, subject to certain exceptions, on or before the first business day of the month that is at least 60 calendar days after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption. Among other limitations, a limited partner or assignee may not require our operating partnership to redeem its common units if the exchange of such units for shares of our common stock would cause any person to violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock.

On or before the close of business on the fifth business day after a holder of common units gives notice of redemption to us, we may, in our sole and absolute discretion but subject to the restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter and described in “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” elect to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption from the tendering party in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of common stock for each common unit, subject to adjustment as provided in the partnership agreement. The general partner may elect to delay the redemption date for up to an additional 60 business days to the extent required for the general partner to cause the issuance of additional shares of our common stock. The holder of the common units tendered for redemption must provide certain information, certifications or affidavits, representations, investment letters, opinions and other instruments to ensure compliance with the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter and the Securities Act. The partnership agreement does not require us to register, qualify or list any shares of common stock issued in exchange for common units with the SEC, with any state securities commissioner, department or agency, under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or with any stock exchange. Shares of our common stock issued in exchange for common units pursuant to the partnership agreement may contain legends regarding restrictions under the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws.

Transfers and Withdrawals

Restrictions on Transfers by Limited Partners

Until the expiration of 12 months after the date on which a limited partner first acquires a partnership interest, a limited partner generally may not, directly or indirectly, transfer all or any portion of its partnership interest without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, except for certain permitted transfers to certain affiliates, family members and charities, and certain pledges of partnership interests to lending institutions in connection with bona fide loans.

After the expiration of 12 months after the date on which a limited partner first acquires a partnership interest, the limited partner will have the right to transfer all or any portion of its partnership interest without our consent to any person that is an “accredited investor,” within the meaning set forth in Rule 501 promulgated under the Securities Act, upon ten business days prior notice to us, subject to the satisfaction of conditions specified in the partnership agreement, including minimum transfer requirements and our right of first refusal. Unless waived by us, in our sole and absolute discretion, a transferring limited partner must also deliver an opinion of counsel reasonably satisfactory to us that the proposed transfer may be effected without registration under the Securities Act, and will not otherwise violate any state securities laws or regulations applicable to our operating partnership or the partnership interest proposed to be transferred. We may exercise our right of first refusal in connection with a proposed transfer by a limited partner within ten business days of our receipt of notice of the proposed transfer, which must include the identity and address of the proposed transferee and the amount and type of consideration proposed to be paid for the partnership interest. We may deliver all or any portion of any cash consideration proposed to be paid for a partnership interest that we acquire pursuant to our right of first refusal in the form of a note payable to the transferring limited partner not more than 180 days after our purchase of such partnership interest.

Any transferee of a limited partner’s partnership interest must assume by operation of law or express agreement all of the obligations of the transferring limited partner under the partnership agreement with respect to the transferred interest, and no transfer (other than a transfer pursuant to a statutory merger or consolidation in

 

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which the obligations and liabilities of the transferring limited partner are assumed by a successor corporation by operation of law) will relieve the transferring limited partner of its obligations under the partnership agreement without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion.

We may take any action we determine in our sole and absolute discretion to prevent our operating partnership from being taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes. No transfer by a limited partner of its partnership interest, including any redemption or any acquisition of partnership interests by us or by our operating partnership or conversion of LTIP Units into common units, may be made to or by any person without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, if the transfer could:

 

    result in our operating partnership being treated as an association taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes;

 

    result in a termination of our operating partnership under Section 708 of the Code;

 

    be treated as effectuated through an “established securities market” or a “secondary market” (or the substantial equivalent thereof) within the meaning of Section 7704 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder;

 

    result in our operating partnership being unable to qualify for at least one of the “safe harbors” set forth in Section 7704 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder; or

 

    based on the advice of counsel to us or our operating partnership, adversely affect our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT or subject us to any additional taxes under Sections 857 or 4981 of the Code.

Admission of Substituted Limited Partners

No limited partner has the right to substitute a transferee as a limited partner in its place. A transferee of a partnership interest of a limited partner may be admitted as a substituted limited partner only with our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, and only if the transferee accepts all of the obligations of a limited partner under the partnership and executes such instruments as we may require to evidence such acceptance and to effect the assignee’s admission as a limited partner. Any assignee of a partnership interest that is not admitted as a limited partner will be entitled to only the rights of an assignee of a limited partnership interest under the partnership agreement and the Act, including the right to receive distributions from our operating partnership and the share of net income, net losses and other items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of our operating partnership attributable to the partnership interest held by the assignee and the rights to transfer and redemption of the partnership interest provided in the partnership agreement, but will not be deemed to be a limited partner or holder of a partnership interest for any other purpose under the partnership agreement or the Act, and will not be entitled to consent to or vote on any matter presented to the limited partners for approval. The right to consent or vote, to the extent provided in the partnership agreement or under the Act, will remain with the transferring limited partner.

Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner

Pursuant to the partnership agreement of our operating partnership, except as described below, we may not transfer all or any portion of our partnership interest without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us). We generally may, without such consent of the limited partners, transfer all of our partnership interest in connection with a Termination Transaction, as defined herein, if the requirements discussed below are satisfied. A “Termination Transaction” means:

 

    a merger, consolidation or other combination of our or our operating partnership’s assets with another entity;

 

    a sale of all or substantially all of our or our operating partnership’s assets not in the ordinary course of its business; or

 

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    a reclassification, recapitalization or change of our outstanding shares of common stock or other outstanding equity interests.

The consent of the limited partners to a Termination Transaction is not required (such Termination Transactions, “Permitted Termination Transactions”) if either:

(i) in connection with the Termination Transaction, each common unit is entitled to receive the “transaction consideration,” defined as the fair market value, at the time of the Termination Transaction, of an amount of cash, securities or other property equal to the product of:

 

    the adjustment factor, as defined in the partnership agreement; and

 

    the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property paid to the holder of one share of our common stock (subject to adjustment in accordance with the partnership agreement) in consideration of such share in connection with the Termination Transaction;

provided that, if, in connection with the Termination Transaction, a purchase, tender or exchange offer is made to and accepted by the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock, the transaction consideration will refer to the fair market value of the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property which such holder would have received had it exercised its redemption right and received shares of our common stock in exchange for its common units immediately prior to the expiration of such purchase, tender or exchange offer and had accepted such purchase, tender or exchange offer; or

(ii) all of the following conditions are met: (a) substantially all of the assets directly or indirectly owned by the surviving entity prior to the announcement of the Termination Transaction are, immediately after the Termination Transaction, owned directly or indirectly by our operating partnership or another limited partnership or limited liability company which is the survivor of a merger, consolidation or combination of assets with our operating partnership, which we refer to as the “surviving partnership,” (b) the surviving partnership is classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes; (c) the limited partners that held common units immediately prior to the consummation of such Termination Transaction own a percentage interest of the surviving partnership based on the relative fair market value of the net assets of our operating partnership and the other net assets of the surviving partnership immediately prior to the consummation of such transaction; (d) the rights of such limited partners with respect to the surviving partnership are at least as favorable as those of limited partners prior to the consummation of such transaction and as those applicable to any other limited partners or non-managing members of the surviving partnership; and (e) such rights include:

 

  (i) the right to redeem their interests in the surviving partnership for the transaction consideration referred to above; or

 

  (ii) the right to redeem their interests in the surviving partnership for cash on terms substantially equivalent to those in effect with respect to the common units immediately prior to the consummation of such transaction or, if the ultimate controlling person of the surviving partnership has publicly traded common equity securities, such common equity securities.

We may also transfer all (but not less than all) of our interest in our operating partnership to an affiliate of ours without the consent of any limited partner, subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest.

In addition, any transferee of our interest in our operating partnership must be admitted as a general partner of our operating partnership; assume, by operation of law or express agreement, all of our obligations as general partner under the partnership agreement; accept all of the terms and conditions of the partnership agreement; and execute such instruments as may be necessary to effectuate the transferee’s admission as a general partner.

In addition, we may not engage in a Termination Transaction effected as a short-form merger without a stockholder vote pursuant to Section 3-106 of the MGCL, unless we have previously obtained the consent of the limited partners with respect to such transaction.

 

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Restrictions on Transfers by Any Partner

Any transfer or purported transfer of a partnership interest other than in accordance with the partnership agreement will be void. Partnership interests may be transferred only on the first day of a fiscal quarter, and no partnership interest may be transferred to any lender under certain nonrecourse loans to us or our operating partnership, in either case, unless we otherwise consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion. No transfer of any partnership interest, including in connection with any redemption or acquisition of units by us or by our operating partnership or any conversion of LTIP Units into common units, may be made:

 

    to a person or entity that lacks the legal right, power or capacity to own the partnership interest;

 

    in violation of applicable law;

 

    without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, of any component portion of a partnership interest, such as a partner’s capital account or rights to distributions, separate and apart from all other components of the partner’s interest in our operating partnership;

 

    if the proposed transfer could cause us or any of our affiliates to fail to comply with the requirements under the Code for qualifying as a REIT or as a “qualified REIT subsidiary” (within the meaning of Section 856(i)(2) of the Code);

 

    without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, if the proposed transfer could, based on the advice of counsel to us or our operating partnership, cause a termination of our operating partnership for federal or state income tax purposes (other than as a result of the redemption or acquisition by us of all units held by limited partners);

 

    if the proposed transfer could, based on the advice of legal counsel to us or our operating partnership, cause our operating partnership to cease to be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes (other than as a result of the redemption or acquisition by us of all units held by all limited partners);

 

    if the proposed transfer would cause our operating partnership to become, with respect to any employee benefit plan subject to Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, or ERISA, a “party-in-interest” for purposes of ERISA or a “disqualified person” as defined in Section 4975(c) of the Code;

 

    if the proposed transfer could, based on the advice of counsel to us or our operating partnership, cause any portion of the assets of our operating partnership to constitute assets of any employee benefit plan pursuant to applicable regulations of the United States Department of Labor;

 

    if the proposed transfer requires the registration of the partnership interest under any applicable federal or state securities laws;

 

    without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, if the proposed transfer could (1) be treated as effectuated through an “established securities market” or a “secondary market” (or the substantial equivalent thereof) within the meaning of Section 7704 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, (2) cause our operating partnership to become a “publicly traded partnership,” as that term is defined in Sections 469(k)(2) or 7704(b) of the Code, or (3) cause our operating partnership to fail to qualify for at least one of the “safe harbors” within the meaning of Section 7704 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder;

 

    if the proposed transfer would cause our operating partnership (as opposed to us) to become a reporting company under the Exchange Act; or

 

    if the proposed transfer subjects our operating partnership to regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisors Act of 1940 or ERISA, each as amended.

Notwithstanding the above, limited partners, including the Second City Group and their controlled entities, may pledge their interests in our operating partnership to one or more banks or lending institutions (which are not

 

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affiliates of the pledging limited partner). The transfer of such partnership units pursuant to the lender’s or financial institution’s enforcement of its remedies under the applicable financing documents is permitted by the partnership agreement.

Withdrawal of Partners

We may not voluntarily withdraw as the general partner of our operating partnership without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us), other than upon the transfer of our entire interest in our operating partnership and the admission of our successor as a general partner of our operating partnership. A limited partner may withdraw from our operating partnership only as a result of a transfer of the limited partner’s entire partnership interest in accordance with the partnership agreement and the admission of the limited partner’s successor as a limited partner of our operating partnership or as a result of the redemption or acquisition by us of the limited partner’s entire partnership interest.

Amendment of the Partnership Agreement

Except as described below and amendments requiring the consent of each affected partner described in “—Restrictions on General Partner’s Authority,” amendments to the partnership agreement must be approved by us and a majority in interest of the partners entitled to vote thereon, including us and our subsidiaries. Amendments to the partnership agreement may be proposed only by us or by limited partners holding 25% or more of the partnership interests held by limited partners. Following such a proposal, we must submit any proposed amendment that requires the consent, approval or vote of any partners to the partners entitled to vote on the amendment for approval and seek the consent of such partners to the amendment.

We may, without the approval or consent of any limited partner or any other person but subject to the rights of holders of any additional class or series of partnership interest, amend the partnership agreement as may be required to facilitate or implement any of the following purposes:

 

    to add to our obligations as general partner or surrender any right or power granted to us or any of our affiliates for the benefit of the limited partners;

 

    to reflect the admission, substitution or withdrawal of partners, the transfer of any partnership interest, the termination of our operating partnership in accordance with the partnership agreement or the adjustment of the number of outstanding LTIP Units, or a subdivision or combination of outstanding LTIP Units, to maintain a one-for-one conversion and economic equivalence between LTIP Units and common units;

 

    to reflect a change that is of an inconsequential nature or does not adversely affect the limited partners in any material respect, or to cure any ambiguity, correct or supplement any provision in the partnership agreement that is not inconsistent with law or with other provisions of the partnership agreement, or make other changes with respect to matters arising under the partnership agreement that will not be inconsistent with law or with the provisions of the partnership agreement;

 

    to set forth or amend the designations, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of the holders of any additional classes or series of partnership interest;

 

    to satisfy any requirements, conditions or guidelines contained in any order, directive, opinion, ruling or regulation of a federal or state agency or contained in federal or state law;

 

    to reflect such changes as are reasonably necessary for us to qualify as a REIT or satisfy the requirements for us to qualify as a REIT or to reflect the transfer of all or any part of a partnership interest among us and any entity that is disregarded with respect to us for federal income tax purposes;

 

    to modify the manner in which items of net income or net loss are allocated or the manner in which capital accounts are adjusted, computed, or maintained (but in each case only to the extent provided by the partnership agreement and permitted by applicable law);

 

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    to reflect the issuance of additional partnership interests;

 

    to implement certain procedures in connection with any equity incentive plan we may adopt;

 

    to reflect any other modification to the partnership agreement as is reasonably necessary for the business or operations of us or our operating partnership and that does not require the consent of each affected partner as described in “—Restrictions on General Partner’s Authority;” and

 

    to effect or facilitate a Permitted Termination Transaction, including modification of the redemption rights of holders of common units to provide that the holders of interests in the surviving entity will have the rights described in “—Transfers and Withdrawals—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner” after a Permitted Termination Transaction.

Certain amendments to the partnership agreement must be approved by limited partners holding LTIP Units, as described in “—LTIP Units—Voting Rights.”

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the partnership agreement, for so long as the Second City Group has the right or prospective right to exercise the designation rights set forth in the partnership agreement, no amendment to the Second City Group’s designation and other rights set forth in the partnership agreement may be made without the prior written consent of the Second City Group.

Procedures for Actions and Consents of Partners

Meetings of partners may be called only by us, to transact any business that we determine. Notice of any meeting and the nature of the business to be transacted at the meeting must be given to all partners entitled to act at the meeting not less than seven days nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. Unless approval by a different number or proportion of the partners is required by the partnership agreement, the affirmative vote of the partners holding a majority of the outstanding partnership interests held by partners entitled to act on any proposal is sufficient to approve the proposal at a meeting of the partners. Partners may vote in person or by proxy. Each meeting of partners will be conducted by us or any other person we appoint, pursuant to rules for the conduct of the meeting determined by the person conducting the meeting. Whenever the vote, approval or consent of partners is permitted or required under the partnership agreement, such vote, approval or consent may be given at a meeting of partners, and any action requiring the approval or consent of any partner or group of partners or that is otherwise required or permitted to be taken at a meeting of the partners may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing or by electronic transmission setting forth the action so taken, approved or consented to is given by partners whose affirmative vote would be sufficient to approve such action or provide such approval or consent at a meeting of the partners. If we seek partner approval of or consent to any matter in writing or by electronic transmission, we may require a response within a reasonable specified time, but not less than 15 days, and failure to respond in such time period will constitute a partner’s consent consistent with our recommendation, if any, with respect to the matter.

Dissolution

Our operating partnership will dissolve, and its affairs will be wound up, upon the first to occur of any of the following:

 

    the removal or withdrawal of the last remaining general partner in accordance with the partnership agreement, the withdrawal of the last remaining general partner in violation of the partnership agreement or the involuntary withdrawal of the last remaining general partner as a result of such general partner’s death, adjudication of incompetency, dissolution or other termination of legal existence or the occurrence of certain events relating to the bankruptcy or insolvency of such general partner unless, within 90 days after any such withdrawal, a majority in interest of the remaining partners agree in writing, in their sole and absolute discretion, to continue our operating partnership and to the appointment, effective as of the date of such withdrawal, of a successor general partner;

 

    an election to dissolve our operating partnership made by us in our sole and absolute discretion, with or without the consent of a majority in interest of the partners;

 

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    the entry of a decree of judicial dissolution of our operating partnership pursuant to the Act; or

 

    the redemption or other acquisition by us or our operating partnership of all of the outstanding partnership interests other than partnership interests held by us.

Upon dissolution, we or, if there is no remaining general partner, a liquidator will proceed to liquidate the assets of our operating partnership and apply the proceeds from such liquidation in the order of priority set forth in the partnership agreement and among holders of partnership interests in accordance with their capital account balances.

Tax Matters

Our operating partnership entered into tax protection agreements with certain of the contributors of properties to us in conjunction with our initial public offering and the related formation transactions, on behalf of themselves and their direct and indirect owners (the “Protected Parties”). Pursuant to the partnership agreement, we, as the general partner, are the tax matters partner of our operating partnership, and in such capacity, have the authority to handle tax audits on behalf of our operating partnership; provided, however, that under the tax protection agreements, the operating partnership shall not, and therefore we shall not as tax matters partner on its behalf, consent to the entry of any judgment or enter into any settlement with respect to any demand, assessment or other claim, or audit, examination, investigation or other proceeding, with respect to taxes that could result in a tax liability to a Protected Party without the prior written consent of the relevant Protected Party, except to the extent the operating partnership agrees that it is required under the relevant tax protection agreement to reimburse such Protected Party for any taxes required to be paid by the Protected Party as a result of such consent or settlement. In addition, as the general partner, we have the authority to arrange for the preparation and filing of our operating partnership’s tax returns and to make tax elections under the Code on behalf of our operating partnership.

LTIP Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as “LTIP Units.” We may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP Units to persons who provide services to or for the benefit of our operating partnership, including our Advisor and people who provide services to or for the benefit of our Advisor, for such consideration or for no consideration as we may determine to be appropriate, and we may admit such persons as limited partners of our operating partnership, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Further, we may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP Units in one or more classes or series, with such terms as we may determine, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. LTIP Units may be subject to vesting, forfeiture and restrictions on transfer and receipt of distributions pursuant to the terms of any applicable equity-based plan and the terms of any award agreement relating to the issuance of the LTIP Units.

Conversion Rights

Vested LTIP Units are convertible at the option of each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners (in each case, that hold vested LTIP Units) into common units, upon notice to us and our operating partnership, to the extent that the capital account balance of the LTIP unitholder with respect to all of his or her LTIP Units is at least equal to our capital account balance with respect to an equal number of common units. We may cause our operating partnership to convert vested LTIP Units eligible for conversion into an equal number of common units at any time, upon at least 10 and not more than 60 days’ notice to the holder of the LTIP Units.

If we or our operating partnership is party to a transaction, including a merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other business combination, as a result of which common units are exchanged for or converted into the right, or holders of common units are otherwise entitled, to receive cash, securities or other

 

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property (or any combination thereof), we must cause our operating partnership to convert any vested LTIP Units then eligible for conversion into common units immediately before the transaction, taking into account any special allocations of income that would be made as a result of the transaction. Our operating partnership must use commercially reasonable efforts to cause each limited partner (other than a party to such a transaction or an affiliate of such a party) holding LTIP Units that will be converted into common units in such a transaction to be afforded the right to receive the same kind and amount of cash, securities and other property (or any combination thereof) for such common units that each holder of common units receives in the transaction. If holders of common units have the opportunity to elect the form or type of consideration to be received in any such transaction, we must give prompt written notice to each limited partner holding LTIP Units of such opportunity and use commercially reasonable efforts to allow limited partners holding LTIP Units the opportunity to make such elections with respect to the common units that each such limited partner will receive upon conversion of his or her LTIP Units. If an LTIP unitholder fails to make such an election, he or she will receive the same kind and amount of consideration that a holder of common units would receive if such holder failed to make such an election. Subject to the terms of an applicable incentive award plan and/or award agreement, our operating partnership must also use commercially reasonable efforts to enter into an agreement with the successor or purchasing entity in any such transaction for the benefit of the limited partners holding LTIP Units, enabling the limited partners holding LTIP Units that remain outstanding after such a transaction to convert their LTIP Units into securities as comparable as reasonably possible under the circumstances to common units and preserving as far as reasonably possible under the circumstances the distribution, special allocation, conversion, and other rights set forth in the partnership agreement for the benefit of the LTIP unitholders.

Any conversion of LTIP Units into common units will be effective as of the close of business on the effective date of the conversion.

Transfer

Unless an applicable equity-based plan or the terms of an award agreement specify additional restrictions on transfer of LTIP Units, LTIP Units are transferable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers and Withdrawals.”

Voting Rights

Limited partners holding LTIP Units are entitled to vote together as a class with limited partners holding common units on all matters on which limited partners holding common units are entitled to vote or consent, and may cast one vote for each LTIP Unit so held.

Adjustment of LTIP Units

If our operating partnership takes certain actions, including making a distribution of units on all outstanding common units, combining or subdividing the outstanding common units into a different number of common units or reclassifying the outstanding common units, we must adjust the number of outstanding LTIP Units or subdivide or combine outstanding LTIP Units to maintain a one-for-one conversion ratio and economic equivalence between common units and LTIP Units.

 

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MATERIAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

This section summarizes the material federal income tax considerations that you, as a securityholder, may consider relevant. Hunton & Williams LLP has acted as our counsel, has reviewed this summary, and is of the opinion that the discussion contained herein is accurate in all material respects. Because this section is a summary, it does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to particular securityholders in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances, or to certain types of securityholders that are subject to special treatment under the federal income tax laws, such as:

 

    insurance companies;

 

    tax-exempt organizations (except to the limited extent discussed in “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders” below);

 

    financial institutions or broker-dealers;

 

    non-U.S. individuals and foreign corporations (except to the limited extent discussed in “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders” below);

 

    U.S. expatriates;

 

    persons who mark-to-market our securities;

 

    subchapter S corporations;

 

    U.S. stockholders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

    regulated investment companies and REITs;

 

    trusts and estates;

 

    holders who receive our securities through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;

 

    persons holding our securities as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;

 

    persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code; and

 

    persons holding our securities through a partnership or similar pass-through entity.

This summary assumes that securityholders hold our securities as capital assets for federal income tax purposes, which generally means property held for investment.

The statements in this section are not intended to be, and should not be construed as, tax advice. The statements in this section are based on the Code, current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations, the legislative history of the Code, current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS, and court decisions. The reference to IRS interpretations and practices includes the IRS practices and policies endorsed in private letter rulings, which are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the taxpayer that receives the ruling. In each case, these sources are relied upon as they exist on the date of this summary. Future legislation, Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations and court decisions could change current law or adversely affect exiting interpretations of current law on which the information in this section is based. Any such change could apply retroactively. We have not received any rulings from the IRS concerning our qualification as a REIT. Accordingly, even if there is no change in the applicable law, no assurance can be provided that the statements made in the following discussion, which do not bind the IRS or the courts, will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if so challenged.

WE URGE YOU TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE SPECIFIC TAX CONSEQUENCES TO YOU OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND SALE OF OUR SECURITIES

 

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AND OF OUR ELECTION TO BE TAXED AS A REIT. SPECIFICALLY, YOU SHOULD CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, FOREIGN, AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES OF SUCH PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP, SALE AND ELECTION, AND REGARDING POTENTIAL CHANGES IN APPLICABLE TAX LAWS.

Taxation of our Company

We intend to elect to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014, upon filing our federal income tax return for that year. We believe that, commencing with such taxable year, we have been organized and have operated in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code, and we intend to continue to operate in such a manner, but no assurances can be given that we will operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. This section discusses the laws governing the federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. These laws are highly technical and complex.

In the opinion of Hunton & Williams LLP, we qualified to be taxed as a REIT commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2014, and our current and proposed method of operations will enable us to continue to satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the federal income tax laws for our taxable year ending December 31, 2015 and subsequent taxable years. Investors should be aware that Hunton & Williams LLP’s opinion is based upon customary assumptions, will be conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our assets and the conduct of our business, is not binding upon the IRS or any court, and speaks as of the date issued. In addition, Hunton & Williams LLP’s opinion will be based on existing federal income tax law governing qualification as a REIT, which is subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT will depend upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual annual operating results, certain qualification tests set forth in the federal income tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that falls within specified categories, the diversity of our capital stock ownership, and the percentage of our earnings that we distribute. Hunton & Williams LLP will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. Hunton & Williams LLP’s opinion does not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more of the REIT savings provisions described below, which would require us to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be material), in order for us to maintain our REIT qualification. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “—Failure to Qualify.”

If we qualify as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders. The benefit of that tax treatment is that it avoids the “double taxation,” or taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels, that generally results from owning stock in a corporation. However, we will be subject to federal tax in the following circumstances:

 

    We will pay federal income tax on any taxable income, including undistributed net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders during, or within a specified time period after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

 

    We may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” on any items of tax preference including any deductions of net operating losses.

 

    We will pay income tax at the highest corporate rate on:

 

    net income from the sale or other disposition of property acquired through foreclosure (“foreclosure property”) that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, and

 

    other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property.

 

    We will pay a 100% tax on net income from sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

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    If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below under “—Gross Income Tests,” and nonetheless continue to qualify as a REIT because we meet other requirements, we will pay a 100% tax on:

 

    the gross income attributable to the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, in either case, multiplied by

 

    a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

    If we fail to distribute during a calendar year at least the sum of (i) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year, (ii) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and (iii) any undistributed taxable income required to be distributed from earlier periods, we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distribute.

 

    We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent that we made a timely designation of such gain to the stockholders) and would receive a credit or refund for its proportionate share of the tax we paid.

 

    We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on transactions with any taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.

 

    If we fail any of the asset tests, other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or 10% value test, as described below under “—Asset Tests,” as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we file a description of each asset that caused such failure with the IRS, and we dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest federal income tax rate then applicable to U.S. corporations (currently 35%) on the net income from the non-qualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

    If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and such failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

    If we acquire any asset from a C corporation, or a corporation that generally is subject to full corporate-level tax, in a merger or other transaction in which we acquire a basis in the asset that is determined by reference either to the C corporation’s basis in the asset or to another asset, we will pay tax at the highest regular corporate rate applicable if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of the asset during the 10-year period after we acquire the asset provided no election is made for the transaction to be taxable on a current basis. The amount of gain on which we will pay tax is the lesser of:

 

    the amount of gain that we recognize at the time of the sale or disposition, and

 

    the amount of gain that we would have recognized if we had sold the asset at the time we acquired it.

 

    We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described below in “—Recordkeeping Requirements.”

 

    The earnings of our lower-tier entities that are subchapter C corporations, including any of our TRSs and any other TRSs we form in the future, will be subject to federal corporate income tax.

In addition, notwithstanding our qualification as a REIT, we also may have to pay certain state and local income taxes because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for federal income tax purposes. Moreover, as further described below, our TRSs and any other TRSs we form the future will be subject to federal, state and local corporate income tax on their taxable income.

 

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Requirements for Qualification

A REIT is a corporation, trust, or association that meets each of the following requirements:

 

  1. It is managed by one or more trustees or directors.

 

  2. Its beneficial ownership is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest.

 

  3. It would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for the REIT provisions of the federal income tax laws.

 

  4. It is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to special provisions of the federal income tax laws.

 

  5. At least 100 persons are beneficial owners of its shares or ownership certificates.

 

  6. Not more than 50% in value of its outstanding shares or ownership certificates is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, which the Code defines to include certain entities, during the last half of any taxable year.

 

  7. It elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status.

 

  8. It meets certain other qualification tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions to stockholders.

 

  9. It uses a calendar year for federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the federal income tax laws.

We must meet requirements 1 through 4, 7, 8 and 9 during our entire taxable year and must meet requirement 5 during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Requirements 5 and 6 will apply to us beginning with our 2015 taxable year. If we comply with all the requirements for ascertaining the ownership of our outstanding stock in a taxable year and have no reason to know that we violated requirement 6, we will be deemed to have satisfied requirement 6 for that taxable year. For purposes of determining stock ownership under requirement 6, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the federal income tax laws, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of requirement 6.

Our charter provides restrictions regarding the transfer and ownership of shares of our capital stock. See “Description of Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” We believe that we have issued sufficient stock with sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to satisfy requirements 5 and 6 above. The restrictions in our charter are intended (among other things) to assist us in continuing to satisfy requirements 5 and 6 above. These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to satisfy such share ownership requirements. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, our qualification as a REIT may terminate.

Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. A corporation that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary” is not treated as a corporation separate from its parent REIT. All assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of a “qualified REIT subsidiary” are treated as assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of the REIT. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” is a corporation, other than a TRS, all of the stock of which is owned by the REIT. Thus, in applying the requirements described herein, any “qualified REIT subsidiary” that we own will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of such subsidiary will be treated as our assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit.

 

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Other Disregarded Entities and Partnerships. An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a limited liability company that has a single owner, generally is not treated as an entity separate from its owner for federal income tax purposes. An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners is generally treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership that has other partners, the REIT is treated as owning its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership and as earning its allocable share of the gross income of the partnership for purposes of the applicable REIT qualification tests. Our proportionate share for purposes of the 10% value test (see “—Asset Tests”) is based on our proportionate interest in the equity interests and certain debt securities issued by the partnership. For all of the other asset and income tests, our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the capital interests in the partnership. Our proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, and items of income of any partnership, joint venture, or limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we acquire an equity interest, directly or indirectly, are treated as our assets and gross income for purposes of applying the various REIT qualification requirements.

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A REIT may own up to 100% of the shares of one or more TRSs. A TRS is a fully taxable corporation that may earn income that would not be qualifying income if earned directly by the parent REIT. The subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation (other than a REIT) of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the outstanding securities will automatically be treated as a TRS. We are not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the TRS earns. Rather, the stock issued by a TRS to us is an asset in our hands, and we treat the distributions paid to us from such TRS, if any, as dividend income to the extent of the TRS’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. This treatment may affect our compliance with the gross income and asset tests. Because we do not include the assets and income of TRSs in determining our compliance with the REIT requirements, we may use such entities to undertake indirectly activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude us from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. Overall, no more than 25% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. A TRS generally may not directly or indirectly operate or manage any health care facilities or lodging facilities or provide rights to any brand name under which any health care facility or lodging facility is operated.

A TRS pays income tax at regular corporate rates on any income that it earns. In addition, the TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. Further, the rules impose a 100% excise tax on transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT or the REIT’s tenants that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.

Rent that we receive from a TRS will qualify as “rents from real property” as long as (1) at least 90% of the leased space in the property is leased to persons other than TRSs and related-party tenants, and (2) the amount paid by the TRS to rent space at the property is substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants of the property for comparable space, as described in further detail below under “—Gross Income Tests — Rents from Real Property.” If we lease space to a TRS in the future, we will seek to comply with these requirements. We have elected to treat several of our general partners in our property-owning entities as TRSs. Such TRSs are subject to corporate income tax on their taxable income. We may elect to treat other entities as TRSs in the future.

Gross Income Tests

We must satisfy two gross income tests annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of defined types of income that we derive, directly or indirectly, from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property or qualified temporary investment income. Qualifying income for purposes of that 75% gross income test generally includes:

 

    rents from real property;

 

    interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property, or on interests in real property;

 

    dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, shares in other REITs;

 

    gain from the sale of real estate assets;

 

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    income and gain derived from foreclosure property; and

 

    income derived from the temporary investment of new capital that is attributable to the issuance of our stock or a public offering of our debt with a maturity date of at least five years and that we receive during the one-year period beginning on the date on which we received such new capital.

Second, in general, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of income that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, other types of interest and dividends, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or any combination of these. Gross income from our sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both gross income tests. In addition, income and gain from “hedging transactions” (as defined in “—Hedging Transactions”) that we enter into to hedge indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets and that are clearly and timely identified as such will be excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. In addition, certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. See “— Foreign Currency Gain.” Finally, gross income attributable to cancellation of indebtedness income will be excluded from both the numerator and denominator for purposes of both of the gross income tests. The following paragraphs discuss the specific application of the gross income tests to us.

Rents from Real Property. Rent that we receive from our real property will qualify as “rents from real property,” which is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, only if the following conditions are met:

 

    First, the rent must not be based, in whole or in part, on the income or profits of any person, but may be based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

 

    Second, neither we nor a direct or indirect owner of 10% or more of our stock may own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of a tenant from whom we receive rent, other than a TRS.

 

    Third, if the rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is 15% or less of the total rent received under the lease, then the rent attributable to personal property will qualify as rents from real property. However, if the 15% threshold is exceeded, the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as rents from real property.

 

    Fourth, we generally must not operate or manage our real property or furnish or render services to our tenants, other than through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive revenue. Furthermore, we may own up to 100% of the stock of a TRS which may provide customary and noncustomary services to our tenants without tainting our rental income for the related properties. However, we need not provide services through an “independent contractor” or a TRS, but instead may provide services directly to our tenants, if the services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of “noncustomary” services to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor or a TRS, as long as our income from the services (valued at not less than 150% of our direct cost of performing such services) does not exceed 1% of our income from the related property.

As described above, in order for the rent that we receive to constitute “rents from real property,” several other requirements must be satisfied. First, rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. Percentage rent, however, will qualify as “rents from real property” if it is based on percentages of receipts or sales and the percentages:

 

    are fixed at the time the leases are entered into;

 

    are not renegotiated during the term of the leases in a manner that has the effect of basing rent on income or profits; and

 

    conform with normal business practice.

 

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More generally, rent will not qualify as “rents from real property” if, considering the leases and all the surrounding circumstances, the arrangement does not conform with normal business practice, but is in reality used as a means of basing the rent on income or profits.

Second, if we own, actually or constructively, 10% or more (measured by voting power or fair market value) of the stock of a corporate lessee, or 10% or more of the assets or net profits of any non-corporate lessee (each a “related party tenant”), other than a TRS, any income we receive from the lessee will be non-qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The constructive ownership rules generally provide that, if 10% or more in value of our stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any person, we are considered as owning the shares owned, directly or indirectly, by or for such person. We believe that all of our properties are and will be leased to third parties that do not constitute related party tenants. In addition, our charter prohibits transfers of our stock that would cause us to own actually or constructively, 10% or more of the ownership interests in any non-TRS lessee. Based on the foregoing, we should never own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of any lessee other than a TRS. However, because the constructive ownership rules are broad and it is not possible to monitor continually direct and indirect transfers of our stock, no absolute assurance can be given that such transfers or other events of which we have no knowledge will not cause us to own constructively 10% or more of a lessee (or a subtenant, in which case only rent attributable to the subtenant is disqualified) other than a TRS at some future date.

As described above, we may own up to 100% of the shares of one or more TRSs. Under an exception to the related-party tenant rule described in the preceding paragraph, rent that we receive from a TRS will qualify as “rents from real property” as long as (i) at least 90% of the leased space in the property is leased to persons other than TRSs and related-party tenants, and (ii) the amount paid by the TRS to rent space at the property is substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants of the property for comparable space. The “substantially comparable” requirement must be satisfied when the lease is entered into, when it is extended, and when the lease is modified, if the modification increases the rent paid by the TRS. If the requirement that at least 90% of the leased space in the related property is rented to unrelated tenants is met when a lease is entered into, extended, or modified, such requirement will continue to be met as long as there is no increase in the space leased to any TRS or related party tenant. Any increased rent attributable to a modification of a lease with a TRS in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock (a “controlled TRS”) will not be treated as “rents from real property.” If in the future we receive rent from a TRS, we will seek to comply with this exception.

Third, the rent attributable to the personal property leased in connection with the lease of a property must not be greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. The rent attributable to the personal property contained in a property is the amount that bears the same ratio to total rent for the taxable year as the average of the fair market values of the personal property at the beginning and at the end of the taxable year bears to the average of the aggregate fair market values of both the real and personal property contained in the property at the beginning and at the end of such taxable year (the “personal property ratio”). With respect to each of our leases, we believe either that the personal property ratio is less than 15% or that any rent attributable to excess personal property, when taken together with all of our other non-qualifying income, will not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT. There can be no assurance, however, that the IRS would not challenge our calculation of a personal property ratio, or that a court would not uphold such assertion. If such a challenge were successfully asserted, we could fail to satisfy the 75% or 95% gross income test and thus potentially lose our REIT status.

Fourth, except as described below, we cannot furnish or render noncustomary services to the tenants of our properties, or manage or operate our properties, other than through an independent contractor who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive or receive any income. However, we need not provide services through an “independent contractor,” but instead may provide services directly to our tenants, if the services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of “noncustomary” services to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor, as long as our income from the services (valued at not less than 150% of our direct cost for performing such services) does

 

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not exceed 1% of our income from the related property. Finally, we may own up to 100% of the shares of one or more TRSs, which may provide noncustomary services to our tenants without tainting our rents from the related properties. One of our TRSs provides noncustomary services at one of our properties. We believe that we do not perform any services other than customary ones for our lessees, other than services are provided through independent contractors or TRSs.

If a portion of the rent that we receive from a property does not qualify as “rents from real property” because the rent attributable to personal property exceeds 15% of the total rent for a taxable year, the portion of the rent that is attributable to personal property will not be qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Thus, if such rent attributable to personal property, plus any other income that is non-qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, during a taxable year exceeds 5% of our gross income during the year, we would lose our REIT qualification. If, however, the rent from a particular property does not qualify as “rents from real property” because either (i) the rent is considered based on the income or profits of the related lessee, (ii) the lessee either is a related party tenant or fails to qualify for the exceptions to the related party tenant rule for qualifying TRSs or (iii) we furnish noncustomary services to the tenants of the property, or manage or operate the property, other than through a qualifying independent contractor or a TRS, none of the rent from that property would qualify as “rents from real property.” In that case, we might lose our REIT qualification because we would be unable to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test. In addition to the rent, the lessees are required to pay certain additional charges. To the extent that such additional charges represent either (i) reimbursements of amounts that we are obligated to pay to third parties, such as a lessee’s proportionate share of a property’s operational or capital expenses, or (ii) penalties for nonpayment or late payment of such amounts, such charges generally will qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent such additional charges represent penalties for nonpayment or late payment of such amounts, such charges should qualify as “rents from real property.” However, to the extent that late charges do not qualify as “rents from real property,” they instead will be treated as interest that qualifies for the 95% gross income test. We believe that our leases are structured in a manner that will enable us to continue satisfy the REIT gross income tests.

Interest. The term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of such amount depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, interest generally includes the following:

 

    an amount that is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales; and

 

    an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt from leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT.

Interest on debt secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, discount points, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees, and late payment charges that are not compensation for services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. However, if a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan as of the date the REIT agreed to originate or acquire the loan or on the date the REIT modifies the loan (if the modification is treated as “significant” for federal income tax purposes), a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. The portion of the interest income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test will be equal to the portion of the principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property — that is, the amount by which the loan exceeds the value of the real estate that is security for the loan. For purposes of this paragraph, however, we do not need to redetermine the fair market value of the real property securing a loan in connection with a loan modification that is occasioned by a borrower default or made at a time when we reasonably believe that the modification to the loan will substantially reduce a significant risk of default on the original loan.

 

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If a loan contains a provision that entitles a REIT to a percentage of the borrower’s gain upon the sale of the real property securing the loan or a percentage of the appreciation in the property’s value as of a specific date, income attributable to that loan provision will be treated as gain from the sale of the property securing the loan, which generally is qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests assuming the loan is held for investment.

Dividends. Our share of any dividends received from any corporation (including any TRS, but excluding any REIT) in which we own an equity interest will qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Our share of any dividends received from any other REIT in which we own an equity interest, if any, will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.

Fee Income. We may receive various fees. Fee income will generally not be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests. We do not expect such amounts, if any, to be significant, and, in any event, to negatively impact our compliance with REIT gross income tests.

Prohibited Transactions. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income (including foreign currency gain) derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. We believe that none of our assets are held primarily for sale to customers and that a sale of any of our assets will not be in the ordinary course of our business. Whether a REIT holds an asset “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends, however, on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. A safe harbor to the characterization of the sale of property by a REIT as a prohibited transaction and the 100% prohibited transaction tax is available if the following requirements are met:

 

    the REIT has held the property for not less than two years;

 

    the aggregate expenditures made by the REIT, or any partner of the REIT, during the two-year period preceding the date of the sale that are includable in the basis of the property do not exceed 30% of the selling price of the property;

 

    either (i) during the year in question, the REIT did not make more than seven sales of property other than foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1033 of the Code applies, (ii) the aggregate adjusted bases of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate bases of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year or (iii) the aggregate fair market value of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate fair market value of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year;

 

    in the case of property not acquired through foreclosure or lease termination, the REIT has held the property for at least two years for the production of rental income; and

 

    if the REIT has made more than seven sales of non-foreclosure property during the taxable year, substantially all of the marketing and development expenditures with respect to the property were made through an independent contractor from whom the REIT derives no income.

We will attempt to comply with the terms of the safe-harbor provisions in the federal income tax laws prescribing when an asset sale will not be characterized as a prohibited transaction. We cannot assure you, however, that we can comply with the safe-harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property that we hold “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.” The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be taxed to the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates.

Foreclosure Property. We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, which includes certain foreign currency gains and related deductions, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly

 

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connected with the production of that income. However, gross income from foreclosure property will qualify under the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

 

    that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

 

    for which the related loan was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

 

    for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.

A REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor. Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year (or, with respect to qualified health care property, the second taxable year) following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury. However, this grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

 

    on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

 

    on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, where more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or

 

    which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income.

Hedging Transactions. From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase such items, and futures and forward contracts. Income and gain from “hedging transactions” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests provided we satisfy the identification requirements discussed below. A “hedging transaction” means either (i) any transaction entered into in the normal course of our or our operating partnership’s trade or business primarily to manage the risk of interest rate, price changes, or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets and (ii) any transaction entered into primarily to manage the risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test (or any property which generates such income or gain). We are required to clearly identify any such hedging transaction before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into and to satisfy other identification requirements. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT.

Foreign Currency Gain. Certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. “Real estate foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Real estate foreign exchange gain generally includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or an interest in real property and certain foreign currency gain attributable to certain “qualified business units” of a REIT that would satisfy the

 

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75% gross income test and 75% asset test (discussed below) on a stand-alone basis. “Passive foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Passive foreign exchange gain generally includes real estate foreign exchange gain as described above, and also includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations. These exclusions for real estate foreign exchange gain and passive foreign exchange gain do not apply to any certain foreign currency gain derived from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities. Such gain is treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests. We may have gross income that fails to constitute qualifying income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. Taking into account our anticipated sources of non-qualifying income, however, we expect that our aggregate gross income will allow us to continue to satisfy the 75% and 95% gross income tests applicable to REITs. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the gross income tests for any taxable year, we nevertheless may qualify as a REIT for that year if we qualify for relief under certain provisions of the federal income tax laws. Those relief provisions are available if:

 

    our failure to meet those tests is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect; and

 

    following such failure for any taxable year, we file a schedule of the sources of our income in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury.

We cannot predict, however, whether in all circumstances we would qualify for the relief provisions. In addition, as discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company,” even if the relief provisions apply, we would incur a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test multiplied, in either case, by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

Asset Tests

To qualify as a REIT, we also must satisfy the following asset tests at the end of each quarter of each taxable year.

First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must consist of:

 

    cash or cash items, including certain receivables and, in certain circumstances, foreign currencies;

 

    government securities;

 

    interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds;

 

    interests in mortgage loans secured by real property;

 

    stock in other REITs; and

 

    investments in stock or debt instruments during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt with at least a five-year term.

Second, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, the value of our interest in any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, or the 5% asset test.

Third, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of the voting power of any one issuer’s outstanding securities or 10% of the value of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the 10% vote test or 10% value test, respectively.

Fourth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of one or more TRSs.

 

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Fifth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of TRSs and other non-TRS taxable subsidiaries and other assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, or the 25% securities test.

For purposes of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test and the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include shares in another REIT, equity or debt securities of a qualified REIT subsidiary or TRS, mortgage loans that constitute real estate assets, or equity interests in a partnership. The term “securities,” however, generally includes debt securities issued by a partnership or another REIT, except that for purposes of the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include:

 

    “Straight debt” securities, which is defined as a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into equity, and (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors. “Straight debt” securities do not include any securities issued by a partnership or a corporation in which we or any controlled TRS (i.e., a TRS in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock) hold non-“straight debt” securities that have an aggregate value of more than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities. However, “straight debt” securities include debt subject to the following contingencies:

 

    a contingency relating to the time of payment of interest or principal, as long as either (i) there is no change to the effective yield of the debt obligation, other than a change to the annual yield that does not exceed the greater of 0.25% or 5% of the annual yield, or (ii) neither the aggregate issue price nor the aggregate face amount of the issuer’s debt obligations held by us exceeds $1 million and no more than 12 months of unaccrued interest on the debt obligations can be required to be prepaid; and

 

    a contingency relating to the time or amount of payment upon a default or prepayment of a debt obligation, as long as the contingency is consistent with customary commercial practice.

 

    Any loan to an individual or an estate;

 

    Any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related party tenant;

 

    Any obligation to pay “rents from real property”;

 

    Certain securities issued by governmental entities;

 

    Any security issued by a REIT;

 

    Any debt instrument issued by an entity treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we are a partner to the extent of our proportionate interest in the equity and debt securities of the partnership; and

 

    Any debt instrument issued by an entity treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes not described in the preceding bullet points if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income, excluding income from prohibited transactions, is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test described above in “—Gross Income Tests.”

For purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share of the assets of a partnership is our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, without regard to the securities described in the last two bullet points above.

In general, under the applicable Treasury Regulations, if a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan as of: (1) the date we agreed to acquire or originate the loan; or (2) in the event of a significant modification, the date we modified the loan, then a portion of the interest income from such a loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but will be qualifying

 

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income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Although the law is not entirely clear, a portion of the loan will also likely be a non-qualifying asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. The non-qualifying portion of such a loan would be subject to, among other requirements, the 10% vote or value test. IRS Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the fair market value of the loan on the date of the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date or (2) the greater of (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT testing date or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan determined as of the date the REIT committed to acquire the loan. We intend to invest in mortgage loans, if any, in a manner that will allow them to be treated as qualifying assets for the 75% asset test.

We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will manage our portfolio in order to comply at all times with such tests. However, there is no assurance that we will not inadvertently fail to comply with such tests. If we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, we will not lose our REIT qualification if:

 

    we satisfied the asset tests at the end of the preceding calendar quarter; and

 

    the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset test requirements arose from changes in the market values of our assets and was not wholly or partly caused by the acquisition of one or more non-qualifying assets.

If we did not satisfy the condition described in the second item, above, we still could avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose.

If we violate the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test described above, we will not lose our REIT qualification if (i) the failure is de minimis (up to the lesser of 1% of our assets or $10 million) and (ii) we dispose of assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure. If we fail any of the asset tests (other than de minimis failures described in the preceding sentence), as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will not lose our REIT qualification if we (i) dispose of assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify the failure, (ii) we file a description of each asset causing the failure with the IRS and (iii) pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or 35% of the net income from the assets causing the failure during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

We believe that the assets that we hold, and that we will acquire in the future, will allow us to satisfy the foregoing asset test requirements. However, we do not typically obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the value of our assets. Moreover, the values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination. As a result, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our ownership of certain assets violates one or more of the asset tests applicable to REITs.

Distribution Requirements

Each taxable year, we must distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends and deemed distributions of retained capital gain, to our stockholders in an aggregate amount at least equal to:

 

    the sum of

 

    90% of our “REIT taxable income,” computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain or loss, and

 

    90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property, minus

 

    the sum of certain items of non-cash income.

 

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We must pay such distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if either (i) we declare the distribution before we timely file our federal income tax return for the year and pay the distribution on or before the first regular dividend payment date after such declaration or (ii) we declare the distribution in October, November or December of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified day in any such month, and we actually pay the dividend before the end of January of the following year. The distributions under clause (i) are taxable to the stockholders in the year in which paid, and the distributions in clause (ii) are treated as paid on December 31st of the prior taxable year. In both instances, these distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement.

We will pay federal income tax on taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders. Furthermore, if we fail to distribute during a calendar year, or by the end of January following the calendar year in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, at least the sum of:

 

    85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year,

 

    95% of our REIT capital gain income for such year, and

 

    any undistributed taxable income from prior periods,

we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the amounts we actually distribute.

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on the net long-term capital gain we receive in a taxable year. If we so elect, we will be treated as having distributed any such retained amount for purposes of the 4% nondeductible excise tax described above. We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the annual distribution requirements and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax.

It is possible that, from time to time, we may experience timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses and the inclusion of that income and deduction of such expenses in arriving at our REIT taxable income. For example, we may not deduct recognized capital losses from our “REIT taxable income.” Further, it is possible that, from time to time, we may be allocated a share of net capital gain attributable to the sale of depreciated property that exceeds our allocable share of cash attributable to that sale. As a result of the foregoing, we may have less cash than is necessary to distribute taxable income sufficient to avoid corporate income tax and the excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income or even to meet the 90% distribution requirement. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or, if possible, pay taxable dividends of our capital stock or debt securities.

We may satisfy the 90% distribution test with taxable distributions of our stock or debt securities. The IRS has issued private letter rulings to other REITs treating certain distributions that are paid partly in cash and partly in stock as dividends that would satisfy the REIT annual distribution requirement and qualify for the dividends paid deduction for federal income tax purposes. Those rulings may be relied upon only by taxpayers to whom they were issued, but we could request a similar ruling from the IRS. In addition, the IRS previously issued a revenue procedure authorizing publicly traded REITs to make elective cash/stock dividends, but that revenue procedure has expired. Accordingly, it is unclear whether and to what extent we will be able to make taxable dividends payable in cash and stock. We have no current intention to make a taxable dividend payable in our stock.

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to correct a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year. We may include such deficiency dividends in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Although we may be able to avoid income tax on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction we take for deficiency dividends.

 

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Recordkeeping Requirements

To avoid a monetary penalty, we must request on an annual basis information from our stockholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding stock. We have complied and intend to continue to comply with these requirements.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, we could avoid disqualification if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. In addition, there are relief provisions for a failure of the gross income tests and asset tests, as described in “—Gross Income Tests” and “—Asset Tests.”

If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and no relief provision applies, we would be subject to federal income tax and any applicable alternative minimum tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. In calculating our taxable income in a year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT, we would not be able to deduct amounts paid out to stockholders. In fact, we would not be required to distribute any amounts to stockholders in that year. In such event, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, distributions to stockholders generally would be taxable as ordinary income. Subject to certain limitations of the federal income tax laws, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction and stockholders taxed at individual rates may be eligible for the reduced federal income tax rate of up to 20% on such dividends. Unless we qualified for relief under specific statutory provisions, we also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify as a REIT. We cannot predict whether in all circumstances we would qualify for such statutory relief.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

As used herein, the term “U.S. stockholder” means a beneficial owner of our capital stock that for federal income tax purposes is:

 

    a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

    a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any of its states or the District of Columbia;

 

    an estate whose income is subject to federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

    any trust if (i) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (ii) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership, entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock, the federal income tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner in a partnership holding our capital stock, you should consult your tax advisor regarding the consequences of the ownership and disposition of our capital stock by the partnership.

As long as we qualify as a REIT, a taxable U.S. stockholder must generally take into account as ordinary income distributions made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that we do not designate as capital gain dividends or retained long-term capital gain. For purposes of determining whether a distribution is made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our preferred stock dividends and then to our common stock dividends. Our dividends will not qualify for the dividends received deduction generally available to corporations. In addition, dividends paid to a U.S. stockholder generally will not qualify for the 20% tax rate for “qualified dividend income.” The maximum tax rate for qualified dividend income received by U.S. stockholders taxed at individual rates is currently 20%. The

 

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maximum tax rate on qualified dividend income is lower than the maximum tax rate on ordinary income, which is currently 39.6%. Qualified dividend income generally includes dividends paid by domestic C corporations and certain qualified foreign corporations to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates. Because we are not generally subject to federal income tax on the portion of our REIT taxable income distributed to our stockholders (See —“Taxation of Our Company” above), our dividends generally will not be eligible for the 20% rate on qualified dividend income. As a result, our ordinary REIT dividends generally will be taxed at the higher tax rate applicable to ordinary income. However, the 20% tax rate for qualified dividend income will apply to our ordinary REIT dividends (i) attributable to dividends received by us from non-REIT corporations during the taxable year, such as a TRS, and (ii) to the extent attributable to income upon which we have paid corporate income tax (e.g., to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our taxable income). In general, to qualify for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, a stockholder must hold our capital stock for more than 60 days during the 121 day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which our capital stock becomes ex-dividend. Individuals, estates or trusts whose income exceeds certain thresholds will be subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on dividends received from us.

A U.S. stockholder generally will take into account as long-term capital gain any distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends without regard to the period for which the U.S. stockholder has held our stock. We generally will designate our capital gain dividends as either 20% or 25% rate distributions. See “—Capital Gains and Losses.” A corporate U.S. stockholder, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on the net long-term capital gain that we receive in a taxable year. In that case, to the extent that we designate such amount in a timely notice to such stockholder, a U.S. stockholder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain. The U.S. stockholder would receive a credit for its proportionate share of the tax we paid. The U.S. stockholder would increase the basis in its stock by the amount of its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain, minus its share of the tax we paid.

A U.S. stockholder will not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the distribution does not exceed the adjusted basis of the U.S. stockholder in the shares of capital stock on which the distribution was paid. Instead, the distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of such stock. A U.S. stockholder will recognize a distribution in excess of both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in his or her stock as long-term capital gain, or short-term capital gain if the shares of stock have been held for one year or less, assuming the shares of stock are a capital asset in the hands of the U.S. stockholder. In addition, if we declare a distribution in October, November, or December of any year that is payable to a U.S. stockholder of record on a specified date in any such month, such distribution shall be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. stockholder on December 31 of such year, provided that we actually pay the distribution during January of the following calendar year.

U.S. stockholders may not include in their individual income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Instead, these losses are generally carried over by us for potential offset against our future income. Taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income and, therefore, U.S. stockholders generally will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses,” such as losses from certain types of limited partnerships in which the U.S. stockholder is a limited partner, against such income. In addition, taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our capital stock generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitations. We will notify U.S. stockholders after the close of our taxable year as to the portions of the distributions attributable to that year that constitute ordinary income, return of capital and capital gain.

Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on the Disposition of Capital Stock

A U.S. stockholder who is not a dealer in securities must generally treat any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of our stock as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held our stock for more

 

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than one year and otherwise as short-term capital gain or loss. In general, a U.S. stockholder will realize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the sum of the fair market value of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis. A stockholder’s adjusted tax basis generally will equal the U.S. stockholder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of net capital gains deemed distributed to the U.S. stockholder (discussed above) less tax deemed paid on such gains and reduced by any returns of capital. However, a U.S. stockholder must treat any loss upon a sale or exchange of stock held by such stockholder for six months or less as a long-term capital loss to the extent of capital gain dividends and any other actual or deemed distributions from us that such U.S. stockholder treats as long-term capital gain. All or a portion of any loss that a U.S. stockholder realizes upon a taxable disposition of shares of our stock may be disallowed if the U.S. stockholder purchases other stock within 30 days before or after the disposition.

Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on a Conversion of Preferred Stock

Except as provided below, (i) a U.S. stockholder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon the conversion of preferred stock into our common stock, and (ii) a U.S. stockholder’s basis and holding period in our common stock received upon conversion generally will be the same as those of the converted preferred stock (but the basis will be reduced by the portion of adjusted tax basis allocated to any fractional share exchanged for cash). Any of our shares of common stock received in a conversion that are attributable to accumulated and unpaid dividends on the converted preferred stock will be treated as a distribution that is potentially taxable as a dividend. Cash received upon conversion in lieu of a fractional share generally will be treated as a payment in a taxable exchange for such fractional share, and gain or loss will be recognized on the receipt of cash in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash received and the adjusted tax basis allocable to the fractional share deemed exchanged. This gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held the preferred stock for more than one year at the time of conversion. U.S. stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such holder exchanges shares of our common stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.

Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on a Redemption of Preferred Stock

A redemption of preferred stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution that is taxable as dividend income (to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits), unless the redemption satisfies certain tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code enabling the redemption to be treated as a sale of the preferred stock (in which case the redemption will be treated in the same manner as a sale described above in “—Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on the Disposition of Capital Stock”). The redemption will satisfy such tests if it (i) is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. stockholder’s interest in our stock, (ii) results in a “complete termination” of the U.S. stockholder’s interest in all of our classes of stock or (iii) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the stockholder, all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code. In determining whether any of these tests have been met, stock considered to be owned by the holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as stock actually owned, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the three alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code described above will be satisfied with respect to any particular U.S. stockholder of preferred stock depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment. If a redemption of preferred stock does not meet any of the three tests described above, the redemption proceeds will be taxable as a dividend, as described above in “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.” In that case, a U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed preferred stock will be transferred to such U.S. stockholder’s remaining share holdings in us. If the U.S. stockholder does not retain any of our stock, such basis could be transferred to a related person that holds our stock or it may be lost.

Under proposed Treasury regulations, if any portion of the amount received by a U.S. stockholder on a redemption of any class of our preferred stock is treated as a distribution with respect to our stock but not as a taxable dividend, then such portion will be allocated to all shares of stock of the redeemed class held by the

 

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redeemed stockholder just before the redemption on a pro-rata, share-by-share, basis. The amount applied to each share of stock will first reduce the redeemed U.S. stockholder’s basis in that share and any excess after the basis is reduced to zero will result in taxable gain. If the redeemed stockholder has different bases in its shares of stock, then the amount allocated could reduce some of the basis in certain shares of stock while reducing all the basis and giving rise to taxable gain in others. Thus, the redeemed U.S. stockholder could have gain even if such U.S. stockholder’s basis in all its shares of stock of the redeemed class exceeded such portion.

The proposed Treasury regulations permit the transfer of basis in the redeemed shares of preferred stock to the redeemed U.S. stockholder’s remaining, unredeemed shares of preferred stock of the same class (if any), but not to any other class of stock held (directly or indirectly) by the redeemed U.S. stockholder. Instead, any unrecovered basis in the redeemed shares of preferred stock would be treated as a deferred loss to be recognized when certain conditions are satisfied. The proposed Treasury regulations would be effective for transactions that occur after the date the regulations are published as final Treasury regulations. There can, however, be no assurance as to whether, when and in what particular form such proposed Treasury regulations will ultimately be finalized.

Capital Gains and Losses

A taxpayer generally must hold a capital asset for more than one year for gain or loss derived from its sale or exchange to be treated as long-term capital gain or loss. The highest marginal individual income tax rate currently is 39.6%. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gain applicable to taxpayers taxed at individual rates is 20% for sales and exchanges of assets held for more than one year. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “Section 1250 property,” or depreciable real property, is 25%, which applies to the lesser of the total amount of the gain or the accumulated depreciation on the Section 1250 property. In addition, individuals, trusts and estates whose income exceeds certain thresholds are also subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax on gain from the sale of our stock.

With respect to distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends and any retained capital gain that we are deemed to distribute, we generally may designate whether such a distribution is taxable to U.S. stockholders taxed at individual rates currently at a 20% or 25% rate. Thus, the tax rate differential between capital gain and ordinary income for those taxpayers may be significant. In addition, the characterization of income as capital gain or ordinary income may affect the deductibility of capital losses. A non-corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses not offset by capital gains against its ordinary income only up to a maximum annual amount of $3,000. A non-corporate taxpayer may carry forward unused capital losses indefinitely. A corporate taxpayer must pay tax on its net capital gain at ordinary corporate rates. A corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses only to the extent of capital gains, with unused losses being carried back three years and forward five years.

New Legislation Relating to Foreign Accounts.

Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate generally will be imposed on dividends paid to certain U.S. stockholders who own our stock through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries if certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership are not satisfied. In addition, if those disclosure requirements are not satisfied, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed, for payments made after December 31, 2016, on proceeds from the sale of our stock received by U.S. stockholders who own our stock through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries. We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of any amounts withheld.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders

Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). Although many investments in real estate generate UBTI, the

 

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IRS has issued a ruling that dividend distributions from a REIT to an exempt employee pension trust do not constitute UBTI. Based on that ruling, amounts that we distribute to tax-exempt stockholders generally should not constitute UBTI. However, if a tax-exempt stockholder were to finance (or be deemed to finance) its acquisition of capital stock with debt, a portion of the income that it receives from us would constitute UBTI pursuant to the “debt-financed property” rules. Moreover, social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from taxation under special provisions of the federal income tax laws are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions that they receive from us as UBTI. Finally, in certain circumstances, a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust that owns more than 10% of our capital stock must treat a percentage of the dividends that it receives from us as UBTI. Such percentage is equal to the gross income we derive from an unrelated trade or business, determined as if we were a pension trust, divided by our total gross income for the year in which we pay the dividends. That rule applies to a pension trust holding more than 10% of our capital stock only if:

 

    the percentage of our dividends that the tax-exempt trust must treat as UBTI is at least 5%;

 

    we qualify as a REIT by reason of the modification of the rule requiring that no more than 50% of our capital stock be owned by five or fewer individuals that allows the beneficiaries of the pension trust to be treated as holding our capital stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the pension trust; and

 

    either:

 

    one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our capital stock; or

 

    a group of pension trusts individually holding more than 10% of the value of our capital stock collectively owns more than 50% of the value of our capital stock.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

The term “non-U.S. stockholder” means a beneficial owner of our capital stock that is not a U.S. stockholder, a partnership (or entity treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes) or a tax-exempt stockholder. The rules governing federal income taxation of nonresident alien individuals, foreign corporations, foreign partnerships, and other foreign stockholders are complex. This section is only a summary of such rules. We urge non-U.S. stockholders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, and local income tax laws on the purchase, ownership and sale of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions

A non-U.S. stockholder that receives a distribution that is not attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of a “United States real property interest” (“USRPI”), as defined below, and that we do not designate as a capital gain dividend or retained capital gain will recognize ordinary income to the extent that we pay such distribution out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. A withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of the distribution ordinarily will apply to such distribution unless an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates the tax. However, if a distribution is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. stockholder generally will be subject to federal income tax on the distribution at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. stockholders are taxed with respect to such distribution, and a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax with respect to that distribution. We plan to withhold U.S. income tax at the rate of 30% on the gross amount of any such distribution paid to a non-U.S. stockholder unless either:

 

    a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. stockholder files an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E, as applicable, evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate with us;

 

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    the non-U.S. stockholder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is effectively connected income; or

 

    the distribution is treated as attributable to a sale of a USRPI under FIRPTA (discussed below).

A non-U.S. stockholder will not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the excess portion of such distribution does not exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. stockholder in the shares of capital stock on which the distribution was paid. Instead, the excess portion of such distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of such stock. A non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to tax on a distribution that exceeds both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the adjusted basis of its capital stock, if the non-U.S. stockholder otherwise would be subject to tax on gain from the sale or disposition of its capital stock, as described below. We must withhold 10% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Consequently, although we intend to withhold at a rate of 30% on the entire amount of any distribution, to the extent that we do not do so, we will withhold at a rate of 10% on any portion of a distribution not subject to withholding at a rate of 30%. Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we normally will withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend. However, a non-U.S. stockholder may claim a refund of amounts that we withhold if we later determine that a distribution in fact exceeded our current and accumulated earnings and profits.

For any year in which we qualify as a REIT, a non-U.S. stockholder may incur tax on distributions that are attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of a USRPI under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”). A USRPI includes certain interests in real property and stock in corporations at least 50% of whose assets consist of interests in real property. Under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. stockholder is taxed on distributions attributable to gain from sales of USRPIs as if such gain were effectively connected with a U.S. business of the non-U.S. stockholder. A non-U.S. stockholder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at the normal capital gains rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of a nonresident alien individual. A non-U.S. corporate stockholder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such a distribution.

If a class of our capital stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States, capital gain distributions on that class of capital stock that are attributable to our sale of real property will be treated as ordinary dividends rather than as gain from the sale of a USRPI, as long as the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 5% of that class of our capital stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution. As a result, non-U.S. stockholders generally will be subject to withholding tax on such capital gain distributions in the same manner as they are subject to withholding tax on ordinary dividends. We believe that our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States. If a class of our capital stock is not regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States or the non-U.S. stockholder owned more than 5% of the applicable class of our capital stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution, capital gain distributions that are attributable to our sale of real property would be subject to tax under FIRPTA, as described in the preceding paragraph. In such case, we must withhold 35% of any distribution that we could designate as a capital gain dividend. A non-U.S. stockholder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount we withhold. Moreover, if a non-U.S. stockholder disposes of shares of our capital stock during the 30-day period preceding a dividend payment, and such non-U.S. stockholder (or a person related to such non-U.S. stockholder) acquires or enters into a contract or option to acquire that capital stock within 61 days of the first day of the 30-day period described above, and any portion of such dividend payment would, but for the disposition, be treated as a USRPI capital gain to such non-U.S. stockholder, then such non-U.S. stockholder shall be treated as having USRPI capital gain in an amount that, but for the disposition, would have been treated as USRPI capital gain.

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained capital gains in respect of our capital stock held by U.S. stockholders generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S.

 

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stockholders in the same manner as actual distributions by us of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, a non-U.S. stockholder would be able to offset as a credit against its federal income tax liability resulting from its proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained capital gains, and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent of the non-U.S. stockholder’s proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds its actual federal income tax liability, provided that the non-U.S. stockholder furnishes required information to the IRS on a timely basis.

Dispositions

Non-U.S. stockholders could incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain realized upon a disposition of our capital stock if we are a United States real property holding corporation during a specified testing period. If at least 50% of a REIT’s assets are USRPIs, then the REIT will be a United States real property holding corporation. We believe that we are and will continue to be a United States real property holding corporation based on our investment strategy. However, despite our status as a United States real property holding corporation, a non-U.S. stockholder generally would not incur tax under FIRPTA on gain from the sale of our capital stock if we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A domestically controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT in which, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of its shares are held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. stockholders. We cannot assure you that this test will be met. If a class of our capital stock is regularly traded on an established securities market, an additional exception to the tax under FIRPTA will be available with respect to that class of our capital stock, even if we do not qualify as a domestically controlled qualified investment entity at the time the non-U.S. stockholder sells shares of that class of our capital stock. Under that exception, the gain from such a sale by such a non-U.S. stockholder will not be subject to tax under FIRPTA if:

 

    that class of our capital stock is treated as being regularly traded under applicable Treasury Regulations on an established securities market; and

 

    the non-U.S. stockholder owned, actually or constructively, 5% or less of that class of our capital stock at all times during a specified testing period.

As noted above, we believe our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market.

If the gain on the sale of shares of our capital stock were taxed under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. stockholder would be taxed on that gain in the same manner as U.S. stockholders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Furthermore, a non-U.S. stockholder generally will incur tax on gain not subject to FIRPTA if:

 

    the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain; or

 

    the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will incur a 30% tax on his or her capital gains.

Conversion of Preferred Stock

The conversion of our preferred stock into our common stock may be a taxable exchange for a non-U.S. stockholder if our preferred stock constitutes a USRPI. Even if our preferred stock constitutes a USRPI, provided our common stock also constitutes a USRPI, a non-U.S. stockholder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon a conversion of preferred stock into our common stock so long as certain FIRPTA-related reporting requirements are satisfied. If our preferred stock constitutes a USRPI and such requirements are not satisfied, however, a conversion will be treated as a taxable exchange of preferred stock for our common stock. Such a deemed taxable exchange will be subject to tax under FIRPTA at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital

 

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gains rates, that would apply to a U.S. stockholder of the same type (e.g., a corporate or a non-corporate stockholder, as the case may be) on the excess, if any, of the fair market value of such non-U.S. stockholder’s common stock received over such non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in its preferred stock. Collection of such tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding tax at a rate of 10% of the value of the common stock.

Non-U.S. stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such non-U.S. stockholder exchanges shares of our common stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.

Redemption of Preferred Stock

For a discussion of the treatment of a redemption of preferred stock, see “Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stock Holders—Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on a Redemption of Preferred Stock.”

New Legislation Related to Foreign Accounts

Under FATCA, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on dividends paid on our capital stock received by certain non-U.S. stockholders if they held our stock through foreign entities that fail to meet certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. persons that either have accounts with such entities or own equity interests in such entities. In addition, if those disclosure requirements are not satisfied, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on proceeds from the sale of our stock received after December 31, 2016. We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of any amounts withheld.

Information Reporting Requirements and Withholding

We will report to our stockholders and to the IRS the amount of distributions we pay during each calendar year, and the amount of tax we withhold, if any. Under the backup withholding rules, a stockholder may be subject to backup withholding, at a rate of 28%, with respect to distributions unless the stockholder:

 

    is a corporation or qualifies for certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact; or

 

    provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules.

A stockholder who does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Any amount paid as backup withholding will be creditable against the stockholder’s income tax liability. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any stockholders who fail to certify their non-foreign status to us.

Backup withholding will generally not apply to payments of dividends made by us or our paying agents, in their capacities as such, to a non-U.S. stockholder provided that the non-U.S. stockholder furnishes to us or our paying agent the required certification as to its non-U.S. status, such as providing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or certain other requirements are met. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that the holder is a U.S. person that is not an exempt recipient. Payments of the proceeds from a disposition or a redemption effected outside the U.S. by a non-U.S. stockholder made by or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, information reporting (but not backup withholding) generally will apply to such a payment if the broker has certain connections with the U.S. unless the broker has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established. Payment of the proceeds from a disposition by a non-U.S. stockholder of stock made by or through the U.S. office of a broker is generally subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless the non-U.S. stockholder certifies under penalties of perjury that it is not a U.S. person and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption from information reporting and backup withholding.

 

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Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be refunded or credited against the stockholder’s federal income tax liability if certain required information is furnished to the IRS. Stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding application of backup withholding to them and the availability of, and procedure for obtaining an exemption from, backup withholding.

Other Tax Consequences

Tax Aspects of Our Investments in Our Operating Partnership and Subsidiary Partnerships

The following discussion summarizes certain federal income tax considerations applicable to our direct or indirect investments in our operating partnership and any subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies that we form or acquire (each individually a “Partnership” and, collectively, the “Partnerships”). The discussion does not cover state or local tax laws or any federal tax laws other than income tax laws.

Classification as Partnerships. We will be entitled to include in our income our distributive share of each Partnership’s income and to deduct our distributive share of each Partnership’s losses only if such Partnership is classified for federal income tax purposes as a partnership (or an entity that is disregarded for federal income tax purposes if the entity is treated as having only one owner for federal income tax purposes) rather than as a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation. An unincorporated entity with at least two owners or members will be classified as a partnership, rather than as a corporation, for federal income tax purposes if it:

 

    is treated as a partnership under the Treasury Regulations relating to entity classification (the “check-the-box regulations”); and

 

    is not a “publicly-traded partnership.”

Under the check-the-box regulations, an unincorporated entity with at least two owners or members may elect to be classified either as an association taxable as a corporation or as a partnership. If such an entity fails to make an election, it generally will be treated as a partnership (or an entity that is disregarded for federal income tax purposes if the entity is treated as having only one owner for federal income tax purposes) for federal income tax purposes. Our operating partnership intends to be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and will not elect to be treated as an association taxable as a corporation under the check-the-box regulations.

A publicly-traded partnership is a partnership whose interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof. A publicly-traded partnership will not, however, be treated as a corporation for any taxable year if, for each taxable year beginning after December 31, 1987 in which it was classified as a publicly-traded partnership, 90% or more of the partnership’s gross income for such year consists of certain passive-type income, including real property rents, gains from the sale or other disposition of real property, interest, and dividends (the “90% passive income exception”). Treasury Regulations (the “PTP regulations”) provide limited safe harbors from the definition of a publicly-traded partnership. Pursuant to one of those safe harbors (the “private placement exclusion”), interests in a partnership will not be treated as readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if (i) all interests in the partnership were issued in a transaction or transactions that were not required to be registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and (ii) the partnership does not have more than 100 partners at any time during the partnership’s taxable year. In determining the number of partners in a partnership, a person owning an interest in a partnership, grantor trust, or S corporation that owns an interest in the partnership is treated as a partner in such partnership only if (i) substantially all of the value of the owner’s interest in the entity is attributable to the entity’s direct or indirect interest in the partnership and (ii) a principal purpose of the use of the entity is to permit the partnership to satisfy the 100-partner limitation. We believe our operating partnership has qualified and will continue to qualify for the private placement exclusion. We expect that any other Partnership that we form in the future will qualify for the private placement exclusion. Our operating partnership’s partnership agreement contains provisions enabling its general partner to take such steps as are necessary or appropriate to prevent the issuance and transfers of interests in our operating partnership from causing our operating partnership to be treated as a publicly traded partnership under the PTP regulations.

 

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We have not requested, and do not intend to request, a ruling from the IRS that our operating partnership will be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. If for any reason our operating partnership were taxable as a corporation, rather than as a partnership, for federal income tax purposes, we likely would not be able to qualify as a REIT unless we qualified for certain relief provisions. See “—Gross Income Tests” and “—Asset Tests.” In addition, any change in a Partnership’s status for tax purposes might be treated as a taxable event, in which case we might incur tax liability without any related cash distribution. See “—Distribution Requirements.” Further, items of income and deduction of such Partnership would not pass through to its partners, and its partners would be treated as stockholders for tax purposes. Consequently, such Partnership would be required to pay income tax at corporate rates on its net income, and distributions to its partners would constitute dividends that would not be deductible in computing such Partnership’s taxable income.

Income Taxation of the Partnerships and their Partners

Partners, Not the Partnerships, Subject to Tax. A partnership is not a taxable entity for federal income tax purposes. Rather, we are required to take into account our allocable share of each Partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits for any taxable year of such Partnership ending within or with our taxable year, without regard to whether we have received or will receive any distribution from such Partnership.

Partnership Allocations. Although a partnership agreement generally will determine the allocation of income and losses among partners, such allocations will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of the federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations. If an allocation is not recognized for federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership, which will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Each Partnership’s allocations of taxable income, gain, and loss are intended to comply with the requirements of the federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations.

Tax Allocations With Respect to Partnership Properties. Income, gain, loss, and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner such that the contributing partner is charged with, or benefits from, respectively, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. In the case of a contribution of property, the amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss (“built-in gain” or “built-in loss”) is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property at the time of contribution and the adjusted tax basis of such property at the time of contribution (a “book-tax difference”). Any property purchased for cash initially will have an adjusted tax basis equal to its fair market value, resulting in no book-tax difference. In connection with our initial public offering, we acquired a significant portion of our portfolio in exchange for interests in our operating partnership, which resulted in book-tax differences. Furthermore, our operating partnership may admit partners in the future in exchange for a contribution of property, which will result in book-tax differences.

Allocations with respect to book-tax differences are solely for federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners. The U.S. Treasury Department has issued regulations requiring partnerships to use a “reasonable method” for allocating items with respect to which there is a book-tax difference and outlining several reasonable allocation methods. Under certain available methods, the carryover basis in the hands of our operating partnership of properties contributed to us would cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if all our properties were to have a tax basis equal to their fair market value at the time of contribution. We use the “traditional” method for the book-tax difference caused by the contribution of our initial portfolio to our operating partnership in connection with our initial public offering. The “traditional” method is generally the method that will result in the least favorable tax results for us. We have not yet decided what method will be used to account for book-tax differences caused by our operating partnership admitting partners in the future in exchange for contributions of property.

 

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Sale of a Partnership’s Property

Generally, any gain realized by a Partnership on the sale of property held by the Partnership for more than one year will be long-term capital gain, except for any portion of such gain that is treated as depreciation or cost recovery recapture. Under Section 704(c) of the Code, any gain or loss recognized by a Partnership on the disposition of contributed properties will be allocated first to the partners of the Partnership who contributed such properties to the extent of their built-in gain or loss on those properties for federal income tax purposes. The partners’ built-in gain or loss on such contributed properties will equal the difference between the partners’ proportionate share of the book value of those properties and the partners’ tax basis allocable to those properties at the time of the contribution as reduced for any decrease in the “book-tax difference.” See “— Income Taxation of the Partnerships and Their Partners — Tax Allocations With Respect to Partnership Properties.” Any remaining gain or loss recognized by the Partnership on the disposition of the contributed properties, and any gain or loss recognized by the Partnership on the disposition of the other properties, will be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective percentage interests in the Partnership.

Our share of any gain realized by a Partnership on the sale of any property held by the Partnership as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the Partnership’s trade or business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax. Such prohibited transaction income also may have an adverse effect upon our ability to satisfy the income tests for REIT status. See “—Gross Income Tests.” We do not presently intend to acquire or hold or to allow any Partnership to acquire or hold any property that represents inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our or such Partnership’s trade or business.

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The present federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. Additionally, several of the tax considerations described herein are currently under review and are subject to change. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the effect of potential changes to the federal tax laws on an investment in our securities.

State and Local Taxes

We and/or you may be subject to taxation by various states and localities, including those in which we or a securityholder transacts business, owns property or resides. The state and local tax treatment may differ from the federal income tax treatment described above. Consequently, you should consult your tax advisors regarding the effect of state and local tax laws upon an investment in our securities.