10-K 1 endp-12312016x10k.htm 10-K Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
(Mark One)
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016         
Or
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the transition period from              to
Commission file number: 001-36326
____________________________________________________________________________________________
ENDO INTERNATIONAL PLC
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Ireland
68-0683755
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
 
 
First Floor, Minerva House, Simmonscourt Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4, Ireland
Not Applicable
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Zip Code)
011-353-1-268-2000
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, nominal value $0.0001 per share
The NASDAQ Global Market, The Toronto Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes x No o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
Yes o No x
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x No o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every interactive data file required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months. 
Yes x No o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
x
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
x
Accelerated Filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
o
 
 
 
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2016 was $3,084,255,040 based on a closing sale price of $15.59 per share as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2016. Shares of the registrant’s ordinary shares held by each officer and director and each beneficial owner of 10% or more of the outstanding ordinary shares of the registrant have been excluded since such persons and beneficial owners may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. The registrant has no non-voting ordinary shares authorized or outstanding.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of ordinary shares as of February 21, 2017222,957,922
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2017 Annual General Meeting, to be filed subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. Such proxy statement will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the conclusion of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2016.



ENDO INTERNATIONAL PLC
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2016
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Statements contained or incorporated by reference in this document contain information that includes or is based on “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements, including estimates of future revenues, future expenses, future net income and future net income per share, contained in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” which is included in this document, are subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements include the information concerning our possible or assumed results of operations. We have tried, whenever possible, to identify such statements by words such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “estimates,” “plan,” “projected,” “forecast,” “will,” “may” or similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about the growth of our business, our financial performance, and the development of our industry. Because these statements reflect our current views concerning future events, these forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Investors should note that many factors, as more fully described in Part I, Item 1A of this report under the caption “Risk Factors”, and as otherwise enumerated herein, could affect our future financial results and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference in this document.
We do not undertake any obligation to update our forward-looking statements after the date of this document for any reason, even if new information becomes available or other events occur in the future, except as may be required under applicable securities law. You are advised to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and with securities regulators in Canada on the System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval (SEDAR). Also note that, in Part I, Item 1A we provide a cautionary discussion of the risks, uncertainties and possibly inaccurate assumptions relevant to our business. These are factors that, individually or in the aggregate, we think could cause our actual results to differ materially from expected and historical results. We note these factors for investors as permitted by Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. You should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. Consequently, you should not consider this to be a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties.

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PART I
Item 1.        Business
Overview
Endo International plc is an Ireland-domiciled, generics and specialty branded pharmaceutical company. We aim to be the premier partner to healthcare professionals and payment providers, delivering an innovative suite of generic and branded drugs to meet patients’ needs. Unless otherwise indicated or required by the context, references throughout to “Endo,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to financial information and transactions of Endo Health Solutions Inc. (EHSI) and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to February 28, 2014 and Endo International plc and its consolidated subsidiaries thereafter.
The Company’s focus is on U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals, U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals and International Pharmaceuticals and we target areas where we can build a leading position. Endo uses a differentiated operating model based on a lean and nimble structure, the rational allocation of capital and an emphasis on research and development for high-value targets. We believe this operating model and the execution of our corporate strategy will enable Endo to create shareholder value over the long-term.
While Endo’s primary focus will be on organic growth, we will evaluate and, where appropriate, execute on opportunities to expand through the acquisition of products and companies in areas that will serve patients and customers and that we believe will offer above average growth characteristics and attractive margins.
On October 31, 2013, Endo International plc was incorporated in Ireland as a private limited company and re-registered effective February 18, 2014 as a public limited company. Endo International plc was established for the purpose of facilitating the business combination between EHSI and Paladin Labs Inc. (Paladin). On February 28, 2014, the Company, through a Canadian subsidiary, acquired all of the shares of Paladin and a U.S. subsidiary of the Company merged with and into EHSI, with EHSI surviving the merger. As a result of these transactions, the former shareholders of EHSI and Paladin became the shareholders of Endo International plc and both EHSI and Paladin became indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company.
We operate in three business segments which are U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals, U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals and International Pharmaceuticals. Our segments are further discussed in Note 6. Segment Results in the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules" and in Item 7 of this report "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" under the caption “Business Segment Results Review.”
On September 25, 2015, we acquired Par Pharmaceutical Holdings, Inc. (Par), which develops, licenses, manufactures, markets and distributes innovative and cost-effective pharmaceuticals that help improve patient quality of life. Par focuses on first-to-file or first-to-market opportunities and high-barrier-to-entry products that are difficult to formulate, difficult to manufacture, or that face complex legal and regulatory challenges. The Company’s U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment, which was formed through a series of acquisitions including Par, Generics International (US Parent), Inc. (formerly doing business as Qualitest Pharmaceuticals (Qualitest)), Boca Pharmacal LLC (Boca) and DAVA Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (DAVA), now collectively doing business as Par Pharmaceutical, is the fourth largest U.S. generics company based on market share.
Our U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals portfolio, which accounted for 64%, 51% and 48% of total revenues in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, currently consists of a differentiated product portfolio including tablets, capsules, powders, injectables, liquids, nasal sprays, ophthalmics and patches.
On January 29, 2015, we acquired Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Auxilium), a fully integrated specialty pharmaceutical company with a focus on developing and commercializing innovative products for specific patients’ needs in orthopedics, dermatology and other therapeutic areas. Auxilium was absorbed into our legacy branded business along with branded assets obtained from other acquisitions, including Par, to form our current U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals segment. We have a portfolio of products offered by our U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals segment that includes established brand names such as Lidoderm®, OPANA® ER, Voltaren® Gel, Percocet®, Fortesta® Gel, Testim®, TESTOPEL®, Aveed®, Supprelin® LA and XIAFLEX®, among others. Our branded pharmaceuticals comprised approximately 29%, 39% and 41% of our total revenues in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

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The International Pharmaceuticals segment, which accounted for 7%, 10% and 11% of total revenues in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, includes a variety of specialty pharmaceutical products for the Canadian, Latin American, South African and world markets, which we acquired in the Paladin acquisition in February 2014, including Litha Healthcare Group Limited (Litha) in South Africa, in the Grupo Farmacéutico Somar, Sociedad Anónima Promotora de Inversión de Capital Variable (Somar) acquisition in July 2014 and through the acquisition of certain Aspen Holdings assets in October 2015 (the Aspen Asset Acquisition). Paladin’s key products serve growing therapeutic areas, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), pain, women’s health and oncology. Somar develops, manufactures and markets high-quality generic, branded generic and over-the-counter products across key market segments including dermatology and anti-infectives. Litha is a diversified healthcare group providing services, products and solutions to public and private hospitals, pharmacies, general and specialist practitioners, as well as government healthcare programs. During the fourth quarter of 2016, the Company initiated a process to sell its Litha Healthcare Group Limited and related Sub-Sahara African business assets (Litha) and on February 27, 2017, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell Litha to Acino Pharma AG. The assets and liabilities of Litha are classified as held for sale in the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2016.
Across all of our businesses, we generated total revenues of $4.01 billion, $3.27 billion and $2.38 billion in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
On February 24, 2016, the Board of Directors resolved to wind-down the Company’s Women’s Health Business (formerly part of our American Medical Systems Holdings, Inc. (AMS) business) (referred to herein as Astora) as it did not align with the Company’s strategic direction and to reduce Astora’s exposure to mesh-related product liability. Astora ceased business operations on March 31, 2016 and completed a wind-down process during 2016 that included, among other things, assisting physician-customers in transitioning to alternative products.
The ordinary shares of Endo International plc are traded on the NASDAQ Global Market (NASDAQ) and the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) under the ticker symbol “ENDP.” References throughout to “ordinary shares” refer to EHSI’s common shares, 350,000,000 authorized, par value $0.01 per share, prior to the consummation of the February 2014 transactions and to Endo International plc’s ordinary shares, 1,000,000,000 authorized, par value $0.0001 per share, subsequent to the consummation of these transactions. In addition, on February 11, 2014 the Company issued 4,000,000 euro deferred shares of $0.01 each at par.
Our global headquarters are located at Minerva House, Simmonscourt Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4, Ireland (telephone number: 011-353-1-268-2000) and our U.S. headquarters are located at 1400 Atwater Drive, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355 (telephone number: 484-216-0000).

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Our Strategy
Endo’s strategy is to focus on our core assets, a leading U.S. generics business and a specialty branded pharmaceutical business, that deliver high quality medicines to patients through excellence in development, manufacturing, and commercialization. Through a lean and efficient operating model, we are committed to serving patients and customers while continuing to innovate and provide products that make a difference in the lives of patients. We strive to maximize shareholder value by adapting to market realities and customer needs.
We are committed to driving organic growth at attractive margins by improving execution, optimizing cash flow and leveraging our market position, while maintaining a streamlined cost structure throughout each of our businesses. Specific areas of management’s focus include:
U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals: Capitalizing on encouraging demand trends for a differentiated product portfolio and focusing on developing or acquiring high-barrier-to-entry products, including first-to-file or first-to-market opportunities that are difficult to formulate, difficult to manufacture or face complex legal and regulatory challenges.
U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals: Accelerating performance of organic growth drivers in our Specialty portfolio, increasing profitability from our mature brands and investing in key pipeline development opportunities.
International Pharmaceuticals: Operating in high growth business segments with durable revenue streams and where physicians play a significant role in choosing the course of therapy and expanding distribution of certain of our generic and branded products outside of the U.S.
We remain committed to strategic R&D across each business unit. Going forward, while our primary focus will be on organic growth, we will evaluate and, where appropriate, execute on opportunities to expand through acquisitions of products and companies.
Our Competitive Strengths
To successfully execute our strategy, we must continue to capitalize on our following core strengths:
Experienced and dedicated management team. Through the acquisition of Par, we have obtained a highly skilled and customer focused management team that is now in critical leadership positions across all of Endo. Our senior management team has extensive experience in the pharmaceutical industry and a proven track record of developing businesses and value creation. This experience includes improving business performance through organic revenue growth and through identifying, consummating and integrating licensing and acquisition opportunities.
Focus on the differentiated products of our generics business. We develop high-barrier-to-entry generic products, including first-to-file or first-to-market opportunities that are difficult to formulate, difficult to manufacture or face complex legal and regulatory challenges. We believe products with these characteristics will face a lesser degree of competition and therefore provide longer product life cycles and higher profitability than commodity generic products. Our business model continues to focus on being the lowest-cost producer of products in categories with higher barriers to entry and lower levels of competition by leveraging operational efficiency. Our U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment is focused in categories where there are fewer challenges from low-cost operators.
Operational excellence. Through our acquisition of Par, we have strategically enhanced the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of our U.S. Generics manufacturing capabilities across a diversified array of dosage forms. We believe our comprehensive suite of technology, manufacturing and development competencies increases the likelihood of success in commercializing high-barrier-to-entry products and obtaining first-to-file and first-to-market status on future products, yielding more sustainable market share and profitability. We believe that our competitive advantages include our integrated team-based approach to product development that combines our formulation, regulatory, legal, manufacturing and commercial capabilities; our ability to introduce new generic equivalents for brand-name drugs; our quality and cost-effective production; our ability to meet customer expectations; and the breadth of our existing generic product portfolio offerings. Through our recent strategic assessment, we have taken further steps to optimize our generic and specialty branded product portfolios and now look to capitalize on a much stronger and durable in-line product portfolio and R&D pipeline. We are focused only on those marketed products that deliver acceptable returns on investment, thereby leveraging our existing platform to drive operational efficiency.
Growth of our branded Specialty products while leveraging the strength of our established brands portfolio. We have assembled a portfolio of branded prescription products offered by our U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals segment to treat and manage conditions in urology, urologic oncology, endocrinology, pain and orthopedics. Our Specialty products include: XIAFLEX® for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease and XIAFLEX® for Dupuytren’s contracture, Supprelin® LA for Central Precocious Puberty, Nascobal® used as a supplement to treat vitamin B12 deficiency and Aveed® and Testopel® for testosterone replacement therapy. Our established branded products also include: Lidoderm®, OPANA® ER, Voltaren® Gel, Percocet®, Fortesta® Gel, and Testim®. For a more detailed description of each of our products, see “Products Overview.”

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Continuing proactive diversification of our business. We have executed a number of corporate acquisitions to diversify our business and divested certain other assets to become a highly focused generics and specialty branded pharmaceutical company. Our acquisitions of Paladin and Auxilium have enhanced our branded pharmaceutical research and development pipeline. The acquisition of Par created critical mass and added scale in our generics business while enhancing and expanding our capabilities in Paragraph IV products, complex dosage forms and research and development. As a result, we have redefined our position in the healthcare marketplace. Going forward, our primary focus will be on organic growth. However, we will evaluate and, where appropriate, execute on opportunities to expand through acquisitions of products and companies in areas that will serve patients and customers and that we believe will offer above average growth characteristics and attractive margins. In particular, we look to continue to enhance our product lines by acquiring or licensing rights to additional products and regularly evaluating selective acquisition opportunities.
Research and development expertise. Our research and development efforts are focused on the development of a balanced, diversified portfolio of innovative and clinically differentiated products. The acquisition of Auxilium added multiple, strategically-aligned programs to our branded pharmaceutical research and development pipeline with the addition of XIAFLEX®. Through our U.S. Generics business, we seek out and develop high-barrier-to-entry generic products, including first-to-file or first-to-market opportunities. We remain committed to research and development across each business unit with a particular focus on assets with inherently lower risk profiles and clearly defined regulatory pathways. Our current research and development pipeline consists of products in various stages of development. As of December 31, 2016, our U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment has over 200 products in our pipeline, which included approximately 120 Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) pending with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) representing approximately $32.0 billion of combined annual sales for the corresponding branded products in 2016, including 35 potential first-to-file and four first-to-market opportunities. In addition, we have submitted applications for regulatory approval of various products in our international markets. For a more detailed description of our development pipeline, see “Select Products in Development.”
At February 21, 2017, our research and development and regulatory affairs staff consisted of 1,172 employees, based primarily in Huntsville, Alabama, Chestnut Ridge, New York, Chennai, India, at our global headquarters in Dublin, Ireland and at our U.S. headquarters in Malvern, Pennsylvania.
Targeted sales and marketing infrastructure. Our sales and marketing activities focus on the promotion of our Specialty product portfolio. We market our products directly to physicians through a dedicated sales force of over 250 individuals, the majority of which are in the United States. We market our products to specialty physicians, including those specializing in urology, orthopedics, neurology, surgery and pediatric endocrinology. Our sales force also targets retail pharmacies and other healthcare professionals. We distribute our products through independent wholesale distributors, but we also sell directly to retailers, clinics, government agencies, doctors, independent retail and specialty pharmacies and independent specialty distributors. Our marketing policy is designed to provide that products and relevant, appropriate medical information are immediately available to physicians, pharmacies, hospitals, public and private payers, and appropriate healthcare professionals. We work to gain access to healthcare authority, pharmacy benefit managers and managed care organizations’ formularies (lists of recommended or approved medicines and other products), including Medicare Part D plans and reimbursement lists by demonstrating the qualities and treatment benefits of our products within their approved indications.
Cash flow from operations. We have historically generated cash flow from operations due to a unique combination of strong brand equity and attractive margins. While we expect our core business to continue to generate significant cash flow from operations, these cash flows have been adversely impacted and may continue to be adversely impacted by certain payments related to mesh legal settlements and other items. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we generated $524.4 million of cash from operations. This was primarily driven by U.S. Federal tax refunds received of $760.0 million and increased revenues. Partially offsetting these sources of cash are significant pre-tax cash outlays made during 2016, including $1,195.9 million of previously accrued mesh-related product liability and other litigation matters payments, $97.9 million of cash paid related to restructuring initiatives and $68.2 million of transaction costs and certain integration costs.
We expect to continue to maintain sufficient liquidity to give us flexibility to make investments in our business and to service our liabilities, including our mesh-related obligations. As of December 31, 2016, we had $519.5 million of cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities and up to $997.4 million of availability under the revolving credit facilities. In addition, at December 31, 2016, our restricted cash and cash equivalents includes $276.0 million held in Qualified Settlement Funds for mesh product liability settlement agreements, which are expected to be paid to qualified claimants within the next twelve months.
Our Areas of Focus
Generic Pharmaceuticals Market
Our U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment develops, licenses, manufactures, markets and distributes innovative and cost-effective pharmaceuticals with a focus on first-to-file or first-to-market opportunities and high-barrier-to-entry products that are difficult to formulate, difficult to manufacture, or that face complex legal and regulatory challenges.

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We sell generic products primarily in the United States across multiple therapeutic categories, including pain management, urology, central nervous system disorders, immunosuppression, oncology, women’s health and cardiovascular disease markets, among others. Product dosage forms and delivery systems include solid oral extended-release, solid oral immediate-release and abuse-resistant products, as well as alternative dosage forms such as liquids, semi-solids, patches, powders, ophthalmics, sprays, and sterile injectable products.
Our largest U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals manufacturing sites are in Chestnut Ridge, New York; Huntsville, Alabama; Irvine, California; Rochester, Michigan; and Chennai, India; which handle the production, assembly, quality assurance testing and packaging of our products.  We estimate that, for the products we manufacture, our U.S. facilities contributed over 95% of our manufacturing production based on revenue compared to fewer than 5% contributed by our facility in India.
Refer to the Products Overview section below for additional information on our U.S. Generics Pharmaceutical products.
Branded Pharmaceutical Products Markets
Specialty Pharmaceuticals Market
Endo commercializes a number of products within the market served by specialty distributors and specialty pharmacies, and in which healthcare practitioners (HCPs) can purchase and bill payors directly (the buy and bill market). Our treatment offerings currently are in two distinct areas: Urology, which focuses mainly on XIAFLEX® for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease; and in Orthopedics/Pediatric Endocrinology, focusing on XIAFLEX® for Dupuytren’s contracture and Supprelin® LA for Central Precocious Puberty (CPP).
Peyronie's Disease (PD)—PD is a condition that involves the development of collagen plaque, or scar tissue, on the shaft of the penis. The scar tissue, known as a Peyronie's plaque, may harden and reduce flexibility, which may cause bending or arching of the penis during erection. PD can result in varying degrees of penile curvature deformity and disease bother, which encompasses concern about erection appearance, erection pain and the impact of PD on intercourse and on frequency of intercourse. PD is a disease with an initial inflammatory component. This inflammatory phase is poorly understood with a somewhat variable disease course and spontaneous resolution occurring in an estimated 20% of cases. After approximately 12 months of disease, the disease is reported to often develop into a more chronic, stable phase. The incidence of PD is estimated between 3% and 9% of the population; however the disease is believed to be underdiagnosed and undertreated.
Dupuytren's Contracture (DC)—DC is a progressive condition that limits hand function, diminishes quality of life, and may ultimately disable the hand through the inability to move or straighten one’s finger or fingers. It is caused by an abnormal buildup of collagen. In people with DC, this collagen builds up over time and can thicken into a rope-like cord in the palm that contracts the finger. DC is a genetic condition and the incidence of DC is estimated to be between 3% and 9% of the population among adult Caucasians. DC is more common in men than in women, and increases in incidence with age.
Central Precocious Puberty (CPP)—Precocious puberty is defined as the onset of developmental signs of sexual maturation earlier than would be expected based on population norms. This is typically delineated as puberty onset before eight years in girls and nine years in boys. In the most common form of CPP, sexual maturation proceeds from a premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The HPG axis is active during infancy, dormant during childhood, and reactivated at the onset of puberty. The epidemiology of CPP is somewhat nebulous, with a commonly cited prevalence range of one in 5,000 to one in 10,000 children. CPP is known to occur more frequently in girls than in boys and has different predominant causes for each sex. Idiopathic CPP, without an identifiable predisposing condition, accounts for the majority of cases of precocious puberty in girls, but is less frequent in boys. Central nervous system findings such as tumors and congenital malformations are more frequently observed in boys who present with central precocious puberty. It is estimated that two thirds of precocious puberty cases in boys are due to neurological abnormalities. The likelihood of an organic cause for CPP is greater in patients who present at younger ages.
Urology Market
Endo has a number of key treatment offerings within the urology markets, specifically the men’s health sector with testosterone replacement therapies (TRT).
In the U.S. alone, the prevalence of hypogonadism is approximately 8% of men above 50 years of age, however, only approximately 9% of those affected are currently being treated. By 2025, it is estimated there will be approximately 6.5 million American men 30-80 years of age who are diagnosed with androgen deficiency. Hypogonadism, or low testosterone, is under diagnosed and under treated. Factors contributing to this include a lack of screening for low testosterone and the perceived risk of prostate cancer associated with current treatment strategies. In the U.S., TRT sales were approximately $1.9 billion in 2016. For TRT, our treatment offerings include the long-acting products Aveed®, which was launched in March 2014 and TESTOPEL®. In addition, our TRT treatment offerings include our gel products such as Fortesta® Gel and the authorized generic of Fortesta® Gel, which launched in September 2014, and Testim®.

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Pain Management Market
Endo has a number of key treatment offerings within the Pain Management Market. Our treatment offerings currently are in two key areas: Chronic Pain, including OPANA® ER and Percocet® in the opioid analgesics segment, and Lidoderm®, which is for the relief of pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia; and Osteoarthritis (OA) Pain, which is treated with Voltaren® Gel.
In December 2016, Endo announced that it was returning BELBUCATM to BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc. (BDSI). As a result of this announcement, Endo restructured its U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals segment sales organization, which will allow the Company to focus efforts and resources more fully on its core U.S. Branded assets, including XIAFLEX® in the approved indications and the cellulite development program. The Company’s legacy pain portfolio products, including OPANA® ER and Percocet®, among others, will be managed as mature brands. The restructuring was comprised of certain cost savings initiatives, including the elimination of an approximate 375-member U.S. Branded pain field sales force.
International Pharmaceuticals Market
Our International Pharmaceuticals segment includes a variety of specialty pharmaceutical and branded generic products for the Canadian, Latin American, South African and non-U.S. markets. During the fourth quarter of 2016, the Company initiated a process to sell its Litha and related Sub-Sahara African business assets and on February 27, 2017, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell Litha to Acino Pharma AG.
Products Overview
U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals
The U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment, which comprised 64% of the Company’s consolidated revenues for the year-ended December 31, 2016, consists of a portfolio of over 250 generic prescription product families focused in the areas of pain management, urology, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, immunosuppression, oncology, women’s health and cardiovascular disease markets, among others. Generic drugs are the pharmaceutical and therapeutic equivalents of branded products and are generally marketed under their generic (chemical) names rather than by brand names. Typically, a generic drug may not be marketed until the expiration of applicable patent(s) on the corresponding branded product, unless a resolution of patent litigation results in an earlier opportunity to enter the market. Generic drugs are the same as branded products in dosage form, safety, efficacy, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics and intended use, but they are sold generally at prices below those of the corresponding branded products. Generic drugs provide a cost-effective alternative for consumers, while maintaining the same high quality, efficacy, safety profile, purity and stability of the branded product.
An ANDA is required to be filed and approved by the FDA in order to manufacture a generic drug for sale in the United States (except in the case of authorized generics, described further below). We sell generic products primarily in the United States across multiple therapeutic categories. An ANDA that is the first ANDA filed containing a patent challenge to the corresponding branded product (a first-to-file product or a Paragraph IV product) offers the opportunity for 180 days of generic marketing exclusivity if we are successful in litigating the patent challenge and receive final FDA approval of the product. A first-to-market product refers to a product that is the first marketed generic equivalent of a branded product for reasons apart from statutory marketing exclusivity, such as the generic equivalent of a branded product that is difficult to formulate or manufacture. We target these types of market opportunities to mitigate risks from competitive pressure commonly associated with commoditized generic products.
The timing of final FDA approval of ANDA applications depends on a variety of factors, including whether the applicant challenges any listed patents for the drug and whether the manufacturer of the reference listed drug is entitled to one or more regulatory exclusivity periods, during which the FDA is prohibited from approving generic equivalents. In certain circumstances, a regulatory exclusivity period can extend beyond the life of a patent, and thus block ANDAs from being approved until after the patent expiration date. The time required to obtain FDA approval of ANDAs for a new product varies in time, generally requiring a minimum of 10 months following submission of the ANDA to FDA, but could also take several years from the date of application.
We have a generics portfolio across an extensive range of dosage forms and delivery systems, including immediate and extended release oral solids (tablets, orally disintegrating tablets, capsules and powders), injectables, liquids, nasal sprays, ophthalmics (which are sterile pharmaceutical preparations administered for ocular conditions) and transdermal patches (which are medicated adhesive patches designed to deliver the drug through the skin).
We have development, manufacturing and distribution capabilities in the rapidly growing U.S. market for sterile drug products, such as injectable products, ophthalmics, and sterile vial and hormonal handling capabilities. These capabilities afford us a broader and more diversified product portfolio and a greater selection of targets for potential development. We target products with limited competition for reasons such as manufacturing complexity or the market size, which make our sterile products a key growth driver of our generics portfolio and complementary to our other generic product offerings.

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Authorized generics are generic versions of branded drugs licensed by brand drug companies under a New Drug Application (NDA) and marketed as generics. Authorized generics do not face regulatory barriers to introduction and are not prohibited from sale during the 180-day marketing exclusivity period granted to the first-to-file ANDA applicant. The sale of authorized generics adversely impacts the market share of a generic product that has been granted 180 days of marketing exclusivity. Our recent authorized generics include lidocaine patch 5% (Lidoderm®), metoprolol succinate ER (Toprol-XL®), budesonide (Entocort® EC), and diclofenac sodium gel (Voltaren® Gel). We believe we are a partner of choice to larger brand companies seeking an authorized generics distributor for their branded products. We have recently been the authorized generic distributor for such companies as AstraZeneca plc, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, and Merck & Co., Inc.
The following table displays the product revenues to external customers in our U.S Generics Pharmaceuticals segment for the years ended December 31 (in thousands):
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals (1):
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Generics Base
$
1,230,097

 
$
1,083,809

 
$
1,140,821

Sterile Injectables
530,805

 
107,592

 

New Launches and Alternative Dosages
803,711

 
481,015

 

Total U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals
$
2,564,613

 
$
1,672,416

 
$
1,140,821

__________
(1)
The U.S. Generics Base revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014 in the table above includes revenue for New Launches and Alternative Dosages. We began tracking New Launches and Alternative Dosages for the year ended December 31, 2015. There was no Sterile Injectables revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014.
U.S. Generics Base is comprised of more than 200 solid oral-extended release, solid oral-immediate release and pain/controlled substances products. This category includes the antidepressant bupropion XL and the portfolio of opioid-containing products such as hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets.
Sterile Injectables is comprised of high-barrier-to-entry injectable products that are generally difficult to manufacture, including Vasostrict®, the first and only vasopressin injection product approved by the FDA. We have been issued a patent relating to Vasostrict® by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). This patent expires in January 2035 and was submitted to the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (known as the Orange Book) on June 28, 2016. The Orange Book listing requires any ANDA applicant seeking FDA approval for a generic version of Vasostrict® prior to expiration of the patent to notify us of its ANDA filing before it can obtain FDA approval. Any ANDA filer seeking approval prior to patent expiry whose application was not received prior to submission of the patent information would be subject to a 30-month stay of marketing approval by the FDA upon our initiation of Hatch-Waxman litigation against the ANDA filer within the statutory time period.
New Launches and Alternative Dosages is comprised of liquids, semi-solids, patches, powders, ophthalmics, sprays and new product launches. Products are included in New Launches during the calendar year of launch and the subsequent calendar year such that the period of time any product will be considered a New Launch will range from thirteen to twenty-four months. Material products launched in 2016 include ezetimibe tablets (generic version of Zetia®), which is a first-to-file product with an associated brand value of approximately $2.6 billion, and quetiapine ER tablets (generic version of Seroquel® XR), which is a first-to-file product with an associated brand value of approximately $1.3 billion.

8


U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals
The following table displays the U.S. product revenues to external customers in our U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals for the years ended December 31 (in thousands):
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Pain Management:
 
 
 
 
 
Lidoderm®
$
87,577

 
$
125,269

 
$
157,491

OPANA® ER
158,938

 
175,772

 
197,789

Percocet®
139,211

 
135,822

 
122,355

Voltaren® Gel
100,642

 
207,161

 
179,816

 
$
486,368

 
$
644,024

 
$
657,451

Specialty Pharmaceuticals:
 
 
 
 
 
Supprelin® LA
$
78,648

 
$
70,099

 
$
66,710

XIAFLEX®
189,689

 
158,115

 

 
$
268,337

 
$
228,214

 
$
66,710

Branded Other Revenues (1)
411,589

 
412,369

 
193,948

Actavis Royalty

 

 
51,328

Total U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals (2)
$
1,166,294

 
$
1,284,607

 
$
969,437

__________
(1)
Products included within Branded Other Revenues in the table above include, but are not limited to, TESTOPEL®, Testim®, Fortesta® Gel, including authorized generic, and Nascobal® Nasal Spray.
(2)
Individual products presented above represent the top two performing products in each product category and/or any product having revenues in excess of $100.0 million during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 or 2014.
Pain Management
Lidoderm®. Lidoderm® was launched in September 1999. A topical patch product containing lidocaine, Lidoderm® was the first FDA approved product for the relief of the pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia, a condition thought to result after nerve fibers are damaged during a case of Herpes Zoster (commonly known as shingles). In May 2012, we entered into a settlement and license agreement with Watson Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Watson), subsequently acquired by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries (Teva), which allowed Watson to launch its lidocaine patch 5%, a generic version of Lidoderm® on September 15, 2013. In May 2014, the Company's U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment launched its authorized generic of Lidoderm®. In August 2015, Mylan, Inc. (Mylan) launched a generic version of Lidoderm®.
OPANA® ER. OPANA® ER is an opioid agonist indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. OPANA® ER represents the first drug in which oxymorphone is available in an oral, extended-release formulation and is available in 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg and 40 mg tablets. In December 2011, the FDA approved a new formulation of OPANA® ER with INTAC® technology. This formulation of OPANA® ER with INTAC® technology has the same dosage strengths, color and packaging and similar tablet size as original OPANA® ER. Endo transitioned to this formulation in March 2012 upon successfully accelerating its production. Launches of competing generic versions of the non-INTAC® technology formulation OPANA® ER, which began in early 2013, adversely affected our results of operations. The FDA has announced an upcoming Advisory Committee for Opana® ER and oxymorphone for March 2017. The Advisory Committee will likely discuss pre- and post-marketing data about the abuse of OPANA® ER, and the overall risk-benefit of this product. The Advisory Committee will also discuss abuse of generic oxymorphone ER and oxymorphone immediate-release (IR) products.
Percocet®. Launched in 1976, Percocet® is approved for the treatment of moderate-to-moderately severe pain.
Voltaren® Gel. On March 4, 2008, the Company entered into a License and Supply Agreement with and among Novartis AG and Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. (the 2008 Voltaren® Gel Agreement) to obtain the exclusive U.S. marketing rights for the prescription medicine Voltaren® Gel. On December 11, 2015, the Company, Novartis AG and Sandoz entered into a new License and Supply Agreement (the 2015 Voltaren® Gel Agreement) providing Endo with exclusive U.S. marketing and license rights to commercialize Voltaren® Gel and the authorized generic version of Voltaren® Gel through June 30, 2023. Voltaren® Gel received regulatory approval in October 2007 from the FDA, becoming the first topical prescription treatment for the relief of joint pain of osteoarthritis in the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands and became the first new product approved in the U.S. for osteoarthritis since 2001. It was the first prescription topical osteoarthritis treatment to have proven its effectiveness in both the knees and joints of the hands through clinical trials. Voltaren® Gel delivers effective pain relief with a favorable safety profile as its systemic absorption is 94% less than the comparable oral diclofenac treatment. It is now the most prescribed FDA-approved topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the relief of osteoarthritis pain.

9


Specialty Pharmaceuticals
Supprelin® LA. Supprelin® LA was launched in the U.S. in June 2007. Supprelin® LA is a soft, flexible 12-month hydrogel implant based on our hydrogel polymer technology that delivers histrelin acetate, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and is indicated for the treatment of CPP in children. CPP is the early onset of puberty in young children resulting in the development of secondary sex characteristics and, if left untreated, can result in diminished adult height attainment. The development of these secondary sex characteristics is due to an increase in the secretion of sex hormones, the cause of which is unknown. We market Supprelin® LA in the U.S. through a specialty sales force primarily to pediatric endocrinologists.
XIAFLEX®. XIAFLEX® was launched in 2010 for the treatment of adult patients with DC with an abnormal buildup of collagen in the fingers which limits or disables hand function. It is also indicated for the treatment of adult men with PD with a collagen plaque and a penile curvature deformity of thirty degrees or greater at the start of therapy. XIAFLEX® was launched in the U.S. for PD in January 2014 and is the first and only FDA-approved non-surgical treatment for PD.
Branded Other
Branded Other Revenues in the table above include but are not limited to the following products:
Fortesta® Gel and Fortesta® Gel Authorized Generic. Fortesta® Gel is a patented two percent (2%) testosterone transdermal gel and is a treatment for men suffering from hypogonadism, also known as low testosterone (Low-T). The precision-metered dose delivery system can be accurately customized and adjusted to meet individual patient needs with the appropriate dose. In August 2009, we entered into a License and Supply Agreement with Strakan International Limited, a subsidiary of ProStrakan Group plc, for the exclusive right to commercialize Fortesta® Gel in the U.S. Fortesta® Gel was approved by the FDA in December 2010. We launched Fortesta® Gel in the first quarter of 2011. During the third quarter of 2014, Endo announced that it had introduced the first and only generic 2% topical testosterone gel, an authorized generic of Fortesta® Gel.
Testim® and Testim® Authorized Generic. Testim® is a topical gel indicated for TRT in conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone.
Frova®. Frova® is indicated for the acute treatment of migraine headaches in adults.
Valstar®. Valstar® is a sterile solution for intravesical instillation of valrubicin, a chemotherapeutic anthracycline derivative. Valstar® is indicated for intravesical therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-refractory carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder in patients for whom immediate cystectomy would be associated with unacceptable morbidity or mortality.
Vantas®. Vantas® is a soft, flexible 12-month hydrogel implant based on our hydrogel polymer technology that delivers histrelin acetate, a GnRH agonist, and is indicated for the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
Aveed®. Aveed® is a novel, long-acting testosterone undecanoate for injection for the treatment of Low-T. Aveed® is dosed only five times per year after the first month of therapy. In a clinical trial, nearly all men who received Aveed® maintained average testosterone levels within the normal range for 10 full weeks after the third injection. Aveed® was approved by the FDA and launched in March 2014.
TESTOPEL®. TESTOPEL® is a unique, long-acting implantable pellet indicated for TRT in conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone.
NASCOBAL® Nasal Spray. NASCOBAL® Nasal Spray is a prescription medicine used as a supplement to treat vitamin B12 deficiency. NASCOBAL® is the only FDA-approved B12 nasal spray. It is clinically proven to increase and maintain healthy B12 levels. NASCOBAL® is a tasteless and odorless fine mist with once-weekly dosing.
Actavis Royalty
Actavis Royalty. Royalty income from Actavis plc (Actavis) is based on Actavis’ gross profit generated on sales of its generic version of Lidoderm®, which commenced on September 16, 2013 and ceased in May 2014, upon our launch of the Lidoderm® authorized generic.
International Pharmaceuticals
Our International Pharmaceuticals segment includes a variety of specialty pharmaceutical products for the Canadian, Mexican, South African and certain other non-U.S. markets.
Paladin, based in Canada, has a portfolio of products serving growing therapeutic areas, including ADHD, pain, women’s health and oncology.
Somar, based in Mexico, develops, manufactures and markets high-quality generic, branded generic and over-the-counter products across key market segments including dermatology and anti-infectives.

10


Litha, based in South Africa, is a diversified healthcare group providing services, products and solutions to public and private hospitals, pharmacies, general and specialist practitioners, as well as government healthcare programs. During the fourth quarter of 2016, the Company initiated a process to sell its Litha and related Sub-Sahara African business assets and on February 27, 2017, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell Litha to Acino Pharma AG.
Select Products in Development
U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals
Our primary approach to generic pharmaceutical product development is to target high-barrier-to-entry generic products, including first-to-file or first-to-market opportunities. Our potential first-to-file and first-to-market opportunities account for approximately one-third of our pipeline of ANDAs. We expect that these potential first-to-file and first-to-market opportunities to result in products that are either exclusive or have two or fewer competitors when launched, which we believe tends to lead to more sustainable market share and profitability for our product portfolio.
As of December 31, 2016, we had over 200 products in our pipeline, which included approximately 120 ANDAs pending with the FDA representing approximately $32.0 billion of combined annual sales for the corresponding branded products in 2016, including 35 potential first-to-file and four first-to-market opportunities.
U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals
XIAFLEX® (collagenase clostridium histolyticum or CCH) is currently approved and marketed in the U.S. for the treatment of both DC and PD (two separate indications). We are progressing the cellulite development program following meetings held with the FDA in December 2014 and a subsequent follow-up meeting in December 2015. In addition, our Phase 2b study was initiated and completed and the results were released in November 2016. An End of Phase 2 meeting with the FDA occurred in early 2017 and we will continue to work with the FDA in advance of initiating our Phase 3 clinical trials. We also have the right to further develop XIAFLEX® for additional indications, including Dupuytren’s Nodules, Adhesive Capsulitis and Lateral Hip Fat, Plantar Fibromatosis and human and canine lipomas.
International Pharmaceuticals
We have submitted applications for regulatory approval of various products in our international markets. In addition, RLX030 (serelaxin) is currently undergoing human clinical trials. RLX030 is a novel treatment for acute heart failure and Phase II and III studies suggested RLX030 helped patients with acute heart failure live longer. Trial results are expected in the second quarter of 2017.
Competition
Generic Pharmaceuticals
In the generic pharmaceutical market, we face intense competition from other generic drug manufacturers, brand name pharmaceutical companies through authorized generics, existing brand equivalents and manufacturers of therapeutically similar drugs. Our major competitors in the generics market, including Teva, Mylan, Sandoz and Impax Laboratories, Inc. (Impax), vary by specific product.
Our primary strategy is to compete in the generic product market with a focus on high-value, first-to-file or first-to-market opportunities, regardless of therapeutic category, and products that present significant barriers to entry for reasons such as complex formulation or regulatory or legal challenges. By specializing in high-barrier-to-entry products, we endeavor to market more profitable and longer-lived products relative to commodity generic products. We believe that our competitive advantages include our integrated team-based approach to product development that combines our formulation, regulatory, legal, manufacturing and commercial capabilities; our ability to introduce new generic equivalents for brand-name drugs; our quality and cost-effective production; our ability to meet customer expectations; and the breadth of our existing generic product portfolio offering.
We make a significant portion of our sales to a relatively small number of drug wholesalers and retail drug store chains. These customers play a key role in the distribution chain of our pharmaceutical products. Drug wholesalers and retail drug store chains have undergone, and are continuing to undergo, significant consolidation, which has resulted in these groups gaining additional purchasing leverage that has increased the pricing pressures on our business. Additionally, the emergence of large buying groups representing independent retail pharmacies and other drug distributors, and the prevalence and influence of managed care organizations and similar institutions, enable those groups to demand larger price discounts on our products. For example, there has been a recent trend of large retail customers forming partnerships with large wholesalers, such as the alliances between Walgreens and AmerisourceBergen Corporation, between Rite Aid and McKesson Drug Company and between CVS and Cardinal Health. As a result of these alliances, as well as the consolidation among wholesale distributors and the growth of large retail drug store chains, a small number of purchasers control a significant share of purchases and have gained more purchasing power that has heightened competition among generic drug producers for the business of this consolidated customer base.

11


Newly introduced generic products with limited or no other generic competition typically garner higher prices relative to commoditized generic products. At the expiration of any statutory generic exclusivity period, other generic distributors may enter the market, resulting in significant price declines. Consequently, the maintenance of profitable operations in generic pharmaceuticals depends, in part, on our continuing ability to select, develop, procure regulatory approvals of, overcome legal challenges to, launch and commercialize new generic products in a timely and cost efficient manner and to maintain efficient, high quality manufacturing capabilities. We also have diverse manufacturing capabilities covering almost all generic presentations, such as solid oral dose, gels, liquids, nasal sprays, ophthalmics, films, transdermal patches and injectable products.
Branded Pharmaceuticals
The branded pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive. Our products compete with products manufactured by many other companies in highly competitive markets throughout the U.S. and internationally primarily through our Paladin, Somar and Litha businesses. Our competitors vary depending upon therapeutic and product categories. Competitors include many of the major brand name and generic manufacturers of pharmaceuticals. With respect to branded pharmaceuticals, our competitors, including Abbott Laboratories (Abbott), Allergan plc (Allergan), Purdue Pharma, L.P. (Purdue), Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Jazz), Shire plc (Shire), Horizon Pharma plc (Horizon), and Mallinckrodt plc (Mallinckrodt), among others, vary depending on product category, dosage strength and drug-delivery systems.
We compete principally through targeted product development and our acquisition and in-licensing strategies. The competitive landscape in the acquisition and in-licensing of pharmaceutical products has intensified in recent years as there has been a reduction in the number of compounds available and an increase in the number of companies and the collective resources bidding on available assets. In addition to product development and acquisitions, other competitive factors in the pharmaceutical industry include product efficacy, safety, ease of use, price, demonstrated cost-effectiveness, marketing effectiveness, service, reputation and access to technical information.
The competitive environment of the branded product business requires us to continually seek out technological innovations and to market our products effectively. However, some of our current branded products face competition not only from other brands, but also from generic versions. Generic versions are generally significantly less expensive than branded versions, and, where available, may be required in preference to the branded version under third-party reimbursement programs, or substituted by pharmacies. If competitors introduce new products, delivery systems or processes with therapeutic or cost advantages, our products can be subject to progressive price reductions or decreased volume of sales, or both. Most new products that we introduce must compete with other products already on the market or products that are later developed by competitors. Manufacturers of generic pharmaceuticals typically invest far less in research and development than research-based pharmaceutical companies and therefore can price their products significantly lower than branded products. Accordingly, when a branded product loses its market exclusivity, it normally faces intense price competition from generic forms of the product. To successfully compete for business with managed care and pharmacy benefits management organizations, we must often demonstrate that our products offer not only medical benefits but also cost advantages as compared with other forms of care.
We are aware of certain competitive activities involving OPANA® ER and other products. For a description of these competitive activities, including the litigation related to Paragraph IV Certification Notices, see Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
Seasonality
Although our business is affected by the purchasing patterns and concentration of our customers, our business is not materially impacted by seasonality.

12


Major Customers
We primarily sell our generic and branded pharmaceuticals to wholesalers, drug store chains, supermarket chains, mass merchandisers, distributors, mail order accounts, hospitals and government agencies. Our wholesalers and distributors purchase products from us and, in turn, supply products to retail drug store chains, independent pharmacies and managed health care organizations. Customers in the managed health care market include health maintenance organizations, nursing homes, hospitals, clinics, pharmacy benefit management companies and mail order customers. Total revenues from customers that accounted for 10% or more of our total consolidated revenues during the years ended December 31 are as follows:
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cardinal Health, Inc.
26
%
 
21
%
 
21
%
McKesson Corporation
27
%
 
31
%
 
31
%
AmerisourceBergen Corporation
25
%
 
23
%
 
16
%
Revenues from these customers are included within our U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals, U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals, and International Pharmaceuticals segments.
As a result of consolidation among wholesale distributors as well as rapid growth of large retail drug store chains, a small number of large wholesale distributors control a significant share of the market, and the number of independent drug stores and small drug store chains has decreased. Some wholesale distributors have demanded that pharmaceutical manufacturers, including us, enter into distribution service agreements (DSAs) pursuant to which the wholesale distributors provide the pharmaceutical manufacturers with specific services, including the provision of periodic retail demand information and current inventory levels and other information. We have entered into certain of these agreements.
Revenue related to independent specialty pharmacies during the year ended December 31, 2016 was approximately 4% of the Company’s overall 2016 revenue.
Patents, Trademarks, Licenses and Proprietary Property
As of February 21, 2017, we held approximately: 246 U.S. issued patents, 67 U.S. patent applications pending, 553 foreign issued patents, and 158 foreign patent applications pending. In addition, as of February 21, 2017, we have licenses for approximately 59 U.S. issued patents, 38 U.S. patent applications pending, 210 foreign issued patents and 85 foreign patent applications pending. The following table sets forth information as of February 21, 2017 regarding patents relating to each of our most significant products:
Patent No.
 
Patent Expiration*
 
Relevant Product
 
Ownership
 
Jurisdiction Where Granted
8,075,872
 
November 20, 2023
 
OPANA® ER
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
8,114,383
 
October 10, 2024
 
OPANA® ER
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
8,192,722
 
September 15, 2025
 
OPANA® ER
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
8,309,060
 
November 20, 2023
 
OPANA® ER
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
8,309,122
 
February 4, 2023
 
OPANA® ER
 
Owned
 
USA
8,329,216
 
February 4, 2023
 
OPANA® ER
 
Owned
 
USA
8,808,737
 
June 21, 2027
 
OPANA® ER
 
Owned
 
USA
8,871,779
 
November 22, 2029
 
OPANA® ER
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
7,718,640
 
March 14, 2027
 
Aveed®
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
8,338,395
 
February 27, 2026
 
Aveed®
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
RE39,941
 
August 24, 2019
 
XIAFLEX®
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
6,022,539
 
June 3, 2019
 
XIAFLEX®
 
Exclusive License
 
USA
7,811,560
 
July 12, 2028
 
XIAFLEX®
 
Owned; Exclusive License
 
USA
7,229,636
 
August 1, 2024
 
Nascobal®
 
Owned
 
USA
7,404,489
 
March 12, 2024
 
Nascobal®
 
Owned
 
USA
7,879,349
 
August 1, 2024
 
Nascobal®
 
Owned
 
USA
8,003,353
 
August 1, 2024
 
Nascobal®
 
Owned
 
USA
8,940,714
 
February 26, 2024
 
Nascobal®
 
Owned
 
USA
9,375,478
 
January 30, 2035
 
Vasostrict®
 
Owned
 
USA
__________
*
Our exclusive license agreements extend to or beyond the patent expiration dates.

13


The effect of these issued patents is that they provide us with patent protection for the claims covered by the patents. The coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued. Accordingly, we do not know whether any of the applications we acquire or license will result in the issuance of patents, or, if any patents are issued, whether they will provide significant proprietary protection or will be challenged, circumvented or invalidated. Because unissued U.S. patent applications are maintained in secrecy for a period of eighteen months and U.S. patent applications filed prior to November 29, 2000 are not disclosed until such patents are issued, and since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature often lags behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain of the priority of inventions covered by pending patent applications. Moreover, we may have to participate in interference and other inter parties proceedings declared by the PTO to determine priority of invention, or in opposition proceedings in a foreign patent office, either of which could result in substantial cost to us, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us. There can be no assurance that any patents, if issued, will be held valid by a court of competent jurisdiction. An adverse outcome could subject us to significant liabilities to third parties, require disputed rights to be licensed from third parties or require us to cease using such technology.
We believe that our patents, the protection of discoveries in connection with our development activities, our proprietary products, technologies, processes and know-how and all of our intellectual property are important to our business. All of our branded products and certain generic products, such as Endocet® and Endodan® are sold under trademarks. To achieve a competitive position, we rely on trade secrets, non-patented proprietary know-how and continuing technological innovation, where patent protection is not believed to be appropriate or attainable. In addition, as outlined above, we have a number of patent licenses from third parties, some of which may be important to our business. See Note 11. License and Collaboration Agreements in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules". There can be no assurance that any of our patents, licenses or other intellectual property rights will afford us any protection from competition.
We rely on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants and other parties to protect, among other things, trade secrets and other proprietary technology. There can be no assurance that these agreements will not be breached, that we will have adequate remedies for any breach, that others will not independently develop equivalent proprietary information or that other third parties will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets and other intellectual property.
We may find it necessary to initiate litigation to enforce our patent rights, to protect our intellectual property or to determine the scope and validity of the proprietary rights of others. Litigation is costly and time-consuming, and there can be no assurance that our litigation expenses will not be significant in the future or that we will prevail in any such litigation. See Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
Governmental Regulation
United States Food and Drug Administration and Drug Enforcement Administration
In the United States, the development, testing, manufacture, holding, packaging, labeling, distribution, marketing, and sales of our products and our ongoing product development activities are subject to extensive and rigorous government regulation. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern or influence the testing, manufacture, packaging, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products. Noncompliance with applicable requirements can result in fines, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production and/or distribution, injunctions, refusal of the government to enter into supply contracts or to approve NDAs, ANDAs and Biologics License Applications (BLAs), civil penalties and criminal prosecution.
FDA approval is typically required before any new drug can be marketed. An NDA or BLA is a filing submitted to the FDA to obtain approval of new chemical entities and other innovations for which thorough applied research is required to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in use. The process generally involves:
Completion of preclinical laboratory and animal testing and formulation studies in compliance with the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations;
Submission to the FDA of an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for human clinical testing, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin in the U.S.;
Approval by an independent institutional review board (IRB) before each trial may be initiated, and continuing review during the trial;
Performance of human clinical trials, including adequate and well-controlled clinical trials in accordance with good clinical practices (GCPs) to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug product for each intended use;
Submission of an NDA or BLA to the FDA;
Satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the product’s manufacturing processes and facility or facilities to assess compliance with the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations, and/or review of the Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) section of the NDA or BLA to require that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality, purity and potency;

14


Satisfactory completion of an FDA advisory committee review, if applicable; and
Approval by the FDA of the NDA or BLA.
Clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, although the phases may overlap.
Phase I generally involves testing the product for safety, adverse effects, dosage, tolerance, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and other elements of clinical pharmacology.
Phase II trials typically involve a small sample of the intended patient population to assess the efficacy of the compound for a specific indication, to determine dose tolerance and the optimal dose range as well as to gather additional information relating to safety and potential adverse effects.
Phase III trials are undertaken in an expanded patient population at typically dispersed study sites, in order to determine the overall risk-benefit ratio of the compound and to provide an adequate basis for product labeling.
Each trial is conducted in accordance with certain standards under protocols that detail the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used to monitor safety and efficacy criteria to be evaluated. Each protocol must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND.
Data from preclinical testing and clinical trials are submitted to the FDA in an NDA or BLA for marketing approval and to foreign government health authorities in a marketing authorization application, consistent with each health authority’s specific regulatory requirements. Clinical trials are also subject to regulatory inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities to confirm compliance with applicable regulatory standards. The process of completing clinical trials for a new drug may take many years and require the expenditures of substantial resources. See Item 1A. Risk Factors - “The pharmaceutical industry is heavily regulated, which creates uncertainty about our ability to bring new products to market and imposes substantial compliance costs on our business,” for further discussion on FDA approval. As a condition of approval, the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may require further studies, including Phase IV post-marketing studies or post-marketing data reporting. Results of post-marketing programs may limit or expand the further marketing of the products.
For some drugs, the FDA may require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS), which could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or other elements to make certain safe use. In February 2009, the FDA sent letters to manufacturers of certain opioid drug products, indicating that these drugs will be required to have a REMS designed to reduce risks and improve the safe use of certain opioid drug products. Three products sold by Endo were included in the list of affected opioid drugs: OPANA® ER, morphine sulfate ER and oxycodone ER. In 2011, the FDA sent another letter requiring that the manufacturers of these drugs develop and submit to the FDA a post-market REMS plan. The FDA approved a class-wide extended-release/long-acting REMS in July 2012. The goal of this REMS is to reduce serious adverse outcomes resulting from inappropriate prescribing, misuse and abuse of extended-release or long-acting opioid analgesics while maintaining patient access to pain medications. Since that 2009 letter and the 2012 REMS, the company began selling BELBUCA™, and acquired the products fentanyl transdermal system and oxymorphone hydrochloride through its subsidiary Par, all of which are subject to the 2012 REMS. In December 2016, Endo announced that it was returning BELBUCATM to BDSI. The REMS includes a Medication Guide, Elements to Assure Safe Use and annual REMS Assessment Reports. See Item 1A. Risk Factors - “The pharmaceutical industry is heavily regulated, which creates uncertainty about our ability to bring new products to market and imposes substantial compliance costs on our business,” for further discussion.  In recent years, the FDA has taken steps to reduce the maximum strength of acetaminophen in prescription combination drug products to help reduce or prevent the risk of liver injury from an unintentional overdose of acetaminophen. Among the Company’s products impacted by the FDA’s actions were three branded combination drug pain relief products: Percocet®, Endocet® and Zydone®; and the generic combination drug pain relief products: butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine, hydrocodone/acetaminophen and oxycodone/acetaminophen.
In most instances, FDA approval of an ANDA is required before a generic equivalent of an existing or reference-listed drug can be marketed. The ANDA process is abbreviated in that the FDA waives the requirement of conducting complete preclinical and clinical studies and generally instead relies principally on bioequivalence studies. Bioequivalence generally involves a comparison of the rate of absorption and levels of concentration of a generic drug in the body with those of the previously approved drug. When the rate and extent of absorption of systemically acting test and reference drugs are considered the same under the bioequivalence requirement, the two drugs are considered bioequivalent and are generally regarded as therapeutically equivalent, meaning that a pharmacist can substitute the product for the reference-listed drug. Under certain circumstances, an ANDA may also be submitted for a product authorized by approval of an ANDA suitability petition. Such petitions may be submitted to secure authorization to file an ANDA for a product that differs from a previously approved drug in active ingredient, route of administration, dosage form or strength. In September 2007 and July 2012, Congress re-authorized pediatric testing legislation, which now requires ANDAs approved via the suitability petition route to conduct pediatric testing. The timing of final FDA approval of ANDA applications depends on a variety of factors, including whether the applicant challenges any listed patents for the drug and whether the manufacturer of the reference listed drug is entitled to one or more statutory exclusivity periods, during which the FDA is prohibited from approving generic products. In certain circumstances, a regulatory exclusivity period can extend beyond the life of a patent, and thus block ANDAs from being approved on the patent expiration date.

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Certain of our products are or in the future could be regulated and marketed as biologic products pursuant to BLAs. Our BLA-licensed products were licensed based on a determination by the FDA of safety, purity, and potency as required under the Public Health Service Act (PHSA). Although the ANDA framework referenced above does not apply to generics of BLA-licensed biologics, in 2010, Congress enacted the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCIA), as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which amended the PHSA to create an abbreviated licensure pathway for products deemed to be biosimilar to or interchangeable with FDA-licensed reference biological products. Under the BPCIA, following the expiration of a 12-year reference exclusivity period, FDA may license under section 351(k) of the PHSA a biologic that it determines is biosimilar to or interchangeable with a reference product licensed under section 351(a) of the PHSA. Biosimilarity is defined to mean that the section 351(k) product is highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components and that there are no clinically meaningful differences between the section 351(k) product and the reference product in terms of the safety, purity, and potency of the product. To be considered interchangeable, a product must be biosimilar to the reference product, be expected to produce the same clinical result as the reference product in any given patient, and, if administered more than once to an individual, the risks in terms of safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between use of the product and its reference product is not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch.
Once any reference exclusivity period for our BLA-licensed biologics expires, FDA may approve under section 351(k) of the PHSA another company’s BLA for a biosimilar or interchangeable version of our product. Although licensure of a biosimilar or interchangeable under section 351(k) is generally expected to require less than the full complement of product-specific preclinical and clinical data required for innovator products licensed under section 351(a), FDA has considerable discretion over the kind and amount of scientific evidence required to demonstrate biosimilarity and interchangeability, and the agency has yet to issue regulations setting forth specific criteria for licensure of biosimilar or interchangeable products.
Based on scientific developments, post-market experience, or other legislative or regulatory changes, the current FDA standards of review for approving new pharmaceutical products are sometimes more stringent than those that were applied in the past, including to certain opioid products. As a result, the FDA does not have as extensive safety databases on these products as on some products developed more recently. Accordingly, we believe the FDA has expressed an intention to develop such databases for certain of these products, including many opioids.
The 21st Century Cures Act (Cures Act) was signed into law on December 13, 2016. The Cures Act includes various provisions to accelerate the development and delivery of new treatments, such as those intended to expand the types of evidence manufacturers may submit to support FDA drug approval, to encourage patient-centered drug development, to liberalize the communication of healthcare economic information (HCEI) to payers, and to create greater transparency with regard to manufacturer expanded access programs. Central to the Cures Act are provisions that enhance and accelerate FDA’s processes for reviewing and approving new drugs and supplements to approved new drug applications (NDAs). These include, but are not limited to, provisions that (i) require FDA to establish a program to evaluate the potential use of real world evidence to help to support the approval of a new indication for an approved drug and to help to support or satisfy post-approval study requirements, (ii) provide that FDA may rely upon qualified data summaries to support the approval of a supplemental application with respect to a qualified indication for an already approved drug, (iii) require FDA to issue guidance for purposes of assisting sponsors in incorporating complex adaptive and other novel trial designs into proposed clinical protocols and applications for new drugs, and (iv) require FDA to establish a process for the qualification of drug development tools for use in supporting or obtaining FDA approval for or investigational use of a drug.
The Cures Act also includes $1 billion in new funding to address what the Act refers to as the “opioid abuse crisis.” Specifically, the Cures Act authorizes the awarding of grants to states for the purpose of addressing opioid abuse within each state, with preference to be given to states with an incidence or prevalence of opioid use disorders that is substantially higher relative to other states. Funding would be provided for states to supplement opioid abuse prevention and treatment activities, such as improving prescription drug monitoring programs, implementing prevention activities, training for health care providers, and expanding access to opioid treatment programs. States receiving such grants would be required to report on activities funded by the grant in the substance abuse block grant report.

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We cannot determine what effect changes in the FDA’s laws or regulations (including legal or regulator interpretations), when and if promulgated, or upcoming advisory committee meetings, may have on our business in the future. Changes could, among other things, require expanded or different labeling, additional testing, the recall or discontinuance of certain products, and additional record keeping. Such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See Item 1A. Risk Factors - “The pharmaceutical industry is heavily regulated, which creates uncertainty about our ability to bring new products to market and imposes substantial compliance costs on our business,” for further discussion. In September 2013, the FDA announced class-wide safety labeling changes and new post-market study requirements for all extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioids. Among other things, the updated indication states that because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, even at recommended doses, and because of the greater risks of overdose and death, these drugs should be reserved for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain; ER/LA opioid analgesics are not indicated for as-needed pain relief. The FDA is also requiring drug companies that make these products to conduct further studies and clinical trials to further assess the known serious risks of misuse, abuse, increased sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia), addiction, overdose, and death. It is not presently known what impact, if any, these changes to the indications for use or results from the post-marketing studies may have on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
A sponsor of an NDA is required to identify in its application any patent that claims the drug or a use of the drug subject to the application. Upon NDA approval, the FDA lists these patents in a publication referred to as the Orange Book. Any person that files a Section 505(b)(2) NDA must make a certification in respect to listed patents, the type of NDA that may rely upon the data in the application for which the patents are listed, or an ANDA to secure approval of a generic version of this first, or listed drug. The FDA may not approve such an application for the drug until expiration of the listed patents unless (1) the generic applicant certifies that the listed patents are invalid, unenforceable or not infringed by the proposed generic drug and gives notice to the holder of the NDA for the listed drug of the basis upon which the patents are challenged, and (2) the holder of the listed drug does not sue the later applicant for patent infringement within 45 days of receipt of notice. Under the current law, if an infringement suit is filed, the FDA may not approve the later application until the earliest of: 30 months after submission; entry of an appellate court judgment holding the patent invalid, unenforceable or not infringed; such time as the court may order; or the patent expires.
One of the key motivators for challenging patents is the 180-day market exclusivity period vis-á-vis other generic applicants granted to the developer of a generic version of a product that is the first to have its application accepted for filing by the FDA and whose filing includes a certification that the applicable patent(s) are invalid, unenforceable and/or not infringed (a Paragraph IV certification) and that prevails in litigation with the manufacturer of the branded product over the applicable patent(s). Under the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (2003 Medicare Act), with accompanying amendments to the Hatch-Waxman Act (Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act), this marketing exclusivity would begin to run upon the earlier of the commercial launch of the generic product or upon an appellate court decision in the generic company’s favor. In addition, the holder of the NDA for the listed drug may be entitled to certain non-patent exclusivity during which the FDA cannot approve an application for a competing generic product or 505(b)(2) NDA product.
The FDA enforces regulations to require that the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture, processing, packing and holding of drugs conform to cGMPs. The cGMP regulations the FDA enforces are comprehensive and cover all aspects of manufacturing operations. Compliance with the regulations requires a continuous commitment of time, money and effort in all operational areas.
The FDA conducts pre-approval inspections of facilities engaged in the development, manufacture, processing, packing, testing and holding of the drugs subject to NDAs and ANDAs. In addition, manufacturers of both pharmaceutical products and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used to formulate the drug also ordinarily undergo a pre-approval inspection. Failure of any facility to pass a pre-approval inspection will result in delayed approval and would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The FDA also conducts periodic inspections of drug facilities to assess the cGMP status of marketed products. Following such inspections, the FDA may issue an untitled letter as an initial correspondence that cites violations that do not meet the threshold of regulatory significance for a Warning Letter. FDA guidelines also provide for the issuance of Warning Letters for violations of “regulatory significance” for which the failure to adequately and promptly achieve correction may be expected to result in an enforcement action. Finally, the FDA could issue a Form 483 Notice of Inspectional Observations, which could cause us to modify certain activities identified during the inspection. If the FDA were to find serious cGMP non-compliance during such an inspection, it could take regulatory actions that could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Imported API and other components needed to manufacture our products could be rejected by U.S. Customs. In respect to domestic establishments, the FDA could initiate product seizures or request or in some instances require product recalls and seek to enjoin or otherwise limit a product’s manufacture and distribution. In certain circumstances, violations could support civil penalties and criminal prosecutions. In addition, if the FDA concludes that a company is not in compliance with cGMP requirements, sanctions may be imposed that include preventing that company from receiving the necessary licenses to export its products and classifying that company as an unacceptable supplier, thereby disqualifying that company from selling products to federal agencies.

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Certain of our subsidiaries sell products that are “controlled substances” as defined in the CSA and implementing regulations, which establish certain security and record keeping requirements administered by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The DEA regulates controlled substances as Schedule I, II, III, IV or V substances, with Schedule I and II substances considered to present the highest risk of substance abuse and Schedule V substances the lowest risk. The active ingredients in some of our current products and products in development, including oxycodone, oxymorphone, buprenorphine, morphine, fentanyl and hydrocodone, are listed by the DEA as Schedule II or III substances under the CSA. Consequently, their manufacture, shipment, storage, sale and use are subject to a high degree of regulation. Since October 2014, hydrocodone combination products have been rescheduled by the DEA as Schedule II, which imposes additional access restrictions of these products and could ultimately impact our sales.
The DEA limits the availability of the active ingredients used in many of our current products and products in development, as well as the production of these products, and we, or our contract manufacturing organizations, must annually apply to the DEA for procurement and production quotas in order to obtain and produce these substances. As a result, our quotas may not be sufficient to meet commercial demand or complete clinical trials. Moreover, the DEA may adjust these quotas from time to time during the year, although the DEA has substantial discretion in whether or not to make such adjustments. See Item 1A. Risk Factors - “The DEA limits the availability of the active ingredients used in many of our current products and products in development, as well as the production of these products, and, as a result, our procurement and production quotas may not be sufficient to meet commercial demand or complete clinical trials,” for further discussion on DEA regulations. To meet its responsibilities, the DEA conducts periodic inspections of registered establishments that handle controlled substances. Annual registration is required for any facility that manufactures, tests, distributes, dispenses, imports or exports any controlled substance. The facilities must have the security, control and accounting mechanisms required by the DEA to prevent loss and diversion of controlled substances. Failure to maintain compliance can result in enforcement action that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. The DEA may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations, or initiate proceedings to revoke or restrict those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could eventuate in criminal proceedings.
Individual states also regulate controlled substances, and we, as well as our third-party API suppliers and manufacturers, are subject to such regulation by several states with respect to the manufacture and distribution of these products.
Government Benefit Programs
As described further in Item 1A. Risk Factors, statutory and regulatory requirements for Medicaid, Medicare, TRICARE and other government healthcare programs govern access and provider reimbursement levels, and provide for other cost-containment measures such as requiring pharmaceutical companies to pay rebates or refunds for certain sales of products reimbursed by such programs, or subjecting sales of their products to certain price ceilings. In addition to the cost-containment measures described in Item 1A. Risk Factors, a final rule promulgated and reissued by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in October 2010 subjects drug sales to retail pharmacies under the TRICARE Retail Pharmacy Program to certain price ceilings. Specifically, under the final rule, manufacturers are required, among other things, to pay refunds for prescriptions filled beginning on January 28, 2008 and extending to future periods based on the applicable ceiling price limits. Beginning in the first quarter of 2017, a provision in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 will also require drug manufacturers to pay additional rebates to State Medicaid programs if the prices of their non-innovator drugs rise at a rate faster than inflation (as continues to be the case for innovator products).
The federal and/or state governments may continue to enact measures in the future aimed at containing or reducing payment levels for prescription pharmaceuticals paid for in whole or in part with government funds. We cannot predict the nature of this or other such measures or their impact on our profitability and cash flows. These efforts could, however, have material consequences for the pharmaceutical industry and the Company.
From time to time, legislative changes are made to government healthcare programs that impact our business. Congress continues to examine various Medicare and Medicaid policy proposals that may result in a downward pressure on the prices of prescription drugs in these programs. See Item 1A. Risk Factors - “The availability of third party reimbursement for our products is uncertain, and thus we may find it difficult to maintain current price levels. Additionally, the market may not accept those products for which third party reimbursement is not adequately provided,” for further discussion on Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements.
In March 2010, President Obama signed into law PPACA that has made major changes to the healthcare system. One such change is the requirement that pharmaceutical manufacturers of branded prescription drugs must pay an annual fee to the federal government. Each individual pharmaceutical manufacturer must pay a prorated share of the total industry fee (the fee is $3 billion for 2016, $4 billion for 2017 and $4.1 billion for 2018, decreasing to $2.8 billion for years thereafter) based on the dollar value of its branded prescription drug sales to specified federal programs. PPACA also expanded health insurance coverage to many previously uninsured Americans, through a combination of federal subsidies for lower-income individuals who enrolled in health plans through health insurance exchanges and enabling states to expand Medicaid eligibility with the federal government paying a high share of the cost.

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Following the November 2016 U.S. elections, uncertainty exists about the future of this insurance coverage expansion; the current executive branch administration and congressional leaders have expressed interest in repealing these PPACA provisions and replacing them with alternatives that may be less costly and provide state Medicaid programs and private health plans more flexibility. If PPACA is repealed and/or replaced in whole or in part, it is possible that many of the reforms implemented as part of PPACA, including those affecting the pharmaceutical industry, may be repealed or amended as a result.
Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Laws
We are subject to various federal, state and local laws targeting fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry, violations of which can lead to civil and criminal penalties, including fines, imprisonment and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. These laws are potentially applicable to us as both a manufacturer and a supplier of products reimbursed by federal healthcare programs, and they also apply to hospitals, physicians and other potential purchasers of our products.
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)) prohibits persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, recommending, or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Remuneration is not defined in the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value, including for example, gifts, discounts, coupons, the furnishing of supplies or equipment, credit arrangements, payments of cash, waivers of payments, ownership interests and providing anything at less than its fair market value. Under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the applicable criminal healthcare fraud statutes contained within 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b a person or entity need not have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, the government may assert that a claim, including items or services resulting from a violation of 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b, constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act (discussed below) or the civil monetary penalties statute, which imposes fines against any person who is determined to have presented or caused to be presented claims to a federal healthcare program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute and implementing regulations provide for certain exceptions for “safe harbors” for certain discounting, rebating, or personal services arrangements, among other things. However, the lack of uniform court interpretation of the Anti-Kickback Statute makes compliance with the law difficult. Violations of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute can result in significant criminal fines, exclusion from participation in Medicare and Medicaid, and follow-on civil litigation, among other things, for both entities and individuals.
Other federal healthcare fraud-related laws also provide criminal liability for violations. The Criminal Healthcare Fraud statute, 18 U.S.C. § 1347 prohibits knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payers. Federal criminal law at 18 U.S.C. § 1001, among other sections, prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. See Item 1A. Risk Factors - “We are subject to various regulations pertaining to the marketing of our products and services,” for further discussion on the Anti-Kickback Statute.
The civil False Claims Act and similar state laws impose liability on any person or entity who, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by a federal healthcare program. The qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act and similar state laws allow a private individual to bring civil actions on behalf of the federal or state government and to share in any monetary recovery. The Federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act and similar state laws impose reporting requirements for various types of payments to physicians and teaching hospitals. Failure to comply with required reporting requirements under these laws could subject manufacturers and others to substantial civil money penalties. In addition, government entities and private litigants have asserted claims under state consumer protection statutes against pharmaceutical and medical device companies for alleged false or misleading statements in connection with the marketing, promotion and/or sale of pharmaceutical and medical device products, including state investigations of the Company regarding the Company’s vaginal mesh devices and investigations and litigation by certain government entities regarding the Company’s marketing of opioid products.
International Regulations
Our growing international operations have increased our interaction with regulatory authorities in other countries and made the Company subject to laws and regulations that differ from those under which the Company operates in the United States. In most cases, these regulatory agencies evaluate and monitor the safety, efficacy and quality of pharmaceutical products, govern the approval of clinical trials and product registrations, and regulate pricing and reimbursement. Many of these markets have differing product preferences and requirements, and operate in an environment of government-mandated, cost-containment programs, including price controls. Several governments have placed restrictions on physician prescription levels and patient reimbursements, emphasized greater use of generic drugs and enacted across-the-board price cuts as methods of cost control.
Whether or not FDA approval has been obtained for a product, approval of the product by comparable regulatory authorities of other countries must be obtained prior to marketing the product in those countries. The approval process may be more or less rigorous from country to country, and the time required for approval may be longer or shorter than that required in the United States.

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Service Agreements
We contract with various third parties to provide certain critical services including manufacturing, supply, warehousing, distribution, customer service, certain financial functions, certain research and development activities and medical affairs.
For a complete description of our significant manufacturing, supply and other service agreements, see Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
We primarily purchase our raw materials for the production and development of our products in the open market from third party suppliers. However, some raw materials are only available from one source. We attempt, when possible, to mitigate our raw material supply risks through inventory management and alternative sourcing strategies. We are required to identify the suppliers of all raw materials for our products in the drug applications that we file with the FDA. If the raw materials from an approved supplier for a particular product become unavailable, we would be required to qualify a substitute supplier with the FDA, which would likely interrupt manufacturing of the affected product. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for further discussion on the risks associated with the sourcing of our raw materials.
License & Collaboration Agreements and Acquisitions
We continue to seek to enhance our product line and develop a balanced portfolio of differentiated products through product acquisitions and in-licensing, or acquiring licenses to products, compounds and technologies from third parties. The Company enters into strategic alliances and collaborative arrangements with third parties, which give the Company rights to develop, manufacture, market and/or sell pharmaceutical products, the rights to which are primarily owned by these third parties. These alliances and arrangements can take many forms, including licensing arrangements, co-development and co-marketing agreements, co-promotion arrangements, research collaborations and joint ventures. Such alliances and arrangements enable us to share the risk of incurring all research and development expenses that do not lead to revenue-generating products; however, because profits from alliance products are shared with the counter-parties to the collaborative arrangement, the gross margins on alliance products are generally lower, sometimes substantially so, than the gross margins that could be achieved had the Company not opted for a development partner. For a full discussion, including agreement terms and status, see our disclosures in Note 5. Acquisitions and Note 11. License and Collaboration Agreements in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
Environmental Matters
Our operations are subject to substantial federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations concerning, among other matters, the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of, and exposure to, hazardous substances. Violation of these laws and regulations, which frequently change, can lead to substantial fines and penalties. Many of our operations require environmental permits and controls to prevent and limit pollution of the environment. We believe that our facilities and the facilities of our third party service providers are in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and we do not believe that future compliance will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Employees
As of February 21, 2017, we have 4,894 employees, of which 1,172 are engaged in research and development and regulatory work, 276 in sales and marketing, 1,933 in manufacturing, 136 in quality assurance and 1,377 in general and administrative capacities. Our employees are generally not represented by unions, with the exception of certain production personnel in our Rochester, Michigan and Mexican manufacturing facilities. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following table sets forth information as of March 1, 2017 regarding each of our current executive officers:
Name
 
Age
 
Position and Offices
Paul V. Campanelli
 
54
 
President and Chief Executive Officer and Director
Blaise Coleman
 
43
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Terrance J. Coughlin
 
51
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer
Tony Pera
 
59
 
President, Par Pharmaceutical
Matthew J. Maletta
 
45
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer

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Biographies
Our executive officers are briefly described below:
PAUL V. CAMPANELLI, 54, was appointed President, Chief Executive Officer and a Director effective September 23, 2016. Mr. Campanelli joined Endo in 2015 as the President of Par Pharmaceutical, leading Endo’s fully integrated U.S. Generics business, following Endo’s acquisition of Par Pharmaceutical. Prior to joining Endo, he had served as Chief Executive Officer of Par Pharmaceutical Companies, Inc. following the company’s September 2012 acquisition by TPG. While CEO of Par, Mr. Campanelli built a strong leadership team and an industry-leading generics business. Under his leadership, the company significantly increased total revenue, acquired Michigan-based JHP Pharmaceuticals, established a business office in London to serve as Par’s entry point into the European generics market and completed its acquisition of an active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) facility located in Chennai, India. Prior to the TPG acquisition, Mr. Campanelli served as Chief Operating Officer and President of Par Pharmaceutical, Inc., the company’s generics division, from 2011 to 2012. Earlier in his tenure at Par, Mr. Campanelli held roles of increasing responsibility, including Senior Vice President, Business Development & Licensing; Executive Vice President and President of Par Pharmaceutical, Inc.; and was named a Corporate Officer by Par’s board of directors. He also served on the board of directors of Sky Growth Holdings Corporation. Prior to joining Par, Mr. Campanelli served as Vice President, Business Development at Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. where he was employed from 1992-2001. Mr. Campanelli earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Springfield College.
BLAISE COLEMAN, 43, was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer effective December 19, 2016. Mr. Coleman was serving as Endo's Interim Chief Financial Officer since November 22, 2016. Mr. Coleman joined Endo in January 2015 as Vice President of Corporate Financial Planning & Analysis and was promoted to Senior Vice President of Global Finance Operations in November 2015. Prior to joining Endo, Mr. Coleman held a number of finance leadership roles with AstraZeneca, a global biopharmaceutical company, latterly as the Chief Financial Officer of the AstraZeneca/Bristol-Myers Squibb US Diabetes Alliance from January 2013 until January 2015. Prior to this, he was the Head of Finance for the AstraZeneca Global Medicines Development organization based in Mölndal, Sweden from September 2011 to January 2013. Mr. Coleman joined AstraZeneca as Senior Director Commercial Finance for the US Cardiovascular Business in November 2007. He joined AstraZeneca from Centocor, a wholly owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, where he held positions in the respective Licenses & Acquisitions and Commercial Finance organizations. Mr. Coleman’s move to Centocor in early 2003 followed 7 years’ experience with the global public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. He is a Certified Public Accountant. Mr. Coleman received a Bachelor of Science in accounting from Widener University and a MBA from Duke University, The Fuqua School of Business.
TERRANCE J. COUGHLIN, 51, was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer effective November 1, 2016. In this role, Mr. Coughlin has responsibility for Manufacturing and Technical Operations, as well as Endo Ventures and R&D across the enterprise. Most recently, Mr. Coughlin served as Vice President, Operations of Par Pharmaceutical Companies, Inc., a subsidiary of Endo. Prior to Endo’s acquisition of Par in September 2015, Mr. Coughlin was the Chief Operating Officer of Par Pharmaceutical Companies, Inc. Prior to joining Par, Mr. Coughlin held a number of leadership roles with Glenmark Generics, Inc. USA/Glenmark Generics Limited latterly as the President and Chief Executive Officer of Glenmark Generics, Inc. USA/Glenmark Generics Limited. Prior to this, Mr. Coughlin had the overall responsibility for Glenmark’s North American, Western European and Eastern European generics businesses, as well as its global active pharmaceutical ingredient business and generics operations in India. Prior to joining Glenmark, Mr. Coughlin served as Senior Vice President at Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Inc. Mr. Coughlin began his career in 1988 with Wyckoff Chemical Company, Inc. Mr. Coughlin earned a B.S. in chemistry from Central Michigan University.
TONY PERA, 59, was appointed President, Par Pharmaceutical effective November 1, 2016. In this role, Mr. Pera leads Endo’s U.S. Generics business including responsibility and oversight of Par Generic and Par Sterile sales teams, as well as Par’s marketing & business analytics group. Most recently, Mr. Pera served as Chief Commercial Officer of Par Pharmaceutical. He joined Par in February 2014 as part of Par’s acquisition of JHP Pharmaceutical, where he held a similar position. As Chief Commercial Officer, Mr. Pera was responsible for all sales, marketing, pricing and customer operations functions for Par. Prior to JHP and Par, Mr. Pera was Senior Vice President of Supply Chain Management for AmerisourceBergen (ABC), a major U.S. pharmaceutical wholesaler, for approximately five years. Prior to ABC, he held numerous senior leadership positions with generic drug companies including APP (now Fresenius Kabi), Bedford Laboratories and LyphoMed. Mr. Pera started his career as a sales representative for the parenteral products division of Baxter. Mr. Pera holds a B.S. in Business Administration from the University of Illinois in Champaign and an M.B.A. from DePaul University.
MATTHEW J. MALETTA, 45, was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer effective May 4, 2015. Prior to joining Endo, Mr. Maletta served as Vice President, Associate General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Allergan, Inc. In this position, he served as an advisor to the CEO and Board of Directors and supervised several large M&A transactions and takeover defense activities, including Allergan’s acquisition of Inamed and Actavis’ acquisition of Allergan. Mr. Maletta first joined Allergan in 2002 as Corporate Counsel and Assistant Secretary and during his tenure, held various roles of increased responsibility. Prior to joining Allergan, Mr. Maletta was in private practice, focusing on general corporate matters, finance, governance, securities and transactions. He holds a B.A. degree in political science from the University of Minnesota, summa cum laude, and a J.D. degree, cum laude, from the University of Minnesota Law School.

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We have employment agreements with each of our executive officers.
Available Information
Our internet address is www.endo.com. The contents of our website are not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and our internet address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only. We make our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such reports with, or furnish such reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.
You may also read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room that is located at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, DC 20549. Information about the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 or 1-202-551-8090. You can also access our filings through the SEC’s internet site: www.sec.gov (intended to be an inactive textual reference only).
You may also access copies of the Company’s filings with the Canadian Securities Administrators on SEDAR through their internet site: www.sedar.com (intended to be an inactive textual reference only).
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
We operate in a highly competitive industry.
The pharmaceutical industry is intensely competitive, and we face competition in our branded and generic pharmaceutical business. In addition to product development, safety, efficacy, commercialization, marketing and promotion, other competitive factors include product quality and price, reputation, service and access to scientific and technical information. Many of our competitors, including Abbott, Allergan, Purdue, Jazz, Shire, Horizon, Mallinckrodt, Teva, Mylan, Sandoz and Impax, among others, may have greater resources than we do and we cannot predict with certainty the timing or impact of competitors’ products. Furthermore, recent trends in this industry are toward further market consolidation of large drug companies into a smaller number of very large entities, further concentrating financial, technical and market strength and increasing competitive pressure in the industry. It is possible that our competitors may make greater research and development investments and have more efficient or superior processes and systems and that their new products may make our products or technologies uncompetitive or obsolete. Furthermore, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private organizations conducting research may seek patent protection and may establish collaborative arrangements for competitive products or programs. If we fail to compete successfully, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Our branded products face competition from generic versions. Generic versions are generally significantly cheaper than branded versions and, where available, may be required or encouraged in place of the branded version under third-party reimbursement programs, or substituted by pharmacies for branded versions by law. The entrance of generic competition to our branded products generally reduces our market share and adversely affects our profitability and cash flows. Further, certain Asian and other overseas generic competitors may be able to produce products at costs lower than the costs of domestic manufacturers. If we experience substantial competition from Asian or other overseas generic competitors with lower production costs, our profit margins will suffer. In addition, certain of our branded products are not protected by patent rights or have limited patent life and will soon lose patent protection. Loss of patent protection for a branded product typically is followed promptly by generic substitutes. As a result, sales of many of these branded products may decline or stop growing over time. Generic competition with our branded products has had and will continue to have a material adverse effect on the net sales and profitability of our branded products.
In addition, our generics business faces competition from brand-name pharmaceutical companies, which have taken aggressive steps to thwart or delay competition from generic equivalents of their brand-name products. The actions taken by competing brand name pharmaceutical companies may increase the costs and risks associated with our efforts to introduce generic products and may delay or prevent such introduction altogether.
Our sales may also suffer as a result of changes in consumer demand for our products, including those related to fluctuations in consumer buying patterns tied to seasonality or the introduction of new products by competitors, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial conditions and cash flows.
If generic manufacturers use litigation and regulatory means to obtain approval for generic versions of our branded drugs, our sales may suffer.
Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for a generic bioequivalent version of a previously approved drug, without requiring the ANDA applicant to undertake the full clinical testing necessary to obtain approval to market a new drug. In place of such clinical studies, an ANDA applicant usually needs only to submit data demonstrating that its generic product is bioequivalent to the branded product.

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Various generic manufacturers have filed ANDAs seeking FDA approval for generic versions of certain of our key pharmaceutical products, including but not limited to Lidoderm®, both formulations of OPANA® ER, Aveed® and Megace ES®. In connection with such filings, these manufacturers have challenged the validity and/or enforceability of one or more of the underlying patents protecting our products. In the case of Lidoderm® and Megace ES®, we no longer have patent protection in the markets where we sell these products. Our revenues from Lidoderm® have been negatively affected by Actavis’s September 2013 launch and Mylan’s August 2015 launch of their lidocaine patch 5%, generic versions of Lidoderm®, and we anticipate that these revenues could decrease further should one or more additional generic versions launch. With respect to OPANA® ER, Aveed® and other branded pharmaceutical products, it has been and continues to be our practice to vigorously defend and pursue all available legal and regulatory avenues in defense of the intellectual property rights protecting our products. Despite our efforts to defend our products, litigation is inherently uncertain, and we cannot predict the timing or outcome of our efforts. If we are not successful in defending our intellectual property rights or opt to settle, or if a product’s marketing exclusivity rights expire or become otherwise unenforceable, our competitors could ultimately launch generic versions of our products, which could significantly decrease our revenues and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows as well as our share price. For a complete description of the related legal proceedings, see Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules". As a result, there are currently ongoing legal proceedings brought by us and/or our subsidiaries, and in certain cases our third party partners, against manufacturers seeking FDA approval for generic versions of our products.
If we fail to obtain exclusive marketing rights for our generic pharmaceutical products or fail to introduce these generic products on a timely basis, our revenues, gross margin and operating results may decline.
The Hatch-Waxman amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act provide for a period of 180 days of marketing exclusivity for a generic version of a previously approved drug for any applicant that is first-to-file an ANDA containing a certification of invalidity, non-infringement or unenforceability related to a patent listed with respect to the corresponding brand-name drug (commonly referred to as a “Paragraph IV certification”). A large portion of our revenues for our U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment have been derived from the sales of generic drugs during such 180-day marketing exclusivity period permitted under the Hatch-Waxman Act and from the sale of other generic products for which there otherwise is limited competition. ANDAs that contain Paragraph IV certifications challenging patents, however, generally become the subject of patent litigation that can be both lengthy and costly. There is no certainty that we will prevail in any such litigation, that we will be the first-to-file and be granted the 180-day marketing exclusivity period, or, if we are granted the 180-day marketing exclusivity period, that we will not forfeit such period. Even where we are awarded marketing exclusivity, we may be required to share our exclusivity period with other ANDA applicants who submit Paragraph IV certifications. In addition, brand-name pharmaceutical companies often authorize a generic version of the corresponding brand-name drug to be sold during any period of marketing exclusivity that is awarded (described further below). Furthermore, timely commencement of the litigation by the patent owner imposes an automatic stay of ANDA approval by the FDA for 30 months, unless the case is decided in the ANDA applicant’s favor during that period. Finally, if the court decision is adverse to the ANDA applicant, the ANDA approval will be delayed until the challenged patent expires, and the applicant will not be granted the 180-day marketing exclusivity.
The future profitability of our U.S. Generic Pharmaceutical segment depends, to a significant extent, upon our ability to introduce, on a timely basis, new generic products that are either the first-to-market (or among the first-to-market) or that otherwise can gain significant market share during the 180-day marketing period as permitted by the Hatch-Waxman Act. Our ability to timely bring our products to market is dependent upon, among other things, the timing of regulatory approval of our products, which to a large extent is outside of our control, as well as the timing of competing products. Our revenues and future profitability are dependent, in large part, upon our ability or the ability of our development partners to file, timely and effectively, ANDAs with the FDA or to enter into contractual relationships with other parties that have obtained marketing exclusivity. No assurances can be given that we will be able to develop and introduce commercially successful products in the future within the time constraints necessary to be successful. If we or our development partners are unable to continue to timely and effectively file ANDAs with the FDA or to partner with other parties that have obtained marketing exclusivity, our revenues and operating results may decline significantly and our prospects and business may be materially adversely affected.

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We may be the subject of product liability claims or product recalls, and we may be unable to obtain or maintain insurance adequate to cover potential liabilities.
Our business exposes us to significant potential risk from product liability claims, other significant litigation matters, government investigations or product recalls, including, but not limited to, such matters associated with the testing, manufacturing, marketing and sale of our products. We have been in the past, and continue to be, subject to various product liability cases, other litigations and government investigations. In addition to direct expenditures for damages, settlement and defense costs, there is a possibility of adverse publicity, loss of revenues and disruption of business as a result of product liability claims or other litigation matters. Some plaintiffs have received substantial damage awards in some jurisdictions against pharmaceutical and/or medical device companies based upon claims for injuries allegedly caused by the use of their products. In addition, in the age of social media, plaintiffs’ attorneys have a wide variety of tools to advertise their services and solicit new clients for litigation. Thus, we could expect that any significant product liability litigation or mass tort in which we are a defendant will have a larger number of plaintiffs than such actions have seen historically because of the increasing use of wide-spread and media-varied advertising. In addition, it may be necessary for us to voluntarily or mandatorily recall or withdraw products that do not meet approved specifications or which subsequent data demonstrate may be unsafe or ineffective or misused. Any such recall or withdraw could result in adverse publicity, costs connected to the recall and loss of revenue. If we are found liable on a product liability claim or series of claims, defaults could be declared under our debt agreements, we could suffer reputational damage, and we could incur losses, any of which could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our pharmaceutical and medical device products may cause, or may appear to cause, serious adverse side effects or potentially dangerous drug interactions if misused, improperly prescribed or subject to faulty surgical technique. For example, we and/or certain of our subsidiaries, have been named as defendants in multiple lawsuits in various federal and state courts alleging personal injury resulting from use of transvaginal surgical mesh products designed to treat pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Through our Astora Women’s Health Business (Astora), we and certain plaintiffs’ attorneys representing mesh-related product liability claimants have entered into various Master Settlement Agreements (MSAs) regarding settling up to approximately 49,000 filed and unfiled mesh claims handled or controlled by the participating attorneys. These MSAs, which were executed at various times since June 2013, were entered into solely by way of compromise and settlement and are not in any way an admission of liability or fault by us and/or any of our subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2016, our product liability accrual for vaginal mesh cases totaled $963.1 million for all known claims for which a liability is probable. We may be subject to additional liabilities arising out of these claims, and are responsible for the cost of managing these claims. In addition to claims covered by MSAs, we are currently aware of approximately 9,700 claims that have been filed, asserted or that we believe are likely to be asserted that have not been accrued for because we lack sufficient information to determine whether any potential loss is probable. In addition, there may be other claims asserted in the future. It is currently not possible to estimate the number or validity of any such future claims. Although we believe there is a reasonable possibility that a loss in excess of the amount recognized exists, we are unable to estimate the possible loss or range of loss in excess of the amount accrued at this time.
We cannot confirm to you that we will be able to obtain or maintain product liability insurance in the future on acceptable terms or with adequate coverage against potential liabilities or other losses such as the cost of a recall if any claim is brought against us, regardless of the success or failure of the claim. For example, we no longer have product liability insurance to cover the claims in connection with the mesh-related litigation described above. Additionally, we may be limited by the surviving insurance policies of our acquired subsidiaries, which may not be adequate to cover against potential liabilities or other losses. The failure to generate sufficient cash flow or to obtain other financing could affect our ability to pay the amounts due under those liabilities not covered by insurance. See Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules" for further discussion of our product liability claims.
Our ability to protect and maintain our proprietary and licensed third party technology, which is vital to our business, is uncertain.
Our success, competitive position and future income will depend in part on our ability to obtain and protect patent rights relating to the technologies, processes and products we have developed and are currently developing and may develop in the future. Our policy is to seek patent protection for technologies, processes and products we own and to enforce the intellectual property rights we own and license. We cannot confirm to you that patent applications we submit and have submitted will result in patents being issued. If an invention qualifies as a joint invention, the joint inventor may have rights in the invention and we cannot confirm to you that the joint inventor will protect the intellectual property rights to the joint invention. We cannot confirm to you that a third party will not infringe upon, design around or develop uses not covered by any patent issued or licensed to us or that these patents will otherwise be commercially viable. In this regard, the patent position of pharmaceutical compounds and compositions is particularly uncertain. Even issued patents may later be modified or revoked by the PTO, by analogous foreign offices or in legal proceedings. Upon the expiration or loss of necessary intellectual property protection for a product, others may manufacture and distribute our patented products, which will result in a loss of a significant portion of our sales of that product.

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In addition, our success, particularly in our branded businesses, depends in part on the ability of our partners and suppliers to obtain, maintain and enforce patents, and protect trademarks, trade secrets, know-how, and other intellectual property and proprietary information. Our ability to commercialize any branded product successfully will largely depend upon our or any partner’s or supplier’s ability to obtain and maintain patents and trademarks of sufficient scope to lawfully prevent third-parties from developing and/or marketing infringing products.
We cannot confirm to you as to the degree of protection any patents will afford, including whether the protection obtained will be of sufficient breadth and degree to protect our commercial interests in all the countries where we conduct business. Furthermore, we cannot confirm to you that our products will not infringe the patents or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. If we infringe the intellectual property rights of others, we could lose our right to develop, manufacture or sell products or we could be required to pay monetary damages or royalties to license proprietary rights from third parties. An adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding or a failure to obtain necessary licenses could prevent us from manufacturing or selling our products.
The Company also relies on trade secrets and other un-patented proprietary information, which it generally seeks to protect by confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements with its employees, consultants, advisors and partners. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide the Company with an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure. In addition, if the Company’s employees, scientific consultants or partners develop inventions or processes that may be applicable to the Company’s products under development, such inventions and processes will not necessarily become the Company’s property, but may remain the property of those persons or their employers.
Our competitors or other third parties may allege that we are infringing their intellectual property, forcing us to expend substantial resources in litigation, the outcome of which is uncertain. Any unfavorable outcome of such litigation, including losses related to “at-risk” product launches, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
Companies that produce branded pharmaceutical products routinely bring litigation against ANDA or similar applicants that seek regulatory approval to manufacture and market generic forms of their branded products alleging patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. Patent holders may also bring patent infringement suits against companies that are currently marketing and selling approved generic products. Litigation often involves significant expense and can delay or prevent introduction or sale of our generic products. If patents are held valid, enforceable and infringed by our products, we would, unless we could obtain a license from the patent holder, need to delay selling our corresponding generic product and, if we are already selling our product, cease selling and potentially destroy existing product stock.
There may be situations in which we may make business and legal judgments to market and sell products that are subject to claims of alleged patent infringement prior to final resolution of those claims by the courts, based upon our belief that such patents are invalid, unenforceable, or are not infringed by our marketing and sale of such products. This is referred to in the pharmaceutical industry as an “at-risk” launch. The risk involved in an at-risk launch can be substantial because, if a patent holder ultimately prevails against us, the remedies available to such holder may include, among other things, damages measured by the profits lost by the patent holder, which can be significantly higher than the profits we make from selling the generic version of the product. Moreover, if a court determines that such infringement is willful, the damages could be subject to trebling. We could face substantial damages from adverse court decisions in such matters. We could also be at risk for the value of such inventory that we are unable to market or sell.
Agreements between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic pharmaceutical companies are facing increased government scrutiny in the U.S. and abroad.
We are involved in numerous patent litigations in which generic companies challenge the validity or enforceability of our products’ listed patents and/or the applicability of these patents to the generic applicant’s products. Likewise, our U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment is also involved in patent litigations in which we challenge the validity or enforceability of innovator companies’ listed patents and/or their applicability to our generic products. Therefore, settling patent litigations has been and is likely to continue to be part of our business. Parties to such settlement agreements in the U.S., including us, are required by law to file them with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (the FTC) and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) for review. The FTC has publicly stated that, in its view, such settlement agreements may violate the antitrust laws. In some instances, the FTC has brought actions against brand and generic companies that have entered into such agreements. Accordingly, we may receive formal or informal requests from the FTC for information about a particular settlement agreement, and there is a risk that the FTC may commence an action against us alleging violation of the antitrust laws.

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In addition, some members of Congress have proposed legislation that would limit the types of settlement agreements generic manufacturers can enter into with brand companies. In 2013, the Supreme Court, in FTC v. Actavis, determined that reverse payment patent settlements between generic and brand companies should be evaluated under the rule of reason, but provided limited guidance beyond the selection of this standard. Because the Supreme Court did not articulate the full range of criteria upon which a determination of legality of such settlements would be based or provide guidance on the precise circumstances under which such settlements would always qualify as legal, there may be extensive litigation over what constitutes a reasonable and lawful patent settlement between a brand and generic company. We are subject to multiple lawsuits purporting to be class actions brought by direct and indirect payers alleging that our settlement agreements respectively with Watson regarding the Lidoderm® patent litigation, and with Impax regarding the Opana® ER patent litigation, were unlawful in violation of federal antitrust laws, as well as various state laws.
We have significant goodwill and other intangible assets. Consequently, potential impairment of goodwill and other intangibles may significantly impact our profitability.
Goodwill and other intangibles represent a significant portion of our assets. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, goodwill and other intangibles comprised approximately 74% and 78%, respectively, of our total assets. Goodwill and other intangible assets are subject to an impairment analysis whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Additionally, goodwill and indefinite-lived assets are subject to an impairment test at least annually. For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, we recorded asset impairment charges of $3,781.2 million, $1,140.7 million and $22.5 million, respectively, which related primarily to goodwill and other intangible assets. The procedures and assumptions used in our goodwill and intangible assets impairment testing, and the results of our testing, are discussed in Item 7 of this report "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" under the captions “CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES” and “RESULTS OF OPERATIONS”.
Events giving rise to impairment of goodwill or intangible assets are an inherent risk in the pharmaceutical industry and often cannot be predicted. As a result of the significance of goodwill and other intangible assets, our results of operations and financial position in a future period could be negatively impacted should additional impairments of our goodwill or other intangible assets occur.
We are subject to various regulations pertaining to the marketing of our products and services.
We are subject to various federal and state laws pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse involving the marketing and pricing of our products and services, including prohibitions on the offer of payment or acceptance of kickbacks or other remuneration for the purchase of our products and services, including inducements to potential patients to request our products and services and inducements to healthcare professionals to prescribe and use our products. Additionally, product promotion, educational activities, support of continuing medical education programs, and other interactions with healthcare professionals must be conducted in a manner consistent with the FDA regulations and the Anti-Kickback Statute. The Anti-Kickback Statute, with certain exceptions or exemptions published by the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS-OIG), prohibits persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, recommending, or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Violations of the Anti-Kickback Statute also carry potential federal False Claims Act liability. Additionally, many states have adopted laws similar to the Anti-Kickback Statute, without identical exceptions or exemptions. Some of these state prohibitions apply to referral of patients for healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payer, not only the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Any such new regulations or requirements may be difficult and expensive for us to comply with, may delay our introduction of new products, may adversely affect our total revenues and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Sanctions for violating these laws include criminal penalties and civil sanctions and possible exclusion from federal funded healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid as well as potential liability under the False Claims Act and applicable state false claims acts. There can be no assurance that our practices will not be challenged under these laws in the future, that changes in these laws or interpretation of these laws would not give rise to new challenges of our practices, or that any such challenge would not have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations. Law enforcement agencies sometimes initiate investigations into sales, marketing and/or pricing practices based on preliminary information or evidence, and such investigations can be and often are closed without any enforcement action. Nevertheless, these types of investigations and any related litigation can result in: (i) large expenditures of cash for legal fees, payment of penalties, and compliance activities; (ii) limitations on operations; (iii) diversion of management resources; (iv) injury to our reputation; and (v) decreased demand for our products.

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In addition, our company is subject to statutory and regulatory restrictions on the promotion of uses of prescription drugs or devices that are not cleared or approved by the FDA. Although the FDA does not regulate a physician’s choice of medications, treatments or product uses, the FDCA and FDA regulations and guidance significantly restrict the ability of pharmaceutical and medical device companies to communicate with patients, physicians, and other third-parties about unapproved or uncleared product uses. FDA, FTC, the HHS-OIG, the DOJ and various state Attorneys General actively enforce state and federal prohibitions on the promotion of unapproved uses, as well as prohibitions against promotional practices deemed false or misleading. A company that is found to have improperly promoted its products under these laws may be subject to significant liability, including significant administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions, including but not limited to significant civil damages, criminal fines, and exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid, and other federal healthcare programs. Applicable laws governing product promotion also provide for administrative, civil, and criminal liability for individuals, including, in some circumstances, potential strict vicarious liability. Conduct giving rise to such liability could also form the basis for private civil litigation by third-party payers or other persons allegedly harmed by such conduct.
We have established and implemented a corporate compliance program designed to prevent, detect, and correct violations of state and federal healthcare laws, including laws related to advertising and promotion of our drugs and devices. Nonetheless, the FDA, FTC, HHS-OIG, the DOJ and/or the state Attorneys General, and qui tam relators may take the position that we are not in compliance with such requirements, and, if such non-compliance is proven, the Company and, in some cases, individual employees, may be subject to significant liability, including the aforementioned administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions.
Furthermore, in February 2014, we entered into a Deferred Prosecution Agreement (DPA) with the U.S. Department of Justice and a Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to resolve allegations regarding the promotion of Lidoderm®. In March 2013, our subsidiary, Par, entered into a CIA and a Plea Agreement with the U.S. Department of Justice to resolve allegations regarding the promotion of Megace ES®. Those agreements place certain obligations on us related to the marketing of our branded pharmaceutical products and our healthcare regulatory compliance program, including reporting requirements to the U.S. government, detailed requirements for our compliance program, code of conduct, and policies and procedures, and the requirement to engage an Independent Review Organization. We have implemented procedures and practices to comply with the CIA, including the engagement of an Independent Review Organization. In the event we breach the DPA, the Plea Agreement, and/or the CIA, there is a risk the government would seek remedies provided for in those agreements, including instituting criminal prosecution against us, seeking to impose stipulated penalties, or seeking to exclude us from participation in Federal health care programs.
The pharmaceutical industry is heavily regulated, which creates uncertainty about our ability to bring new products to market and imposes substantial compliance costs on our business.
Governmental authorities such as the FDA impose substantial requirements on the development, manufacture, holding, labeling, marketing, advertising, promotion, distribution and sale of therapeutic pharmaceutical products through lengthy and detailed laboratory and clinical testing and other costly and time-consuming procedures. In addition, before obtaining regulatory approvals for certain generic products, we must conduct limited bioequivalence studies and other research to show comparability to the branded products. A failure to obtain satisfactory results in required pre-marketing trials may prevent us from obtaining required regulatory approvals. The FDA may also require companies to conduct post-approval studies and post-approval surveillance regarding their drug products and to report adverse events.
Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the sale of any of our new product candidates, we must demonstrate through preclinical studies and clinical trials that the product is safe and effective for each intended use. Preclinical and clinical studies may fail to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a product. Likewise, we may not be able to demonstrate through clinical trials that a product candidate’s therapeutic benefits outweigh its risks. Even promising results from preclinical and early clinical studies do not always accurately predict results in later, large scale trials. A failure to demonstrate safety and efficacy could or would result in our failure to obtain regulatory approvals. Clinical trials can be delayed for reasons outside of our control, which can lead to increased development costs and delays in regulatory approval. For example, there is substantial competition to enroll patients in clinical trials, and such competition has delayed clinical development of our products in the past. For example, patients may not enroll in clinical trials at the rate expected or patients may drop out after enrolling in the trials or during the trials. In addition, we rely on collaboration partners that may control or make changes in trial protocol and design enhancements, or encounter clinical trial compliance-related issues, which may also delay clinical trials. Product supplies may be delayed or be insufficient to treat the patients participating in the clinical trials, or manufacturers or suppliers may not meet the requirements of the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities, such as those relating to Current Good Manufacturing Practices. We also may experience delays in obtaining, or we may not obtain, required initial and continuing approval of our clinical trials from institutional review boards. We cannot confirm to you that we will not experience delays or undesired results in these or any other of our clinical trials.

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We cannot confirm to you that the FDA or foreign regulatory agencies will approve, clear for marketing or certify any products developed by us or that such approval will not subject the marketing of our products to certain limits on indicated use. The FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may not agree with our assessment of the clinical data or they may interpret it differently. Such regulatory authorities may require additional or expanded clinical trials. Any limitation on use imposed by the FDA or delay in or failure to obtain FDA approvals or clearances of products developed by us would adversely affect the marketing of these products and our ability to generate product revenue, which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, with respect specifically to pharmaceutical products, the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) or ANDA to the FDA with supporting clinical safety and efficacy data, for example, does not guarantee that the FDA will grant approval to market the product. Meeting the FDA’s regulatory requirements to obtain approval to market a drug product, which varies substantially based on the type, complexity and novelty of the pharmaceutical product, typically takes years and is subject to uncertainty.
Additional delays may result if an FDA Advisory Committee or other regulatory authority recommends non-approval or restrictions on approval. Although the FDA is not required to follow the recommendations of its Advisory Committees, it usually does. A negative Advisory Committee meeting could signal a lower likelihood of approval, although the FDA may still end up approving our application. Regardless of an Advisory Committee meeting outcome or the FDA’s final approval decision, public presentation of our data may shed positive or negative light on our application. With respect to our Supplemental New Drug Application for OPANA® ER, the FDA has scheduled a Joint Meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee and the Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee in March 2017, to discuss pre- and post-marketing data about the abuse of OPANA® ER and the overall risk-benefit of this product. The Advisory Committees also will discuss abuse of generic oxymorphone ER and oxymorphone immediate-release (IR) products. The Advisory Committees will likely make recommendations to the FDA as to whether additional measures should be taken to control the abuse potential of these products, including a possible recommendation to remove these products from U.S. markets.
Some drugs are available in the United States that are not the subject of an FDA-approved NDA. In 2011, the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (“CDER”) Office of Compliance modified its enforcement policy with regard to the marketing of such “unapproved” marketed drugs. Under CDER’s revised guidance, the FDA encourages manufacturers to obtain NDA approvals for such drugs by requiring unapproved versions to be removed from the market after an approved version has been introduced, subject to a grace period at the FDA’s discretion. This grace period is intended to allow an orderly transition of supply to the market and to mitigate any potential related drug shortage. Depending on the length of the grace period and the time it takes for subsequent applications to be approved, this may result in a period of de facto market exclusivity to the first manufacturer that has obtained an approved NDA for the previously unapproved marketed drug. We may seek FDA approval for certain unapproved marketed drug products through the 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway. Even if we receive approval for an NDA under Section 505(b)(2), the FDA may not take timely enforcement action against companies marketing unapproved versions of the drug; therefore, we cannot be sure that that we will receive the benefit of any de facto exclusive marketing period or that we will fully recoup the expenses incurred to obtain an approval. In addition, certain competitors and others have objected to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2). If the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2) is successfully challenged, this could delay or even prevent the FDA from approving any NDA that we submit under Section 505(b)(2).
Moreover, even if our product candidates are approved under Section 505(b)(2), the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the products may be marketed or to other conditions of approval, or may contain requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the products.
The ANDA approval process for a new product varies in time, generally requiring a minimum of 10 months following submission of the ANDA to FDA, but could also take several years from the date of application. The timing for the ANDA approval process for generic products is difficult to estimate and can vary significantly. ANDA approvals, if granted, may not include all uses (known as indications) for which a company may seek to market a product.
Further, once a product is approved or cleared for marketing, failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements can result in, among other things, suspensions or withdrawals of approvals or clearances, seizures or recalls of products, injunctions against the manufacture, holding, distribution, marketing and sale of a product, and civil and criminal sanctions. Furthermore, changes in existing regulations or the adoption of new regulations could prevent us from obtaining, or affect the timing of, future regulatory approvals or clearances. Meeting regulatory requirements and evolving government standards may delay marketing of our new products for a considerable period of time, impose costly procedures upon our activities and result in a competitive advantage to larger companies that compete against us.
Based on scientific developments, post-market experience, or other legislative or regulatory changes, the current FDA standards of review for approving new pharmaceutical products, or new indications or uses for approved or cleared products, are sometimes more stringent than those that were applied in the past.

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Some new or evolving FDA review standards or conditions for approval or clearance were not applied to many established products currently on the market, including certain opioid products. As a result, the FDA does not have as extensive safety databases on these products as on some products developed more recently. Accordingly, we believe the FDA has expressed an intention to develop such databases for certain of these products, including many opioids. In particular, the FDA has expressed interest in specific chemical structures that may be present as impurities in a number of opioid narcotic active pharmaceutical ingredients, such as oxycodone, which based on certain structural characteristics and laboratory tests may indicate the potential for having mutagenic effects. FDA has required, and may continue to require, more stringent controls of the levels of these impurities in drug products for approval.
Also, the FDA may require labeling revisions, formulation or manufacturing changes and/or product modifications for new or existing products containing such impurities. The FDA’s more stringent requirements, together with any additional testing or remedial measures that may be necessary, could result in increased costs for, or delays in, obtaining approval for certain of our products in development. Although we do not believe that the FDA would seek to remove a currently marketed product from the market unless such mutagenic effects are believed to indicate a significant risk to patient health, we cannot make any such assurance.
In May of 2016, an FDA advisory panel recommended mandatory training of all physicians who prescribe opioids on the risks of prescription opioids. In 2016, the CDC also issued a guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain that provides recommendations for primary care clinicians who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. In addition, state health departments and boards of pharmacy have authority to regulate distribution and may modify their regulations with respect to prescription narcotics in an attempt to curb abuse. In either case, any such new regulations or requirements may be difficult and expensive for us to comply with, may delay our introduction of new products, may adversely affect our total revenues and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The FDA has the authority to require companies to undertake additional post-approval studies to assess known or signaled safety risks and to make any labeling changes to address those risks. The FDA also can require companies to formulate approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) to confirm a drug’s benefits outweigh its risks. For example, in 2011, we, along with other manufacturers of long-acting and extended-release opioid drug products, received a letter from the FDA requiring that we develop and submit to the FDA a post-market REMS plan for our OPANA® ER, morphine sulfate ER, and oxycodone ER drug products to require that training is provided to prescribers of these products, and that information is provided to prescribers that they can use in counseling patients about the risks and benefits of opioid drug use. In December 2011, the FDA approved our interim REMS for OPANA® ER, which was subsequently superseded by the class-wide extended-release/long-acting REMS approved in July 2012. The goal of this REMS is to reduce serious adverse outcomes resulting from inappropriate prescribing, misuse and abuse of extended-release or long-acting opioid analgesics while maintaining patient access to pain medications. The REMS includes a Medication Guide, Elements to Assure Safe Use and annual REMS Assessment Reports.
The FDA’s exercise of its authority under the FFDCA could result in delays or increased costs during product development, clinical trials and regulatory review, increased costs to comply with additional post-approval regulatory requirements and potential restrictions on sales of approved products. Foreign regulatory agencies often have similar authority and may impose comparable requirements and costs. Post-marketing studies and other emerging data about marketed products, such as adverse event reports, may also adversely affect sales of our products. Furthermore, the discovery of significant safety or efficacy concerns or problems with a product in the same therapeutic class as one of our products that implicate or appear to implicate the entire class of products could have an adverse effect on sales of our product or, in some cases, result in product withdrawals. The FDA has continuing authority over the approval of an NDA or ANDA and may withdraw approval if, among other reasons, post-marketing clinical or other experience, tests or data show that a drug is unsafe for use under the conditions upon which it was approved, or if FDA determines that there is a lack of substantial evidence of the drug’s efficacy under the conditions described in its labeling. Furthermore, new data and information, including information about product misuse or abuse at the user level, may lead government agencies, professional societies, practice management groups or patient or trade organizations to recommend or publish guidance or guidelines related to the use of our products, which may lead to reduced sales of our products.
The FDA and the DEA have important and complementary responsibilities with respect to our business. The FDA administers an application and post-approval monitoring process to confirm that products that are available in the market are safe, effective and consistently of uniform, high quality. The DEA administers registration, drug allotment and accountability systems to satisfy against loss and diversion of controlled substances. Both agencies have trained investigators that routinely, or for cause, conduct inspections, and both have authority to seek to enforce their statutory authority and regulations through administrative remedies as well as civil and criminal enforcement actions.

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The FDA regulates and monitors the quality of drug clinical trials to provide human subject protection and to support marketing applications. The FDA may place a hold on a clinical trial and may cause a suspension or withdrawal of product approvals if regulatory standards are not maintained. The FDA also regulates the facilities, processes, and procedures used to manufacture and market pharmaceutical products in the U.S. Manufacturing facilities must be registered with the FDA and all products made in such facilities must be manufactured in accordance with the latest cGMP regulations, which are enforced by the FDA. Compliance with clinical trial requirements and cGMP regulations requires the dedication of substantial resources and requires significant expenditures. In the event an approved manufacturing facility for a particular drug is required by the FDA to curtail or cease operations, or otherwise becomes inoperable, or a third party contract manufacturing facility faces manufacturing problems, obtaining the required FDA authorization to manufacture at the same or a different manufacturing site could result in production delays, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.
The FDA is authorized to perform inspections of U.S. and foreign facilities under the FFDCA. At the end of such an inspection, FDA could issue a Form 483 Notice of Inspectional Observations, which could cause us to modify certain activities identified during the inspection. Following such inspections, the FDA may issue an untitled letter as an initial correspondence that cites violations that do not meet the threshold of regulatory significance of a Warning Letter. FDA guidelines also provide for the issuance of Warning Letters for violations of “regulatory significance” for which the failure to adequately and promptly achieve correction may be expected to result in an enforcement action. FDA also may issue Warning Letters and untitled letters in connection with events or circumstances unrelated to an FDA inspection.
Similar to other healthcare companies, during 2016, our facilities, in multiple countries, across the full range of our business units, were subject to routine and new-product related inspections by the FDA, MHRA, HPRA and Health Canada. Some of these inspections resulted in non-critical inspection observations (including FDA Form 483 observations). We have responded to all inspection observations within the required time frame and have implemented, or are continuing to implement, the corrective action plans as agreed with the relevant regulatory agencies.
Many of our core products contain controlled substances. The stringent DEA regulations on our use of controlled substances include restrictions on their use in research, manufacture, distribution and storage. A breach of these regulations could result in imposition of civil penalties, refusal to renew or action to revoke necessary registrations, or other restrictions on operations involving controlled substances. In addition, failure to comply with applicable legal requirements subjects the manufacturing facilities of our subsidiaries and manufacturing partners to possible legal or regulatory action, including shutdown. Any such shutdown may adversely affect their ability to supply us with product and thus, our ability to market affected products. This could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and competitive position. See also the risk described under the caption “The DEA limits the availability of the active ingredients used in many of our current products and products in development, as well as the production of these products, and, as a result, our procurement and production quotas may not be sufficient to meet commercial demand or complete clinical trials.” In addition, we are subject to the Federal Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA). The U.S. government has enacted DSCSA which requires development of an electronic pedigree to track and trace each prescription drug at the salable unit level through the distribution system, which will be effective incrementally over a 10-year period. Compliance with DSCSA and future U.S. federal or state electronic pedigree requirements may increase our operational expenses and impose significant administrative burdens.
We cannot determine what effect changes in regulations or legal interpretations or requirements by the FDA or the courts, when and if promulgated or issued, may have on our business in the future. Changes could, among other things, require different labeling, monitoring of patients, interaction with physicians, education programs for patients or physicians, curtailment of necessary supplies, or limitations on product distribution. These changes, or others required by the FDA or DEA could have an adverse effect on the sales of these products. The evolving and complex nature of regulatory science and regulatory requirements, the broad authority and discretion of the FDA and the generally high level of regulatory oversight results in a continuing possibility that, from time to time, we will be adversely affected by regulatory actions despite our ongoing efforts and commitment to achieve and maintain full compliance with all regulatory requirements.
The success of our acquisition and licensing strategy is subject to uncertainty and any completed acquisitions or licenses may reduce our earnings, be difficult to integrate, not perform as expected or require us to obtain additional financing.
We regularly evaluate selective acquisitions and look to continue to enhance our product line by acquiring rights to additional products and compounds. Such acquisitions may be carried out through corporate acquisitions, asset acquisitions, licensing and joint venture arrangements or by acquiring other companies. However, we cannot confirm to you that we will be able to complete acquisitions that meet our target criteria on satisfactory terms, if at all. In particular, we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates. In addition, any acquisition of assets and rights to products and compounds may fail to accomplish our strategic objective and may not perform as expected. Further, if we are unable to maintain, on commercially reasonable terms, product, compound or other licenses that we have acquired, our ability to develop or commercially exploit our products may be inhibited. In order to continue to develop and broaden our product range we must compete to acquire these assets. Our competitors may have greater resources than us and therefore be better able to complete acquisitions or may cause the ultimate price we pay for acquisitions to increase. If we fail to achieve our acquisition goals, our growth may be limited.

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In addition to the risks related to acquisition of assets and products, acquisitions of companies may expose us to additional risks, which are beyond our control, and may have a material adverse effect on our profitability and cash flows. The combination of two independent businesses is a complex, costly and time-consuming process. As a result, we may be required to devote significant management attention and resources to the integration of an acquired business into our practices and operations. Any integration process may be disruptive and, if implemented ineffectively, may restrict the realization of the full expected benefits.
In addition, any acquisitions we make may result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses and loss of customer relationships. The difficulties of combining operations of companies include, among others:
diversion of management’s attention to integration matters;
difficulties in achieving anticipated cost savings, synergies, business opportunities and growth prospects from the combination of the businesses;
difficulties in the integration of operations and systems;
difficulties in conforming standards, controls, procedures and accounting and other policies, business cultures and compensation structures between the companies;
difficulties in the assimilation of employees;
difficulties in managing the expanded operations of a significantly larger and more complex company;
challenges in retaining existing customers and obtaining new customers;
potential unknown liabilities or larger liabilities than projected, adverse consequences and unforeseen increased expenses associated with the merger; and
difficulties in coordinating a geographically dispersed organization.
The benefits of a merger are also subject to a variety of other factors, many of which are beyond our ability to control, such as changes in the rate of economic growth in jurisdictions in which the combined company will do business, the financial performance of the combined business in various jurisdictions, currency exchange rate fluctuations, and significant changes in trade, monetary or fiscal policies, including changes in interest rates, and tax law of the jurisdictions in which the combined company will do business. The impact of these factors, individually and in the aggregate, is difficult to predict, in part because the occurrence of the events or circumstances described in such factors may be interrelated, and the impact to the combined company of the occurrence of any one of these events or circumstances could be compounded or, alternatively, reduced, offset, or more than offset, by the occurrence of one or more of the other events or circumstances described in such factors.
In addition, based on current acquisition prices in the pharmaceutical industry, acquisitions could decrease our net income per share and add significant intangible assets and related amortization or impairment charges. Our acquisition strategy may require us to obtain additional debt or equity financing, resulting in leverage, increased debt obligations as compared to equity, or dilution of ownership. We may not be able to finance acquisitions on terms satisfactory to us.
We may decide to sell assets, which could adversely affect our prospects and opportunities for growth.
We may from time to time consider selling certain assets if (i) we determine that such assets are not critical to our strategy or (ii) we believe the opportunity to monetize the asset is attractive or for various other reasons, including for the reduction of indebtedness. We have explored and will continue to explore the sale of certain non-core assets. Although our expectation is to engage in asset sales only if they advance or otherwise support our overall strategy, any such sale could reduce the size or scope of our business, our market share in particular markets or our opportunities with respect to certain markets, products or therapeutic categories. As a result, any such sale could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects and opportunities for growth, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our growth and development will depend on developing, commercializing and marketing new products, including both our own products and those developed with our collaboration partners. If we do not do so successfully, our growth and development will be impaired.
Our future revenues and profitability will depend, to a significant extent, upon our ability to successfully commercialize new branded and generic pharmaceutical products protected by patent or statutory authority in a timely manner. As a result, we must continually develop, test and manufacture new products, which must meet regulatory standards to receive requisite marketing authorizations. Products we are currently developing may or may not receive the regulatory approvals or clearances necessary for us to market them. Furthermore, the development and commercialization process is time-consuming and costly, and we cannot confirm to you that any of our products, if and when developed and approved, can be successfully commercialized.
In addition, risks associated with developing, commercializing and marketing new products are beyond our control. For example, some of our collaboration partners may decide to make substantial changes to a product’s formulation or design, may experience financial difficulties or may have limited financial resources. Any of the foregoing may delay the development, commercialization and/or marketing of new products. In addition, if a co-developer on a new product terminates our collaboration agreement or does not perform under the agreement, we may experience delays and additional costs in developing and marketing that product.

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We conduct research and development of medical and technological products to enable us to manufacture and market pharmaceutical products in accordance with specific government regulations. Much of our drug development effort is focused on technically difficult-to-formulate products and/or products that require advanced manufacturing technology. Typically, expenses related to research, development and regulatory approval of compounds for our branded pharmaceutical products are significantly greater than those expenses associated with generic products. As we continue to develop new products, our research expenses will likely increase. Because of the inherent risk associated with research and development efforts in the healthcare industry, particularly with respect to new drugs, our research and development expenditures may not result in the successful regulatory approval and introduction of new pharmaceutical products. Also, after we submit a regulatory application, the relevant governmental health authority may require that we conduct additional studies, including, studies to assess the product’s interaction with alcohol. As a result, we may be unable to reasonably predict the total research and development costs to develop a particular product.
The availability of third party reimbursement for our products is uncertain, and thus we may find it difficult to maintain current price levels. Additionally, the market may not accept those products for which third party reimbursement is not adequately provided.
Our ability to commercialize our products depends, in part, on the extent to which reimbursement for the costs of these products is available from government healthcare programs, such as Medicaid and Medicare, private health insurers and others. We cannot be certain that, over time, third party reimbursements for our products will be adequate for us to maintain price levels sufficient for realization of an appropriate return on our investment. Government payers, private insurers and other third party payers are increasingly attempting to contain healthcare costs by (1) limiting both coverage and the level of reimbursement (including adjusting co-pays) for products approved for marketing by the FDA, (2) refusing, in some cases, to provide any coverage for uses of approved products for indications for which the FDA has not granted marketing approval and (3) requiring or encouraging, through more favorable reimbursement levels or otherwise, the substitution of generic alternatives to branded products.
We may experience pricing pressure on the price of our products due to social or political pressure to lower the cost of drugs, which would reduce our revenue and future profitability.
We may experience downward pricing pressure on the price of our products due to social or political pressure to lower the cost of drugs, which would reduce our revenue and future profitability. Recent events have resulted in increased public and governmental scrutiny of the cost of drugs, especially in connection with price increases following companies’ acquisition of the rights to certain drug products. In particular, U.S. federal prosecutors have issued subpoenas to pharmaceutical companies seeking information about drug pricing practices. In addition, the U.S. Senate is publicly investigating a number of pharmaceutical companies relating to drug-price increases and pricing practices. Our revenue and future profitability could be negatively affected if these inquiries were to result in legislative or regulatory proposals that limit our ability to increase the prices of our products.
In addition, in September 2016, a group of U.S. Senators introduced legislation that would require pharmaceutical manufacturers to justify price increases of more than 10% in a 12-month period, and a large number of individual States have introduced legislation aimed at drug pricing regulation, transparency or both. Our revenue and future profitability could be negatively affected by the passage of these laws or similar federal or state legislation. Pressure from social activist groups and future government regulations may also put downward pressure on the price of drugs, which could result in downward pressure on the prices of our products in the future.
Our business is highly dependent upon market perceptions of us, our brands, and the safety and quality of our products, and may be adversely impacted by negative publicity or findings.
Market perceptions of us are very important to our business, especially market perceptions of our company and brands and the safety and quality of our products. If we, our partners and suppliers, or our brands suffer from negative publicity, or if any of our products or similar products which other companies distribute are subject to market withdrawal or recall or are proven to be, or are claimed to be, ineffective or harmful to consumers, then this could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
For example, the pharmaceutical drug supply has been increasingly challenged by the vulnerability of distribution channels to illegal counterfeiting and the presence of counterfeit products in a growing number of markets and over the Internet. Third parties may illegally distribute and sell counterfeit versions of our products that do not meet the rigorous manufacturing and testing standards that our products undergo. Counterfeit products are frequently unsafe or ineffective, and can be potentially life-threatening. Counterfeit medicines may contain harmful substances, the wrong dose of API or no API at all. However, to distributors and users, counterfeit products may be visually indistinguishable from the authentic version.

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In addition, negative posts or comments about us on any social networking web site could seriously damage our reputation. The inappropriate use of certain social media vehicles could cause brand damage or information leakage or could lead to legal implications from the improper collection and/or dissemination of personally identifiable information or the improper dissemination of material non-public information.
We are dependent on market perceptions, and negative publicity associated with product quality, patient illness, or other adverse effects resulting from, or perceived to be resulting from, our products, or our partners’ and suppliers’ manufacturing facilities, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and other governmental drug pricing programs are complex and may involve subjective decisions. Any failure to comply with those obligations could subject us to penalties and sanctions.
We are subject to federal and state laws prohibiting the presentation (or the causing to be presented) of claims for payment (by Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payers) that are determined to be false or fraudulent, including presenting a claim for an item or service that was not provided. These false claims statutes include the federal civil False Claims Act, which permits private persons to bring suit in the name of the government alleging false or fraudulent claims presented to or paid by the government (or other violations of the statutes) and to share in any amounts paid by the entity to the government in fines or settlement. Such suits, known as qui tam actions, have increased significantly in the healthcare industry in recent years. These actions against pharmaceutical companies, which do not require proof of a specific intent to defraud the government, may result in payment of fines to and/or administrative exclusion from the Medicare, Medicaid, and/or other government healthcare programs.
We are subject to laws that require us to enter into a Medicaid Drug Rebate Agreement and a 340B Pharmaceutical Pricing Agreement as a condition for having our products eligible for payment under Medicare Part B and Medicaid. We have entered into such agreements. In addition, we are required to report certain pricing information to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) on a periodic basis to allow for accurate determination of rebates owed under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Agreement, of ceiling prices under the 340B program and certain other government pricing arrangements, and of reimbursement rates for certain drugs paid under Medicare Part B. On February 1, 2016, CMS issued a Final Rule implementing the Medicaid Drug Rebate provisions incorporated into the PPACA, effective April 1, 2016 in most instances. Implementation of the Final Rule required operational adjustments by us in order to maintain compliance with applicable law. Changes included in the Final Rule revised how manufacturers calculate Average Manufacturer Price (AMP) and Best Price and also affect the quarterly amounts that we owe to state Medicaid programs through the Medicaid Drug Rebate program. Also, CMS made changes with respect to how certain products are categorized for purposes of the Medicaid Drug Rebate program (i.e., single source, innovator multiple source, or non-innovator multiple source), which could affect the rebate calculation methodology, and thus the level of rebates incurred for affected products. In addition, CMS finalized its proposal to change the reimbursement metrics upon which Medicaid agencies are required to reimburse for covered outpatient drugs. The new reimbursement structure could adversely affect providers’ reimbursement for our products, and thus could adversely affect sales of our products. The Final Rule also expanded the scope of the Medicaid Drug Rebate program to apply to U.S. Territories, effective April 1, 2020, which will require operational adjustments and may result in additional rebate liability. Finally, CMS withdrew its proposed definition of “line extension” set forth in the 2012 proposed rule regarding the Medicaid Drug Rebate program and opened a new 60-day comment period soliciting views on how to interpret the relevant PPACA provisions. Additional operational adjustments and financial implications may result upon CMS’ finalization of “line extension” provisions.
We and other pharmaceutical companies have been defendants in a number of lawsuits filed by various government entities, alleging generally that we and numerous other pharmaceutical companies reported false pricing information in connection with certain drugs that are reimbursable by state Medicaid programs, which are partially funded by the federal government. There is a risk the Company will be subject to similar investigations or litigations in the future and that the Company will suffer adverse decisions or verdicts of substantial amounts or that the Company will enter into monetary settlements. Any unfavorable outcomes as a result of such future litigation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
There is additional uncertainty surrounding the healthcare insurance coverage mandate that went into effect in the U.S. in 2015 and continued into 2016. Employers may seek to reduce costs by reducing or eliminating employer group healthcare plans or transferring a greater portion of healthcare costs to their employees. Job losses or other economic hardships may also result in reduced levels of coverage for some individuals, potentially resulting in lower levels of healthcare coverage for themselves or their families. These economic conditions may affect patients’ ability to afford healthcare as a result of increased co-pay or deductible obligations, greater cost sensitivity to existing co-pay or deductible obligations, lost healthcare insurance coverage or for other reasons. We believe such conditions could lead to changes in patient behavior and spending patterns that negatively affect usage of certain of our products, including some patients delaying treatment, rationing prescription medications, leaving prescriptions unfilled, reducing the frequency of visits to healthcare facilities, utilizing alternative therapies, or foregoing healthcare insurance coverage. Such changes may result in reduced demand for our products, which could materially and adversely affect the sales of our products, our business and results of operations.

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Our customer concentration may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We primarily sell our products to a limited number of wholesale drug distributors and large pharmacy chains. In turn, these wholesale drug distributors and large pharmacy chains supply products to pharmacies, hospitals, governmental agencies and physicians. In addition, this distribution network is continuing to undergo significant consolidation marked by mergers and acquisitions among wholesale drug distributors and large pharmacy chains. We expect that consolidation of wholesale drug distributors and large pharmacy chains will increase pricing and other competitive pressures on pharmaceutical companies, including us. Total revenues from customers who accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues during the three years ended December 31 are as follows:
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cardinal Health, Inc.
26
%
 
21
%
 
21
%
McKesson Corporation
27
%
 
31
%
 
31
%
AmerisourceBergen Corporation
25
%
 
23
%
 
16
%
Revenues from these customers are included within our U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals, U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals and International Pharmaceuticals segments. If we were to lose the business of any of these customers, or if any were to experience difficulty in paying us on a timely basis, our total revenues, profitability and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
We are currently dependent on outside manufacturers for the manufacture of a significant amount of our products; therefore, we have and will continue to have limited control of the manufacturing process and related costs. Certain of our manufacturers currently constitute the sole source of one or more of our products.
Third party manufacturers currently manufacture a significant amount of our products pursuant to contractual arrangements. Certain of our manufacturers currently constitute the sole source of our products. For example, Teikoku is our sole source of Lidoderm® and Grünenthal GmbH (Grünenthal) is our sole source for one of our formulations of OPANA® ER. Because of contractual restraints and the lead-time necessary to obtain FDA approval, and possibly DEA registration, of a new manufacturer, replacement of any of these manufacturers may be expensive and time consuming and may cause interruptions in our supply of products to customers. As a result, any such delay could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Because many of our products are manufactured by third parties, we have a limited ability to control the manufacturing process or costs related to the process. Increases in the prices we pay our manufacturers, interruptions in our supply of products or lapses in quality could adversely impact our margins, profitability and cash flows. We are reliant on our third party manufacturers to maintain the facilities at which they manufacture our products in compliance with FDA, DEA, state and local regulations. If they fail to maintain compliance with FDA, DEA or other critical regulations, they could be ordered to cease manufacturing, or product may be recalled, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, if any facility that manufactures our products experiences a natural disaster, we could experience a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition to FDA and DEA regulation, violation of standards enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and their counterpart agencies at the state level could slow down or curtail operations of third party manufacturers.
In addition, we may consider entering into additional manufacturing arrangements with third party manufacturers. In each case, we will incur significant costs in obtaining the regulatory approvals and taking other necessary steps to begin commercial production by these manufacturers. If the market for the products manufactured by these third parties substantially contracts or disappears, we will continue to be financially obligated under these contracts. Such an obligation could have a material adverse effect on our business.

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We are dependent on third parties to supply all raw materials used in our products and to provide services for certain core aspects of our business. Any interruption or failure by these suppliers, distributors and collaboration partners to meet their obligations pursuant to various agreements with us could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We rely on third parties to supply all raw materials used in our products. In addition, we rely on third party suppliers, distributors and collaboration partners to provide services for certain core aspects of our business, including manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, customer service support, medical affairs services, clinical studies, sales and other technical and financial services. All third party suppliers and contractors are subject to FDA, and very often DEA, requirements. Our business and financial viability are dependent on the continued supply of goods and services by these third party suppliers, the regulatory compliance of these third parties, and on the strength, validity and terms of our various contracts with these third party manufacturers, distributors and collaboration partners. Any interruption or failure by our suppliers, distributors and collaboration partners to meet their obligations pursuant to various agreements with us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, we have entered into minimum purchase requirement contracts with some of our third party raw material suppliers. If the market for the products that utilize these raw materials substantially contracts or disappears, we will continue to be financially obligated under these contracts and meeting such obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are dependent upon third parties to provide us with various estimates as a basis for our financial reporting. While we undertake certain procedures to review the reasonableness of this information, we cannot obtain absolute assurance over the accounting methods and controls over the information provided to us by third parties. As a result, we are at risk of them providing us with erroneous data which could have a material adverse impact on our business and or reporting.
If our manufacturing facilities are unable to manufacture our products or the manufacturing process is interrupted due to failure to comply with regulations or for other reasons, it could have a material adverse impact on our business.
If any of our manufacturing facilities fail to comply with regulatory requirements or encounter other manufacturing difficulties, it could adversely affect our ability to supply products. All facilities and manufacturing processes used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are subject to inspection by regulatory agencies at any time and must be operated in conformity with cGMP and, in the case of controlled substances, DEA regulations. Compliance with the FDA’s cGMP and DEA requirements applies to both drug products seeking regulatory approval and to approved drug products. In complying with cGMP requirements, pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities must continually expend significant time, money and effort in production, record-keeping and quality assurance and control so that their products meet applicable specifications and other requirements for product safety, efficacy and quality. Failure to comply with applicable legal requirements subjects our manufacturing facilities to possible legal or regulatory action, including shutdown, which may adversely affect our ability to supply the product. Were we not able to manufacture products at our manufacturing facilities because of regulatory, business or any other reasons, the manufacture and marketing of these products would be interrupted. This could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operation, financial condition, cash flows and competitive position.
For example, our Horsham facility and the facilities of the manufacturer that we are in the process of qualifying as an alternate manufacturer for XIAFLEX® (such manufacturer, the “Proposed Alternate Manufacturer” and such facility, the “Proposed Alternate Facility”) are subject to such regulatory requirements and oversight. If we or the Proposed Alternate Manufacturer fail to comply with cGMP requirements, we may not be permitted to sell our products or may be limited in the jurisdictions in which we are permitted to sell them. Further, if an inspection by regulatory authorities indicates that there are deficiencies, including non-compliance with regulatory requirements, we could be required to take remedial actions, stop production or close our Horsham facility or the Proposed Alternate Facility, which would disrupt the manufacturing processes, limit the supplies of XIAFLEX® and delay clinical trials and subsequent licensure, and/or limit the sale of commercial supplies. In addition, future noncompliance with any applicable regulatory requirements may result in refusal by regulatory authorities to allow use of XIAFLEX® in clinical trials, refusal of the government to allow distribution of XIAFLEX® within the U.S. or other jurisdictions, criminal prosecution and fines, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, prohibitions or limitations on the commercial sale of products, refusal to allow the entering into of federal and state supply contracts, and follow-on civil litigation.

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The DEA limits the availability of the active ingredients used in many of our current products and products in development, as well as the production of these products, and, as a result, our procurement and production quotas may not be sufficient to meet commercial demand or complete clinical trials.
The DEA regulates chemical compounds as Schedule I, II, III, IV or V substances, with Schedule I substances considered to present the highest risk of substance abuse and Schedule V substances the lowest risk. The active ingredients in some of our current products and products in development, including oxycodone, oxymorphone, buprenorphine, morphine, fentanyl, and hydrocodone, are listed by the DEA as Schedule II or III substances under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Consequently, their manufacture, shipment, storage, sale and use are subject to a high degree of regulation. For example, generally, all Schedule II drug prescriptions must be signed by a physician, physically presented to a pharmacist and may not be refilled without a new prescription.
Furthermore, the DEA limits the availability of the active ingredients used in many of our current products and products in development and sets a quota on the production of these products. We, or our contract manufacturing organizations, must annually apply to the DEA for procurement and production quotas in order to obtain these substances and produce our products. As a result, our procurement and production quotas may not be sufficient to meet commercial demand or to complete clinical trials. Moreover, the DEA may adjust these quotas from time to time during the year. Any delay or refusal by the DEA in establishing our quotas, or modification of our quotas, for controlled substances could delay or result in the stoppage of our clinical trials or product launches, or could cause trade inventory disruptions for those products that have already been launched, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
If we are unable to retain our key personnel, and continue to attract additional professional staff, we may be unable to maintain or expand our business.
Because of the specialized scientific nature of our business, our ability to develop products and to compete with our current and future competitors will remain highly dependent, in large part, upon our ability to attract and retain qualified scientific, technical and commercial personnel. The loss of key scientific, technical and commercial personnel or the failure to recruit additional key scientific, technical and commercial personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business. While we have consulting agreements with certain key individuals and institutions and have employment agreements with our key executives, we cannot confirm to you that we will succeed in retaining personnel or their services under existing agreements. There is intense competition for qualified personnel in the areas of our activities, and we cannot confirm to you that we will be able to continue to attract and retain the qualified personnel necessary for the development of our business.
The trading prices of our securities may be volatile, and your investment in our securities could decline in value.
The market prices for securities of pharmaceutical companies in general have been highly volatile and may continue to be highly volatile in the future. For example, in 2016, our ordinary shares traded between $12.56 and $61.14 per share on the NASDAQ. The following factors, in addition to other risk factors described in this section, may cause the market value of our securities to fluctuate:
FDA approval or disapproval of any of the drug applications we have submitted;
the success or failure of our clinical trials;
new data or new analyses of older data that raises potential safety or effectiveness issues concerning our approved products;
product recalls;
competitors announcing technological innovations or new commercial products;
introduction of generic substitutes for our products, including the filing of ANDAs with respect to generic versions of our branded products;
developments concerning our or others’ proprietary rights, including patents;
competitors’ publicity regarding actual or potential products under development or other activities affecting our competitors or the industry in general;
regulatory developments in the U.S. and foreign countries, or announcements relating to these matters;
period-to-period fluctuations in our financial results;
new legislation in the U.S. relating to the development, sale or pricing of pharmaceutical products or changes in interpretation of existing legislation relating thereto;
a determination by a regulatory agency that we are engaging or have engaged in inappropriate sales or marketing activities, including promoting the “off-label” use of our products;
social and political pressure to lower the cost of drugs;
social and political scrutiny over increases in prices of shares of pharmaceutical companies that are perceived to be caused by a strategy of growth through acquisitions;

36


litigation; and
changes in the political and regulatory environment and international relations as a result of events such as the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Brexit) and the new U.S. administration and other external factors, including market speculation or disasters and other crises.
Our operations could be disrupted if our information systems fail, if we are unsuccessful in implementing necessary upgrades or if we are subject to cyber-attacks.
Our business depends on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our computer and communications systems and networks, hardware and software systems and our other information technology. We collect and maintain information, which includes confidential and proprietary information as well as personal information regarding our customers and employees, in digital form. Data maintained in digital form is subject to risk of cyber-attacks, which are increasing in frequency and sophistication. Cyber-attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, viruses, worms and other means to affect service reliability and threaten data confidentiality, integrity and availability. Despite our efforts to monitor and safeguard our systems to prevent data compromise, the possibility of a future data compromise cannot be eliminated entirely, and risks associated with intrusion, tampering, and theft remain. In addition, we do not have insurance coverage with respect to system failures or cyber-attacks. If our systems were to fail or we are unable to successfully expand the capacity of these systems, or we are unable to integrate new technologies into our existing systems, our operations and financial results could suffer.
We also have outsourced significant elements of our operations to third parties, some of which are outside the U.S., including significant elements of our information technology infrastructure, and as a result we are managing many independent vendor relationships with third parties who may or could have access to our confidential information. The size and complexity of our information technology systems, and those of our third party vendors with whom we contract, make such systems potentially vulnerable to service interruptions. The size and complexity of our and our vendors’ systems and the large amounts of confidential information that is present on them also makes them potentially vulnerable to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, partners or vendors, or from attacks by malicious third parties.
The Company and its vendors’ sophisticated information technology operations are spread across multiple, sometimes inconsistent platforms, which pose difficulties in maintaining data integrity across systems. The ever-increasing use and evolution of technology, including cloud-based computing, creates opportunities for the unintentional or improper dissemination or destruction of confidential information stored in the Company’s systems.
Foreign regulatory requirements vary, including with respect to the regulatory approval process, and failure to obtain regulatory approval or maintain compliance with requirements in foreign jurisdictions would prevent or impact the marketing of our products in those jurisdictions.
We have worldwide intellectual property rights to market many of our products and product candidates and intend to seek approval to market certain of our products outside of the U.S. Approval of a product by the regulatory authorities of foreign countries must be obtained prior to manufacturing or marketing that product in those countries. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing and the time required to obtain such approval may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. The non-U.S. regulatory approval process includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval set forth herein. Approval by the FDA does not secure approval by the regulatory authorities of any other country, nor does the approval by foreign regulatory authorities in one country secure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or the FDA.
Outside of the U.S., regulatory agencies generally evaluate and monitor the safety, efficacy and quality of pharmaceutical products and devices and impose regulatory requirements applicable to manufacturing processes, stability testing, record keeping and quality standards, among others. These requirements vary across jurisdiction. In certain countries, including emerging and developing markets, the applicable health care and drug regulatory regimes are continuing to evolve and new requirements may be implemented. Ensuring and maintaining compliance with these evolving requirements is and will continue to be difficult, time-consuming and costly. If we fail to comply with these regulatory requirements or fail to obtain and maintain required approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to generate revenue from abroad will be adversely affected.
Our Astora subsidiary could be adversely affected by special risks and requirements related to its previous business of manufacturing medical products.
Our Astora subsidiary is subject to various risks and requirements associated with it previously being a medical equipment manufacturer, which could have adverse effects. These include the following:
potential and actual product liability claims for any defective or allegedly defective goods that are distributed; and
increased government scrutiny and/or potential claims regarding the marketing of medical devices.

37


We are subject to health information privacy and data protection laws that include penalties for noncompliance.
We are subject to a number of privacy and data protection laws and regulations globally. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data security continues to evolve. There has been increased attention to privacy and data security issues in both developed and emerging markets with the potential to affect directly our business.  This includes federal and state laws and regulations in the United States as well as in Europe and other markets.  There has also been increased enforcement activity in the United States particularly related to data security breaches. A violation of these laws or regulations could subject us to penalties, fines and/or possible exclusion from Medicare or Medicaid. Such sanctions could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The expanding nature of our business in global markets exposes us to risks associated with adapting to emerging markets and taking advantage of growth opportunities.
The globalization of our business, including in Latin America, South Africa and Canada, may expose us to increased risks associated with conducting business in emerging markets. Any difficulties in adapting to emerging markets could impair our ability to take advantage of growth opportunities in these regions and a decline in the growth of emerging markets could negatively affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
The expansion of our activities in emerging markets may further expose us to more volatile economic conditions and political instability. We also face competition from companies that are already well established in these markets. Our inability to adequately respond to the unique characteristics of these markets, particularly with respect to their regulatory frameworks, the difficulties in recruiting qualified personnel, potential exchange controls, weaker intellectual property protection, higher crime levels and corruption and fraud, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our policies and procedures, which are designed to help us, our employees and agents comply with various laws and regulations regarding corrupt practices and anti-bribery, cannot guarantee protection against liability for actions taken by businesses in which we invest. Failure to comply with domestic or international laws could result in various adverse consequences, including possible delay in the approval or refusal to approve a product, recalls, seizures, withdrawal of an approved product from the market, or the imposition of criminal or civil sanctions, including substantial monetary penalties.
In addition, differences in banking systems and business cultures could have an adverse effect on the efficiency of internal controls over financial reporting matters. Given the significant learning curve to fully understand the emerging markets’ business, operating environment and the quality of controls in place, we may not be able to adequately assess the efficiency of internal controls over financial reporting or the effects of the laws and requirements of the local business jurisdictions.
Many jurisdictions require specific permits or business licenses, particularly if the business is considered foreign. These requirements may affect our ability to carry out our business operations in emerging markets.
Our international operations could expose us to various risks, including risks related to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
In 2016, 7.0% of our total revenues were from sources outside the U.S. Some of these sales were to governmental entities and other organizations with extended payment terms. A number of factors, including differing economic conditions, changes in political climate, differing tax regimes, changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, and political or economic instability in the countries where we do business, could affect payment terms and our ability to collect foreign receivables. We have little influence over these factors and changes could have a material adverse impact on our business. In particular, the risk of a debt default by one or more European countries and related European or national financial restructuring efforts may cause volatility in the value of the Euro. In addition, foreign sales are influenced by fluctuations in currency exchange rates, primarily the Canadian dollar, Euro, South African rand, Mexican peso, British pound and Australian dollar.
We face risks relating to the expected exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union.
On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a remain-or-leave referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership within the European Union, the result of which favored the Brexit. A process of negotiation will likely determine the future terms of the United Kingdom’s relationship with the European Union, as well as whether the United Kingdom will be able to continue to benefit from the European Union’s free trade and similar agreements. The timing of the Brexit and potential impact of Brexit on our market share, sales, profitability and results of operations is unclear. Depending on the terms of Brexit, economic conditions in the United Kingdom, the European Union and global markets may be adversely affected by reduced growth and volatility. The uncertainty before, during and after the period of negotiation is also expected to have a negative economic impact and increase volatility in the markets, particularly in the Eurozone. Such volatility and negative economic impact could, in turn, adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

38


The risks of selling and shipping products and of purchasing products across international borders may adversely impact our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.
The sale and shipping of our products and services across international borders is subject to extensive U.S. and foreign governmental trade regulations, such as various anti-bribery laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, export control laws, customs and import laws, and anti-boycott laws. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in significant criminal, civil and administrative penalties, including, but not limited to, imprisonment of individuals, fines, denial of export privileges, seizure of shipments, restrictions on certain business activities, and exclusion or debarment from government contracting. Also, the failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory obligations could result in the disruption of our shipping and sales activities.
In addition, some countries in which our subsidiaries sell products are, to some degree, subject to political, economic and/or social instability. Our non-U.S. sales operations expose us and our representatives, agents and distributors to risks inherent in operating in non-U.S. jurisdictions. These risks include:
the imposition of additional U.S. and non-U.S. governmental controls or regulations;
the imposition of costly and lengthy new export licensing requirements;
the imposition of U.S. and/or international sanctions against a country, company, person or entity with whom the company does business that would restrict or prohibit continued business with the sanctioned country, company, person or entity;
economic and political instability or disruptions, including local and regional instability, or disruptions due to natural disasters, such as severe weather and geological events, disruptions due to civil unrest and hostilities, rioting, military activity, terror attacks or armed hostilities;
changes in duties and tariffs, license obligations and other non-tariff barriers to trade;
the imposition of new trade restrictions;
imposition of restrictions on the activities of foreign agents, representatives and distributors;
foreign tax authorities imposing significant fines, penalties and additional taxes;
pricing pressure that we may experience internationally;
laws and business practices favoring local companies;
difficulties in enforcing or defending intellectual property rights; and
exposure to different legal and political standards due to our conducting business in several foreign countries.
We cannot provide assurance that one or more of these factors will not harm our business. Additionally, we are experiencing fluidity in regulatory and pricing trends as a result of the PPACA and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. Any material decrease in our non-U.S. sales would adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We have substantial amount of indebtedness which could adversely affect our financial position and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under such indebtedness, which may require us to refinance all or part of our then outstanding indebtedness. Any refinancing of this substantial indebtedness could be at significantly higher interest rates. Despite our current level of indebtedness, we may still be able to incur substantially more indebtedness. This could increase the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.
We currently have a substantial amount of indebtedness. As of December 31, 2016, we have total debt of approximately $8.40 billion in aggregate principal amount. Our substantial indebtedness may:
make it difficult for us to satisfy our financial obligations, including making scheduled principal and interest payments on our indebtedness;
limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general business purposes;
limit our ability to use our cash flow or obtain additional financing for future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general business purposes;
expose us to the risk of rising interest rates with respect to the borrowings under our credit facility, which are at variable rates of interest;
require us to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments;
limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our less leveraged competitors; and
increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic and industry conditions.

39


If we are unable to pay amounts due under our outstanding indebtedness, or to fund other liquidity needs, such as future capital expenditures, we may be required to refinance all or part of our then existing indebtedness, sell assets, reduce or delay capital expenditures or seek to raise additional capital, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to accomplish any of these alternatives on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Any refinancing of this substantial indebtedness could be at significantly higher interest rates, which will depend on the conditions of the markets and our financial condition at such time. In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we and our subsidiaries now face could intensify.
Covenants in our debt agreements restrict our business in many ways, a default of which may result in acceleration of certain of our indebtedness.
We are subject to various covenants in the instruments governing our debt that limit our ability and/or our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:
incur or assume liens or additional debt or provide guarantees in respect of obligations of other persons;
issue redeemable stock and preferred stock;
pay dividends or distributions or redeem or repurchase capital stock;
prepay, redeem or repurchase debt;
make loans, investments and capital expenditures;
enter into agreements that restrict distributions from our subsidiaries;
sell assets and capital stock of our subsidiaries;
enter into certain transactions with affiliates; and
consolidate or merge with or into, or sell substantially all of our assets to, another person.
A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under our indebtedness. If there were an event of default under any of the agreements relating to our outstanding indebtedness, the holders of the defaulted debt could cause all amounts outstanding with respect to that debt to be due and payable immediately, terminate all commitments to extend further credit, enforce liens against the assets securing or otherwise supporting the debt and pursue other legal remedies. The instruments governing our debt contain cross-default or cross-acceleration provisions that may cause all of the debt issued under such instruments to become immediately due and payable as a result of a default under an unrelated debt instrument. An event of default or an acceleration under one debt agreement could cause a cross-default or cross-acceleration of other debt agreements. We cannot confirm to you that our assets or cash flow would be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding debt instruments if the obligations thereunder were accelerated upon an event of default. We may need to conduct asset sales or elect to pursue other alternatives, including proceedings under applicable insolvency laws relating to some or all of our business. Any or all of the above could have a material adverse effect on our business, financing activities, financial conditions and operations. For a description of our indebtedness, see Note 13. Debt in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
The IRS may not agree with the conclusion that we should be treated as a non-U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes following the Paladin transaction.
Although we are incorporated in Ireland, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may assert that we should be treated as a U.S. corporation (and, therefore, a U.S. tax resident) for U.S. federal income tax purposes pursuant to Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code (the Code). A corporation is generally considered a tax resident in the jurisdiction of its organization or incorporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Because we are an Irish incorporated entity, we would generally be classified as a non-U.S. corporation (and, therefore, a non-U.S. tax resident) under these rules. Section 7874 provides an exception pursuant to which a non-U.S. incorporated entity may, in certain circumstances, be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Under Section 7874, we would be treated as a non-U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if the former shareholders of EHSI owned immediately after the Paladin transaction (within the meaning of Section 7874) less than 80% (by both vote and value) of Endo shares by reason of holding shares in EHSI (the ownership test). The former EHSI shareholders owned less than 80% (by both vote and value) of the shares in Endo after the Paladin merger by reason of their ownership of shares in EHSI. As a result, under current law, we are expected to be treated as a non-U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. There is limited guidance regarding the application of Section 7874 of the Code, including with respect to the provisions regarding the application of the ownership test. Our obligation to complete the Paladin transactions was conditional upon its receipt of a Section 7874 opinion from our counsel, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP (Skadden), dated as of the closing date of the Paladin transaction and subject to certain qualifications and limitations set forth therein, to the effect that Section 7874 of the Code and the regulations promulgated thereunder should not apply in such a manner so as to cause Endo to be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes from and after the closing date. However, an opinion of tax counsel is not binding on the IRS or a court. Therefore, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not take a position contrary to Skadden’s Section 7874 opinion or that a court will not agree with the IRS in the event of litigation.

40


The effective rate of taxation upon our results of operations is dependent on multi-national tax considerations.
We earn a portion of our income outside the United States. That portion of our earnings is taxed at the more favorable rates applicable to the activities undertaken by our subsidiaries outside of the United States. Our effective income tax rate in the future could be adversely affected by a number of factors, including changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in tax laws, the outcome of income tax audits, and repatriation of earnings from our subsidiaries for which we have not provided for taxes. Cash repatriations are subject to restrictions in certain jurisdictions and may be subject to withholding and other taxes. We are subject to the examination of our tax returns and tax arrangements by the IRS and other tax and governmental authorities. For example, our transfer pricing has been the subject of IRS audits, and may be the subject of future audits by the IRS or other tax authorities, and we may be subject to tax assessments or the reallocation of income among our subsidiaries. We regularly assess all of these matters to determine the adequacy of our tax provisions, which are subject to significant discretion. Although we believe our tax provisions are adequate, the final determination of tax audits and any related disputes could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of audits and disputes could have a material adverse effect on our financial statements for the period or periods for which the applicable final determinations are made.
Future changes to U.S. and non-U.S. tax laws could materially adversely affect us.
Under current law, we are expected to be treated as a non-U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, changes to the rules in Section 7874 of the Code or regulations promulgated thereunder or other guidance issued by the Treasury or the IRS could adversely affect our status as a non-U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and any such changes could have prospective or retroactive application to us, EHSI, and/or their respective shareholders and affiliates. Consequently, there can be no assurance that there will not exist in the future a change in law that might cause us to be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including with retroactive effect.
In addition, recent U.S. legislative proposals would expand the scope of U.S. corporate tax residence and limit deductibility of interest and/or other payments made by our U.S. subsidiaries to non-U.S. persons from which we currently benefit. If such a change in law were enacted, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial statements.
Further, the U.S. Congress, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the European Commission and other Government agencies in jurisdictions where we and our affiliates do business have had an extended focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations and there are several current legislative proposals that, if enacted, would substantially change the taxation of multinational corporations. One example is in the area of “base erosion and profit shifting,” where payments are made between affiliates from a jurisdiction with high tax rates to a jurisdiction with lower tax rates. As a result, the tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could increase our effective tax rate, materially adversely impacting our financial statements and cash flows from operations.
We may not be able to successfully maintain our low tax rates, which could adversely affect our businesses and financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We are incorporated in Ireland and also maintain subsidiaries in, amongst other jurisdictions, the United States, Canada, Mexico, India, Bermuda, the United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and South Africa. The IRS and other taxing authorities may challenge intercompany arrangements. Responding to or defending such a challenge could be expensive, consume time and other resources, and divert management’s attention. We cannot predict whether taxing authorities will conduct an audit challenging our tax positions, the cost involved in responding to and defending any such audit and resulting litigation, or the outcome. If we are unsuccessful, we may be required to pay taxes for prior periods, interest, fines or penalties, and may be obligated to pay increased taxes in the future, any of which could require us to reduce our operating expenses, decrease efforts in support of our products or seek to raise additional funds, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial statements, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our ability to use U.S. tax attributes to offset U.S. taxable income may be limited.
Existing and future tax laws and regulations may limit our ability to use U.S. tax attributes, including net operating losses, to offset U.S. taxable income. For a period of time following the 2014 Paladin transaction, Section 7874 precludes our U.S. affiliates from utilizing U.S. tax attributes to offset taxable income if we complete certain transactions with related non-U.S. subsidiaries. In addition, the U.S. Treasury Department recently issued new temporary and proposed regulations related to corporate inversions and earnings stripping. The limitations on the use of certain tax attributes and deductions in these regulations are in addition to existing rules that could impose more restrictive limitations in the event that cumulative changes in our stock ownership within a three-year period exceed certain thresholds. Such changes or the adoption of additional limitations could impact our overall utilization of deferred tax assets, potentially resulting in a material adverse impact to our financial statements and cash flows from operations.

41


Any attempts to take us over will be subject to Irish Takeover Rules and subject to review by the Irish Takeover Panel.
We are subject to Irish Takeover Rules, under which our board of directors (Board of Directors) will not be permitted to take any action which might frustrate an offer for our ordinary shares once it has received an approach which may lead to an offer or has reason to believe an offer is imminent.
If pharmaceutical companies are successful in limiting the use of generics through their legislative, regulatory and other efforts, our sales of generic products may suffer.
Many pharmaceutical companies increasingly have used state and federal legislative and regulatory means to delay generic competition. These efforts have included:
pursuing new patents for existing products which may be granted just before the expiration of earlier patents, which could extend patent protection for additional years;
using the Citizen Petition process (e.g., under 21 C.F.R. s. 10.30) to request amendments to FDA standards;
attempting to use the legislative and regulatory process to have drugs reclassified or rescheduled or to set definitions of abuse deterrent formulations to protect brand company patents and profits; and
engaging in state-by-state initiatives to enact legislation that restricts the substitution of some generic drugs.
If pharmaceutical companies or other third parties are successful in limiting the use of generic products through these or other means, our sales of generic products may decline. If we experience a material decline in generic product sales, our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows will suffer.
We have limited experience in manufacturing biologic products and may encounter difficulties in our manufacturing processes, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations or delay or disrupt manufacture of those of our products that are reliant upon our manufacturing operations.
The manufacture of biologic products requires significant expertise and capital investment. Although our subsidiary, Auxilium, leased its facilities in Horsham, Pennsylvania in order to have direct control over the manufacturing of the active ingredient of XIAFLEX®, we have limited experience in manufacturing XIAFLEX® or any other biologic product. Biologics such as XIAFLEX® require processing steps that are highly complex and generally more difficult than those required for most chemical pharmaceuticals. In addition, TESTOPEL® is manufactured using a unique, proprietary process. If our manufacturing processes at the Rye, New York facility or Horsham facility are disrupted, it may be difficult to find alternate manufacturing sites. We may encounter difficulties with the manufacture of the active ingredient of XIAFLEX® or TESTOPEL®, which could delay, disrupt or halt our manufacture of XIAFLEX® and TESTOPEL®, respectively, require write-offs which may affect our financial results, result in product recalls or product liability claims or otherwise materially affect our results of operations.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

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Item 2.        Properties
Our significant properties at December 31, 2016 are as follows:
Location
 
Purpose
 
Approximate Square Footage
 
Ownership
 
Lease Term End Date
Corporate Properties:
 
 
 
Dublin, Ireland
 
Global Corporate Headquarters
 
17,000
 
Leased
 
August 2024
 
Malvern, Pennsylvania
 
U.S. Corporate Headquarters
 
300,000
 
Leased (1)
 
December 2024
 
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania
 
Former Corporate Headquarters
 
49,000
 
Leased (2)
 
March 2018
 
Chesterbrook, Pennsylvania
 
Administration
 
75,000
 
Leased (3)
 
December 2023
U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals Segment Properties:
 
 
 
Cranbury, New Jersey
 
Manufacturing
 
33,000
 
Leased
 
February 2023
 
Rye, New York
 
Manufacturing
 
20,000
 
Leased/Owned (4)
 
March 2018
 
Horsham, Pennsylvania
 
Administration/Research & Development
 
40,000
 
Leased
 
July 2022
 
Horsham, Pennsylvania
 
Manufacturing
 
50,000
 
Leased
 
February 2024
U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals Segment Properties:
 
 
 
Cranbury, New Jersey
 
Research & Development
 
21,000
 
Leased
 
February 2018
 
Huntsville, Alabama
 
Generic Pharmaceuticals Distribution
 
280,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Huntsville, Alabama
 
Distribution/Manufacturing/Laboratories
 
180,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Huntsville, Alabama
 
Distribution/Manufacturing/Laboratories
 
320,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Huntsville, Alabama
 
Distribution
 
37,000
 
Leased
 
September 2019
 
Charlotte, North Carolina
 
Distribution/Manufacturing/Laboratories
 
88,000
 
Owned (5)
 
N/A
 
Charlotte, North Carolina
 
Distribution/Manufacturing/Laboratories
 
56,000
 
Leased (5)
 
June 2018
 
Charlotte, North Carolina
 
Distribution
 
50,000
 
Leased (5)
 
May 2021
 
Chestnut Ridge, New York
 
Administration/Research & Development
 
62,000
 
Leased
 
December 2024
 
Irvine, California
 
Research & Development
 
27,000
 
Leased
 
August 2018
 
Irvine, California
 
Manufacturing/Distribution
 
41,000
 
Leased
 
March 2021
 
Irvine, California
 
Administration/Manufacturing/Quality Assurance
 
41,000
 
Leased
 
March 2021
 
Chestnut Ridge, New York
 
Administration/Distribution
 
135,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Montebello, New York
 
Distribution
 
190,000
 
Leased
 
January 2024
 
Chestnut Ridge, New York
 
Administration/Manufacturing
 
120,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Chestnut Ridge, New York
 
Administration/Quality Assurance
 
40,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Chennai, India
 
Administration/Manufacturing/Research & Development
 
95,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Rochester, Michigan
 
Administration/Manufacturing/Research & Development
 
320,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
Former Devices Segment Properties:
 
 
 
Westmeath, Ireland
 
Manufacturing
 
34,000
 
Leased (6)
 
January 2021
 
Eden Prairie, Minnesota
 
Astora Headquarters
 
33,000
 
Leased (7)
 
January 2021
International Pharmaceuticals Segment Properties:
 
 
 
Montreal, Canada
 
Paladin Headquarters
 
26,000
 
Leased
 
December 2018
 
Mexico City, Mexico
 
Somar Headquarters
 
74,000
 
Leased
 
September 2019
 
Mexico City, Mexico
 
Somar Manufacturing
 
340,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Mexico City, Mexico
 
Somar Manufacturing
 
51,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Mexico City, Mexico
 
Somar Manufacturing
 
22,000
 
Owned
 
N/A
 
Mexico City, Mexico
 
Somar Manufacturing
 
46,000
 
Leased
 
September 2019
 
Johannesburg, South Africa
 
Litha Administration/Distribution
 
34,000
 
Leased
 
September 2023
__________
(1)
Beginning January 2015, approximately 60,000 square feet of this property has been subleased.
(2)
In connection with the relocation of our U.S. headquarters to Malvern, Pennsylvania, we exited these properties in early 2013. Beginning April 2016, this property has been subleased.
(3)
This property is the former Auxilium headquarters and is currently not in use.
(4)
Approximately 11,000 square feet of this property is leased and 9,000 square feet is owned.
(5)
These properties were sold and the leases were reassigned in January 2017 as part of the disposal of our Charlotte, North Carolina manufacturing facility.
(6)
As this site was associated with the manufacturing of products for our former devices segment, the facility is currently not in use.
(7)
Beginning November 2016, this property has been subleased.

43


Item 3.        Legal Proceedings
The disclosures under Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies of the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules" are incorporated into this Part I, Item 3 by reference.
Item 4.        Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

44


PART II
Item 5.        Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information. Our ordinary shares are traded on both the NASDAQ and the TSX under the ticker symbol “ENDP.” The following table sets forth the quarterly high and low share price information for the periods indicated. The prices shown represent quotations between dealers, without adjustment for retail markups, markdowns or commissions, and may not represent actual transactions.
 
Endo Ordinary Shares
 
NASDAQ (US$)
 
TSX (Cdn$)
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1st Quarter
$
61.14

 
$
25.98

 
$
84.00

 
$
33.03

2nd Quarter
$
35.34

 
$
12.56

 
$
44.00

 
$
16.25

3rd Quarter
$
24.93

 
$
15.45

 
$
32.08

 
$
20.00

4th Quarter
$
21.87

 
$
13.83

 
$
28.90

 
$
18.59

Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1st Quarter
$
93.03

 
$
70.62

 
$
117.45

 
$
84.16

2nd Quarter
$
96.58

 
$
78.19

 
$
119.00

 
$
97.01

3rd Quarter
$
88.54

 
$
59.81

 
$
114.31

 
$
79.53

4th Quarter
$
72.85

 
$
46.66

 
$
87.50

 
$
62.00

Holders. As of February 21, 2017, we estimate that there were approximately 83 holders of record of our ordinary shares.
Dividends. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and we currently have no plans to declare a dividend. Subject to limitations imposed by Irish law and the various agreements and indentures governing our indebtedness, we are permitted to pay dividends.

45


Performance Graph. The following graph provides a comparison of the cumulative total shareholder return on the Company’s ordinary shares with that of the cumulative total shareholder return on the (i) NASDAQ Composite Index and (ii) the NASDAQ Pharmaceutical Index, commencing on December 31, 2011 and ending December 31, 2016. The graph assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2011 in the Company’s ordinary shares and in each of the comparative indices. Our historic share price performance is not necessarily indicative of future share price performance.
totalreturngraph2016a04.jpg
 
December 31,
 
2011
 
2012
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
Endo International plc
$
100.00

 
$
75.96

 
$
195.37

 
$
208.86

 
$
177.30

 
$
47.70

NASDAQ Composite Index
$
100.00

 
$
116.41

 
$
165.47

 
$
188.69

 
$
200.32

 
$
216.54

NASDAQ Pharmaceutical Index
$
100.00

 
$
136.13

 
$
229.92

 
$
296.47

 
$
308.15

 
$
243.63

Recent sales of unregistered securities; Use of proceeds from registered securities.
There were no unregistered sales of equity securities by the Company during the three months ended December 31, 2016.
Purchase of Equity Securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers
The following table reflects purchases of Endo International plc ordinary shares by the Company during the three months ended December 31, 2016:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plan
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plan (1)
October 1, 2016 to October 31, 2016
 

 

 

 
$
2,250,000,000

November 1, 2016 to November 30, 2016
 

 

 

 
$
2,250,000,000

December 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016
 

 

 

 
$
2,250,000,000

Three months ended December 31, 2016
 

 


 

 


__________

46


(1)
On April 28, 2015, our Board of Directors resolved to approve a share buyback program (the 2015 Share Buyback Program), authorizing the Company to redeem in the aggregate up to $2.5 billion of its outstanding ordinary shares. In accordance with Irish Law and the Company’s Articles of Association, all ordinary shares redeemed shall be cancelled upon redemption. Redemptions under this program may be made from time to time in open market or negotiated transactions or otherwise, as determined by the Transactions Committee of the Board of Directors. This program does not obligate the Company to redeem any particular amount of ordinary shares. Future redemptions, if any, will depend on factors such as levels of cash generation from operations, cash requirements for investment in the Registrant's business, repayment of future debt, if any, the then current share price, market conditions, legal limitations and other factors. The 2015 Share Buyback Program may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time. During November 2015, the Company repurchased 4.4 million ordinary shares totaling $250.0 million, not including related fees.


47


Item 6.        Selected Financial Data
The consolidated financial data presented below have been derived from our financial statements. The selected historical consolidated financial data presented below should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7 of this report "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Part II, Item 8 of this report "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data". The selected data in this section is not intended to replace the Consolidated Financial Statements. The information presented below is not necessarily indicative of the results of our future operations. See Note 3. Discontinued Operations and Held for Sale in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules" and below for further discussion on reclassifications to conform to the current presentation.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues
$
4,010,274

 
$
3,268,718

 
$
2,380,683

 
$
2,124,681

 
$
2,311,249

Operating (loss) income from continuing operations
(3,471,515
)
 
(933,475
)
 
326,482

 
517,225

 
177,360

(Loss) income from continuing operations before income tax
(3,923,856
)
 
(1,437,864
)
 
99,875

 
385,366

 
(12,049
)
(Loss) income from continuing operations
(3,223,772
)
 
(300,399
)
 
61,608

 
241,624

 
(50,871
)
Discontinued operations, net of tax
(123,278
)
 
(1,194,926
)
 
(779,792
)
 
(874,038
)
 
(637,150
)
Consolidated net loss
(3,347,050
)
 
(1,495,325
)
 
(718,184
)
 
(632,414
)
 
(688,021
)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
16

 
(283
)
 
3,135

 
52,925

 
52,316

Net loss attributable to Endo International plc
$
(3,347,066
)
 
$
(1,495,042
)
 
$
(721,319
)
 
$
(685,339
)
 
$
(740,337
)
Basic and Diluted net (loss) income per share attributable to Endo International plc:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations—basic
$
(14.48
)
 
$
(1.52
)
 
$
0.42

 
$
2.13

 
$
(0.44
)
Discontinued operations—basic
(0.55
)
 
(6.07
)
 
(5.33
)
 
(8.18
)
 
(5.96
)
Basic
$
(15.03
)
 
$
(7.59
)
 
$
(4.91
)
 
$
(6.05
)
 
$
(6.40
)
Continuing operations—diluted
$
(14.48
)
 
$
(1.52
)
 
$
0.40

 
$
2.02

 
$
(0.44
)
Discontinued operations—diluted
(0.55
)
 
(6.07
)
 
(5.00
)
 
(7.74
)
 
(5.96
)
Diluted
$
(15.03
)
 
$
(7.59
)
 
$
(4.60
)
 
$
(5.72
)
 
$
(6.40
)
Shares used to compute net loss per share attributable to Endo International plc—Basic
222,651

 
197,100

 
146,896

 
113,295

 
115,719

Shares used to compute net loss per share attributable to Endo International plc—Diluted
222,651

 
197,100

 
156,730

 
119,829

 
115,719

Cash dividends declared per share
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
As of and for the Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(dollars in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
517,250

 
$
272,348

 
$
405,696

 
$
526,597

 
$
529,689

Total assets
14,275,109

 
19,350,336

 
10,824,169

 
6,510,810

 
6,510,694

Long-term debt, less current portion, net
8,141,378

 
8,251,657

 
4,100,627

 
3,262,798

 
2,977,166

Other long-term obligations, including capitalized leases
797,397

 
1,656,391

 
1,149,353

 
910,552

 
588,803

Total Endo International plc shareholders’ equity
2,701,589

 
5,968,030

 
2,374,757

 
526,018

 
1,072,856

Noncontrolling interests

 
(54
)
 
33,456

 
59,198

 
60,350

Total shareholders’ equity
$
2,701,589

 
$
5,967,976

 
$
2,408,213

 
$
585,216

 
$
1,133,206

Other Financial Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
524,439

 
$
62,026

 
$
337,776

 
$
298,517

 
$
733,879

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
$
125,861

 
$
(6,244,770
)
 
$
(771,853
)
 
$
(883,639
)
 
$
(88,467
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
$
(393,982
)
 
$
6,055,467

 
$
302,857

 
$
579,525

 
$
(645,547
)

48


The comparability of the forgoing information is impacted by certain charges for asset impairments and certain litigation-related and other matters during each year presented, portions of which are reported as Discontinued operations, net of tax in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, and a number of significant acquisitions that have occurred since 2012, along with the debt incurred to finance these acquisitions. These business combinations have had a significant impact on the Company’s financial statements in their respective years of acquisition and in subsequent years. This impact results from the consideration transferred by the Company for the acquisition, the initial and subsequent purchase accounting for the acquired entity’s assets and liabilities and the post-acquisition results of operations.
Through the date of the sale of the HealthTronics, Inc. (HealthTronics) business in February 2014, the sale of the Men’s Health and Prostate Health business in August 2015, and the wind down of our Astora business in March 2016, the assets and liabilities of all of these aforementioned businesses are classified as held for sale in the Consolidated Balance Sheets for all periods presented. The operating results of the HealthTronics and the entire American Medical Systems Holdings, Inc. (AMS) business, which includes Men’s Health and Prostate Health and Astora, are reported as Discontinued operations, net of tax in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented. For additional information, see Note 3. Discontinued Operations and Held for Sale in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
For further information regarding the comparability of the financial data presented in the tables above and factors that may impact comparability of future results, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations as well as the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in this report and previously filed Annual Reports on Form 10-K.

49


Item 7.        Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations describes the principal factors affecting the results of operations, liquidity and capital resources and critical accounting estimates at Endo International plc. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes thereto. Except for the historical information contained in this Report, including the following discussion, this Report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Forward-Looking Statements” beginning on page 1 of this Report.
In prior periods, our Consolidated Financial Statements present the accounts of Endo Health Solutions Inc., which was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on November 18, 1997, and all of its subsidiaries (EHSI). Endo International plc was incorporated in Ireland on October 31, 2013 as a private limited company and re-registered effective February 18, 2014 as a public limited company. Endo International plc was established for the purpose of facilitating the business combination between EHSI and Paladin Labs Inc. (Paladin). On February 28, 2014, we became the successor registrant of EHSI and Paladin in connection with the consummation of certain transactions further described elsewhere in our Consolidated Financial Statements. The ordinary shares of Endo International plc are traded on the NASDAQ Global Market (NASDAQ) and the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) under the ticker symbol “ENDP,” the same symbol under which EHSI’s shares previously traded. References throughout to “ordinary shares” refer to EHSI’s common shares, 350,000,000 authorized, par value $0.01 per share, prior to the consummation of the February 2014 transactions and to Endo International plc’s ordinary shares, 1,000,000,000 authorized, par value $0.0001 per share, subsequent to the consummation of these transactions. In addition, on February 11, 2014 Endo International plc issued 4,000,000 euro deferred shares of $0.01 each at par.
References throughout to “Endo,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to financial information and transactions of Endo Health Solutions Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to February 28, 2014 and Endo International plc and its consolidated subsidiaries thereafter.
Through the date of their sales in February 2014 and August 2015, the assets and liabilities of the HealthTronics, Inc. (Healthtronics) and the Men’s Health and Prostate Health businesses, respectively, are classified as held for sale in the Consolidated Balance Sheets for all periods presented. The operating results of the HealthTronics and the entire American Medical Systems Holdings, Inc. (AMS) business, which includes Men’s Health and Prostate Health and the Women’s Health Business (referred to herein as Astora), are reported as Discontinued operations, net of tax in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented. For additional information, see Note 3. Discontinued Operations and Held for Sale in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Endo International plc is an Ireland-domiciled, global specialty pharmaceutical company focused on generic and branded pharmaceuticals. We aim to be the premier partner to healthcare professionals and payment providers, delivering an innovative suite of generic and branded drugs to meet patients’ needs. This executive summary provides highlights from the results of operations that follow:
Total revenues in 2016 increased 23% to $4,010.3 million from 2015. This revenue increase was primarily attributable to revenues related to our September 2015 acquisition of Par Pharmaceutical Holdings, Inc. (Par). The increase was partially offset by decreased revenues for certain products in our U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals segment, driven mainly by decreased Voltaren® Gel, Lidoderm®, OPANA® ER and Frova® revenues related to generic competition and decreased revenues from our legacy U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment as a result of competitive pressure on commoditized generic products.
Gross margin for 2016 decreased to 34% from 36% in 2015. This decrease was primarily attributable to the mix of revenue being more heavily weighted toward lower margin generic pharmaceutical product sales as compared to the higher margin branded products, increased intangible asset amortization of $315.1 million for 2016 and charges to increase excess inventory reserves.
Asset impairment charges in 2016 increased to $3,781.2 million compared to $1,140.7 million in 2015 driven primarily by goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges in our Generics, Paladin, Litha, and Somar reporting units.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company recognized an income tax benefit of $700.1 million on $3,923.9 million of loss from continuing operations before income tax, compared to $1,137.5 million of tax benefit on $1,437.9 million of loss from continuing operations before income tax during the comparable 2015 period. During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company completed a legal entity restructuring as part of its continuing integration of its business. This resulted in the realization of a $636.1 million tax benefit arising from an outside basis difference that was reduced by a $394.6 million charge for the establishment of a valuation allowance on a portion of the Company’s U.S. deferred tax assets. The tax benefit for the comparable 2015 period was primarily related to losses from continued operations combined with benefits resulting from the expected realization of deferred tax assets for certain components of the Company’s AMS business arising from tax refunds relating to the carryback of net operating losses.
Loss from continuing operations for 2016 increased to $3,223.8 million from $300.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, primarily attributable to the goodwill and intangible asset impairments noted above.

50


CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
To understand our financial statements, it is important to understand our critical accounting estimates. The preparation of our financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (U.S. GAAP) requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions are required in the determination of revenue recognition and sales deductions for estimated chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowances, certain royalties, distribution service fees, returns and allowances. Significant estimates and assumptions are also required when determining the fair value of financial instruments, the valuation of long-lived assets, income taxes, contingencies and stock-based compensation. Some of these judgments can be subjective and complex, and consequently, actual results may differ from these estimates. For any given individual estimate or assumption made by us, there may also be other estimates or assumptions that are reasonable. Although we believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable, they are based upon information available at the time the estimates and assumptions were made. Actual results may differ significantly from our estimates.
We consider an accounting estimate to be critical if: (1) the accounting estimate requires us to make assumptions about matters that were highly uncertain at the time the accounting estimate was made, and (2) changes in the estimate that are reasonably likely to occur from period to period, or use of different estimates that we reasonably could have used in the current period, would have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Our most critical accounting estimates are described below:
Revenue recognition
Pharmaceutical Products
Our net pharmaceutical product sales consist of revenues from sales of our pharmaceutical products, less estimates for chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowances, certain royalties, distribution service fees, returns and allowances as well as fees for services. We recognize revenue for product sales when title and risk of loss has passed to the customer, which is typically upon delivery to the customer, when estimated provisions for revenue reserves are reasonably determinable, and when collectability is reasonably confirmed. Revenue from the launch of a new or significantly unique product may be deferred until such time that the product has achieved market acceptance. For these products, revenue is typically recognized based on dispensed prescription data and other information obtained prior to and during the period following launch.
Decisions made by wholesaler customers and large retail chain customers regarding the levels of inventory they hold (and thus the amount of product they purchase from us) can materially affect the level of our sales in any particular period and thus may not correlate to the number of prescriptions written for our products based on external third-party data. We believe that speculative buying of product, particularly in anticipation of possible price increases, has been the historical practice of many pharmaceutical wholesalers. Our wholesaler customers, as well as others in the industry, structure their arrangements where they charge a fee for their services. Accordingly, we have entered into distribution service agreements (DSAs) with certain of our significant wholesaler customers. These agreements obligate the wholesalers to provide us with specific services, including the provision of periodic retail demand information and current inventory levels for our branded products held at their warehouse locations; additionally, under these DSAs, the wholesalers have agreed to manage the variability of their purchases and inventory levels within specified limits based on product demand.
We received information from certain of our wholesaler customers about the quantities of inventory they held for our generic and branded products. Based on this information, which we have not independently verified, we believe that inventory related to our generic and branded products held at these wholesalers is within a reasonable range as compared to historical wholesaler held inventory amounts and to expected demand for each respective product market at December 31, 2016. We also estimated inventory quantities held at other wholesalers based on buying patterns and believe these levels are within reasonable ranges at December 31, 2016. In addition, we evaluated market conditions for products primarily through the analysis of wholesaler and other third party sell-through, as well as internally-generated information to assess factors that could impact expected product demand as of December 31, 2016.

51


Sales deductions
When we recognize revenue from the sale of our products, we simultaneously record an adjustment to revenue for estimated chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowances, certain royalties, DSA fees, returns and allowances. These provisions, as described in greater detail below, are estimated based on historical experience, estimated future trends, estimated customer inventory levels, current contract sales terms with our direct and indirect customers and other competitive factors. If the assumptions we used to calculate these adjustments do not appropriately reflect future activity, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be materially impacted. The following table presents the activity and ending balances, excluding Discontinued operations and assets and liabilities held for sale, for our product sales provisions for the three years ended December 31 (in thousands):
 
Returns and Allowances
 
Rebates
 
Chargebacks
 
Other Sales Deductions
 
Total
Balance, January 1, 2014
$
104,699

 
$
336,084

 
$
118,014

 
$
12,897

 
$
571,694

Additions related to acquisitions
13,512

 
985

 
234

 
653

 
15,384

Current year provision
104,768

 
1,260,210

 
1,227,102

 
42,789

 
2,634,869

Prior year provision
(5,531
)
 
3,000

 
(320
)
 

 
(2,851
)
Payments or credits
(42,508
)
 
(1,102,917
)
 
(1,127,628
)
 
(30,959
)
 
(2,304,012
)
Balance, December 31, 2014
$
174,940

 
$
497,362

 
$
217,402

 
$
25,380

 
$
915,084

Additions related to acquisitions
129,281

 
184,290

 
117,236

 
27,970

 
458,777

Current year provision
146,615

 
1,604,062

 
2,272,896

 
148,090

 
4,171,663

Prior year provision
4,070

 
(12,604
)
 
(7,011
)
 

 
(15,545
)
Payments or credits
(97,974
)
 
(1,449,953
)
 
(2,221,307
)
 
(154,638
)
 
(3,923,872
)
Balance, December 31, 2015
$
356,932

 
$
823,157

 
$
379,216

 
$
46,802

 
$
1,606,107

Current year provision
122,414

 
1,562,340

 
3,125,109

 
332,721

 
5,142,584

Prior year provision
(7,199
)
 
(18,705
)
 
4,707

 
311

 
(20,886
)
Payments or credits
(139,396
)
 
(1,878,602
)
 
(3,162,423
)
 
(312,829
)
 
(5,493,250
)
Balance, December 31, 2016
$
332,751

 
$
488,190

 
$
346,609

 
$
67,005

 
$
1,234,555

Returns and Allowances
Our provision for returns and allowances consists of our estimates of future product returns, pricing adjustments and delivery errors. Consistent with industry practice, we maintain a return policy that allows our customers to return product within a specified period of time both prior and subsequent to the product’s expiration date. Our return policy generally allows customers to receive credit for expired products within six months prior to expiration and within one year after expiration. The primary factors we consider in estimating our potential product returns include:
the shelf life or expiration date of each product;
historical levels of expired product returns;
external data with respect to inventory levels in the wholesale distribution channel;
external data with respect to prescription demand for our products; and
estimated returns liability to be processed by year of sale based on analysis of lot information related to actual historical returns.
In determining our estimates for returns and allowances, we are required to make certain assumptions regarding the timing of the introduction of new products and the potential of these products to capture market share. In addition, we make certain assumptions with respect to the extent and pattern of decline associated with generic competition. To make these assessments, we utilize market data for similar products as analogs for our estimations. We use our best judgment to formulate these assumptions based on past experience and information available to us at the time. We continually reassess and make the appropriate changes to our estimates and assumptions as new information becomes available to us.

52


Our estimate for returns and allowances may be impacted by a number of factors, but the principal factor relates to the level of inventory in the distribution channel. When we are aware of an increase in the level of inventory of our products in the distribution channel, we consider the reasons for the increase to determine if the increase may be temporary or other-than-temporary. Increases in inventory levels assessed as temporary will not result in an adjustment to our provision for returns and allowances. Other-than-temporary increases in inventory levels, however, may be an indication that future product returns could be higher than originally anticipated and, accordingly, we may need to adjust our estimate for returns and allowances. Some of the factors that may be an indication that an increase in inventory levels will be temporary include:
recently implemented or announced price increases for our products; and
new product launches or expanded indications for our existing products.
Conversely, factors that may be an indication that an increase in inventory levels will be other-than-temporary include:
declining sales trends based on prescription demand;
recent regulatory approvals to shorten the shelf life of our products, which could result in a period of higher returns related to older product with the shorter shelf life;
introduction of new product or generic competition;
increasing price competition from generic competitors; and
recent changes to the National Drug Codes (NDCs) of our products, which could result in a period of higher returns related to product with the old NDC, as our customers generally permit only one NDC per product for identification and tracking within their inventory systems.
Rebates
We establish contracts with wholesalers, chain stores and indirect customers that provide for rebates, sales incentives, DSA fees, and other allowances. Some customers receive rebates upon attaining established sales volumes. We estimate rebates, sales incentives and other allowances based upon the terms of the contracts with our customers, historical experience, estimated inventory levels of our customers and estimated future trends. Our rebate programs can generally be categorized into the following four types:
direct rebates;
indirect rebates;
managed care rebates; and
Medicaid and Medicare Part D rebates.
Direct rebates are generally rebates paid to direct purchasing customers based on a percentage applied to a direct customer’s purchases from us, including DSA fees paid to wholesalers under our DSA’s, as described above. Indirect rebates are rebates paid to indirect customers which have purchased our products from a wholesaler under a contract with us.
We are subject to rebates on sales made under governmental and managed-care pricing programs. In estimating our provisions for these types of rebates, we consider relevant statutes with respect to governmental pricing programs and contractual sales terms with managed-care providers and group purchasing organizations. Starting in 2011, as a result of the implementation of certain provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), we are required to provide a 50% discount on our brand-name drugs to patients who fall within the Medicare Part D coverage gap, also referred to as the donut hole. We estimate an accrual for Managed Care, Medicaid, Medicare Part D and Coverage Gap rebates as a reduction of revenue at the time product sales are recorded. These rebate reserves are estimated based upon the historical utilization levels, historical payment experience, historical relationship to revenues, estimated future trends, and include an estimate of outstanding claims for end-customer sales that occurred but for which the related claim has not been billed and an estimate for future claims that will be made when inventory in the distribution channel is sold through to plan participants. Changes in the level of utilization of our products through private or public benefit plans and group purchasing organizations will affect the amount of rebates that we owe.
We participate in state government-managed Medicaid programs, as well as certain other qualifying federal and state government programs whereby discounts and rebates are provided to participating government entities. Medicaid rebates are amounts owed based upon contractual agreements or legal requirements with public sector (Medicaid) benefit providers, after the final dispensing of the product by a pharmacy to a benefit plan participant. Medicaid reserves are based on expected payments, which are driven by patient usage, contract performance, as well as field inventory that will be subject to a Medicaid rebate. Medicaid rebates are typically billed up to 180 days after the product is shipped, but can be as much as 270 days after the quarter in which the product is dispensed to the Medicaid participant. In addition to the estimates mentioned above, our calculation also requires other estimates, such as estimates of sales mix, to determine which sales are subject to rebates and the amount of such rebates. Periodically, we adjust the Medicaid rebate provision based on actual claims paid. Due to the delay in billing, adjustments to actual claims paid may incorporate revisions of this provision for several periods. Medicaid pricing programs involve particularly difficult interpretations of statutes and regulatory guidance, which are complex and thus our estimates could differ from actual experience.

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We continually update these factors based on new contractual or statutory requirements and significant changes in sales trends that may impact the percentage of our products subject to rebates.
Chargebacks
The provision for chargebacks is one of the most significant estimates used in the recognition of our revenue. We market and sell products directly to wholesalers, distributors, warehousing pharmacy chains, and other direct purchasing groups. We also market products indirectly to independent pharmacies, non-warehousing chains, managed care organizations, and group purchasing organizations, collectively referred to as indirect customers. We enter into agreements with some indirect customers to establish contract pricing for certain products. These indirect customers then independently select a wholesaler from which to purchase the products at these contracted prices. Alternatively, we may pre-authorize wholesalers to offer specified contract pricing to other indirect customers, including government entities. Under either arrangement, we provide credit to the wholesaler for any difference between the contracted price with the indirect customer and the wholesaler’s invoice price. Such credit is called a chargeback. The primary factors we consider in developing and evaluating our provision for chargebacks include:
the average historical chargeback credits;
estimated future sales trends; and
an estimate of the inventory held by our wholesalers, based on internal analysis of a wholesaler’s historical purchases and contract sales.
Other sales deductions
We offer certain of our customers prompt pay cash discounts. Provisions for prompt pay discounts are estimated and recorded at the time of sale. We estimate provisions for cash discounts based on contractual sales terms with customers, an analysis of unpaid invoices and historical payment experience. Estimated cash discounts have historically been predictable and less subjective due to the limited number of assumptions involved, the consistency of historical experience and the fact that we generally settle these amounts within 30 to 60 days.
Shelf-stock adjustments are credits issued to our customers to reflect decreases in the selling prices of our products. These credits are customary in the industry and are intended to reduce a customer’s inventory cost to better reflect current market prices. The determination to grant a shelf-stock credit to a customer following a price decrease is at our discretion rather than contractually required. The primary factors we consider when deciding whether to record a reserve for a shelf-stock adjustment include:
the estimated number of competing products being launched as well as the expected launch date, which we determine based on market intelligence;
the estimated decline in the market price of our product, which we determine based on historical experience and customer input; and
the estimated levels of inventory held by our customers at the time of the anticipated decrease in market price, which we determine based upon historical experience and customer input.
Valuation of long-lived assets
Long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment, licenses, developed technology, trade names and patents are assessed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets that will continue to be used in our operations is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to the forecasted undiscounted future cash flows related to the asset. In the event the carrying value of the asset exceeds its undiscounted future cash flows and the carrying value is not considered recoverable, impairment may exist. An impairment loss, if any, is measured as the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value, generally based on a discounted future cash flow method, independent appraisals or preliminary offers from prospective buyers. An impairment loss would be recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the period that the impairment occurs. As a result of the significance of our amortizable intangibles, any recognized impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.
During 2016, we recorded intangible asset impairments of $1,105.2 million. These impairment charges were based on fair value estimates determined using discounted cash flow models. The discounted cash flow models include assumptions related to product revenue, growth rates and operating margin and are based on management’s annual and ongoing forecasting, budgeting and planning processes and represent our best estimate of future product cash flows. These estimates are subject to the economic environment in which our segments operate, demand for our products and competitor actions. The use of different assumptions would increase or decrease our estimated discounted future cash flows and the resulting estimated fair value of these intangible assets causing an increase or decrease in the respective intangible asset impairment charge. The discount rates applied to these estimated cash flows ranged from 8.5% to 11.0%.

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Events giving rise to impairment are an inherent risk in the pharmaceutical industry and cannot be predicted. Factors that we consider in deciding when to perform an impairment review include significant under-performance of a product line in relation to expectations, significant negative industry or economic trends and significant changes or planned changes in our use of the assets.
Our reviews of long-lived assets during the three years ended December 31, 2016 resulted in certain asset impairment charges, which are described in Note 10. Goodwill and Other Intangibles in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules".
License Rights - The cost of licenses are either expensed immediately or, if capitalized, are recorded at fair value and amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives ranging from 3 to 15 years, with a weighted average useful life of approximately 12 years. We determine amortization periods for licenses based on our assessment of various factors impacting estimated useful lives and cash flows of the acquired rights. Such factors include the expected launch date of the product, the strength of the intellectual property protection of the product and various other competitive, developmental and regulatory issues, and contractual terms. Significant changes to any of these factors may result in a reduction in the useful life of the asset and an acceleration of related amortization expense, which could cause our operating income, net income and net income per share to decrease. The value of these licenses is subject to continuing scientific, medical and marketplace uncertainty.
Trade Names - Acquired trade names are recorded at fair value upon acquisition and, if deemed to have definite lives, are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives of approximately 12 years. We determine amortization periods for trade names based on our assessment of various factors impacting estimated useful lives and cash flows from the acquired assets. Such factors include the strength of the trade name and our plans regarding the future use of the trade name. Significant changes to any of these factors may result in a reduction in the useful life of the asset and an acceleration of related amortization expense, which could cause our operating income, net income and net income per share to decrease.
Developed Technology - Acquired developed technology is recorded at fair value upon acquisition and is amortized using the economic benefit model or the straight-line method, over the estimated useful life ranging from 1 to 20 years for our intangibles, with a weighted average useful life of approximately 11 years. We determine amortization periods and method of amortization for developed technology based on our assessment of various factors impacting estimated useful lives and timing and extent of estimated cash flows of the acquired assets. Such factors include the strength of the intellectual property protection of the product and various other competitive and regulatory issues, and contractual terms. Significant changes to any of these factors may result in a reduction in the useful life of the asset and an acceleration of related amortization expense, which could cause our operating income, net income and net income per share to decrease. Amortization expense is not recorded on assets held for sale. The value of these assets is subject to continuing scientific, medical and marketplace uncertainty.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets
As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, goodwill and other intangibles comprised approximately 74% and 78%, respectively, of our total assets.
Endo tests goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually, or more frequently whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. Our annual assessment is performed as of October 1st. The goodwill test consists of a Step I analysis that requires a comparison between the respective reporting unit’s fair value and carrying amount. A Step II analysis would be required if the fair value of the reporting unit is lower than its carrying amount. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, an impairment does not exist and no further analysis is required. The indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test consists of a one-step analysis that compares the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of an indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. For the purpose of the October 1, 2016 annual goodwill impairment test, the Company had five operating segments and reporting units: (1) Branded, (2) Generics, (3) Paladin, (4) Litha, and (5) Somar.
The fair values of our reporting units are determined using an income approach that utilizes a discounted cash flow model, or, where appropriate, a market approach, or a combination thereof. The discounted cash flow models are dependent upon our estimates of future cash flows and other factors. Our estimates of future cash flows involve assumptions concerning (i) future operating performance, including future sales, long-term growth rates, operating margins, variations in the amount and timing of cash flows and the probability of achieving the estimated cash flows and (ii) future economic conditions, all which may differ from actual future cash flows. These assumptions are based on significant inputs not observable in the market and thus represent Level 3 measurements within the fair value hierarchy. Estimated future cash flows are discounted to present value using a market participant, weighted average cost of capital. The financial and credit market volatility directly impacts certain inputs and assumptions used to develop the weighted average cost of capital such as the risk-free interest rate, industry beta, debt interest rate, and our market capital structure. Therefore, changes in these assumptions may affect our fair value estimate and the result of the impairment test. The discount rates applied to the estimated cash flows for our October 1, 2016 annual goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets impairment test ranged from 8.5% to 11.0%, depending on the overall risk associated with the particular assets and other market factors. We believe the discount rates and other inputs and assumptions are consistent with those that a market participant would use.

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Assumptions related to revenue, growth rates and operating margin are based on management’s annual and ongoing forecasting, budgeting and planning processes and represent our best estimate of the future results of operations across the company as of that point in time. These estimates are subject to many assumptions, such as the economic environment in which our segments operate, demand for our products and competitor actions. The use of different assumptions would increase or decrease our estimated discounted future cash flows and the resulting estimated fair value of our reporting units, and could result in the fair value of a reporting unit being less than its carrying value in the first step of the impairment test.
In order to assess the reasonableness of the calculated fair values of our reporting units, we also compare the sum of the reporting units’ fair values to Endo’s market capitalization and calculate an implied control premium (the excess sum of the reporting unit’s fair values over the market capitalization) or an implied control discount (the excess sum of total invested capital over the sum of the reporting unit’s fair values). The Company evaluates the implied control premium or discount by comparing it to control premiums or discounts of recent comparable market transactions, as applicable. If the control premium or discount is not reasonable in light of comparable recent transactions, or recent movements in the Company’s share price, we reevaluate the fair value estimates of the reporting units by adjusting discount rates and/or other assumptions. This re-evaluation could correlate to different implied fair values for certain or all of the Company’s reporting units.
As a result of our annual goodwill test performed as of October 1st, 2016, the Company recorded pre-tax, non-cash impairment charges relating to our Generics, Paladin, Litha and Somar reporting units for an aggregate total of $2,674.5 million. For a complete description of goodwill impairment charges recorded for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, refer to Note 10. Goodwill and Other Intangibles in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules". The Generics reporting unit represented $2,342.5 million of the total goodwill charge. A 50 basis point increase in the assumed discount rate utilized or a 1% decrease in the annual growth rate would have increased our Generics reporting unit goodwill impairment charge by approximately $440 million and $400 million, respectively.
Our annual goodwill test for the U.S. Branded reporting unit indicated the fair value exceeded its carrying value; therefore, an impairment charge was not required as of October 1st, 2016. An increase of 50 basis points to our assumed discount rate used in testing this reporting unit would not have changed the results of our analysis. In addition, a 10% reduction of annual cash flows used in testing the U.S. Branded reporting unit would not have changed the results of our analysis.
Changes to assumptions used to determine fair value, including, but not limited to, projections of future cash flows and our weighted average cost of capital, or significant declines in our stock price could result in additional non-cash impairment charges to goodwill or other long-lived assets, which could be material. As of December 31, 2016, our combined goodwill and intangible assets balance is approximately $10.6 billion.
Acquisition-related in-process research and development
Acquired businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires that the purchase price be allocated to the net assets acquired at their respective fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Amounts allocated to acquired in-process research and development (IPR&D) are recorded to the balance sheet at the date of acquisition based on their relative fair values. The judgments made in determining the estimated fair value assigned to each class of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as asset lives, can materially impact our results of operations.
There are several methods that can be used to determine the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. For intangible assets, including IPR&D, we typically use the income method. This method starts with our forecast of all of the expected future net cash flows. These cash flows are then adjusted to present value by applying an appropriate discount rate that reflects the risk factors associated with the cash flow streams. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions inherent in the income method or other methods include: the amount and timing of projected future cash flows; the amount and timing of projected costs to develop the IPR&D into commercially viable products; the discount rate selected to measure the risks inherent in the future cash flows; and the assessment of the asset’s life cycle and the competitive trends impacting the asset, including consideration of any technical, legal, regulatory, or economic barriers to entry, as well as expected changes in standards of practice for indications addressed by the asset.
Determining the useful life of an intangible asset also requires judgment, as different types of intangible assets will have different useful lives. Acquired IPR&D is designated as an indefinite-lived intangible asset until the associated research and development activities are completed or abandoned.

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Income taxes
Our income tax expense, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and reserves for unrecognized tax benefits reflect our best assessment of estimated current and future taxes to be paid. We are subject to income taxes in the United States and numerous other foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments and estimates are required in determining the consolidated income tax expense for financial statement purposes. Deferred income taxes arise from temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements that result in future taxable or deductible amounts. In assessing the ability to realize deferred tax assets, we consider future taxable income by tax jurisdiction and tax planning strategies. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to equal an amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In projecting future taxable income, we begin with historical results adjusted for the results of discontinued operations and incorporate assumptions about the amount of future earnings within a specific jurisdiction’s pretax operating income adjusted for material changes in business operations. The assumptions about future taxable income require significant judgment and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying businesses.
Future changes in tax laws and rates could also affect recorded deferred tax assets and liabilities. The calculation of our tax liabilities often involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions across our global operations. A benefit from an uncertain tax position may be recognized when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes. We first record unrecognized tax benefits as liabilities and then adjust these liabilities when our judgment changes as a result of the evaluation of new information not previously available at the time of establishing the liability. Because of the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the unrecognized tax benefit liabilities. These differences will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which new information is available.
We consider the earnings of the majority of our subsidiaries to be indefinitely invested within their country of incorporation on the basis of estimates that future cash generation will be sufficient to meet future cash needs and our specific plans for reinvestment of those subsidiary earnings. Should we decide to repatriate earnings, we would need to adjust our income tax provision in the period we determined that the earnings will no longer be indefinitely invested outside the relevant tax jurisdiction.
Contingencies
The Company is subject to various patent, product liability, government investigations and other legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. The factors we consider in developing our contingent accruals for product liability litigation and other contingent liability items include the merits and jurisdiction of the litigation, the nature and the number of other similar current and past litigation cases, the nature of the product and the current assessment of the science subject to the litigation, and the likelihood of the conditions of settlement being met. As of December 31, 2016, the Company has accrued $1,015.9 million, of which $963.1 million relates to vaginal mesh cases, for all known claims for which a liability is probable. In addition to claims covered by MSAs, we are currently aware of approximately 9,700 claims that have been filed, asserted or that we believe are likely to be asserted that have not been accrued for because we lack sufficient information to determine whether any potential loss is probable. In addition, there may be other claims asserted in the future. It is currently not possible to estimate the number or validity of any such claims. Although we believe there is a reasonable possibility that a loss in excess of the amount recognized exists, we are unable to estimate the possible loss or range of loss in excess of the amount recognized at this time.
Our vaginal mesh accrual is primarily based on Master Settlement Agreements (MSAs) between AMS and certain plaintiffs’ counsel representing mesh-related product liability claimants. AMS has agreed to settle up to approximately 49,000 filed and unfiled mesh claims handled or controlled by the participating counsel. All MSAs are subject to a process that includes guidelines and procedures for administering the settlements and the release of funds. In certain cases, the MSAs provide for the creation of Qualified Settlement Funds into which funds may be deposited pursuant to certain schedules set forth in those agreements. All MSAs have participation thresholds regarding the claims represented by each law firm party to the MSA. If certain participation thresholds are not met, then we will have the right to terminate the settlement with that law firm. We expect that valid claims under the MSAs will continue to be settled. However, we intend to vigorously contest pending and future claims that are invalid, for which settlement is unable to be reached or that are in excess of the maximum claim amounts under the applicable MSAs.

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In order to evaluate whether a claim is probable of a loss, we must obtain and evaluate certain information pertaining to each individual claim, including but not limited to the following items: the name and social security number of the plaintiff, evidence of an AMS implant, the date of implant, the date the claim was first asserted to AMS and medical records establishing the injury alleged. Without access to and review of at least this information, we are not in a position to determine a claim’s validity or whether a loss is probable. Further, the timing and extent to which we obtain this information and our evaluation thereof, is often impacted by items outside of our control, including, without limitation, the normal cadence of the litigation process and the provision of claim information to us by plaintiff’s counsel. We will continue to monitor the situation, and, if appropriate, we will make further adjustments to our product liability accrual based on new information. We intend to continue exploring all options as appropriate in our best interests, and depending on developments, there is a possibility that we will suffer adverse decisions or verdicts of substantial amounts, or that we will enter into additional monetary settlements. Any unfavorable outcomes as a result of such litigation or settlements with respect to any asserted or unasserted claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
During 2015, the Company sold the Men’s Health and Prostate Health business to Boston Scientific Corporation and subsequently wound down the remaining Astora business during 2016, and therefore, the litigation expense and legal defense costs specifically attributable to the vaginal mesh cases has been included in Discontinued operations, net of tax in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented. The Company is responsible for all known pending and estimated future claims related to vaginal mesh cases.
Contingent accruals are recorded with a corresponding charge to Litigation-related and other contingencies, net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations when the Company determines that a loss related to a litigation matter is both probable and reasonably estimable. Due to the fact that legal proceedings and other contingencies are inherently unpredictable, our assessments involve significant judgments regarding future events. As of the date of this report, we believe that the current product liability accrual includes all known claims for which liability is probable.
Legal fees and other expenses related to litigation are expensed as incurred and included in Selling, general and administrative expenses.
See Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules" for further discussion of our product liability cases.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
We reported net loss attributable to Endo International plc in 2016 of $3,347.1 million or $15.03 per diluted share on total revenues of $4,010.3 million compared with net loss attributable to Endo International plc of $1,495.0 million or $7.59 per diluted share on total revenues of $3,268.7 million in 2015 and net loss attributable to Endo International plc of $721.3 million or $4.60 per diluted share on total revenues of $2,380.7 million in 2014.
Consolidated Results Review
Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015
Total Revenues. Total revenues in 2016 increased 23% to $4,010.3 million from $3,268.7 million in 2015. This revenue increase was primarily attributable to revenues related to our September 2015 acquisition of Par. The increase was partially offset by decreased revenues for certain products in our U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals segment, driven mainly by decreased Voltaren® Gel, Lidoderm®, OPANA® ER and Frova® revenues related to generic competition. In addition, we experienced decreased revenues in our legacy U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals business, which resulted from competitive pressure on commoditized generic products.
Gross margin, costs and expenses. The following table sets forth costs and expenses for the years ended December 31 (dollars in thousands):
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
% of Revenue
 
$
 
% of Revenue
Cost of revenues
$
2,634,973

 
66
 
$
2,075,651

 
64
Selling, general and administrative
770,728

 
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